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Sample records for acid-fast bacilli culture

  1. [Acid-fast bacilli isolated from foot pads of nude mice infected with leprosy bacilli].

    PubMed

    Mori, T; Kohsaka, K

    1990-01-01

    When leprosy bacilli grown in nude mouse foot pad were used for culture experiments, cultivable acid-fast bacillus was sometimes isolated as a contaminant. Whenever bacilli were inoculated to nude mice, the same leprosy bacilli were killed by autoclaving and were inoculated in to foot pads of 5 nude mice for examination of this cause of the contamination. Acid-fast bacillus was cultivated on 3% Ogawa egg medium at 33 degrees C from homogenates of foot pads of nude mice infected with M. leprae after one year and a while of infection. Foot pad of nude mouse injected with leprosy bacilli was cut off, ground in mortar and passed through sterile absorbent cotton and the filtrate was centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 30 minutes. The sediment was inoculated on 3% Ogawa egg medium after treating with a small amount of sterile 1 N sodium hydroxide. Acid-fast bacilli were isolated from 3 out of 41 mice inoculoted with heat killed bacilli. The isolated acid-fast bacillus did not be observed in the same experimental group inocudated with live bacilli, positive cases were scattered in another groups. Four out of 16 tubes were positive for acid-fast bacilli in mice infected with Kurume-naha and 5 out of 7 tubes in the Amami-KM infected mouse group. The two negative tubes were discarded due to contamination. Kurume-Oki strain which has yellow colonial morphology was isolated from one out of 6 culture tubes. Strains Kurume-naha and Amami-KM have the same characteristics as follows: slow grower with pale yellow smooth colonial morphology, strongly positive for niacin production and ureas; positive for nicotinamidase, pyradinamidase and 68 degrees C catalase; no growth at 45 degrees C, negative for nitrate reduction, hydrolysis of Tween 80, diamine oxidase, heat stable acid-phosphatase and arylsulphatase; resistant to streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin and B 663. Two isolates were identified as Mycobacterium simiae from these characteristics. Characteristics of a Kurume-Oki isolate was as follows: slow grower with yellow smooth colonial morphology, positive for urease, 68 degrees C catalase, hydrolysis of Tween 80 and arylsulfatase; no growth at 45 degrees C, negative for niacin production, nicotinamidase, pyradinamidase, nitrate reduction, daimine oxidase and heat stable acid-phosphatase; resistant to streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin and B. 663. This bacillus was identified as Mycobacterium gordonae from these characteristics.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2133033

  2. Acid-fast bacilli in sputum: a case of Legionella micdadei pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, E; Freedman, R A; Cintron, F; Isenberg, H D; Singer, C

    1986-01-01

    Legionella micdadei has been implicated as a cause of nosocomial pneumonia. There are no reports of L. micdadei pneumonia diagnosed by acid-fast stain of expectorated sputum. We report a case of L. micdadei pneumonia in which expectorated sputum harbored acid-fast bacteria that reacted specifically with fluorescent antiserum to L. micdadei, confirmed by culture. In a patient at risk for nosocomial infection, the differential diagnosis of a positive sputum stain for acid-fast bacilli should include L. micdadei in addition to mycobacteria. Therapy for L. micdadei infection should be considered pending confirmation of the diagnosis. Images PMID:2430995

  3. Improving sensitivity of direct microscopy for detection of acid-fast bacilli in sputum: use of chitin in mucus digestion.

    PubMed

    Farnia, P; Mohammadi, F; Zarifi, Z; Tabatabee, D J; Ganavi, J; Ghazisaeedi, K; Farnia, P K; Gheydi, M; Bahadori, M; Masjedi, M R; Velayati, A A

    2002-02-01

    In order to try to improve the results of direct smear microscopy, we used the mucus-digesting quality of chitin in tuberculosis (TB) laboratories. For this purpose, a total of 430 sputum specimens were processed by the N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) liquefaction, chitin sedimentation, and direct microscopy methods. Then, the smear sensitivity for acid-fast bacillus detection by chitin-treated sputum was compared with the sensitivity of smears prepared by other methods. Our results showed that the chitin solution took less time to completely homogenize the mucoid sputum than did the N-acetyl-L-cysteine and NaOCl methods. The N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration method demonstrated sensitivity and specificity levels of 83 and 97%, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity of chitin sedimentation was 80%, with a specificity of 96.7%. The NaOCl liquefaction method showed a sensitivity of 78%, with a specificity of 96%. Finally, the sensitivity of direct microscopy was lower than those of the other tested methods and was only 46%, with a specificity of 90%. The chitin and NaOCl liquefaction methods are both easy to perform, and they do not require additional equipment (centrifuges). Also, our results demonstrated that the chitin method is less time-consuming than the NaOCl method, since only 30 min of incubation is required to bring complete sedimentation of bacilli in chitin-treated sputum whereas the NaOCl method needs 10 to 12 h to give the same results in the same sputum specimens. Therefore, the chitin liquefaction and sedimentation method may provide better results in TB laboratories of developing countries than the N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration, NaOCl overnight sedimentation, and direct smear microscopy methods. PMID:11825964

  4. Correlation of cytomorphological patterns and acid-fast Bacilli positivity in tuberculous lymphadenitis in a rural population of southern India

    PubMed Central

    Masilamani, Suresh; Arul, P.; Akshatha, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the most common causes of lymphadenopathy in India is tuberculosis. It can be diagnosed by a minimally invasive procedure known as fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), and thereby unnecessary surgical interventions are avoided. Aim: This study was undertaken to evaluate cytomorphological patterns of tuberculous lymphadenitis including human immunodeficiency virus-positive cases, to correlate the acid-fast Bacilli (AFB) positivity with cytomorphological patterns and also to find out overall AFB positivity. Materials and Methods: In this study, a total of 212 cases of cytologically proven tuberculous lymphadenitis were retrieved and analyzed retrospectively between March 2012 and March 2015 for three different cytomorphological patterns (epithelioid granuloma without necrosis [pattern A], epithelioid granuloma with necrosis [pattern B], and necrosis without epithelioid granuloma [pattern C]) and bacillary loads on Ziehl-Neelsen stain (ZN) for AFB. Results: Pattern A through C was observed in 40 (18.9%), 102 (48.1%), and 70 (33%) cases, respectively. AFB positivity was found in 2 (5%) cases of pattern A, 62 (60.8%) cases of pattern B, and 54 (77.1%) cases of pattern C. The highest percentage of AFB positivity (64.7%) was observed in aspirate containing purulent/pus and caseous/cheesy material. The overall AFB positivity was seen in 55.7% (118/212) cases. On grading of AFB positivity, Grade 1+ was observed in 29.7%, Grade 2+ was observed in 28.8%, and Grade 3+ was observed in 41.5% cases. Conclusion: FNAC is a sensitive, simple, convenient, safe, minimally invasive procedure to diagnose tuberculous lymphadenitis. Study of both cytomorphological patterns and ZN staining for AFB can improve the diagnostic yield. Regardless of the presence of granuloma, ZN stain must be employed whenever infective pathology is suspected. PMID:26604602

  5. Pure neuritic leprosy: Resolving diagnostic issues in acid fast bacilli (AFB)-negative nerve biopsies: A single centre experience from South India

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Monalisa; Uppin, Megha S.; Challa, Sundaram; Meena, A. K.; Kaul, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Demonstration of lepra bacilli is essential for definite or unequivocal diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy (PNL) on nerve biopsy. However, nerves always do not show bacilli owing to the changes of previous therapy or due to low bacillary load in tuberculoid forms. In absence of granuloma or lepra bacilli, other morphologic changes in endoneurium and perineurium can be of help in making a probable diagnosis of PNL and treating the patient with multidrug therapy. Materials and Methods: Forty-six biopsies of PNL were retrospectively reviewed and histologic findings were compared with 25 biopsies of non leprosy neuropathies (NLN) including vasculitic neuropathy and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). The distribution of endoneurial infiltrate and fibrosis, perineurial thickening, and myelin abnormalities were compared between PNL and NLN biopsies and analyzed by Chi-square test. Results: Out of 46 PNL casses, 24 (52.17 %) biopsies were negative for acid fast bacilli (AFB). In these cases, the features which favor a diagnosis of AFB-negative PNL were endoneurial infiltrate (51.1%), endoneurial fibrosis (54.2%), perineurial thickening (70.8%), and reduced number of myelinated nerve fibers (75%). Interpretation and Conclusion: Nerve biopsy is an efficient tool to diagnose PNL and differentiate it from other causes of NLN. In absence of AFB, the diagnosis of PNL is challenging. In this article, we have satisfactorily evaluated the various hisopthological features and found that endoneurial inflammation, dense fibrosis, and reduction in the number of myelinated nerve fibers are strong supportive indicators of PNL regardless of AFB positivity. PMID:26425006

  6. Acid fast bacilli in lymph node aspirate and smears from ear lobules and fingers in long treated patients.

    PubMed

    Kumar, B; Kaur, S; Gupta, S K; Rajwanshi, A; Darshan, H

    1984-01-01

    Skin slit smears from fingers and ear lobules and lymph node aspiration smears stained with Ziehl-Neelsen stain were studied in 43 patients of LL or BL disease. All the patients had taken dapsone monotherapy for 3-7 years. None of the patients had clinical evidence of dapsone resistance. Small number of bacilli were detected in 16 patients. Lymph node aspirate was positive in 5 cases, whereas ear lobule and fingers yielded bacilli in 12 and 13 cases respectively. It is recommended that in addition to the traditional ear lobe it is imperative to study other sites as well. Study from fingers is recommended for the sake of simplicity. Where facilities are available sampling of the lymph node may also be attempted to advantage. PMID:6384382

  7. Anisotropic tubular filtering for automatic detection of acid-fast bacilli in Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Shan-e.-Ahmed; Marjan, M. Q.; Arif, Muhammad; Butt, Farhana; Sultan, Faisal; Rajpoot, Nasir M.

    2015-03-01

    One of the main factors for high workload in pulmonary pathology in developing countries is the relatively large proportion of tuberculosis (TB) cases which can be detected with high throughput using automated approaches. TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which appears as thin, rod-shaped acid-fast bacillus (AFB) in Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stained sputum smear samples. In this paper, we present an algorithm for automatic detection of AFB in digitized images of ZN stained sputum smear samples under a light microscope. A key component of the proposed algorithm is the enhancement of raw input image using a novel anisotropic tubular filter (ATF) which suppresses the background noise while simultaneously enhancing strong anisotropic features of AFBs present in the image. The resulting image is then segmented using color features and candidate AFBs are identified. Finally, a support vector machine classifier using morphological features from candidate AFBs decides whether a given image is AFB positive or not. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ATF method with two different feature sets by showing that the proposed image analysis pipeline results in higher accuracy and F1-score than the same pipeline with standard median filtering for image enhancement.

  8. Detection of Acid Fast Bacilli in Saliva using Papanicolaou Stain Induced Fluorescence Method Versus Fluorochrome Staining: An Evaluative Study

    PubMed Central

    (Munot), Priya P Lunawat; Mhapuskar, Amit A; Ganvir, S M; Hazarey, Vinay K; Mhapuskar, Madhavi A; Kulkarni, Dinraj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fifty years after effective chemotherapy, tuberculosis (TB) still remains leading infectious cause of adult mortality. The aim of present study was to evaluate diagnostic utility of papanicolaou (Pap) stain induced fluorescence microscopic examination of salivary smears in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study of 100 individuals clinically suspected of suffering from active pulmonary TB. Control group – 50 individuals are suffering from any pulmonary disease other than TB such as pneumonia or bronchiogenic carcinoma. Fluorescence microscopic examination of two salivary smears stained by Pap stain and auramine-rhodamine (A-R) stain respectively for each patient. Ziehl–Neelsen stained sputum smear examined under the light microscope for each patient. Culture was done in all the patients for microbiological confirmation. McNemar's Chi-square analysis, Kappa test, and Z-test. Results: The sensitivities of the three staining methods using culture as a reference method were 93.02%, 88.37% and 87.20% for Pap, A-R and Ziehl–Neelson respectively. Conclusion: Pap-induced fluorescence of salivary smears is a safe, reliable and rapid method, which can prove as a valuable diagnostic tool for diagnosis of TB. PMID:26229384

  9. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. 147.13 Section 147.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. Proper precautions to avoid environmental... following collection are essential. Each State Inspector involved in eggshell culture activities...

  10. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. 147.13 Section 147.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. Proper precautions to avoid environmental... following collection are essential. Each State Inspector involved in eggshell culture activities...

  11. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. 147.13 Section 147.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. Proper precautions to avoid environmental... following collection are essential. Each State Inspector involved in eggshell culture activities...

  12. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. 147.13 Section 147.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. Proper precautions to avoid environmental... following collection are essential. Each State Inspector involved in eggshell culture activities...

  13. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. 147.13 Section 147.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. Proper precautions to avoid environmental... following collection are essential. Each State Inspector involved in eggshell culture activities...

  14. AFB (Acid-Fast Bacillus) Smear and Culture

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fast Bacillus Smear and Culture and Sensitivity; Mycobacteria tuberculosis Nucleic Acid Amplification Test Related tests: TB Screening ... is most commonly used to identify an active tuberculosis (TB) infection caused by the most medically important ...

  15. Acid-fast stain

    MedlinePLUS

    The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines if a sample of tissue, blood, or other body ... dye. The slide is then washed with an acid solution and a different stain is applied. Bacteria ...

  16. Usefulness of the MicroSeq 500 16S rDNA bacterial identification system for identification of anaerobic Gram positive bacilli isolated from blood cultures

    PubMed Central

    Lau, S K P; Ng, K H L; Woo, P C Y; Yip, K?t; Fung, A M Y; Woo, G K S; Chan, K?m; Que, T?l

    2006-01-01

    Using full 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing as the gold standard, 20 non?duplicating anaerobic Gram positive bacilli isolated from blood cultures were analysed by the MicroSeq 500 16S rDNA bacterial identification system. The MicroSeq system successfully identified 13 of the 20 isolates. Four and three isolates were misidentified at the genus and species level, respectively. Although the MicroSeq 500 16S rDNA bacterial identification system is better than three commercially available identification systems also evaluated, its database needs to be expanded for accurate identification of anaerobic Gram positive bacilli. PMID:16443743

  17. Cytological and Transcript Analyses Reveal Fat and Lazy Persister-Like Bacilli in Tuberculous Sputum

    PubMed Central

    Sherratt, Anna L; Lee, Su-Min; Smith, Rebecca J; Senner, Claire; Hinds, Jason; Rajakumar, Kumar; Adegbola, Richard A; Besra, Gurdyal S; Butcher, Philip D; Barer, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    Background Tuberculous sputum provides a sample of bacilli that must be eliminated by chemotherapy and that may go on to transmit infection. A preliminary observation that Mycobacterium tuberculosis cells contain triacylglycerol lipid bodies in sputum, but not when growing in vitro, led us to investigate the extent of this phenomenon and its physiological basis. Methods and Findings Microscopy-positive sputum samples from the UK and The Gambia were investigated for their content of lipid body–positive mycobacteria by combined Nile red and auramine staining. All samples contained a lipid body–positive population varying from 3% to 86% of the acid-fast bacilli present. The recent finding that triacylglycerol synthase is expressed by mycobacteria when they enter in vitro nonreplicating persistence led us to investigate whether this state was also associated with lipid body formation. We found that, when placed in laboratory conditions inducing nonreplicating persistence, two M. tuberculosis strains had lipid body levels comparable to those found in sputum. We investigated these physiological findings further by comparing the M. tuberculosis transcriptome of growing and nonreplicating persistence cultures with that obtained directly from sputum samples. Although sputum has traditionally been thought to contain actively growing tubercle bacilli, our transcript analyses refute the hypothesis that these cells predominate. Rather, they reinforce the results of the lipid body analyses by revealing transcriptional signatures that can be clearly attributed to slowly replicating or nonreplicating mycobacteria. Finally, the lipid body count was highly correlated (R2 = 0.64, p < 0.03) with time to positivity in diagnostic liquid cultures, thereby establishing a direct link between this cytological feature and the size of a potential nonreplicating population. Conclusion As nonreplicating tubercle bacilli are tolerant to the cidal action of antibiotics and resistant to multiple stresses, identification of this persister-like population of tubercle bacilli in sputum presents exciting and tractable new opportunities to investigate both responses to chemotherapy and the transmission of tuberculosis. PMID:18384229

  18. Development and evaluation of an automated stainer for acid-fast bacilli.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Chan; Kang, Seung Il; Kim, Deok Won; Kim, Seung Cheol; Cho, Sang-Nae; Hwang, Jung Ho; Kim, Young; Song, Sun-Dae; Kim, Young Ha

    2003-05-01

    The current strategy for the control of tuberculosis (TB) relies on early diagnosis, and smear microscopy is an essential component of the laboratory diagnosis of TB in most countries with a high prevalence of the disease. However, even simple smear microscopy examination is far from satisfactory because staining results can vary among individual technicians. In an effort to minimize variations in manual staining procedures, we developed an automated stainer for AFB and evaluated its usefulness in comparison with manual staining. The key feature of our automated stainer is a heating apparatus required for fixation and carbol-fuchsin staining. After smear slides are placed into the machine, the entire staining process is fully automated, from fixation to final washing and drying. With the automated methods, five slides can be fixed and stained in 21 min at consistent high quality. Using sputum samples from 91 TB patients, the staining results of the automated stainer were compared blindly with those of manual staining. The concordance rate between the two methods was 94.5%. In addition, there was no significant difference in the rate of detection of AFB in the sputum samples. Although further optimization of the auto staining procedures is required, the results indicate that the automated AFB stainer developed in this study looks promising for use in clinical mycobacteriology laboratory in order to minimize personal variation during AFB staining. PMID:12649020

