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1

A STUDY OF MYCOBACTERIA INCLUDING ATYPICAL ACID FAST BACILLI (Cultural and Biochemical Characteristics)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of acid fast bacilli producing pulmonary disease in man, but differing from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cul- tural, biochemical and other characteristics has been reported sporadically for many years. Tarshis and Frisch (1952), Buhler & Pollak (1953) and Timpe & Runyon (1954) suggested that a group of these orga- nisms potentially pathogenic to man, could be distinguished by their

HARMINDER KAUR; N. L. CHITKARA

2

Safer staining method for acid fast bacilli.  

PubMed Central

To develop a method for staining acid fast bacilli which excluded highly toxic phenol from the staining solution. A lipophilic agent, a liquid organic detergent, LOC High Studs, distributed by Amway, was substituted. The acid fast bacilli stained red; nuclei, cytoplasm, and cytoplasmic elements stained blue on a clear background. These results compare very favourably with acid fast bacilli stained by the traditional method. Detergents are efficient lipophilic agents and safer to handle than phenol. The method described here stains acid fast bacilli as efficiently as traditional carbol fuchsin methods. LOC High Suds is considerably cheaper than phenol. Images PMID:7687254

Ellis, R C; Zabrowarny, L A

1993-01-01

3

Safer staining method for acid fast bacilli.  

PubMed

To develop a method for staining acid fast bacilli which excluded highly toxic phenol from the staining solution. A lipophilic agent, a liquid organic detergent, LOC High Studs, distributed by Amway, was substituted. The acid fast bacilli stained red; nuclei, cytoplasm, and cytoplasmic elements stained blue on a clear background. These results compare very favourably with acid fast bacilli stained by the traditional method. Detergents are efficient lipophilic agents and safer to handle than phenol. The method described here stains acid fast bacilli as efficiently as traditional carbol fuchsin methods. LOC High Suds is considerably cheaper than phenol. PMID:7687254

Ellis, R C; Zabrowarny, L A

1993-06-01

4

Inefficiency of 0.3% Carbol Fuchsin in Ziehl-Neelsen Staining for Detecting Acid-Fast Bacilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the sensitivity and specificity of a modified Ziehl-Neelsen (modified-ZN) staining method for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) with that of the standard Ziehl-Neelsen (standard-ZN) staining method, using culture results with Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the \\

N. Selvakumar; Fathima Rahman; S. Rajasekaran; P. R. Narayanan; Thomas R. Frieden

2002-01-01

5

Evaluation of sputum smears concentrated by cytocentrifugation for detection of acid-fast bacilli.  

PubMed Central

Early identification and isolation of tuberculosis patients is of utmost importance to minimize the risk of further epidemic spread of the disease. The traditional concentrated acid-fast smears are not very reliable tools for the presumptive diagnosis of tuberculosis. Acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smears from 120 patients specimens and 80 simulated AFB samples were processed according to standard laboratory procedures and by cytocentrifugation (Cyto-Tek, Ames Division, Miles Laboratories, Inc., Elkhart, Ind.). Prior to dispensing of samples into the Cyto-Tek chambers, specimens were liquefied and decontaminated by mixture with an equal volume of 5% sodium hypochlorite (household bleach). Culture and smear results were correlated. Of 120 patient specimens, 43 were culture and smear negative by both methods. Ten specimens were overgrown with mold and bacteria, but 2 of them had positive AFB smears by cytocentrifugation only. There were 67 positive AFB cultures, with 67 positive cytocentrifuge smears and 34 positive smears by the conventional technique. Of the 80 simulated positive AFB samples, all grew mycobacteria on culture. Smears from the 10(5)- to 10(3)-CFU/ml specimens were positive by both methods. The simulated samples with 10(2) CFU/ml yielded smears positive only by cytocentrifugation. The Cyto-Tek AFB smears had a greater correlation with positive culture than did the smears from concentrated specimens. The sensitivity, efficiency, and rapidly of the Cyto-Tek AFB smear technique resulted in increased detection of mycobacteria in clinical specimens. The simplicity and safety of this method will enable qualified mycobacteriology technologists to rapidly and accurately perform sputum smears for AFB at clinics, emergency rooms, and field sites, as well as in the traditional laboratory setting. Images PMID:8408558

Saceanu, C A; Pfeiffer, N C; McLean, T

1993-01-01

6

THE MULTIPLICATION OF TUBERCLE BACILLI WITHIN NORMAL PHAGOCYTES IN TISSUE CULTURE  

PubMed Central

A technique has been described for the cultivation in vitro of normal mononuclear cells on glass slides in a liquid medium. Under these conditions the monocytes transformed into macrophages which proliferated as in ordinary tissue culture. These cultures of monocytes could be infected with tubercle bacilli. The numbers of stainable tubercle bacilli within the monocytes increased steadily in cultures infected with virulent or attenuated strains. Evidence is given to support the view that this increase in numbers of bacilli was due to intracellular multiplication. There was no evidence of intracellular bacillary multiplication in cultures infected with an avirulent strain. Tubercle bacilli multiplying within phagocytes in vitro exert a damaging effect upon the host cells. The damage was most obvious in cells infected with a virulent strain. Tubercle bacilli within phagocytes were protected against the bacteriostatic effect of streptomycin added in a concentration of 5 ? per ml. of culture medium. This permitted the use of streptomycin in infected cultures to prevent extracellular multiplication of the bacilli. PMID:14955570

Suter, Emanuel

1952-01-01

7

Direct detection and identification of acid-fast bacteria from smear-positive broth cultures using a pyrosequencing method.  

PubMed

Broth culture is a standard method for detection of acid-fast bacteria (AFB) (e.g., Mycobacterium and Nocardia) from patient specimens. Direct nucleic acid-based identification from smear-positive broths expedites the infectious disease diagnosis. We developed and evaluated the performance of a pyrogram-based technique (direct-broth-pyrosequencing [DBP]) to identify AFB directly from smear-positive broths. One hundred thirteen AFB-positive broths from patient specimens were tested. Bacterial DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced using the PyroMark ID system. The DBP method correctly identified the AFB species/group in 109 (97%) of the 113 broths, including 15 Mycobacterium species and 4 Nocardia species. Three broths that yielded indeterminate results were found to be AFB-AFB mixed broths and required purified colonies on solid media for definite identification. The 4th broth was repeatedly identified by sequencing to be Mycobacterium intracellulare, even though the organism was not isolated and the AccuProbe was negative. This method did not identify the AFB organisms from broths containing 2 AFB organisms, but did not produce false identification. No cross-reaction was observed when AFB-positive broths were spiked with non-AFB microorganisms, indicating that the DBP method was specific to AFB. The DBP method gives rapid (within 8 h), accurate AFB identification directly from broth cultures and provides another useful AFB identification tool in a clinical laboratory. PMID:24745819

Bao, Jian R; Clark, Richard B; Master, Ronald N; Piscitelli, Arelis E; Tummala, Praveena R; Eklund, Lynn L; Poselero, Beatriz G; Wright, Jackie

2014-06-01

8

Diversity and phylogeny of culturable spore-forming Bacilli isolated from marine sediments.  

PubMed

Members of the genus Bacillus and related genera are ubiquitous in nature. However, Bacillus species isolated from marine sediments have attracted less interest respect to their terrestrial relatives. Here, we report the phylogenetic diversity of a collection of 96 Bacilli, isolated from 17 distinct stations of 5 oceanographic campaigns. The diversity was analysed by phenotypic and molecular approaches based on the amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), amplification of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS-PCR) and on 16S rRNA sequencing. Intra-specific polymorphism was efficiently detected by biochemical analysis and ARDRA while results of ITS-PCR were in agreement with 16S rRNA sequencing. The identification results assigned 68% of the isolates to the species B. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus and B. cereus. Phylogenetic analysis allowed the separation of 9 isolates in a clade that may represent a group of obligate marine Bacillus since they clustered with B. firmus, B. foraminis and marine isolates with metal oxidation and bioaccumulation capabilities. The remaining isolates showed a close affiliation to the genera Virgibacillus, Gracilibacillus and Paenibacillus. The widespread of Bacilli and their high diversity level observed in this work point out the need of more extensive studies to understand their distribution and ecology in deep-sea environments. PMID:19322832

Ettoumi, Besma; Raddadi, Noura; Borin, Sara; Daffonchio, Daniele; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Cherif, Ameur

2009-09-01

9

Usefulness of the MicroSeq 500 16S rDNA bacterial identification system for identification of anaerobic Gram positive bacilli isolated from blood cultures  

PubMed Central

Using full 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing as the gold standard, 20 non?duplicating anaerobic Gram positive bacilli isolated from blood cultures were analysed by the MicroSeq 500 16S rDNA bacterial identification system. The MicroSeq system successfully identified 13 of the 20 isolates. Four and three isolates were misidentified at the genus and species level, respectively. Although the MicroSeq 500 16S rDNA bacterial identification system is better than three commercially available identification systems also evaluated, its database needs to be expanded for accurate identification of anaerobic Gram positive bacilli. PMID:16443743

Lau, S K P; Ng, K H L; Woo, P C Y; Yip, K-t; Fung, A M Y; Woo, G K S; Chan, K-m; Que, T-l

2006-01-01

10

Comparison of sampling methods, culture, acid-fast stain, and polymerase chain reaction assay for the diagnosis of mycobacteriosis in ring-neck doves (Streptopelia risoria).  

PubMed

Even when different diagnostic modalities are available, mycobacteriosis is difficult to diagnose in a live bird. To investigate the diagnostic value of sampling different tissues and using different diagnostic methods, we evaluated results of mycobacterial culture, Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining, and single-amplification polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR) of 18 ring-neck doves (Streptopelia risoria) with confirmed natural infection with Mycobacterium avium avium. Results of testing liver biopsy, duodenal aspirate, and bone marrow aspirate samples and liver and spleen samples collected at necropsy were compared. Results showed the use of one single technique did not allow identification of all infected birds. In liver biopsy and bone marrow aspirate samples, culture had the highest sensitivity, whereas PCR assay and ZN staining had low sensitivity, and their combination was less sensitive than culture alone. Examination of ZN staining of the intestinal aspirate samples failed to detect infection in most birds. More splenic lesions contained acid-fast organisms than did liver lesions, suggesting that splenic biopsy may have the greatest potential for diagnosis of mycobacterial infection antemortem. Sensitivity was higher for postmortem examination of multiple liver sections than of a single biopsy section; therefore, obtaining multiple liver biopsy sections may increase detection of mycobacteria. Examination of multiple tissues and the use of several different diagnostic techniques significantly increases the probability of diagnosis of mycobacteriosis. PMID:21302756

Saggese, Miguel D; Tizard, Ian; Phalen, David N

2010-12-01

11

Multicenter Evaluation of a New Shortened Peptide Nucleic Acid Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Procedure for Species Identification of Select Gram-Negative Bacilli from Blood Cultures?  

PubMed Central

A shortened protocol for two peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) assays for the detection of Gram-negative bacilli from positive blood cultures was evaluated in a multicenter trial. There was 100% concordance between the two protocols for each assay (368 of 368 and 370 of 370 results) and 99.7% (367 of 368 and 369 of 370 results) agreement with routine laboratory techniques. PMID:20357212

Morgan, Margie; Marlowe, Elizabeth; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Salimnia, Hossein; Novak-Weekley, Susan; Wu, Fann; Crystal, Benjamin S.

2010-01-01

12

The use of non-deparaffinized tissue sections for staining leprosy bacilli.  

PubMed

Reduced acid-fast staining of leprosy bacilli occurs during the dewaxing of paraffin sections by xylene and alcohols; the older and more decrepit bacilli being especially affected. By the use of non-deparaffinized sections, the leprosy bacilli which could not be stained with the usual carbol fuchsin are strongly stained. Moreover, non-deparafinized sections can be used for the periodic acid-carbol pararosanilin stain or methenamine silver stain for demonstrating mycobacteria. PMID:61950

Harada, K

1976-01-01

13

Cytological and Transcript Analyses Reveal Fat and Lazy Persister-Like Bacilli in Tuberculous Sputum  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculous sputum provides a sample of bacilli that must be eliminated by chemotherapy and that may go on to transmit infection. A preliminary observation that Mycobacterium tuberculosis cells contain triacylglycerol lipid bodies in sputum, but not when growing in vitro, led us to investigate the extent of this phenomenon and its physiological basis. Methods and Findings Microscopy-positive sputum samples from the UK and The Gambia were investigated for their content of lipid body–positive mycobacteria by combined Nile red and auramine staining. All samples contained a lipid body–positive population varying from 3% to 86% of the acid-fast bacilli present. The recent finding that triacylglycerol synthase is expressed by mycobacteria when they enter in vitro nonreplicating persistence led us to investigate whether this state was also associated with lipid body formation. We found that, when placed in laboratory conditions inducing nonreplicating persistence, two M. tuberculosis strains had lipid body levels comparable to those found in sputum. We investigated these physiological findings further by comparing the M. tuberculosis transcriptome of growing and nonreplicating persistence cultures with that obtained directly from sputum samples. Although sputum has traditionally been thought to contain actively growing tubercle bacilli, our transcript analyses refute the hypothesis that these cells predominate. Rather, they reinforce the results of the lipid body analyses by revealing transcriptional signatures that can be clearly attributed to slowly replicating or nonreplicating mycobacteria. Finally, the lipid body count was highly correlated (R2 = 0.64, p < 0.03) with time to positivity in diagnostic liquid cultures, thereby establishing a direct link between this cytological feature and the size of a potential nonreplicating population. Conclusion As nonreplicating tubercle bacilli are tolerant to the cidal action of antibiotics and resistant to multiple stresses, identification of this persister-like population of tubercle bacilli in sputum presents exciting and tractable new opportunities to investigate both responses to chemotherapy and the transmission of tuberculosis. PMID:18384229

Sherratt, Anna L; Lee, Su-Min; Smith, Rebecca J; Senner, Claire; Hinds, Jason; Rajakumar, Kumar; Adegbola, Richard A; Besra, Gurdyal S; Butcher, Philip D; Barer, Michael R

2008-01-01

14

Sequential adaptation in latent tuberculosis bacilli: observation by atomic force microscopy (AFM)  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) can persist within the human host for years without causing disease, in a syndrome known as latent tuberculosis. The mechanisms by which M. tuberculosis establishes a latent metabolic state is unknown, but it is hypothesized that reduced oxygen tension may trigger the bacillus to enter a state of latency. Therefore, we are studying anaerobic culture of M. tuberculosis (H37RV) as a model of latency. For the first time, the sequential adaptation of latent bacilli (every 90 days for 48 months) viewed under Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Two types of adaptation were observed and are described here. First, cells are undergoing temporary adaptation (from 1 to 18 months of latency) that includes; thickening of cell wall (20.5±1.8 nm versus 15.2±1.8 nm, P<0.05), formation of ovoid cells by “folding phenomena”(65-70%), size reduction (0.8±0.1 ?m versus 2.5±0.5 ?m), and budding type of cell division (20-25%).A second feature include changes that accompany development of specialized cells i.e., production of spore like cells (0.5±0.2 ?m) and their progeny (filterable non -acid fast forms; 150 to 300 ?m in size). Although, these cells were not real spore because they fail to form a heat resistant colony forming units, after incubation for 35-40 min at 65°C. The filterable non-acid fast forms of bacilli are metabolically active and increased their number by symmetrical type of cell-division. Therefore, survival strategies that developed by M. tuberculosis under oxygen limited condition are linked to its shape, size and conspicuous loss of acid fastness. PMID:21977232

Velayati, Ali Akbar; Farnia, Parissa; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Zhavnerko, Gennady Konstantinovich; Merza, Muayad Aghali; Ghanavi, Jalladein; Tabarsi, Payam; Farnia, Poopak; Poleschuyk, Nikolai Nikolaevich; Ignatyev, George

2011-01-01

15

Sequential adaptation in latent tuberculosis bacilli: observation by atomic force microscopy (AFM).  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) can persist within the human host for years without causing disease, in a syndrome known as latent tuberculosis. The mechanisms by which M. tuberculosis establishes a latent metabolic state is unknown, but it is hypothesized that reduced oxygen tension may trigger the bacillus to enter a state of latency. Therefore, we are studying anaerobic culture of M. tuberculosis (H37RV) as a model of latency. For the first time, the sequential adaptation of latent bacilli (every 90 days for 48 months) viewed under Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Two types of adaptation were observed and are described here. First, cells are undergoing temporary adaptation (from 1 to 18 months of latency) that includes; thickening of cell wall (20.5±1.8 nm versus 15.2±1.8 nm, P<0.05), formation of ovoid cells by "folding phenomena"(65-70%), size reduction (0.8±0.1 ?m versus 2.5±0.5 ?m), and budding type of cell division (20-25%).A second feature include changes that accompany development of specialized cells i.e., production of spore like cells (0.5±0.2 ?m) and their progeny (filterable non -acid fast forms; 150 to 300 ?m in size). Although, these cells were not real spore because they fail to form a heat resistant colony forming units, after incubation for 35-40 min at 65°C. The filterable non-acid fast forms of bacilli are metabolically active and increased their number by symmetrical type of cell-division. Therefore, survival strategies that developed by M. tuberculosis under oxygen limited condition are linked to its shape, size and conspicuous loss of acid fastness. PMID:21977232

Velayati, Ali Akbar; Farnia, Parissa; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Zhavnerko, Gennady Konstantinovich; Merza, Muayad Aghali; Ghanavi, Jalladein; Tabarsi, Payam; Farnia, Poopak; Poleschuyk, Nikolai Nikolaevich; Ignatyev, George

2011-01-01

16

STUDIES ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN PHAGOCYTES AND TUBERCLE BACILLI  

PubMed Central

Tubercle bacilli labelled with C14 were prepared by growth on radioactive substrates such as glycerol, CO2, and acetate. These organisms were exposed in vitro to leucocytes (mostly polymorphonuclear leucocytes) from peritoneal exudates of guinea pigs. The respiration of the leucocytes and of the bacilli, alone and together, was followed by determining oxygen uptake and C14O2 production. When heat-killed labelled tubercle bacilli were exposed to leucocytes there was little or no degradation of bacillary material to C14O2 by leucocytic enzymes. On the other hand, conversion of components of sonically disrupted bacilli to C14O2 by leucocytes was significant. It was possible to determine the oxygen uptake and C14O2 production of phagocytized living tubercle bacilli, and it was found that after phagocytosis the bacilli maintained their rates of oxygen consumption and C14O2 production. This finding was in contrast to observations made with Mycobacterium phlei, a saprophytic acid-fast organism, and with Bacillus subtilis. In these cases oxygen consumption and C14O2 production declined after phagocytosis, and bacterial components were converted to carbon dioxide to a significant degree by leucocytic enzymes. PMID:13332185

Stahelin, Hartmann; Karnovsky, Manfred L.; Suter, Emanuel

1956-01-01

17

Evaluation of the Nanosphere Verigene BC-GN Assay for Direct Identification of Gram-Negative Bacilli and Antibiotic Resistance Markers from Positive Blood Cultures and Potential Impact for More-Rapid Antibiotic Interventions.  

PubMed

The Verigene BC-GN assay correctly identified all 51 Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) from positive blood cultures and all 14 carbapenemase enzymes tested. The assay gave organism identification (ID) results an average of 24 h faster compared to conventional identifications. Medical management could have been modified for 31.8% of patients an average 33 h sooner. In conclusion, the BC-GN assay is a very accurate, rapid assay which would allow for more-immediate medical management decisions in patients with bacteremia from GNB. PMID:25122857

Hill, Joseph T; Tran, Kim-Dung T; Barton, Karen L; Labreche, Matthew J; Sharp, Susan E

2014-10-01

18

[Clinical application of testing methods on acid-fast bacteria].  

PubMed

Clinical bacteriology pertaining to acid-fast bacteria has made marked advances over the past decade, initiated by the development of a DNA probe kit for identification of acid-fast bacteria. Wide-spread use of nucleic acid amplification for rapid detection of tubercle bacillus contributed more greatly than any other factor to such advances in this field. At present, 90% of all kits used for nucleic acid amplification in the world are consumed in Japan. Unfortunately, not a few clinicians in Japan have a false idea that the smear method and nucleic acid amplification are necessary but culture is not. In any event nucleic acid amplification has exerted significant impacts on the routine works at bacteriology laboratories. Among others, collecting bacteria by pretreatment with NALC-NaOH has simplified the introduction of the collective mode smear method and liquid media. Furthermore, as clinicians have become increasingly more experienced with various methods of molecular biology, it now seems possible to apply these techniques for detection of genes encoding drug resistance and for utilization of molecular epidemiology in routine laboratory works. Meanwhile, attempts to diagnose acid-fast bacteriosis by checking blood for antibody have also been made, primarily in Japan. At present, two kits for detecting antibodies to glycolipids (LAM, TDM, etc.) are covered by national health insurance in Japan. We have an impression that in Japan clinicians do not have adequate knowledge and skill to make full use of these new testing methods clinically. We, as the chairmen of this symposium, hope that this symposium will help clinicians increase their skill related to new testing methods, eventually leading to stimulation of advances in clinical practices related to acid-fast bacteria in Japan. 1. Smear microscopy by concentration method and broth culture system: Kazunari TSUYUGUCHI (Clinical Research Center, National Hospital Organization Kinki-chuo Chest Medical Center) Smear microscopy and culture still remain the cornerstone to diagnose tuberculosis. However, the classical methods in Japan using direct microscopy and Ogawa solid media were not sufficient for clinical use. In recent years substantial advance has been made in these fields. Concentration of clinical samples by centrifugation improves the sensitivity of smear microscopy with excellent reproducibility. The Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) system using liquid media yields high sensitivity and rapidity. Using these methods, more and more tuberculosis cases would be correctly diagnosed and treated adequately based on drug susceptibility testing. 2. New technologies for anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing: Satoshi MITARAI (Bacteriology Division, Reference Centre for Mycobacterium, Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association) Several new technologies have been developed to obtain anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing (AST) results rapidly, utilising liquid culture and molecular technologies. Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT), as a popular liquid culturing and AST system, was evaluated for its accuracy and usefulness. As for isoniazid, MGIT showed 12.6% of discordant result comparing with standard method. These MGIT resistant and Ogawa susceptible strains had relatively high MICs ranging 0.13 to 2.0 microg/ml. The molecular detection of resistant gene mutation is also a useful method to estimate drug resistance rapidly. The rpoB mutation detection is reliable with high sensitivity and specificity. 3. Nucleic acid amplification and novel diagnostic methods: Shunji TAKAKURA (Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine) Sensitivities of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis meet clinical requirement that patients with high-risk of transmission should be identified within a day. Comparison of the performance of various NAATs is difficult because of the difference in sample processing and in samples tested among methods and reports. Con

Ichiyama, Satoshi; Suzuki, Katsuhiro

2005-02-01

19

Time to Culture Positivity and Sputum Smear Microscopy during Tuberculosis Therapy  

PubMed Central

Sputum smear microscopy is widely used for tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment monitoring. We evaluated the correlation between smear microscopy and time to liquid culture positivity during early tuberculosis treatment. The study included patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis hospitalized at a tuberculosis reference centre in Germany between 01/2012 and 05/2013. Patient records were reviewed and clinical, radiological and microbiological data were analysed. Sputum samples were collected before treatment initiation and weekly thereafter. A number of 310 sputum samples from 30 patients were analysed. Time to liquid culture positivity inversely correlated with smear grade (Spearman's rho ?0.439, p<0.001). There was a better correlation within the first two months vs. after two months of therapy (?0.519 vs. ?0.416) with a trend to a more rapid increase in time to positivity between baseline and week 2 in patients who culture-converted within the first two months (5.9 days vs. 9.4 days, p?=?0.3). In conclusion, the numbers of acid-fast bacilli in sputum smears of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and time to culture positivity for M. tuberculosis cultures from sputum are correlated before and during tuberculosis treatment. A considerable proportion of patients with culture conversion after two months of therapy continued to have detectable acid-fast bacilli on sputum smears. PMID:25171337

Olaru, Ioana D.; Heyckendorf, Jan; Grossmann, Susanne; Lange, Christoph

2014-01-01

20

Evaluation of the Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Systems for Identification of Nonfermenting Gram-Negative Bacilli Isolated from Cultures from Cystic Fibrosis Patients  

PubMed Central

The Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) instruments were evaluated for the identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB) by a blinded comparison to conventional biochemical or molecular methods. Two hundred NFGNB that were recovered from cultures from cystic fibrosis patients in the University of Iowa Health Care (UIHC) Microbiology Laboratory between 1 January 2006 and 31 October 2010 were sent to Mayo Clinic for analysis with the Bruker Biotyper (software version 3.0) and to bioMérieux for testing with Vitek MS (SARAMIS database version 3.62). If two attempts at direct colony testing failed to provide an acceptable MALDI-TOF identification, an extraction procedure was performed. The MS identifications from both of these systems were provided to UIHC for comparison to the biochemical or molecular identification that had been reported in the patient record. Isolates with discordant results were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing at UIHC. After discrepancy testing, the Bruker Biotyper result agreed with the biochemical or molecular method, with 72.5% of isolates to the species level, 5.5% to the complex level, and 19% to the genus level (3% not identified). The level of agreement for Vitek MS was 80% species, 3.5% complex, 6% genus, and 3.5% family (7% not identified). Both MS systems provided rapid (?3 min per isolate) and reliable identifications. The agreement of combined species/complex/genus-level identification with the reference method was higher for the Bruker Biotyper (97% versus 89.5%, P = 0.004) but required an extraction step more often. Species-level agreement with the reference method was similar for both MS systems (72.5% and 80%, P = 0.099). PMID:22495566

Marko, Daniel C.; Saffert, Ryan T.; Cunningham, Scott A.; Hyman, Jay; Walsh, John; Arbefeville, Sophie; Howard, Wanita; Pruessner, Jon; Safwat, Nedal; Cockerill, Franklin R.; Bossler, Aaron D.; Patel, Robin

2012-01-01

21

Phosphorylation of KasB regulates virulence and acid-fastness in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli display two signature features: acid-fast staining and the capacity to induce long-term latent infections in humans. However, the mechanisms governing these two important processes remain largely unknown. Ser/Thr phosphorylation has recently emerged as an important regulatory mechanism allowing mycobacteria to adapt their cell wall structure/composition in response to their environment. Herein, we evaluated whether phosphorylation of KasB, a crucial mycolic acid biosynthetic enzyme, could modulate acid-fast staining and virulence. Tandem mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that phosphorylation of KasB occurred at Thr334 and Thr336 both in vitro and in mycobacteria. Isogenic strains of M. tuberculosis with either a deletion of the kasB gene or a kasB_T334D/T336D allele, mimicking constitutive phosphorylation of KasB, were constructed by specialized linkage transduction. Biochemical and structural analyses comparing these mutants to the parental strain revealed that both mutant strains had mycolic acids that were shortened by 4-6 carbon atoms and lacked trans-cyclopropanation. Together, these results suggested that in M. tuberculosis, phosphorylation profoundly decreases the condensing activity of KasB. Structural/modeling analyses reveal that Thr334 and Thr336 are located in the vicinity of the catalytic triad, which indicates that phosphorylation of these amino acids would result in loss of enzyme activity. Importantly, the kasB_T334D/T336D phosphomimetic and deletion alleles, in contrast to the kasB_T334A/T336A phosphoablative allele, completely lost acid-fast staining. Moreover, assessing the virulence of these strains indicated that the KasB phosphomimetic mutant was attenuated in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice following aerosol infection. This attenuation was characterized by the absence of lung pathology. Overall, these results highlight for the first time the role of Ser/Thr kinase-dependent KasB phosphorylation in regulating the later stages of mycolic acid elongation, with important consequences in terms of acid-fast staining and pathogenicity. PMID:24809459

Vilchèze, Catherine; Molle, Virginie; Carrère-Kremer, Séverine; Leiba, Jade; Mourey, Lionel; Shenai, Shubhada; Baronian, Grégory; Tufariello, Joann; Hartman, Travis; Veyron-Churlet, Romain; Trivelli, Xavier; Tiwari, Sangeeta; Weinrick, Brian; Alland, David; Guérardel, Yann; Jacobs, William R; Kremer, Laurent

2014-05-01

22

Phosphorylation of KasB Regulates Virulence and Acid-Fastness in Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli display two signature features: acid-fast staining and the capacity to induce long-term latent infections in humans. However, the mechanisms governing these two important processes remain largely unknown. Ser/Thr phosphorylation has recently emerged as an important regulatory mechanism allowing mycobacteria to adapt their cell wall structure/composition in response to their environment. Herein, we evaluated whether phosphorylation of KasB, a crucial mycolic acid biosynthetic enzyme, could modulate acid-fast staining and virulence. Tandem mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that phosphorylation of KasB occurred at Thr334 and Thr336 both in vitro and in mycobacteria. Isogenic strains of M. tuberculosis with either a deletion of the kasB gene or a kasB_T334D/T336D allele, mimicking constitutive phosphorylation of KasB, were constructed by specialized linkage transduction. Biochemical and structural analyses comparing these mutants to the parental strain revealed that both mutant strains had mycolic acids that were shortened by 4–6 carbon atoms and lacked trans-cyclopropanation. Together, these results suggested that in M. tuberculosis, phosphorylation profoundly decreases the condensing activity of KasB. Structural/modeling analyses reveal that Thr334 and Thr336 are located in the vicinity of the catalytic triad, which indicates that phosphorylation of these amino acids would result in loss of enzyme activity. Importantly, the kasB_T334D/T336D phosphomimetic and deletion alleles, in contrast to the kasB_T334A/T336A phosphoablative allele, completely lost acid-fast staining. Moreover, assessing the virulence of these strains indicated that the KasB phosphomimetic mutant was attenuated in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice following aerosol infection. This attenuation was characterized by the absence of lung pathology. Overall, these results highlight for the first time the role of Ser/Thr kinase-dependent KasB phosphorylation in regulating the later stages of mycolic acid elongation, with important consequences in terms of acid-fast staining and pathogenicity. PMID:24809459

Vilcheze, Catherine; Molle, Virginie; Carrere-Kremer, Severine; Leiba, Jade; Mourey, Lionel; Shenai, Shubhada; Baronian, Gregory; Tufariello, Joann; Hartman, Travis; Veyron-Churlet, Romain; Trivelli, Xavier; Tiwari, Sangeeta; Weinrick, Brian; Alland, David; Guerardel, Yann; Jacobs, William R.; Kremer, Laurent

2014-01-01

23

STUDIES ON THE VIRULENCE OF TUBERCLE BACILLI  

PubMed Central

On the basis of earlier observations dealing with the relation of a petroleum ether-soluble material (cord factor) obtained from young cultures of virulent tubercle bacilli to the pathogenicity of these organisms, it was expected that young cultures yielding more cord factor than older ones of the same strain would also be more virulent for susceptible animals. By infecting mice with equal numbers of bacteria from 3 day and 3 week old cultures, significant differences in the character of disease produced were observed. The mice infected with the younger cultures died of a rapid, septicemic infection with tuberculous lesions in many organs including the heart. A tuberculous myocarditis was probably the immediate cause of death. Mice infected with the older bacteria died of a chronic disease corresponding to the well known mouse tuberculosis. In these cases, the heart was completely free of lesions. No histologic tissue reactions typical of tuberculosis were seen in the animals dying from the acute type of the disease. A similar rapidly progressing infection was observed in rabbits infected with bacteria from young cultures. The symptoms corresponded to the ones seen in the disease known as the Yersin type of tuberculosis. It seems that the pathology of this latter can be produced with every type of pathogenic mycobacteria, human as well as bovine and avian, provided the cultures used are young. Thus it may be inferred that the acute type of tuberculosis is more frequent than commonly accepted both in experimental infection and in the naturally occurring disease. It is proposed to explain the mechanism of this acute infection within the framework of the cord factor hypothesis. PMID:14784534

Bloch, Hubert

1950-01-01

24

AFB (Acid-Fast Bacillus) Smear and Culture  

MedlinePLUS

... BA, Sahm DF, Weissfeld AS, Bailey & Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology 12th Edition: Mosby Elsevier, St. Louis, MO; 2007, Pp 478-508. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (July 1, 2010 Reviewed). Diagnosis of ...

25

A minimum 5.0 ml of sputum improves the sensitivity of acid-fast smear for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) by sputum smear supports treatment decisions with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), but smear sensitivity for Mycobacterium tuberculosis is only approximately 45 to 75%. In an effort to increase sensitivity, smears were prepared using a minimum sputum volume of 5.0 ml. Sensitivity of smears during a 39-mo period (n = 1,849) using >/= 5.0 ml of sputum was 92. 0%, significantly greater (p < 0.001) than a sensitivity of 72.5% in a previous 24-mo period (n = 3,486) when all specimens were processed regardless of volume. All new cases of TB (n = 18) were smear-positive with >/= 5.0 ml of sputum before treatment, and all were receiving antituberculosis drugs at hospital discharge. In contrast, significantly fewer new cases of TB (14 of 26, p = 0.002) were positive before treatment when smears were prepared using sputum of any volume, and significantly fewer of these new TB cases (18 of 26, p = 0.03) were receiving treatment at hospital discharge. The eight cases without treatment were smear-negative. These results indicate that acid-fast smear using >/= 5.0 ml of sputum increases sensitivity for M. tuberculosis and accelerates treatment of TB. PMID:10806154

Warren, J R; Bhattacharya, M; De Almeida, K N; Trakas, K; Peterson, L R

2000-05-01

26

Non-acid-fastness in Mycobacterium tuberculosis ?kasB mutant correlates with the cell envelope electron density.  

PubMed

The acid-fastness is the most important and the most specific characteristics in mycobacteria, the mechanism of which is not clear but may be attributed to the lipid rich cell wall of this bacterium. While the exact component(s) responsible for this staining method remained unidentified, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutant, attenuated strain that produced shorter mycolic acids with defects in trans-cyclopropanation was shown to be acid fast negative. In this study, we examined the ultrastructure of the cell envelope (CE) of the mutant strain ?kasB (missing a beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase involved in mycolic acid biosynthesis), the parental CDC1551 (wild type strain) and kasB complemented strain, and compared ultrastructural differences among them with conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (CEM). Conventional TEM revealed that there were no detectable differences in the thickness of the cell envelope among three strains (wild-type: 43.35 ± 6.13 nm; ?kasB: 45.98 ± 11.32 nm; complement: 40.71 ± 6.3 nm). However, CEM data demonstrated that the region between the inner and outer membranes of the mutant strain, which is composed mainly of cell wall anchored mycolic acids (MA), showed a significant decrease in electron density as compared to the wild type and kasB complement strain (567.1 ± 372.7 vs. 301.4 ± 262.1, or vs. 235.2 ± 174.9, p < 0.02 or p < 0.001, respectively). These results suggested that altered MA patterns in the kasB mutant may have affected the packing of the lipid rich layer of the M. tuberculosis cell envelope, resulting in a reduced electron density of this layer as seen by CEM and loss of acid-fastness in light microscopical observation, and we propose a novel model of the cell envelope structure in tubercle bacilli. PMID:22516756

Yamada, Hiroyuki; Bhatt, Apoorva; Danev, Radostin; Fujiwara, Nagatoshi; Maeda, Shinji; Mitarai, Satoshi; Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Aono, Akio; Nitta, Koji; Jacobs, William R; Nagayama, Kuniaki

2012-07-01

27

Targeting dormant bacilli to fight tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which kills about 2 million people annually. Furthermore, 2 billion people worldwide are latently infected with this organism, with 10% of them reactivating to active TB due to re-growth of nonreplicating (dormant) Mtb residing in their tissues. Because of the huge reservoir of latent TB it is important to find novel drugs/drug combinations killing dormant bacilli (microaerophiles, anaerobes and drug-tolerant persisters) surviving for decades in a wide spectrum of granulomatous lesions in the lungs of TB patients. Antibiotic treatment of drug-susceptible TB requires administration of isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol for 2 months, followed by isoniazid and rifampin for 4 months. To avoid reactivation of dormant Mtb to active pulmonary TB, up to 9 months of treatment with isoniazid is required. Therefore, a strategy to eliminate dormant bacilli needs to be developed to shorten therapy of active and latent TB and reduce the reservoir of people with latent TB. Finding drugs with high rate of penetration into the caseous granulomas and understanding the biology of dormant bacilli and in particular of persister cells, phenotypically resistant to antibiotics, will be essential to eradicate Mtb from humans. In recent years unprecedented efforts have been done in TB drug discovery, aimed at identifying novel drugs and drug combinations killing both actively replicating and nonreplicating Mtb in vitro, in animal models and in clinical trials in humans. PMID:24363887

Fattorini, Lanfranco; Piccaro, Giovanni; Mustazzolu, Alessandro; Giannoni, Federico

2013-01-01

28

Targeting Dormant Bacilli to Fight Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which kills about 2 million people annually. Furthermore, 2 billion people worldwide are latently infected with this organism, with 10% of them reactivating to active TB due to re-growth of nonreplicating (dormant) Mtb residing in their tissues. Because of the huge reservoir of latent TB it is important to find novel drugs/drug combinations killing dormant bacilli (microaerophiles, anaerobes and drug-tolerant persisters) surviving for decades in a wide spectrum of granulomatous lesions in the lungs of TB patients. Antibiotic treatment of drug-susceptible TB requires administration of isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol for 2 months, followed by isoniazid and rifampin for 4 months. To avoid reactivation of dormant Mtb to active pulmonary TB, up to 9 months of treatment with isoniazid is required. Therefore, a strategy to eliminate dormant bacilli needs to be developed to shorten therapy of active and latent TB and reduce the reservoir of people with latent TB. Finding drugs with high rate of penetration into the caseous granulomas and understanding the biology of dormant bacilli and in particular of persister cells, phenotypically resistant to antibiotics, will be essential to eradicate Mtb from humans. In recent years unprecedented efforts have been done in TB drug discovery, aimed at identifying novel drugs and drug combinations killing both actively replicating and nonreplicating Mtb in vitro, in animal models and in clinical trials in humans. PMID:24363887

Fattorini, Lanfranco; Piccaro, Giovanni; Mustazzolu, Alessandro; Giannoni, Federico

2013-01-01

29

[Proteus bacilli: features and virulence factors].  

PubMed

In this article, different aspects of virulence factors of Proteus bacilii (P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris, P. penneri i P. hauseri) are presented. These are opportunistic pathogens that cause different kinds of infections, most frequently of the urinary tract. These bacteria have developed several virulence factors, such as adherence due to the presence of fimbriae or afimbrial adhesins, invasiveness, swarming phenomenon, hemolytic activity, urea hydrolysis, proteolysis, and endotoxicity. Below we focus on data concerning the molecular basis of the pathogenicity of Proteus bacilli. PMID:17507868

Rózalski, Antoni; Kwil, Iwona; Torzewska, Agnieszka; Baranowska, Magdalena; Staczek, Pawe?

2007-01-01

30

Thermophilic bacilli and their importance in dairy processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermophilic bacilli, such as Anoxybacillus flavithermus and Geobacillus spp., are an important group of contaminants in the dairy industry. Although these bacilli are generally not pathogenic, their presence in dairy products is an indicator of poor hygiene and high numbers are unacceptable to customers. In addition, their growth may result in milk product defects caused by the production of

Sara A. Burgess; Denise Lindsay; Steve H. Flint

2010-01-01

31

Culture Conversion Rate at 2 Months of Treatment According to Diagnostic Methods among Patients with Culture-Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Introduction The culture-negative conversion rate of sputum after 2 months of treatment in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is used as a reliable surrogate marker for relapse after completion of treatment. We hypothesized that culture conversion of sputum at 2 months of anti-TB treatment and the time to culture conversion are different among pulmonary TB patients who are diagnosed using different methods. Methods Culture-confirmed pulmonary TB patients who were diagnosed between 1 January, 2011 and 31 December, 2012 were classified into three groups based on the diagnostic method that prompted treatment initiation: positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining of sputum (smear-positive group), negative AFB staining, but Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured from sputum (culture-positive group), and positive AFB staining, positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for M. tuberculosis, or culture of M. tuberculosis from a bronchoscopic specimen (bronchoscopy group). Rates of negative mycobacterial culture conversion at 2 months of anti-TB treatment and the time to negative culture conversion of sputum were compared among the three groups. Results A total of 203 patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB were included in the final analysis. TB patients in the culture-positive group (94.1%) and the bronchoscopy group (97.6%) showed a higher culture conversion rate at 2 months of treatment than those in the smear-positive group (78.7%, P?=?0.001). Additionally, the time to culture conversion was longer in the smear-positive group (median, 40 days) than in the culture-positive (median, 19 days; P?=?0.009) and bronchoscopy groups (median, 29 days; P?=?0.004). Conclusions The higher culture conversion rate at 2 months and the shorter time to culture conversion among pulmonary TB patients with a negative AFB smear suggests the feasibility of shortening treatment duration and isolation in these patients. PMID:25105410

Lee, Ha Youn; Chae, Kyoung Ok; Lee, Chang Hoon; Choi, Sun Mi; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Sang-Min; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Yim, Jae-Joon

2014-01-01

32

Comparison of three methods for extraction of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis DNA for polymerase chain reaction from broth-based culture systems.  