  19. Comparative yield of blood culture for fungi and mycobacteria, liver biopsy, and bone marrow biopsy in the diagnosis of fever of undetermined origin in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Prego, V; Glatt, A E; Roy, V; Thelmo, W; Dincsoy, H; Raufman, J P

    1990-02-01

    The diagnostic yield of mycobacterial blood cultures, bone marrow biopsy, and liver biopsy for determining the cause of unexplained fever was compared prospectively in eight men and four women with serologic evidence of human immunodeficiency virus infection and fever of undetermined origin. Mycobacterial infection was found in 8 of the 12 patients (Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 3 and Mycobacterium avium in 5). Mycobacteria were isolated from the blood of 6 of these 8 patients. The mean interval from blood culture inoculation to growth was 28 days. Acid-fast organisms or granulomas were seen in four bone marrow and six liver specimens. Liver biopsy revealed acid-fast bacilli in a higher percentage of cases (75%) than did bone marrow biopsy (25%). Mycobacterial blood culture is a relatively slow method that occasionally fails to diagnose mycobacterial infection. In febrile patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, liver biopsy is the most rapid method of diagnosing mycobacterial infection. PMID:2302009

  20. Phosphorylation of KasB Regulates Virulence and Acid-Fastness in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Vilchèze, Catherine; Molle, Virginie; Carrère-Kremer, Séverine; Leiba, Jade; Mourey, Lionel; Shenai, Shubhada; Baronian, Grégory; Tufariello, Joann; Hartman, Travis; Veyron-Churlet, Romain; Trivelli, Xavier; Tiwari, Sangeeta; Weinrick, Brian; Alland, David; Guérardel, Yann; Jacobs, William R.; Kremer, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli display two signature features: acid-fast staining and the capacity to induce long-term latent infections in humans. However, the mechanisms governing these two important processes remain largely unknown. Ser/Thr phosphorylation has recently emerged as an important regulatory mechanism allowing mycobacteria to adapt their cell wall structure/composition in response to their environment. Herein, we evaluated whether phosphorylation of KasB, a crucial mycolic acid biosynthetic enzyme, could modulate acid-fast staining and virulence. Tandem mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that phosphorylation of KasB occurred at Thr334 and Thr336 both in vitro and in mycobacteria. Isogenic strains of M. tuberculosis with either a deletion of the kasB gene or a kasB_T334D/T336D allele, mimicking constitutive phosphorylation of KasB, were constructed by specialized linkage transduction. Biochemical and structural analyses comparing these mutants to the parental strain revealed that both mutant strains had mycolic acids that were shortened by 4–6 carbon atoms and lacked trans-cyclopropanation. Together, these results suggested that in M. tuberculosis, phosphorylation profoundly decreases the condensing activity of KasB. Structural/modeling analyses reveal that Thr334 and Thr336 are located in the vicinity of the catalytic triad, which indicates that phosphorylation of these amino acids would result in loss of enzyme activity. Importantly, the kasB_T334D/T336D phosphomimetic and deletion alleles, in contrast to the kasB_T334A/T336A phosphoablative allele, completely lost acid-fast staining. Moreover, assessing the virulence of these strains indicated that the KasB phosphomimetic mutant was attenuated in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice following aerosol infection. This attenuation was characterized by the absence of lung pathology. Overall, these results highlight for the first time the role of Ser/Thr kinase-dependent KasB phosphorylation in regulating the later stages of mycolic acid elongation, with important consequences in terms of acid-fast staining and pathogenicity. PMID:24809459

  1. Thin layer microcolony culture associated with PCR for early identification of Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    do Rosário, Tatiana Reis; Dib, Cristina Corsi; Roxo, Eliana; Pinheiro, Sônia Regina; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2014-01-01

    The initial growth of mycobacteria from 49 samples of cattle and buffalo organs collected in commercial slaughterhouses was compared between modified Middlebrook 7H11 thin layer microcolony culture and Stonebrink medium used in the isolation of Mycobacterium bovis. Aliquots were decontaminated by Petroff’s method, processed and cultured in both media. The identity of the acid-fast bacilli stained by Ziehl-Neelsen was confirmed by PCR. Optical microscopy showed that results of the early observation of Mycobacterium bovis colonies in thin layer culture were similar to those obtained in macroscopic observation of the colonies in Stonebrink medium. However, early observation of the colonies enabled early confirmation by PCR, given the shorter time to the visualization of colonies when thin layer culture was used (between the 12nd and 25th day of culture). PMID:24948936

  2. Cost-effective and rapid presumptive identification of gram-negative bacilli in routine urine, pus, and stool cultures: evaluation of the use of CHROMagar orientation medium in conjunction with simple biochemical tests.

    PubMed

    Ohkusu, K

    2000-12-01

    The algorithm for a new identification system was designed on the basis of colony color and morphology on CHROMagar Orientation medium in conjunction with simple biochemical tests such as indole (IND), lysine decarboxylase (LDC), and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) utilization tests with gram-negative bacilli isolated from urine samples as well as pus, stool, and other clinical specimens by the following colony characteristics, biochemical reactions, and serological results: pinkish to red, IND positive (IND(+)), Escherichia coli; metallic blue, IND(+), LDC(+), and ODC negative (ODC(-)), Klebsiella oxytoca; IND(+), LDC(-), and ODC(+), Citrobacter diversus; IND(+) or IND(-), LDC(-), and ODC(-), Citrobacter freundii; IND(-), LDC(+), and ODC(+), Enterobacter aerogenes; IND(-), LDC(-), and ODC(+), Enterobacter cloacae; IND(-), LDC(+), and ODC(-), Klebsiella pneumoniae; diffuse brown and IND(+), Morganella morganii; IND(-), Proteus mirabilis; aqua blue, Serratia marcescens; bluish green and IND(+), Proteus vulgaris; transparent yellow-green, serology positive, Pseudomonas aeruginosa; clear and serology positive, Salmonella sp.; other colors and reactions, the organism was identified by the full identification methods. The accuracy and cost-effectiveness of this new system were prospectively evaluated. During an 8-month period, a total of 345 specimens yielded one or more gram-negative bacilli. A total of 472 gram-negative bacillus isolates were detected on CHROMagar Orientation medium. For 466 of the isolates (98.7%), no discrepancies in the results were obtained on the basis of the identification algorithm. The cost of identification of gram-negative bacilli during this period was reduced by about 70%. The results of this trial for the differentiation of the most commonly encountered gram-negative pathogens in clinical specimens with the new algorithm were favourable in that it permitted reliable detection and presumptive identification. In addition, this rapid identification system not only significantly reduced costs but it also improved the daily work flow within the clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID:11101600

  3. Tuberculosis diagnostics in Fiji: how reliable is culture?

    PubMed Central

    Gounder, S.; Reid, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Settings: Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy and Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture are the first-line diagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB). The contamination of TB cultures significantly reduces the reliability of TB diagnosis. Objective: To investigate factors associated with TB culture contamination in Fiji, and the relative diagnostic performance of culture compared to microscopy. Design: All tests performed at the Daulakao Mycobacterium Reference Laboratory (DMRL) in Fiji from 2010 to 2012 were reviewed. Study variables included AFB smear and TB culture results, age and type of specimen, referring TB testing centre and patient age. Results: Of 5708 specimens reviewed, 70% had both AFB smear and culture results recorded; 421 specimens were contaminated; 2.7% of specimens were either degraded or had no result recorded. There was moderate agreement (? = 0.577) between the two tests. Culture was more likely to be positive at higher AFB smear scores. Culture contamination was associated with distance from the DMRL, sample age and operator-associated factors. Conclusion: Increases in the speed of referral from TB testing centres or the addition of preservatives to sputum specimens may results in less culture contamination. The planned introduction of liquid culture techniques in combination with culture on Ogawa media is likely to increase the sensitivity of TB diagnosis in Fiji. PMID:26400808

  4. Targeting Dormant Bacilli to Fight Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Fattorini, Lanfranco; Piccaro, Giovanni; Mustazzolu, Alessandro; Giannoni, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which kills about 2 million people annually. Furthermore, 2 billion people worldwide are latently infected with this organism, with 10% of them reactivating to active TB due to re-growth of nonreplicating (dormant) Mtb residing in their tissues. Because of the huge reservoir of latent TB it is important to find novel drugs/drug combinations killing dormant bacilli (microaerophiles, anaerobes and drug-tolerant persisters) surviving for decades in a wide spectrum of granulomatous lesions in the lungs of TB patients. Antibiotic treatment of drug-susceptible TB requires administration of isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol for 2 months, followed by isoniazid and rifampin for 4 months. To avoid reactivation of dormant Mtb to active pulmonary TB, up to 9 months of treatment with isoniazid is required. Therefore, a strategy to eliminate dormant bacilli needs to be developed to shorten therapy of active and latent TB and reduce the reservoir of people with latent TB. Finding drugs with high rate of penetration into the caseous granulomas and understanding the biology of dormant bacilli and in particular of persister cells, phenotypically resistant to antibiotics, will be essential to eradicate Mtb from humans. In recent years unprecedented efforts have been done in TB drug discovery, aimed at identifying novel drugs and drug combinations killing both actively replicating and nonreplicating Mtb in vitro, in animal models and in clinical trials in humans. PMID:24363887

  5. THE BIOLOGICAL AND THE SEROLOGICAL REACTIONS OF INFLUENZA BACILLI PRODUCING MENINGITIS

    PubMed Central

    Rivers, T. M.; Kohn, Lawrence A.

    1921-01-01

    1. An attempt has been made to standardize the cultural and the serological work on influenza bacilli. As technique and knowledge improve cultural and serological characteristics may be shown to be different from those reported here. The results are constant enough for comparison as they were obtained under as nearly similar conditions as possible. 2. Of thirteen meningitic strains of Bacillus influenzæ isolated by different workers during a period of 7 years, eleven are alike culturally and fall into two groups by absorption of agglutinin tests; seven are in Group 1, three in Group 2, with one intermediate strain. Two strains stand alone culturally and serologically. 3. Four blood culture strains from children with pneumonia differ from each other culturally and serologically. When these strains show a relation culturally to members of the meningitic group this is not confirmed by serological reactions. When more respiratory strains are studied there may be found among them some similar culturally and serologically to the meningitic group. 4. Evidence has been set forth in favor of the possibility that a certain group of influenza bacilli may have risen to a level of pathogenicity to produce a disease picture known as influenzal meningitis. If this be true an attempt should be made to obtain a potent serum for treatment. PMID:19868573

  6. Treatment of bone and joint infections caused by Gram-negative bacilli with a cefepime-fluoroquinolone combination.

    PubMed

    Legout, L; Senneville, E; Stern, R; Yazdanpanah, Y; Savage, C; Roussel-Delvalez, M; Rosele, B; Migaud, H; Mouton, Y

    2006-10-01

    A 3-year retrospective study evaluated the effectiveness and safety of cefepime plus a fluoroquinolone for treating bone and joint infections caused by Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) in 28 patients. Intra-operative cultures yielded primarily Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacter cloacae. Full recovery (cure) was observed in 79% of patients. There were no serious adverse effects and no resistant organisms were isolated. The results of the study confirmed the safety and effectiveness of cefepime combined with a fluoroquinolone for the treatment of bone and joint infections caused by Gram-negative bacilli. PMID:16961643

  7. Overview of nosocomial infections caused by gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Gaynes, Robert; Edwards, Jonathan R

    2005-09-15

    We analyzed data from the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System from 1986-2003 to determine the epidemiology of gram-negative bacilli in intensive care units (ICUs) for the most frequent types of hospital-acquired infection: pneumonia, surgical site infection (SSI), urinary tract infection (UTI), and bloodstream infection (BSI). We analyzed >410,000 bacterial isolates associated with hospital-acquired infections in ICUs during 1986-2003. In 2003, gram-negative bacilli were associated with 23.8% of BSIs, 65.2% of pneumonia episodes, 33.8% of SSIs, and 71.1% of UTIs. The percentage of BSIs associated with gram-negative bacilli decreased from 33.2% in 1986 to 23.8% in 2003. The percentage of SSIs associated with gram-negative bacilli decreased from 56.5% in 1986 to 33.8% in 2003. The percentages pneumonia episodes and UTIs associated with gram-negative bacilli remained constant during the study period. The proportion of ICU pneumonia episodes associated with Acinetobacter species increased from 4% in 1986 to 7.0% in 2003 (P<.001, by the Cochran-Armitage chi2 test for trend). Significant increases in resistance rates were uniformly seen for selected antimicrobial-pathogen combinations. Gram-negative bacilli are commonly associated with hospital-acquired infections in ICUs. The proportion of Acinetobacter species associated with ICU pneumonia increased from 4% in 1986 to 7.0% in 2003. PMID:16107985

  8. Reduction of Acid-Fast and Non-Acid-Fast Bacteria by Point of Use Coagulation-Flocculation-Disinfection.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Lisa M; Sobsey, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Point of use (POU) household water treatment is increasingly being adopted as a solution for access to safe water. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are found in water, but there is little research on whether NTM survive POU treatment. Mycobacteria may be removed by multi-barrier treatment systems that combine processes such as coagulation, settling and disinfection. This work evaluated removal of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (Mycobaterium terrae) and a Gram-negative non-acid-fast environmental bacterium (Aeromonas hydrophila) by combined coagulation-flocculation disinfection POU treatment. Aeromonas hydrophila showed 7.7 log10 reduction in demand free buffer, 6.8 log10 in natural surface water, and 4 log10 reduction in fecally contaminated surface water. Turbidity after treatment was <1 NTU. There was almost no reduction in levels of viable M. terrae by coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant in natural water after 30 minutes. The lack of Mycobacteria reduction was similar for both combined coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant and hypochlorite alone. A POU coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant treatment effectively reduced A. hydrophila from natural surface waters but not Mycobacteria. These results reinforce previous findings that POU coagulation-flocculation-disinfection is effective against gram-negative enteric bacteria. POU treatment and safe storage interventions may need to take into account risks from viable NTM in treated stored water and consider alternative treatment processes to achieve NTM reductions. PMID:26580632

  9. Reduction of Acid-Fast and Non-Acid-Fast Bacteria by Point of Use Coagulation-Flocculation-Disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Lisa M.; Sobsey, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Point of use (POU) household water treatment is increasingly being adopted as a solution for access to safe water. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are found in water, but there is little research on whether NTM survive POU treatment. Mycobacteria may be removed by multi-barrier treatment systems that combine processes such as coagulation, settling and disinfection. This work evaluated removal of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (Mycobaterium terrae) and a Gram-negative non-acid-fast environmental bacterium (Aeromonas hydrophila) by combined coagulation-flocculation disinfection POU treatment. Aeromonas hydrophila showed 7.7 log10 reduction in demand free buffer, 6.8 log10 in natural surface water, and 4 log10 reduction in fecally contaminated surface water. Turbidity after treatment was <1 NTU. There was almost no reduction in levels of viable M. terrae by coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant in natural water after 30 minutes. The lack of Mycobacteria reduction was similar for both combined coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant and hypochlorite alone. A POU coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant treatment effectively reduced A. hydrophila from natural surface waters but not Mycobacteria. These results reinforce previous findings that POU coagulation-flocculation-disinfection is effective against gram-negative enteric bacteria. POU treatment and safe storage interventions may need to take into account risks from viable NTM in treated stored water and consider alternative treatment processes to achieve NTM reductions. PMID:26580632

  10. Fluorescent acid-fast microscopy for measuring phagocytosis of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum by Tetrahymena pyriformis and their intracellular growth.

    PubMed

    Strahl, E D; Gillaspy, G E; Falkinham, J O

    2001-10-01

    Fluorescent acid-fast microscopy (FAM) was used to enumerate intracellular Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum in the ciliated phagocytic protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis. There was a linear relationship between FAM and colony counts of M. avium cells both from cultures and within protozoa. The Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain could not be used to enumerate intracellular mycobacteria because uninfected protozoa contained acid-fast, bacterium-like particles. Starved, 7-day-old cultures of T. pyriformis transferred into fresh medium readily phagocytized M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum. Phagocytosis was rapid and reached a maximum in 30 min. M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum grew within T. pyriformis, increasing by factors of 4- to 40-fold after 5 days at 30 degrees C. Intracellular M. avium numbers remained constant over a 25-day period of growth (by transfer) of T. pyriformis. Intracellular M. avium cells also survived protozoan encystment and germination. The growth and viability of T. pyriformis were not affected by mycobacterial infection. The results suggest that free-living phagocytic protozoa may be natural hosts and reservoirs for M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum. PMID:11571139

  11. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacilli isolated from the skin of healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Tarale, Prashant; Gawande, Sonali; Jambhulkar, Vinay

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, twelve bacilli were isolated from four different regions of human skin from Bela population of Nagpur district, India. The isolated bacilli were identified by their morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics. Seven isolates were Gram negative rods, out of which five were belong to genus Pseudomonas. Three among the five Gram positive isolates were identified as Dermabactor and the remaining two Bacillus. Their antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The isolates showed resistance to several currently used broad-spectrum antibiotics. The Dermabactor genus was resistant to vancomycin, although it was earlier reported to be susceptible. Imipenem was found to be the most effective antibiotic for Pseudomonas while nalidixic acid, ampicillin and tetracycline were ineffective. Isolates of Bacillus displayed resistance to the extended spectrum antibiotics cephalosporin and ceftazidime. Imipenem, carbenicillin and ticarcillin were found to be the most effective antibiotics as all the investigated isolates were susceptible to them. Antibiotic resistance may be due to the overuse or misuse of antibiotics during the treatment, or following constant exposure to antibiotic-containing cosmetic formulations. PMID:26691469

  12. Acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in the kidneys of mallards fed lead shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Bagley, G.E.; Irby, H.D.

    1966-01-01

    Acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies were found in the cells of the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidneys of mallards fed one, two, three or eight number 6 lead shot and maintained on cracked or whole corn and on grain-duck pellet diets. No acid-fast inclusion bodies were found in mallards fed one or three lead shot but maintained on a duck pellet ration. Dietary factors may be responsible for the failure of mallards fed a duck pellet ration to develop lead Inclusion bodies when treated with one or three lead shot. The authors suggest these inclusion bodies can be used as presumptive evidence for lead intoxication in mallards.

  13. Simultaneous staining of sputum smears for acid-fast and lipid-containing Myobacterium tuberculosis can enhance the clinical evaluation of antituberculosis treatments.

    PubMed

    Kayigire, Xavier A; Friedrich, Sven O; van der Merwe, Lize; Donald, Peter R; Diacon, Andreas H

    2015-12-01

    Dormant, slow-growing, antibiotic-tolerant Mycobacterium tuberculosis undermine the shortening of tuberculosis treatment to less than 6 months and are thought to be characterised by intracellular lipid bodies. Antibiotic effects on such persisting bacilli escape evaluation as they cannot be readily cultured. We identified cells containing lipid bodies in sputum smears from 86 newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients and monitored these cells daily in 42 patients over the first 14 days of treatment with rifampicin, the experimental compound SQ-109, or both agents combined. Counts of Nile-Red-positive lipid-body containing cells were correlated with those of Auramine-O-positive cells and colony forming units of viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis on agar plates. Rifampicin but not SQ-109 significantly reduced colony forming units but all treatments distinctively and significantly changed the proportions of lipid body-containing bacilli and viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Monitoring lipid-body containing bacilli in sputum during treatment with experimental antituberculosis regimens may identify putative treatment-shortening regimens. PMID:26318558

  14. ACID-FAST BACTERIA AND YEASTS AS INDICATORS OF DISINFECTION EFFICIENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the coliform group of organisms is considered to be less resistant to chlorine than some bacterial and viral pathogens, the utility of both yeast and acid-fast oganisms as potntial indicators of disinfection efficiency was evaluated. In most laboratory studies these two gro...

  15. The genotypic diversity and lipase production of some thermophilic bacilli from different genera.

    PubMed

    Koc, Melih; Cokmus, Cumhur; Cihan, Arzu Coleri

    2015-12-01

    Thermophilic 32 isolates and 20 reference bacilli were subjected to Rep-PCR and ITS-PCR fingerprinting for determination of their genotypic diversity, before screening lipase activities. By these methods, all the isolates and references could easily be differentiated up to subspecies level from each other. In screening assay, 11 isolates and 7 references were found to be lipase producing. Their extracellular lipase activities were measured quantitatively by incubating in both tributyrin and olive oil broths at 60 °C and pH 7.0. During the 24, 48 and 72-h period of incubation, the changes in the lipase activities, culture absorbance, wet weight of biomass and pH were all measured. The activity was determined by using pNPB in 50 mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 at 60 °C. The lipase production of the isolates in olive oil broths varied between 0.008 and 0.052, whereas these values were found to be 0.002-0.019 (U/mL) in the case of tyributyrin. For comparison, an index was established by dividing the lipase activities to cell biomass (U/mg). The maximum thermostable lipase production was achieved by the isolates F84a, F84b, and G. thermodenitrificans DSM 465T (0.009, 0.008 and 0.008 U/mg) within olive oil broth, whereas G. stearothermophilus A113 displayed the highest lipase activity than its type strain in tyributyrin. Therefore, as some of these isolates displayed higher activities in comparison to references, new lipase producing bacilli were determined by presenting their genotypic diversity with DNA fingerprinting techniques. PMID:26691464

  16. NAD+ Auxotrophy is Bacteriocidal for the Tubercle Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Vilchèze, Catherine; Weinrick, Brian; Wong, Ka-Wing; Chen, Bing; Jacobs, William R.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The human tubercle bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis can synthesize NAD+ using the de novo biosynthesis pathway or the salvage pathway. The salvage pathway of the bovine tubercle bacillus M. bovis was reported defective due to a mutation in the nicotinamidase PncA. This defect prevents nicotinic acid secretion, which is the basis for the niacin test that clinically distinguishes M. bovis from M. tuberculosis. Surprisingly, we found that the NAD+ de novo biosynthesis pathway (nadABC) can be deleted from M. bovis, demonstrating a functioning salvage pathway. M. bovis ?nadABC fails to grow in mice, whereas M. tuberculosis ?nadABC grows normally in mice, suggesting that M. tuberculosis can acquire nicotinamide from its host. The introduction of M. tuberculosis pncA into M. bovis ?nadABC is sufficient to fully restore growth in a mouse, proving that the functional salvage pathway enables nicotinamide acquisition by the tubercle bacilli. This study demonstrates that NAD+ starvation is a cidal event in the tubercle bacilli and confirms that enzymes common to the de novo and salvage pathways may be good drug targets. PMID:20199601

  17. Inhibition of bacilli in industrial starches by nisin.

    PubMed

    Pirttijärvi, T S; Wahlström, G; Rainey, F A; Saris, P E; Salkinoja-Salonen, M S

    2001-03-01

    The properties of Bacillus coagulans and of other bacilli that contaminate paper and paperboard manufacturing processes were investigated under simulated industrial conditions. Nisin (0.05 to 0.125 microg ml(-1) blocked growth of indigenous bacilli that contaminate sizing starches. B. coagulans starch isolates, B. licheniformis, B. amyloliquefaciens, and B. stearothermophilus grew at > or = 50 degrees C in industrial starch and produced alpha-glucosidase and cyclodextrins. The industrial isolates and reference strains of B. amyloliquefaciens, B. cereus, B. coagulans, B. flexus, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B. sporothermodurans, B. stearothermophilus and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris were inhibited by < or = 0.125 microg of nisin on agar. B. coagulans and B. stearothermophilus were similarly inhibited by < or = 0.025 microg of nisin ml(-1) and by 3 microg of the biocide DBNPA ml(-1) in industrial starch. B. licheniformis and B. amyloliquefaciens strains were less sensitive. About 40% of nisin added to starch was retained after cooking. Fifty percent of the nisin remained active after 11 h of storage at 60 degrees C. The results show that nisin has potential as a preservative for modified industrial starches. PMID:11420648

  18. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsiella and other facultative bacilli

    SciTech Connect

    Ochuba, G.U.; Von Riesen, V.L.

    1980-05-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carraggeenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and pectobacterium (38%). pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.

  19. The identification of gram-negative anaerobic bacilli isolated from clinical infections.

    PubMed Central

    Duerden, B. I.

    1980-01-01

    Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli isolated from specimens submitted to the routine diagnostic bacteriology laboratory and regarded as significant pathogens were identified by conventional bacteriological tests; 399 strains isolated from 356 specimens submitted from 332 patients were studied and most were readily identified by the results of a combined set of morphological, biochemical, tolerance and antibiotic disk resistance tests; B. fragilis has particular pathogenic potential and was the commonest species isolated, accounting for greater than 50% of strains. The next commonest was B. asaccharolyticus with 55 strains, and 16 other species or groups were represented by smaller numbers. Many (68%) were from infections related to the gastro-intestinal tract, but there were significant numbers from infections of the male and female genito-urinary tracts, the head, neck and central nervous system and from a variety of soft tissue infections. Most infections were mixed, and a pure culture of a Bacteroides sp. was obtained from only 26% of infections; two or more strains of Bacteroides were recovered from 55 infections. The specific identification of Bacteroides may help the bacteriologist to judge the significance of laboratory findings, influence the patient's management and prognosis and help determine the source of infection. PMID:6987300

  20. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Ruppé, Étienne; Woerther, Paul-Louis; Barbier, François

    2015-12-01

    The burden of multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) now represents a daily issue for the management of antimicrobial therapy in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. In Enterobacteriaceae, the dramatic increase in the rates of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins mainly results from the spread of plasmid-borne extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), especially those belonging to the CTX-M family. The efficacy of beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor associations for severe infections due to ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae has not been adequately evaluated in critically ill patients, and carbapenems still stands as the first-line choice in this situation. However, carbapenemase-producing strains have emerged worldwide over the past decade. VIM- and NDM-type metallo-beta-lactamases, OXA-48 and KPC appear as the most successful enzymes and may threaten the efficacy of carbapenems in the near future. ESBL- and carbapenemase-encoding plasmids frequently bear resistance determinants for other antimicrobial classes, including aminoglycosides (aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes or 16S rRNA methylases) and fluoroquinolones (Qnr, AAC(6')-Ib-cr or efflux pumps), a key feature that fosters the spread of multidrug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. In non-fermenting GNB such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, multidrug resistance may emerge following the sole occurrence of sequential chromosomal mutations, which may lead to the overproduction of intrinsic beta-lactamases, hyper-expression of efflux pumps, target modifications and permeability alterations. P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii also have the ability to acquire mobile genetic elements encoding resistance determinants, including carbapenemases. Available options for the treatment of ICU-acquired infections due to carbapenem-resistant GNB are currently scarce, and recent reports emphasizing the spread of colistin resistance in environments with high volume of polymyxins use elicit major concern. PMID:26261001

  1. A new acid-fast trichrome stain for simultaneous detection of Cryptosporidium parvum and microsporidial species in stool specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Ignatius, R; Lehmann, M; Miksits, K; Regnath, T; Arvand, M; Engelmann, E; Futh, U; Hahn, H; Wagner, J

    1997-01-01

    The detection in stool specimens of Cryptosporidium parvum and microsporidia, the most frequent parasitic pathogens causing diarrhea in AIDS patients, until now has depended on two different staining methods. However, since double infections occur and minimization of laboratory costs is mandatory, development of a method for simultaneous detection of these parasites appeared desirable. We report on a new, inexpensive, and easy-to-perform staining procedure to demonstrate both acid-fast oocysts of C. parvum and other coccidia, as well as microsporidial spores. This acid-fast trichrome stain yields results comparable to those obtained by the Kinyoun and modified trichrome methods and considerably reduces the time necessary for microscopic examination. PMID:9003613

  2. Kinetic modeling of sporulation and product formation in stationary phase by Bacillus coagulans RK-02 vis-à-vis other Bacilli.

    PubMed

    Das, Subhasish; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2011-10-01

    A logistic kinetic model was derived and validated to characterize the dynamics of a sporogenous bacterium in stationary phase with respect to sporulation and product formation. The kinetic constants as determined using this model are particularly important for describing intrinsic properties of a sporogenous bacterial culture in stationary phase. Non-linear curve fitting of the experimental data into the mathematical model showed very good correlation with the predicted values for sporulation and lipase production by Bacillus coagulans RK-02 culture in minimal media. Model fitting of literature data of sporulation and product (protease and amylase) formation in the stationary phase by some other Bacilli and comparison of the results of model fitting with those of Bacillus coagulans helped validate the significance and robustness of the developed kinetic model. PMID:21852126

  3. Resistance of gram-negative bacilli as related to hospital use of antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, M Y; Goldstein, E J; Friedman, M H; Anderson, M S; Mulligan, M E

    1983-01-01

    The development of resistance of gram-negative bacilli, which are common nosocomial pathogens, is an increasing problem. It is generally accepted that this resistance may directly reflect the frequency of use of various antimicrobial agents. Because our institution experienced in 1976 a dramatic change in the pattern of antimicrobial use, primarily a marked decrease in prescribing cephalosporins, we attempted to evaluate retrospectively the effects of this change upon the resistance of gram-negative bacilli that are common nosocomial pathogens. Susceptibilities of Klebsiella and Providencia spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens were determined for the years 1975 to 1979. Not unexpectedly, we observed a substantial decrease in cephalosporin resistance. An unexpected finding was a decrease in aminoglycoside resistance, despite increased use of these agents. The possibility that decreased cephalosporin use may lead to decreased aminoglycoside resistance is an intriguing and provocative thesis which can only be speculative at this time but which would seem worthy of additional formal investigation. PMID:6638994

  4. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...swab previously moistened with sterile lactose broth, or other suitable liquid...the tube containing four swabs and lactose broth or other suitable media, 1 ml. will be transferred to 10 ml. lactose in a fermentation tube. (2)...

  5. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...swab previously moistened with sterile lactose broth, or other suitable liquid...the tube containing four swabs and lactose broth or other suitable media, 1 ml. will be transferred to 10 ml. lactose in a fermentation tube. (2)...

  6. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...swab previously moistened with sterile lactose broth, or other suitable liquid...the tube containing four swabs and lactose broth or other suitable media, 1 ml. will be transferred to 10 ml. lactose in a fermentation tube. (2)...

  7. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...swab previously moistened with sterile lactose broth, or other suitable liquid...the tube containing four swabs and lactose broth or other suitable media, 1 ml. will be transferred to 10 ml. lactose in a fermentation tube. (2)...

  8. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...swab previously moistened with sterile lactose broth, or other suitable liquid...the tube containing four swabs and lactose broth or other suitable media, 1 ml. will be transferred to 10 ml. lactose in a fermentation tube. (2)...

  9. Isolation, culture, preservation, and identification of entomopathogenic bacteria of the bacilli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic bacteria provide an alternative to chemical pesticides used in insect control programs. This chapter provides techniques, both classical and modern, that will enable researchers from any laboratory setting to identify and work with novel strains of entomopathogenic bacteria. In ad...

  10. Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the USA" (Alisa Woodring);…

  11. Complete Genome Sequences for Two Strains of a Novel Fastidious, Partially Acid-Fast, Gram-Positive Corynebacterineae Bacterium, Derived from Human Clinical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Melissa; Humrighouse, Ben W.; McQuiston, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the complete genome sequences of two strains of the novel fastidious, partially acid-fast, Gram-positive bacillus “Lawsonella clevelandensis” (proposed). Their clinical relevance and unusual growth characteristics make them intriguing candidates for whole-genome sequencing. PMID:26659691

  12. Plant protection and growth stimulation by microorganisms: biotechnological applications of Bacilli in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, Alejandro; Romero, Diego; de Vicente, Antonio

    2011-04-01

    The increasing demand for a steady, healthy food supply requires an efficient control of the major pests and plant diseases. Current management practices are based largely on the application of synthetic pesticides. The excessive use of agrochemicals has caused serious environmental and health problems. Therefore, there is a growing demand for new and safer methods to replace or at least supplement the existing control strategies. Biological control, that is, the use of natural antagonists to combat pests or plant diseases has emerged as a promising alternative to chemical pesticides. The Bacilli offer a number of advantages for their application in agricultural biotechnology. Several Bacillus-based products have been marketed as microbial pesticides, fungicides or fertilisers. Bacillus-based biopesticides are widely used in conventional agriculture, by contrast, implementation of Bacillus-based biofungicides and biofertilizers is still a pending issue. PMID:21211960

  13. STUDIES IN ATYPICAL FORMS OF TUBERCLE BACILLI ISOLATED DIRECTLY FROM THE HUMAN TISSUES IN CASES OF PRIMARY CERVICAL ADENITIS : WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE THEOBALD SMITH GLYCERINE BOUILLON REACTION.

    PubMed

    Duval, C W

    1909-05-01

    The four cultures which form the basis of this communication were recovered from peculiar cases of primary cervical adenitis in man, three of which terminated fatally of disseminated acute miliary tuberculosis in four to six weeks. A careful comparative study shows that Culture II corresponds closely with the "human" and Culture IV with the "bovine" type of tubercle bacilli; while Cultures I and III present variations from the standard types and are to be retarded as "intermediate" or "atypical" forms. Culture I is of unusual interest because of its remarkable variations. The clinical picture of the case, the rapid course of the infection, the enormous number of the bacilli in the tissue, their tendency to occur in "heaps" like the leprosy bacillus, the high degree of virulence alike for rabbits and guinea-pigs, the production of lesions in chickens, the case of cultivation and the prolonged viability under unfavorable conditions, all mark the organism as a decided atypical form of tubercle bacillus in man. The prolonged viability, the production of lesions in the chicken and the great profusion of bacillary growth in the tissues would indicate an avian type. Though for years the reaction curve was atypical it has since changed completely to the "avian" curve. In this connection it is of interest to note that L. Rabinowitsch (3) states that she has isolated avian tubercle bacilli from two cases of tuberculosis in man. Cultures II and III undoubtedly belong to the human type of the tubercle family though they were under cultivation and were repeatedly tested upon glycerine broth over a period of months before their identity was definitely established. Culture IV completely corresponds in growth and reaction in glycerine bouillon to the bovine strain; however, it manifests a low degree of virulence for rabbits which is exceptional for bovine cultures. The old belief that bovine bacilli are more slender and beaded in the tissues and are thicker and shorter in culture than the human type, I have not been able to confirm. The morphological characters of the different cultures here reported were so inconstant that no reliance could be placed on this feature as an aid in differentiation. Outside of the animal body it would seem that the differences in size and character of the individual bacilli depend largely on the kind and reaction of the medium, whilst in the animal body they are influenced by their situation and the resistance of the host. The nature of the growth of these tubercle cultures varies for the same culture even under apparently identical conditions. The character of the growth was never an indication of the type of the culture, It was common to obtain two distinct types of growth on the same flask of bouillon, i. e., a portion of the surface would be covered with a heavy and uniformly granular layer of closely packed wax-like colonies twice the size of an ordinary pin's head, while the other portion would be a dense homogeneous layer with the typical depressed blisters. The rapidity of growth also varied greatly for the same culture. Often in a series of twelve or more bouillon flasks which were prepared alike and inoculated with the same culture, some would cover the surface in eight days to two weeks, others would take four to six weeks, still others two to three months. It was thought in the beginning of the work that this variation might depend on the amount of oxygen within the flask or on the change in reaction in the bouillon, but further tests proved that neither of these influenced the rate of growth in any way. It would occur in loosely corked flasks as well as in those that were sealed, and in flasks where the reaction was neutral, acid or slightly alkaline. It would seem that these changes are by no means specific for any group of the tubercle bacilli but a property possessed by them all. The growth of the cultures on solid medium showed approximately the same variation as that from the surface of the glycerine bouillon. The wax-like coloni

  14. Potassium availability triggers Mycobacterium tuberculosis transition to, and resuscitation from, non-culturable (dormant) states

    PubMed Central

    Salina, Elena G.; Waddell, Simon J.; Hoffmann, Nadine; Rosenkrands, Ida; Butcher, Philip D.; Kaprelyants, Arseny S.