PubMed

Conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were used to measure the recovery of DNA from Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) extracted with 3 different methods (MagMAX, DNeasy(R), and phenol-chloroform) after growth in a broth-based culture system. Of the 304 samples tested, bacterial DNA was detected in 197 (65%) of samples after MagMAX, 156 (51%) after phenol-chloroform, and 123 (40%) after DNeasy extractions. By acid-fast stain, 177 (58%) of the samples yielded acid-fast-positive bacilli, of which 4 were PCR negative by the 3 extraction methods. The results demonstrated that the amplifiable MAP DNA, as evidenced by the number of PCR-positive cultures and amplicon intensity on ethidium bromide-stained agarose gel, was best for MagMAX, intermediate for phenol-chloroform, and least for DNeasy. When subjected to real-time polymerase chain reaction, the MagMAX extracts produced the best results, thereby making it an excellent kit for the efficient extraction of MAP DNA from the broth-based culture system. PMID:20093685

Okwumabua, Ogi; Shull, Eileen; O'Connor, Mike; Moua, Tou Vue; Danz, Tonya; Strelow, Kathy

2010-01-01

33

Growth of acid fast L forms from the blood of patients with sarcoidosis.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Acid fast cell wall deficient forms (CWDF) of bacteria have been grown from blood, bronchial washings, and ocular anterior chamber fluid from patients with sarcoidosis. A monoclonal antibody raised against Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole cell antigen (H37RV) was used to characterise further CWDF grown from the blood of patients with sarcoidosis. METHODS: Blood from 20 patients with active sarcoidosis and from 20 controls was cultured using methods favourable for the growth of CWDF. Isolates were further characterised by indirect fluorescent antibody analysis using a monoclonal antibody highly reactive with M tuberculosis. RESULTS: CWDF were grown from the blood of 19 of 20 subjects with sarcoidosis. All isolates stained positively with the monoclonal antibody and with a modified Kinyoun stain. No organisms were grown from the blood of controls. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that CWDF can be grown from the blood of nearly all patients with active sarcoidosis. The results confirm that the organisms are mycobacterial in origin and are similar, if not identical, to M tuberculosis. Their role in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis is unknown. Images PMID:8711683

Almenoff, P. L.; Johnson, A.; Lesser, M.; Mattman, L. H.

1996-01-01

34

Presence and destruction of tubercle bacilli in sewage.  

PubMed

The author examined the sewage from 5 towns with tuberculosis sanatoria and from one institution for the care of the feeble-minded, which had a tuberculosis ward, for the presence of tubercle bacilli. The 6 effluents were treated in biological-purification plants and average samples taken. These were centrifuged, and the sediment treated for 1 hour at 37 degrees C with 4% NaOH before inoculation into guinea-pigs. Tubercle bacilli were demonstrated in the influent to all the plants and in the digested sludge of all those operating on sewage where the ratio of infective patients to all persons connected with the plant was up to 1:600. Experiments with cultivated tubercle bacilli showed that centrifuging of sewage resulted in only an insignificant loss of bacilli, but that NaOH treatment caused a loss of over 99%.After consideration of the risk of infection to both man and cattle from the sewage of tuberculosis institutions, the author reports on his own studies on the killing of tubercle bacilli in sewage. It took about 11(1/2)-15 months before tubercle bacilli could no longer be demonstrated in sludge that had been kept on the drying beds. The addition of 10 mg of chlorine per litre of biologically purified effluent from an activated-sludge plant was found effectively to destroy tubercle bacilli. Disinfection of sludge was also carried out with 0.5% lysol and 0.1%-0.2% formol; 3.1% copper sulfate proved ineffective.The author concludes that the disinfection of sewage from tuberculosis institutions presents no special difficulties, but that work on this subject in different countries should be co-ordinated in an effort to improve plant and reduce costs. PMID:13160757

JENSEN, K E

1954-01-01

35

Fluorescent Acid-Fast Microscopy for Measuring Phagocytosis of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum by Tetrahymena pyriformis and Their Intracellular Growth  

PubMed Central

Fluorescent acid-fast microscopy (FAM) was used to enumerate intracellular Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum in the ciliated phagocytic protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis. There was a linear relationship between FAM and colony counts of M. avium cells both from cultures and within protozoa. The Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain could not be used to enumerate intracellular mycobacteria because uninfected protozoa contained acid-fast, bacterium-like particles. Starved, 7-day-old cultures of T. pyriformis transferred into fresh medium readily phagocytized M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum. Phagocytosis was rapid and reached a maximum in 30 min. M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum grew within T. pyriformis, increasing by factors of 4- to 40-fold after 5 days at 30°C. Intracellular M. avium numbers remained constant over a 25-day period of growth (by transfer) of T. pyriformis. Intracellular M. avium cells also survived protozoan encystment and germination. The growth and viability of T. pyriformis were not affected by mycobacterial infection. The results suggest that free-living phagocytic protozoa may be natural hosts and reservoirs for M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum. PMID:11571139

Strahl, Eileen D.; Gillaspy, Glenda E.; Falkinham, Joseph O.

2001-01-01

36

Thermophilic bacilli and their importance in dairy processing.  

PubMed

The thermophilic bacilli, such as Anoxybacillus flavithermus and Geobacillus spp., are an important group of contaminants in the dairy industry. Although these bacilli are generally not pathogenic, their presence in dairy products is an indicator of poor hygiene and high numbers are unacceptable to customers. In addition, their growth may result in milk product defects caused by the production of acids or enzymes, potentially leading to off-flavours. Dairy thermophiles are usually selected for by the conditions during dairy manufacture. These bacteria are able to grow in sections of dairy manufacturing plants where temperatures reach 40-65°C. Furthermore, because they are spore formers, they are difficult to eliminate. In addition, they exhibit a wide temperature growth range, exhibit a fast growth rate (generation time of approximately 15-20 min) and tend to readily form biofilms. Many strategies have been tested to remove, prevent and/or delay the formation of thermophilic bacilli biofilms in dairy manufacture, but with limited success. This is, in part, because little is known about the structure and composition of thermophilic bacilli biofilms in general and, more specifically, in milk processing environments. Therefore, new cleaning regimes often do not target the problem optimally. A greater understanding of the structure of thermophilic biofilms within the context of the milk processing environment and their link with spore formation is needed to develop better control measures. This review discusses the characteristics and food spoilage potential, enumeration and identification methods for the thermophilic bacilli, as well as their importance to dairy manufacture, with an emphasis on biofilm development and spore formation. PMID:21047695

Burgess, Sara A; Lindsay, Denise; Flint, Steve H

2010-12-15

37

THE THERMAL DEATH-POINT OF TUBERCLE BACILLI IN MILK AND SOME OTHER FLUIDS  

PubMed Central

1. Tubercle bacilli when suspended in. distilled water, normal salt solution, bouillon and milk, are destroyed at 60° C. in 15 to 20 minutes. The larger number are destroyed in 5 to 10 minutes. 2. When tubercle bacilli are suspended in milk, the pellicle which forms during the exposure at 60° C. may contain living bacilli after 60 minutes. PMID:19866907

Smith, Theobald

1899-01-01

38

ACID-FAST BACTERIA AND YEASTS AS INDICATORS OF DISINFECTION EFFICIENCY  

EPA Science Inventory

Since the coliform group of organisms is considered to be less resistant to chlorine than some bacterial and viral pathogens, the utility of both yeast and acid-fast oganisms as potntial indicators of disinfection efficiency was evaluated. In most laboratory studies these two gro...

39

Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of Gram-Negative Nonfermentative Bacilli  

PubMed Central

A study was undertaken to determine if current methods of antibiotic susceptibility testing could be successfully applied to the gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli. Using clinical isolates and reference strains, experiments were conducted on the inherent reliability of the Bauer-Kirby method, as well as the effect of certain modifications on the method such as elimination of the 2- to 5-h incubation in broth and use of different agar media. Results obtained using these modifications were compared to the results obtained by the standard method. It was shown that the two modifications investigated had a significant effect on the interpretation of zone diameters. It was further shown that the standard Bauer-Kirby method with some exceptions correlates with minimal inhibitory concentrations as determined by broth dilution methods. Results suggest that the Bauer-Kirby method may be a reliable technique for testing the antibiotic susceptibility of the nonfermentative bacilli. PMID:1147576

Ruddell, K. A.; Anselmo, C. R.

1975-01-01

40

Phosphate-containing cell wall polymers of bacilli.  

PubMed

Anionic phosphate-containing cell wall polymers of bacilli are represented by teichoic acids and poly(glycosyl 1-phosphates). Different locations of phosphodiester bonds in the main chain of teichoic acids as well as the nature and combination of the constituent structural elements underlie their structural diversity. Currently, the structures of teichoic acids of bacilli can be classified into three types, viz. poly(polyol phosphates) with glycerol or ribitol as the polyol; poly(glycosylpolyol phosphates), mainly glycerol-containing polymers; and poly(acylglycosylglycerol phosphate), in which the components are covalently linked through glycosidic, phosphodiester, and amide bonds. In addition to teichoic acids, poly(glycosyl 1-phosphates) with mono- and disaccharide residues in the repeating units have been detected in cell walls of several Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus strains. The known structures of teichoic acids and poly(glycosyl 1-phosphates) of B. subtilis, B. atrophaeus, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B. stearothermophilus, B. coagulans, B. cereus as well as oligomers that link the polymers to peptidoglycan are surveyed. The reported data on the structures of phosphate-containing polymers of different strains of B. subtilis suggest heterogeneity of the species and may be of interest for the taxonomy of bacilli to allow differentiation of closely related organisms according to the "structures and composition of cell wall polymers" criterion. PMID:21999535

Potekhina, N V; Streshinskaya, G M; Tul'skaya, E M; Kozlova, Yu I; Senchenkova, S N; Shashkov, A S

2011-07-01

41

Manual and Automated Instrumentation for Identification of Enterobacteriaceae and Other Aerobic Gram-Negative Bacilli  

PubMed Central

Identification of gram-negative bacilli, both enteric and nonenteric, by conventional methods is not realistic for clinical microbiology laboratories performing routine cultures in today's world. The use of commercial kits, either manual or automated, to identify these organisms is a common practice. The advent of rapid or “spot” testing has eliminated the need for some commonly isolated organisms to be identified with the systems approach. Commercially available systems provide more in-depth identification to the species level as well as detect new and unusual strains. The answers obtained from these systems may not always be correct and must be interpreted with caution. The patient demographics, laboratory workload and work flow, and technologist's skill levels should dictate the system of choice. Cost considerations introduce another variable into the equation affecting choice. Each system has its own strengths and weaknesses, and each laboratory must decide on the level of sophistication that fulfills its particular needs. PMID:15653824

O'Hara, Caroline M.

2005-01-01

42

Lymphocyte blastogenesis, complement fixation, and fecal culture as diagnostic tests for paratuberculosis in North American wild ruminants and domestic sheep.  

PubMed

The efficacy of the lymphocyte blastogenesis and complement-fixation tests and fecal culture for detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection was assessed in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (O virginianus), bighorn X mouflon (O musimon) hybrid sheep, and domestic sheep. Spontaneously infected bighorns were tested at the time of capture; experimentally infected animals were tested monthly for 12 months or periodically for 36 months. Lymphocyte blastogenesis tests were conducted with peripheral blood mononuclear cells and protein antigens of M avium, M bovis, and M paratuberculosis. Best diagnostic results were obtained when M avium purified-protein derivative was used as antigen and 20% bovine fetal serum was incorporated in the culture medium; a positive test was defined as a stimulation index greater than or equal to 3.5. Test sensitivity and specificity, respectively, were 82% and 94% in hybrid sheep and were 72% and 100% in domestic sheep. Sensitivity and specificity, respectively, were 39% and 94% in elk and 53% and 92% in deer. When infection was determined in spontaneously infected bighorns by culture of M paratuberculosis and/or the presence of acid-fast bacilli in characteristic microscopic lesions, sensitivity was 75% and specificity was 87%. Fecal cultures and the complement-fixation tests seldom correctly identified infected animals. PMID:4073642

Williams, E S; DeMartini, J C; Snyder, S P

1985-11-01

43

STUDIES ON FRACTIONS OF METHANOL EXTRACTS OF TUBERCLE BACILLI  

PubMed Central

Fractionation procedures yielding partially purified vaccine preparations from a 60°C. methanol extract of tubercle bacilli have been described. Some of the preparations have the characteristics of lipopolysaccharides. Certain ones have been found capable of increasing resistance to experimental tuberculosis in albino mice of the Rockefeller Swiss strain. The levels of resistance elicited by these preparations are equivalent to those following vaccination with BCG (Phipps) in this strain of mice as reported by other authors. The admixture of two of the crude fractions in amounts as small as 0.05 mg. each per dose per mouse affords an even greater increase in resistance. Neither of these substances alone in larger doses can approach this degree of efficacy in mouse protection experiments. The protective activity appears to involve the stimulation of two supplementary mechanisms, one providing a peak resistance between 1 and 3 weeks post vaccination but falling off to a lower level thereafter, the other not responding fully until approximately 6 weeks but continuing undiminished through a 12 week post-vaccination period. The first of these peaks corresponds to an increase in resistance against staphylococci as well as tubercle bacilli. The possibility that the term "broad specificity," rather than "non-specificity," might best describe this phenomenon permits the implication of classical immune mechanisms. PMID:13844822

Williams, Curtis A.; Dubos, Rene J.

1959-01-01

44

A RAPD-based survey of thermophilic bacilli in milk powders from different countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-eight milk powders from 18 different countries were examined for the number and type of contaminating thermophilic bacilli. Of 742 isolates examined, 96.8% were assigned to the same strains of bacilli as previously found in New Zealand powders. The dominant isolate was Anoxybacillus flavithermus strain C followed by Bacillus licheniformis strain F. The former was also prevalent in New Zealand

Andreas Rückert; Ron S. Ronimus; Hugh W. Morgan

2004-01-01

45

CELLULAR REACTIONS TO WAX-LIKE MATERIALS FROM ACID-FAST BACTERIA  

PubMed Central

1. The unsaponifiable fractions of the Mycobacteria, though insoluble in water and extremely stable chemical compounds, are nevertheless remarkable stimulants of cells. 2. They give rise to new monocytes which surround these waxes and then fuse into giant cells which engulf them. 3. The property of acid-fastness of the waxes makes it possible to identify them within the giant cells which have phagocytized them. 4. Within the foreign body giant cells the waxes are slowly disintegrated. They appear not to damage the cells which engulf them, and hence one may infer that they take no part in caseation. 5. They have no effect on the resistance of the host. PMID:19870446

Sabin, F. R.; Smithburn, K. C.; Thomas, R. M.

1935-01-01

46

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PROTECTIVE INOCULATION WITH HEAT KILLED TUBERCLE BACILLI  

PubMed Central

Heat killed tubercle bacilli repeatedly injected into or below the skin of rabbits increase conspicuously their resistance against infection with virulent tubercle bacilli. Protection against tuberculous infection following the administration of heat killed tubercle bacilli to rabbits is only slightly less than that given by BCG. Addition of certain antigens, notably heated horse serum, increases the protection given by heat killed tubercle bacilli so that it is approximately the same as that afforded by BCG. These experiments and tentative observations of persons exposed to tuberculous infection indicate that heat killed tubercle bacilli may be substituted for the living attenuated microorganism in the attempt to increase resistance against tuberculous infection and to influence favorably the delicate balance between asymptomatic or latent infection and progressive manifest disease that is characteristic of human tuberculosis. PMID:19870697

Opie, Eugene L.; Freund, Jules

1937-01-01

47

A New Metric of Antibiotic Class Resistance in Gram-Negative Bacilli Isolated from Hospitalized Children  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to describe patterns of infection or colonization with antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacilli (GNB) in hospitalized children utilizing an electronic health record. SETTING Tertiary care facility. PARTICIPANTS Pediatric patients 18 years of age or younger hospitalized from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2008. METHODS Children were identified who had (1) at least 1 positive culture for a multidrug-resistant (MDR) GNB, defined as a GNB with resistance to 3 or more antibiotic classes; or (2) additive drug resistance, defined as isolation of more than 1 GNB that collectively as a group demonstrated resistance to 3 or more antibiotic classes over the study period. Differences in clinical characteristics between the 2 groups were ascertained, including history of admissions and transfers, comorbid conditions, receipt of procedures, and antibiotic exposure. RESULTS Of 56,235 pediatric patients, 46 children were infected or colonized with an MDR GNB, of which 16 were resistant to 3 classes and 30 were resistant to 4 classes. Another 39 patients had positive cultures for GNB that exhibited additive drug resistance. Patients with additive drug resistance were more likely than patients with MDR GNB to have had previous admissions to a long-term facility (8 vs 2; P = .04) and had more mean admissions (7 vs 3; P < .01) and more mean antibiotic-days (P < .01 to P = .02). Six patients with additive drug resistance later had a positive culture with an MDR GNB. CONCLUSIONS An electronic health record can be used to track antibiotic class resistance in GNB isolated from hospitalized children over multiple cultures and hospitalizations. PMID:22561716

Patel, Sameer J.; O'Toole, Dana; Larson, Elaine

2012-01-01

48

Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli in the Fecal Microflora of Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which antibiotic-resistant bacteria are excreted by humans who have not been exposed to antibiotics is not known. Children, who rarely receive fluoroquinolones, provide opportunities to assess the frequency of fecal excretion by fluoroquinolone-naive hosts of fluoroquinolone-resistant gram-negative bacilli. Fresh nondiarrheal stools from children were processed by screening them on agar containing ciprofloxacin to recover ciprofloxacin-resistant gram-negative bacilli.

Xuan Qin; Yasmin Razia; James R. Johnson; Jennifer R. Stapp; Daniel R. Boster; Treva Tsosie; Donna L. Smith; Christopher R. Braden; Kathryn Gay; Frederick J. Angulo; Phillip I. Tarr

2006-01-01

49

Carbohydrate-active enzymes from pigmented Bacilli: a genomic approach to assess carbohydrate utilization and degradation  

PubMed Central

Background Spore-forming Bacilli are Gram-positive bacteria commonly found in a variety of natural habitats, including soil, water and the gastro-intestinal (GI)-tract of animals. Isolates of various Bacillus species produce pigments, mostly carotenoids, with a putative protective role against UV irradiation and oxygen-reactive forms. Results We report the annotation of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) of two pigmented Bacilli isolated from the human GI-tract and belonging to the Bacillus indicus and B. firmus species. A high number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) were found in both isolates. A detailed analysis of CAZyme families, was performed and supported by growth data. Carbohydrates able to support growth as the sole carbon source negatively effected carotenoid formation in rich medium, suggesting that a catabolite repression-like mechanism controls carotenoid biosynthesis in both Bacilli. Experimental results on biofilm formation confirmed genomic data on the potentials of B. indicus HU36 to produce a levan-based biofilm, while mucin-binding and -degradation experiments supported genomic data suggesting the ability of both Bacilli to degrade mammalian glycans. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genomes of the two pigmented Bacilli, compared to other Bacillus species and validated by experimental data on carbohydrate utilization, biofilm formation and mucin degradation, suggests that the two pigmented Bacilli are adapted to the intestinal environment and are suited to grow in and colonize the human gut. PMID:21892951

2011-01-01

50

Does neutralization of gastric aspirates from children with suspected intrathoracic tuberculosis affect mycobacterial yields on MGIT culture?  

PubMed

The microbiological confirmation of pulmonary tuberculosis in children relies on cultures of gastric aspirate (GA) specimens. Conventionally, GAs are neutralized to improve culture yields of mycobacteria. However, there are limited data to support this practice. To study the utility of neutralization of GAs with sodium bicarbonate in children with intrathoracic tuberculosis, a total of 116 children of either sex, aged 6 months to 14 years (median age, 120 months; interquartile range [IQR], 7 to 192 months), underwent gastric aspiration on 2 consecutive days. Gastric aspirates were divided into two aliquots, and only one aliquot was neutralized with 1% sodium bicarbonate. Both aliquots were processed for smear and culture examinations. Out of the 232 gastric aspirates, 12 (5.17%) were acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear positive. There were no differences in smear positivity rates from samples with or without neutralization. The yield of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on a Bactec MGIT 960 culture system was significantly lower in the neutralized samples (16.3% [38/232]) than in the nonneutralized samples (21.5% [50/232]) (P = 0.023). There was no significant difference between the neutralized and the nonneutralized samples in time to detection using the MGIT 960 system (average, 24.6 days; IQR, 12 to 37 days) (P = 0.9). The contamination rates were significantly higher in the neutralized samples than in the nonneutralized samples (17.2% [40/232] versus 3.9% [9/232]) (P = 0.001). The agreement for positive mycobacterial culture between the two approaches was 66.5% (P = 0.001). Hence, we recommend that gastric aspirate samples not be neutralized with sodium bicarbonate prior to culture for M. tuberculosis. PMID:23536406

Parashar, Deepak; Kabra, Sushil K; Lodha, Rakesh; Singh, Varinder; Mukherjee, Aparna; Arya, Tina; Grewal, Harleen M S; Singh, Sarman

2013-06-01

51

The virulence in the guinea-pig of tubercle bacilli isolated before treatment from South Indian patients with pulmonary tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

A series of studies on the virulence in the guinea-pig of tubercle bacilli isolated before treatment from Indian tuberculous patients admitted to a controlled comparison of different regimens of domiciliary chemotherapy has recently been undertaken by the Tuberculosis Chemotherapy Centre, Madras. The main object of these studies was to determine whether the differences in virulence of the tubercle bacilli obtained from Indian patients before the start of chemotherapy were related to the severity or type of the patients' disease at that time and to the subsequent response to treatment. Before these relationships could be investigated, however, it was necessary to find out whether the results of the virulence tests, which were carried out over a period of two-and-a-half years at the Centre and at the Microbiological Research Establishment, Porton, England, could be considered as a unified whole—that is, as if they had all been done on the same day in the same laboratory. A proportion of the cultures was stored at — 20°C for 44-78 weeks, but this did not affect their virulence. Inter-experimental variation was found to be small in the Porton series of tests and undetectable in the Madras series, and the results in the latter series could be successfully adjusted to those in the former by allowing for differences in the means and standard deviations of the distributions for the two series. The measure of virulence used was found to be reasonably acceptable for the analysis of variance technique. Suggestions are made as to ways of improving the efficiency of the experimental design in future studies. PMID:14474648

Mitchison, D. A.; Bhatia, A. L.; Radhakrishna, S.; Selkon, J. B.; Subbaiah, T. V.; Wallace, J. G.

1961-01-01

52

A RAPD-based survey of thermophilic bacilli in milk powders from different countries.  

PubMed

Twenty-eight milk powders from 18 different countries were examined for the number and type of contaminating thermophilic bacilli. Of 742 isolates examined, 96.8% were assigned to the same strains of bacilli as previously found in New Zealand powders. The dominant isolate was Anoxybacillus flavithermus strain C followed by Bacillus licheniformis strain F. The former was also prevalent in New Zealand powders and the results demonstrate that A. flavithermus represents a widespread contaminant, seemingly ubiquitous in factories producing milk powder. The presence of thermophilic strains of Geobacillus stearothermophilus and to a lesser extent of Bacillus subtilis in milk powders was reconfirmed. PMID:15454316

Rückert, Andreas; Ronimus, Ron S; Morgan, Hugh W

2004-11-15

53

*Corresponding author: Email: korokorogozion@yahoo.fr; British Microbiology Research Journal  

E-print Network

-Xavier Etoa2 1 Mycobacteriology Service, Reference Laboratory of NTP, Centre Pasteur Cameroon, Yaoundé 2010 to April 2011. Sample processing (culture, acid-fast staining and spoligotyping) was made at Short and spoligotyping were made to identify acid-fast Bacilli and Mycobacterium bovis. Results: The overall apparent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

54

Evaluation of the BD Phoenix™ Automated Microbiology System for Fluoroquinolone Susceptibility Testing of Gram Negative Bacilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

? The capability of the BD Phoenix™ Automated Micro- biology System (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, MD) as a means for performing same-day susceptibility testing with fluoroquinolones versus gram-negative bacilli was evaluated in six geographically diverse medical center laboratories. Clinical isolates and a collection of challenge strains were tested in both Phoenix and the NCCLS broth microdilution reference method. When results

E. MUNSON; S. RICHTER; G. DOERN; L. B. RELLER; S. MIRRETT; E. PETERSON; R. SILBERMAN; M. P. WEINSTEIN; D. BRUCKNER

55

Evaluation of CHROMagar Orientation for differentiation and presumptive identification of gram-negative bacilli and Enterococcus species.  

PubMed Central

A new chromogenic plate medium, CHROMagar Orientation, was evaluated for use in the differentiation and presumptive identification of gram-negative bacilli and Enterococcus species by a multipoint inoculation (replicator) technique. In this study, 1,404 gram-negative bacilli and 74 enterococcal isolates were tested on CHROMagar Orientation. Six control American Type Culture Collection strains were also included with the testing to ensure quality control of the media. Of the Escherichia coli isolates (n = 588) tested, 99.3% produced a pink-to-red color. Only in four isolates that were O-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) negative did this result differ. Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris were well differentiated on this medium. P. mirabilis (n = 184) produced a clear colony with diffusible brown pigment around the periphery. By contrast, 15 of 16 P. vulgaris isolates produced bluish-green colonies with a slight brown background. All Aeromonas hydrophila isolates (n = 26) tested produced clear to pink colonies at 35 to 37 degrees C. This colony color changed to blue after 2 to 3 h of incubation at room temperature. A. hydrophila exhibited stronger color and better growth at 30 degrees C. Serratia marcescens (n = 29) demonstrated an aqua blue color that deepened to a darker blue when exposed to room temperature. All enterococcal isolates (n = 74) resulted in a blue color and gave pinpoint colonies on purity subcultures at 35 to 37 degrees C after 18 h of incubation. Similarity in color resulted in failure to discriminate accurately between Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Citrobacter species. However, these species could be readily differentiated from other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 151) was easily differentiated from members of the Enterobacteriaceae but was less easily distinguishable from other gram-negative nonmembers of the Enterobacteriaceae. The medium was found to facilitate easy visual detection of mixed bacterial isolates in culture. When used in a replicator system, it easily detected mixed growths of organisms which may have otherwise led to false antibiotic susceptibility results. These mixed growths were not obvious on the routine susceptibility testing medium (Isosensitest). PMID:8784591

Merlino, J; Siarakas, S; Robertson, G J; Funnell, G R; Gottlieb, T; Bradbury, R

1996-01-01

56

Kinetic modeling of sporulation and product formation in stationary phase by Bacillus coagulans RK-02 vis-à-vis other Bacilli.  

PubMed

A logistic kinetic model was derived and validated to characterize the dynamics of a sporogenous bacterium in stationary phase with respect to sporulation and product formation. The kinetic constants as determined using this model are particularly important for describing intrinsic properties of a sporogenous bacterial culture in stationary phase. Non-linear curve fitting of the experimental data into the mathematical model showed very good correlation with the predicted values for sporulation and lipase production by Bacillus coagulans RK-02 culture in minimal media. Model fitting of literature data of sporulation and product (protease and amylase) formation in the stationary phase by some other Bacilli and comparison of the results of model fitting with those of Bacillus coagulans helped validate the significance and robustness of the developed kinetic model. PMID:21852126

Das, Subhasish; Sen, Ramkrishna

2011-10-01

57

Development of a rapid detection and enumeration method for thermophilic bacilli in milk powders.  

PubMed

Thermophilic strains of Geobacillus, Anoxybacillus and Bacillus that are able to grow at 55 degrees C and above are recognized as commonly occurring contaminants during the production of milk powders. In particular, Anoxybacillus flavithermus strain C and Bacillus licheniformis strain F are often the most prevalent. We describe here the development of a TaqMan-based real-time-PCR assay using a small amplicon of the ribosomal 16S rRNA gene for the selective and quantitative detection of thermophilic bacilli in milk powders. We further present an effective, rapid and inexpensive method for the isolation of total bacterial DNA from milk powder for quantitative PCR analysis within 20 min. With this method, the detection of thermophilic bacilli in milk powder can be accomplished within 1 h. The detection limit for reconstituted and inoculated milk was 8 vegetative cfu ml(-1) and 64 spores ml(-1), respectively. PMID:15590090

Rueckert, Andreas; Ronimus, Ron S; Morgan, Hugh W

2005-02-01

58

Identification of Aerobic Gram-Positive Bacilli by Use of Vitek MS  

PubMed Central

The accuracy of Vitek MS mass spectrometric identifications was assessed for 206 clinically significant isolates of aerobic Gram-positive bacilli representing 20 genera and 38 species. The Vitek MS identifications were correct for 85% of the isolates (56.3% to the species level, 28.6% limited to the genus level), with misidentifications occurring for 7.3% of the isolates. PMID:24501030

Navas, Maria; Pincus, David H.; Wilkey, Kathy; Sercia, Linda; LaSalvia, Margaret; Wilson, Deborah; Procop, Gary W.

2014-01-01

59

Problem of antimicrobial resistance of fecal aerobic gram-negative bacilli in the elderly.  

PubMed Central

In this study, we assessed the magnitude of risk (odds ratio [OR]) of patients being colonized with fecal aerobic gram-negative bacilli in two geriatric hospitals compared with the community, and we associated the use of antimicrobial agents with bacterial resistance. One fecal sample was collected from each of 341 patients, aged 60 years or older, during the hospital stay or when visiting the outpatient service. Samples were collected in 1988 and 1993 to 1994. The aerobic gram-negative bacilli from all samples were examined for resistance to seven antimicrobials by a replica plating method. The long-term-hospitalized patients had a significantly higher risk of being colonized with bacilli resistant to ampicillin (OR, 14.3; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 6.0 to 34.1), cefuroxime (OR, 7.5; 95% CI, 2.7 to 20.8), trimethoprim (ORs, 22.3; 95% CI, 8.6 to 57.8), and tetracycline (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 2.4 to 10.9) than the outpatients. The respective ORs among the short-term-hospitalized patients compared with the outpatients were 4.0 (95% CI, 1.9 to 8.4), 7.5 (95% CI, 2.7 to 20.8), 5.5 (95% CI, 2 to 14), and 2.0 (95% CI, 1 to 4). In 1993 to 1994 compared with 1988, in both hospitals there was a significantly increased risk of colonization by bacilli resistant to ampicillin (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.9 to 5.1), cefuroxime (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.1 to 6.7), and tetracycline (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.5). However, the total use of antimicrobial agents increased only among the patients of the short-term-care hospital. PMID:8891151

Leistevuo, T; Toivonen, P; Osterblad, M; Kuistila, M; Kahra, A; Lehtonen, A; Huovinen, P

1996-01-01

60

Problem of antimicrobial resistance of fecal aerobic gram-negative bacilli in the elderly.  

PubMed

In this study, we assessed the magnitude of risk (odds ratio [OR]) of patients being colonized with fecal aerobic gram-negative bacilli in two geriatric hospitals compared with the community, and we associated the use of antimicrobial agents with bacterial resistance. One fecal sample was collected from each of 341 patients, aged 60 years or older, during the hospital stay or when visiting the outpatient service. Samples were collected in 1988 and 1993 to 1994. The aerobic gram-negative bacilli from all samples were examined for resistance to seven antimicrobials by a replica plating method. The long-term-hospitalized patients had a significantly higher risk of being colonized with bacilli resistant to ampicillin (OR, 14.3; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 6.0 to 34.1), cefuroxime (OR, 7.5; 95% CI, 2.7 to 20.8), trimethoprim (ORs, 22.3; 95% CI, 8.6 to 57.8), and tetracycline (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 2.4 to 10.9) than the outpatients. The respective ORs among the short-term-hospitalized patients compared with the outpatients were 4.0 (95% CI, 1.9 to 8.4), 7.5 (95% CI, 2.7 to 20.8), 5.5 (95% CI, 2 to 14), and 2.0 (95% CI, 1 to 4). In 1993 to 1994 compared with 1988, in both hospitals there was a significantly increased risk of colonization by bacilli resistant to ampicillin (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.9 to 5.1), cefuroxime (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.1 to 6.7), and tetracycline (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.5). However, the total use of antimicrobial agents increased only among the patients of the short-term-care hospital. PMID:8891151

Leistevuo, T; Toivonen, P; Osterblad, M; Kuistila, M; Kahra, A; Lehtonen, A; Huovinen, P

1996-10-01

61

Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the USA" (Alisa Woodring);…

1997

62

Biofilms of thermophilic bacilli isolated from dairy processing plants and efficacy of sanitizers.  

PubMed

In many environments, bacteria can attach to a surface and grow into multicellular structures, otherwise known as biofilms. Many systems for studying these biofilms in the laboratory are available. To study biofilms of the thermophilic bacilli in milk powder-manufacturing plants, standard laboratory biofilm techniques need to be adapted. The focus of this chapter is on techniques that can be used for growing and analyzing biofilms of thermophilic bacilli that are isolated from dairy processing plants. These techniques include laboratory methods as well as how to set up a pilot-scale experiment. The laboratory methods consist of a microtiter plate assay, which is used for strain selection, and the CDC reactor, which is used for testing sanitizers and antimicrobial surfaces. In dairy processing, if a new sanitizer or antimicrobial surface appears to be promising, it is useful to carry out pilot-scale experiments before introducing it to a manufacturing plant. We describe how to set up a pilot-scale experiment for testing the efficacy of sanitizers against the thermophilic bacilli. PMID:24664846

Burgess, Sara A; Lindsay, Denise; Flint, Steve H

2014-01-01

63

Characterization of the coliform and enteric bacilli in the environment of calves with colibacillosis.  

PubMed Central

In the first part of the present study the coliform and enteric bacilli in the environment of calves with colibacillosis were examined. The occurrence, number, and pathogenic properties of Escherichia coli in barnyard soils were obtained from six cattle ranches. The O and K serogroups of E. coli isolates obtained from the feces of calves with colibacillosis born at these cattle ranches were determined, and their serotypes were compared with the E. coli O and K serotypes found in soils. The results showed a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli in barnyard soils contaminated with bovine feces. For the second part of this study, 6 healthy calves and 51 calves with colibacillosis were studied. The numbers of total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, total streptococci, fecal streptococci, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms in the feces of calves were determined. In addition, coliform and enteric bacilli from the feces of both healthy and diseased calves were identified, and their indole, methyl red, Voges-Proskauer, citrate (IMViC) types were described. In parallel, the IMViC types of coliform and enteric bacilli isolated from barnyard soils previously contaminated with bovine feces were compared with those isolated from uncontaminated soils. All fecal specimens were also examined for the presence of rotavirus. No significant effect on the numbers of the bacterial types was found. The results suggest that the predominant IMViC types found in the feces of calves with colibacillosis originate from the soil. From this study it is apparent that the occurrence, number, and survival of E. coli in barnyard soils is related to ranch husbandry and sanitary practices. PMID:3890744

Plews, P I; Bromel, M C; Schipper, I A

1985-01-01

64

Isolation and characterisation of aerobic endospore forming Bacilli from sugarcane rhizosphere for the selection of strains with agriculture potentialities.  

PubMed

Eighteen aerobic endospore forming strains were isolated from sugarcane rhizosphere in N-free medium. A phenotypic description and analysis of the 5' end hypervariable region sequences of 16S rRNA revealed a high diversity of Bacillus and related genera. Isolates were identified, and four genera were obtained: seven strains belonged to Bacillus (Bacillaceae family), four belonged to Paenibacillus, six belonged to Brevibacillus and one strain was identified as Cohnella (Paenibacillaceae family). Four Brevibacillus strains showed in vitro inhibitory activity against plant pathogens fungi Curvularia and Fusarium. Seventy-four percent of the isolated bacteria grew on pectin as the only carbon source, showing polygalacturonase activity. Pectate lyase activity was detected for the first time in a Brevibacillus genus strain. All isolates showed endoglucanase activity. Calcium phosphate solubilisation was positive in 83.3% of the isolates, with higher values than those reported for Bacillus inorganic phosphate solubilising strains. High ethylene plant hormone secretion in the culture medium was detected in 22% of the bacteria. This is the first report of ethylene secretion in Paenibacillaceae isolates. Indole-3-acetic acid production was found in a Brevibacillus genus isolate. It was reported for the first time the presence of Cohnella genus strain on sugarcane rhizosphere bearing plant growth promoting traits. The sugarcane isolate Brevibacillus B65 was identified as a plant growth inoculant because it showed wider spectra of plant stimulation capabilities, including an antifungal effect, extracellular hydrolases secretion, inorganic phosphate solubilisation and plant hormone liberation. In this work, sugarcane was shown to be a suitable niche for finding aerobic endospore forming 'Bacilli' with agriculture biotechnological purposes. PMID:22805941

de Los Milagros Orberá Ratón, Teresa; Yano, Ricardo; Rodríguez Gámez, Odalys; Floh, Eny Iochevet Segal; de Jesús Serrat Díaz, Manuel; Barbosa, Heloíza Ramos

2012-04-01

65

Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli in the Fecal Microflora of Children  

PubMed Central

The extent to which antibiotic-resistant bacteria are excreted by humans who have not been exposed to antibiotics is not known. Children, who rarely receive fluoroquinolones, provide opportunities to assess the frequency of fecal excretion by fluoroquinolone-naïve hosts of fluoroquinolone-resistant gram-negative bacilli. Fresh nondiarrheal stools from children were processed by screening them on agar containing ciprofloxacin to recover ciprofloxacin-resistant gram-negative bacilli. Resistant isolates were identified, and ciprofloxacin MICs were determined. Resistant Escherichia coli isolates were also analyzed for urovirulence-associated loci. Thirteen (2.9%) of 455 stools yielded ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli (seven children), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (four children), and Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Enterobacter aerogenes (one child each). Neither the subjects themselves nor members of their households used fluoroquinolones in the 4 weeks preceding collection. Six of the seven resistant E. coli isolates belonged to phylogenetic groups B2 and D, in which extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli bacteria are frequently found. All resistant E. coli isolates contained at least three putative E. coli virulence loci. Most ciprofloxacin-resistant bacteria were resistant to additional antibiotics. Potentially pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to therapeutically important antimicrobial agents are excreted by some humans, despite these persons' lack of exposure to the particular drugs. The sources of these resistant organisms are unknown. This underrecognized reservoir of drug-resistant potential pathogens poses public health challenges. PMID:17005812

Qin, Xuan; Razia, Yasmin; Johnson, James R.; Stapp, Jennifer R.; Boster, Daniel R.; Tsosie, Treva; Smith, Donna L.; Braden, Christopher R.; Gay, Kathryn; Angulo, Frederick J.; Tarr, Phillip I.

2006-01-01

66

Identification of variable regions in the genomes of tubercle bacilli using bacterial artificial chromosome arrays.  

PubMed

Whole-genome comparisons of the tubercle bacilli were undertaken using ordered bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the vaccine strain, Mycobacterium bovis BCG-Pasteur, together with the complete genome sequence of M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Restriction-digested BAC arrays of M. tuberculosis H37Rv were used in hybridization experiments with radiolabelled M. bovis BCG genomic DNA to reveal the presence of 10 deletions (RD1-RD10) relative to M. tuberculosis. Seven of these regions, RD4-RD10, were also found to be deleted from M. bovis, with the three M. bovis BCG-specific deletions being identical to the RD1-RD3 loci described previously. The distribution of RD4-RD10 in Mycobacterium africanum resembles that of M. tuberculosis more closely than that of M. bovis, whereas an intermediate arrangement was found in Mycobacterium microti, suggesting that the corresponding genes may affect host range and virulence of the various tubercle bacilli. Among the known products encoded by these loci are a copy of the proposed mycobacterial invasin Mce, three phospholipases, several PE, PPE and ESAT-6 proteins, epoxide hydrolase and an insertion sequence. In a complementary approach, direct comparison of BACs uncovered a third class of deletions consisting of two M. tuberculosis H37Rv loci, RvD1 and RvD2, deleted from the genome relative to M. bovis BCG and M. bovis. These deletions affect a further seven genes, including a fourth phospholipase, plcD. In summary, the insertions and deletions described here have important implications for our understanding of the evolution of the tubercle complex. PMID:10320585

Gordon, S V; Brosch, R; Billault, A; Garnier, T; Eiglmeier, K; Cole, S T

1999-05-01

67

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues as sites for uptake, carriage and excretion of tubercle bacilli and other pathogenic mycobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogenic mycobacteria, including those that cause tuberculosis and paratuberculosis, cross mucosal barriers by endocytosis within mucosal lymphoepithelial sites. These entry sites commonly include oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal tonsils and Peyer’s patches. Bacilli discharged at the basolateral surfaces of engulfing epithelial M cells are taken up by professional antigen-presenting cells associated with T lymphocytes of the parafollicular area. Dendritic cells and macrophages

IW Lugton

1999-01-01

68

Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Other Gram-Negative Bacilli in Pneumonia-Prone Age Groups in Semarang, Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) cause many cases of pneumonia in Indonesia. We investigated nasopharyngeal carriage of GNB in Semarang, Indonesia. Klebsiella pneumoniae carriage in adults (15%) was higher than in children (7%) (P = 0.004), while that of other GNB was comparable. Poor food and water hygiene are determinants of carriage of these bacteria. PMID:23486716

Severin, Juliette A.; Gasem, M. Hussein; Keuter, Monique; van den Broek, Peterhans; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Wahyono, Hendro; Verbrugh, Henri A.