    2014-01-01

    Dormancy in non-sporulating bacteria is an interesting and underexplored phenomenon with significant medical implications. In particular, latent tuberculosis may result from the maintenance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli in non-replicating states in infected individuals. Uniquely, growth of M. tuberculosis in aerobic conditions in potassium-deficient media resulted in the generation of bacilli that were non-culturable (NC) on solid media but detectable in liquid media. These bacilli were morphologically distinct and tolerant to cell-wall-targeting antimicrobials. Bacterial counts on solid media quickly recovered after washing and incubating bacilli in fresh resuscitation media containing potassium. This resuscitation of growth occurred too quickly to be attributed to M. tuberculosis replication. Transcriptomic and proteomic profiling through adaptation to, and resuscitation from, this NC state revealed a switch to anaerobic respiration and a shift to lipid and amino acid metabolism. High concordance with mRNA signatures derived from M. tuberculosis infection models suggests that analogous NC mycobacterial phenotypes may exist during disease and may represent unrecognized populations in vivo. Resuscitation of NC bacilli in potassium-sufficient media was characterized by time-dependent activation of metabolic pathways in a programmed series of processes that probably transit bacilli through challenging microenvironments during infection. PMID:25320096

  15. Increasing Carbapenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli and Decreasing Metallo-?-Lactamase Producers over Eight Years from Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yangsoon; Kim, Chang-Ki; Chung, Hae-Sun; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Yunsop

    2015-01-01

    The trends and types of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli were analyzed from clinical specimens collected between 2005 and 2012 at a Korean teaching hospital. The proportions of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. increased markedly to 66%. Metallo-?-lactamase producers significantly decreased and the majority shifted from the blaVIM-2 type to the blaIMP-1 type. PMID:25684011

  16. Genomic determinants of sporulation in Bacilli and Clostridia: towards the minimal set of sporulation-specific genes

    PubMed Central

    Galperin, Michael Y; Mekhedov, Sergei L; Puigbo, Pere; Smirnov, Sergey; Wolf, Yuri I; Rigden, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    Three classes of low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (Firmicutes), Bacilli, Clostridia and Negativicutes, include numerous members that are capable of producing heat-resistant endospores. Spore-forming firmicutes include many environmentally important organisms, such as insect pathogens and cellulose-degrading industrial strains, as well as human pathogens responsible for such diseases as anthrax, botulism, gas gangrene and tetanus. In the best-studied model organism Bacillus subtilis, sporulation involves over 500 genes, many of which are conserved among other bacilli and clostridia. This work aimed to define the genomic requirements for sporulation through an analysis of the presence of sporulation genes in various firmicutes, including those with smaller genomes than B. subtilis. Cultivable spore-formers were found to have genomes larger than 2300 kb and encompass over 2150 protein-coding genes of which 60 are orthologues of genes that are apparently essential for sporulation in B. subtilis. Clostridial spore-formers lack, among others, spoIIB, sda, spoVID and safA genes and have non-orthologous displacements of spoIIQ and spoIVFA, suggesting substantial differences between bacilli and clostridia in the engulfment and spore coat formation steps. Many B. subtilis sporulation genes, particularly those encoding small acid-soluble spore proteins and spore coat proteins, were found only in the family Bacillaceae, or even in a subset of Bacillus spp. Phylogenetic profiles of sporulation genes, compiled in this work, confirm the presence of a common sporulation gene core, but also illuminate the diversity of the sporulation processes within various lineages. These profiles should help further experimental studies of uncharacterized widespread sporulation genes, which would ultimately allow delineation of the minimal set(s) of sporulation-specific genes in Bacilli and Clostridia. PMID:22882546

  17. [News of antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacilli in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Baba Ahmed-Kazi Tani, Z; Arlet, G

    2014-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance has become a major public health problem in Algeria. Indeed the past decade, we have seen a significant increase in resistance to antibiotics especially in Gram-negative bacilli. Resistance to ?-lactams in enterobacteria is dominated by the production of ESBL CTX-M-3 and CTX-M-15. The strains producing these enzymes are often the cause of potentially serious infections in both hospital and community settings. Identified plasmid cephalosporinases are CMY-2, CMY-12 and DHA-1. The isolation of strains of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa producing carbapenemases is rare in Algeria. Some Enterobacteriaceae producing OXA-48 or VIM-19 have been reported; so far, only VIM-2 has been identified in P. aeruginosa. However, the situation regarding the strains of Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to carbapenemases seems to be more disturbing. The carbapenemase OXA-23 is the most common and seems to be endemic in the north. The carbapenemase NDM-1 has also been identified. Resistance to aminoglycosides is marked by the identification armA gene associated with blaCTX-M genes in strains of Salmonella sp. Several other resistance genes have been identified sporadically in strains of Enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. Resistance genes to fluoroquinolones are more recent identification in Algeria. The most common are the Qnr determinants followed by the bifunctional enzyme AAC[6']-Ib-cr. Resistance to sulfonamides and trimethoprim was also reported in Enterobacteriaceae strains in the west of the country. PMID:24819127

  18. Insight into the evolution and origin of leprosy bacilli from the genome sequence of Mycobacterium lepromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pushpendra; Benjak, Andrej; Schuenemann, Verena J.; Herbig, Alexander; Avanzi, Charlotte; Busso, Philippe; Nieselt, Kay; Krause, Johannes; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Cole, Stewart T.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium lepromatosis is an uncultured human pathogen associated with diffuse lepromatous leprosy and a reactional state known as Lucio's phenomenon. By using deep sequencing with and without DNA enrichment, we obtained the near-complete genome sequence of M. lepromatosis present in a skin biopsy from a Mexican patient, and compared it with that of Mycobacterium leprae, which has undergone extensive reductive evolution. The genomes display extensive synteny and are similar in size (?3.27 Mb). Protein-coding genes share 93% nucleotide sequence identity, whereas pseudogenes are only 82% identical. The events that led to pseudogenization of 50% of the genome likely occurred before divergence from their most recent common ancestor (MRCA), and both M. lepromatosis and M. leprae have since accumulated new pseudogenes or acquired specific deletions. Functional comparisons suggest that M. lepromatosis has lost several enzymes required for amino acid synthesis whereas M. leprae has a defective heme pathway. M. lepromatosis has retained all functions required to infect the Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system and therefore may also be neuropathogenic. A phylogeographic survey of 227 leprosy biopsies by differential PCR revealed that 221 contained M. leprae whereas only six, all from Mexico, harbored M. lepromatosis. Phylogenetic comparisons indicate that M. lepromatosis is closer than M. leprae to the MRCA, and a Bayesian dating analysis suggests that they diverged from their MRCA approximately 13.9 Mya. Thus, despite their ancient separation, the two leprosy bacilli are remarkably conserved and still cause similar pathologic conditions. PMID:25831531

  19. Immunogenomics for identification of disease resistance genes in pigs: a review focusing on Gram-negative bacilli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Over the past years, infectious disease has caused enormous economic loss in pig industry. Among the pathogens, gram negative bacteria not only cause inflammation, but also cause different diseases and make the pigs more susceptible to virus infection. Vaccination, medication and elimination of sick pigs are major strategies of controlling disease. Genetic methods, such as selection of disease resistance in the pig, have not been widely used. Recently, the completion of the porcine whole genome sequencing has provided powerful tools to identify the genome regions that harboring genes controlling disease or immunity. Immunogenomics, which combines DNA variations, transcriptome, immune response, and QTL mapping data to illustrate the interactions between pathogen and host immune system, will be an effective genomics tool for identification of disease resistance genes in pigs. These genes will be potential targets for disease resistance in breeding programs. This paper reviewed the progress of disease resistance study in the pig focusing on Gram-negative bacilli. Major porcine Gram-negative bacilli and diseases, suggested candidate genes/pathways against porcine Gram-negative bacilli, and distributions of QTLs for immune capacity on pig chromosomes were summarized. Some tools for immunogenomics research were described. We conclude that integration of sequencing, whole genome associations, functional genomics studies, and immune response information is necessary to illustrate molecular mechanisms and key genes in disease resistance. PMID:23137309

  20. Accuracy and reproducibility of the Oxi/Ferm system in identifying a select group of unusual gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Nadler, H; George, H; Barr, J

    1979-01-01

    The Oxi/Ferm (O/F) identification system was compared in a double-blind study to a conventional test battery for the characterization of 96 reference and clinical strains consisting of 83 nonfermentative and 13 oxidase-producing, fermentative gram-negative bacilli. The O/F tube and supplemental tests correctly identified 84% of the nonfermentative and 77% of the oxidase-producing, fermentative bacilli. However, when the supplemental tests were excluded and the biochemical profiles generated by all nine O/F tube reactions were examined, the profile accuracy reached 95% (79 of 83) for the nonfermentative and 93% (12 of 13) for oxidase-producing, fermentative bacilli. Seven of the nine O/F substrate reactions demonstrated less than or equal to 89% agreement with conventional reactions, whereas the urea and arginine reactions provided 82 and 85% agreement, respectively. Replicate O/F tests with six selected organisms demonstrated 97% identification reproducibility and 84% overall substrate reproducibility. The mean O/F identification time was 2.6 days as compared to 3.3 days for the conventional system. Although this study suggests that the O/F system is a convenient, rapid, and accurate alternative to conventional identification methods, several modifications are recommended. PMID:372222

  1. Lack of intracellular replication of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG caused by delivering bacilli to lysosomes in murine brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Sakamoto, Kaori; Quinn, Frederick D; Chen, Huanchun; Fu, Zhenfang

    2015-10-20

    Invasion and traversal of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by Mycobacterium tuberculosis cause meningeal tuberculosis (TB) in the central nervous system (CNS). Meningeal TB is a serious, often fatal disease that disproportionately affects young children. The mechanisms involved in CNS invasion by M. tuberculosis bacilli are poorly understood. In this study, we microscopically examined endosomal trafficking and measured survival of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) bacilli in murine brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs). The results show that both species internalize but do not replicate in BMECs in the absence of a cytotoxic response. Confocal microscopy indicates that bacilli-containing vacuoles are associated with the early endosomal marker, Rab5, late endosomal marker, Rab7, and lysosomal marker, LAMP2, suggesting that bacilli-containing endosomes mature into endolysosomes in BMECs. Our data also show that a subset of intracellular M. tuberculosis, but not BCG bacilli, escape into the cytoplasm to avoid rapid lysosomal killing. However, the intracellular mycobacteria examined cannot spread cell-to-cell in BMECs. Taken together, these data show that with the exception of the small terminal cytoplasmic population of bacilli, M. tuberculosis does not modulate intracellular trafficking in BMECs as occurs in macrophages and lung epithelial and endothelial cells. PMID:26440149

  2. Osteomyelitis associated with Nocardiopsis composta in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Elisa N.; Royal, Debra; Kurz, Lance; Loy, J. Dustin

    2015-01-01

    We report the first detection of Nocardiopsis composta in association with osteomyelitis in a young male miniature Australian shepherd dog. Findings included suppurative osteomyelitis containing intralesional Fite’s acid fast bacilli, aerobic culture of branching Gram-positive rods, and positive identification via phenotypic analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing. PMID:25969577

  3. The Relationship between Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiang-nan; Zhang, Xian-xin; He, Xiao-chun; Yang, Guo-ru; Zhang, Xiao-qi; Li, Huai-chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective The relationship between extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) and multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) is unclear. Identification of the relationship between XDR-TB and MDR-GNB would have important implications for patient care. Methods We conducted a retrospective study reviewing the records of patients admitted with a confirmed pulmonary TB from 2011 to 2014. To identify the relationship between XDR-TB and MDR-GNB, univariable comparison and multivariable logistic regression were performed. Results Among 2962 pulmonary TB patients, 45(1.5%) patients had a diagnosis of XDR-TB. A total of 165 MDR-GNB strains were detected in 143 (4.8%) pulmonary TB patients. XDR-TB patients had a significantly higher occurrence of MDR-GNB than non-XDR-TB patients (24.4% vs. 4.5%; P<0.001). Age (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01–1.03), hypoalbuminemia (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.18–1.85), chronic renal failure (OR 6.67, 95% CI 1.42–31.47), chronic hepatic insufficiency (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.15–3.43), presence of XDR-TB (OR 6.56, 95% CI 1.61–26.69), and duration of TB diagnostic delay (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00–1.02) were the independent risk factors for MDR-GNB infection. Conclusions Patients with XDR-TB have a significantly higher risk of being affected by MDR-GNB pathogen. The underlying mechanism association warrant further studies. PMID:26230499

  4. Isolation and Screening of Thermophilic Bacilli from Compost for Electrotransformation and Fermentation: Characterization of Bacillus smithii ET 138 as a New Biocatalyst

    PubMed Central

    Bosma, Elleke F.; van de Weijer, Antonius H. P.; Daas, Martinus J. A.; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M.

    2015-01-01

    Thermophilic bacteria are regarded as attractive production organisms for cost-efficient conversion of renewable resources to green chemicals, but their genetic accessibility is a major bottleneck in developing them into versatile platform organisms. In this study, we aimed to isolate thermophilic, facultatively anaerobic bacilli that are genetically accessible and have potential as platform organisms. From compost, we isolated 267 strains that produced acids from C5 and C6 sugars at temperatures of 55°C or 65°C. Subsequently, 44 strains that showed the highest production of acids were screened for genetic accessibility by electroporation. Two Geobacillus thermodenitrificans isolates and one Bacillus smithii isolate were found to be transformable with plasmid pNW33n. Of these, B. smithii ET 138 was the best-performing strain in laboratory-scale fermentations and was capable of producing organic acids from glucose as well as from xylose. It is an acidotolerant strain able to produce organic acids until a lower limit of approximately pH 4.5. As genetic accessibility of B. smithii had not been described previously, six other B. smithii strains from the DSMZ culture collection were tested for electroporation efficiencies, and we found the type strain DSM 4216T and strain DSM 460 to be transformable. The transformation protocol for B. smithii isolate ET 138 was optimized to obtain approximately 5 × 103 colonies per ?g plasmid pNW33n. Genetic accessibility combined with robust acid production capacities on C5 and C6 sugars at a relatively broad pH range make B. smithii ET 138 an attractive biocatalyst for the production of lactic acid and potentially other green chemicals. PMID:25556192

  5. Isolation and screening of thermophilic bacilli from compost for electrotransformation and fermentation: characterization of Bacillus smithii ET 138 as a new biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Bosma, Elleke F; van de Weijer, Antonius H P; Daas, Martinus J A; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M; van Kranenburg, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Thermophilic bacteria are regarded as attractive production organisms for cost-efficient conversion of renewable resources to green chemicals, but their genetic accessibility is a major bottleneck in developing them into versatile platform organisms. In this study, we aimed to isolate thermophilic, facultatively anaerobic bacilli that are genetically accessible and have potential as platform organisms. From compost, we isolated 267 strains that produced acids from C5 and C6 sugars at temperatures of 55°C or 65°C. Subsequently, 44 strains that showed the highest production of acids were screened for genetic accessibility by electroporation. Two Geobacillus thermodenitrificans isolates and one Bacillus smithii isolate were found to be transformable with plasmid pNW33n. Of these, B. smithii ET 138 was the best-performing strain in laboratory-scale fermentations and was capable of producing organic acids from glucose as well as from xylose. It is an acidotolerant strain able to produce organic acids until a lower limit of approximately pH 4.5. As genetic accessibility of B. smithii had not been described previously, six other B. smithii strains from the DSMZ culture collection were tested for electroporation efficiencies, and we found the type strain DSM 4216(T) and strain DSM 460 to be transformable. The transformation protocol for B. smithii isolate ET 138 was optimized to obtain approximately 5 × 10(3) colonies per ?g plasmid pNW33n. Genetic accessibility combined with robust acid production capacities on C5 and C6 sugars at a relatively broad pH range make B. smithii ET 138 an attractive biocatalyst for the production of lactic acid and potentially other green chemicals. PMID:25556192

  6. Oral Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli as a reservoir of ?-lactam resistance genes facilitating infections with multiresistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dupin, Clarisse; Tamanai-Shacoori, Zohreh; Ehrmann, Elodie; Dupont, Anais; Barloy-Hubler, Frédérique; Bousarghin, Latifa; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Many ?-lactamases have been described in various Gram-negative bacilli (Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, etc.) of the oral cavity, belonging to class A of the Ambler classification (CepA, CblA, CfxA, CSP-1 and TEM), class B (CfiA) or class D in Fusobacterium nucleatum (FUS-1). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ?-lactams are variable and this variation is often related to the presence of plasmids or other mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that modulate the expression of resistance genes. DNA persistence and bacterial promiscuity in oral biofilms also contribute to genetic transformation and conjugation in this particular microcosm. Overexpression of efflux pumps is facilitated because the encoding genes are located on MGEs, in some multidrug-resistant clinical isolates, similar to conjugative transposons harbouring genes encoding ?-lactamases. All these facts lead us to consider the oral cavity as an important reservoir of ?-lactam resistance genes and a privileged place for genetic exchange, especially in commensal strictly anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli. PMID:25465519

  7. Radiometric macrophage culture assay for rapid evaluation of antileprosy activity of rifampin

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, A.; Seshadri, P.S.; Prasad, H.K.; Sathish, M.; Nath, I.

    1983-10-01

    The antileprosy effect of rifampin was evaluated by a newly developed rapid in vitro assay wherein 31 human-derived strains and 1 armadillo-derived strain of Mycobacterium leprae were maintained for 2 and 3 weeks, respectively, in murine and human macrophages in the presence of (3H)thymidine. Of these strains, 27 showed significant incorporation of the radiolabel in cultures of live bacilli as compared with control cultures of heat-killed bacilli of the same strain. Consistent and significant inhibition of (3H)thymidine uptake was observed in M. leprae resident cultures with 3 to 200 ng of rifampin per ml as compared with similar cultures without the drug. In general, an increase in percent inhibition was seen from 3 to 20 ng/ml, with marginal increases at 40, 50, and 100 ng/ml. M. leprae strains appear to be remarkably susceptible to this drug in the in vitro assay.

  8. The clinical impact of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli in the management of septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Pop-Vicas, Aurora; Opal, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Multi-antibiotic drug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacilli are becoming a major threat to the standard care of septic patients. Empiric antimicrobial drug regimens to cover likely bacterial pathogens have to be altered in keeping with the spread of MDR pathogens in the health care setting and in the community. Reliable antibiotics for broad spectrum coverage for sepsis such as extended spectrum ?-lactam antibiotics, carbapenems, and fluoroquinolones can no longer be counted upon to provide activity against a range of common, virulent pathogens that cause sepsis. In some regions of Asia, South America, and Eastern Europe in particular, MDR pathogens have become a major concern, necessitating the use of potentially toxic and costly antibiotic combinations as initial antibiotic therapy for septic shock. In this brief review, we will focus on the emergence of MDR gram-negative pathogens, resistance mechanisms, and suggest some management and prevention strategies against MDR pathogens. PMID:24200870

  9. Detect-to-treat: development of analysis of bacilli spores in nasal mucus by surfaced-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inscore, Frank E.; Gift, Alan D.; Farquharson, Stuart

    2004-12-01

    As the war on terrorism in Afghanistan and Iraq continue, future attacks both abroad and in the U.S.A. are expected. In an effort to aid civilian and military personnel, we have been investigating the potential of using a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sampling device to detect Bacillus anthracis spores in nasal swab samples. Such a device would be extremely beneficial to medical responders and management in assessing the extent of a bioterrorist attack and making detect-to-treat decisions. The disposable sample device consists of a glass capillary filled with a silver-doped sol-gel that is capable of extracting dipicolinic acid (DPA), a chemical signature of Bacilli, and generating SERS spectra. The sampling device and preliminary measurements of DPA extracted from spores and nasal mucus will be presented.

  10. EFFECT OF KETONE BODIES AND OTHER METABOLITES ON THE SURVIVAL AND MULTIPLICATION OF STAPHYLOCOCCI AND TUBERCLE BACILLI

    PubMed Central

    Dubos, René J.

    1953-01-01

    A study has been made of the fate of staphylococci and tubercle bacilli resuspended in aqueous media at slightly acid reactions. The tests were carried out at several acid reactions in balanced ionic media containing 0.5 per cent serum albumin. These experimental conditions were selected in order to approximate those which are probably encountered by pathogenic agents in inflammatory areas and in the intracellular environment of the leucocytes after phagocytosis. The viability of the microorganisms at a given pH was markedly influenced by the composition of the medium, being decreased by addition to the latter of lactic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, and increased by the addition of certain ketone bodies such as dihydroxyacetone and pyruvic, ?-hydroxybutyric, ?-ketoglutaric, and oxalacetic acids. The presence of ketone bodies in the medium afforded to the microorganisms some protection against the bactericidal effect of lactic and acetic acids at acid reactions. The minimum and the optimum pH for growth were found to be dependent on the composition of the medium. Both were higher in the presence of lactic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acids than in the media without organic acids added. In contrast, the addition of ketone bodies to the medium allowed microbial multiplication even in acid media (approximately at pH 5.3 or even lower). The fact that lactic acid antagonizes, whereas ketone bodies favor, the survival and multiplication of staphylococci and tubercle bacilli at acid reactions, is discussed in relation to the high susceptibility to infection which is often associated with ketosis of various etiology. PMID:13069657

  11. Growth Detection Failures by the Nonradiometric Bactec MGIT 960 Mycobacterial Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Jeremy A.; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Hoffman, Colleen G.

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterial growth in liquid culture can go undetected by automated, nonradiometric growth detection systems. In our laboratory, instrument-negative tubes from the Bactec MGIT 960 system are inspected visually for clumps suggestive of mycobacterial growth, which (if present) are examined by acid-fast smear analysis. A 3-year review demonstrated that ?1% of instrument-negative MGIT cultures contained mycobacterial growth and that 10% of all cultures yielding mycobacteria were instrument negative. Isolates from instrument-negative MGIT cultures included both tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacteria. PMID:22493332

  12. Mass culture strategy for bacterial yeast co-culture for degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine environment.

    PubMed

    Priya, Anchal; Mandal, Ajoy K; Ball, Andrew S; Manefield, Mike; Lal, Banwari; Sarma, Priyangshu M

    2015-11-15

    In the present study a metabolically versatile co-culture with two Bacilli and one yeast strain was developed using enrichment culture techniques. The developed co-culture had affinity to degrade both aliphatic and aromatic fractions of petroleum crude oil. Degradation kinetics was established for designing the fermentation protocol of the co-culture. The developed mass culture strategy led to achieve the reduction in surface tension (26dynescm(-1) from 69 dynescm(-1)) and degradation of 67% in bench scale experiments. The total crude oil degradation of 96% was achieved in 4000l of natural seawater after 28days without adding any nutrients. The survival of the augmented co-culture was maintained (10(9)cellsml(-1)) in contaminated marine environment. The mass culture protocol devised for the bioaugmentation was a key breakthrough that was subsequently used for pilot scale studies with 100l and 4000l of natural seawater for potential application in marine oil spills. PMID:26384865

  13. Comparative Evaluation of GenoType MTBDRplus Line Probe Assay with Solid Culture Method in Early Diagnosis of Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) at a Tertiary Care Centre in India

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Raj N.; Singh, Binit K.; Sharma, Surendra K.; Sharma, Rohini; Soneja, Manish; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Myneedu, Vithal P.; Hanif, Mahmud; Kumar, Ashok; Sachdeva, Kuldeep S.; Paramasivan, Chinnambedu N.; Vollepore, Balasangameshwra; Thakur, Rahul; Raizada, Neeraj; Arora, Suresh K.; Sinha, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    Background The objectives of the study were to compare the performance of line probe assay (GenoType MTBDRplus) with solid culture method for an early diagnosis of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), and to study the mutation patterns associated with rpoB, katG and inhA genes at a tertiary care centre in north India. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 269 previously treated sputum-smear acid-fast bacilli (AFB) positive MDR-TB suspects were enrolled from January to September 2012 at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences hospital, New Delhi. Line probe assay (LPA) was performed directly on the sputum specimens and the results were compared with that of conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) on solid media [Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) method]. Results DST results by LPA and LJ methods were compared in 242 MDR-TB suspects. The LPA detected rifampicin (RIF) resistance in 70 of 71 cases, isoniazid (INH) resistance in 86 of 93 cases, and MDR-TB in 66 of 68 cases as compared to the conventional method. Overall (rifampicin, isoniazid and MDR-TB) concordance of the LPA with the conventional DST was 96%. Sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 99% respectively for detection of RIF resistance; 92% and 99% respectively for detection of INH resistance; 97% and 100% respectively for detection of MDR-TB. Frequencies of katG gene, inhA gene and combined katG and inhA gene mutations conferring all INH resistance were 72/87 (83%), 10/87 (11%) and 5/87 (6%) respectively. The turnaround time of the LPA test was 48 hours. Conclusion The LPA test provides an early diagnosis of monoresistance to isoniazid and rifampicin and is highly sensitive and specific for an early diagnosis of MDR-TB. Based on these findings, it is concluded that the LPA test can be useful in early diagnosis of drug resistant TB in high TB burden countries. PMID:24039735

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacilli bacterium Strain VT-13-104 Isolated from the Intestine of a Patient with Duodenal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tetz, Victor

    2015-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Bacilli bacterium strain VT-13-104 isolated from the intestine of a patient with duodenal cancer. The genome is composed of 3,573,421 bp, with a G+C content of 35.7%. It possesses 3,254 predicted protein-coding genes encoding multidrug resistance transporters, resistance to antibiotics, and virulence factors. PMID:26139715

  15. Interferon-gamma-treated murine macrophages inhibit growth of tubercle bacilli via the generation of reactive nitrogen intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Denis, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Murine peritoneal macrophages were isolated and their ability to restrict growth of a virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis in response to IFN-gamma was assessed in various conditions. Doses of IFN-gamma ranging from 10 to 100 U stimulated high levels of antimycobacterial activity, as seen by inhibition of growth. Addition of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and other scavengers of reactive oxygen species before infection failed to abrogate this restriction of growth, suggestive of a lack of involvement of reactive oxygen species in this phenomenon. Addition of arginase before infection inhibited the bacteriostatic ability of IFN-gamma-pulsed macrophages as did addition of NG-monomethyl L-arginine, an inhibitor of the synthesis of inorganic nitrogen oxide. In both cases, this inhibition was reversed by adding excess L-arginine in the medium. Moreover, nitrite production in macrophages was correlated with their ability to restrict tubercle bacilli growth. These results imply that nitric oxide or another inorganic nitrogen oxide is an important effector molecule in restricting growth of M. tuberculosis in IFN-gamma-pulsed murine macrophages.

  16. Characterization of Bacilli Isolated from the Confined Environments of the Antarctic Concordia Station and the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmery, Sophie; Hu, Xiaomin; Mahillon, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    Bacillus and related genera comprise opportunist and pathogen species that can threaten the health of a crew in confined stations required for long-term missions. In this study, 43 Bacilli from confined environments, that is, the Antarctic Concordia station and the International Space Station, were characterized in terms of virulence and plasmid exchange potentials. No specific virulence feature, such as the production of toxins or unusual antibiotic resistance, was detected. Most of the strains exhibited small or large plasmids, or both, some of which were related to the replicons of the Bacillus anthracis pXO1 and pXO2 virulence elements. One conjugative element, the capacity to mobilize and retromobilize small plasmids, was detected in a Bacillus cereus sensu lato isolate. Six out of 25 tested strains acquired foreign DNA by conjugation. Extremophilic bacteria were identified and exhibited the ability to grow at high pH and salt concentrations or at low temperatures. Finally, the clonal dispersion of an opportunist isolate was demonstrated in the Concordia station. Taken together, these results suggest that the virulence potential of the Bacillus isolates in confined environments tends to be low but genetic transfers could contribute to its capacity to spread.

  17. Evaluation of different modifications of acid-fast staining techniques and stool enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in detecting fecal Cryptosporidium in diarrheic HIV seropositive and seronegative patients

    PubMed Central

    Parghi, Ekta; Dash, Lona; Shastri, Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    Rational: The role of Cryptosporidium as an agent of human diarrhea has been redefined over the past decade following recognition of the strong association between cases of cryptosporidiosis and immune deficient individuals (such as those with AIDS). Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of enteric parasites and to compare the diagnostic utility of stool enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with various modifications of acid-fast (AF) staining in detection of Cryptosporidium in stool samples of diarrheic patients. Materials and Methods: Stool samples from 186 cases comprising of 93 HIV seropositive and 93 seronegative patients were included. These were subjected to routine and microscopic examination as well as various modifications of AF staining for detection of coccidian parasites and ELISA for the detection of Cryptosporidium. Results: The prevalence of enteric parasites was 54.8% and of Cryptosporidium was 17.2% in HIV seropositive patients while it was 29.0% and 5.4%, respectively in seronegative patients. Of the 186 cases, 33 cases (17.7%) were positive for Cryptosporidium by stool ELISA as compared to 21 (11.3%) by modified AF staining (gold standard) showing sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 92.7%, respectively. The maximum cases of Cryptosporidium (21; 11.3%) were detected by AF staining using 3% acid alcohol. Conclusion: ELISA is a simple, useful, and rapid tool for detection of Cryptosporidium in stool, especially for large scale population studies. However, the role of modified AF staining in detection of Cryptosporidium and other coccidian parasites is important. Based on the results of various modifications of AF staining, the present study recommends the use of 3% acid alcohol along with 10% H2SO4. PMID:25250230

  18. Isolation and Characterization of Gram-Positive Biosurfactant-Producing Halothermophilic Bacilli From Iranian Petroleum Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Zargari, Saeed; Ramezani, Amin; Ostvar, Sassan; Rezaei, Rasool; Niazi, Ali; Ayatollahi, Shahab

    2014-01-01

    Background: Petroleum reservoirs have long been known as the hosts of extremophilic microorganisms. Some of these microorganisms are known for their potential biotechnological applications, particularly production of extra and intracellular polymers and enzymes. Objectives: Here, 14 petroleum liquid samples from southern Iranian oil reservoirs were screened for presence of biosurfactant?producing halothermophiles. Materials and Methods: Mixture of the reservoir fluid samples with a minimal growth medium was incubated under an N2 atmosphere in 40°C; 0.5 mL samples were transferred from the aqueous phase to agar plates after 72 hours of incubation; 100 mL cell cultures were prepared using the MSS-1 (mineral salt solution 1) liquid medium with 5% (w/v) NaCl. The time-course samples were analyzed by recording the absorbance at 600 nm using a spectrophotometer. Incubation was carried out in 40°C with mild shaking in aerobic conditions. Thermotolerance was evaluated by growing the isolates at 40, 50, 60 and 70°C with varying NaCl concentrations of 5% and 10% (w/v). Halotolerance was evaluated using NaCl concentrations of 5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% (w/v) and incubating them at 40°C under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Different phenotypic characteristics were evaluated, as outlined in Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology. Comparing 16S rDNA sequences is one of the most powerful tools for classification of microorganisms. Results: Among 34 isolates, 10 demonstrated biosurfactant production and growth at temperatures between 40°C and 70°C in saline media containing 5%?15% w/v NaCl. Using partial 16S rDNA sequencing (and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis [ARDRA]) and biochemical tests (API tests 20E and 50 CHB), all the 10 isolates proved to be facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive moderate thermohalophiles of the genus Bacillus (B. thermoglucosidasius, B. thermodenitrificans, B. thermoleovorans, B. stearothermophilus and B. licheniformis), exhibiting surface-active behaviors. Conclusions: General patterns include decreasing the thermotolerance with increasing the salt concentrations and also more halotolerance in the aerobic environment compared with anaerobic conditions. The results demonstrated that Iranian petroleum reservoirs enjoy a source of indigenous extremophilic microorganisms with potential applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery and commercial enzyme production. PMID:25485045

  19. Clinicians’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Infections with Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli in Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Juyan Julia; Patel, Sameer J.; Jia, Haomiao; Weisenberg, Scott A.; Furuya, E. Yoko; Kubin, Christine J.; Alba, Luis; Rhee, Kyu; Saiman, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess how healthcare professionals caring for patients in intensive care units (ICUs) understand and use antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) for multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB). Design A knowledge, attitude and practice survey assessed ICU clinicians knowledge of antimicrobial resistance, confidence interpreting susceptibility testing, and beliefs regarding the impact of susceptibility testing on patient outcomes. Setting 16 ICUs affiliated with New York-Presbyterian Hospital. Participants Attending physicians and subspecialty residents with primary clinical responsibilities in adult or pediatric ICUs and infectious diseases (ID) subspecialists and clinical pharmacists. Methods Participants completed an anonymous electronic survey. Responses included 4-level Likert scales dichotomized for analysis. Multivariate analyses were performed using Generalized Estimating Equations logistic regression to account for correlation of respondents from the same ICU. Results The response rate was 51% (178/349 eligible participants) of whom 120 (67%) were ICU physicians. Those caring for adult patients were more knowledgeable about antimicrobial activity and more familiar with MDR-GNB infections. Only 33% and 12% of ICU physicians were familiar with standardized and specialized AST methods, respectively, but >95% believed AST improved patient outcomes. When adjusted for demographic and healthcare provider characteristics, those familiar with treatment of MDR-GNB bloodstream infections, those aware of resistance mechanisms, and those aware of AST methods were more confident they could interpret AST and/or request additional in vitro testing. Conclusions Our study uncovered knowledge gaps and educational needs that could serve as the foundation for future interventions. Familiarity with MDR-GNB increased overall knowledge and familiarity with AST increased confidence interpreting these results. PMID:23388362

  20. Assessment of functional and genetic diversity of aerobic endospore forming Bacilli from rhizospheric soil of Phyllanthus amarus L.

    PubMed

    Kadyan, Sangeeta; Panghal, Manju; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Khushboo; Yadav, Jaya Parkash

    2013-09-01

    Fifty two aerobic and endospore forming Bacilli (AEFB) strains were recovered from rhizospheric soil of Phyllanthus amarus. Morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization by 16S rDNA gene sequencing has shown that these bacterial strains belong to six different genera of AEFB i.e. Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Terribacillus and Jeotgalibacillus. Analysis of their PGP activities has shown that 92.30 % strains produced indole acetic acid hormone, 86.53 % of the strains solubilized Phosphate and 44.23 % strains produced siderophore. Chitinase production activity was shown by 42.30 % of the strains and 21.15 % of the strains produced 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase. 46.15 % of isolates have shown antagonistic activity against common fungal pathogen of the plant i.e. Corynespora cassiicola. Among all of the isolated strains B. Cereus JP44SK22 and JP44SK42 have shown all of the six plant growth promoting traits tested. B. megaterium strains (JP44SK18 and JP44SK35), Lysinibacillus sphaericus strains (JP44SK3 and JP44SK4) and Brevibacillus laterosporus strain JP44SK51 have also shown multiple PGP activities except ACC deaminase production activity. In the present study bacterial strain belonging to genera Jeotgalibacillus sp. JP44SK37 has been reported first time as a member of rhizospheric soil habitat and has also shown PGP activities. It can be concluded that Rhizosphere of P. amarus has harboured a good diversity of AEFB bacterial strains having a lot of biofertilizing and biocontrol abilities. PMID:23526192

  1. In Vitro Activities of Ceftazidime-Avibactam, Aztreonam-Avibactam, and a Panel of Older and Contemporary Antimicrobial Agents against Carbapenemase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacilli.