2013-01-01

69

Rectal Carriage of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacilli in Community Settings  

E-print Network

situations in hospitals and long-term care facilities. In recent years, community-acquired infections dueRectal Carriage of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase- Producing Gram-Negative Bacilli in Community-PE in the community of Antananarivo. Methods: Non-hospitalized patients were recruited in three health centers

70

Evolution of Smooth Tubercle Bacilli PE and PE_PGRS Genes: Evidence for a Prominent Role of Recombination  

E-print Network

in the pathogenic species, notably the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Several lines of evidenceEvolution of Smooth Tubercle Bacilli PE and PE_PGRS Genes: Evidence for a Prominent Role attribute to PE and PE_PGRS genes critical roles in mycobacterial pathogenicity. To get more insight

Boyer, Edmond

71

Tuberculosis Diagnosis and Multidrug Resistance Testing by Direct Sputum Culture in Selective Broth without Decontamination or Centrifugation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis culture usually requires sputum decontamination and centrifugation to prevent cultures from being overgrown by contaminating bacteria and fungi. However, decontamination destroys many tuberculous bacilli, and centrifugation often is not possible in resource-poor settings. We therefore assessed the perfor- mance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture with unprocessed samples plated directly by using tuberculosis- selective media and compared this procedure to conventional

Louis Grandjean; Laura Martin; Robert H. Gilman; Teresa Valencia; Beatriz Herrera; Willi Quino; Eric Ramos; Maribel Rivero; Rosario Montoya; A. Roderick Escombe; David Coleman; Denis Mitchison; Carlton A. Evans

2008-01-01

72

Potassium availability triggers Mycobacterium tuberculosis transition to, and resuscitation from, non-culturable (dormant) states  

PubMed Central

Dormancy in non-sporulating bacteria is an interesting and underexplored phenomenon with significant medical implications. In particular, latent tuberculosis may result from the maintenance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli in non-replicating states in infected individuals. Uniquely, growth of M. tuberculosis in aerobic conditions in potassium-deficient media resulted in the generation of bacilli that were non-culturable (NC) on solid media but detectable in liquid media. These bacilli were morphologically distinct and tolerant to cell-wall-targeting antimicrobials. Bacterial counts on solid media quickly recovered after washing and incubating bacilli in fresh resuscitation media containing potassium. This resuscitation of growth occurred too quickly to be attributed to M. tuberculosis replication. Transcriptomic and proteomic profiling through adaptation to, and resuscitation from, this NC state revealed a switch to anaerobic respiration and a shift to lipid and amino acid metabolism. High concordance with mRNA signatures derived from M. tuberculosis infection models suggests that analogous NC mycobacterial phenotypes may exist during disease and may represent unrecognized populations in vivo. Resuscitation of NC bacilli in potassium-sufficient media was characterized by time-dependent activation of metabolic pathways in a programmed series of processes that probably transit bacilli through challenging microenvironments during infection. PMID:25320096

Salina, Elena G.; Waddell, Simon J.; Hoffmann, Nadine; Rosenkrands, Ida; Butcher, Philip D.; Kaprelyants, Arseny S.

2014-01-01

73

Potassium availability triggers Mycobacterium tuberculosis transition to, and resuscitation from, non-culturable (dormant) states.  

PubMed

Dormancy in non-sporulating bacteria is an interesting and underexplored phenomenon with significant medical implications. In particular, latent tuberculosis may result from the maintenance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli in non-replicating states in infected individuals. Uniquely, growth of M. tuberculosis in aerobic conditions in potassium-deficient media resulted in the generation of bacilli that were non-culturable (NC) on solid media but detectable in liquid media. These bacilli were morphologically distinct and tolerant to cell-wall-targeting antimicrobials. Bacterial counts on solid media quickly recovered after washing and incubating bacilli in fresh resuscitation media containing potassium. This resuscitation of growth occurred too quickly to be attributed to M. tuberculosis replication. Transcriptomic and proteomic profiling through adaptation to, and resuscitation from, this NC state revealed a switch to anaerobic respiration and a shift to lipid and amino acid metabolism. High concordance with mRNA signatures derived from M. tuberculosis infection models suggests that analogous NC mycobacterial phenotypes may exist during disease and may represent unrecognized populations in vivo. Resuscitation of NC bacilli in potassium-sufficient media was characterized by time-dependent activation of metabolic pathways in a programmed series of processes that probably transit bacilli through challenging microenvironments during infection. PMID:25320096

Salina, Elena G; Waddell, Simon J; Hoffmann, Nadine; Rosenkrands, Ida; Butcher, Philip D; Kaprelyants, Arseny S

2014-10-01

74

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues as sites for uptake, carriage and excretion of tubercle bacilli and other pathogenic mycobacteria.  

PubMed

Pathogenic mycobacteria, including those that cause tuberculosis and paratuberculosis, cross mucosal barriers by endocytosis within mucosal lymphoepithelial sites. These entry sites commonly include oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal tonsils and Peyer's patches. Bacilli discharged at the basolateral surfaces of engulfing epithelial M cells are taken up by professional antigen-presenting cells associated with T lymphocytes of the parafollicular area. Dendritic cells and macrophages in these sites allow mycobacterial replication, due to the permissive immunological environment in lymphoepithelial tissues. Abrogation of local delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions generally ensures continuing integrity and function of these tissues. Phagocytes containing intracellular mycobacteria disseminate infection to other parts of the body and also probably migrate back onto the mucosal surface to shed bacilli. PMID:10457205

Lugton, I

1999-08-01

75

[News of antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacilli in Algeria].  

PubMed

Antibiotic resistance has become a major public health problem in Algeria. Indeed the past decade, we have seen a significant increase in resistance to antibiotics especially in Gram-negative bacilli. Resistance to ?-lactams in enterobacteria is dominated by the production of ESBL CTX-M-3 and CTX-M-15. The strains producing these enzymes are often the cause of potentially serious infections in both hospital and community settings. Identified plasmid cephalosporinases are CMY-2, CMY-12 and DHA-1. The isolation of strains of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa producing carbapenemases is rare in Algeria. Some Enterobacteriaceae producing OXA-48 or VIM-19 have been reported; so far, only VIM-2 has been identified in P. aeruginosa. However, the situation regarding the strains of Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to carbapenemases seems to be more disturbing. The carbapenemase OXA-23 is the most common and seems to be endemic in the north. The carbapenemase NDM-1 has also been identified. Resistance to aminoglycosides is marked by the identification armA gene associated with blaCTX-M genes in strains of Salmonella sp. Several other resistance genes have been identified sporadically in strains of Enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. Resistance genes to fluoroquinolones are more recent identification in Algeria. The most common are the Qnr determinants followed by the bifunctional enzyme AAC[6']-Ib-cr. Resistance to sulfonamides and trimethoprim was also reported in Enterobacteriaceae strains in the west of the country. PMID:24819127

Baba Ahmed-Kazi Tani, Z; Arlet, G

2014-06-01

76

Epidermotropism of lepra bacilli in a patient with histoid Hansen's disease  

PubMed Central

Histoid leprosy is a rare form of multibacillary leprosy with distinct clinical and histopathological features. It is a variant of lepromatous leprosy with a very high bacillary load. It appears in patients as relapse after dapsone monotherapy and resistance or rarely, “de novo.” Although leprosy is slowly declining the exact mode of transmission is unclear. At least until recently, the most widely held belief was that the disease was transmitted by contact between cases of leprosy and healthy persons. Transmission by the respiratory route is also gaining ground. There are other possibilities such as transmission through insects, which cannot be completely ruled out. However, the present case report possibly suggests the role of skin as a portal of both exit and entry for the bacillus in histoid leprosy transmission. De novo form of histoid leprosy has numerous solid staining bacteria inside the epidermis. The reports show that these bacilli can be eliminated from the intact epidermis, which indicate an unusual role of the skin in the transmission of leprosy.

Vora, Rita V.; Pilani, Abhishek

2014-01-01

77

Nasal immunization with a dual antigen anthrax vaccine induced strong mucosal and systemic immune responses against toxins and bacilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthrax-vaccine-adsorbed (AVA), the only anthrax vaccine licensed in the U.S., suffers from many major drawbacks. Therefore, there is a need to develop new generation anthrax vaccines that can be easily administered and induce strong immune responses not only against the anthrax toxins, but also against the toxin-producing vegetative anthrax bacilli. In the present study, we evaluated the feasibility of inducing

Brian R. Sloat; Zhengrong Cui

2006-01-01

78

Genomic determinants of sporulation in Bacilli and Clostridia: towards the minimal set of sporulation-specific genes  

PubMed Central

Three classes of low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (Firmicutes), Bacilli, Clostridia and Negativicutes, include numerous members that are capable of producing heat-resistant endospores. Spore-forming firmicutes include many environmentally important organisms, such as insect pathogens and cellulose-degrading industrial strains, as well as human pathogens responsible for such diseases as anthrax, botulism, gas gangrene and tetanus. In the best-studied model organism Bacillus subtilis, sporulation involves over 500 genes, many of which are conserved among other bacilli and clostridia. This work aimed to define the genomic requirements for sporulation through an analysis of the presence of sporulation genes in various firmicutes, including those with smaller genomes than B. subtilis. Cultivable spore-formers were found to have genomes larger than 2300 kb and encompass over 2150 protein-coding genes of which 60 are orthologues of genes that are apparently essential for sporulation in B. subtilis. Clostridial spore-formers lack, among others, spoIIB, sda, spoVID and safA genes and have non-orthologous displacements of spoIIQ and spoIVFA, suggesting substantial differences between bacilli and clostridia in the engulfment and spore coat formation steps. Many B. subtilis sporulation genes, particularly those encoding small acid-soluble spore proteins and spore coat proteins, were found only in the family Bacillaceae, or even in a subset of Bacillus spp. Phylogenetic profiles of sporulation genes, compiled in this work, confirm the presence of a common sporulation gene core, but also illuminate the diversity of the sporulation processes within various lineages. These profiles should help further experimental studies of uncharacterized widespread sporulation genes, which would ultimately allow delineation of the minimal set(s) of sporulation-specific genes in Bacilli and Clostridia. PMID:22882546

Galperin, Michael Y; Mekhedov, Sergei L; Puigbo, Pere; Smirnov, Sergey; Wolf, Yuri I; Rigden, Daniel J

2012-01-01

79

Colonization of resistant faecal aerobic gram-negative bacilli among geriatric patients in hospital and the community.  

PubMed

Among the elderly most infections are caused by organisms of faecal origin. The study of the resistance of such Gram-negative bacilli should therefore be a priority. In this study, we determine the occurrence of resistance to five antimicrobials commonly used in geriatric outpatient care, and compare it with long-term and short-term hospitalized geriatric patients treated and not treated with antimicrobials. PMID:8647760

Leistevuo, T; Osterblad, M; Toivonen, P; Kahra, A; Lehtonen, A; Huovinen, P

1996-01-01

80

Comparative in vitro activity of cefdinir (CI983; FK-482) against staphylococci, gram-negative bacilli and respiratory tract pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro activity of cefdinir (CI-983; FK-482), a new oral cephalosporin, was compared with that of other antimicrobial agents against clinical isolates of staphylocci, gram-negative bacilli and common respiratory tract pathogens. Cefdinir (MIC90 ? 2.0 µg\\/ml) was more active than cefixime (MIC90 >64 µg\\/ml) and equally as active as cefuroxime (MIC90 2.0 µg\\/ml) against oxacillin-susceptible staphylococci. Cefdinir was active

S. R. Scriver; B. M. Willey; D. E. Low; A. E. Simor

1992-01-01

81

Molecular modeling and in silico characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis TlyA: Possible misannotation of this tubercle bacilli-hemolysin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The TlyA protein has a controversial function as a virulence factor in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). At present, its dual activity as hemolysin and RNA methyltransferase in M. tuberculosis has been indirectly proposed based on in vitro results. There is no evidence however for TlyA relevance in the survival of tubercle bacilli inside host cells or whether\\u000a both activities are

Nelson E Arenas; Luz M Salazar; Carlos Y Soto; Carolina Vizcaíno; Manuel E Patarroyo; Manuel A Patarroyo; Arley Gómez

2011-01-01

82

Minimal antibiotic concentrations of aminoglycosides and beta-lactam antibiotics for some gram-negative bacilli and gram-positive cocci.  

PubMed

The minimal antibiotic concentration (MAC) is the lowest concentration of an antibacterial agent that produces a decrease of 1 log in the number of organisms/ml as compared with a control culture in drug-free medium. Various gram-negative bacilli and gram-positive cocci were grown in the presence of amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, oxacillin, carbenicillin, ticarcillin, and cefamandole at concentrations varying from eight times the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) to 1/128 of the MIC. Colony forming units (cfu) were counted, the MIC was determined, and the MIC:MAC ratio, which indicates the magnitude of the effective range, was calculated. The MIC:MAC ratio appears to be characteristic for a given species and antibiotic. There is no relation between the MICs and the MIC:MAC ratios. The highest ratios were given by Proteus mirabilis with aminoglycosides (MIC:MAC mean, 29.2 with tobramycin), and the lowest ratios were given with beta-lactam antibiotics by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus faecalis (MIC:MAC means, 2.1 with carbenicillin and cefamandole, respectively). PMID:108345

Lorian, V; De Freitas, C C

1979-05-01

83

Changing trend of antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative bacilli isolated from lower respiratory tract of ICU patients: A 5-year study  

PubMed Central

Background: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are the most frequent infections among patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Aim: To track the resistance rate among the causative agents causing LRTI in the ICU patients. Design and Settings: This is a retrospective study done in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Transtracheal or bronchial aspirates from 2776 patients admitted to the ICU were cultured and identified, and antibiotic sensitivity was performed by standard methods. Results: Of 2776 specimens, 1233 (44.41%) isolates were recovered, of which 1123 (91.07%) were gram-negative bacilli (GNB) and 110 (8.92%) were gram-positive organisms. From 2004 to 2009, Pseudomonas aeruginosa remained the most common pathogen. In phase I, high level of resistance (79–98%) was observed against all GNB. During phase II increasing trend in resistance to cephalosporins and declining trend in resistance to aminoglycosides against most GNB were observed. Multidrug resistance (resistance to three or more than three drugs) was observed in 83% of total isolates. Conclusions: Gram-negative organisms are the predominant pathogens causing LRTI in ICU. The increasing trend of resistance to cephalosporins and carbapenems in gram-negative organisms is very disturbing. Judicious use of antimicrobial agents is essential to prevent the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in the ICU. PMID:22013308

Gagneja, Deep; Goel, Nidhi; Aggarwal, Ritu; Chaudhary, Uma

2011-01-01

84

Comparative Evaluation of the in-vitro Activity of Six ?-lactam/?-lactamase Inhibitor Combinations against Gram Negative Bacilli  

PubMed Central

Background: The extensive use of the ?-lactam antibiotics in hospitals and in the community has created major resistance problems which has led to increased morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. The use of the ?-lactamase inhibitors in combination with the ?-lactam antibiotics is currently the most successful strategy used for circumventing the resistance mechanisms. Objective: To evaluate the in-vitro activity of six commercially available ?-lactam/?-lactamase inhibitor combinations against Gram Negative Bacilli (GNB). Materials and Methods: A total of 384 non duplicate, consecutive, gram negative bacilli (278 Enterobacteriaceae and 106 non fermenters) isolated from various clinical samples were subjected to antimicrobial sensitivity testing by the Kirby-Bauer method. The following ?-lactam/?-lactamase inhibitor combinations were tested: amoxycillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin-sulbactam, cefoperazonesulbactam, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime-tazobactam and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid. Results: Against the Enterobacteriacae, the sensitivity of Cefepime- tazobactam was 90. 64%, followed by Cefoperazone-sulbactam (84.89%) and Piperacillin - tazobactam (53.95 %). The sensitivity of the non fermenters was the highest for Cefepime- tazobactam (49.04%) and was least for Ampicillin-sulbactam and Amoxycillinclavulanic acid (4.71% each). Cefepime-tazobactam was sensitive for all the extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) isolates. Conclusion: Among the six ?-lactam/?-lactamase inhibitor combinations tested, Cefepime-tazobactam exhibited the best in-vitro activity against the gram negative bacilli isolated at our centre. PMID:23543071

Sood, Smita

2013-01-01

85

Towards a phenotypic screening strategy for emerging ?-lactamases in Gram-negative bacilli.  

PubMed

The purpose of this manuscript was to review recent literature and guidelines regarding phenotypic detection of emerging ?-lactamases [extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC ?-lactamases and carbapenemases] in Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) in order to formulate recommendations on best practice to screen for them. We conclude that chromogenic ESBL screening agar plates are suitable to screen for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae directly from clinical samples. Furthermore, ceftazidime (CAZ) and ceftriaxone or cefotaxime (CTX) are the indicator antimicrobial agents of choice for ESBL detection in GNB. In non-inducible Enterobacteriaceae, the combined double-disk synergy test (CDDST) with at least CTX and CAZ and additionally cefepime as indicators is the preferred ESBL confirmation assay. The two most suitable ESBL confirmation strategies in AmpC co-producing Enterobacteriaceae are adapted CDDSTs: (i) with addition of 3-aminophenylboronic acid to CTX and CAZ disks; and (ii) with addition of cloxacillin (CLOX) to Mueller-Hinton agar. Reduced cefoxitin susceptibility and decreased susceptibility to cefotetan are regarded as suitable screening tests for plasmid-mediated and derepressed AmpC production. A CLOX-based CDDST with CTX and CAZ as indicators is considered to be the best AmpC confirmation assay. Finally, in Enterobacteriaceae isolates we suggest to screen for carbapenemases with a 0.5 ?g/mL meropenem screening breakpoint. For class A carbapenemase confirmation, the home-prepared as well as the commercially available boronic acid-based CDDST can be considered. For metallo-?-lactamase confirmation, ethylene diamine tetra-acetic-acid-based home-prepared assays are recommended. The most suitable method (CDDST or DDST) and indicator antimicrobial agent(s) vary depending on the bacterial genus. PMID:23280443

Willems, Elise; Verhaegen, Jan; Magerman, Koen; Nys, Sita; Cartuyvels, Reinoud

2013-02-01

86

[Comparison of the performances of MTD Gene-Probe® test, BACTEC 960™ system and Löwenstein-Jensen culture methods in the diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis cases].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the results of nucleic acid amplification-based MTD (Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct test) Gene-Probe® method in samples obtained from acid-fast bacilli (ARB) smear-negative patients with suspected tuberculosis (TB), with the culture results obtained from automated BACTEC 960™ (MGIT) system and Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium. In addition, the contribution of molecular methods in early diagnosis of pulmonary TB and the effect of radiological prevalence of the disease associated with or without cavity to the molecular diagnosis and/or growth time in culture media have been evaluated. A total of 107 patients (86 male, 21 female; mean age: 49.89 ± 17.1 years, age range: 18-81 years) who were clinically and radiologically suspected of having pulmonary TB and/or TB pleurisy, were included in the study. Of the samples 65 (60.7%) were sputum, 32 (29.9%) were bronchial aspiration, 5 (4.7%) were pleural fluid, and 5 (4.7%) were transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy materials. Patient samples were cultured in solid LJ media and liquid-based BACTEC 960 system (Becton Dickinson Co., USA) in the same working day. Meanwhile, MTD Gen-Probe test (Gen-Probe Inc., USA) was studied in two separate working days of the week as specified by the laboratory. The samples were incubated until positivity was determined in BACTEC 960 system and/or growth was detected in LJ medium. Negative cultures were incubated for 42 days and were finalized. When mycobacterial growth was determined in the culture, identification of M.tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and differentiation from nontuberculous mycobacteria were performed by conventional methods and BACTEC 460 NAP test. Forty five (42%) patients were diagnosed as pulmonary paranchimal TB (40 were active pulmonary TB, 1 was miliary TB and 4 were culture-negative pulmonary TB), while 4 (3.7%) patients diagnosed as extrapulmonary TB and 58 (57.9%) patients were diagnosed as other pulmonary diseases unrelated with TB. LJ cultures yielded positive results in 32 of 45 (71%) pulmonary TB patients, and BACTEC 960 were found positive in 84.4% (38/45) of those patients. On the other hand the positivity rate of MTD Gen-Probe test was detected as 37.4% (40/107). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for MTD Gen-Probe test were estimated as 89%, 100%, 100% and 93%, respectively. Those values for BACTEC 960 system were found as 82%, 98%, 97% and 88%, and for LJ culture method as 71%, 100%, 100% and 83%, respectively. Average periods to make a decision for diagnosis of TB by MTD Gen-Probe, BACTEC 960 (MGIT) and LJ culture methods were calculated as 2.36 days, 20.11 days and 32.49 days, respectively. In comparison of the methods in terms of turnaround times, MTD Gen-Probe test was found superior to LJ culture method, however the turnaround times for BACTEC 960 and LJ culture methods were similar. When the clinical data were evaluated, no effect of radiological density of lesion was identified on the diagnosis time of molecular test and time of growth in liquid based automated BACTEC system and/or LJ culture method. However, LJ culture demonstrated earlier reactivity in patients with cavitary lesions. As a result, MTD Gene-Probe test was observed as a reliable and rapid method for the early diagnosis of pulmonary TB patients, early initiation of therapy, prevention of disease progression and transmission. PMID:23971920

Kundurac?o?lu, Ayperen; Karasu, I??l; Biçmen, Can; Ozsöz, Ay?e; Erbaycu, Ahmet Emin

2013-07-01

87

Genotypic Identification of AmpC ?-Lactamases Production in Gram-Negative Bacilli Isolates  

PubMed Central

Background: AmpC type ?-lactamases are commonly isolated from extended-spectrum Cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Also, resistance appeared in bacterial species not naturally producing AmpC enzymes. Therefore, a standard test for the detection of the plasmid-mediated AmpC enzyme and new breakpoints for extended spectrum Cephalosporins are urgently necessary. Objectives: To detect plasmid and chromosomal mediated AmpC-?-lactamases in Gram negative bacteria in community and hospital acquired infections. Materials and Methods: 1073 Gram negative clinical isolates were identified by the conventional methods and were screened for AmpC production using Cefoxitin discs. Confirmatory phenotypic identifications were done for the Cefoxitin-resistant isolates using Boronic Acid for combined and double disc synergy tests, Cloxacillin based double disc synergy test, and induction tests. The genotypic identification of plasmid-mediated AmpC was done using multiplex PCR. ESBL production was also screened by discs of Ceftazidime and Cefotaxime with and without Clavulanic Acid (10 ?g). Results: The AmpC-producing isolates among all identified Gram negative bacilli were 5.8% (62/1073) as detected by screening disc diffusion methods, where 72% were positive for AmpC by combined disc method (Cefotetan and Boronic Acid), 56.5% were positive by each of Boronic Acid and Cloxacillin double disc synergy tests, 35.5% were positive by the induction test, and 25.8% were plasmid-mediated AmpC ?-lactamase producers by the multiplex PCR. Plasmid-mediated AmpC genes retrieved, belonged to the families (MOX, FOX, EBC and CIT). ESBL producers were found in 26 (41.9%) isolates, 15 (57%) of which also produced AmpC. Isolates caused hospital acquired infections were (53/62); of which (39/62) were AmpC producers. While only (8/62) of the isolates caused community-acquired infections, were AmpC producers, and (1.6%) (1/62) were non AmpC producer. Conclusions: The AmpC ?-lactamases detection tests had to be included in the routine microbiology workup of Gram negative bacteria, namely Cefoxitin as a screening test, combined Boronic Acid disc test with Cefotetan, followed by synergy tests and finally by the induction test for phenotypic identifications. Multiplex PCR can successfully detect the plasmid AmpC genes. PMID:25147649

Wassef, Mona; Behiry, Iman; Younan, Mariam; El Guindy, Nancy; Mostafa, Sally; Abada, Emad

2014-01-01

88

Comparative evaluation of Vitek 2 identification and susceptibility testing of Gram-negative rods directly and isolated from BacT\\/ALERT-positive blood culture bottles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of Vitek 2 was evaluated for the identification and susceptibility testing of Gram-negative bacilli directly\\u000a from positive blood cultures bottles. Direct inoculation of the positive blood cultures with the Vitek cards ID-GN and AST-NO58\\u000a was compared with the standard inoculation method based on the sub-culture of the positive blood culture to agar. A total\\u000a of 142 blood cultures

M. J. Munoz-Dávila; G. Yagüe; M. Albert; T. García-Lucas

89

Influence of Cations on Growth of Thermophilic Geobacillus spp. and Anoxybacillus flavithermus in Planktonic Culture  

PubMed Central

Free ions of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ influenced the optical density of planktonic cultures of thermophilic bacilli. Anoxybacillus flavithermus E16 and Geobacillus sp. strain F75 (milk powder manufacturing plant isolates) and A. flavithermus DSM 2641 and G. thermoleovorans DSM 5366 were studied. Ca2+ and Mg2+ were associated with increases in optical density more so than Na+ and K+. Overall, it appeared that Ca2+ and/or Mg2+ was required for the production of protein in thermophilic bacilli, as shown by results obtained with A. flavithermus E16, which was selected for further study. PMID:22287005

Palmer, Jon; Brooks, John; Smolinski, Edward; Lindsay, Denise; Flint, Steve

2012-01-01

90

Influence of cations on growth of thermophilic Geobacillus spp. and Anoxybacillus flavithermus in planktonic culture.  

PubMed

Free ions of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) influenced the optical density of planktonic cultures of thermophilic bacilli. Anoxybacillus flavithermus E16 and Geobacillus sp. strain F75 (milk powder manufacturing plant isolates) and A. flavithermus DSM 2641 and G. thermoleovorans DSM 5366 were studied. Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were associated with increases in optical density more so than Na(+) and K(+). Overall, it appeared that Ca(2+) and/or Mg(2+) was required for the production of protein in thermophilic bacilli, as shown by results obtained with A. flavithermus E16, which was selected for further study. PMID:22287005

Somerton, Ben; Palmer, Jon; Brooks, John; Smolinski, Edward; Lindsay, Denise; Flint, Steve

2012-04-01

91

Detect-to-treat: development of analysis of bacilli spores in nasal mucus by surfaced-enhanced Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the war on terrorism in Afghanistan and Iraq continue, future attacks both abroad and in the U.S.A. are expected. In an effort to aid civilian and military personnel, we have been investigating the potential of using a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sampling device to detect Bacillus anthracis spores in nasal swab samples. Such a device would be extremely beneficial to medical responders and management in assessing the extent of a bioterrorist attack and making detect-to-treat decisions. The disposable sample device consists of a glass capillary filled with a silver-doped sol-gel that is capable of extracting dipicolinic acid (DPA), a chemical signature of Bacilli, and generating SERS spectra. The sampling device and preliminary measurements of DPA extracted from spores and nasal mucus will be presented.

Inscore, Frank E.; Gift, Alan D.; Farquharson, Stuart

2004-12-01

92

French regional surveillance program of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli: results from a 2-year period.  

PubMed

In February 2011, the CARB-LR group was created as a sentinel laboratory-based surveillance network to control the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (CR GNB) in a French Southern Region. We report the epidemiological results of a 2-year study. All the Gram-negative bacilli isolates detected in the different labs (hospital and community settings) of a French Southern Region and with reduced susceptibility to ertapenem and/or imipenem were characterised with regard to antibiotic resistance, bla genes content, repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) profiles and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 221 strains were analysed. Acinetobacter baumannii was the most prevalent carbapenemase-producing bacteria, with a majority of OXA-23 producers (n?=?37). One isolate co-produced OXA-23 and OXA-58 enzymes. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most frequent carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) (OXA-48 producer: n?=?29, KPC producer: n?=?1), followed by Escherichia coli (OXA-48 producer: n?=?8, KPC producer: n?=?1) and Enterobacter cloacae (OXA-48 producer, n?=?1). One isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced a VIM-1 carbapenemase. A clonal diversity of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae and E. coli was noted with different MLSTs. On the other hand, almost all OXA-23-producing A. baumannii strains belonged to the widespread ST2/international clone II. The link between the detection of CR GNB and a foreign country was less obvious, suggesting the beginning of a local cross-transmission. The number of CR GNB cases in our French Southern Region has sharply increased very recently due to the diffusion of OXA-48 producers. PMID:25037867

Pantel, A; Boutet-Dubois, A; Jean-Pierre, H; Marchandin, H; Sotto, A; Lavigne, J-P

2014-12-01

93

Chronic Mycobacterium infection of first dorsal web space after accidental Bacilli Calmette-Guérin injection in a health worker: case report.  

PubMed

We present a case of inoculation of the first dorsal web space by a nurse practitioner who accidentally stuck herself while preparing Bacilli Calmette-Guérin vaccine for treatment of bladder tumor. We report the evolution and management of this resistant chronic Mycobacterium infection that ultimately required use of a vacuum wound management system followed by a microvascular free tissue transfer. PMID:18984347

Vigler, Mordechai; Mulett, Hanan; Hausman, Michael R

2008-11-01

94

Comparison of a Novel, Rapid Chromogenic Biochemical Assay, the Carba NP Test, with the Modified Hodge Test for Detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacilli  

PubMed Central

We compared carbapenemase detection among 271 Gram-negative bacilli (of which 131 were carbapenemase producers) using a novel chromogenic rapid test—the Carba NP test (CNP)—and the modified Hodge test (MHT). Sensitivities were comparable (CNP, 100%, versus MHT, 98%; P = 0.08), but CNP was more specific (100% versus 80%; P < 0.0001) and faster. PMID:23824767

Vasoo, Shawn; Cunningham, Scott A.; Kohner, Peggy C.; Simner, Patricia J.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Lolans, Karen; Hayden, Mary K.

2013-01-01

95

Comparison of a novel, rapid chromogenic biochemical assay, the Carba NP test, with the modified Hodge test for detection of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli.  

PubMed

We compared carbapenemase detection among 271 Gram-negative bacilli (of which 131 were carbapenemase producers) using a novel chromogenic rapid test--the Carba NP test (CNP)--and the modified Hodge test (MHT). Sensitivities were comparable (CNP, 100%, versus MHT, 98%; P = 0.08), but CNP was more specific (100% versus 80%; P < 0.0001) and faster. PMID:23824767

Vasoo, Shawn; Cunningham, Scott A; Kohner, Peggy C; Simner, Patricia J; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Lolans, Karen; Hayden, Mary K; Patel, Robin

2013-09-01

96

Radiometric macrophage culture assay for rapid evaluation of antileprosy activity of rifampin  

SciTech Connect

The antileprosy effect of rifampin was evaluated by a newly developed rapid in vitro assay wherein 31 human-derived strains and 1 armadillo-derived strain of Mycobacterium leprae were maintained for 2 and 3 weeks, respectively, in murine and human macrophages in the presence of (3H)thymidine. Of these strains, 27 showed significant incorporation of the radiolabel in cultures of live bacilli as compared with control cultures of heat-killed bacilli of the same strain. Consistent and significant inhibition of (3H)thymidine uptake was observed in M. leprae resident cultures with 3 to 200 ng of rifampin per ml as compared with similar cultures without the drug. In general, an increase in percent inhibition was seen from 3 to 20 ng/ml, with marginal increases at 40, 50, and 100 ng/ml. M. leprae strains appear to be remarkably susceptible to this drug in the in vitro assay.

Mittal, A.; Seshadri, P.S.; Prasad, H.K.; Sathish, M.; Nath, I.

1983-10-01

97

Comparison of the autoSCAN-W/A rapid bacterial identification system and the Vitek AutoMicrobic system for identification of gram-negative bacilli.  

PubMed Central

The autoSCAN-W/A (W/A; Baxter MicroScan, West Sacramento, Calif.) with the new fluorometric Rapid Neg Combo 1 (RNC) panel is a fully automated fluorometric system for identification of both enteric and nonenteric gram-negative bacilli within 2 h. We compared the W/A with the Vitek AutoMicrobic System (Vitek AMS; Vitek Systems, Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.) for identification of 383 clinical isolates of gram-negative bacilli. The API 20E (Analytab Products, Plainview, N.Y.) and conventional biochemical testing were used as the reference systems. The W/A correctly identified 336 isolates (87.7%) to the species level and classified an additional 29 isolates (7.6%) as correct with low probability (overall identification = 95.3%); the Vitek AMS correctly identified 355 isolates (92.7%) to the species level and classified an additional 8 isolates (2.1%) as correct with low probability (overall identification = 94.8%). A common set of 134 isolates of gram-negative bacilli was tested in both participating laboratories as a means of assessing interlaboratory agreement with both the W/A and the Vitek AMS. The overall agreements between the two laboratories were 86% with the W/A and 92% with the Vitek AMS. The W/A performed comparably to the Vitek AMS for identification of most gram-negative bacilli, actually exceeding the Vitek AMS for identification of nonenteric bacilli. Rapid time to identification and a high level of automation make the W/A an attractive system for clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:1885737

Pfaller, M A; Sahm, D; O'Hara, C; Ciaglia, C; Yu, M; Yamane, N; Scharnweber, G; Rhoden, D

1991-01-01

98

Evaluation of different modifications of acid-fast staining techniques and stool enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in detecting fecal Cryptosporidium in diarrheic HIV seropositive and seronegative patients  

PubMed Central

Rational: The role of Cryptosporidium as an agent of human diarrhea has been redefined over the past decade following recognition of the strong association between cases of cryptosporidiosis and immune deficient individuals (such as those with AIDS). Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of enteric parasites and to compare the diagnostic utility of stool enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with various modifications of acid-fast (AF) staining in detection of Cryptosporidium in stool samples of diarrheic patients. Materials and Methods: Stool samples from 186 cases comprising of 93 HIV seropositive and 93 seronegative patients were included. These were subjected to routine and microscopic examination as well as various modifications of AF staining for detection of coccidian parasites and ELISA for the detection of Cryptosporidium. Results: The prevalence of enteric parasites was 54.8% and of Cryptosporidium was 17.2% in HIV seropositive patients while it was 29.0% and 5.4%, respectively in seronegative patients. Of the 186 cases, 33 cases (17.7%) were positive for Cryptosporidium by stool ELISA as compared to 21 (11.3%) by modified AF staining (gold standard) showing sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 92.7%, respectively. The maximum cases of Cryptosporidium (21; 11.3%) were detected by AF staining using 3% acid alcohol. Conclusion: ELISA is a simple, useful, and rapid tool for detection of Cryptosporidium in stool, especially for large scale population studies. However, the role of modified AF staining in detection of Cryptosporidium and other coccidian parasites is important. Based on the results of various modifications of AF staining, the present study recommends the use of 3% acid alcohol along with 10% H2SO4.

Parghi, Ekta; Dash, Lona; Shastri, Jayanthi

2014-01-01

99

Growth of Clostridium perfringens in Food Proteins Previously Exposed to Proteolytic Bacilli1  

PubMed Central

Proteolytic sporeforming bacteria capable of surviving processing heat treatments in synthetic or fabricated protein foods exhibited no antagonistic effects on growth of Clostridium perfringens, but instead shortened the lag of subsequent growth of C. perfringens in sodium caseinate and isolated soy protein. Bacillus subtilis A cells were cultured in 3% sodium caseinate or isolated soy protein solutions. The subsequent effect on the lag time and growth of C. perfringens type A (strain S40) at 45 C was measured by colony count or absorbance at 650 nm, or both. B. subtilis incubation for 12 h or more in sodium caseinate reduced the C. perfringens lag by 3 h. Incubation of 8 h or more in isolated soy protein reduced the lag time by 1.5 h. Molecular sieving of the B. subtilis-treated sodium caseinate revealed that all molecular sizes yielded a similar reduced lag time. Diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex ion exchange fractionation and subsequent amino acid analysis indicated that the lag time reduction caused by B. subtilis incubation was not related to charge of the peptides nor to their amino acid composition. Apparently the shortened C. perfringens lag in these B. subtilis-hydrolyzed food proteins was a result of the protein being more readily available for utilization by C. perfringens. PMID:4357650

Schroder, D. J.; Busta, F. F.

1973-01-01

100

Interferon-gamma-treated murine macrophages inhibit growth of tubercle bacilli via the generation of reactive nitrogen intermediates  

SciTech Connect

Murine peritoneal macrophages were isolated and their ability to restrict growth of a virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis in response to IFN-gamma was assessed in various conditions. Doses of IFN-gamma ranging from 10 to 100 U stimulated high levels of antimycobacterial activity, as seen by inhibition of growth. Addition of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and other scavengers of reactive oxygen species before infection failed to abrogate this restriction of growth, suggestive of a lack of involvement of reactive oxygen species in this phenomenon. Addition of arginase before infection inhibited the bacteriostatic ability of IFN-gamma-pulsed macrophages as did addition of NG-monomethyl L-arginine, an inhibitor of the synthesis of inorganic nitrogen oxide. In both cases, this inhibition was reversed by adding excess L-arginine in the medium. Moreover, nitrite production in macrophages was correlated with their ability to restrict tubercle bacilli growth. These results imply that nitric oxide or another inorganic nitrogen oxide is an important effector molecule in restricting growth of M. tuberculosis in IFN-gamma-pulsed murine macrophages.

Denis, M. (Unite de recherche, Centre de pneumologie, Hopital Laval, Sainte-Foy, Quebec (Canada))

1991-01-01

101

Accuracy and precision of the autobac system for rapid identification of Gram-negative bacilli: a collaborative evaluation.  

PubMed Central

Gram-negative bacilli were identified within 3 to 6 h by determining susceptibility to 18 different antibacterial agents in the Autobac I system and by applying a two-stage quadratic discriminant analysis to the susceptibility patterns. The Autobac system was compared with standard reference methods for identifying glucose nonfermenters and glucose fermenters. Intralaboratory and interlaboratory precision of the Autobac system was comparable to that of the reference methods. Sensitivity (accuracy) and specificity of the two systems were also comparable, although there were some differences with certain species. Autobac responses were considered to be equivocal (needing additional tests) if the relative probability of an accurate identification was less than 0.70. Only 5% of 2,889 strains produced such equivocal results; a similar number of strains gave low probability levels with the reference methods. When the two systems disagreed, an independent reference laboratory arbitrated, confirming 49% of the Autobac responses and 36% of the reference identifications. With equivocal responses excluded, the overall accuracy of the Autobac system was 95.3% compared with 95.9% for the reference method. The respective accuracy estimates would be 93.8% and 93.1% if all first-choice identifications were evaluated. PMID:7050149

Barry, A L; Gavan, T L; Smith, P B; Matsen, J M; Morello, J A; Sielaff, B H

1982-01-01

102

Characterization of Bacilli Isolated from the Confined Environments of the Antarctic Concordia Station and the International Space Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacillus and related genera comprise opportunist and pathogen species that can threaten the health of a crew in confined stations required for long-term missions. In this study, 43 Bacilli from confined environments, that is, the Antarctic Concordia station and the International Space Station, were characterized in terms of virulence and plasmid exchange potentials. No specific virulence feature, such as the production of toxins or unusual antibiotic resistance, was detected. Most of the strains exhibited small or large plasmids, or both, some of which were related to the replicons of the Bacillus anthracis pXO1 and pXO2 virulence elements. One conjugative element, the capacity to mobilize and retromobilize small plasmids, was detected in a Bacillus cereus sensu lato isolate. Six out of 25 tested strains acquired foreign DNA by conjugation. Extremophilic bacteria were identified and exhibited the ability to grow at high pH and salt concentrations or at low temperatures. Finally, the clonal dispersion of an opportunist isolate was demonstrated in the Concordia station. Taken together, these results suggest that the virulence potential of the Bacillus isolates in confined environments tends to be low but genetic transfers could contribute to its capacity to spread.

Timmery, Sophie; Hu, Xiaomin; Mahillon, Jacques

2011-05-01

103

The down-regulation of cathepsin G in THP-1 monocytes after infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is associated with increased intracellular survival of bacilli.  

PubMed

Cathepsin G (CatG) is a serine protease found in the azurophilic granules of monocytes that is known to have antimicrobial properties, but its role in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is unknown. We found that M. tuberculosis infection of human THP-1 monocytic cells induced the down-regulation of CatG mRNA expression, as demonstrated by gene array analysis and reverse transcription-PCR. This was associated with a concomitant decrease in CatG protein and enzymatic activity. In contrast, the expression of lysosomal cathepsins B and D was up-regulated in infected cells. This effect was also observed when THP-1 cells were induced to differentiate into adherent macrophages by exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In agreement with this, CatG expression was null in adherent macrophages isolated from bronchoalveolar lavages and normal blood. We wanted to determine if the down-regulation of CatG would be relevant to M. tuberculosis infection. First, we found that addition of CatG to THP-1 cells prior to infection resulted in decreased bacillary viability, presumably due to extracellular killing of bacilli. However, pretreatment of cells with LPS, which decreases intracellular CatG expression, resulted in increased bacillary viability. Second, we found that CatG cationic peptides killed M. tuberculosis bacilli and were five- to sevenfold more bactericidal than full-length CatG. These observations suggest that M. tuberculosis infection of human monocytic cells results in a "cathepsin switch" with down-regulation of CatG rendering M. tuberculosis bacilli more viable. Therefore, the down-regulation of CatG in macrophages is advantageous to M. tuberculosis bacilli and possibly is an important mechanism by which M. tuberculosis is able to evade the host immune defenses. PMID:15385470

Rivera-Marrero, Carlos A; Stewart, Julie; Shafer, William M; Roman, Jesse

2004-10-01

104

Identification ofMycobacterium aviumComplex in Sarcoidosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell wall-defective bacteria which later reverted to acid-fast bacilli have been isolated from sarcoid tissue. These have not been conclusively shown to be mycobacteria. Specific PCR assays were applied to identify mycobacterial nucleic acids in these cultured isolates and in fresh specimens obtained from patients with sarcoidosis.PositiveamplificationandhybridizationwereobservedwithMycobacteriumaviumcomplex-and\\/or Mycobacterium paratuberculosis-specific probes in five of the six cultured isolates and two fresh

FOUAD A. K. EL-ZAATARI; SALEH A. NASER; DIANE C. MARKESICH; DEBRA C. KALTER; LARS ENGSTAND; ANDDAVID Y. GRAHAM

105

Major Variation in MICs of Tigecycline in Gram-Negative Bacilli as a Function of Testing Method  

PubMed Central

Tigecycline is one of the few remaining therapeutic options for extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB). MICs of tigecycline to Acinetobacter baumannii have been reported to be elevated when determined by the Etest compared to determinations by the broth microdilution (BMD) method. The study aim was to compare the susceptibility of GNB to tigecycline by four different testing methods. GNB were collected from six health care systems (25 hospitals) in southeast Michigan from January 2010 to September 2011. Tigecycline MICs among A. baumannii, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, and susceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates were determined by Etest, BMD, Vitek-2, and MicroScan. Nonsusceptibility was categorized as a tigecycline MIC of ?4 ?g/ml for both A. baumannii and Enterobacteriaceae. The study included 4,427 isolates: 2,065 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, 1,105 A. baumannii, 888 susceptible Enterobacteriaceae, and 369 CRE isolates. Tigecycline nonsusceptibility among A. baumannii isolates was significantly more common as determined by Etest compared to that determined by BMD (odds ratio [OR], 10.3; P < 0.001), MicroScan (OR, 12.4; P < 0.001), or Vitek-2 (OR, 9.4; P < 0.001). These differences were not evident with the other pathogens. Tigecycline MICs varied greatly according to the in vitro testing methods among A. baumannii isolates. Etest should probably not be used by laboratories for tigecycline MIC testing of A. baumannii isolates, since MICs are significantly elevated with Etest compared to those determined by the three other methods. PMID:24599978

Pogue, Jason M.; Tzuman, Oran; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Lephart, Paul R.; Salimnia, Hossein; Painter, Theresa; Zervos, Marcus J.; Johnson, Laura E.; Perri, Mary Beth; Hartman, Pamela; Thyagarajan, Rama V.; Major, Sharon; Goodell, Melanie; Fakih, Mohamad G.; Washer, Laraine L.; Newton, Duane W.; Malani, Anurag N.; Wholehan, Jason M.; Mody, Lona; Kaye, Keith S.

2014-01-01

106

Rectal Carriage of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacilli in Community Settings in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Background Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteria (ESBL-PE) emerged at the end of the 1980s, causing nosocomial outbreaks and/or hyperendemic situations in hospitals and long-term care facilities. In recent years, community-acquired infections due to ESBL-PE have spread worldwide, especially across developing countries including Madagascar. Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal carriage of ESBL-PE in the community of Antananarivo. Methods Non-hospitalized patients were recruited in three health centers in different socio economic settings. Fresh stool collected were immediately plated on Drigalski agar containing 3 mg/liter of ceftriaxone. Gram-negative bacilli species were identified and ESBL production was tested by a double disk diffusion (cefotaxime and ceftazidime +/? clavulanate) assay. Characterization of ESBLs were perfomed by PCR and direct sequencing . Molecular epidemiology was analysed by Rep-PCR and ERIC-PCR. Results 484 patients were screened (sex ratio ?=?1.03, median age 28 years). 53 ESBL-PE were isolated from 49 patients (carrier rate 10.1%). The isolates included Escherichia coli (31), Klebsiella pneumoniae (14), Enterobacter cloacae (3), Citrobacter freundii (3), Kluyvera spp. (1) and Pantoae sp.(1). In multivariate analysis, only the socioeconomic status of the head of household was independently associated with ESBL-PE carriage, poverty being the predominant risk factor. Conclusions The prevalence of carriage of ESBL in the community of Antananarivo is one of the highest reported worldwide. This alarming spread of resistance genes should be stopped urgently by improving hygiene and streamlining the distribution and consumption of antibiotics. PMID:21829498

Ratovoson, Rila; Ratsima Hariniana, Elisoa; Buisson, Yves; Genel, Nathalie; Decre, Dominique; Arlet, Guillaume; Talarmin, Antoine; Richard, Vincent

2011-01-01

107

Phenotypic identification & molecular detection of blandm-1 gene in multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacilli in a tertiary care centre  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates have been increasingly identified worldwide. Though molecular data regarding New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) producers are available, data regarding their rate of infection in a hospital setting and percentage among different clinical isolates are scarce. Hence, this study was undertaken to determine the occurrence of blaNDM-1 gene among clinical isolates of multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDRGNB) in a tertiary care centre in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Methods: A total of 74 MDRGNB isolates were studied. These were screened for MBL production by phenotypic assays such as double disk synergy test (DDST) and Modified Hodge's test (MHT). PCR was performed for the molecular detection of the gene and antibiograms were confirmed by automated bacteriology system. Results: Of the 74 MDRGNB isolates, 34 were positive for blaNDM-1 gene. All isolates were resistant to aztreonam and two isolates were resistant to tigecycline. Complete resistance to the tested carbapenems was seen in 28 (82.35%) of the positive isolates whereas variable carbapenem resistance was seen in six (17.64%) of the positive clinical isolates. Of the total 34 PCR positive isolates, 33 (97.05%) NDM-1 producers were identified by DDST and 26 (76.47%) by MHT as producers of MBL. Interpretation & conclusions: A high percentage of plasmid encoded NDM was noted in MDRGNB. Phenotypic and molecular screening should be employed along with routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing to reflect the true number of metallo-beta-lactamase producers. PMID:24927351

Shenoy, K. Anjana; Jyothi, E.K.; Ravikumar, R.

2014-01-01

108

Colistin MIC variability by method for contemporary clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli.  

PubMed

In vitro evaluation of colistin susceptibility is fraught with complications, due in part to the inherent cationic properties of colistin. In addition, no reference method has been defined against which to compare the results of colistin susceptibility testing. This study systematically evaluated the available methods for colistin MIC testing in two phases. In phase I, colistin MICs were determined in 107 fresh clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) by broth microdilution with polysorbate 80 (BMD-T), broth macrodilution (TDS), and the Etest. In phase II, 50 of these isolates, 10 of which were colistin resistant, were tested in parallel using BMD-T, TDS, agar dilution, broth microdilution without polysorbate 80 (BMD), and the TREK Gram-negative extra MIC format (GNXF) Sensititre. The Etest was also performed on these 50 isolates using Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) from three different manufacturers. Colistin MIC results obtained from the five methods were compared to the MIC results obtained using BMD-T, the method that enables the highest nominal concentration of colistin in the test medium. Essential agreement ranged from 34% (BMD) to 83% (TDS), whereas categorical agreement was >90% for all methods except for BMD, which was 88%. Very major errors (VMEs) (i.e., false susceptibility) for the Etest were found in 47 to 53% of the resistant isolates, depending on the manufacturer of the MHA that was used. In contrast, VMEs were found for 10% (n = 1) of the resistant isolates by BMD and 0% of the isolates by the TDS, agar dilution, and Sensititre methods. Based on these data, we urge clinical laboratories to be aware of the variable results that can occur when using different methods for colistin MIC testing and, in particular, to use caution with the Etest. PMID:23486719

Hindler, Janet A; Humphries, Romney M

2013-06-01

109

Predicting results of mycobacterial culture on sputum smear reversion after anti-tuberculous treatment: a case control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Little is currently known regarding sputum smear reversion (acid-fast smear becomes positive again after negative conversion) during anti-tuberculous treatment. This study aimed to evaluate its occurrence in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and identify factors predicting results of mycobacterial culture for smear-reversion of sputum samples. METHODS: The retrospective review was performed in a tertiary referral center and a local

Chin-Chung Shu; Jann-Tay Wang; Chih-Hsin Lee; Jann-Yuan Wang; Li-Na Lee; Chong-Jen Yu

2010-01-01

110

Broth microdilution methods using B-lactamase inhibitors for the identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases and metallo-?-lactamases in Gram-negative bacilli.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate the performance of the broth microdilution (BMD) test in detecting the production of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) and metallo-?-lactamases (MBLs) in clinical isolates of gram-negative bacilli by using various ?-lactamase inhibitors. A carbapenemase detection test, comprised of Mueller-Hinton broth containing serial twofold dilutions of imipenem or meropenem with and without aminophenylboronic acid (APB), phenylboronic acid (PB), cloxacillin (CLX), dipicolinic acid (DPA), or EDTA, was evaluated against 31 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains with KPC, 21 MBL-producers (3 Enterobacteriaceae and 18 non-fermenters), and 26 carbapenemase-non-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains. A threefold or greater decrease in the MIC of imipenem or meropenem with ?-lactamase inhibitors, when compared with the imipenem or meropenem alone, was considered a positive result. Imipenem with and without PB had the most comparable sensitivity (93.5%) and specificity (93.6%) for the detection of K. pneumoniae with KPC enzymes if the additional criterion of a negative CLX result was included. Both DPA and EDTA had excellent sensitivity (imipenem with and without DPA vs. EDTA, 90.5% vs. 95.2%) and specificity (imipenem with and without DPA vs. EDTA, 98.2% vs. 100%) for the detection of MBL-producing gram-negative bacilli. The comparative study showed that, by using imipenem with and without PB, CLX, and EDTA, the BMD test was effective in detecting KPC and MBL enzymes. The BMD test could be applied for routine use in commercially available semiautomated systems for the detection of KPCs and MBLs in gram-negative bacilli. PMID:24695474

Jeong, Seok Hoon; Song, Wonkeun; Bae, Il Kwon; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Jae-Seok; Park, Min-Jeong; Shin, Dong Hoon

2014-01-01

111

A case of Poncet disease diagnosed with interferon-?-release assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. A 55-year-old, HLA-B27-positive Finnish woman presented with migratory, sterile polyarthritis.Investigations. Physical examination, chest radiography, serologic testing, microscopy, M. tuberculosis-specific interferon ? enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay, smear and culture of synovial fluid for acid-fast bacilli, and PCR.Diagnosis. The patient's assayed blood and synovial fluid lymphocytes were reactive, and the numbers of M. tuberculosis-specific T cells, as determined by ELISPOT, were

Tamara Tuuminen; Heikki Repo; Kari K. Eklund; Marjatta Leirisalo-Repo; Heikki Valleala

2009-01-01

112

Bubo masquerading as an incarcerated inguinal hernia  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   A 44-year old, male, tattooed, leather jacket clad, Harley-Davidson motorcyclist arrived at the emergency room with a tender,\\u000a irreducible mass, presenting at the external inguinal ring. In 1998, lung biopsy was read as miliary granuloma. No herniation\\u000a was found on urgent preperitoneal exploration. Incision of the mass showed acid-fast bacilli. Culture later revealed Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI). A blood count

K. Hodge; R. Orgler; T. Monson; R. Read

2001-01-01

113

[A case of pleural tuberculoma with new pulmonary infiltration during anti-tuberculosis therapy].  

PubMed

A 61-year-old woman who had received treatment for tuberculous pleurisy for 2 months visited our outpatient clinic. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed the presence of a lens-shaped pleural mass with pulmonary infiltration, despite the decreased pleural effusion. Two weeks later, chest CT showed an increase in the size of the mass and expansion of the intrapulmonary shadow. Percutaneous CT-guided lung biopsy was performed, and histopathological examination revealed granulomatous inflammation without caseous necrosis or acid-fast bacilli. Sputum culture was negative for acid-fast bacilli. Anti-tuberculosis medication was continued, and the lesions eventually resolved. These lesions were diagnosed as pleural tuberculomas, and the intrapulmonary infiltration was considered to be due to the paradoxical worsening of the patient's condition. PMID:24432482

Haranaga, Shusaku; Hirai, Jun; Higa, Futoshi; Miyagi, Kazuya; Astumi, Eriko; Tateyama, Masao; Fujita, Jiro

2013-11-01

114

Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay Using Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes for Differentiation between Tuberculous and Nontuberculous Mycobacterium Species in Smears of Mycobacterium Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

TB PNA FISH is a new fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method using peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes for differentiation between species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and nontubercu- lous mycobacteria (NTM) in acid-fast bacillus-positive (AFB1) cultures is described. The test is based on fluorescein-labelled PNA probes that target the rRNA of MTC or NTM species applied to smears

HENRIK STENDER; KAARE LUND; KENNETH H. PETERSEN; OLE F. RASMUSSEN; POONPILAS HONGMANEE; HÅKAN MIORNER; SVEN E. GODTFREDSEN

1999-01-01

115

Detection of the floR gene in a diversity of florfenicol resistant Gram-negative bacilli from freshwater salmon farms in Chile.  

PubMed

Florfenicol is an important antibiotic in veterinary medicine that is used extensively in aquaculture, including salmon farming in Chile. We analysed a set of 119 florfenicol-resistant Gram-negative bacilli from seven freshwater Chilean salmon farms for the molecular determinants involved in the florfenicol resistance. Ninety-seven of these strains were glucose non-fermenting bacilli, mainly belonging to the Pseudomonas genus, whereas 22 strains were glucose-fermenters. The floR gene was detected in 26 strains (21.8%) that had been isolated from three of the seven salmon farms. Most of the floR-carrying strains were glucose fermenters (21 strains), and most of the floR-carrying strains were also resistant to streptomycin, chloramphenicol and oxytetracycline. The minimum inhibitory concentrations against florfenicol were assessed in the presence and absence of the efflux pump inhibitor Phe-Arg-beta-naphthylamide (MC-207,110). There was evidence that in the majority of non-fermenting bacteria (82 strains), florfenicol resistance was at least partially mediated by non-specific efflux pump systems. Given the diversity of antibiotic resistance patterns observed in this study in the floR-positive isolates, a single antibiotic has the potential to co-select for a diversity of resistances. For this reason, human health as well as animal health can potentially be impacted by the use of antibiotics in aquaculture. To assess this potential risk, future studies should focus on the ability of different antibiotics used in aquatic environments to co-select for multiple resistances, the molecular basis of this diversity of resistance, and whether the genes conferring resistance can be transferred to other bacteria, including those of human health concern. PMID:19538451

Fernández-Alarcón, C; Miranda, C D; Singer, R S; López, Y; Rojas, R; Bello, H; Domínguez, M; González-Rocha, G

2010-05-01

116

Comparison of recovery of organisms from blood cultures diluted 10% (volume/volume) and 20% (volume/volume).  

PubMed Central

We compared blood cultures that were diluted 1:5 (20%, vol/vol) and 1:10 (10%, vol/vol) and contained specimens from patients with suspected septicemia. Streptococcus pneumoniae was recovered significantly more frequently from blood cultures diluted 20%, whereas gram-negative bacilli, group D streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida spp. were recovered significantly sooner and more frequently from blood cultures diluted 10%. Statistically significant differences in isolation rates, however, represented only a small number of patients for whom the positive cultures affected therapy. We conclude that as long as at least two separate sets of blood cultures are obtained per septic episode from each patient, a 1:5 to 1:10 blood/vented (aerobic) medium ratio provides acceptable results. Nevertheless, the results also demonstrate that blood cultures diluted 10% provided greater and faster yields than those provided by blood cultures diluted 20%. PMID:6808015

Auckenthaler, R; Ilstrup, D M; Washington, J A

1982-01-01

117

[False diagnosis of tuberculosis by culture].  

PubMed

A remarkable input to the epidemiology of tuberculosis was not the only benefit of the molecular tools developed in the early nineties for Mycobacterium tuberculosis intra-species differentiation. These genotyping methods served also to unveil specimen cross-contamination, which was until then overlooked in laboratories culturing mycobacteria. This error consists in the accidental carry-over of bacilli from a specimen with high bacterial load to that, or those, processed subsequently. The ensuing detection of falsely positive cultures can result in a wrong diagnosis of tuberculosis and the initiation of a long-lasting treatment with potentially toxic drugs. This series of errors implies the mismanagement of patients, the distraction of public health system resources, and the distortion of epidemiological data. M. tuberculosis laboratory cross-contamination was detected wherever investigated systematically, with a median rate of 3% of all positive cultures. The confirmation of this error requires a critical appraisal of bacteriological, clinical, epidemiological and genotyping results. We present here a review of national and international information on laboratory cross-contamination and describe measures recommended for minimizing the risk, surveying the occurrence, and avoiding clinical consequences of this laboratory error that raises a question on the reliability of a positive culture. PMID:17628920

Alonso, Valeria; Paul, Roxana; Barrera, Lucia; Ritacco, Viviana

2007-01-01

118

Evaluation of a Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay for Differentiation between Tuberculous and Nontuberculous Mycobacterium Species in Smears of Lowenstein-Jensen and Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube Cultures Using Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new fluorescence in situ hybridization assay based on peptide nucleic acid probes (MTB and NTM probes targeting tuberculous and nontuberculous species, respectively) for the identification of Mycobacterium tuber- culosis complex and differentiation between tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) was evalu- ated using Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) solid cultures from 100 consecutive sputum samples and 50 acid-fast bacillus (AFB)-positive sputum samples as

POONPILAS HONGMANEE; HENRIK STENDER; OLE F. RASMUSSEN

119

Safeguards Culture  

SciTech Connect

The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

2012-07-01

120

Editorial: Current status and perspective on drug targets in tubercle bacilli and drug design of antituberculous agents based on structure-activity relationship.  

PubMed

Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) remains the most frequent and important infectious disease causing morbidity and death. However, the development of new drugs for the treatment and prophylaxis of TB, particularly those truly active against dormant and persistent types of tubercle bacilli, has been slow, although some promising drugs, such as diarylquinoline TMC207, nitroimidazopyran PA-824, nitroimidazo-oxazole Delamanid (OPC-67683), oxazolidinone PNU-100480, ethylene diamine SQ-109, and pyrrole derivative LL3858, are currently under phase 1 to 3 clinical trials. Therefore, novel types of antituberculous drug, which act on unique drug targets in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) pathogens, particularly drug targets related to the establishment of mycobacterial dormancy in the host's macrophages, are urgently needed. In this context, it should be noted that current anti-TB drugs mostly target the metabolic reactions and proteins which are essential for the growth of MTB in extracellular milieus. It may also be promising to develop another type of drug that exerts an inhibitory action against bacterial virulence factors which cross-talk and interfere with signaling pathways of MTB-infected immunocompetent host cells, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and NK cells, thereby changing the intracellular milieus that are favorable to intramacrophage survival and the growth of infected bacilli. This special issue contains ten review articles, dealing with recent approaches to identify and establish novel drug targets in MTB for the development of new and unique antitubercular drugs, including those related to mycobacterial dormancy and crosstalk with cellular signaling pathways. In addition, this special issue contains some review papers with special reference to the drug design based on quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis, especially three-dimensional (3D)-QSAR. New, critical information on the entire genome of MTB and mycobacterial virulence genes is promoting the elucidation of the molecular structures of drug targets in MTB, and are consequently markedly useful for the design of new, promising antituberculous drugs using QSAR techniques. In this issue, we review the following areas. Firstly, Dr. Li M. Fu reviews the perspective that combines machine learning and genomics for drug discovery in tuberculosis, in relation to the problem that the exhaustive search for useful drug targets over the entire MTB genome would not be as productive as expected in practice [1]. Secondly, the review article by Drs. R. S. Chauhan. S. K. Chanumolu, C. Rout, and R. Shrivastava focuses on analysis of the current state of MTB genomic resources, host-pathogen interaction studies in the context of mycobacterial persistence, and drug target discovery based on the utilization of computational tools and metabolic network analyses [2]. Thirdly, Drs. Daria Bottai, Agnese Serafini, Alessandro Cascioferro, Roland Brosch, and Riccardo Manganelli review the current knowledge on MTB T7SS/ESX secretion systems and their impact on MTB physiology and virulence, and the possible approaches to develop T7SS/ESX inhibitors [3]. Fourthly, Drs. E. Jeffrey North, Mary Jackson, and Richard E. Lee review and analyze new and emerging inhibitors of the mycolic acid biosynthetic pathway, including mycobacterial enzymes for fatty acid synthesis, mycolic acid-modifying enzymes, fatty acid-activating and -condensing enzymes, transporters, and transferases, that have been discovered in the post-genomic era of tuberculosis drug discovery [4]. Fifthly, Drs. Katarina Mikusova, Vadim Makarov, and Joao Neres review the mycobacterial enzyme DprE1, which catalyzes a unique epimerization reaction in the biosynthesis of decaprenylphosphoryl arabinose, a single donor of the arabinosyl residue for the build-up of arabinans, one of the mycobacterial cell wall components, as an important drug target especially for the development of benzothiazinones [5]. Sixthly, I review the present status of global research on novel drug targets related to the Toll-like receptor in t

Tomioka, Haruaki

2014-01-01

121

Correlation between in vitro and in vivo activity of antimicrobial agents against gram-negative bacilli in a murine infection model.  

PubMed Central

We studied the relationship between in vitro susceptibility tests (MICs, MBCs) and in vivo activity of tobramycin, pefloxacin, ceftazidime, and imipenem against 15 gram-negative bacilli from five different species in a murine thigh infection model. Complete dose-response curves were determined for each antimicrobial agent against each strain, and three parameters of in vivo activity were defined: maximal attainable antimicrobial effect (i.e., reduction in log10 CFU per thigh compared with untreated controls) at 24 h (Emax), total dose required to reach 50% of maximal effect (P50), and total dose required to achieve a bacteriostatic effect (static dose). Pefloxacin demonstrated the greatest Emax (P less than 0.05). Tobramycin was the most potent antimicrobial agent, as indicated by its having the lowest static dose/MIC ratio (P less than 0.002). Log10 P50s and static doses correlated significantly with log10 MICs or MBCs for the 15 strains of each antibiotic (P less than 0.01) except imipenem (P greater than 0.50). The greater potency of imipenem against the three Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains than against strains of the family Enterobacteriaceae (P less than 0.01) explained this lack of correlation. A longer duration of postantibiotic effect for imipenem against P. aeruginosa (P = 0.02) contributed to its increased potency against these strains. We conclude that in vitro susceptibility tests correlated well with in vivo activity in this animal model and that variations in potency among the four antimicrobial agents could be explained by differences in pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamic activity. PMID:1929302

Fantin, B; Leggett, J; Ebert, S; Craig, W A

1991-01-01

122

Culture Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Culture Machine is a new, refereed, electronic journal encompassing cultural studies and cultural theory. The international editorial board of the interactive journal aims to "generat[e] research in culture and theory" by promoting and publishing "the most provocative of new work." The theme of the inaugural issue is Taking Risks with the Future. Content includes articles such as Life After Death of the Text by Johan Fornas, Cultural Studies in the Clouds: Mourning for Detail by Tadeusz Slawek, and The Future States of Politics by Kenneth Surin. Culture Machine is hosted by the University of Teesside, England.

123

Cultural Neuroscience  

PubMed Central

Cultural neuroscience issues from the apparently incompatible combination of neuroscience and cultural psychology. A brief literature sampling suggests, instead, several preliminary topics that demonstrate proof of possibilities: cultural differences in both lower-level processes (e.g. perception, number representation) and higher-order processes (e.g. inferring others’ emotions, contemplating the self) are beginning to shed new light on both culture and cognition. Candidates for future cultural neuroscience research include cultural variations in the default (resting) network, which may be social; regulation and inhibition of feelings, thoughts, and actions; prejudice and dehumanization; and neural signatures of fundamental warmth and competence judgments. PMID:23874143

Ames, Daniel L.; Fiske, Susan T.

2013-01-01

124

Repellent Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers defining "culture," noting how it is difficult to define because those individuals defining it cannot separate themselves from it. Relates these issues to student writing and their writing improvement. Addresses violence in relation to culture. (SG)

Carroll, Jeffrey

2001-01-01

125

Gastric culture  

MedlinePLUS

Gastric culture is a test to check a child's stomach contents for the bacteria that cause tuberculosis (TB). ... is placed in a special dish called a culture medium and watched for the growth of bacteria.

126

Evaluation of the Phoenix 100 ID/AST System and NID Panel for Identification of Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and Commonly Isolated Nonenteric Gram-Negative Bacilli  

PubMed Central

The Phoenix 100 ID/AST system (Becton Dickinson Co., Sparks, Md.) is an automated system for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates. This system with its negative identification (NID) panel was evaluated for its accuracy in the identification of 507 isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 57 other nonenteric gram-negative isolates that are commonly isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories, and 138 isolates of the family Vibrionaceae. All of the isolates had been characterized by using approximately 48 conventional tube biochemicals. Of the 507 isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae, 456 (89.9%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels. The five isolates of Proteus penneri required an off-line indole test, as suggested by the system to differentiate them from Proteus vulgaris. The identifications of 20 (3.9%) isolates were correct to the genus level but incorrect at the species level. Two (0.4%) isolates were reported as “no identification.” Misidentifications to the genus and species levels occurred for 29 (5.7%) isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae. These incorrect identifications were spread over 14 different genera. The most common error was the misidentification of Salmonella species. The shortest time for a correct identification was 2 h 8 min. The longest time was 12 h 27 min, for the identification of a Serratia marcescens isolate. Of the 57 isolates of nonenteric gram-negative bacilli (Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Burkholderia, Plesiomonas, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas spp.), 48 (84.2%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels and 7 (12.3%) were correctly identified to the genus level but not to the species level. The average time for a correct identification was 5 h 11 min. Of the Vibrionaceae spp., 123 (89.1%) were correctly identified at the end of the initial incubation period, which averaged 4 h. Based on the findings of this study, the Phoenix 100 ID/AST system NID panel falls short of being an acceptable new method for the identification of the Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and gram-negative nonenteric isolates that are commonly encountered in many hospital microbiology laboratories. PMID:16517878

O'Hara, Caroline M.

2006-01-01

127

Culture evolves  

PubMed Central

Culture pervades human lives and has allowed our species to create niches all around the world and its oceans, in ways quite unlike any other primate. Indeed, our cultural nature appears so distinctive that it is often thought to separate humanity from the rest of nature and the Darwinian forces that shape it. A contrary view arises through the recent discoveries of a diverse range of disciplines, here brought together to illustrate the scope of a burgeoning field of cultural evolution and to facilitate cross-disciplinary fertilization. Each approach emphasizes important linkages between culture and evolutionary biology rather than quarantining one from the other. Recent studies reveal that processes important in cultural transmission are more widespread and significant across the animal kingdom than earlier recognized, with important implications for evolutionary theory. Recent archaeological discoveries have pushed back the origins of human culture to much more ancient times than traditionally thought. These developments suggest previously unidentified continuities between animal and human culture. A third new array of discoveries concerns the later diversification of human cultures, where the operations of Darwinian-like processes are identified, in part, through scientific methods borrowed from biology. Finally, surprising discoveries have been made about the imprint of cultural evolution in the predispositions of human minds for cultural transmission. PMID:21357216

Whiten, Andrew; Hinde, Robert A.; Laland, Kevin N.; Stringer, Christopher B.

2011-01-01

128

Cultural Entomology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, succinctly written by the late Charles Hogue, was taken, with permission, from the 1987 Annual Review of Entomology. It provides an excellent explanation of cultural entomology, along with examples of the influence insects have had on art, folklore, history, literature and language, the performing arts, philosophy, religion, and other areas of culture from around the world. To delve more deeply into cultural entomology, the original 1987 article should be consulted for a listing of many specific references to the subject.

0002-11-30

129

Culture Contents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful relations between the United States and United Kingdom may require more attention to their internal ethnic and cultural diversity. This political-linguistic culture is subdivided into two contradictory yet complementary streams. The political approach for those favoring an English-speaking union may be greater ecumenism within the…

Phillips, Kevin

2001-01-01

130

Pop Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Popular culture in America is comprehensively reviewed in this book. The book is designed for either high school or college level social studies or English courses and includes a variety of graphic illustrations that provide a thread of continuity throughout. Basically the author has developed a method of analysis that reveals how popular culture

Berger, Arthur Asa

131

Mycobacterium haemophilum as the Initial Presentation of a B-Cell Lymphoma in a Liver Transplant Patient  

PubMed Central

A 66-year-old woman presented with pustular lesions of her face, trunk, and limbs and an acute arthritis of the knees and elbows. She had a complex medical background and had been on immunosuppressants for three years after a liver transplant. Tissue samples from her skin lesions and synovial fluid showed acid-fast bacilli. Mycobacterium haemophilum, an atypical mycobacteria, was later grown on culture. During her treatment with combination antibiotic therapy, she developed a pronounced generalised lymphadenopathy. Histology showed features of a diffuse B-cell lymphoma, a posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). PMID:24523979

Doherty, T.; Lynn, M.; Cavazza, A.; Sames, E.; Hughes, R.

2014-01-01

132

Blood culture  

MedlinePLUS

Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed. The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

133

Bile culture  

MedlinePLUS

Bile culture is a laboratory test to detect disease-causing germs in the biliary system . ... detect infection within the biliary system. The biliary system creates, moves, stores, and releases bile to help in digestion.

134

Culture Currents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Barone and Britzman, each in a short essay, discuss the books, poetry, performances, music, and other cultural media that influence them. Cites the publications of each and lists the works discussed. (MLF)

Barone, Tom; Britzman, Deborah P.

2003-01-01

135

Throat Culture  

MedlinePLUS

... inoculating the sample into solid or liquid nutrient media (e.g., agar, gelatin) in order to grow any microorganisms like bacteria or fungi that may be present. Cultures can be performed on a variety of body ...

136

Urine culture - catheterized specimen  

MedlinePLUS

Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

137

Culturally Responsive Teaching: Understanding Disability Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To be culturally responsive teachers, we must first have an understanding of other cultures and how students from these cultures differ from one another. As we consider the many cultures represented in our classrooms, we might also consider students with disabilities as a cultural group. Within any main culture are subgroups differentiated by…

Darrow, Alice-Ann

2013-01-01

138

Cultural Correspondence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the early 1970s, Paul Buhle and Dave Wagner began to think about creating a new and unique journal. They were both veterans of the journal Radical America, and they were both interested in popular culture. As August 1975 came around, they published the first issue of "Cultural Correspondence", a journal intended to serve as a critical review of popular culture. As the journal was published in Providence, it's not surprising to learn that the Brown University Library Center for Digital Initiatives (CDL) has created this most engaging archive of this publication. Visitors to the site can read the entire contents of each issue, browse around as they see fit, and also check out their virtual "Magazine Stand". First-time visitors may wish to start out by reading the Spring 1977 issue titled "Television".

139

Postmodern Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Somehow it is not surprising that a journal titled Postmodern Culture would find a home on the Internet, which itself is a bricoleur of many different forms and styles, akin to the very notion of postmodernism. Located online since 1990, Postmodern Culture "has become the leading electronic journal of interdisciplinary thought on contemporary cultures." The journal itself is published by The Johns Hopkins University Press, with assistance by the University of Virginia and Vassar College. Visitors to the site can browse the entire contents of the current volume, and may browse through the text-only archive, which is also made available here. The current edition contains pieces by Chris Bongie titled "Exiles on Main Stream: Valuing the Popularity of Postcolonial Literature" and a trenchant exchange by Leonard Wilcox and Brad Butterfield on "Baudrillard, September 11, and the Haunting Abyss of Reversal."

140

Invisible Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is invisible culture? In this instance, it is an electronic journal produced by the Visual & Cultural Studies graduate program within the Art and Art History Department at the University of Rochester. The journal was founded in 1998 under the editorship of Mario Caro and edited by a host of talented individuals since then. Currently, there are nineteen issues available online, including "Interrogating Subcultures," "The Loop as a Temporal Form," and "Making Sense of Visual Culture." Each issue contains thoughtful commentary, complemented by various slideshows of images and other complementary materials. One of the more recent issues takes on the world of the TV show "Mad Men" with the piece "Serializing the Past: Re-Evaluating History in Mad Men."

141

Cultural Complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is divided into four parts. The first section (I.) consists of definitions which center on the concept of complexity. As a minimum, the terms, system, complexity, and adaptation as used in this paper need an explanation. The second section (II.) is a sketch of cultural complexity in the real world. I will use Pueblo tribal laws and other

Wolfgang Fikentscher

1998-01-01

142

Cultural Themes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of a larger report on the Four Directions Project, an American Indian technology innovation project, this section includes 10 "pathfinders" to locating information on Native American cultural themes. The pathfinders were designed by students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Texas at Austin in…

Roy, Loriene, Comp.

143

Cultural differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY An examination of cultural influences and how they impact the incidence of alcohol abuse among the Inupiat peoples of Alaska. ARTICLE The region of Northwest Arctic Alaska is one of the oldest in terms of inhabitants of indigenous peoples in North America. Anthropological records show some areas in Northwest Arctic Alaska as being inhabited 600 years or more. The

Yumiko Arai

2000-01-01

144

Cultural selves.  

PubMed

Recent cross-cultural studies of child development reveal that child rearing, while strikingly culturally variable, is everywhere designed to make the child's experience of important lessons constant, to link those lessons to emotional arousal, and to connect them to evaluations of the child's goodness and badness. These claims are illustrated from research on Americans, Chinese, Germans, Gusii (Kenya), Ifaluk (Micronesia), and Inuit (Baffin Island). These three universal features of child rearing accomplish what is a highly specialized task. Constancy of experience alters synaptic connections to grant the pattern of their firing especially high-resolution, so that the lessons to be learned are unmistakable ones. Accompanied by emotional arousal, these lessons are especially motivating and unforgettable. Brought home with evaluations of the learner's goodness and badness, these lessons are even more motivating and unforgettable. Children get the point of the lesson, enact it once they get it, and remember to enact it on subsequent occasions. Cultural models of child rearing, thus, exploit the neural capacities of the children so reared, to achieve a result, human adulthood, that could not be accomplished by the human brain alone. From exposure to these practices result distinctive cultural selves. These selves are partly implicit, based on the largely unmarked practices designed to make children's experience of important lessons constant and these lessons arousing, and partly explicit, based on the labeling and other marking that connects these lessons to evaluations of children's goodness and badness. The conscious, self-reflective self that emerges from such explicit evaluation lays the basis for identity-everywhere profoundly culturally shaped, infused with powerful evaluative meanings, and itself highly motivating. PMID:14625360

Quinn, Naomi

2003-10-01

145

Culture Positivity of CVCs Used for TPN: Investigation of an Association with Catheter-Related Infection and Comparison of Causative Organisms between ICU and Non-ICU CVCs  

PubMed Central

A relationship between central venous catheter (CVC) tip colonisation and catheter-related blood-stream infection (CRBSI) has been suggested. We examined culture positivity of CVC tips (colonised and infected CVCs) in a total parenteral nutrition (TPN) population. Our aims were to define the relationship between culture positivity and CRBSI, and to compare causative organisms between culture positive and CRBSI CVCS, and between ward and ICU CVCs. All patients receiving TPN via non-tunnelled CVCs during the study (1997–2009) were included. All CVC tips were analysed. Data were collated contemporaneously. A TPN audit committee determined whether CVC tip culture positivity reflected colonisation/CRBSI using CDC criteria. 1,392 patients received TPN via 2,565 CVCs over 15,397 CVC days. 25.4% of CVCs tips were culture positive, of these 32% developed CRBSI. There was a nonsignificant trend of higher Gram negative Bacilli isolation in ICU CVCs (P = 0.1), ward CVCs were associated with higher rates of staphylococcal isolation (P = 0.01). A similar pattern of organisms were cultured from CRBSI and culture positive CVCs. The consistent relationship between CRBSI and culture positive CVCs, and similar pattern of causative organisms further supports an aetiological relationship between culture positive CVC tips and CRBSI, supporting the contention that CVC culture-positivity may be a useful surrogate marker for CRBSI rates. PMID:22577526

Walshe, Criona; Bourke, J.; Lynch, M.; McGovern, M.; Delaney, L.; Phelan, D.

2012-01-01

146

Cultural Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity combines cultural exploration with number patterns and systems. Choose a culture or historical period and have learners make a calendar for a month in that time. For more challenge, pick a country that uses different numerals, such as India or China or go back in time and make calendars for a month in ancient Mayan times, using the Mayan number system. Ask learners to compare: How are the calendars theyâve made different from the calendars we use? How are they the same? What patterns do you notice? Available as a web page and downloadable PDF. Blank calendar template is also available as a downloadable PDF. Students should be able to write numerals to 30 and have some familiarity with calendars.

2010-01-01

147

Cultural Diplomacy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Demos group in Britain describes itself as "the think tank for everyday democracy", and they have published a number of intelligent research reports and briefs as of late. One of their recent reports, released in February 2007, deals with the world of cultural diplomacy. Authored by Kirsten Bound, Rachel Briggs, John Holden, and Samuel Jones, the paper's central premise is that "the huge global reach and potential of Britain's world class artistic and cultural assets should be at the heart of government relationship building abroad." It's an interesting concept, and one that is developed over the course of this work through citing specific examples and also by pointing a way to forward efforts in this particular niche of public policy and international relations.

148

Cultural neurolinguistics  

PubMed Central

As the only species that evolved to possess a language faculty, humans have been surprisingly generative in creating a diverse array of language systems. These systems vary in phonology, morphology, syntax, and written forms. Before the advent of modern brain-imaging techniques, little was known about how differences across languages are reflected in the brain. This chapter aims to provide an overview of an emerging area of research — cultural neurolinguistics — that examines systematic cross-cultural/crosslinguistic variations in the neural networks of languages. We first briefly describe general brain networks for written and spoken languages. We then discuss language-specific brain regions by highlighting differences in neural bases of different scripts (logographic vs. alphabetic scripts), orthographies (transparent vs. nontransparent orthographies), and tonality (tonal vs. atonal languages). We also discuss neural basis of second language and the role of native language experience in second-language acquisition. In the last section, we outline a general model that integrates culture and neural bases of language and discuss future directions of research in this area. PMID:19874968

Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui; Mei, Leilei; Chen, Chunhui; Dong, Qi

2010-01-01

149

EAST ASIAN LANGUAGESEAST ASIAN LANGUAGESEAST ASIAN LANGUAGES & CULTURES& CULTURES& CULTURES  

E-print Network

and Culture EALC 380: Cultural Topics in East Asian Literature EALC 460: Love, Self, and Gender in Japanese of the languages, linguistics, literature, thought, and civilizations of China, Japan, and Korea. Students: Korean Literature and Culture -- The history of Korean literature and culture from the ancient

Krylov, Anna I.

150

Determination of microbial diversity in Daqu, a fermentation starter culture of Maotai liquor, using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.  

PubMed

This study endeavored to investigate the diversity of microbes present during the shaping, ripening and drying of Daqu, a fermentation starter culture and substrata complex of Maotai alcoholic spirit. A nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technique was utilized with different combinations of primers. The results showed the presence of bacteria, yeasts and molds. The microflora, which originate from wheat, were readily detectable during every stage of the fermentation process. However, the microbial structure had clear differences in the shaping, ripening and drying processes. In the shaping stage, there was a high level of diversity of the LAB (lactic acid bacteria) and fungi in the shaped samples. In the ripening stage, however, a reduction of diversity of fungi with a high level of diversity of the Bacilli was observed in the ripened samples. In the drying stage, the diversity of Bacilli and fungi, especially acid-producing bacteria, reduced dramatically. Interestingly, uncultured Lactococcus sp., Microbacterium testaceum, Cochliobolus sp., and Thermoascus crustaceus were the first to be detected in the fermentation starters used in liquor production. This study revealed the microbial diversity and distributions during the shaping, ripening and drying of Daqu-making, facilitating evaluation of the hygienic conditions and aiding in the design of specific starter and/or adjunct cultures. PMID:22806111

Xiu, Liu; Kunliang, Guo; Hongxun, Zhang

2012-06-01

151

[A case of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium branderi].  

PubMed

The patient was a 56-year-old man, who was found to have a cavitary lesion surrounded by small nodules in the left upper lobe (S(1+2)) on the chest computed tomography (CT) scan prior to surgery for oropharyngeal cancer. Both sputum and bronchial lavage smears for acid-fast bacilli were positive, but a polymerase chain reaction for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complex failed to identify the isolates. Mycobacterium species were cultured in 4 weeks. Mycobacterium branderi was identified by determining the nucleic acid sequences of the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) and RNA polymerase B (rpoB) genes. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy for esophageal cancer were started 5 months after the surgery for oropharyngeal cancer. The patient developed fever during the second round of chemotherapy. After chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the wall of the cavitary lesion thickened and a consolidation shadow was noted in the lower portion of the cavitary lesion on the chest CT scan. Combined therapy with clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and ethionamide improved the clinical symptoms; further, the abnormal chest shadows disappeared, and the sputum smears and cultures for acid-fast bacilli were negative. Although, currently, there are no recommended therapeutic regimens for pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteriosis caused by M. branderi, combined therapy including the drugs used in this case may have a beneficial effect on this disease. PMID:25095645

Yamazoe, Masami; Takahashi, Ryuji

2014-06-01

152

Advances in cell culture  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on advances in cell culture. Topics covered include: Genetic changes in the influenza viruses during growth in cultured cells; The biochemistry and genetics of mosquito cells in culture; and Tree tissue culture applications.

Maramorosch, K. (Dept. of Entomology, Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (US))

1987-01-01

153

Opening the Culture Door.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that child care providers must collaborate with children's families in order to better understand their culture and their child, and to successfully deal with challenging behavior issues. Addresses: (1) culture definition; (2) culture and identity; (3) cultural differences; (4) seeing culture; (5) child care and school culture; (6) moving…

Kaiser, Barbara; Rasminsky, Judy Sklar

2003-01-01

154

Hispanic Culture and Relational Cultural Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional personality theories do not consider the impact of culture on personality development. Yet, to provide culturally relevant services to the increasing Hispanic population in the U.S., more culturally relevant theories must be identified. This paper presents Relational Cultural Theory (RCT) as an alternative model to understanding…

Ruiz, Elizabeth

2005-01-01

155

Marketing across Cultures: Tools for Cultural Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of cultural universals, the basic needs shared by people around the world, is a critical concept in assessing the impact of culture on decisions about the international marketing of goods and services. In most cases, international marketers have little need to understand all the ways in which their culture differs from the culture of…

Raffield, Barney T., III

156

Development and Validation of a Liquid Medium (M7H9C) for Routine Culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis To Replace Modified Bactec 12B Medium  

PubMed Central

Liquid culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from clinical samples, such as feces, is the most sensitive antemortem test for the diagnosis of Johne's disease in ruminants. In Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and some other countries, the Bactec 460 system with modified Bactec 12B medium (Becton, Dickinson) has been the most commonly used liquid culture system, but it was discontinued in 2012. In this study, a new liquid culture medium, M7H9C, was developed. It consists of a Middlebrook 7H9 medium base with added Casitone, albumin, dextrose, catalase, egg yolk, mycobactin J, and a cocktail of antibiotics. We found that polyoxyethylene stearate (POES) was not essential for the cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in either the Bactec 12B or the M7H9C medium. The limit of detection determined using pure cultures of the C and S strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was 7 bacilli per 50 ?l inoculum in the two media. The new medium was validated using 784 fecal and tissue samples from sheep and cattle, >25% of which contained viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Discrepant results for the clinical samples between the two media were mostly associated with samples that contained <10 viable bacilli per gram, but these results were relatively uncommon, and the performances of the two media were not significantly different. M7H9C medium was less than half the cost of the Bactec 12B medium and did not require regular examination during incubation, but a confirmatory IS900 PCR test had to be performed on every culture after the predetermined incubation period. PMID:24048541

Whittington, Ann-Michele; Waldron, Anna; Begg, Douglas J.; de Silva, Kumi; Purdie, Auriol C.; Plain, Karren M.