    PubMed

    Vasoo, Shawn; Cunningham, Scott A; Cole, Nicolynn C; Kohner, Peggy C; Menon, Sanjay R; Krause, Kevin M; Harris, Kelly A; De, Partha P; Koh, Tse Hsien; Patel, Robin

    2015-12-01

    Among 177 carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli (108 KPC, 32 NDM, 11 IMP, 8 OXA-48, 4 OXA-181, 2 OXA-232, 5 IMI, 4 VIM, and 3 SME producers), aztreonam-avibactam was active against all isolates except two NDM producers with elevated MICs of 8/4 and 16/4 mg/liter; ceftazidime-avibactam was active against all KPC-, IMI-, SME-, and most OXA-48 group-producing isolates (93%) but not metallo-?-lactamase producers. Among older and contemporary antimicrobials, the most active were colistin, tigecycline, and fosfomycin, with overall susceptibilities of 88%, 79%, and 78%, respectively. PMID:26392487

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium africanum in Stools from Children in an Immunization Clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    CADMUS, SIB; JENKINS, AO; GODFROID, J; OSINUSI, K; ADEWOLE, IF; MURPHY, RL; TAIWO, BO

    2010-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. Diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis is a global challenge making early treatment a mirage. We investigated the stool of children for the presence of mycobacteria Methods Stool samples from children aged 3 days to 3 years who presented for postnatal immunization at a large university-based clinic in Nigeria were subjected to Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Samples with acid-fast bacilli were further processed using mycobacterial culture, spoligotyping and deletion typing. Results 192 stool samples from different children were collected and processed. Thirty (15.6%) had acid-fast bacilli. Of these, 8/30 had Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 1/30 had M. africanum. Conclusions About 5 percent (9/192) of apparently well children had evidence of potentially serious tuberculosis infection. The usefulness of stool specimens for diagnosing pediatric tuberculosis warrants further investigation. PMID:19188084

  3. Bacterial culture of blood from critically ill dogs and cats: 100 cases (1985-1987).

    PubMed

    Dow, S W; Curtis, C R; Jones, R L; Wingfield, W E

    1989-07-01

    Of 100 critically ill dogs and cats, 49 (39 dogs, 10 cats) had bacteremia. Gram-negative bacilli were the most common isolates from the bloodstream of dogs with bacteremia (46%), and gram-positive cocci and anaerobic bacteria were isolated from 36% and 31% of positive cultures, respectively; 15% of positive cultures were polymicrobial. In cats, gram-negative bacilli (especially Salmonella enteritidis) and anaerobic bacteria were the most common isolates, and 30% of positive cultures were polymicrobial. Gram-positive cocci were not isolated from the blood-stream of cats. Odds ratios, adjusted for the combined effects of disease status (severe vs nonsevere), results of bacterial culture of blood result (positive vs negative), and species (dog vs cat) were calculated for mortality in animals in the study. In animals with bacteremia, severe disease increased the risk of death 11.6-fold, compared with the risk in animals with nonsevere disease. Bacteremia increased mortality 10-fold in animals with severe disease, compared with mortality in animals with severe disease without bacteremia. Animals with severe disease and bacteremia were 15.6 times more likely to die than were those with nonsevere disease and negative culture results. In animals with nonsevere disease, culture results (positive vs negative) were not related significantly to mortality. Disease status (severe vs nonsevere) in animals without bacteremia also was not significantly related to mortality. There was no significant difference in overall mortality in dogs, compared with that in cats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2759883

  4. Wounds caused by corn-harvesting machines: an unusual source of infection due to gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Agger, W A; Cogbill, T H; Busch, H; Landercasper, J; Callister, S M

    1986-01-01

    The infectious complications in 23 patients with mutilating wounds due to trauma during corn harvesting were compared with those in 41 patients with factory-related hand injuries of similar severity. Initial cultures revealed bacterial growth in 89% of the agricultural wounds and in 63% of the factory wounds. A mean of 3.8 initial bacterial species were isolated per corn-harvesting wound vs. 0.9 species per factory wound. Gram-negative rods were recovered from 81% of the agricultural wounds; the commonest of these organisms were Enterobacter species and Xanthomonas maltophilia. Only 7% of factory-wound cultures grew gram-negative rods. Osteomyelitis, all with gram-negative rods, developed in five (22%) of the patients with farm injuries but did not occur in patients with factory wounds. More gram-negative rods were recovered from environmental cultures of corn-harvesting machines and corn plants than from those of factory machinery. PMID:3797937

  5. Simplified Protocol for Carba NP Test for Enhanced Detection of Carbapenemase Producers Directly from Bacterial Cultures.

    PubMed

    Pasteran, Fernando; Tijet, Nathalie; Melano, Roberto G; Corso, Alejandra

    2015-12-01

    We compared carbapenemase detection among 266 Gram-negative bacilli (161 carbapenemase producers) using the Carba NP tests issued by the CLSI (CNPt-CLSI) and a novel protocol (CNPt-direct) designed for carbapenemase detection direct from bacterial cultures (instead of bacterial extracts required by the CLSI tests). The specificities were comparable (100%), but the CNPt-direct was more sensitive (98% versus 84%). The CNPt-direct was easier to perform due to the direct use of colonies and offered a more robust detection of carbapenemase producers. PMID:26424841

  6. Preparation of mycobacterial DNA from blood culture fluids by simple alkali wash and heat lysis method for PCR detection.

    PubMed Central

    Kulski, J K; Pryce, T

    1996-01-01

    A sodium iodide-isopropanol (NI) method was compared with an alkali wash and heat lysis (AH) procedure for the preparation and extraction of DNA from BACTEC 13A blood culture fluid samples from AIDS patients for use in a PCR for the detection and identification of mycobacteria. The sensitivity and efficiency of the DNA extraction methods were assessed by a multiplex PCR which detected the members of the genus Mycobacterium and differentiated between M. intracellulare, M. tuberculosis, and M. avium isolates with a limit of detection of between 0.28 pg (67 cells) and 120 pg (28,571 cells) of standard mycobacterial DNA. The PCR amplified mycobacterial DNA prepared by the AH procedure from 40 acid-fast bacillus-positive blood cultures with growth index values of > 20 U but not from 48 blood cultures with growth index values of < 21 U. The AH method was about 10 times more sensitive than the NI method for extracting DNA from 13 acid-fast bacillus-positive BACTEC fluid samples for PCR analysis. The study shows that the AH procedure in combination with the multiplex PCR is a simple, specific, and sensitive method which can be used in the routine diagnostic laboratory to detect and identify different members of the genus Mycobacterium in blood culture fluid samples from AIDS patients. PMID:8818895

  7. Accuracy of four commercial systems for identification of Burkholderia cepacia and other gram-negative nonfermenting bacilli recovered from patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Kiska, D L; Kerr, A; Jones, M C; Caracciolo, J A; Eskridge, B; Jordan, M; Miller, S; Hughes, D; King, N; Gilligan, P H

    1996-01-01

    Burkholderia cepacia has recently been recognized as an important pathogen in chronic lung disease in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Because of the social, psychological, and medical implications of the isolation of B. cepacia from CF patients, accurate identification of this organism is essential. We compared the accuracies of four commercial systems developed for the identification of nonfermenting, gram-negative bacilli with that of conventional biochemical testing for 150 nonfermenters including 58 isolates of B. cepacia recovered from respiratory secretions from CF patients. The accuracies of the four systems for identifying all nonfermenters ranged from 57 to 80%, with the RapID NF Plus system being most accurate. The accuracies of these systems for identifying B. cepacia ranged from 43 to 86%, with the Remel system being most accurate. Depending on the commercial system, from two to seven isolates were misidentified as B. cepacia. The relatively poor performance of the commercial systems requires that identification of certain nonfermenters be confirmed by conventional biochemical testing. These organisms include B. cepacia, Burkholderia sp. other than B. cepacia, and infrequently encountered environmental species (Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium species). In addition, conventional biochemical testing should be done if a commercial system fails to assign an identification to an organism. Confirmatory testing should preferably be performed by a reference laboratory with experience in working organisms isolated from CF patients. PMID:8815102

  8. Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  9. Editorial: Current status and perspective on drug targets in tubercle bacilli and drug design of antituberculous agents based on structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Tomioka, Haruaki

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) remains the most frequent and important infectious disease causing morbidity and death. However, the development of new drugs for the treatment and prophylaxis of TB, particularly those truly active against dormant and persistent types of tubercle bacilli, has been slow, although some promising drugs, such as diarylquinoline TMC207, nitroimidazopyran PA-824, nitroimidazo-oxazole Delamanid (OPC-67683), oxazolidinone PNU-100480, ethylene diamine SQ-109, and pyrrole derivative LL3858, are currently under phase 1 to 3 clinical trials. Therefore, novel types of antituberculous drug, which act on unique drug targets in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) pathogens, particularly drug targets related to the establishment of mycobacterial dormancy in the host's macrophages, are urgently needed. In this context, it should be noted that current anti-TB drugs mostly target the metabolic reactions and proteins which are essential for the growth of MTB in extracellular milieus. It may also be promising to develop another type of drug that exerts an inhibitory action against bacterial virulence factors which cross-talk and interfere with signaling pathways of MTB-infected immunocompetent host cells, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and NK cells, thereby changing the intracellular milieus that are favorable to intramacrophage survival and the growth of infected bacilli. This special issue contains ten review articles, dealing with recent approaches to identify and establish novel drug targets in MTB for the development of new and unique antitubercular drugs, including those related to mycobacterial dormancy and crosstalk with cellular signaling pathways. In addition, this special issue contains some review papers with special reference to the drug design based on quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis, especially three-dimensional (3D)-QSAR. New, critical information on the entire genome of MTB and mycobacterial virulence genes is promoting the elucidation of the molecular structures of drug targets in MTB, and are consequently markedly useful for the design of new, promising antituberculous drugs using QSAR techniques. In this issue, we review the following areas. Firstly, Dr. Li M. Fu reviews the perspective that combines machine learning and genomics for drug discovery in tuberculosis, in relation to the problem that the exhaustive search for useful drug targets over the entire MTB genome would not be as productive as expected in practice [1]. Secondly, the review article by Drs. R. S. Chauhan. S. K. Chanumolu, C. Rout, and R. Shrivastava focuses on analysis of the current state of MTB genomic resources, host-pathogen interaction studies in the context of mycobacterial persistence, and drug target discovery based on the utilization of computational tools and metabolic network analyses [2]. Thirdly, Drs. Daria Bottai, Agnese Serafini, Alessandro Cascioferro, Roland Brosch, and Riccardo Manganelli review the current knowledge on MTB T7SS/ESX secretion systems and their impact on MTB physiology and virulence, and the possible approaches to develop T7SS/ESX inhibitors [3]. Fourthly, Drs. E. Jeffrey North, Mary Jackson, and Richard E. Lee review and analyze new and emerging inhibitors of the mycolic acid biosynthetic pathway, including mycobacterial enzymes for fatty acid synthesis, mycolic acid-modifying enzymes, fatty acid-activating and -condensing enzymes, transporters, and transferases, that have been discovered in the post-genomic era of tuberculosis drug discovery [4]. Fifthly, Drs. Katarina Mikusova, Vadim Makarov, and Joao Neres review the mycobacterial enzyme DprE1, which catalyzes a unique epimerization reaction in the biosynthesis of decaprenylphosphoryl arabinose, a single donor of the arabinosyl residue for the build-up of arabinans, one of the mycobacterial cell wall components, as an important drug target especially for the development of benzothiazinones [5]. Sixthly, I review the present status of global research on novel drug targets related to the Toll-like receptor in t

  10. Risk factors and Outcomes of Infections Caused by Extremely Drug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli in Patients Hospitalized in Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sameer J.; Oliveira, André P.; Zhou, Juyan Julia; Alba, Luis; Furuya, E. Yoko; Weisenberg, Scott A.; Jia, Haomiao; Clock, Sarah A.; Kubin, Christine J.; Jenkins, Stephen G.; Schuetz, Audrey N.; Behta, Maryam; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Whittier, Susan; Rhee, Kyu; Saiman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Background Extremely drug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (XDR-GNB) increasingly cause healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in intensive care units (ICUs). Methods A matched case-control (1:2) study was conducted from February 2007 to January 2010 in 16 ICUs. Case and control subjects had HAIs caused by GNB susceptible to ?1 antibiotic versus ?2 antibiotics, respectively. Logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression assessed risk factors for HAIs and predictors of mortality, respectively. Results Overall, 103 case and 195 control subjects were enrolled. An immunocompromised state (OR=1.55, p=0.047) and exposure to amikacin (OR=13.81, p<0.001), levofloxacin (OR=2.05, p=0.005), or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (OR=3.42, p=0.009) were factors associated with XDR-GNB HAIs. Multiple factors in both case and control subjects significantly predicted increased mortality at different time intervals after HAI diagnosis. At 7 days, liver disease (Hazard Ratio [HZ]=5.52), immunocompromised state (HR=3.41), and bloodstream infection (HR=2.55) predicted mortality; at 15 days, age (HR=1.02 per year increase), liver disease (HR=3.34), and immunocompromised state (HR 2.03) predicted mortality; and at 30 days, age (HR=1.02 per one year increase), liver disease (HR=3.34), immunocompromised state (HR=2.03), and hospitalization in a medical ICU (HR=1.85) predicted mortality. Conclusions HAIs caused by XDR-GNB were associated with potentially modifiable factors. Age, liver disease, and immunocompromised state, but not XDR-GNB HAIs, were associated with mortality. PMID:24725516

  11. Cultural psychology.

    PubMed

    Heine, Steven J; Ruby, Matthew B

    2010-03-01

    Humans are a cultural species, constantly navigating a complex web of culturally bound practices, norms, and worldviews. This article provides a brief overview of the relatively young field of cultural psychology, which investigates the many ways psychology and culture interweave with one another. Highlighting the cultural nature of the human species, it draws upon research on cultural evolution, enculturation, and developmental processes. This review further summarizes a number of cultural differences in how people perceive the self, and the behavioral consequences that follow from these differences, in the domains of internal and external attribution styles, motivations for self-enhancement, approach/avoidance, primary and secondary control, as well as motivations for distinctiveness and conformity. Additionally, the review discusses research on the intersection of culture and emotion, as well as cultural differences in cognition, perception, and reasoning. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26271239

  12. Cultural Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Ames, Daniel L; Fiske, Susan T

    2010-06-01

    Cultural neuroscience issues from the apparently incompatible combination of neuroscience and cultural psychology. A brief literature sampling suggests, instead, several preliminary topics that demonstrate proof of possibilities: cultural differences in both lower-level processes (e.g. perception, number representation) and higher-order processes (e.g. inferring others' emotions, contemplating the self) are beginning to shed new light on both culture and cognition. Candidates for future cultural neuroscience research include cultural variations in the default (resting) network, which may be social; regulation and inhibition of feelings, thoughts, and actions; prejudice and dehumanization; and neural signatures of fundamental warmth and competence judgments. PMID:23874143

  13. Culturing Protozoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  14. Throat Culture

    MedlinePLUS

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Throat Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Collecting | ... treatment | Getting results | see BLOOD SAMPLE Collecting A culture is a test that is often used to ...

  15. Gastric culture

    MedlinePLUS

    Gastric culture is a test to check a child's stomach contents for the bacteria that cause tuberculosis (TB). ... is placed in a special dish called a culture medium and watched for the growth of bacteria.

  16. Detection of mycobacteria in bone marrow biopsy specimens taken to investigate pyrexia of unknown origin.

    PubMed Central

    Riley, U B; Crawford, S; Barrett, S P; Abdalla, S H

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the value of bone marrow biopsy in the diagnosis of mycobacterial infection. METHODS--The culture results of 433 bone marrow samples taken between 1983 and 1992 were reviewed. The histopathology reports on bone marrow trephine specimens of culture positive samples and all those on HIV positive patients sent in 1992 were also reviewed. RESULTS--Fifty one specimens yielded Mycobacterium spp, 47 were obtained from HIV positive patients. Of the isolates, 42 were Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI), five were M tuberculosis (MTB), and the remaining four comprised a variety of atypical mycobacteria. All MAI positive samples were obtained from HIV positive patients, with the bone marrow being the only culture positive specimen in one third. Bone marrow yielded MTB only in patients from whom it was also isolated in other specimens. Eleven of 47 trephine specimens from positive bone marrow showed granulomata and nine showed acid-fast bacilli. No acid-fast bacilli were seen in the absence of granulomata. CONCLUSION--Bone marrow biopsy for mycobacterial culture should be reserved for severely immunosuppressed patients and should not be advocated for immunocompetent patients with suspected tuberculosis. Bone marrow biopsy still has a role in the investigation of pyrexia of unknown origin in HIV positive patients, despite the advent of mycobacterial blood culture techniques, particularly if these can be processed safely in automated systems. PMID:7560193

  17. Acceptability of sputum specimens for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeon Joo; Shin, Sue; Roh, Eun Youn; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Chung, Hee Soon; Lee, Chang-Hoon

    2015-06-01

    The evaluation of the quality of a sputum specimen prior to bacterial culture has been an accepted practice. However, optimal sputum criteria for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are not well established. We investigated indicators for sputum acceptability in tuberculosis cultures and acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear. A post-hoc analysis of a randomized trial with 228 sputum specimens from 77 patients was conducted. In the trial, pulmonary TB suspects were requested for collecting three sputum specimens. We performed both TB study (AFB smear and M. tuberculosis culture) and Gram staining in each specimen. By using generalized estimating equations, the association between sputum characteristics and positive TB testings were analyzed. Although acceptable specimens for bacterial pneumonia showed higher TB-culture positive rates than unacceptable specimens (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.11-2.49), a specimen with ?25 white blood cells/low-power field was the better predictor for positive M. tuberculosis cultures (aOR=2.30; 95% CI=1.48-3.58) and acid-fast bacilli smears (aOR=1.85; 95% CI=1.05-3.25). Sputum leukocytosis could be an indicator of sputum acceptability for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:26028925

  18. Ryukyuan Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trafton, Terry

    The Ryukyu Islands of Japan, of which Okinawa is the best known, possess a lengthy history and a sophisticated cultural background, an exploration of which helps to shed light on this area and on mainland Japan. This document is an exposition of Ryukuan culture. Divided into eight sections, the areas covered include: (1) Historical perspective;…

  19. Pop Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Arthur Asa

    Popular culture in America is comprehensively reviewed in this book. The book is designed for either high school or college level social studies or English courses and includes a variety of graphic illustrations that provide a thread of continuity throughout. Basically the author has developed a method of analysis that reveals how popular culture

  20. Cultural Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armas, Jose

    It is too often taken for granted that the communication process with culturally different children takes place as readily as it might with children from Anglo cultures. Most teachers receive training in verbal and formal communication skills; children come to school with nonverbal and informal communication skills. This initially can create…

  1. Etiological diagnosis of granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis in the tropics

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Vinita; Kaul, Anupama; Prasad, Narayan; Sharma, Kusum; Agarwal, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Background Granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis (GIN) is common due to infections, drugs or sarcoidosis. However, the cause is often difficult to establish and the studies are limited. We studied the etiology of GIN and compared the clinical and histological features and outcome in different etiologies at a tertiary care center in North India. Methods Renaö biopsies from GIN cases diagnosed from January 2004 to April 2014 were retrieved. Stain for acid fast bacilli was performed in all biopsies. Etiological diagnosis was based on clinical features, extra-renal manifestations, radiology, history of drug intake and demonstration of infective agent. Tissue PCR for tubercular DNA was performed in seven biopsies. Results Seventeen GIN patients [mean age 35 ± 15 years; males 11] were identified. Tuberculosis was the commonest etiology followed by idiopathic, sarcoidosis and fungal. Both tuberculosis and sarcoidosis patients presented with subnephrotic proteinuria and raised serum creatinine. Acid fast bacilli were demonstrated in 1/9 and necrosis was demonstrated in 3/9 granulomas in tuberculosis. Tissue PCR for tubercular DNA was positive in six TB patients and negative in one sarcoidosis patient. Patients responded well to appropriate therapy. Conclusion Etiological diagnosis of GIN is essential for timely and appropriate therapy. Tuberculosis is the commonest etiology (53%) in the tropics. Necrosis in granuloma, demonstration of acid fast bacilli, blood interferon gamma release assay and urine culture is not sensitive for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in GIN. Our findings suggest that tissue PCR for tuberculosis performed in an appropriate clinical setting is useful in the diagnostic evaluation of GIN. PMID:26413276

  2. Urine culture

    MedlinePLUS

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... sample will be collected as a clean catch urine sample in your health care provider's office or ... will use a special kit to collect the urine. A urine sample can also be taken by ...

  3. Blood culture

    MedlinePLUS

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed. The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  4. Esophageal culture

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lab. There, it is placed in a special dish (culture) and watched for the growth of bacteria, ... means that no germs grew in the laboratory dish. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different ...

  5. Bile culture

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lab. There, it is placed in a special dish called a culture medium to see if bacteria, ... bacteria, virus, or fungus grew in the laboratory dish. Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among ...

  6. Culturally Responsive Teaching: Understanding Disability Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2013-01-01

    To be culturally responsive teachers, we must first have an understanding of other cultures and how students from these cultures differ from one another. As we consider the many cultures represented in our classrooms, we might also consider students with disabilities as a cultural group. Within any main culture are subgroups differentiated by…

  7. Clinical, radiological and molecular diagnosis correlation in serum samples from patients with osteoarticular tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    García-Elorriaga, Guadalupe; Martínez-Elizondo, Olga; del Rey-Pineda, Guillermo; González-Bonilla, César

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the role of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in serum samples, in the diagnosis of osteoarticular tuberculosis (OTB) in a setting where only clinical and imaging diagnoses determine the treatment. Methods A total of 44 consecutive serum specimens were collected from clinically suspected OTB patients, based on clinical and radiological [X-ray or magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography] features. They were screened by in-house nested PCR. In addition, a few specimens were examined by Gram stain, acid-fast bacilli stain, histopathology and routine bacterial culture. A total of 39 specimens were collected from patients suffering from other bone diseases of nontuberculous origin and included as negative controls. Results Of the 44 clinically suspected OTB patients, in-house nested PCR was positive in 40 (91%) cases; PCR was negative in 38 (97%) negative controls. Sensitivity and specificity of our in-house nested PCR was 90.9% and 97.4%, respectively. The PCR report was available within 48 h. It was possible to standardize serum PCR technique and in positive cases, a good correlation was observed in terms of an adequate treatment response. Conclusions Nested PCR in serum samples is a rapid, highly sensitive and specific modality for OTB detection. PCR should be performed in addition to clinical evaluation, imaging studies, acid-fast bacilli staining, culture and histopathology diagnosis, if possible. PMID:25183281

  8. Three Tests Used to Identify Non-Culturable Form of Helicobacter pylori in Water Samples

    PubMed Central

    Chamanrokh, Parastoo; Shahhosseiny, Mohammad Hassan; Mazaheri Assadi, Mahnaz; Nejadsattari, Taher; Esmaili, Davood

    2015-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori, causing the most common chronic bacterial infection, exist in two forms; bacilli and coccoid. The coccoid form is identified as viable but non-culturable bacteria. Objectives: The current study aimed to conduct culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) tests to identify coccoid forms of H. pylori. Materials and Methods: The PCR and LAMP tests were optimized using specific primers for glmM gene. The sensitivity and specificity of the tests were determined. The current experimental study was conducted on 10 different strains isolated from clinical cases (H1-H10). The isolates were added to tap water and incubated at three different temperatures for one and two months intervals. After pure-culturing of the bacteria, DNAs were extracted and PCR and LAMP were performed. Results: Ten copies of targeted DNA were required for PCR detection whereas only five copies gave a positive reaction by LAMP assay, with 100% specificity. Of the 10 isolates inoculated in water for one and two months at three different temperatures 4, 22, and 37°C, only three cases (5%) were found positive in the first month; 13 (21.6%) and 29 cases (48.3%) were also positive by PCR and LAMP tests in the first and second months. Conclusions: Results of the current study confirmed that molecular methods such as PCR and LAMP were much more sensitive, rapid, and specific than culturing to identify non-culturable coccoid forms of H. pylori in water. PMID:26034541

  9. Cultural Themes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Loriene, Comp.

    Part of a larger report on the Four Directions Project, an American Indian technology innovation project, this section includes 10 "pathfinders" to locating information on Native American cultural themes. The pathfinders were designed by students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Texas at Austin in…

  10. Shanzhai Culture

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2011-09-07

    . Which it isn't. The shanzhai culture is deeply entrenched here. Shanzhai, fake, counterfeit, bogus. Shanzhai copies of most Western brand name items are available. Ripoff Rolexes? Check. Knockoff Nikes? Check. Bogus Blahniks? Check. And it doesn't stop...

  11. Hydroponic Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steucek, G. L.; Yurkiewicz, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a hydroponic culture technique suitable for student exercises in biology. This technique of growing plants in nutrient solutions enhances plant growth, and is an excellent way to obtain intact plants with root systems free of soil or other particulate matter. (JR)

  12. Urine Culture

    MedlinePLUS

    ... get UTIs more often than males. Even school-age females may have frequent UTIs. For males with a culture-proven UTI, the doctor may order further tests to rule out the presence of a kidney stone or structural abnormality that could cause the infection. ...

  13. CULTURE SHOCK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WEINSTEIN, GERALD; AND OTHERS

    IN A PANEL, GEORGE BRAGLE AND NATHAN GOULD STRESS TEACHER PREPARATION TO COPE WITH THE THREATENING IMPACT OF CULTURE OR REALITY SHOCK. THEY RECOMMEND MODIFYING THE ATTITUDES OF TEACHERS BY ALTERING THEIR PERCEPTIONS, PROVIDING THEM WITH DIRECT EXPERIENCE WITH THE SOCIOCULTURAL MILIEU OF GHETTO SCHOOLS, AND REQUIRING THEM TO TAKE COURSES IN THE…

  14. The establishment of resistance phenotypes for bacteria isolated from outpatients in urine cultures.

    PubMed

    Zugravu, Roxana; Licker, Monica; Berceanu-V?duva, Delia; R?dulescu, Matilda; Ad?mu?, Marcela; Dragomirescu, Liliana; Branea, Dorina; Hogea, Elena; Muntean, Delia; Mihaela, Diana Popa; Moldovan, Roxana; Loredana, Gabriela Popa

    2006-01-01

    From 1911 outpatients, who addressed a Timi?oara private clinical laboratory, from January to December 2005, we collected 1,889 urine cultures, 431 being positive. Bacteria identification was generally done using morphological, cultural, biochemical characters and pathogenicity tests. Sensitivity testing to antimicrobial medical drugs was done by using the classical diffusion Kirby-Bauer method and the automatic analyzer Osiris, also. The main bacteria involved in the etiology of these infections were represented by Enterobacteriaceae, head of the list being Escherichia coli (81.21%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.35%) and Proteus mirabilis (3.02%). We also isolated Gram positive cocci (in a much smaller proportion), mainly represented by Enterococcus faecalis (1.16%), Staphylococcus aureus (0.93%), Streptococcus agalactiae, and also Gram negative non-fermentative bacilli, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.93%) or Acinetobacter baumanii (0.23%). As soon as we performed the sensitivity tests, we divided them in resistance phenotypes: Most of the Enterobacteriaceae were integrated in the wild phenotype, followed by the penicillinase producing phenotype. An E. coli strain (0.29%) and 3 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains (8.33%) were integrated in the large spectrum, multidrug resistant, beta-lactamase producing phenotype, also associated with resistance to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides; Non-fermentative bacilli did not present special resistance problems, the four Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were integrated in the wild phenotype (secreting induced chromosomal cephalosporinase). As for Staphylococcus aureus it was identified a strain having fluoroquinolone resistance, two strains secreting penicillinase and having a K (Nm) phenotype and a strain secreting penicillinase only. Antibiotic resistance represents a major concern for patients, physicians, healthcare managers, and policymakers. The use of antibiotics is closely linked with the development of acquired antibiotic resistance. PMID:18389723

  15. Academic Culture and Campus Culture of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Xi; Tian, Xianghong

    2012-01-01

    Academic culture of universities mainly consists of academic outlooks, academic spirits, academic ethics and academic environments. Campus culture in a university is characterized by individuality, academic feature, opening, leading, variety and creativity. The academic culture enhances the construction of campus culture. The campus culture

  16. Cultural neurolinguistics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui; Mei, Leilei; Chen, Chunhui; Dong, Qi

    2010-01-01

    As the only species that evolved to possess a language faculty, humans have been surprisingly generative in creating a diverse array of language systems. These systems vary in phonology, morphology, syntax, and written forms. Before the advent of modern brain-imaging techniques, little was known about how differences across languages are reflected in the brain. This chapter aims to provide an overview of an emerging area of research — cultural neurolinguistics — that examines systematic cross-cultural/crosslinguistic variations in the neural networks of languages. We first briefly describe general brain networks for written and spoken languages. We then discuss language-specific brain regions by highlighting differences in neural bases of different scripts (logographic vs. alphabetic scripts), orthographies (transparent vs. nontransparent orthographies), and tonality (tonal vs. atonal languages). We also discuss neural basis of second language and the role of native language experience in second-language acquisition. In the last section, we outline a general model that integrates culture and neural bases of language and discuss future directions of research in this area. PMID:19874968

  17. Development and Validation of a Liquid Medium (M7H9C) for Routine Culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis To Replace Modified Bactec 12B Medium

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, Ann-Michele; Waldron, Anna; Begg, Douglas J.; de Silva, Kumi; Purdie, Auriol C.; Plain, Karren M.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from clinical samples, such as feces, is the most sensitive antemortem test for the diagnosis of Johne's disease in ruminants. In Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and some other countries, the Bactec 460 system with modified Bactec 12B medium (Becton, Dickinson) has been the most commonly used liquid culture system, but it was discontinued in 2012. In this study, a new liquid culture medium, M7H9C, was developed. It consists of a Middlebrook 7H9 medium base with added Casitone, albumin, dextrose, catalase, egg yolk, mycobactin J, and a cocktail of antibiotics. We found that polyoxyethylene stearate (POES) was not essential for the cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in either the Bactec 12B or the M7H9C medium. The limit of detection determined using pure cultures of the C and S strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was 7 bacilli per 50 ?l inoculum in the two media. The new medium was validated using 784 fecal and tissue samples from sheep and cattle, >25% of which contained viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Discrepant results for the clinical samples between the two media were mostly associated with samples that contained <10 viable bacilli per gram, but these results were relatively uncommon, and the performances of the two media were not significantly different. M7H9C medium was less than half the cost of the Bactec 12B medium and did not require regular examination during incubation, but a confirmatory IS900 PCR test had to be performed on every culture after the predetermined incubation period. PMID:24048541

  18. Culture of the causative organism of donovanosis (Calymmatobacterium granulomatis) in HEp-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Carter, J; Hutton, S; Sriprakash, K S; Kemp, D J; Lum, G; Savage, J; Bowden, F J

    1997-11-01

    We report successful culture of Calymmatobacterium granulomatis by standard cell culture methods. Swabs were obtained from lesions in three patients with a clinical diagnosis of donovanosis. For two patients, there was histological confirmation of the disease (i.e., the presence of Donovan bodies in Giemsa-stained smears). Specimens were inoculated onto cycloheximide-treated HEp-2 cell monolayers in RPMI 1640 medium (supplemented with fetal calf serum, NaHCO3, vancomycin hydrochloride, and benzylpenicillin). At 48 h, organisms resembling Donovan bodies were identified in monolayer cultures from all three specimens. The organisms appeared as pleomorphic bacilli with characteristic bipolar staining and "safety pin" appearance. Using a PCR designed to differentiate C. granulomatis from the Klebsiella species (which have a high degree of molecular homology), we were able to demonstrate that the cultured organisms produced a PCR product identical to that obtained from the original swab specimens. It is now possible to test in vitro susceptibility of C. granulomatis to antibiotics and to provide a ready source of DNA and antigenic material to enable the development of serological tests and, possibly in the future, a vaccine. PMID:9350758

  19. Co-occurrence of Methanosarcina mazei and Geobacteraceae in an iron (III)-reducing enrichment culture

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shiling; Zhang, Hongxia; Li, Ying; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Oumei; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Fanghua

    2015-01-01

    Methanosaeta harundinacea and Methanosarcina barkeri, known as classic acetoclastic methanogens, are capable of directly accepting electrons from Geobacter metallireducens for the reduction of carbon dioxide to methane, having been revealed as direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in the laboratory co-cultures. However, whether their co-occurrences are ubiquitous in the iron (III)-reducing environments and the other species of acetoclastic methanogens such as Methanosarcina mazei are capable of DIET are still unknown. Instead of initiating the co-cultures with pure cultures, two-step cultivation was employed to selectively enrich iron (III)-reducing microorganisms in a coastal gold mining river, Jiehe River, with rich iron content in the sediments. First, iron (III) reducers including Geobacteraceae were successfully enriched by 3-months successive culture on amorphous Fe(III) oxides as electron acceptor and acetate as electron donor. High-throughput Illumina sequencing, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis based on 16S rRNA genes revealed that the enrichment cultures actively contained the bacteria belong to Geobacteraceae and Bacilli, exclusively dominated by the archaea belong to Methanosarcinaceae. Second, the enrichment cultures including methanogens and Geobacteraceae were transferred with ethanol as alternative electron donor. Remarkably, aggregates were successively formed in the enrichments after three transfers. The results revealed by RNA-based analysis demonstrate that the co-occurrence of Methanosarcina mazei and Geobacteraceae in an iron (III)-reducing enrichment culture. Furthermore, the aggregates, as close physical contact, formed in the enrichment culture, indicate that DIET could be a possible option for interspecies electron transfer in the aggregates. PMID:26441876

  20. Advances in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. )

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on advances in cell culture. Topics covered include: Genetic changes in the influenza viruses during growth in cultured cells; The biochemistry and genetics of mosquito cells in culture; and Tree tissue culture applications.