2013-01-01

157

Development and validation of a liquid medium (M7H9C) for routine culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to replace modified Bactec 12B medium.  

PubMed

Liquid culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from clinical samples, such as feces, is the most sensitive antemortem test for the diagnosis of Johne's disease in ruminants. In Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and some other countries, the Bactec 460 system with modified Bactec 12B medium (Becton, Dickinson) has been the most commonly used liquid culture system, but it was discontinued in 2012. In this study, a new liquid culture medium, M7H9C, was developed. It consists of a Middlebrook 7H9 medium base with added Casitone, albumin, dextrose, catalase, egg yolk, mycobactin J, and a cocktail of antibiotics. We found that polyoxyethylene stearate (POES) was not essential for the cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in either the Bactec 12B or the M7H9C medium. The limit of detection determined using pure cultures of the C and S strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was 7 bacilli per 50 ?l inoculum in the two media. The new medium was validated using 784 fecal and tissue samples from sheep and cattle, >25% of which contained viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Discrepant results for the clinical samples between the two media were mostly associated with samples that contained <10 viable bacilli per gram, but these results were relatively uncommon, and the performances of the two media were not significantly different. M7H9C medium was less than half the cost of the Bactec 12B medium and did not require regular examination during incubation, but a confirmatory IS900 PCR test had to be performed on every culture after the predetermined incubation period. PMID:24048541

Whittington, Richard J; Whittington, Ann-Michele; Waldron, Anna; Begg, Douglas J; de Silva, Kumi; Purdie, Auriol C; Plain, Karren M

2013-12-01

158

Plant Cultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With its radiant colors and well-thought-out design, the Plant Cultures website's primary goal is "to convey the richness and complexity of links between Britain and South Asia, through the story of plants and people". The project covers both the historical and contemporary aspects of Britain and South Asia through a wide range of resources, including historic images, recipes, and other items. Through a series of tabs at the top of the homepage (such as "Themes" and "Stories"), visitors can begin to explore the diverse content offered here. The "Plants" area is a good place to start, as visitors can learn about garlic, henna, holy basil, sugar cane, and 21 other plants. One rather fun area of the site is the Story Library, where visitors can place their own stories regarding the use of different plants, and read those from previous guests.

159

[Prevalence of mycobacteriosis and tuberculosis in a reference hospital, Cordoba province].  

PubMed

Environmental mycobacteria (EM) constitute an important group of bacteria species found in the environment. They can colonize and occasionally produce disease in man. Sixteen thousand three hundred samples from 9300 adult symptomatic patients from the Hospital Regional of Tuberculosis in Cordoba were bacteriolocally investigated. The isolations were performed by culture on Lowenstein Jensen and Stonebrink culture media. The colonies of acid fast bacilli (AFB) were identified by biochemical and molecular tests. Among 716 culture positive cases, 684 (95.5%) were due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and 32 to environmental mycobacteria. Serial samples allowed the confirmation of the etiological agent in culture and correlated with consistent clinical and radiological abnormalities. Seventy-five percent of these patients were affected by M. avium complex, 15.6% by M. fortuitum, 3.1% Mycobacterium kansasii and 6.3% Mycobacterium chelonae. Among tuberculosis cases, 94.5% and 5.5% had pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease respectively. PMID:15786869

Barnes, A I; Rojo, S; Moretto, H

2004-01-01

160

Diagnosis of intramammary infection in samples yielding negative results or minor pathogens in conventional bacterial culturing.  

PubMed

Up to half of quarter milk samples submitted for mastitis diagnosis are culture-negative results or lead to identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci or Corynebacterium bovis in conventional culturing, the so-called minor pathogens. The interpretation and usefulness of these results in terms of udder and animal health management is limited, even though the amount of resources spent is relatively high. This work aimed to test two methods of analysis of milk samples with the goal of increasing detection of intramammary pathogens. In the first study, 783 milk samples were processed in duplicate: before and after freezing at -20°C for 24 h, using standard bacteriological techniques. There was a significant difference between the two methods with samples frozen for 24 h yielding significantly fewer Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci, Gram-negative bacilli, Gram-positive bacilli and significantly more samples leading to no growth, than samples before freezing. The number of samples yielding Gram-positive catalase-negative cocci was not significantly affected by freezing. In the second study, a real-time PCR-based test was performed on milk samples with an individual quarter somatic cell count above 500,000 cells/ml that were either negative (n=51 samples) or that led to the isolation of minor pathogens in culturing: Corynebacterium bovis (n=79 samples) or non-aureus staphylococci (NAS, n=32). A mastitis pathogen, beyond the result obtained with standard bacteriology, was detected on 47% of the no-growth samples, on 35% of the samples from which C. bovis had been isolated and on 25% of the samples from which NAS had been isolated. The most commonly detected major pathogen was Escherichia coli, followed by Streptococcus uberis, Arcanobacterium pyogenes/Peptoniphilus indolicus and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. These results suggest that simply freezing milk samples for 24 h does not increase the detection of intramammary bacteria in milk samples and therefore should not be recommended. However, use of the real-time PCR-based test may be useful in diagnosing intramammary infections when milk samples with high somatic cell counts are culture-negative or when culturing results in the detection of minor pathogens. PMID:21134309

Bexiga, Ricardo; Koskinen, Mikko T; Holopainen, Jani; Carneiro, Carla; Pereira, Helena; Ellis, Kathryn A; Vilela, Cristina L

2011-02-01

161

Mixed metazoan and bacterial infection of the gas bladder of the lined seahorse-a case report.  

PubMed

Five wild-caught Lined Seahorses Hippocampus erectus from an aquarium system presented with altered buoyancy and distended upper trunks. Radiography of one specimen revealed a reduced air volume in the gas bladder. Pneumocystocentesis revealed a brown exudate of numerous leukocytes, parasite ova, and Gram- and acid-fast-positive bacilli under wet mounts and stains. Necropsies revealed enlarged, friable kidneys and distended gas bladders containing copious purulent exudate, necrotic tissue, and adult digeneans Dictysarca virens. Bacterial isolates from exudate cultures grown on Lowenstein-Jensen medium were identified as Gordonia sp. and Mycobacterium poriferae by high-performance liquid chromatography and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. Histopathology demonstrated a histiocytic response in kidney and gas bladder exudate, inflammation of the gas bladder wall, and infection of the gas bladder lumen with parasite ova and acid-fast-positive and Gomori's methenamine silver-positive bacilli. Praziquantel is prescribed for digenean infections but dissolves incompletely in seawater and is toxic to this host. Eradication of intermediate host vectors is a management option. Treatment of Gordonia infection has not been addressed in nonhuman animals, and there is no known effective treatment for Mycobacterium spp. infection in fishes. This is the first case report of digenean infection of the gas bladder in a syngnathid, Gordonia sp. infection in a nonhuman animal, and M. poriferae infection in a fish. PMID:23343385

Anderson, Paul A; Petty, Barbara D

2013-03-01

162

Cultural Leadership in Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is general recognition that leadership is important for organizational cultures, the issue of how leadership affects culture has received only scattered attention. Existing analyses have tended to focus on how leaders create or change cultures, ignoring the role that leadership plays in maintaining cultures. This paper focuses on how cultural leadership that innovates, by either creating or changing

HARRISON M. TRICE; JANICE M. BEYER

1991-01-01

163

Culturally Relevant Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many teachers have only a cursory understanding of culturally relevant pedagogy, and their efforts to bridge the cultural gap often fall short. Culturally relevant pedagogy is a term that describes effective teaching in culturally diverse classrooms. It can be a daunting idea to understand and implement. Yet people tend to appreciate culturally

Irvine, Jacqueline Jordan

2010-01-01

164

Respecting Cultural Beliefs  

MedlinePLUS

orig. 04 09, rev 10 12 PATIENT / FAMILY TEACHING SHEET Respecting Cultural Beliefs What is culture? ? Culture ... Honor your values, practices and beliefs Other HPNA Teaching Sheets on are available at www.HPNA.org. ...

165

Culture - joint fluid  

MedlinePLUS

Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If such microorganisms are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. For information on preparing for the removal of ...

166

Peritoneal fluid culture  

MedlinePLUS

Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... based on more than just the peritoneal fluid culture (which may be negative even if you have ...

167

Dehistoricized Cultural Identity and Cultural Othering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assumption that each culture has its own distinctive identity has been generally accepted in the discussion of cultural identities. Quite often identity formation is not perceived as a dynamic and interactive ongoing process that engages other cultures and involves change in its responses to different challenges at different times. I will…

Weiguo, Qu

2013-01-01

168

The Publishing Culture and the Literary Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that traditional bridges between the literary culture and publishing culture have increasingly weakened in past decade. The publishing culture has become like that of big business, marked by effort to standardize product, distribution, and consumer, and the advent of bookstore chains has put into practice the mass-merchandising system.…

Solotaroff, Ted

1984-01-01

169

Culture Computing: Interactive Technology to Explore Culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present day rapid development of media science and digital technology is offering the modern generation more opportunities as well as challenges as the new fundamental literacy. Therefore, to reach the modern generation on issues such as an appreciation of cultures, we have to find common grounds based on digital media technology. In an increasingly hybrid cultural environment, interaction and fusion of cultural factors with the computer technology will be an investigation into the possibilities of providing an experience into the cultures of the world, operating in the environments the modern generation inhabits. Research has created novel merging of traditional cultures and literature with recent media literacy. Three cultural computing systems, Media Me, BlogWall and Confucius Computer, are presented in this chapter. Studies showed that users gave positive feedback to their experience of interacting with cultural computing systems.

Cheok, Adrian David

170

Migration, cultural bereavement and cultural identity  

PubMed Central

Migration has contributed to the richness in diversity of cultures, ethnicities and races in developed countries. Individuals who migrate experience multiple stresses that can impact their mental well being, including the loss of cultural norms, religious customs, and social support systems, adjustment to a new culture and changes in identity and concept of self. Indeed, the rates of mental illness are increased in some migrant groups. Mental health practitioners need to be attuned to the unique stresses and cultural aspects that affect immigrants and refugees in order to best address the needs of this increasing and vulnerable population. This paper will review the concepts of migration, cultural bereavement and cultural identity, and explore the interrelationship between these three aspects of the migrant's experience and cultural congruity. The complex interplay of the migration process, cultural bereavement, cultural identity, and cultural congruity, along with biological, psychological and social factors, is hypothesized as playing a major role in the increased rates of mental illness in affected migrant groups. PMID:16633496

BHUGRA, DINESH; BECKER, MATTHEW A

2005-01-01

171

Information and Corporate Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper defines "corporate culture" (set of values and beliefs shared by people working in an organization which represents employees' collective judgments about future) and discusses importance of corporate culture, nature of corporate cultures in business and academia, and role of information in shaping present and future corporate cultures.…

Drake, Miriam A.

1984-01-01

172

HPT: The Culture Factor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the challenges in managing performance across national cultures and within changing corporate cultures. Describes two human performance technology tools that can help performance consultants understand different cultures and provide the basis for successful management action: the culture audit and the systems model that can be adapted…

Addison, Roger M.; Wittkuhn, Klaus D.

2001-01-01

173

Does Culture Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objects to current preoccupations with culture (particularly race) in psychology and education, suggesting that it is unethical to let culture influence decision making. Notes the paucity of empirical evidence of statistical interactions between treatment and culture in psychotherapy or teaching and culture in education. Concludes that without…

Barrett, David E.

2002-01-01

174

Many Forms of Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychologists interested in culture have focused primarily on East-West differences in individualism-collectivism, or independent-interdependent self-construal. As important as this dimension is, there are many other forms of culture with many dimensions of cultural variability. Selecting from among the many understudied cultures in psychology,…

Cohen, Adam B.

2009-01-01

175

Improving patient safety culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Improving hospital patient safety means an open and stimulating culture is needed. This article aims to describe a patient safety culture improvement approach in five Belgian hospitals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Patient safety culture was measured using a validated Belgian adaptation of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC) questionnaire. Studies before (autumn 2005) and after (spring 2007) the

Johan Hellings; Ward Schrooten; Niek S. Klazinga; Arthur Vleugels

2010-01-01

176

Cultural Aspects of Psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the relevance of cultural factors to the application of psychotherapy. It is divided into two parts: cultural psychotherapy and crosscultural psychotherapy. Cultural psychotherapy. Despite certain universal features, marked differences as regards intensity, quality and depth, exist in the forms of psychotherapy practised. Preferences in their choice crossculturally depend on differences in etiological views and on cultural

E. D. Wittkower; H. Warms

1974-01-01

177

Transcending Cultural Borders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural diversity presents many challenges to the art educator. Teaching children to be tolerant and to appreciate differences is particularly important in a world that is characterized by polarization, embittered cultural divisions, and prejudice. Students' knowledge and attitudes are mediated by popular culture, which often reduces cultural

Graham, Robert; Murphy, Kris; Jaworski, Joy

2007-01-01

178

Cultural Energy & Grassroots Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how cultural vitality drives successful community development. Links cultural, community, and environmental values. Examines successes and failures of programs attempting to link culture and development in Panama, Ecuador, and Colombia. Examines role of cultural self-examination for creating new development paradigm. Examines prospects…

Kleymeyer, Charles D.

1992-01-01

179

Popular Culture and Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The seven essays in this publication, including four read at the fall 1969 American Studies Association meeting, attempt to present both the nature of popular culture study and a guide for teachers of popular culture courses. Papers are (1) "Popular Culture: Notes toward a Definition" by Ray B. Browne; (2) "Can Popular Culture Save American…

Browne, Ray B., Ed.; Ambrosetti, Ronald J., Ed.

180

Antibiotic Consumption and Healthcare-Associated Infections Caused by Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli at a Large Medical Center in Taiwan from 2002 to 2009: Implicating the Importance of Antibiotic Stewardship  

PubMed Central

Background Better depicting the relationship between antibiotic consumption and evolutionary healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) may help highlight the importance of antibiotic stewardship. Methodology/Principal Findings The correlations between antibiotic consumption and MDR-GNB HAIs at a 2,700-bed primary care and tertiary referral center in Taiwan between 2002 and 2009 were assessed. MDR-GNB HAI referred to a HAI caused by MDR-Enterobacteriaceae, MDR-Pseudomonas aeruginosa or MDR-Acinetobacter spp. Consumptions of individual antibiotics and MDR-GNB HAI series were first evaluated for trend over time. When a trend was significant, the presence or absence of associations between the selected clinically meaningful antibiotic resistance and antibiotic consumption was further explored using cross-correlation analyses. Significant major findings included (i) increased consumptions of extended-spectrum cephalosporins, carbapenems, aminopenicillins/?-lactamase inhibitors, piperacillin/tazobactam, and fluoroquinolones, (ii) decreased consumptions of non-extended-spectrum cephalosporins, natural penicillins, aminopenicillins, ureidopenicillin and aminoglycosides, and (iii) decreasing trend in the incidence of the overall HAIs, stable trends in GNB HAIs and MDR-GNB HAIs throughout the study period, and increasing trend in HAIs caused by carbapenem-resistant (CR) Acinetobacter spp. since 2006. HAIs due to CR-Acinetobacter spp. was found to positively correlate with the consumptions of carbapenems, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, aminopenicillins/?-lactamase inhibitors, piperacillin/tazobactam and fluoroquinolones, and negatively correlate with the consumptions of non-extended-spectrum cephalosporins, penicillins and aminoglycosides. No significant association was found between the increased use of piperacilllin/tazobactam and increasing HAIs due to CR-Acinetobacter spp. Conclusions The trend in overall HAIs decreased and trends in GNB HAIs and MDR-GNB HAIs remained stable over time suggesting that the infection control practice was effective during the study period, and the escalating HAIs due to CR- Acinetobacter spp. were driven by consumptions of broad-spectrum antibiotics other than piperacillin/tazobactam. Our data underscore the importance of antibiotic stewardship in the improvement of the trend of HAIs caused by Acinetobacter spp. PMID:23738018

Su, Li-Hsiang; Tang, Ya-Feng; Chang, Shun-Jen; Liu, Jien-Wei

2013-01-01

181

Cultural Approaches to Parenting  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing to social policy implications as well as future directions prompted by a cultural approach to parenting. PMID:22962544

Bornstein, Marc H.

2012-01-01

182

Microbial pollution indicators and culturable heterotrophic bacteria in a Mediterranean area (Southern Adriatic Sea Italian coasts)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study we evaluated the degree of microbial water pollution along the coast line between Brindisi and Santa Maria di Leuca (Southern Adriatic Sea) as well as the culturable heterotrophic bacteria abundances and biodiversity in relation to the microbiological quality of the water. A total of 3773 colonies were isolated, subcultured and identified by several morphological, cultural and biochemical methods including the standardized API 20 E and API 20 NE tests. Along the examined coastal tract the microbial pollution indicators were always below the tolerance limits for bathing waters defined by the CEE directive, suggesting a good sanitary quality. Concerning culturable heterotrophic bacteria, different temporal density trends were observed in the four sites in relation to their geographical position. A positive relationship between the bacterial abundances and the temperature was observed in S. Cataldo and Otranto. The culturable bacterial community was mainly composed of the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Photobacterium and Flavobacterium. The Enterobacteriaceae family represented a conspicuous component of the bacterial community too. Bacilli were predominant among the Gram-positive bacteria. Of interest is the isolation of yeasts (2% at the surface and 1% at the bottom) taking into account their capability of biodegradation of various materials. Because of the low level of microbial pollution recorded, our results are indicative of the natural variation and diversity of the culturable bacterial community in such an oligotrophic ecosystem and could represent a good point of comparison with other ecosystems as well as a baseline for long term studies aimed to evaluate the effects of environmental fluctuations and human impacts on this aspect of biodiversity in coastal areas.

Stabili, L.; Cavallo, R. A.

2011-05-01

183

Cultural Literacy: Negotiating Language, Culture, and Thought  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our schools see increasing numbers of students who reflect the wide diversity of this country's population, but too often these differences--culture, language, socioeconomic backgrounds, ethnicity are viewed from negative or deficit perspectives when they are, in fact, the cultural capital that enriches discussion, broadens viewpoints, and…

Clark, Ellen Riojas; Flores, Belinda Bustos

2007-01-01

184

Cultural Molding: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course, this learning module introduces the student to cultural molding, the idea that most human behavior can be traced to enculturation and exposure rather than to a socio-biological explanation of human behavior. Following a brief description of socialization,…

Kassebaum, Peter

185

Une maison de culture (A Culture Center).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the "Culture Center" designed by Le Corbusier and located in Firminy, France. The role of the center in arousing intellectual curiosity in people living in a technological age is discussed. The audience of this culture center, young people, and the types of activities directed toward them are described. (AMH)

Mourlevat, Alain

1980-01-01

186

Cytological diagnosis of tuberculous cervicitis: A case report with review of literature  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis of cervix is a rare disease. Tuberculosis usually affects women of childbearing age, indicating hormone dependence of infection. The patient presents with menstrual irregularities, infertility or vaginal discharge. Cervical lesions presents as papillary/vegetative growth or ulceration mimicking cervical cancer. Cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) smear plays an important role in diagnosing the disease by non-invasive technique in which the presence of epithelioid cells and Langhan's type of giant cells is diagnostic. However, other causes of granulomatous cervicitis should be considered and ruled out. Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain for acid fast bacilli, fluorescent technique, biopsy and culture help in confirming the disease. We present the case of a 45-year-old female, who presented with vaginal discharge, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, first degree uterine descent with grade II cystocele and rectocele and cervical ulcer. Pap smear revealed epithelioid cells and Langhan's type of giant cells, confirmed by ZN stain of cervical smear, fluorescent technique and culture. PMID:22438630

Kalyani, R; Sheela, SR; Rajini, M

2012-01-01

187

Experimental inoculation of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) with Mycobacterium bovis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this series of pilot studies was to determine whether the passerine species studied are susceptible to infection with Mycobacterium bovis. Separate experiments were conducted on wild-caught starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). In each experiment, four birds were challenged intraperitoneally and four were challenged orally with microorganisms. Challenge dose was 1 x 10(5) colony-forming units of M. bovis cultured from a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) case in Michigan. Birds were euthanatized at 1 and 2 mo postinoculation. Histologic lesions suggestive of mycobacteriosis, without the presence of acid-fast bacilli, were noted in all experimental groups. Mycobacterial cultures performed on pooled tissue samples were positive for M. bovis in only some of the intraperitoneal inoculates of each species. PMID:11569749

Butler, K L; Fitzgerald, S D; Berry, D E; Church, S V; Reed, W M; Kaneene, J B

2001-01-01

188

Mycobacterium fortuitum cutaneous infection from amateur tattoo.  

PubMed

A case of cutaneous Mycobacterium fortuitum infection after receiving an amateur tattoo is reported. A few days after tattooing, an otherwise healthy 25-year-old Thai male presented with multiple discrete erythematous papules confined to the tattoo area. He was initially treated with topical steroid and oral antihistamine without improvement. Skin biopsy was carried out, and the histopathology showed mixed cell granuloma with a foreign body reaction (tattoo color pigments). The acid-fast bacilli stain was positive. The tissue culture grew M. fortuitum two weeks later. He was treated with clarithromycin 1,000 mg/day and ciprofloxacin 1,000 mg/day for 10 months with complete response. From the clinical aspect, tattoo-associated rapidly growing mycobacterium infection might be difficult to differentiate from the pigment-based skin reactions. Skin biopsy for histopathology and tissue culture for Mycobacterium probably will be needed in arriving at the diagnosis. PMID:22774631

Suvanasuthi, Saroj; Wongpraparut, Chanisada; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas

2012-06-01

189

Plant tissue cultures.  

PubMed

Plant tissue cultures are an efficient system to study cell wall biosynthesis in living cells in vivo. Tissue cultures also provide cells and culture medium where enzymes and cell wall polymers can easily be separated for further studies. Tissue cultures with tracheary element differentiation or extracellular lignin formation have provided useful information related to several aspects of xylem and lignin formation. In this chapter, methods for nutrient medium preparation, callus culture initiation, and its maintenance, as well as those for protoplast isolation and viability observation, are described. As a case study, we describe the establishment of a xylogenic culture of Zinnia elegans mesophyll cells. PMID:21222073

Kärkönen, Anna; Santanen, Arja; Iwamoto, Kuninori; Fukuda, Hiroo

2011-01-01

190

Short-term dynamics of culturable bacteria in a soil amended with biotransformed dry olive residue.  

PubMed

Dry olive residue (DOR) transformation by wood decomposing basidiomycetes (e.g. Coriolopsis floccosa) is a possible strategy for eliminating the liabilities related to the use of olive oil industry waste as an organic soil amendment. The effects of organic fertilization with DOR on the culturable soil microbiota are largely unknown. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to measure the short-term effects of DOR and C. floccosa-transformed DOR on the culturable bacterial soil community, while at the same time documenting the bacterial diversity of an agronomic soil in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula. The control soil was compared with the same soil treated with DOR and with C. floccosa-transformed DOR for 0, 30 and 60 days. Impact was measured from total viable cells and CFU counts, as well as the isolation and characterization of 900 strains by fatty acid methyl ester profiles and 16S rRNA partial sequencing. The bacterial diversity was distributed between Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Sphingobacteria and Cytophagia. Analysis of the treatments and controls demonstrated that soil amendment with untransformed DOR produced important changes in bacterial density and diversity. However, when C. floccosa-transformed DOR was applied, bacterial proliferation was observed but bacterial diversity was less affected, and the distribution of microorganisms was more similar to the unamended soil. PMID:24268790

Siles, J A; Pascual, J; González-Menéndez, V; Sampedro, I; García-Romera, I; Bills, G F

2014-03-01

191

Integrating Societal Culture and Corporate Culture through Workplace Design .  

E-print Network

??This study examines the connections between societal culture, corporate culture, and workplace design, highlighting the importance of employees' societal culture to the effectiveness of design… (more)

Khambaty, Lulua

2005-01-01

192

Culturally based story understanding  

E-print Network

Culture has a strong influence on how stories are understood. Accordingly, a full account of human intelligence must include an account of cultural influences on story understanding. The research reported takes a step ...

Awad, Hiba

2013-01-01

193

Culture in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culture plays a large but often unnoticeable role in what we teach and how we teach children. We are a country of immense diversity, but in classrooms the dominant European-American culture has become the language of learning.

Medin, Douglas L.; Bang, Megan

2014-01-01

194

Cultural changes in aerospace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cultural changes; people and jobs; examples of cultural changes required; advanced launch system (ALS) philosophy; ALS operability capabilities; and ALS operability in design are outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

Strobl, Bill

1991-01-01

195

Bile culture (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... tract. A specimen of bile is placed in culture media and observed for growth of microorganisms. If there ... no infection. If there is growth in the culture media, the growth is then isolated and identified to ...

196

Rectal culture (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A rectal culture test is performed by inserting a cotton swab in the rectum. The swab is rotated gently, and withdrawn. A smear of the swab is placed in culture media to encourage the growth of microorganisms. The ...

197

Teaching Culture: An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses seven books on cultural awareness: (1) "Culture Learning" (Damen); (2) "Beyond the Language Classroom" (Fantini and others); (3) "Culturally Speaking" (Genzel and Cummings); (4) "Across Cultures" (Lim and Smalzer); (5) "Teaching Culture" (Seelye); (6) "Cultural Awareness" (Tomalin and Stempleski); and (7) "Culture Connection" (Wegmann…

Lessard-Clouston, Michael

1994-01-01

198

Culture against Society  

E-print Network

that celebrates cultural diversity. Too oflen, however, that stream is shallow. When my family visited Disneyland some 30 years ago, we piled into small boats and were ferried through a series of artificial landscapes, ranging from Alpine pastures to Asian rice... of and control over their cultural principles and concepts rather than being held to them. This is much deeper than a Disneyland celebration of cultural diversity; it requires recognition of common ground among the most basic of cultural premises...

Hanson, F. Allan

2005-07-01

199

Update: Schizophrenia Across Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of schizophrenia, as well as the symptoms, course, and outcomes for people so diagnosed seem to vary across\\u000a some cultural contexts. The mechanisms by which cultural variations may protect one from or increase one’s risk of developing\\u000a schizophrenia remain unclear. Recent findings from transdisciplinary cross-cultural research, indicate ways that we may better\\u000a understand how socioenvironmental and cultural variables

Neely Laurenzo Myers

2011-01-01

200

Comparison of Three PCR Primer Sets for Identification of vanB Gene Carriage in Feces and Correlation with Carriage of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci: Interference by vanB-Containing Anaerobic Bacilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the sensitivities and specificities of three previously described PCR primers on enrichment broth cultures of feces for the accurate detection of fecal carriage of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). In addition, we investigated specimens that were vanB PCR positive but VRE culture negative for the presence of other vanB-containing pathogens. Feces from 59 patients (12 patients carrying vanB Enterococcus faecium

S. A. Ballard; E. A. Grabsch; P. D. R. Johnson; M. L. Grayson

2005-01-01

201

Anaerobic thermophilic culture  

DOEpatents

A newly discovered thermophilic anaerobe is described that was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC 3/550. T. Ethanolicus is cultured in aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions and is used in a novel process for producing ethanol by subjecting carbohydrates, particularly the saccharides, to fermentation action of the new microorganism in a biologically pure culture.

Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Wiegel, Jurgen K. W. (Gottingen, DE)

1981-01-01

202

Europeana: Think Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Europeana: Think Culture (http://www.europeana.eu) is a wonderful cultural repository. It includes more than 15 million items (images, text, audio, and video) from 1,500 European institutions. Europeana provides access to an abundance of cultural and heritage information and knowledge. Because Europeana has partnered with and brought together so…

Kail, Candice

2011-01-01

203

Deaf Culture. PEPNet Tipsheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It often comes as a surprise to people that many deaf people refer to themselves as being members of Deaf culture. The American Deaf culture is a unique linguistic minority that uses American Sign Language (ASL) as its primary mode of communication. This tipsheet provides a description of Deaf culture and suggestions for effective communication.

Siple, Linda; Greer, Leslie; Holcomb, Barbra Ray

2004-01-01

204

Teaching Cultural Competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for inclusion of cultural competence material in Social Work curriculums is well established. There is a dramatic increase in cultural and ethnic diversity in American society. Commensurate with that increase is an alarming rise of racism on college campuses. Social Work programs are required to include cultural competence material and Social Work educators need down-to-earth and practical ideas

John P. Ronnau

1994-01-01

205

Cultural Arts Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The handbook presents activities to aid elementary school classroom teachers as they develop and implement cultural arts lessons. A cultural arts program is interpreted as a way to help students develop perceptual awareness, build a basic vocabulary in some art cultural form, evaluate their own works of art, appreciate creative expressions, and…

Pistone, Kathleen A.

206

CULTURAL ENRICHMENT PROGRAMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

METHODS BY WHICH CULTURAL ENRICHMENT PROGRAMS CAN HELP TO ELIMINATE JUVENILE DELINQUENCY ARE DISCUSSED. IT IS STRESSED THAT CULTURE IS A SET OF VALUES, RATHER THAN A SERIES OF CONCEPTS. IF CULTURE IS TO BE TRANSMITTED TO STUDENTS, TEACHERS MUST LIVE ITS VALUES. ATTENDING CONCERTS AND PLAYS IS NOT SUFFICIENT. ONLY IN THE BROAD SETTING OF A TOTAL…

WASHINGTON, BENNETTA B.

207

Cultur(ally) Jammed: Culture Jams as a Form of Culturally Responsive Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does the person become the name or does the name become the person? This question was asked by a participant of my culture jam entitled, "What's my name?" In this culture jam, I asked people to discern the name of a person based solely on their appearance and a list of possible names below their picture. This article aims to show how culture jams…

Martinez, Ulyssa

2012-01-01

208

The University Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the author discusses the role university culture can play on a campus and how it can impact policy and practice. The article explores how a university's history, values, and vision form its culture and how this culture in turn affects its stability and continuity. The article discusses how newcomers within the university are…

Simplicio, Joseph

2012-01-01

209

Engendering Cultural Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional literary canons, represented by E. D. Hirsch's list in "Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs To Know" of works which every literate American "needs to know," deemphasize the cultural significance of women and minorities. An alternative and expanded model of cultural literacy, GODDESS (Gender or Diversity Designed to Show…

Bloom, Lynn Z.

210

Poetry After Cultural Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poetry after Cultural Studies elucidates the potential of poetry scholarship when joined with cultural studies. In eight searching essays covering an astonishing range of poetic practices, geographical regions, and methodological approaches, this volume reflects on what poetry can accomplish in the broadest social and cultural contexts. From Depression-era Iowa to the postcolonial landscape of French-speaking Martinique, whether appearing in newspapers,

Heidi R. Bean; Michael Chasar

2011-01-01

211

Culture and youth development.  

PubMed

Young people have their own cultures through which they make a statement about themselves. The culture they inherit is an important part of their developing identity. As young people make their contribution to society, they add, enhance, and change the culture of the world in which they live. PMID:20653214

Bagshaw, Sue

2009-12-01

212

Cultural Concepts of Giftedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Different cultures have different conceptions of what it means to be gifted. But in identifying children as gifted, we often use only our own conception, ignoring the cultural context in which the children grew up. Such identification is inadequate and fails to do justice to the richness of the world's cultures. It also misses children who are…

Sternberg, Robert J.

2007-01-01

213

CULTURAL CONDITIONS OF THERAPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on the relevant literature and the authors' own experience and work, this article discusses therapy in the context of culture. Culture is defined and distinguished from race and the implications of cultural variables discussed in relation to the practice of therapy as well as the training of therapists. Rogers's (1957\\/1990b, 1959) six conditions of therapeutic personality change are developed

Jasvinder Singh; Keith Tudor

1997-01-01

214

Cultural Exploration through Mapping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing diversity in the United States means that all students must understand multiple cultural perspectives and identities. Educators need to facilitate learning engagements that highlight the complexities of culture and cultural identity, going beyond surface characteristics such as foods, holidays, and clothing that are often the focus in…

Schall, Janine M.

2010-01-01

215

Bridges: Literature across Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This anthology of literature from the many American cultures as well as cultures around the world is intended for use in today's college composition and introductory literature courses. Offering a blend of classic favorites and selections from other cultures, the anthology contains some 300 stories, poems, and plays from the six habitable…

Muller, Gilbert H., Comp.; Williams, John A., Comp.

216

Growth of plant culture.  

PubMed

A series of articles by Nick Battey published throughout 2003 has been challenging plant scientists to embrace plant culture. Fine art, literature, mythology, plant lore, religion, philosophy and plant science all contribute to plant culture and Battey believes that it is up to us, the scientists, to stimulate greater appreciation of our work by striving for a richer culture. PMID:14659704

Napier, Richard

2003-12-01

217

How Culture Misdirects Multiculturalism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the ongoing debate over whether or what sort of multiculturalism should be provided by schools, the origin, evolution, and rhetorical function of the basic term "culture" have been unwisely neglected. The 19th century notion of "culture" implied a process of growth and development, of culturing an organism, or of the human organism becoming…

Wax, Murray L.

218

Eating disorders across cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many publications have been produced recently from centres across the world dealing with the prevalence of eating disorders in their cultures. This type of research suggests that eating disorders are no longer limited to the western culture and have now assumed a worldwide dimension. A number of global cultural forces have been implicated in this spread including the power of

Mervat Nasser

2006-01-01

219

Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural

Cheung, Fanny M.

2012-01-01

220

Safeguards Culture: Lessons Learned  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper builds on that theoretical discussion to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Paper: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop on “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges,” in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper, coauthored by Karyn R. Durbin and Andrew Van Duzer, described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper updates that theoretical discussion, and seeks to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Implicit in this discussion is an understanding that improving a culture is not an end in itself, but is one method of improving the underlying discipline, that is safety, security, or safeguards. Culture can be defined as a way of life, or general customs and beliefs of a particular group of people at a particular time. There are internationally accepted definitions of safety culture and nuclear security culture. As yet, there is no official agreed upon definition of safeguards culture. At the end of the paper I will propose my definition. At the Santa Fe Workshop the summary by the Co-Chairs of Working Group 1, “The Further Evolution of Safeguards,” noted: “It is clear that ‘safeguards culture’ needs to be addressed if the efficiency and effectiveness are to continue to be improved. This will require commitment and change at all levels, from States to facility operators. Cultural change has to come from good leadership, doing the right thing and ‘beliefs’ are not sufficient – behavior is what counts. We are optimistic that with sufficient effort and the right incentives, change can be accomplished quickly.”

Mladineo, Stephen V.

2009-05-27

221

Beyond national culture: implications of cultural dynamics for consumer research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To develop a more thorough understanding of culture in a rapidly changing global environment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The recent literature dealing with ways in which cultural dynamics are influencing the nature and meaning of culture are examined. Different perspectives of culture related to three key components of culture, intangibles, material culture and communication, are explored. Based on this, directions

C. Samuel Craig; Susan P. Douglas

2006-01-01

222

Culture, Culture Learning and New Technologies: Towards a Pedagogical Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper seeks to improve approaches to the learning and teaching of culture using new technologies by relating the key qualities and dimensions of the culture concept to elements within a pedagogical framework. In Part One, five facets of the culture concept are developed: culture as elemental; culture as relative; culture as group membership;…

Levy, Mike

2007-01-01

223

Non-conversion of sputum culture among patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Cameroon: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated the determinants of sputum culture non-conversion following intensive phase of treatment, and assessed the effects on the outcome among patients treated for a first episode of smear positive tuberculosis (TB). Methods This was a prospective cohort study spanning October 2009 to May 2012, among patients treated for a first episode of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in the Chest service of the Yaounde Jamot Hospital, Cameroon. Logistic regressions models were used to relate baseline characteristics with non-conversion of sputum cultures after the intensive phase of treatment. Results A total of 953 patients were admitted to the service during the study period, including 97 (10.2%) who had a positive sputum smear at the end of the intensive phase of anti-tuberculosis treatment. Eighty-six patients with persistent of smear positive sputa at the end of intensive phase of TB treatment were included, among whom 46 (53%) had positive sputum culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (C+). The absence of haemoptysis [adjusted odd ratio 4.65 (95% confidence intervals: 1.14-18.95)] and current smoking [7.26 (1.59-33.23)] were the main determinants of sputum culture non-conversion. Of the 46C + patients, 7 (15%) were resistant to at least one anti-tuberculosis drug. Treatment failure rate was 28% among C + patients and 8% among C– patients (p = 0.023). The sensitivity and specificity were 78.6% and 55.4% for culture non-conversion after intensive treatment, in predicting anti-TB treatment failure. Conclusions Failure rate is high among patients with positive sputum culture after intensive treatment, even in the absence of multi-drug resistant bacilli. Treatment should be closely monitored in these patients and susceptibility to anti-tuberculosis drugs tested in the presence of persistent positive smears following the intensive phase of treatment. PMID:24618155

2014-01-01

224

Foreign Languages and Foreign Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Calls on foreign language departments to take a closer look at a long-standing component of their curriculum: culture. The discussion focuses on language and culture, teaching foreign cultures, and foreign cultures, transnationality, and globalization. (Author/VWL)

Berman, Russell A.

2002-01-01

225

Culture and psychiatric diagnosis.  

PubMed

Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning. PMID:23816860

Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

2013-01-01

226

Culture and math.  

PubMed

Cultural differences have been shown across a number of different cognitive domains from vision, language, and music. Mathematical cognition is another domain that is an integral part of modern society and because there are a fixed number of ways in which many math operations can be performed, it is also an apposite tool for cultural comparisons. This discussion examines the literature on mathematical processing in accordance with culture, summarizing the brain regions involved across various mathematical tasks. In doing so, we provide a clear picture of the anatomical similarities and differences between cultures when performing different math tasks. This information is useful to explore the possibility of enhancement of mathematical skills, where different strategies may be applicable in accordance with culture. It also contributes to the evolutionary development of different math skills and the growing theory that anatomical and behavioral studies must account for the cultural identity of their sample. PMID:24090438

Tcheang, Lili

2014-01-01

227

Foresight in cultural evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critics of Darwinian cultural evolution frequently assert that whereas biological evolution is blind and undirected, cultural\\u000a change is directed or guided by people who possess foresight, thereby invalidating any Darwinian analysis of culture. Here\\u000a I show this argument to be erroneous and unsupported in several respects. First, critics commonly conflate human foresight\\u000a with supernatural clairvoyance, resulting in the premature rejection

Alex Mesoudi

2008-01-01

228

Material Cultural Macroevolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defining “evolution” simply as the fate of transmissible information allows comparisons to be drawn between the domains of\\u000a biological and material cultural evolution. “Genes” are real corporeal information-bearing entities, whereas “memes” are particles\\u000a of information known only from specifiable bits of cultural phenomena—including material culture.\\u000a \\u000a Genetically based information transfer is vertical in all but bacterial and certain plant clades; in

Niles Eldredge

229

Darwinism and cultural change  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary models of cultural change have acquired an important role in attempts to explain the course of human evolution, especially our specialization in knowledge-gathering and intelligent control of environments. In both biological and cultural change, different patterns of explanation become relevant at different ‘grains’ of analysis and in contexts associated with different explanatory targets. Existing treatments of the evolutionary approach to culture, both positive and negative, underestimate the importance of these distinctions. Close attention to grain of analysis motivates distinctions between three possible modes of cultural evolution, each associated with different empirical assumptions and explanatory roles. PMID:22734059

Godfrey-Smith, Peter

2012-01-01

230

Becoming a Cultural Researcher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about material culture in this Moveable Museum lesson plan by taking a firsthand look at how culture influences the kinds of things we do. The 12-page PDF guide has educator materials including background information, teacher strategies, assessment guidelines, and detailed notes about the curriculum standards addressed. The Becoming a Cultural Researcher activity worksheet has a series of questions that prompts students to reflect on the material culture of daily activities, customs, or ceremonies. There is a kid-friendly glossary of related terms.

231

UNESCO Window to Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new online directory from UNESCO is devoted to "policy making in the field of culture." Though the page is relatively new, there are already more than 400 annotated links here in ten categories including Ministries of Culture, Networks and Culturenets, Research Institutes, International Organizations, and so on. Part of the larger Culture and UNESCO site, Windows to Culture is a good demonstration of "value-added"; clicking on the detailed view for a resource brings up the title, address, URL, email address, country, region, themes, and a nice description of the resource/ organization.

2001-01-01

232

Sorghum anther culture  

E-print Network

-D also appeared to enhance artier survival, as well as, high levels of sucrose (1G-12, v). Giber addenda such as pyridoxine. HC1, nicotinic acid, qlycine, yeast extract, coconut milk, seed extract, activated char oal, seri nc and g'l utami ne did... culture. The effect of 2, 6, 10 and 12K sucrose levels on sorghum anthers in culture. The effect of yeast extract on sorghum anthers in culture . 22 23 Comparison of kinetin and coconut milk as cyto- kinin sources for sorghum anther culture...

Caulkins, Charles Daniel

2012-06-07

233

Coexistence of granulomatous enteric inflammation and neoplasia in an adult sheep.  

PubMed

A 7-year-old dairy sheep suffering from chronic loss of weight without diarrhea or anorexia was euthanized after failing to respond to any treatment (antibiotic and antiparasitic). The main findings at the necropsy of this animal were multifocal miliary nodules in several organs, mainly in the Peyer's patches of the small intestine, and a segmental thickening of the jejunal wall. Histologic examination of the samples taken at the necropsy showed a multifocal chronic granulomatous inflammation, with mineralization and caseous necrosis at the core of the larger granulomas and scarce intrahistiocytic acid-fast bacilli consistent with a disseminated digestive tuberculosis. Polymerase chain reaction and bacteriological culture from these samples confirmed Mycobacterium avium subsp avium to be the etiologic agent of this infection. Histologically, the cause of the segmental thickening of the jejunal wall was found to be a small intestine adenocarcinoma, which in some areas coexisted with the granulomatous lesion. PMID:23456963

Benavides, J; Garcia-Pariente, C; Garrido, J M; Sevilla, I A; García-Marín, J F; Pérez, V; Ferreras, M C

2013-11-01

234

The efficacy of serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen 125 (CA125), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels in determining the malignancy of solitary pulmonary nodules.  

PubMed

We investigated the utility of the tumour markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen 125 (CA125), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant solitary pulmonary nodules in 42 hospitalized patients. Routine medical history and physical examination of each patient was performed and each patient also had a chest X-ray and a thoracic computed tomography scan. The following diagnostic procedures were also undertaken: bronchoscopy, transthoracic needle aspiration biopsy, sputum cytology and culture, analysis of sputum acid-fast bacilli and thoracotomy. Measurement of serum levels of tumour antigens by Immulite 2000 radioimmunoassay found that three tumour markers, CEA, CA125 and CA15-3, could be used in the diagnosis of malignant solitary pulmonary nodules. More research is now required involving a larger group of patients. PMID:19383238

Bekci, T T; Senol, T; Maden, E

2009-01-01

235

Tuberculosis of sacrum mimicking as malignancy.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis has always been a menace for both clinicians and radiologists due to its often non-specific and protean manifestations. Isolated tubercular involvement of sacrum is very rare. The authors present the case of a 38-year-old man with history of low-grade fever, pain and swelling in the sacral region. Skiagram revealed an osteolytic lesion of sacrum leading to the provisional diagnosis of chordoma and osteoclastoma. However, MRI was suggestive of a chronic infective condition like tuberculosis and fine needle aspiration cytology was positive for acid-fast bacilli and revealed epitheloid granulomas with caseous necrosis. Culture was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antitubercular therapy was commenced and surgical decompression of cold abscess was done and with good clinical response. This case highlights the importance of remaining cognisant of the manifestations and the importance of considering tuberculosis as a diagnosis at unusual sites of involvement. PMID:22605808

Shantanu, Kumar; Sharma, Vineet; Kumar, Santosh; Jain, Sonal

2012-01-01

236

Tuberculosis of sacrum mimicking as malignancy  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis has always been a menace for both clinicians and radiologists due to its often non-specific and protean manifestations. Isolated tubercular involvement of sacrum is very rare. The authors present the case of a 38-year-old man with history of low-grade fever, pain and swelling in the sacral region. Skiagram revealed an osteolytic lesion of sacrum leading to the provisional diagnosis of chordoma and osteoclastoma. However, MRI was suggestive of a chronic infective condition like tuberculosis and fine needle aspiration cytology was positive for acid-fast bacilli and revealed epitheloid granulomas with caseous necrosis. Culture was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antitubercular therapy was commenced and surgical decompression of cold abscess was done and with good clinical response. This case highlights the importance of remaining cognisant of the manifestations and the importance of considering tuberculosis as a diagnosis at unusual sites of involvement. PMID:22605808

Shantanu, Kumar; Sharma, Vineet; Kumar, Santosh; Jain, Sonal

2012-01-01

237

Tuberculous liver abscess in an immunocompetent adult male--a rare presentation.  

PubMed

A 20 year old young male was admitted to our hospital with complaints of pain in upper abdomen right side, anorexia and loss of weight. Ultrasonography of the upper abdomen revealed a hypoechoic area in the left lobe of liver. Entertaining the possibility of pyogenic or amoebic lesion, the patient was started on ofloxacin and metronidazole. Failing to get any response to the therapeutic intervention, ultrasound guided aspiration was undertaken. The aspirated pus did not grow any organism in pyogenic or fungal culture but showed acid fast bacilli in Z.N. stain. The treatment was shifted to four drugs ATT and there was dramatic improvement in the clinical condition. This case is being reported to emphasize that ruling out tuberculosis may avoid unnecessary delays in the initiation of specific anti-tubercular treatment. Also a greater awareness of this rare clinical condition may prevent unwarranted surgical intervention. PMID:25145067

Sharma, Suruchi; Mahajan Rakesh, Kumar; Gupta, Harish Kumar; Chaskar, Priyanka; Hans, Charoo

2012-09-01

238

Complicated coexisting pyogenic and tuberculous otitis media affecting the temporozygomatic, infratemporal, and parotid areas: report of a rare entity.  

PubMed

We report an unusual case in which a 28-year-old woman presented with a long-standing history of ear discharge, hearing loss, facial weakness with ipsilateral facial swelling and cellulitis, a postauricular fistula, and an abscess of the temporozygomatic, infratemporal, and parotid areas. The pus stained positive for bacteria and acid-fast bacilli, and culture was positive for Proteus vulgaris and mycobacteria. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of tuberculous otitis media with complications was made. Computed tomography showed extensive destruction of the tympanic and mastoid part of the temporal bone, as well as lytic lesions in the skull. The patient was placed on antituberculosis drug therapy. Although her facial nerve palsy and hearing loss persisted, she otherwise responded well and did not require surgery. PMID:23354894

Brar, Tripti; Mrig, Sumit; Passey, J C; Agarwal, A K; Jain, Shayma

2013-01-01

239

[A case of pulmonary Mycobacterium intracellulare infectious disease with a solitary pulmonary nodule in the peripheral lung field].  

PubMed

A 63-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of a solitary nodule (20 x 20 mm) in the right S3 which was first detected during a health examination. Because radiological findings for the nodule, such as pleural indentation and spicula on chest CT led us to suspect a pulmonary adenocarcinoma, we could not completely rule out lung cancer and performed a bronchoscopic examination on the third day after admission. However, no definite diagnosis could be made. Therefore, video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) was performed, and a caseating epitheloid granuloma with acid-fast bacilli was found. Initially, we administered antituberculous drugs for pulmonary tuberculoma, but then changed to combined chemotherapy using RFP, EB, CAM and SM after identification of Mycobacterium intracellulare by a culture test of resected tissue. We report a rare case with a solitary nodule caused by pulmonary Mycobacterium intracellulare infectious disease which is indicative of lung cancer. PMID:15500152

Kobashi, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Kouichiro; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Niki, Yoshihito; Matsushima, Toshiharu; Nakata, Masao

2004-09-01

240

Assessment of the BD MGIT TBc Identification Test for the Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in a Network of Mycobacteriology Laboratories  

PubMed Central

We evaluate the performance of the TBcID assay in a panel of 100 acid-fast bacilli cultures. Sixty-four isolates were TBcID positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), whereas 36 gave negative results. These included 28 nontuberculous mycobacteria, one nonmycobacterial isolate, one M. tuberculosis, and six M. bovis BCG strains. This corresponds to a sensitivity of 90.14%, specificity of 100%, and positive and negative predictive values of 100% and 80.55%, respectively. The test is rapid, easy to perform and interpret, and does not require sample preparation or instrumentation. However, a negative result does not exclude the presence of a strain belonging to MTBC, especially when mutations in mpb64 gene are present or some M. bovis BCG strains are isolated. The TBcID showed potential to assist in the identification of MTBC when the implementation and usage of molecular methods are often not possible, principally in resource-limited countries. PMID:24587985

Ramos, Jorge; Couto, Isabel; Narciso, Inácio; Coelho, Elizabeth; Viegas, Sofia

2014-01-01

241

Sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation in an eastern spiny softshell turtle (Apalone spinifera spinifera) with acute mycobacteriosis.  

PubMed

An adult, captive eastern spiny softshell turtle (Apalone spinifera spinifera) was examined for a 4-day history of lethargy and plastron discoloration. The turtle was obtunded and had pale mucous membranes, hemorrhagic nasal discharge, and petechiae on all limbs. The turtle was euthanized due to its grave condition. Necropsy revealed hemorrhagic coelomic effusion, petechiae on the serosal surfaces of the intestinal tract, and bilaterally hemorrhagic lungs. Histologic examination revealed numerous emboli of bacteria associated with fibrinocellular thrombi throughout the blood vessels of multiple tissues. The bacteria in the thrombi were slender bacilli that stained intensely acid fast. Culture of the coelomic fluid yielded Mycobacterium chelonae. Although mycobacteriosis in reptiles is typically a chronic, granulomatous disease, this case demonstrates that mycobacteriosis should be considered in reptiles presenting with acute, nongranulomatous disease. This case also describes clinically apparent hemorrhage due to disseminated intravascular coagulation, which is rarely described in chelonians. PMID:19746876

Murray, Maureen; Waliszewski, Nicole T; Garner, Michael M; Tseng, Florina S

2009-09-01

242

An outbreak of Mycobacterium chelonae infections in tattoos.  

PubMed

Nontuberculous mycobacteria infections may occur after cutaneous procedures. Review of the medical records of patients who developed a rash within a tattoo revealed 6 patients with skin infections caused by Mycobacterium chelonae after receiving tattoos by one artist at a single tattoo establishment. The interval between tattoo placement and the skin findings was 1 to 2 weeks. All patients received alternate diagnoses before mycobacterial infection was identified. Skin findings included pink, red, or purple papules; papules with scale; pustules; granulomatous papules; and lichenoid papules and plaques. Histopathologic examination revealed granuloma, lymphohistiocytic infiltrate, or mixed inflammation; acid-fast bacilli stains produced negative results. Diagnosis was made by culture in 3 patients, histopathology in two patients, and clinical/epidemiologic association in one patient. The M chelonae isolates were clarithromycin susceptible, and the infections responded to macrolide antibiotics. Physicians should consider mycobacterial infections in patients with skin findings within a new tattoo. PMID:19733936

Drage, Lisa A; Ecker, Phillip M; Orenstein, Robert; Phillips, P Kim; Edson, Randall S

2010-03-01

243

Cultural change that sticks.  

PubMed

When a major change initiative runs aground, leaders often blame their company's culture for pushing it off course. They try to forge ahead by overhauling the culture--a tactic that tends to fizzle, fail, or backfire. Most cultures are too well entrenched to be jettisoned. The secret is to stop fighting your culture--and to work with and within it, until it evolves in the right direction. Today's best-performing companies, such as Southwest Airlines, Apple, and the Four Seasons, understand this, say the authors, three consultants from Booz & Company. These organizations follow five principles for making the most of their cultures: 1. Match strategy to culture. Culture trumps strategy every time, no matter how brilliant the plan, so the two need to be in alignment. 2. Focus on a few critical shifts in behavior. Wholesale change is hard; choose your battles wisely. 3. Honor the strengths of the existing culture. Every culture is the product of good intentions and has strengths; put them to use. 4. Integrate formal and informal interventions. Don't just implement new rules and processes; identify "influencers" who can bring other employees along. 5. Measure and monitor cultural evolution. Otherwise you can't identify backsliding or correct course. When the leaders of Aetna applied these rules while implementing a new strategy in the early 2000s, they reinvigorated the company's ailing culture and restored employee pride. That shift was reflected in the business results, as Aetna went from a $300 million loss to a $1.7 billion gain. PMID:22852451

Katzenbach, Jon R; Steffen, Ilona; Kronley, Caroline

2012-01-01

244

Cultural Studies, Multiculturalism, and Media Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio, television, film, and the other products of media culture provide materials out of which we forge our very identities; our sense of selfhood; our notion of what it means to be male or female; our sense of class, of ethnicity and race, of nationality, of sexuality; and of \\

Douglas Kellner

245

Enhancing students' cultural competence using cross-cultural experiential learning.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate community health students' perceptions of their cultural competence. Little is known about students' cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills after their experience working with diverse cultural groups and language barriers. A cross-cultural experiential learning exercise was used as an educational approach. Reflective writing was used to elicit students' attitudes of the other culture and their coping skills. Three themes emerged as cultural awareness and knowledge, observation and learning, and cross-cultural communication. Results underscore the need for student academic preparation using cross-cultural educational approaches to enhance cultural competence. PMID:24279125

Kratzke, Cynthia; Bertolo, Melissa

2013-01-01

246

Culture and Disability Behavior  

PubMed Central

A substantial amount of literature suggests that illness behavior in the United States is a product of a patient's core culture; equally credible findings do not support this contention. Most students and graduates in the health care professions believe that illness and disability behavior are affected by a patient's culture, but they are hard put to find convincing examples of that relationship. In experience with medical students studying the social and cultural bases of illness behavior, with patients who are disabled and with persons who claim disability in the absence of physical disease or disabling psychopathology, I observed no deviant disability behavior that was typical for the members of any cultural group, and no behavior was displayed by the members of one cultural group that was not seen in members of other cultural groups. No cultural stereotypes were upheld. I did find evidence that disability behavior is influenced by personality factors, social situations and the gains derived from the disability status. Evolving concepts of “entitlement,” which are closely related to socioeconomic status, also have a significant influence. The impact of feedback from others in a person's many social and medical subcultures is a more crucial determinant of illness and disability behavior, except in those for whom illness and disability behavior is determined by the limitations imposed by the disease or by a personality structure resistant to cultural expectations and social feedback. PMID:6666106

Brodsky, Carroll M.

1983-01-01

247

Managing Organizational Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains concept of organizational culture (includes systems of values and attitudes shared by organization's members, ways they have developed for handling problems, forms of acceptable solutions), and discusses OCLC, AT&T, and the University of California at Berkeley as examples of managing cultures and organizational change. Twenty-six…

Malinconico, S. Michael

1984-01-01

248

Cultures & Conflits Articles indits  

E-print Network

Cultures & Conflits Articles in). ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ R�f�rence �lectronique Didier BIGO, � L'impossible cartographie du terrorisme �, Cultures & Conflits [En ligne], Articles in�dits, mis en ligne le 25 f�vrier 2005, consult� le 27 juin 2014. URL : http://conflits

Boyer, Edmond

249

Cultures & Conflits Articles indits  

E-print Network

Cultures & Conflits Articles in (French) �, Cultures & Conflits [En ligne], Articles in�dits, mis en ligne le , consult� le 29 juin 2014. URL : http://conflits.revues.org/1175 �diteur : Centre d'�tudes sur les conflits http://conflits

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

250

Cultural Diplomacy in Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evolution of European government activities in the sphere of international cultural relations is examined. Section 1 describes the period between World War I and World War II when European governments tried to enhance their prestige and policies by means of cultural propaganda. Section 2 analyzes the period during World War II when the…

Haigh, Anthony

251

Anaerobic thermophilic culture system  

DOEpatents

A mixed culture system of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC31550 and the microorganism Clostridium thermocellum ATCC31549 is described. In a mixed nutrient culture medium that contains cellulose, these microorganisms have been coupled and cultivated to efficiently ferment cellulose to produce recoverable quantities of ethanol under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions.

Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Wiegel, Jurgen K. W. (Gottingen, DE)

1981-01-01

252

Human Olfactory Neuron Cultures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Neurons have eluded the attempts of researchers to maintain them in continuous cultures largely because most neurons do not divide and/or proliferate. Investigators have been able to maintain fetal or newborn rat neurons in culture, however, the neurons a...

B. L. Wolozin, H. G. Coon

1990-01-01

253

Essay: What Is Culture?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is culture? How does it figure into learning and teaching? What can educators do to make their classrooms sites of deep learning for all children? This essay examines the concept of culture, exploring how this concept has evolved historically and how its meaning continues to develop today.

Norma Gonz�lez, University O.

2008-01-01

254

Pop Culture in America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of today's popular culture, its place in American life, and its merit or lack of it are the themes of these essays from "The New York Times Magazine." Introductory essays discuss the use of leisure time, paying the cost of the arts, and whether American society can be considered "cultured." Subsequent essays discuss the nature of radio…

White, David Manning, Ed.

255

Culture of seaweeds monostroma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A species of genus Monostroma cultured and grown in south central Japan along the Pacific coast serves the country as an important source of food. Both in respect of the region where it grows and its ecological characteristics, this is a seaweed that shows striking resemblance with ‘amanori’. The methods of culturing either this species or amanori are also very

Washiro Kida

1990-01-01

256

Pop Goes the Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Popular culture is defended as a solid academic entry that is a new approach to sociology, art, and literature. The contributions and theories of three professors are discussed: Arthur Asa Berger, Leslie Fiedler, and Alan Gowans. They illustrate the range and diversity in the pop culture field. (LBH)

Kurlansky, Mark J.

1977-01-01

257

New Cultures and Economies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Don Slater, Department of Sociology, University of London, shares interdisciplinary research in economic sociology at the New Cultures and Economies site. Readers may download extensive bibliographies on consumer culture and market society topics in Word97 or .zip formats or browse course pages online, and the Sociology of the Internet section, now in progress, aims to create dialogues among scholars of electronic media.

258

Lie detection across cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can people detect deception by watching a liar's nonverbal behavior? Can lies be detected across cultures? In the current paper, we report the first cross-cultural study to date of the detection of deception from nonverbal behavior. Americans and Jordanians were videotaped while telling lies and truths; other Americans and Jordanians watched the resulting videotapes and made lie detection judgments. Results

Charles F. Bond; Adnan Omar; Adnan Mahmoud; Richard Neal Bonser

1990-01-01

259

The Cultural Tinderbox.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the explosive nature of past cultural conflict in eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, stressing the fragility of current developments. Celebrates the contributions U.S. humanities scholars have made to cultural understanding and political tolerance, emphasizing the need for continued exchange and objective international scholarship. (CH)

Kassof, Allen H.

1990-01-01

260

The Popular Culture Explosion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Popular culture is defined here as anything produced by and/or dissembled by the mass media or mass production or transportation, either directly or indirectly, and that reaches the majority of the people. This sampler from mass magazines, intended for use in the study of popular culture, includes fiction from "Playboy"; articles on cars, Johnny…

Browne, Ray B.; Madden, David

261

Developing Culturally Competent Organizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special issue examines multicultural aspects of services provided by agencies concerned with children's mental health. The lead article is titled "Developing Culturally Competent Organizations" by James L. Mason. This article uses the cultural competence model to discuss an organization's self-evaluation and its planning in the areas of…

Focal Point, 1994

1994-01-01

262

Dominant Cultural Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study expands on previous work in exploring dominant cultural values portrayed in print magazine advertisements in the United States of America (U.S.) and India across and within product categories. A modified version of Cheng and Schweitzer's (1996) coding framework is used for the study. The differences and similarities in the observed frequencies of the dominant cultural values portrayed in

Durriya H. Z. Khairullah; Zahid Y. Khairullah

2003-01-01

263

Cell Culture Made Easy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines steps to generate cell samples for observation and experimentation. The procedures (which use ordinary laboratory equipment) will establish a short-term primary culture of normal mammalian cells. Information on culture vessels and cell division and a list of questions to generate student interest and involvement in the topics are…

Dye, Frank J.

1985-01-01

264

ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AND CULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address empirically the question of why international economic sanctions are, or are not, chosen as instruments of foreign policy and the question of what determines their success. We hypothesize that cultural linkages between nations are an important factor in explaining both instrument choice and conflict outcomes. Countries that share significant cultural attributes are found to be less likely to

Donna Driscoll; Dennis Halcoussis; Anton D. Lowenberg

2010-01-01

265

ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AND CULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address empirically the question of why international economic sanctions are, or are not, chosen as instruments of foreign policy and the question of what determines their success. We hypothesize that cultural linkages between nations are an important factor in explaining both instrument choice and conflict outcomes. Countries that share significant cultural attributes are found to be less likely to

Donna Driscoll; Dennis Halcoussis; Anton D. Lowenberg

2011-01-01

266

East Asian Languages & Cultures Program Department of Religion & Culture  

E-print Network

East Asian Languages & Cultures Program Department of Religion & Culture Tenure-Track Assistant Professor in Chinese Culture The East Asian Languages & Cultures Program at the University of Winnipeg culture. The successful candidate will have strong research potential, and will be expected to teach

Martin, Jeff

267

What is Culture? Toward Common Understandings of Culture in HCI  

E-print Network

What is Culture? Toward Common Understandings of Culture in HCI Anette L�fstrom ITC, L�gerhyddsv�gen 2, Hus 1 75237 Uppsala anette.lofstrom@it.uu.se Abstract. What is culture in HCI? This article presents how the term culture has been used and discussed by authors in the discipline. Since culture

Boyer, Edmond

268

156 Literary and Cultural Studies Literary and Cultural Studies  

E-print Network

156 · Literary and Cultural Studies Literary and Cultural Studies Advisory Committee: Knight). The program in Literary and Cultural Studies brings an interdis- ciplinary perspective to the study of culture of their Literary and Cultural Studies major). Students are equally encouraged to take courses in related

Lewis, Robert Michael

269

Cultural citizenship online: the Internet and digital culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores connections between cultural citizenship and Internet-based media. It argues that engaging with cultural citizenship assists in moving debates beyond misleadingly narrow conceptions of the digital divide. It suggests that cultural citizenship invokes questions of access, visibility and cultural recognition, as well as tensions between intra- and inter-cultural communication online. The paper calls for a reflexive and critical

Luke Goode

2010-01-01

270

The Power of Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The link between culture and various forms of development remains a somewhat mysterious one, but this website provided by the Netherlands' Ministry of Foreign Affairs begins to explore this rather compelling connection. The website states that "Culture is not a peripheral matter", then proceeds to offer a number of themes that visitors will want to take a closer look at. The themes that are covered on the site include policy, cultural diversity, cultural heritage, and global ethics, along with several others. Within each theme, visitors can view latest news releases on each topic, along with a selection of links to related sites, such as those provided by UNESCO. The "Specials" section is well-developed, and features in-depth discussion of such emergent cultural trends as the relatively undiscovered worlds of African cinema and Chinese media art. Finally, visitors can also choose to enter their own comments in the online visitor's book.

271

Culture and family therapy.  

PubMed

Children and families constitute an ever-increasing culturally diverse group in this country. Together with incentives in multicultural education and the evidence of the impact of different cultural values in the media, these groups have become more visible, more complex, and harder to study. Culture is defined as dynamic and expressive of shared values and behaviors. Cultural patterns may be situation specific and change according to contextual demands (rural versus urban youth) or may be population specific (the culture of gay youth versus heterosexual youth). Some people also ascribe to cultural beliefs, but these do not necessarily translate to behaviors. Families and their children vary in their level of acculturation and developmentally vary in their level of ethnic identification. Child-rearing patterns and parenting approaches are constantly in flux, as are gender roles and, increasingly, religious affiliations. Clinicians are challenged to treat these families and often find the cultural dissonance with their own native culture and theoretical approaches as obstacles for the appropriate assessment and treatment interventions. As the field of family therapy has developed, so have culturally sensitive and competent approaches in the field of mental health. These approaches must be integrated into the multiplicity of other factors that define normality and psychopathology and be studied further in the context of their relevance and efficacy for special groups of children and families who suffer with specific disorders. In the meantime, cultural awareness and competence will continue to help clinicians understand better the impact of values and patterns in family cycles, family organization, child-rearing practices, and the expression of symptoms in family systems. PMID:11449814

Canino, I A; Inclan, J E

2001-07-01

272

ALICE's adventures in cultural computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paradigm of cultural computing, different cultures need different approaches to address the cultural determinants that strongly influences our way of thinking, feeling and worldview in general. For the western culture, our answer to this need is an artistic and interactive installation (ALICE) based on the narrative 'Alice's Adventures in Wonderland'. To address the western culture characteristics highlighted in

Jun Hu; Christoph Bartneck; Ben Salem; GWM Rauterberg

2008-01-01

273

Teaching World Cultures through Artifacts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching world cultures in the middle-level geography classroom presents challenges both because of the complexity of culture and because of the characteristics of students of this age. One effective way to teach about a culture is through the use of cultural artifacts. This article discusses how to collect and use cultural artifacts in the…

Hauf, James E.

2010-01-01

274

Insect PopCulture Description  

E-print Network

Insect PopCulture ® Reagent Description Insect PopCulture Reagent 50 ml 71187-3 250 ml 71187-4 Insect PopCulture Reagent is a buffered mixture of concentrated detergents formulated to extract proteins from insect cells directly in their culture medium. During a 15 minute incubation, Insect PopCulture

Lebendiker, Mario

275

The Burden of Mycobacterial Disease in Ethiopian Cattle: Implications for Public Health  

PubMed Central

Background Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a debilitating disease of cattle. Ethiopia has one of the largest cattle populations in the world, with an economy highly dependent on its livestock. Furthermore, Ethiopia has one of the highest incidence rates of human extrapulmonary TB in the world, a clinical presentation that is often associated with transmission of M. bovis from cattle to humans. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present a comprehensive investigation of the prevalence of bTB in Ethiopia based on cases identified at slaughterhouses. Out of approximately 32,800 inspected cattle, ?4.7% showed suspect tuberculous lesions. Culture of suspect lesions yielded acid-fast bacilli in ?11% of cases, with M. bovis accounting for 58 of 171 acid-fast cultures, while 53 isolates were non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Strikingly, M. tuberculosis was isolated from eight cattle, an unusual finding that suggests human to animal transmission. Conclusions/Significance Our analysis has revealed that bTB is widely spread throughout Ethiopia, albeit at a low prevalence, and provides underpinning evidence for public health policy formulation. PMID:19352493

Berg, Stefan; Firdessa, Rebuma; Habtamu, Meseret; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Mengistu, Araya; Yamuah, Lawrence; Ameni, Gobena; Vordermeier, Martin; Robertson, Brian D.; Smith, Noel H.; Engers, Howard; Young, Douglas; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Aseffa, Abraham; Gordon, Stephen V.

2009-01-01

276

Co-infection of Scedosporium apiospermum and Mycobacterium chelonae in an immunocompetent host.  

PubMed

A 75-year-old man presented with multiple, scaly, erythematous, grouped papules, nodules and plaques with tenderness ranging from the right forearm to hand dorsum and the right lower leg for 2-3 months. Five months prior to presentation, the patient had received an antibiotic skin test on his right forearm. Lesions appeared approximately 2-3 months after the antibiotic skin test, slowly progressing without clinical improvement. Culture for fungus on the right forearm revealed growth of Scedosporium apiospermum. The tissue acid-fast bacilli (AFB) culture for the right forearm and right leg revealed growth of non-tuberculous mycobacteria which was Mycobacterium chelonae, and subsequent tissue polymerase chain reaction of both sites reported positive signs of M. chelonae. On diastase periodic acid-Schiff stain of the biopsy specimen of the right forearm, fungal hyphae were found while rod-shaped bacilli could be seen in AFB stain for the biopsy specimen of the right leg. The patient was treated with oral clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin along with an oral antifungal agent for 13 weeks. After the treatment, the lesions subsided and left a scar. We report a rare case of co-infection of S. apiospermum and M. chelonae in an immunocompetent host. PMID:25228156

Kim, Ji Seok; Choi, Misoo; Nam, Chan Hee; Kim, Jee Young; Hong, Seung Phil; Kim, Myung Hwa; Park, Byung Cheol

2014-10-01

277

Popular Culture, Cultural Resistance, and Anticonsumption Activism: An Exploration of Culture Jamming as Critical Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter examines popular culture as a site of cultural resistance. Specifically, it explores how "culture jamming," a cultural-resistance activity, can be a form of adult education. It examines adult education and learning as it intersects with both consumerism and popular culture. Focus is placed on a growing social movement of individuals…

Sandlin, Jennifer A.

2007-01-01

278

Landscape of culture and culture of landscape: does landscape ecology need culture?  

E-print Network

Science+Business Media B.V. 2010 The objects of study in landscape ecology become increasingly ``culturalEDITORIAL Landscape of culture and culture of landscape: does landscape ecology need culture, cultures, legacies, and stories. Landscape ecology needs to incorporate the different dimensions

Wu, Jianguo "Jingle"

279

SPONGE CULTURE ~y Jules Cotte  

E-print Network

SPONGE CULTURE ~y Jules Cotte Adjunct Professor at the School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Marseille., September 22 to 26, 1908 #12;CONTENTS. Page. Definition of sponge culture _- - - n - n n - - - - - - - - - _ - - - - - - _ - - - - - - - - - - - - - _ - - - - - _ _ - - - - _ 590 Culture

280

Culture, personality and psychotherapy.  

PubMed

Conventional Western-model psychotherapy is based on a number of premises regarding its rationale and technique. The increasing experience in psychotherapy globally is questioning the universality of these premises, suggesting that these could be to a large extent culture-specific, having developed in a particular culture at a particular time. Hence, the need to move from a dogmatic approach to psychotherapy to a flexible approach taking into account the socio-cultural reality. The paper identifies a number of cultural variables involving the intrapsychic mechanisms (e.g. cognitive and expressive), social relatedness (e.g. autonomy, social distance) and religious-philosophical belief systems (concept of sin, and belief in fatalism and after-life/reincarnation) and discusses their role in the approach to and process of psychotherapy, illustrating it with the situation in the Indian setting. PMID:3410660

Varma, V K

1988-01-01

281

Pericardial fluid culture  

MedlinePLUS

Culture - pericardial fluid ... the heart (the pericardium). A small amount of fluid is removed. You may have an ECG and ... x-ray after the test. Sometimes the pericardial fluid is taken during open heart surgery. The sample ...

282

Pleural fluid culture  

MedlinePLUS

Culture - pleural fluid ... is used to get a sample of pleural fluid. The sample is sent to a laboratory and ... around the lungs, called the pleural space. As fluid drains into a collection bottle, you may cough ...

283

Are Canadians Cultural Cuckoos?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author believes that teachers have been remiss in transmitting Canadian culture to their students. They have also neglected the development of self-realization and identity in the majority of students. (Author)

Mickleburgh, Brita

1977-01-01

284

Envisioning cultural practices  

PubMed Central

Graphic visualization has demonstrated its value for organizing transactional data and modeling complex phenomena in a wide variety of fields, from theoretical physics to medicine. Behavior analysts have historically used a variety of graphic tools not only for presentation but also for analysis and teaching. As they turn increasingly to the analysis and design of cultural practices, the phenomena behavior analysts study are becoming increasingly complicated. Many cultural practices of interest are embedded in extensive webs of interlocking practices and contingencies that can be difficult to grasp comprehensively. Building on contingency diagrams, which have proven to be useful for the analysis of operant behavior, and graphic tools developed for object-oriented systems analysis, this paper suggests graphic tools for capturing the interlocking contingencies that constitute cultures. These diagrams offer a broad-bandwidth technology for analyzing and designing cultural practices. ImagesFigure 3 PMID:22478262

Mattaini, Mark A.

1996-01-01

285

Nature/Culture/Seawater  

E-print Network

This essay considers seawater as a substance and symbol in anthropological and social theory. Seawater has occupied an ambiguous place with respect to anthropological categories of nature and culture. Seawater as nature ...

Helmreich, Stefan

286

Capturing Cultural Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Various policy analysts, politicians, and other persons have become increasingly intrigued by the potential that various cultural programs and initiatives may have in terms of economic development in their respective regions. This report, authored by John Holden on behalf of the Demos Group in London, examines the way in which government views the potential benefits of various cultural programs. In this 62-page report, Holden argues that arts and other such programs should be funded because of their cultural contribution to society, rather than for the increasingly popular reason given by many units of governance, which is that they can effectively deliver government policy. The report goes on to argue that government should move from a target-oriented, top-down approach to one that is more cognizant of the full range of values created by culture.

287

Lymph node culture  

MedlinePLUS

... are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration ... normal result means there was no growth of microorganisms on the lab dish. Normal value ranges may ...

288

Speech Culture and Personality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychological and pedagogical benefits of studying and promoting speech culture are discussed, particularly as they affect the formation of personality in young people. Ethical and moral implications are mentioned. (15 references) (LB)

Vasic, Smiljka

1991-01-01

289

Hanford cultural resources laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes activities of the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) which was established by the Richland Operations Office in 1987 as part of PNL.The HCRL provides support for the management of the archaeological, historical, and traditional cultural resources of the site in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act.

Wright, M.K.

1995-06-01

290

Cultural Environmental Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Studies Program of Washington State University offers this online directory to Websites and resources in cultural environmental studies. The directory presents a subject overview followed by a dozen or more subtopic headings which lead to annotated listings further broken down by subheadings. The site is frequently updated and provides a wealth of links for studying the last two centuries from a cultural studies viewpoint.

291

YOUTH AND CULTURAL PRACTICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract The study of youth played a central role in anthropology,in the first half of the twentieth century, giving rise to a still-thriving cross-cultural approach to adolescence,as a life stage. Yet the emphasis,on adolescence,as a staging ground for integration into the adult community,often obscures,young,people’s,own,cultural agency or frames it solely in relation to adult concerns. By contrast, sociology has long

Mary Bucholtz

2002-01-01

292

Cultural Heritage of Sikkim  

E-print Network

CIpation in festivals. People of Sikklm arc caring and feel responsibility to\\\\'ards their families. fellowmen and communitv. So this is the land of mixed culture represented by Lepchas, Bhutias and Nepalese. 79 ... Bulletin of Tibetology CULTURAl; HERITAGE OF SIKKIM -iU,S Talat Saeed Among high mountam ranges of Eastern Himalayas, where I stand today, is a beautlf'ul region, embroidered with lush green jungles of flowering plants and trees dotted...

Saeed, Mrs. Talat

1995-01-01

293

Endocrinology and fish culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current practice of fish culture the use of hormones is mainly limited to the field of reproduction, and more precisely\\u000a to induce or synchronize ovulation and stimulate spermiation. The practice of pituitary homogenates injection (called hypophysation)\\u000a which started in the early 1930's has allowed spectacular developments in the culture of some cyprinid species, especially\\u000a in China, India and

R. Billard

1989-01-01

294

Cell isolation and culture.  

PubMed

Cell isolation and culture are essential tools for the study of cell function. Isolated cells grown under controlled conditions can be manipulated and imaged at a level of resolution that is not possible in whole animals or even tissue explants. Recent advances have allowed for large-scale isolation and culture of primary C. elegans cells from both embryos and all four larval stages. Isolated cells can be used for single-cell profiling, electrophysiology, and high-resolution microscopy to assay cell autonomous development and behavior. This chapter describes protocols for the isolation and culture of C. elegans embryonic and larval stage cells. Our protocols describe isolation of embryonic and L1 stage cells from nematodes grown on high-density NA22 bacterial plates and isolation of L2 through L4 stage cells from nematodes grown in axenic liquid culture. Both embryonic and larval cells can be isolated from nematode populations within 3 hours and can be cultured for several days. A primer on sterile cell culture techniques is given in the appendices. PMID:23430760

Zhang, Sihui; Kuhn, Jeffrey R

2013-01-01

295

Astronomy and Culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is, by definition, the sum of the material and spiritual values created by mankind and of the institutions necessary to communicate these values. Consequently, astronomy belongs to the culture of each society and its scientific progress does nothing but underline its role in culture. It is interesting that there is even a European society which bears this name "Astronomy for Culture" (SEAC). Its main goal is "the study of calendric and astronomical aspects of culture". Owning ancient evidence of astronomical knowledge, dating from the dawn of the first millennium, Romania is interested in this topic. But Astronomy has a much deeper role in culture and civilization. There are many aspects that deserve to be discussed. Examples? The progress of astronomy in a certain society, in connection with its evolution; the place held by the astronomy in literature and, generally, in art; the role of the SF in the epoch of super-mediatization; astronomy and belief; astronomy and astrology in the modern society, and so forth. These are problems that can be of interest for IAU, but the most important one could be her educational role, in the formation of the culture of the new generation, in the education of the population for the protection of our planet, in the ensuring of a high level of spiritual development of the society in the present epoch.

Stavinschi, M.

2006-08-01

296

THE BEHAVIOR OF BACILLUS LEPRAE IN COLD-BLOODED ANIMALS.  

PubMed

Before proceeding to a discussion of the experiments upon cold-blooded animals, it is necessary to review briefly some of the work recently done with the bacillus of leprosy. The appearance of the bacillus in man and its behavior under artificial cultivation, and in the tissues of lower animals, should be considered in order that comparisons may be drawn. In their studies with the organism under cultivation, Duval and Gurd pointed out that the long, slender, and beaded appearance of the leprosy bacillus described by Hansen, in 1872, is lost when removed for several generations from the parent stem, and under artificial cultivation the organism becomes unbeaded, short, and coccoid. Duval also noted that these changes in morphology were always followed by rapid multiplication of the organism. Duval argues, a priori, that the bacillus is not in a favorable environment in the human tissues. If these deductions are correct, the morphology of the leprosy bacillus should vary according to the resistance offered by the tissues of different animals. The resistance of the human host to the leprosy bacillus becomes more evident in the light of the clinical aspect of the disease. The long period of incubation, the duration of the disease, and the disappearance of the bacilli preceding the healing of the infected foci show that the resistance offered to the bacillus by the human tissues is not to be overestimated. This opinion is confirmed when the behavior of the leprosy bacillus under cultivation and in the tissues of various mammals is compared. When cats, rabbits, bats, guinea pigs, and rats are inoculated either below the skin or into the peritoneal cavity with large quantities of Bacillus leprae, a slight local reaction follows within twenty-four to forty-eight hours, but no definite lesions are produced and the bacilli soon disappear. The resistance of some animals to Bacillus leprae is well illustrated by two cats which were inoculated subcutaneously and intraperitoneally with a heavy suspension of Bacillus leprae. These animals were killed and examined three days later, but the bacilli were not demonstrable from the regions about the sites of inoculation. Pigeons are likewise refractory. It is impossible to cause a local reaction in these birds, and the injected bacilli disappear rapidly. Hence, probably no multiplication takes place in them. Goats, young pigs, and white and dancing mice are in a degree susceptible to injections, and though undoubted lesions are produced, and multiplication of the bacilli occurs, the lesions and bacilli disappear after a limited time. Acid-fast bacilli which are recovered from the lesions are long, slim, and beaded, though the organisms used in the inoculations were short, unbeaded, and coccoid. Monkeys inoculated with cultures of the short unbeaded forms react promptly. The lesions resulting, though confined in most instances to the site of inoculation, occasionally appear at distant points. The number of bacilli present in the nodules and their arrangement within typical lepra cells show that multiplication has taken place. The organism has, however, changed from the short coccoid form to the long, slender, beaded form. Though the lesions induced and the bacilli present are in every way similar to those found in man, their tendency to disappear gradually after a quiescent stage clearly denotes that the tissues of the monkey, although less refractory than the tissues of the animals previously mentioned, still offer resistance to invasion. While mammals react but poorly to inoculations of the leprosy bacillus, this reaction manifests itself in various ways in different species. For example, while multiplication of the organism with the production of lesions occurs in some species, in others that are more refractory, the injected bacilli assume the involuted or beaded forms and do not multiply or produce lesions; in others, still more resistant to the action of the leprosy bacillus, the organisms quickly undergo granular metamorphosis and disappear. Furthermore, in some species the lesions ar

Couret, M

1911-05-01

297

Orangutan Cultures and the Evolution of Material Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic variation in some aspects of chimpanzee behavior has been interpreted as evidence for culture. Here we document similar geographic variation in orangutan behaviors. Moreover, as expected under a cultural interpretation, we find a correlation between geographic distance and cultural difference, a correlation between the abundance of opportunities for social learning and the size of the local cultural repertoire, and

Carel P. van Schaik; Marc Ancrenaz; Gwendolyn Borgen; Birute Galdikas; Cheryl D. Knott; Ian Singleton; Akira Suzuki; Sri Suci Utami; Michelle Merrill

2003-01-01

298

Creating Cultural Consumers: The Dynamics of Cultural Capital Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The theories of cultural reproduction and cultural mobility have largely shaped the study of the effects of cultural capital on academic outcomes. Missing in this debate has been a rigorous examination of how children actually acquire cultural capital when it is not provided by their families. Drawing on data from a large-scale experimental study…

Kisida, Brian; Greene, Jay P.; Bowen, Daniel H.

2014-01-01

299

INTERPRETERS OF CULTURES. DOMINANT AND SUBORDINATE CULTURES IN CONTACT  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interpreter of culture is fundamentally a person who, in the process of carry- ing out his activity, establishes a relationship between learned culture and a culture that can be defined as more properly popular. In this process the interpreter has at his disposal cultural codices which inevitably entail a certain selection and determi- nate choices characterised, on the whole,

Claudio POVOLO

2008-01-01

300

Why Culture is Common, Cultural Evolution is Rare  

E-print Network

Why Culture is Common, but Cultural Evolution is Rare Robert Boyd Department of Anthropology University of California Davis, CA 95616 Keywords: Cultural evolution, social learning, dual inheritance or cite without the authors' permission. #12;SUMMARY If culture is defined as variation acquired

Richerson, Peter J.

301

From Cultural Awareness to Intercultural Awareness: Culture in ELT  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural awareness (CA) has emerged over the last few decades as a significant part of conceptualizing the cultural dimension to language teaching. That is, L2 users need to understand L2 communication as a cultural process and to be aware of their own culturally based communicative behaviour and that of others. However, while CA has provided a…

Baker, Will

2012-01-01

302

Culture, cultural factors and psychiatric diagnosis: review and projections  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to provide conceptual justifications for the inclusion of culture and cultural factors in psychiatric diagnosis, and logistic suggestions as to the content and use of this approach. A discussion of the scope and limitations of current diagnostic practice, criticisms from different quarters, and the role and relevance of culture in the diagnostic encounter, precede the examination of advantages and disadvantages of the approach. The cultural content of psychiatric diagnosis should include the main, well-recognized cultural variables, adequate family data, explanatory models, and strengths and weaknesses of every individual patient. The practical aspects include the acceptance of “cultural discordances” as a component of an updated definition of mental disorder, and the use of a refurbished cultural formulation. Clinical “telescoping” strategies to obtain relevant cultural data during the diagnostic interview, and areas of future research (including field trials on the cultural formulation and on “culture bound syndromes”), are outlined. PMID:19812742

ALARCON, RENATO D.

2009-01-01

303

Agenda 21 de la culture de la culture  

E-print Network

Agenda 21 de la culture du Québec #12;Agenda 21 de la culture du Québec #12;Table des matières 5 Mot de la ministre de la Culture, des Communications et de la Condition féminine 6 Contexte 8 perspective de durabilité 16 Partie 2 : Culture et société 17 Partie 3 : Culture et économie 18 Partie 2

Charette, André

304

[Psychotherapy as cultural discourse].  

PubMed

It is impossible to think about psychotherapy without reference to the cultural context. In order to understand the development of this domain it is helpful to apply the concept of cultural discourse. When we think about the over one hundred years' history of psychotherapy it becomes clear that understanding of a person, his/her difficulties, psychopathology, the role of a psychotherapist, psychotherapy and its limitations have been changing. It depended on the acknowledged epistemological horizon. Therefore it is important to observe the process of creating discourses related to psychotherapeutic "reality". These discourses are not simply descriptive but they participate in creation of reality. They are not neutral, on the contrary, their application has broad practical, theoretical, ethical and legal consequences. An attempt to describe the culture, or better cultures, we are immersed in, is an attempt to describe the identity of contemporary psychotherapists. This article, referring to the constructionists' perspective and works of Michael Foucault, presents how cultural changes influence psychotherapists' ways of thinking, their practice and presence in social space. PMID:22220490

Józefik, Barbara

2011-01-01

305

Cultural Perspectives Toward Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural conflicts may be derived from using inappropriate language. Appropriate linguistic-pragmatic competence may also be produced by providing various and multicultural backgrounds. Culture and language are linked together naturally, unconsciously, and closely in daily social lives. Culture affects language and language affects culture through…

Lin, Li-Li

2008-01-01

306

Adolescent Maturation in Transitioning Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a theoretical study of adolescent maturation within a cultural context. Personality development and disintegration due to the pressure of a dominant culture on a minority culture is considered. An attempt is made to understand how teachers might assist students to work out their psychological growth by story telling. The need for cultural

Mulroy, Kevin; Palacios, Anna; Reid, Robert E.

307

Communication Media in Ancient Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in early means of communication and in the uses and kinds of media that existed in ancient cultures is starting to grow among communication scholars. Conversation analysis of these cultures is obviously impossible, so that the emphasis must rest with material cultural artifacts. Many ancient cultures used non-verbal codes for dyadic…

Jabusch, David M.

308

Assessing culturally diverse exceptional children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major issues that are confronting professionals in the assessment of culturally diverse exceptional children are discussed. The difference between testing and assessment is examined, along with the purpose of assessment and the factors that should be considered in the assessment of culturally diverse children. A definition of cultural diversity is examined along with somediscussion of the importance of cultural awareness

LaDelle Olion

1984-01-01

309

Learning Cultures in Further Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the nature of learning cultures in English Further Education (FE), as revealed in the Transforming Learning Cultures in FE (TLC) research project. In it, we describe four characteristics of a generic FE learning culture: the significance of learning cultures in every site; the significance of the tutor in influencing site…

Hodkinson, Phil; Anderson, Graham; Colley, Helen; Davies, Jenny; Diment, Kim; Scaife, Tony; Tedder, Mike; Wahlberg, Madeleine; Wheeler, Eunice

2007-01-01

310

Culture and equality in education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of comprehensive education implies a search for a common culture, or a common treatment of culture, across the whole school population. This article reviews the present stage in this search, attempting to define a suitable treatment of culture by secondary schools. The history of schools’ treatment of cultural sources is briefly invoked, particularly the differences in treatment found

Gabriel Chanan

1976-01-01

311

Technoscience, technological cultures and socialisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technoscience is deeply linked to national cultures across terrains as diverse as medicine, agricultural biotechnologies, ICTs, energy technologies, etc. Understanding the cultural dimension of technoscience is vital for the project of socialisation. This project should be embedded in technological and political cultures, taking variation in cultural approaches to technoscience, national identity and political decision-making seriously. Socialisation of science and technology

Erik Aarden

312

The Invisible Doors between Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses cultural awareness within the context of 20th-century social changes in the United States and suggests that cultural awareness can be a protective factor in the maintenance of indigenous cultures and languages. Three business-related cultural changes have taken place in America during this century: the creation of the consumer…

St. Clair, Robert N.

313

Risk culture in financial organisations  

E-print Network

1 Risk culture in financial organisations: An interim report Simon Ashby, Tommaso Palermo and Michael Power November 2012 #12;2 Contents Acknowledgements 3 Executive Summary 4 Risk Culture: background 5-7 Risk Culture: our approach 7-11 Risk Culture: preliminary findings and ideas 11-18 What we hope

Fryzlewicz, Piotr

314

Digital Technology and Culture Program  

E-print Network

Technology and Culture Club serves DTC students' professional interests and need in the creative media fieldDigital Technology and Culture Program College of Arts and Sciences Degree Options Bachelor of Arts in Digital Technology and Culture Minors Digital Technology and Culture Program Strengths � Demonstrate

Collins, Gary S.

315

Preparing Science Teachers for Culturally Diverse Students: Developing Cultural Literacy Through Cultural Immersion, Cultural Translators and Communities of Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This three year study of P-12 professional development is grounded in sociocultural theories that hold that building knowledge and relationships among individuals from different cultural backgrounds entails joint activity toward common goals and cultural dialogues mediated by cultural translators. Sixty P-12 pre and in-service teachers in a year long interdisciplinary science curriculum course shared the goal of developing culturally relevant,

Pauline W. U. Chinn

2006-01-01

316

Special Research Group Cultural Sciences  

E-print Network

with a historical perspective. #12;A multitude of activities The FSP's activities include, among others: ProjectSpecial Research Group Historical Cultural Sciences of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz FSP Historical Cultural Sciences FSP Historical Cultural Sciences FSP Historical Cultural Sciences Contact

Hanke-Bourgeois, Martin

317

cultural history New perspectives on  

E-print Network

Making cultural history New perspectives on Western heritage Edited by Anna Källén nordic academic-08-26 15:54 #12;7 Making cultural history An introduction Anna Källén & Inga Sanner Cultural history tends academic circumstances, it is not the case with cultural history: much of its strength and analytical

318

Culture from the Bottom Up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The culture concept has been severely criticized for its top-down nature in TESOL, leading arguably to its falling out of favor in the field. But what of the fact that people do "live culturally" (Ingold, 1994)? This article describes a case study of culture from the bottom up--culture as understood and enacted by its individual users.…

Atkinson, Dwight; Sohn, Jija

2013-01-01

319

Mycobacterium fortuitum Infection following Reconstructive Breast Surgery: Differentiation from Classically Described Red Breast Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background: Red breast syndrome (RBS) has been described as an erythema that may be associated with 2-stage prosthetic reconstructive breast surgery using biologic mesh. RBS is differentiated from infectious cellulitis through absence of fever and laboratory abnormalities and usually has a self-limiting course. There have been no clinical reports on etiology, risk factors, or management of RBS. This report describes patient data that raise the need to rule out mycobacterial infection when RBS is being considered as a diagnosis. Methods: We present 6 cases of Mycobacterium fortuitum infection occurring after prosthetic breast reconstruction performed with a human-derived acellular dermal matrix, including the timing and course of erythema, laboratory results, treatments used, and long-term outcomes. We also describe the differential diagnoses of RBS in the context of these cases, including emergence of acid-fast bacilli and diagnostic and treatment considerations. Exact two-tailed 95% confidence intervals based on the F-distribution are provided with estimates of the incidence rates of infection. Results: The 6 cases presented here do not fit the typical description of RBS and were caused by mycobacterium infection. Statistical evaluation of the estimated incidence rate of M. fortuitum infection in a patient thought to have RBS, which occurred 100% of the time in this series, revealed a 95% confidence interval of 54.1–100%. Conclusions: When presented with possible RBS, surgeons must rule out cellulitis, culture for acid-fast bacilli such as mycobacterium species, and then determine the best course of treatment. Patient counseling regarding potential household sources of infection is warranted to minimize postoperative infection risk. PMID:25289245

Foles, Van Brandon; Sieger, Barry; Musselman, Kelly

2013-01-01

320

Accelerating the culture change!  

PubMed

Exide Electronics, a major supplier of uninterruptible power system equipment, embarked on a journey of changing a culture to improve quality, enhance customer responsiveness, and reduce costs. This case study examines the evolution of change over a period of seven years, with particular emphasis on the most recent years, 1992 through 1995. The article focuses on the Raleigh plant operations and describes how each succeeding year built on the successes and fixed the shortcomings of the prior years to accelerate the culture change, including corrective action and continuous improvement processes, organizational structures, expectations, goals, achievements, and pitfalls. The real challenge to changing the culture was structuring a dynamic approach to accelerate change! The presentation also examines how the evolutionary process itself can be created and accelerated through ongoing communication, regular feedback of progress and goals, constant evaluation and direction of the process, and measuring and paying for performance. PMID:10162360

Klunk, S W; Panetta, J; Wooten, J

1996-11-01

321

Basics of Cell Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These manuals are used in the Stem Cell Culture Course at City College of San Francisco. This course is about general mammalian cell culture techniques but includes a laboratory exercise using stem cells (takes 3 weeks to complete). The course is taught to high school students but the materials are also used for college students. Laboratory exercises provide instruction in basic techniques of routine cell culture using common cell lines before progressing to differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. Photographs and explanations of common equipment (laminar flow hood, inverted microscope, etc.) and reagents are provided. Laboratory exercises include the following: Basic Aseptic Technique; Media Preparation; Plating cells from frozen stock; Cell counting and plating; Survival assay (UV); Live Cell Identification; Transfection; Freezing cells; Stem cell differentiation. A student lab manual and an instructor manual are provided.

Afshar, Golnar

2012-03-12

322

Organizational Culture and Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

'..only a fool perseveres in error.' Cicero. Humans will break the most advanced technological devices and override safety and security systems if they are given the latitude. Within the workplace, the operator may be just one of several factors in causing accidents or making risky decisions. Other variables considered for their involvement in the negative and often catastrophic outcomes include the organizational context and culture. Many organizations have constructed and implemented safety programs to be assimilated into their culture to assure employee commitment and understanding of the importance of everyday safety. The purpose of this paper is to examine literature on organizational safety cultures and programs that attempt to combat vulnerability, risk taking behavior and decisions and identify the role of training in attempting to mitigate unsafe acts.

Adams, Catherine A.

2003-01-01

323

CultureWork  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Oregon's arts and administration program is highly regarded, and they also happen to put out a visually compelling broadside for arts and culture workers called "CultureWork." As its mission statement notes, the primary goal of the publication is "to provide timely workplace-oriented information on culture, the arts, education, policy, and community." The first issue appeared back in May 1997, and visitors are invited to view all of the back issues (along with the current one) here at this site. Some of the recent broadsides have included "Canaries in the Coal Mine: Art, Freedom, and Community," "Boomers, XY's and the Making of a Generational Shift in Arts Management," and "Recognizing Artists as Public Intellectuals: A Pedagogical Imperative."

324

Globalization, culture and psychology.  

PubMed

Abstract This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies. PMID:25343628

Melluish, Steve

2014-10-01

325

Mass algal culture system  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and process for the culture of algae in a liquid medium is disclosed. The medium circulates through an open trough and is exposed to an atmosphere which is temperature regulated. The nutrient content of the liquid medium is regulated to control the chemical composition growth and reproduction characteristics of the cultured algae. Before it is allowed to strike the medium, sunlight is passed through a filter to remove wavelengths which are not photosynthetically active. Heat energy can be recovered from the filter.

Raymond, Lawrence P. (Richland, WA)

1981-01-01

326

Mass algal culture system  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and process for the culture of algae in a liquid medium is disclosed. The medium circulates through an open trough and is exposed to an atmosphere which is temperature regulated. The nutrient content of the liquid medium is regulated to control the chemical composition growth and reproduction characteristics of the cultured algae. Before it is allowed to strike the medium, sunlight is passed through a filter to remove wavelengths which are not photosynthetically active. Heat energy can be recovered from the filter.

Raymond, Lawrence P. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01

327

Mammalian Cell Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "Course-in-a-Box" from Bio-Link is a good starting point for instructors to develop a course on how to maintain mammalian cells in culture. Students will learn "basic techniques of routine cell culture using common cell lines before progressing to differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells." Laboratories include Basic Aseptic Technique, Media Preparation, and Plating Cells from Frozen Stock. Materials include an Instructor Laboratory Manual, Student Laboratory Manual, Problem Sets, and Quizzes. A free login is required to access the materials.

2014-08-21

328

Culture, Personality, Health, and Family Dynamics: Cultural Competence in the Selection of Culturally Sensitive Treatments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural sensitivity and cultural competence in the selection of culturally sensitive treatments is a requisite for effective counseling practice in working with diverse clients and their families, particularly when clients present with health issues or medical problems. Described here is a strategy for selecting culturally sensitive treatments…

Sperry, Len

2010-01-01

329

Oral tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculous lesions of the oral cavity have become so infrequent that it is virtually a forgotten disease entity and may pose a diagnostic problem. Fifteen patients with conditions that were histologically diagnosed as oral tuberculosis were reviewed. All were men ranging in age from 29 to 78 years. The most common clinical presentation was odynophagia with a duration from less than 1 week to several years. The most frequently affected sites were the tongue base and gingiva. The oral lesions took the form of an irregular ulceration or a discrete granular mass. Mandibular bone destruction was evident in two patients. Two patients had a fever, and four had cervical lymphadenopathy. Eight cases were clinically suspicious for malignancy before biopsy. Only four patients had a history of tuberculosis, but 14 of the 15 patients were later found to have active pulmonary tuberculosis. Acid-fast bacilli were demonstrated in all patients. Tuberculosis should be considered in patients with an inflamed ulcer lesion. A biopsy specimen for histologic study, acid-fast stains, and cultures should be obtained for confirmation and differential diagnosis with other conditions. If a tuberculous lesion is suspected, a chest radiograph is indicated to investigate the possibility of pulmonary involvement. PMID:8705586

Eng, H L; Lu, S Y; Yang, C H; Chen, W J

1996-04-01

330

Lesions of tuberculosis in mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni).  

PubMed

Lesions of tuberculosis in mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) were present in all visceral organs. The tubercles were composed of large rounded macrophages which contained numerous intracytoplasmic acid-fast bacilli. The lesions were not encapsulated and mineralization was not observed. PMID:650789

Lund, J E; Abernethy, C S

1978-04-01

331

Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in High-Risk Groups, Zimbabwe  

PubMed Central

To estimate prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) in Harare, Zimbabwe, in 2012, we performed microbiologic testing on acid-fast bacilli smear-positive sputum samples from patients previously treated for TB. Twenty (24%) of 84 specimens were consistent with MDR TB. A national drug-resistance survey is needed to determine MDR TB prevalence in Zimbabwe. PMID:24377879

Makumbirofa, Salome; Makamure, Beauty; Sandy, Charles; Bara, Wilbert; Mungofa, Stanley; Hopewell, Philip C.; Mason, Peter

2014-01-01

332

Abdominal wall abscess secondary to subcapsular tubercular liver abscess.  

PubMed

We report a 22-year-old woman who presented with an abdominal wall lump in the right upper quadrant 15 days after starting antitubercular treatment for right pleural effusion. CT scan revealed a right liver lobe subcapsular abscess communicating vith subcutaneous tissue. Aspiration of pus revealed acid-fast bacilli. She responded to 9 months of antitubercular treatment. PMID:14658538

Desai, Nutan; Patil, Shivanand; Thakur, Bhagwan Singh; Das, Haribhakti Seba; Manjunath, S M; Sawant, Prabha

2003-01-01

333

The Recent-Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains among Iranian and Afghan Relapse Cases: a DNA-fingerprinting using RFLP and spoligotyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Relapse of tuberculosis (TB) may develop as the result of reactivation of the endogenous primary infection, or as a result of a exogenous reinfection. This survey evaluated the rate of reactivation versus recent transmission among Iranian and Afghan relapse cases. METHODS: The sputum specimens were digested, examined microscopically for acid-fast bacilli, and inoculated into Löwenstein-Jensen slants by standard procedures.

Parissa-Farnia; Mohammad Reza Masjedi; Mohammad Varahram; Mehdi Mirsaeidi; Mojtaba Ahmadi; Mehdi Khazampour; Payam Tabarsi; Parvaneh Baghei; Mojtaba Marjane; Muslam Bahadori; Abolhasan Zia Zarifi; Ali Akbar Velayati

2008-01-01

334

Rapid Diagnosis of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis by PCR: Impact of Sample Preparation and DNA Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cases of suspected extrapulmonary tuberculosis, rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis is of prime importance, since traditional techniques of detecting acid-fast bacilli have limitations. The major difficulty with mycobacteria is achieving optimal cell lysis. Buffers used in commercial kits do not allow this complete lysis in a number of clinical specimens. A comparison of two sample preparation methods, pretreatment with

S. Honore-Bouakline; J. P. Vincensini; V. Giacuzzo; P. H. Lagrange; J. L. Herrmann

2003-01-01

335

Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in latently infected lungs by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy.  

PubMed

Detection of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a challenge in the diagnosis of asymptomatic, subclinical tuberculosis. We report the development of an immunofluorescence technique to visualize and enumerate M. tuberculosis in latently infected rabbit lungs where no acid-fast-stained organisms were seen and no cultivable bacilli were obtained by the agar-plating method. PMID:25161200

Subbian, Selvakumar; Eugenin, Eliseo; Kaplan, Gilla

2014-11-01

336

The role of culture in regional development  

E-print Network

-8Jul2014 #12;Cultural governance Ministry of National Cultural and Heritage (distribution, administration, control) National Cultural Institution (distribution, administration, control) County Councils governance Ministry of National Cultural and Heritage National Cultural Institution (control) Regional

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

337

CULTURE AND IS: NATIONAL CULTURAL DIMENSIONS WITHIN IS DISCIPLINE  

E-print Network

The study of culture is rooted in sociology, social psychology, and anthropology. In particular, cultural anthropology seeks to understand the similarities and differences among groups of people in the contemporary world. Within the last 20 years, the practical relevance of researching cultural issues, and especially comparing phenomena across cultures, was questioned (Ferraro, 1990). However, the importance of cultural issues is becoming increasingly evident in many applied disciplines; these include the management of information technology (IT) (Davison and Martinsons, 2003). A normative literature review has been carried out in this paper to provide IS researchers with the milestones of studying culture in IS discipline.

Maged Ali; Brunel Business School; Laurence Brooks

338

Orangutan cultures and the evolution of material culture.  

PubMed

Geographic variation in some aspects of chimpanzee behavior has been interpreted as evidence for culture. Here we document similar geographic variation in orangutan behaviors. Moreover, as expected under a cultural interpretation, we find a correlation between geographic distance and cultural difference, a correlation between the abundance of opportunities for social learning and the size of the local cultural repertoire, and no effect of habitat on the content of culture. Hence, great-ape cultures exist, and may have done so for at least 14 million years. PMID:12511649

van Schaik, Carel P; Ancrenaz, Marc; Borgen, Gwendolyn; Galdikas, Birute; Knott, Cheryl D; Singleton, Ian; Suzuki, Akira; Utami, Sri Suci; Merrill, Michelle

2003-01-01

339

A Culture of Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Community colleges are pulling back the covers of student performance in favor of a new "culture of evidence." One hundred two community colleges in 22 states have joined Achieving the Dream: Community Colleges Count. Backed by a partnership of foundations and research organizations, the effort provides funding, coaching, and data-driven best…

Joch, Alan

2009-01-01

340

Culture, openness, and finance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in culture, proxied by differences in religion and language, cannot be ignored when examining why investor protection differs across countries. We show that a country's principal religion predicts the cross-sectional variation in creditor rights better than a country's natural openness to international trade, its language, its income per capita, or the origin of its legal system. Catholic countries protect

René M. Stulz; Rohan Williamson

2003-01-01

341

Culture and Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Representing a refereed selection of papers from the 1994 JALT Kansai Conference, this collection of 25 papers contains formal presentations, teaching experiences, research projects, and ideas for effective teaching. The papers and their authors are, as follows: (1) "Culturally Influenced Communication Patterns: Overview, Implications and…

Kitao, Kenji, Ed.; And Others

342

Leadership and School Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Present attempts to transform the meaning and purposes of schooling through a radically reformed notion of leadership are examined in this paper. The first part presents a framework that explains the mechanisms through which school cultures are produced, reproduced, and transformed: pedagogy, curriculum, assessment, and discipline. The first…

Bates, Richard

343

National cultures revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropology can make a holistic contribution to the study of the complex societies of today's nations by identifying key issues, relevant to both the individual and the social system, on which these nations differ in empirically verifiable ways. This is labelled the ‘national cultures approach’ and can be considered an extension, with a broader purpose and more effective research methods,

Geert Hofstede

1984-01-01

344

On Nigerian pop culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cult of westernization, this flight from African traditions together defines contemporary Africa's cultural disease .... And worse: there is a senseless refusal even to examine the African reality before we damage it further with thoughtless importations from the West. We flee our reality and our traditions and knock at western doors, batter at western walls, seeking a place, however

Joseph Rubenstein

1978-01-01

345

Pop Culture Peeps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors present a classroom activity called Pop Culture Peep. In this particular activity, students are required to first research famous artists and/or famous artworks to have an image to use as a reference. Students then plan out how they would decorate the Peep, deciding what materials they would use to create the Peep in…

Kruszewski, Julie; Fontes, Kris

2008-01-01

346

Cultures et organisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

La coopération interculturelle, une question de survie Véritable atlas des valeurs culturelles, paru en 18 langues, Cultures et organisations est le fruit de plus de 40 ans de recherches menées dans plus de 100 pays. Il est aujourd'hui le livre de référence des chercheurs, universitaires et professionnels en management interculturel, sociologie des organisations, psychosociologie... Dans un monde divisé malgré la

G. Hofstede; M. Minkov

2010-01-01

347

Persian Language & Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to be used as complementary instructional material for American students as well as second-generation Iranians in America, this work presents a collection of material for teaching Persian language and culture. Research and analysis of some relevant linguistic issues, interactive methodology of language teaching and acquisition, and models…

Mir-Djalali, Elahe

348

Film As Cultural Antidote  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen (dir. Catherine Hardwicke), a small film about a girl's coming of age in southern California, was released in 2003 by Antidote Films, a production company named to suggest the film's interest in toxicity. This paper considers the ways Thirteen lives up to that name. Exposing an array of cultural poisons particularly deadly to girls, the film places its protagonists

Kathleen Rowe Karlyn

2006-01-01

349

Researching Society and Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides theoretically informed guidance to practicing the key research methods for investigating society and culture. It is a text in both methods and methodology, in which the importance of understanding the historical, theoretical and institutional context in which particular methods have developed is stressed. The contributors of the…

Seale, Clive, Ed.

350

Literacy across Cultures, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of articles includes: "Implementing Discourse Analysis for Intermediate and Advanced Language Learners" (Maria Palmira Massi); "A Comparison of Front-Page News in Japanese and British Quality Press Newspapers: Cultural Differences Reflected in the Press" (Christopher Bond); "Have You Ever Heard of Ogino Ginko? Japanese Women in…

Dycus, David, Ed.

2001-01-01

351

Cultural practices in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Nigeria has a rich cultural heritage. Cultural practices include extended family; adequate care for new mothers for 40 days after delivery; prolonged breastfeeding; and respect for elders. Many negative practices exist, most of them affecting the health of children and women. About 90% of babies are delivered by mostly untrained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and healers. Child marriage is a common Nigerian practice. This deprives the girl of education and results in teenage pregnancy. Legislation does not seem to be very effective. It is hoped that will education, girls will be allowed to remain in school until the age of 18. Female circumcision and vaginal mutilation and also common in Nigerian culture. TBAs and healers have stated that there is severe bleeding after circumcision, sometimes so severe that it leads to death. Other harmful delivery practices include bathing in boiling water; gishiri cut, a crude local symphysiotomy; and agurya cut--removal of the hymen loop on 7-day-old females. Bathing in boiling water results in many women being burned or disfigured; gishiri cut has resulted in vesicovaginal fistula in many young girls. Other harmful practices are purging of infants to get rid of impurities "they might have swallowed while in the uterus;" uvulectomy in infants, and induction of postpartum hemorrhage to clear the uterus of impure blood. The list goes on and on. Women and children are exposed to many unhealthy practices in the name of tradition or culture. PMID:12157983

Alabi, E M

1990-05-01

352

Television in American Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is television doing to our society and our culture? What has it done to education? Television has had a great impact on human behavior but rather than communicating, it dictates a philosophy of life, moral judgments and a lifestyle. Television presents a violent image of society where fantasy and reality are often confused. It is a system…

Hartman, Hermene D.

353

The animal cultures debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent interest in animal cultures has been fuelled by high-profile reports of intra- and interpopulation differ- ences in the behavioural repertoires of primates and cetaceans, consistent with the existence of socially learned traditions. Several studies have mapped spatial differences in behaviour, revealing a mosaic of beha- vioural phenotypes within species. The dominant cur- rent approach attempts to determine whether this

Kevin N. Laland; Vincent M. Janik

2006-01-01

354

Cultural Vignette: Black Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of a multicultural research project conducted in the San Diego Community College District, this booklet presents the findings of an eight-member research team about various elements of Black American culture and history. The booklet begins with a brief history of Black Americans from the time of the arrival of the first slaves to…

Bell, Ida; And Others

355

Cultural Vignette: Mexican Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of a multicultural research project in the San Diego Community College District, this booklet presents the findings of a 10-member research team about various elements of Mexican-American culture. The areas covered are: (1) historical background on the Mexican heritage of the United States from pre-colonial times to the present…

Boyer, Mary Ellen; And Others

356

Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc., has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc., is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

2004-01-01

357

Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc. has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc. is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

2004-01-01

358

Hardiness Considered Across Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is certainly an accumulation of evidence indicating that hardiness is a key to transforming stressful circumstances from potential disasters into growth opportunities instead. As to the emerging question of whether there are demographic and cultural differences in the role of hardiness, there are only a few relevant findings at this time. Although these available findings suggest little or no

Salvatore R. Maddi; Richard H. Harvey

359

Erosion of mass culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few decades, advertisers, academics, political operatives, and the producers of mass entertainment have had increasing difficulty conveying media messages to broad audiences. While the purveyors of mass culture were never able to reach everyone, fewer of them are even trying, and they often content themselves with communicating their message to only one part of the mass audience.

Paul Jerome Croce

1993-01-01

360

World Cultures Grade 3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Grade 3 Standard2 Objective 1 Objective: Students will learn to identify elements of cultures in the seven different continents. Assignment: You have just been hired to be a travel agent. Your first customer wants to take a trip around a continent. To be a good travel agent ...

Shunn-Mitchell, Ms.

2008-11-25

361

Rebuilding a safety culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a culture of safety and NASA since the Challenger accident is reviewed. The technical elements of the strengthened NASA safety program are described, including problem reporting, risk/assessment/risk management, operational safety, and safety assurance are addressed. Future directions in the development of safety are considered.

Rodney, George A.

1991-01-01

362

Stem cell culture engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells have the capacity for self renewal and undergo multilineage differentiation. Stem cells isolated from both blastocysts and adult tissues represent valuable sources of cells for applications in cell therapy, drug screening and tissue engineering. While expanding stem cells in culture, it is critical to maintain their self?renewal and differentiation capacity. In generating particular cell types for specific applications,

Gargi Seth; Catherine M. Verfaillie

2005-01-01

363

Students' Conceptions: Culturing Conceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This commentary on Roth, Lee, and Hwang's paper aims at analysing their theoretical approach in terms of its object of study, and the aspects that are brought to the fore, like the cultural activity of conversation, and those that are overshadowed, like the role of the material world and its perception on learning. This analysis, developed on the…

Tiberghien, Andree

2008-01-01

364

Native American Cultural Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of a larger report on the Four Directions Project, an American Indian technology innovation project, this section includes 13 "pathfinders" to locating information on Native American and other indigenous cultural groups. The pathfinders were designed by students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of…

Roy, Loriene, Comp.

365

Changing Organizational Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses mergers in a nonprofit setting through a case study and a discussion of the literature. It addresses some commonly overlooked, though highly essential components of successful mergers: people.Nonprofit human service agencies are fundamentally changing the way they do business. The environment on which they depend is evolving rapidly, forcing many organizational and cultural changes. Mergers of nonprofit

Elissa D. Giffords; Richard P. Dina

2003-01-01

366

Introduction: Rural Cultural Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This themed section of Australian Humanities Review seeks to establish the emerging field of 'rural cultural studies' firmly on the agenda of the contemporary humanities and social sciences. This is a timely intervention as rural Australia has featured increasingly over the last decade and especially over the last few years as a topic of national policy attention, public commentary and

David Carter; Kate Darian-Smith; Andrew Gorman-Murray

367

The Cultural Twilight  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the author begins by saying how privileged he feels to be included in the celebration of the American Indian Culture and Research Journal (AICRJ) and to toast forty years of American Indian studies at UCLA. He looks back over the field of Native American literature and criticism, then peeks at the present, and last, makes some…

Treuer, David

2011-01-01

368

China and Strategic Culture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author examines the impact of strategic culture on 21st century China. He contends that the People's Republic of China's security policies and its tendency to use military force are influenced not only by elite understandings of China's own strategic ...

A. Scobell

2002-01-01

369

Creating Cultural Compositions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that those objects and images currently accepted in the world of fine art might not contain those things posterity will consider significant, this paper offers a practical workshop activity that creates a culture from each individual's imagination. The activity explores images influenced by others or by individual values that reflect a…

McGregor, Rob

370

Micropolitics of Media Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book focuses on the micro-political implications of the work of Gilles Deleuze (and Felix Guattari). General philosophical articles are coupled to more specific analyses of films (such as Fight Club and Schindler's List) and other expressions of contemporary culture. The choice of giving specific attention to the analyses of images and sounds is not only related to the fact

Patricia Pisters

2001-01-01

371

Requiem for Cultural Internationalism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews Mary Brown Bullock's 1980 book,"An American Transplant: The Rockefeller Foundation and Peking Union Medical College." Far more than a narrow, scholarly history, this book is a case study of the far-reaching cultural impact of international educational exchange efforts. (JDH)

Ninkovich, Frank

1986-01-01

372

Cultural and Linguistic Ambidexterity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It might sound like a no-brainer that being bilingual or multilingual helps students planning engineering and just about any other career. But it is certainly true and is becoming more important as the economies of nations become more intertwined. What's more, being able to go beyond mere language ability and understand cultural distinctions are…

Galuszka, Peter

2007-01-01

373

Culture and Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we concern ourselves with the ways in which schools in general and special education procedures in particular tend to not be successful for those of our students who are from a different culture. (While we focus on Canadian Aboriginals, we also extend our thinking to those children who come from different races, ethnicities,…

Bailey, Beverley; Betts, Paul

2009-01-01

374

Ear drainage culture  

MedlinePLUS

... a laboratory and placed on a special dish (culture media). The lab team checks the dish every day to see if bacteria, fungi, or viruses have grown. Further tests may be done to specifically identify any substances and determine the best treatment.

375

Bone culture research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experiments described are aimed at exploring PTH regulation of production of collagenase and protein inhibitors of collagenase (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases, TIMP-1 and -2) by osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells under conditions of weightlessness. The results of this work will contribute to information as to whether a microgravity environment alters the functions and responsiveness of the osteoblast. The objectives of the Bone Culture Research (BCR) experiment are: to observe the effects of microgravity on the morphology, rate of proliferation, and behavior of the osteoblastic cells, UMR 106-01; to determine whether microgravy affects the hormonal sensitivity of osteroblastic cells; and to measure the secretion of collagenase and its inhibitors into the medium under conditions of microgravity. The methods employed will consist of the following: the osteoblast-like cells, UMR-106-01, will be cultured in four NASDA cell culture chambers; two chambers will be subjected to microgravity on SL-J; two chambers will remain on the ground at KSC as ground controls but subjected to an identical set of culture conditions as on the shuttle; media will be changed four times; twice the cells will receive the hormone parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and media collected; cells will be photographed under conditions of microgravity; and media and photographs will be analyzed upon return to determine whether functions of the cells changed.

Partridge, Nicola C.

1993-01-01

376

Cross-Cultural HRD.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These five papers are from a symposium that was facilitated by David C. Bjorkquist on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD) at the 1995 Academy of Human Resource Development conference. "Developing Managers for Overseas Assignments in the Pacific Rim: A Study of International HRD Issues in Singapore" (A. Ahad M. Osman-Gani, Thian-Ser…

1995

377

Culture and Imperialism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growing out of a series of lectures given at universities in the United States, Canada, and England, this book reopens the dialogue between literature and the life of its time. It draws dramatic connections between the imperial endeavor and the culture that both reflected and reinforced it, describing a general pattern of relationships between the…

Said, Edward W.

378

Globalization and Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this lecture I want to think about the relationship between the globalization process and that complex human condition we call 'culture'. But first I need to say very briefly what I understand by globalization. Globalization is a complex process because it involves rapid social change that is occurring simultaneously across a number of dimensions - in the world economy,

John Tomlinson

379

Culture and Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accurate assessment of cognitive abilities in individuals not from mainstream Anglo-American backgrounds is encumbered by several factors. Chief among these is the difficulty of inferring underlying cognitive processes from performances on standardized tests. Recent developments in contextualist analyses of cognitive performance, such as cultural practice theory, argue (a) that skills are acquired in specific learning activity contexts and therefore

Dalton Miller-Jones

1989-01-01

380

Articulating Culture and Consciousness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welcome to another edition of The Journal of Pan African Studies. Again we are pleased to offer you a selection of articles on the international African experience that articulates the particulars of human culture and consciousness in the era of Obama. Thus, we present a subscriber profile of Melvin Agunbiade Ojo, announcements, commentary and analysis on AFRICOM, and sixteen articles

Itibari M. Zulu

2009-01-01

381

Cultural Enhancement of Neuroevolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acknowledgments Some of the notions of the functions of culture which lead to this work were the product of extensive discussions with Dr. Pamela McQuesten, to whom I have the honor and joy of being married. Her unstinting support was invaluable in the production of this dissertation. Mitchell and Leslie helped Daddy more than they can ever know. Your love

Joydeep Ghosh; Benjamin Kuipers; Raymond Mooney; Bruce Porter

382

Respectful Youth Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children are social beings who rely on interactions with others to survive and thrive. Since the human brain is wired to connect, cultures in schools and youth organizations must be designed so youth can bond to supportive peers and adults. Children learn through observation, modeling, and responding to people in their environments. Bronfenbrenner…

Laursen, Erik K.

2014-01-01

383

Visual Culture of Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current discussions regarding the notion of visual culture in art educational practice center the actions of the viewer as participant within the networks of visuality common in many contemporary societies. Surveillance technologies and techniques shift this notion of participation from active to passive, from seeing to being seen. This article…

Sweeny, Robert W.

2006-01-01

384

Understanding Quality Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a holistic understanding of quality in higher education which reveals the current debates about accreditation or quality process standards as insufficient, and to propose an enhanced model for quality culture in educational organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The conceptual framework is…

Ehlers, Ulf Daniel

2009-01-01

385

Eating disorders across cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivation of the body ideal and promotion of thinness values in fashion, media and the diet industry have been repeatedly shown to account for the increased prevalence of eating disorders. It is evident in women in certain sub-cultures where the demand for thinness for career advancement is endemic. There is also a correlation between eating disorders and the level

Mervat Nasser

2009-01-01

386

Three Cases of Primary Inoculation Tuberculosis as a Result of Illegal Acupuncture  

PubMed Central

Primary inoculation tuberculosis results from the direct inoculation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis into the skin of a person who has no natural or artificially acquired immunity to the organism. The pathogenesis requires a break in the skin from an abrasion or injury that allows entry of the tubercle bacilli. We report 3 cases of primary inoculation tuberculosis resulting from illegal acupuncture. Three patients over 70 years old presented with erythematous, ulcerative, indurated plaques on the back. Skin lesions had developed at the acupuncture sites 1 or 2 weeks after a session of acupuncture, which was intended to relieve back pain. An unlicensed, non-medically trained person conducted each session. The patients' past medical and family histories were unremarkable. Granulomatous inflammatory infiltration and acid-fast bacilli were observed histologically. M. tuberculosis was identified by mycobacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction. Nine months after the initiation of antituberculosis medication, skin lesions improved, and no evidence of recurrence or other organ involvement was observed at the 1-year follow-up visit. PMID:20711276

Kim, Jin Ki; Kim, Tae Yoon; Kim, Dong Hyun

2010-01-01

387

Beyond Models of National Culture  

E-print Network

Many IS scholars argue that global organizations need to understand cultural differences if they are to successfully deploy information technology. We agree that an understanding of cultural differences is important, but suggest that the concept of “national culture ” that has tended to dominate the IS research literature is too simplistic. In this article, we challenge information systems researchers to go beyond models of national culture. We propose that IS researchers should adopt a more dynamic view of culture – one that sees culture as contested, temporal and emergent.

Michael D. Myers; Felix B. Tan

2002-01-01

388

Cultural competency training in psychiatry.  

PubMed

Recent reports indicate that the quality of care provided to immigrant and ethnic minority patients is not at the same level as that provided to majority group patients. Although the European Board of Medical Specialists recognizes awareness of cultural issues as a core component of the psychiatry specialization, few medical schools provide training in cultural issues. Cultural competence represents a comprehensive response to the mental health care needs of immigrant and ethnic minority patients. Cultural competence training involves the development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that can improve the effectiveness of psychiatric treatment. Cognitive cultural competence involves awareness of the various ways in which culture, immigration status, and race impact psychosocial development, psychopathology, and therapeutic transactions. Technical cultural competence involves the application of cognitive cultural competence, and requires proficiency in intercultural communication, the capacity to develop a therapeutic relationship with a culturally different patient, and the ability to adapt diagnosis and treatment in response to cultural difference. Perhaps the greatest challenge in cultural competence training involves the development of attitudinal competence inasmuch as it requires exploration of cultural and racial preconceptions. Although research is in its infancy, there are increasing indications that cultural competence can improve key aspects of the psychiatric treatment of immigrant and minority group patients. PMID:18371580

Qureshi, A; Collazos, F; Ramos, M; Casas, M

2008-01-01

389

Cultural Education--Iroquois Cultural Study for Elementary Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presenting a sequenced cultural education program, this curriculum guide for an Iroquois cultural study for elementary grades concentrates on providing a supplemental classroom program to an existing social studies curriculum, though it is also aimed at teaching culture in Native American classes. Program objectives are to provide students with…

Steele, Catherine

390

Commercial cultures: transcending the cultural and the economic1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years there have been repeated calls for a convergence between 'the cultural' and 'the economic'. This paper provides a specific take on these issues through an exploration of the contested geographies of contemporary commercial culture. Traditionally, 'culture' has been associated with meaning and creativity, with works of the imagination and aesthetic practices that are far removed from the

Peter Jackson

2002-01-01

391

Cultural Computing Creative Power Integrating Culture, Unconsciousness and Software  

E-print Network

in our life. Cellular phones, e-mails, websites, games as well as PCs are almost parts of our lifeCultural Computing � Creative Power Integrating Culture, Unconsciousness and Software Naoko Tosa 1 that human cultures have common and unique forms such as behavior and grammar. We suggest a computer model

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

392

A Follow-up to Pop Culture: The Unpopular Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests an alternative approach for a popular culture course--an exploration of the culture of the students' parents, or "unpopular" culture. Possible activities for a unit include: interviews (on entertainment preferences, for example), observations (dress codes for social gatherings, parental food and drink habits, etc.), or an attic or closet…

Whitworth, Richard

1987-01-01

393

Morality, Culture and the Dialogic Self: Taking Cultural Pluralism Seriously  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores moral reasoning within the framework of contemporary cultural theory, in which moral functioning is action mediated by tools (such as socially available discourses) within a social and cultural context. This cultural model of a "dialogic moral self" challenges many of the assumptions inherent in the individualistic Kantian…

Haste, Helen; Abrahams, Salie

2008-01-01

394

Cultural and Ethical Issues in Working with Culturally Diverse Patients  

E-print Network

and health care, ethical issues and health care INTRODUCTION The increasing cultural diversity of the United sensitivity. The need for social workers in health care institutions to be attentive to the cultural diversity of the Culturagram to Promote Cultural Competent Practice in Health Care Settings Elaine P. Congress, DSW SUMMARY

Arizona, University of

395

WIRED MAGAZINE: 16.07 Culture : Culture Reviews  

E-print Network

WIRED MAGAZINE: 16.07 Culture : Culture Reviews Jargon Watch: Bendy Chips, Nighttime Spinach, Dark | International Subscriptions | Advertising | Media Kit | Careers Email Article Print Full Page Comments Visit Our, Dark Marketing 6/24/2008http://www.wired.com/culture/culturereviews/magazine/16-07/st_jw #12;Payday

Rogers, John A.

396

Examining Culture Through Disney Animation (Culture Through Disney)  

E-print Network

Examining Culture Through Disney Animation (Culture Through Disney) Drew Adamczyk Class of 2014 201 films of Disney seem to be little more than simple childhood entertainment. A closer reading of these movies, however, reveals that they are a fantastic jumping off point for the exploration of cultural

Hayden, Nancy J.

397

Diagnosing Ercoe's Organizational Culture and Indicating Members' Preferred Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined at diagnosing the existing and preferred organizational culture of the Eritrean Center for Organizational Excellence (Ercoe) and indicated the cultural practice that fits to implement its strategic plan. Organizational culture is a commonly held in-the-mind of organizational members. It's reflected by basic assumptions, rituals and values. These will be the basis how to perceive, think, feel, behave

Tadesse Beyene

2011-01-01

398

Global culture, local cultures and the internet: The Thai example  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the questions of whether and, if so, how and to what extent the Internet brings about homogenisation of local cultures in the world. It examines a particular case, that of Thai culture, through an investigation and interpretation of a Usenet newsgroup, soc.culture.thai. Two threads of discussion in the newsgroup are selected. One deals with criticisms of the

Soraj Hongladarom

1999-01-01

399

Morality, culture and the dialogic self: taking cultural pluralism seriously  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores moral reasoning within the framework of contemporary cultural theory, in which moral functioning is action mediated by tools (such as socially available discourses) within a social and cultural context. This cultural model of a dialogic moral self challenges many of the assumptions inherent in the individualistic Kantian position that underlies much moral reasoning research. It provides a

Helen Haste; Salie Abrahams

2008-01-01

400

Guardian Culture Podcast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're not a culture vulture already, you may become one just by dipping into even one of the audio offerings here at the Guardian Culture podcast site. They have dozens of wonderful conversations covering the Edinburgh Fringe Festival, the creation of digital public space, and the Royal Opera House. First-time visitors should look at the Days in the Life at the Guardian, which offers "unique soundscapes from historic editions of the Guardian." The Everyday Moments podcasts feature "audio dramas for private performance." For example, "Everyday Moments 1" offers up a "playlet designed to be listened to in the early hours of the morning, in bed with a hot drink." [KMG

2012-08-13

401

MIT Visualizing Cultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 2002, the Visualizing Cultures website is produced by MIT, and it was designed "to explore the potential of the Web for developing innovative image-driven scholarship and learning." The site contains topical units of self-discovery which are focused on Japan's role in the modern world and early-modern China. The various units address cultures of modernization, war and peace, and consumerism, among others. Each unit is represented by a different image, and visitors will find a short narrative essay along with plenty of visual images which document teach topic. One unit that should not be missed is "Felice Beato's Japan". Here visitors can learn about the pioneering work of Felice Beato, as he took photos of the "exotic" Japanese people in his Yokohama studio and captured the transitional period between the "feudal governance of the Edo period (1600-1868) and the imperial rule of the Meiji era (1868-1912)."

402

Cell culture's spider silk road.  

PubMed

A number of synthetic and natural materials have been tried in cell culture and tissue engineering applications in recent years. Now Jeffrey Perkel takes a look at one new culture component that might surprise you-spider silk. PMID:24924388

Perkel, Jeffrey

2014-06-01

403

Mexican Shrimp Culture: Legal Changes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mexico has one of the largest potentials in Latin America to culture shrimp. Various groups in Mexico are intensifying efforts to culture shrimp, while the country's fishery cooperatives appear to be experiencing increasing difficulties. Private investors...

D. M. Weidner, R. M. Wells

1991-01-01

404

The Cultural Deficit in Broadcasting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that the F.C.C. should amend its Policy Statement on Programing to differentiate cultural programing from other entertainment, and offers proposals for effecting cultural programing improvements. (MH)

Schwartz, Louis B.

1976-01-01

405

TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE: FIVE ORTHODOXIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores contemporary perspectives on the relationship between technological innovation and culture. The paper reviews works that explore the relationship between culture, understood as human groups that exhibit \\

AJ Grant; Robert Joseph Skovira

2008-01-01

406

Cultural Values of Trees, Woods  

E-print Network

Tabbush #12;ocultural benefit and benefits provided by trees woodlands and forests were considered. Cultural values are taken into account the nature of the woodland and our cultural relationship with it. The physical nature of woodlands

407

Conflict Resolution for Contrasting Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A seven-step process can help people from different cultures understand each other's intentions and perceptions so they can work together harmoniously: problem identification, problem clarification, cultural exploration, organizational exploration, conflict resolution, impact assessment, and organizational integration. (JOW)

Clarke, Clifford C.; Lipp, G. Douglas

1998-01-01

408

Ontologies for Cultural Heritage  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the cultural heritage domain information systems are increasingly deployed, digital representations of physical objects\\u000a are produced in immense numbers and there is a strong political pressure on memory institutions to make their holdings accessible\\u000a to the public in digital form. The sector splits into a set of disciplines with highly specialized fields. Due to the resulting\\u000a diversity, one can

Martin Doerr

409

FAUVISM AND CULTURAL NATIONALISM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay argues that early twentieth-century Paris, as the most artistically avant-garde metropolitan centre of its time, enabled a group of artists and writers from British colonies to define their own national identity. Their nationalism was not primarily political but cultural. The Scottish Colourist J. D. Fergusson, the Canadian life-writer and painter Emily Carr and the Australian artist Margaret Preston

Angela Smith

2002-01-01

410

Art and Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interesting and visually appealing site links to a variety of resources related to the visual arts, performing arts, design, literature, music, and film. From the main page, visitors can access the Arts or Culture sections or go directly to a number of Arts entries (e.g., literary theory, industrial design, jazz, photography, etc.) listed in six categories: Design Art, Film, Literature, Music, Performing Arts, and Visual Arts. In the main Arts sections, users can browse these same categories or perform a keyword search for artists or movements. For instance, a search for "dada" resulted in initial returns under design, theater, and art. The full listing under art included a brief description of the Dada movement, a few annotated links, and links to related artists and keywords. It also offered a "Cloud" of moving terms and artists that represent the "context of an artist or a movement." Clicking on any of the words brings that word to the center and also displays the respective entry from the index. The Culture section of the site is somewhat different and most definitely the weaker of the two, with links to travel, food, sports, festivals, and other cultural information, organized by region. The section also offers some world cams and a feature on visual culture, though the latter was not working at time of review. Note: Mac users should heed the site's warning to update their Flash and Shockwave plug-ins if need be, as the site may crash their browser if they don't have the most current versions.

411

Tissue Culture in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attempts to simulate normal tissue micro-environments in vitro have been thwarted by the complexity and plasticity of the extracellular matrix, which is important in regulating cytoskeletal and nuclear matrix proteins. Gravity is one of the problems, tending to separate components that should be kept together. For space shuttle experiments, NASA engineers devised a double-walled rotating bioreactor, which is proving to be a useful tissue culture device on earth as well as in space.

Pellis, Neal R.; Duray, Paul H.; Hatfill, Steven J.

1997-01-01

412

Cosmos and Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What can science do for us? Perhaps a better question is what can science not do for us? These are but a few questions posed by the NPR blog, "Cosmos and Culture". The contributors to the blog include a range of scientists, including a theoretical physicist, a biologist, and an astrophysicist. The goal of the blog is "to engage in a discussion with each other'and you'about how science has shaped culture and how culture has shaped science." Visitors should go ahead and read the daily post on the site, and they can also search through past blog posts and learn more about each contributor. Another way to get started here is by clicking on the "Most Popular" blog postings, which have included "How Rare is Life?" and "Hawking and God: An Intimate Relationship". Overall, it is a thoughtful and meaningful way to engage in a dialogue about some of the most crucial issues of our day, and it is well worth a look.

413

Measuring Safeguards Culture  

SciTech Connect

As the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) implements a State Level Approach to its safeguards verification responsibilities, a number of countries are beginning new nuclear power programs and building new nuclear fuel cycle faculties. The State Level approach is holistic and investigatory in nature, creating a need for transparent, non-discriminatory judgments about a state's nonproliferation posture. In support of this need, the authors previously explored the value of defining and measuring a state's safeguards culture. We argued that a clear definition of safeguards culture and an accompanying set of metrics could be applied to provide an objective evaluation and demonstration of a country's nonproliferation posture. As part of this research, we outlined four high-level metrics that could be used to evaluate a state's nuclear posture. We identified general data points. This paper elaborates on those metrics, further refining the data points to generate a measurable scale of safeguards cultures. We believe that this work could advance the IAEA's goals of implementing a safeguards system that is fully information driven, while strengthening confidence in its safeguards conclusions.

Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

2011-07-19

414

Hmong Cultural Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hmong people came to the United States as refugees after the Vietnam War, and they were mainly resettled in California, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. The Hmong Cultural Center was established in St. Paul, Minnesota in 1992, and their website has a wealth of resources "that enhance cross-cultural awareness and understanding between Hmong and non-Hmong persons." Visitors in the healthcare field will find value in one such resource, "View the Hmong History and Culture Presentation for Healthcare Providers", which can be found on the menu on the left-hand side of the page. Visitors will learn that some Hmong beliefs about the body conflict with Western medicine, such as the belief that drawing blood may weaken the physical body and that surgery may hinder reincarnation or allow evil spirits to enter the body. Visitors interested in doing research on the Hmong people should click on the "Research Data and Publications" link to find a "Hmong Studies Journal", "Tutorial on How to Access Hmong Census Data", and "Hmong Studies Research Bibliographies".

415

Cultural Differences in Thinking Styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Recent cross-cultural psychological research showed ample evidence that humans from different cultures are characterized by\\u000a divergent cognitive processing styles. Specifically, people from Western cultures (e.g., European Americans) are characterized\\u000a by an analytic cognitive style that is attuned to salient focal objects but less sensitive to contexts, whereas people engaged\\u000a in East Asian cultures (e.g., Chinese, Japanese, Korean) possess a holistic

Shihui Han

416

Cultural Evolution Peter J. Richerson  

E-print Network

based working definition of culture: Culture is information capable of affecting individuals' behavior of social transmission By this definition, culture has proven to be widespread in the animal kingdom discovered a huge amount of variation in language, social customs, religion, kinship, art, and practical

Richerson, Peter J.

417

Socioemotional Development in Cultural Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Filling a significant gap in the literature, this book examines the impact of culture on the social behaviors, emotions, and relationships of children around the world. It also explores cultural differences in what is seen as adaptive or maladaptive development. Eminent scholars discuss major theoretical perspectives on culture and development and…

Chen, Xinyin, Ed.; Rubin, Kenneth H., Ed.

2011-01-01

418

Deaf Culture. NETAC Teacher Tipsheet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It often comes as a surprise to people that many deaf people refer to themselves as being members of Deaf culture. The American Deaf culture is a unique linguistic minority that uses American Sign Language (ASL) as its primary mode of communication. This tipsheet provides a description of Deaf culture and suggestions for effective communication.

Siple, Linda; Greer, Leslie; Holcomb, Barbara Ray

2004-01-01

419

Complicating the Concept of Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay argues against a simple, reified view of culture as a set of ideas and norms belonging to a group or nation, and considers the implications of a more complicated concept for discussion of world culture and the global/local nexus. Most anthropologists define culture as the making of meaning, with an emphasis on the process itself as…

Anderson-Levitt, Kathryn M.

2012-01-01

420

Creativity and the Culturally Different.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document deals with nurturing creativity in the culturally different. It begins by pointing out that every person has a unique set of experiences and could therefore be considered "culturally different". The same methods are used to encourage creativity in those commonly labelled "culturally different" as are used with any individual. If…

Lindberg, Dormalee H.

421

The Rhetoricity of Cultural Literacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engaging the term rhetoricity, which refers both to Cultural Literacy as text and cultural literacy as concept, Cook claims that the most productive pedagogical component of Hirsch's proposal—the sophisticated rhetorical sensibility on which the entire conceptual edifice of cultural literacy depends—was obfuscated by the book's lightening-rod ethos, its deceptively simple veneer, and its smugly casual presumption to name \\

Paul G. Cook

2009-01-01

422

Japan: Geography, Cuisine, and Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These materials are designed as four modules: geography, foods, the kitchen, and culture and are to be used singly or jointly as a unit on Japanese food and culture. Common ingredients of Japanese food, nutritional information, methods of preparation, and illustrations of utensils and eating implements are given in conjunction with cultural

Kay, Karen

423

Building a Culture of Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culture is the social and intergenerational glue that defines, connects, sustains, and enriches the members of successful communities--including schools and classrooms. A classroom culture is a psychological atmosphere that nurtures and shapes students' attitudes about their own identity, classes, school, and learning in general. Classroom culture

Major, Marc R.

2009-01-01

424

Cultural competency training in psychiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reports indicate that the quality of care provided to immigrant and ethnic minority patients is not at the same level as that provided to majority group patients. Although the European Board of Medical Specialists recognizes awareness of cultural issues as a core component of the psychiatry specialization, few medical schools provide training in cultural issues. Cultural competence represents a

A. Qureshi; F. Collazos; M. Ramos; M. Casas

2008-01-01

425

Cultural Influences in Television Commercials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advertising is said to be a “distorted mirror” that reflects certain cultural values of the host country in which it exists (Pollay, 1986, 1987). In this study, 22 dominant cultural values are identified from an analysis of a sample of 80 television advertisements taken from Singapore and Malaysia in 1998. A comparison of cultural values identified in the two countries

Lee Chun Wah

2006-01-01

426

Czech Culture in Prague: Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prague's main feature is that, out of many cultural treasures, it preserved its architectural culture and put it to practical use to present day. Particularly Prague has embraced a wealth of architectural styles from many ages. From the Romanesque, the Gothic culture of Czech's pinnacle age, Baroque, Neo Classicism, the Art Nouveau style buildings that concentrated in Prague at the

Kyuchin Kim

2003-01-01

427

Digital Arts and Culture (DAC)  

E-print Network

and Culture (DAC) prepares students to produce creative digital art and media content, critically analyze work and critically analyzing digital art and media, as well as an understanding of the cultural and political Design (3 credits) � JAMS 101 � Introduction to Mass Media (3 credits) � JAMS 113 � Internet Culture (3

Saldin, Dilano

428

Play and Culture. Beginnings Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents five articles on the interactions of play and culture in early childhood education. The workshop titles are: "Play and Cultural Differences" (Cronin and Jones); "Play in a Classroom of Iu-Mien Children: (Evans); "The Culture of Play: A Personal Perspective" (Jarman); "'But They're Only Playing': Interpreting Play to Parents" (Cooper); and…

Cronin, Sharon; Jones, Elizabeth; Evans, Kathleen; Jarman, Cheryl Greer; Cooper, Renatta M.; Reynolds, Gretchen

1999-01-01

429

TOWARD AN ENRICHED CULTURAL FUTURE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DEVELOPMENT OF INTEREST IN WORTHWHILE CULTURAL ACTIVITIES HAS BEEN ONE OF IMPORTANT EMPHASES OF THE HIGH HORIZONS PROGRAM. THE CULTURAL ENRICHMENT TEACHER HAS HAD THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR TEACHING MUSIC AND/OR ART IN ADDITION TO CORRELATING CULTURAL ACTIVITIES WITH ALL FACETS OF THE CURRICULUM TO PROVIDE INSPIRATION AND NEW EXPERIENCES AS WELL AS TO…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY.

430

23 Globalization and Cultural Identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is fair to say that the impact of globalization in the cultural sphere has, most generally, been viewed in a pessimistic light. Typically, it has been associated with the destruction of cultural identities, victims of the accelerating encroachment of a homogenized, westernized, consumer culture. This view, the constituency for which extends from (some) academics to anti-globalization activists (Shepard and

John Tomlinson

2003-01-01

431

Forensic culture as epistemic culture: the sociology of forensic science.  

PubMed

This paper explores whether we can interpret the notion of 'forensic culture' as something akin to what Knorr-Cetina called an 'epistemic culture'. Can we speak of a 'forensic culture', and, if so, how is it similar to, or different from, other epistemic cultures that exist in what is conventionally called 'science'? This question has important policy implications given the National Academy Science's (NAS) recent identification of 'culture' as one of the problems at the root of what it identified as 'serious deficiencies' in U.S. forensic science and 'scientific culture' as an antidote to those problems. Finding the NAS's characterisation of 'scientific culture' overly general and naïve, this paper offers a preliminary exploration of what might be called a 'forensic culture'. Specifically, the paper explores the way in which few of the empirical findings accumulated by sociologists of science about research science seem to apply to forensic science. Instead, forensic science seems to have developed a distinct culture for which a sociological analysis will require new explanatory tools. Faithful sociological analysis of 'forensic culture' will be a necessary prerequisite for the kind of culture change prescribed by external reformist bodies like the NAS. PMID:23021588

Cole, Simon A

2013-03-01

432

Variable Cultural Acquisition Costs Constrain Cumulative Cultural Evolution  

PubMed Central

One of the hallmarks of the human species is our capacity for cumulative culture, in which beneficial knowledge and technology is accumulated over successive generations. Yet previous analyses of cumulative cultural change have failed to consider the possibility that as cultural complexity accumulates, it becomes increasingly costly for each new generation to acquire from the previous generation. In principle this may result in an upper limit on the cultural complexity that can be accumulated, at which point accumulated knowledge is so costly and time-consuming to acquire that further innovation is not possible. In this paper I first review existing empirical analyses of the history of science and technology that support the possibility that cultural acquisition costs may constrain cumulative cultural evolution. I then present macroscopic and individual-based models of cumulative cultural evolution that explore the consequences of this assumption of variable cultural acquisition costs, showing that making acquisition costs vary with cultural complexity causes the latter to reach an upper limit above which no further innovation can occur. These models further explore the consequences of different cultural transmission rules (directly biased, indirectly biased and unbiased transmission), population size, and cultural innovations that themselves reduce innovation or acquisition costs. PMID:21479170

Mesoudi, Alex

2011-01-01

433

Cultures at work: Why 'culture' matters in research on the 'cultural' industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers why 'culture matters' in the context of the 'cultural industries'. The 'cultural industries' have become a more popular area of research in recent years, especially within economic geography, as the economic significance of 'creative' pursuits such as music, visual arts and film production to urban areas begins to be recognized. This article discusses evidence from music scenes

Chris Gibson

2003-01-01

434

Popular Cultural Pedagogy, in Theory; Or: What Can Cultural Theory Learn about Learning from Popular Culture?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culture has been theorized as pedagogy. In several languages and many contexts "culture" and "education" can be used interchangeably. This issue of the journal "Educational Philosophy and Theory" seeks to explore the dual proposition (1) that pedagogy is central to politicized cultural theory, but (2) that it has been…

Bowman, Paul

2013-01-01

435

A review of consensus analysis methods in consumer culture, organizational culture and national culture research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultural consensus model is a method that is used by anthropologists to study intracultural variance, intercultural differences and cultural consonance across a variety of contexts. In order to provide academic scholars who study consumer, organizational and national culture with an additional tool that could be used to triangulate on ethnographic conclusions, this paper reviews the conceptual and methodological foundations

David M. Horowitz

2009-01-01

436

Culture, Development, and Social Theory: On Cultural Studies and the Place of Culture in Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Debates in development theory have recently swung back to taking seriously the relationship of culture to development, especially in the face of manifest failures of conventional approaches to economic growth and social transformation. This has happened at a moment when, especially within anthropology, the concept of culture itself is undergoing critical examination, and when cultural studies has emerged as a

John Clammer

2005-01-01

437

A typology of organisational cultures  

PubMed Central

There is wide belief that organisational culture shapes many aspects of performance, including safety. Yet proof of this relationship in a medical context is hard to find. In contrast to human factors, whose contributions are many and notable, culture's impact remains a commonsense, rather than a scientific, concept. The objectives of this paper are to show that organisational culture bears a predictive relationship with safety and that particular kinds of organisational culture improve safety, and to develop a typology predictive of safety performance. Because information flow is both influential and also indicative of other aspects of culture, it can be used to predict how organisations or parts of them will behave when signs of trouble arise. From case studies and some systematic research it appears that information culture is indeed associated with error reporting and with performance, including safety. Yet this relationship between culture and safety requires more exploration before the connection can be considered definitive. PMID:15576687

Westrum, R

2004-01-01

438

Constructivism in cultural competence education.  

PubMed

A graduate course on cultural diversity, based in constructivist theory and structured on the Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services model, was developed and taught through classroom and online methods. The following research questions were explored: 1) Can an educational experience, built on constructivist learning theory tenets, change students' perceptions, attitudes, knowledge, and skills in the area of cultural competence? 2) Does the delivery method, online or traditional classroom, influence the degree of change? The study used a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest control group design using the Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence Among healthcare Professionals Revised. Findings showed significant changes (p<0.001) in cultural competence scores and subscores for all learners with both teaching modalities based on interval scale and in categories of cultural knowledge, skills, desire, and overall competence based on a nominal scale. The untaught construct of cultural desire showed the most significant improvement. PMID:20143755

Hunter, Jennifer L; Krantz, Steven

2010-04-01

439

Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise  

PubMed Central

The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed. PMID:23914126

Chiao, Joan Y.; Cheon, Bobby K.; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.

2013-01-01

440

Manuals of Cultural Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethnography often studies social networks including empirical descriptions of marriages and families. We initially concentrate on a special subset of networks which we call configurations. We show that descriptions of the possible outcomes of viable histories form a manual, and an orthoalgebra. We then study cases where family sizes vary, and show that this also forms a manual. In fact, it demonstrates adiabatic invariance, a property often associated with physical system conservation laws, and which here expresses conservation of the viability of a cultural system.

Ballonoff, Paul

2014-10-01

441

Cultural sensitivity in paediatrics.  

PubMed

In a recent Journal of Medical Ethics article, 'Should Religious Beliefs Be Allowed to Stonewall a Secular Approach to Withdrawing and Withholding Treatment in Children?', Joe Brierley, Jim Linthicum and Andy Petros argue for rapid intervention in cases of futile life-sustaining treatment. In their experience, when discussions of futility are initiated with parents, parents often appeal to religion to 'stonewall' attempts to disconnect their children from life support. However, I will argue that the intervention that the authors propose is culturally insensitive. PMID:23625737

Bock, Gregory L

2013-09-01

442

Students' conceptions: culturing conceptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This commentary on Roth, Lee, and Hwang's paper aims at analysing their theoretical approach in terms of its object of study, and the aspects that are brought to the fore, like the cultural activity of conversation, and those that are overshadowed, like the role of the material world and its perception on learning. This analysis, developed on the basis of a pragmatic approach that combines theoretical frameworks, leads to a debate about the relevant components of teaching-learning situations according to the theoretical approaches, and the extent to which, due to the complexity of the studied phenomena, some theoretical frameworks are complementary or concurrent.

Tiberghien, Andrée

2008-07-01

443

Being Mindful about the Assessment of Culture: A Cultural Analysis of Culturally Adapted Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we review a wide range of cultural adaptations of acceptance-based behavior therapies (ABBT) from a cultural perspective. Consistent with the cultural match model, we argue that psychotherapeutic cultural adaptations are more effective as the cultural characteristics of patients are matched to the cultural characteristics of the…

La Roche, Martin; Lustig, Kara

2013-01-01

444

Randlesome Brierley W 1993 Business Culture Europe 2nd edn Oxford Boston cited Halsall R 2008 ?Business Culture? ?Brand State?: Conceptions Nation Culture Business Literature Cultural Difference  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Search instead for Randlesome Brierley W 1993 Business Culture Europe 2nd edn Oxford Boston cited Halsall R 2008 ?Business Culture? ?Brand State?: Conceptions Nation Culture Business Literature Cultural Difference ?

445

Cultural Adaptations: A Complex Interplay between Clinical and Cultural Issues  

PubMed Central

Psychotherapy is a Western method of treating mental illness. Culturally adapting psychotherapy to better meet the needs of ethnic minorities is an important endeavor. Hall et al. (2011) did an excellent job of reviewing the intersection and divergence between Asian culture and mindfulness and acceptance-based therapies. They also point out that some therapies can be naturally syntonic with Asian American cultural values and belief systems. This is especially important given cultural differences between the East and West. Below, I provide an overview of the complexities involved in adapting treatments for diverse clients. I also discuss the importance of deconstructing stereotypes and understanding the complex interplay between clinical and cultural issues. Individualization of treatment for diverse clients can be achieved through culturally formed practice. PMID:21966098

Hwang, Wei-Chin

2011-01-01

446

The culture of limbal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

The transplantation of cultured limbal epithelial cells (LEC) has since its first application in 1997 emerged as a promising technique for treating limbal stem cell deficiency. The culture methods hitherto used vary with respect to preparation of the harvested tissue, choice of culture medium, culture time, culture substrates, and supplementary techniques. In this chapter, we describe a procedure for establishing human LEC cultures using a feeder-free explant culture technique with human amniotic membrane (AM) as the culture substrate. PMID:23690008

Utheim, Tor Paaske; Lyberg, Torstein; Ræder, Sten

2013-01-01

447

Cultural Characteristics Chinese Cultural Characteristics and Effective Business in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For firms in the international market the cultural characteristics of host country societies, where their managers are going\\u000a to deal and work, must be learned, absorbed and adopted. A person’s perception of market needs is framed by his or her own\\u000a cultural experience. More than factual knowledge of Chinese culture the interpretative knowledge is very important and difficult,\\u000a since it

Maria Fernanda Pargana Ilhéu

448

Cultural Inertia and Uniformity in Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze aspects of the structure of organizational culture. We show that old and culturally uniform organizations are prone to cultural inertia, that is, they are reluctant to adopt a different culture in response to a change in the environment. Cultural uniformity can be beneficial because the associated inertia ex post protects and therefore ex ante encourages culture-specific investments by

Juan D. Carrillo; Denis Gromb

2007-01-01

449

Undergraduate Education, Tufts University Petition for Culture Option Credit  

E-print Network

African Culture ­Region of Origin Classical Culture East Asian Cultures and Diasporas East Asian Culture Language /Deaf Culture South and Southeast Asian Culture South and Southeast Asian Culture ­Region ­ Region of Origin French Culture Germanic Culture Hispanic Culture and Diasporas Hispanic Culture ­Region

Dennett, Daniel

450

The biology of cultural conflict  

PubMed Central

Although culture is usually thought of as the collection of knowledge and traditions that are transmitted outside of biology, evidence continues to accumulate showing how biology and culture are inseparably intertwined. Cultural conflict will occur only when the beliefs and traditions of one cultural group represent a challenge to individuals of another. Such a challenge will elicit brain processes involved in cognitive decision-making, emotional activation and physiological arousal associated with the outbreak, conduct and resolution of conflict. Key targets to understand bio-cultural differences include primitive drives—how the brain responds to likes and dislikes, how it discounts the future, and how this relates to reproductive behaviour—but also higher level functions, such as how the mind represents and values the surrounding physical and social environment. Future cultural wars, while they may bear familiar labels of religion and politics, will ultimately be fought over control of our biology and our environment. PMID:22271779

Berns, Gregory S.; Atran, Scott

2012-01-01

451

Biotransformations with plant tissue cultures.  

PubMed

Suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus, Apocynum cannabinum and Conium maculatum were examined for their capacity to transform aniline, anisole, acetanilide, benzoic acid and coumarin. None of the cultures transformed acetanilide but each produced acetanilide when fed aniline. All three cultures converted benzoic acid to its para-hydroxy derivative. Coumarin was selectively hydroxylated at the 7-position by Catharanthus and Conium and anisole was O-demethylated only by older Catharanthus tissue. PMID:1084950

Carew, D P; Bainbridge, T

1976-01-01

452

Culturally-linked leadership styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to examine whether cultural context facilitates the emergence of different leadership styles. The key objective of the paper is to consider whether leadership styles are culturally-linked and\\/or culturally-biased. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A multifactor leadership questionnaire was utilised to measure differences in leadership styles and to offer explanations as to why the “one size fits all” view

Uma D. Jogulu

2010-01-01

453

Cultural Differentiation of Negotiating Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negotiations proceed differently across cultures. For realistic modeling of agents in multicultural negotiations, the agents\\u000a must display culturally differentiated behavior. This paper presents an agent-based simulation model that tackles these challenges,\\u000a based on Hofstede’s model of national cultures. The context is a trade network for goods with a hidden quality attribute.\\u000a The negotiation model is based on the ABMP negotiation

Gert Jan Hofstede; Catholijn M. Jonker; Tim Verwaart

2010-01-01

454

Biology, Culture, and Human Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The aim of this chapter is to contextualize optimal experience and the process of individual psychological selection within\\u000a the two main inheritance systems that influence human behavior: the biological and the cultural ones. The most recent acquisitions\\u000a in the study of the processes of selection and transmission of biological and cultural information will be briefly outlined.\\u000a Culture will be described

Antonella Delle Fave; Fausto Massimini; Marta Bassi

455

Journal of Aesthetics & Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 2009, the Journal of Aesthetics & Culture (JAC) is an open-access journal "that aims to develop inter-disciplinary theoretical models as applied to human science research on aesthetic questions." The JAC has assembled an editorial board of scholars from across the world, including experts from New York University, Lund University, and the University of Bergen. On their website, visitors can read over the author guidelines, sign up for e-alerts, peruse the journal's announcements, and view the latest peer-reviewed article. Their first volume, published in 2009, included the articles "Calling on Witnesses: testimony and the deictic" and "Confronting The Wind: a reading of a Hollywood film by Victor SjÃÂöstrÃÂöm".

456

Koro: how culturally specific?  

PubMed

Koro has been described as an acute anxiety state related to the fear of penile shrinkage into the abdomen with resultant death. This partial depersonalization disorder is found primarily among the people of the Malay Archipelago and Southern Chinese, with extremely rare incidences documented in the West. The symptomology of Koro is commonly said to be linked to ancient Chinese medical beliefs on sexual functioning and is therefore referred to as a culturally bound syndrome. Our paper summarized the case of an American male with Koro-like symptoms. It compares the Western concept of penis loss to the Chinese or Malaysian concept, and then proposes a combined hypothesis for the development of Koro. PMID:3972494

Malinick, C; Flaherty, J A; Jobe, T

1985-01-01

457

Celtic Art and Cultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Celtic Art and Cultures Website was originally created for art history students at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill and can now be used by any would-be student of Celtic Art with access to a newer Web browser. The main feature of the site is its multimedia database of Celtic-related images, maps, timelines, and vocabulary aids complete with spoken pronunciations. Images can be viewed by period, material, object, and country. If you find yourself uncertain of which time period or object type to choose, as I did, helpful information is available in the Maps & Timelines section. The course syllabus, which can be found under site info, also provides an overview of Celtic Art.

458

The culture ready brain  

PubMed Central

In this article, I examine two hypotheses of language origins: the extended mirror system hypothesis and the vocal grooming hypothesis. These conflict in several respects, partly because their authors were trained in different disciplines and influenced by different kinds of evidence. I note some ethnographic/linguistic and psychological issues which, in my view, have not been sufficiently considered by these authors, and present a ‘play and display’ hypothesis which aims to explain the evolution, not of language, but of the ‘culture ready brain’—with apologies to Arbib for so extending his original concept. In the second half of the article, I will test all three hypotheses against the available fossil, archaeological and neuroimaging evidence. PMID:20558409

2010-01-01

459

Rules, culture, and fitness  

PubMed Central

Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be “internalized,” the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain (“If you'll do X, then I'll do Y”), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule (“Dress warmly; it's cold outside”) can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:22478201

Baum, William M.

1995-01-01

460

How Darwinian is cultural evolution?  

PubMed Central

Darwin-inspired population thinking suggests approaching culture as a population of items of different types, whose relative frequencies may change over time. Three nested subtypes of populational models can be distinguished: evolutionary, selectional and replicative. Substantial progress has been made in the study of cultural evolution by modelling it within the selectional frame. This progress has involved idealizing away from phenomena that may be critical to an adequate understanding of culture and cultural evolution, particularly the constructive aspect of the mechanisms of cultural transmission. Taking these aspects into account, we describe cultural evolution in terms of cultural attraction, which is populational and evolutionary, but only selectional under certain circumstances. As such, in order to model cultural evolution, we must not simply adjust existing replicative or selectional models but we should rather generalize them, so that, just as replicator-based selection is one form that Darwinian selection can take, selection itself is one of several different forms that attraction can take. We present an elementary formalization of the idea of cultural attraction. PMID:24686939

Claidiere, Nicolas; Scott-Phillips, Thomas C.; Sperber, Dan

2014-01-01

461

Multi-cultural network security  

SciTech Connect

Education and awareness are widely acknowledged to be among the fundamental issues of Internet security, but only in the sense of making Internet users more security conscious. For the Internet to achieve its promise as an information highway, however, a complementary education effort is needed. If adequate Internet security is to be achieved, we must also increase the awareness of the professional security community of the requirements, attitudes, and habits of the many different cultures that participate in the Internet. Discussions of {open_quotes}the Internet{close_quotes} encourage the misapprehension that there is a single, uniform user community instead of a loose alliance of many cultures that differ in many fundamental aspects. This is true even if we limit our consideration to ethical cultures. At this Workshop alone we have representatives of administrative and military cultures, Governmental and commercial cultures, profit-cultures and non-profit cultures, research and operational cultures. Internet cultures are united in their desire to exploit the connectivity, flexibility, and rapidity of communication provided by the net, but differ greatly in their motivations, their attitudes towards authority, their willingness to cooperate within their own communities, their interest in technical arcana, and the patience with which they will put up with - or the enthusiasm with which they will embrace - the growing list of procedures deemed necessary for acceptable security. They even differ in how they define {open_quotes}acceptable security{close_quotes}.

Stevens, D.F.

1996-04-01

462

Cultural vulnerability and professional narratives.  

PubMed

In this article the author draws upon research with palliative care professionals in the United Kingdom to discuss the value of a stance of cultural vulnerability in intercultural care. Cultural vulnerability recognizes the reality, but also the ethical value of uncertainty and not-knowing in care. Attentiveness to professional narratives is advocated as vital in the development of greater understanding of cultural vulnerability and its effects. The role of cultural identifications and the politics of racism in social work narratives is given specific attention. PMID:22150178

Gunaratnam, Yasmin

2011-01-01

463

Migration, distress and cultural identity.  

PubMed

When people migrate from one nation or culture to another they carry their knowledge and expressions of distress with them. On settling down in the new culture, their cultural identity is likely to change and that encourages a degree of belonging; they also attempt to settle down by either assimilation or biculturalism. In this paper, various hypotheses explaining the act of migration and its relationship with mental distress are described. A new hypothesis is proposed suggesting that when sociocentric individuals from sociocentric cultures migrate to egocentric societies they may feel more alienated. In order to assess and manage migrants, the clinicians need to be aware of the pathways into migration. PMID:15226202

Bhugra, Dinesh

2004-01-01

464

High density cell culture system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.

Spaulding, Glenn F. (inventor)

1994-01-01

465

Accommodating Culture and Cultural Diversity in Online Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term "culture" has been in common use for a long time. However there is no universally accepted definition and hence it is important to define clearly what culture means in a particular research context. The research reported here is part of a project undertaken at a large Australian university in late 2005. The overall aim of the project was…

Goold, Annegret; Craig, Annemieke; Coldwell, Jo

2007-01-01

466

Council for Cultural Cooperation and Cultural Fund. Annual Report 1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes programs, studies, and symposia conducted by the Council for Cultural Cooperation (CCC) to enhance communication and interaction on educational and cultural matters between the members of the Council of Europe. The first section describes activities undertaken to promote European interaction. These include (1) exchange…

Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

467

Teaching Culture. The Long Revolution in Cultural Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 12 papers that trace the connections and tensions between the original aims and forms of cultural studies in Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the current settings, goals, and methodologies of cultural studies. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (Nannette Aldred and Martin Ryle); "Marginal Occupations: Adult…

Aldred, Nannette, Ed.; Ryle, Martin, Ed.

468

Grist and mills: on the cultural origins of cultural learning  

PubMed Central

Cumulative cultural evolution is what ‘makes us odd’; our capacity to learn facts and techniques from others, and to refine them over generations, plays a major role in making human minds and lives radically different from those of other animals. In this article, I discuss cognitive processes that are known collectively as ‘cultural learning’ because they enable cumulative cultural evolution. These cognitive processes include reading, social learning, imitation, teaching, social motivation and theory of mind. Taking the first of these three types of cultural learning as examples, I ask whether and to what extent these cognitive processes have been adapted genetically or culturally to enable cumulative cultural evolution. I find that recent empirical work in comparative psychology, developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience provides surprisingly little evidence of genetic adaptation, and ample evidence of cultural adaptation. This raises the possibility that it is not only ‘grist’ but also ‘mills’ that are culturally inherited; through social interaction in the course of development, we not only acquire facts about the world and how to deal with it (grist), we also build the cognitive processes that make ‘fact inheritance’ possible (mills). PMID:22734061

Heyes, Cecilia

2012-01-01

469

Cultural Pluralism, Multi-cultural Education, and Then What?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This sociological perspective on multicultural education focuses on racial and cultural groups, but accents class and power correlates. The results of the civil rights movement took the nation to visions of integration, and when these faltered, to the recognition of diversity in the form of cultural pluralism, which nonetheless implies structural…

Hagopian, Elaine C.

470

Social, Cultural, and Educational Legacies 459 Cultural, and  

E-print Network

spaceflight program, was a watershed for cultural diversity within NASA and had substantial cultural impact outside the realm of spaceflight. In the 1950s and 1960s, opportunities for American women and minorities-running program extends beyond these dramatic changes. Today, the shuttle--the crown jewel of NASA's spaceflight

471

Is Commercial Culture Popular Culture?: A Question for Popular  

E-print Network

increasingly intrudes on other forms of culture. The essay ar- gues that popular communication scholars culture--be a topic of future exploration in the journal Popular Com- munication? The commercial form not necessarily involve as a central tenet the integration of advertising forms with entertainment. This version

Maranas, Costas

472

La Culture Canadienne-Francaise = French Canadian Culture. Interim Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials about the culture specific to French-speaking people in Canada are presented as part of the cultural component of the prescribed second language curriculum. The materials follow the suggested sequence of studying the "French Fact" in Alberta in grade 7, the study of French settlements in Canada in grade 8, and in-depth study of Quebec…

Bussiere, Adrien L., Ed.

473

Organizational Culture andOrganizational Culture and Human Factors in HealthcareHuman Factors in Healthcare  

E-print Network

Organizational Culture andOrganizational Culture and Human Factors in HealthcareHuman Factors;TEAMWORK!TEAMWORK! #12;OverviewOverview ·· Organizational culture and adaptationOrganizational culture culturesorganizational cultures ·· Define the features of a culture of safetyDefine the features of a culture of safety

474

Three Dimensional Primary Hepatocyte Culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our results demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of culturing PHH in microgravity bioreactors that exceeded the longest period obtained using other methods. Within the first week of culture, isolated hepatocytes started to form aggregates, which continuously increased in size (up to 1 cm) and macroscopically appeared as a multidimensional tissue-like assembly. To improve oxygenation and nutrition within the spheroids we performed experiments with the biodegradable nonwoven fiber-based polymers made from PolyGlycolic Acid (PGA). It has been shown that PGA scaffolds stimulate isolated cells to regenerate tissue with defined sizes and shapes and are currently being studied for various tissue-engineering applications. Our data demonstrated that culturing hepatocytes in the presence of PGA scaffolds resulted in more efficient cell assembly and formations of larger cell spheroids (up to 3 cm in length, see figure). The histology of cell aggregates cultured with PGA showed polymer fibers with attached hepatocytes. We initiated experiments to co-culture primary human hepatocytes with human microvascular endothelial cells in the bioreactor. The presence of endothelial cells in co-cultures were established by immunohistochemistry using anti-CD34 monoclonal Ab. Our preliminary data demonstrated that cultures of purified hepatocytes with human microvascular endothelial cells exhibited better growth and expressed higher levels of albumin MRNA for a longer period of time than cultures of ppfified, primary human hepatocytes cultured alone. We also evaluated microsomal deethylation activity of hepatocytes cultured in the presence of endothelial cells.In summary, we have established liver cell culture, which mimicked the structure and function of the parent tissue.

Yoffe, Boris

1998-01-01

475

The Cultural Evolution of Religion  

E-print Network

, methodological, and empirical groundwork. Why Take a Cultural Evolutionary Approach to Religion? What Do We Mean in the evolution- ary study of religion, in the sense that researchers investigating religion must specify what20 The Cultural Evolution of Religion Joseph Bulbulia, Armin W. Geertz, Quentin D. Atkinson, Emma

Richerson, Peter J.

476

Twilight of "Culture" in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools once had a premier role in acquainting youngsters with all dimensions of culture, says the author, who chides educators for ever allowing the situation to deteriorate. Combines literary allusions and colorful references in telling educators how they can bring culture back to the curriculum. (Editor/RK)

Goldstein, William

1976-01-01

477

Visual Culture and Studio Practice?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a number of classroom activities informed by the emerging paradigm of visual culture in the art classroom. It demonstrates the continuing importance of studio production and, thereby, both responds to critics of the paradigm, who have claimed it downplays studio, and pro- vides exemplars to inspire teachers to develop their own visual culture informed art programs. Studio

Paul Duncum

2003-01-01

478

The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes  

E-print Network

studies of formal political institutions with a concern for how individuals related to the political of comparative research that changed the way political scientists studied politics at home and abroad, "The Civic Culture re- mains the best study of comparative political culture in our time." 72 1963 #12;

Landweber, Laura

479

Adult Literacy as Cultural Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sociocultural approach takes into account how literacy is acquired and used in social contexts. Socially determined meanings of literacy practices and the different ways cultures are valued reflect tensions between practical consciousness and official or dominant consciousness. Literacy education should recognize literacy as a cultural practice…

Sparks, Barbara

2002-01-01

480

Pop culture, crime and pedagogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper was to examine how to use pop culture effectively in criminal justice courses. Currently, the Department of Criminal Justice\\/Criminology uses different forms of pop culture, such as film, to stimulate critical thinking and enhance learning. In mainstream society, these forms are often viewed as a common denominator in high profile cases, such as those involving

Angela M. Nickoli; Cindy Hendricks; James E. Hendricks; Emily Osgood

2003-01-01