  1. Expression of a Germination-Specific Amidase, SleB, of Bacilli in the Forespore Compartment of Sporulating Cells and Its Localization on the Exterior Side of the Cortex in Dormant Spores

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Ryuichi; Fukuoka, Hideyuki; Miyata, Shigeru; Kudoh, Sachio; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Kozuka, Satoshi; Yasuda, Yoko; Tochikubo, Kunio; Makino, Shio

    1999-01-01

    A germination-specific amidase of bacilli is a major spore-lytic enzyme that is synthesized with a putative signal sequence and hydrolyses spore cortex in situ. The sleB gene encoding this amidase in Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus was expressed in the forespore compartment of sporulating cells under the control of ?G, as shown by Northern blot and primer extension analyses. The forespore-specific expression of B. subtilis sleB was further indicated by the forespore-specific accumulation of a SleB-green fluorescent protein fusion protein from which a putative secretion signal of SleB was deleted. Immunoelectron microscopy with anti-SleB antiserum and a colloidal gold-immunoglobulin G complex showed that the enzymes from both Bacillus species are located just inside the spore coat layer in the dormant spore, and in the dormant spore, the amidases appear exist in a mature form lacking a signal sequence. These results indicate that SleB is translocated across the forespore’s inner membrane by a secretion signal peptide and is deposited in cortex layer synthesized between the forespore inner and outer membranes. The peripheral location of the spore-lytic enzymes in the dormant spore suggests that spore germination is initiated at the exterior of the cortex. PMID:10197998

  2. Hispanic Culture and Relational Cultural Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Traditional personality theories do not consider the impact of culture on personality development. Yet, to provide culturally relevant services to the increasing Hispanic population in the U.S., more culturally relevant theories must be identified. This paper presents Relational Cultural Theory (RCT) as an alternative model to understanding…

  3. Culture collections.

    PubMed

    Smith, David

    2012-01-01

    Culture collections no matter their size, form, or institutional objectives play a role in underpinning microbiology, supplying the resources for study, innovation, and discovery. Their basic roles include providing a mechanism for ex situ conservation of organisms; they are repositories for strains subject to publication, taking in safe, confidential, and patent deposits from researchers. They supply strains for use; therefore, the microorganisms provided must be authentic and preserved well, and any associated information must be valid and sufficient to facilitate the confirmation of their identity and to facilitate their use. The organisms must be collected in compliance with international conventions, international and national legislation and distributed to users indicating clearly the terms and conditions under which they are received and can be used. Collections are harmonizing approaches and characterizing strains to meet user needs. No one single collection can carry out this task alone, and therefore, it is important that output and strategy are coordinated to ensure culture collections deliver the basic resources and services microbiological innovation requires. This chapter describes the types of collection and how they can implement quality management systems and operate to deliver their basic functions. The links to information sources given not only provide support for the practitioners within collections but also provide guidance to users on accessing the huge resource available and how they can help ensure microbiology has the resources and a solid platform for future development. PMID:22569518

  4. Culturally competent psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lo, Hung-Tat; Fung, Kenneth P

    2003-04-01

    To provide effective psychotherapy for culturally different patients, therapists need to attain cultural competence, which can be divided broadly into the 2 intersecting dimensions of generic and specific cultural competencies. Generic cultural competence includes the knowledge and skill set necessary to work effectively in any cross-cultural therapeutic encounter. For each phase of psychotherapy--preengagement, engagement, assessment and feedback, treatment, and termination--we discuss clinically relevant generic cultural issues under the following headings: therapist, patient, family or group, and technique. Specific cultural competence enables therapists to work effectively with a specific ethnocultural community and also affects each phase of psychotherapy. A comprehensive assessment and treatment approach is required to consider the specific effects of culture on the patient. Cultural analysis (CA) elaborates the DSM-IV cultural formulation, tailoring it for psychotherapy; it is a clinical tool developed to help therapists systematically review and generate hypotheses regarding cultural influences on the patient's psychological world. CA examines issues under 3 domains: self, relations, and treatment. We present a case to illustrate the influence of culture on patient presentation, diagnosis, CA, and psychotherapeutic treatment. Successful therapy requires therapists to employ culturally appropriate treatment goals, process, and content. The case also demonstrates various techniques with reference to culture, including countercultural, cultural reinforcing, or culturally congruent strategies and the use of contradictory cultural beliefs. In summary, developing both generic and specific cultural competencies will enhance clinician effectiveness in psychotherapy, as well as in other cross-cultural therapeutic encounters. PMID:12728740

  5. Organizational Culture and Performance

    E-print Network

    Martinez, Elizabeth A.

    Organizations are all around us. Culture is trickier—to analyze and even to see. We consider both the effect of management on culture and the effect of culture on performance. We begin by describing an intervention that ...

  6. Peritoneal fluid culture

    MedlinePLUS

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... based on more than just the peritoneal fluid culture (which may be negative even if you have ...

  7. Culture - joint fluid

    MedlinePLUS

    Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...

  8. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Blood Culture KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Sick Kids > Blood Culture ... fungi has been determined. Why Do a Blood Culture? During some illnesses, certain infection-causing bacteria and ...

  9. Lymph node culture

    MedlinePLUS

    Culture - lymph node ... or viruses grow. This process is called a culture. Sometimes, special stains are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration does not ...

  10. Dehistoricized Cultural Identity and Cultural Othering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiguo, Qu

    2013-01-01

    The assumption that each culture has its own distinctive identity has been generally accepted in the discussion of cultural identities. Quite often identity formation is not perceived as a dynamic and interactive ongoing process that engages other cultures and involves change in its responses to different challenges at different times. I will…

  11. Treatment-resistant recurrent membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in renal allograft responding to rituximab: case report.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, M; Alsaad, K; Aloudah, N; Alhamdan, H

    2015-04-01

    We report a case of idiopathic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) recurring 2 years after a living-unrelated kidney transplantation. The disease was refractory to intravenous immunoglobulin and plasmapheresis. Treatment with 2 doses of rituximab resulted in remission of the disease. The disease relapsed 18 months later after an episode of cytomegalovirus pneumonitis. After treatment of the pneumonitis, a lung biopsy was performed owing to persistent chest symptoms, which revealed bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia. Bone marrow examination and culture revealed presence of acid-fast bacilli, and culture grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A repeated course of rituximab was withheld because of infection with tuberculosis, the patient's chest symptoms, and rare reports of noninfectious lung disease after the use of rituximab. The patient continues to have proteinuria with impaired kidney function. PMID:25891740

  12. Tuberculosis of the calcaneum masquerading as Haglund's deformity: a rare case and brief literature review.

    PubMed

    Gillott, Elizabeth; Ray, Pinak

    2013-01-01

    An Asian man presented to the Foot and Ankle Clinic with a 5-month history of right ankle pain of gradual onset. He had a non-fluctuant swelling around the Achilles tendon insertion with a tender palpable lump. Radiograph demonstrated Haglund's deformity and also possible calcification at the attachment of the Achilles tendon for which he had an injection of a local anaesthetic and a steroid to treat the insertional Achilles tendinitis. A few months later, he developed acute anorexia, abdominal distension secondary to ascites and groin lymphadenopathy. Histology of the lymph node biopsy revealed granulomatous lymphadenitis consistent with tuberculosis (TB) and started on quadruple agent anti-TB treatment. The sample was not cultured. He developed constant ooze from his groin lymph node biopsy site and also fluctuance around the Achilles tendon and heel. Pus from the heel stained positive for auramine indicating TB calcaneum with subsequent culture for acid fast bacilli (AFB) confirming diagnosis of TB calcaneum. PMID:23709539

  13. Effect of egg yolk on growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 7H12 liquid medium

    SciTech Connect

    Kononov, Y.; Ta, K.D.; Heifets, L.

    1988-07-01

    Of 92 drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from sputum specimens, 86 showed growth in two types of 7H12 broth, one with egg yolk and the other without egg yolk. In addition, two strains grew only in plain 7H12 broth without yolk, and four others were recovered only in the medium supplemented with egg yolk. The radiometrically detected growth was higher in the presence of egg yolk, corresponding to a higher number of CFU per milliliter in these cultures. The improvement of growth in 7H12 broth supplemented with egg yolk was most noticeable in cultures isolated from sputum specimens having a low number of acid-fast bacilli in the smear and producing only a few colonies on solid media.

  14. The Concept of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, John

    1987-01-01

    National identity and schooling are predicated on a particular yet ill-defined view of culture. To counter "popular" and "high" culture polarizations and arguments for cultural pluralism, this paper proposes that curricula be designed for student access to forms and symbols defining Australian culture through discourse and artistic…

  15. HPT: The Culture Factor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison, Roger M.; Wittkuhn, Klaus D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the challenges in managing performance across national cultures and within changing corporate cultures. Describes two human performance technology tools that can help performance consultants understand different cultures and provide the basis for successful management action: the culture audit and the systems model that can be adapted…

  16. Information and Corporate Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Miriam A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper defines "corporate culture" (set of values and beliefs shared by people working in an organization which represents employees' collective judgments about future) and discusses importance of corporate culture, nature of corporate cultures in business and academia, and role of information in shaping present and future corporate cultures.…

  17. Culture before Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Betsy E.

    Cultural traits related to experiences of specific ethnic, religious, or racial heritages have received much attention in recent years. There are several broader cultural influences, however, which apply to children of several cultural groups and to teachers. These broader cultural influences color teachers' interpretations of students' behaviors…

  18. Indian Culture and Industrialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigart, Robert J.

    Since factories were developed by and for Western culture, those on American Indian reservations need to be adjusted to a nonwestern social and cultural milieu. Among Indian cultural traits which differ from Western culture are independence, nature of authority, attitude toward property and nature, competition, rewards system, and sense of time.…

  19. Does Culture Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, David E.

    2002-01-01

    Objects to current preoccupations with culture (particularly race) in psychology and education, suggesting that it is unethical to let culture influence decision making. Notes the paucity of empirical evidence of statistical interactions between treatment and culture in psychotherapy or teaching and culture in education. Concludes that without…

  20. Popular Culture and Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Ray B., Ed.; Ambrosetti, Ronald J., Ed.

    The seven essays in this publication, including four read at the fall 1969 American Studies Association meeting, attempt to present both the nature of popular culture study and a guide for teachers of popular culture courses. Papers are (1) "Popular Culture: Notes toward a Definition" by Ray B. Browne; (2) "Can Popular Culture Save American…

  1. Foreign Languages and Cultures

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    Foreign Languages and Cultures College of Arts and Sciences Degree Options Bachelor of Arts in Foreign Languages and Cultures Spanish French Chinese Culture Spanish Teaching French Teaching Beginning fall 2014, Foreign Languages and Cultures will offer professional majors in French, German, and Spanish

  2. Many Forms of Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Adam B.

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists interested in culture have focused primarily on East-West differences in individualism-collectivism, or independent-interdependent self-construal. As important as this dimension is, there are many other forms of culture with many dimensions of cultural variability. Selecting from among the many understudied cultures in psychology,…

  3. Migration, cultural bereavement and cultural identity

    PubMed Central

    BHUGRA, DINESH; BECKER, MATTHEW A

    2005-01-01

    Migration has contributed to the richness in diversity of cultures, ethnicities and races in developed countries. Individuals who migrate experience multiple stresses that can impact their mental well being, including the loss of cultural norms, religious customs, and social support systems, adjustment to a new culture and changes in identity and concept of self. Indeed, the rates of mental illness are increased in some migrant groups. Mental health practitioners need to be attuned to the unique stresses and cultural aspects that affect immigrants and refugees in order to best address the needs of this increasing and vulnerable population. This paper will review the concepts of migration, cultural bereavement and cultural identity, and explore the interrelationship between these three aspects of the migrant's experience and cultural congruity. The complex interplay of the migration process, cultural bereavement, cultural identity, and cultural congruity, along with biological, psychological and social factors, is hypothesized as playing a major role in the increased rates of mental illness in affected migrant groups. PMID:16633496

  4. Microbial pollution indicators and culturable heterotrophic bacteria in a Mediterranean area (Southern Adriatic Sea Italian coasts)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabili, L.; Cavallo, R. A.

    2011-05-01

    In the present study we evaluated the degree of microbial water pollution along the coast line between Brindisi and Santa Maria di Leuca (Southern Adriatic Sea) as well as the culturable heterotrophic bacteria abundances and biodiversity in relation to the microbiological quality of the water. A total of 3773 colonies were isolated, subcultured and identified by several morphological, cultural and biochemical methods including the standardized API 20 E and API 20 NE tests. Along the examined coastal tract the microbial pollution indicators were always below the tolerance limits for bathing waters defined by the CEE directive, suggesting a good sanitary quality. Concerning culturable heterotrophic bacteria, different temporal density trends were observed in the four sites in relation to their geographical position. A positive relationship between the bacterial abundances and the temperature was observed in S. Cataldo and Otranto. The culturable bacterial community was mainly composed of the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Photobacterium and Flavobacterium. The Enterobacteriaceae family represented a conspicuous component of the bacterial community too. Bacilli were predominant among the Gram-positive bacteria. Of interest is the isolation of yeasts (2% at the surface and 1% at the bottom) taking into account their capability of biodegradation of various materials. Because of the low level of microbial pollution recorded, our results are indicative of the natural variation and diversity of the culturable bacterial community in such an oligotrophic ecosystem and could represent a good point of comparison with other ecosystems as well as a baseline for long term studies aimed to evaluate the effects of environmental fluctuations and human impacts on this aspect of biodiversity in coastal areas.

  5. Potential virulence factors of Proteus bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Rózalski, A; Sidorczyk, Z; Kote?ko, K

    1997-01-01

    The object of this review is the genus Proteus, which contains bacteria considered now to belong to the opportunistic pathogens. Widely distributed in nature (in soil, water, and sewage), Proteus species play a significant ecological role. When present in the niches of higher macroorganisms, these species are able to evoke pathological events in different regions of the human body. The invaders (Proteus mirabilis, P. vulgaris, and P. penneri) have numerous factors including fimbriae, flagella, outer membrane proteins, lipopolysaccharide, capsule antigen, urease, immunoglobulin A proteases, hemolysins, amino acid deaminases, and, finally, the most characteristic attribute of Proteus, swarming growth, enabling them to colonize and survive in higher organisms. All these features and factors are described and commented on in detail. The questions important for future investigation of these facultatively pathogenic microorganisms are also discussed. PMID:9106365

  6. Culture Differences and English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Language is a part of culture, and plays a very important role in the development of the culture. Some sociologists consider it as the keystone of culture. They believe, without language, culture would not be available. At the same time, language is influenced and shaped by culture, it reflects culture. Therefore, culture plays a very important…

  7. Indian culture and psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Shiv; Jain, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    Culture’ is an abstraction, reflecting the total way of life of a society. Culture uniquely influences mental health of people living in a given society. Similarity in thinking and understanding of mental health across the ancient cultures has been observed. Studies which relate to the demographic factors, cultural factors influencing presentation of illness, diagnosis of the illness-culture bound syndromes and influence of the cultural factors and the belief system on psychopathology, stigma and discrimination towards the patient have been reviewed. An attempt has been made to critically look at the research on culture and psychiatry in different areas. There is a need for culturally oriented modules of non-pharmacological management. PMID:21836701

  8. Armenian Cultural Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Cultural Astronomy is the reflection of sky events in various fields of nations' culture. In foreign literature this field is also called "Astronomy in Culture" or "Astronomy and Culture". Cultural astronomy is the set of interdisciplinary fields studying the astronomical systems of current or ancient societies and cultures. It is manifested in Religion, Mythology, Folklore, Poetry, Art, Linguistics and other fields. In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to this sphere, particularly international organizations were established, conferences are held and journals are published. Armenia is also rich in cultural astronomy. The present paper focuses on Armenian archaeoastronomy and cultural astronomy, including many creations related to astronomical knowledge; calendars, rock art, mythology, etc. On the other hand, this subject is rather poorly developed in Armenia; there are only individual studies on various related issues (especially many studies related to Anania Shirakatsi) but not coordinated actions to manage this important field of investigation.

  9. Culturally based story understanding

    E-print Network

    Awad, Hiba

    2013-01-01

    Culture has a strong influence on how stories are understood. Accordingly, a full account of human intelligence must include an account of cultural influences on story understanding. The research reported takes a step ...

  10. Culture in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medin, Douglas L.; Bang, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Culture plays a large but often unnoticeable role in what we teach and how we teach children. We are a country of immense diversity, but in classrooms the dominant European-American culture has become the language of learning.

  11. Rectal culture (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    A rectal culture test is performed by inserting a cotton swab in the rectum. The swab is rotated gently, and withdrawn. A smear of the swab is placed in culture media to encourage the growth of microorganisms. The ...

  12. Cultural changes in aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobl, Bill

    1991-01-01

    Cultural changes; people and jobs; examples of cultural changes required; advanced launch system (ALS) philosophy; ALS operability capabilities; and ALS operability in design are outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  13. Reconstituted Thymus Organ Culture.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zimu; Liu, Haifeng; Rui, Jinxiu; Liu, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    Reconstituted thymus organ culture is based on fetal thymus organ culture (FTOC). Purified thymocyte populations, from genetically modified mice or even from other species, are cultured in vitro with thymic lobes depleted of their endogenous thymocytes (by 2'-deoxyguanosine treatment) to form a new thymus. This potent and timesaving method is distinct from FTOC, which assesses development of unmodified thymic lobes, and reaggregate thymic organ culture, in which epithelial cells are separately purified before being aggregated with thymocytes. PMID:26294406

  14. Bridges: Literature across Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Gilbert H., Comp.; Williams, John A., Comp.

    This anthology of literature from the many American cultures as well as cultures around the world is intended for use in today's college composition and introductory literature courses. Offering a blend of classic favorites and selections from other cultures, the anthology contains some 300 stories, poems, and plays from the six habitable…

  15. Cultural Arts Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistone, Kathleen A.

    The handbook presents activities to aid elementary school classroom teachers as they develop and implement cultural arts lessons. A cultural arts program is interpreted as a way to help students develop perceptual awareness, build a basic vocabulary in some art cultural form, evaluate their own works of art, appreciate creative expressions, and…

  16. Europeana: Think Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kail, Candice

    2011-01-01

    Europeana: Think Culture (http://www.europeana.eu) is a wonderful cultural repository. It includes more than 15 million items (images, text, audio, and video) from 1,500 European institutions. Europeana provides access to an abundance of cultural and heritage information and knowledge. Because Europeana has partnered with and brought together so…

  17. Anaerobic thermophilic culture

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Wiegel, Jurgen K. W. (Gottingen, DE)

    1981-01-01

    A newly discovered thermophilic anaerobe is described that was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC 3/550. T. Ethanolicus is cultured in aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions and is used in a novel process for producing ethanol by subjecting carbohydrates, particularly the saccharides, to fermentation action of the new microorganism in a biologically pure culture.

  18. Cultural Knowledge in Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olk, Harald

    2003-01-01

    Describes a study exploring the influence of cultural knowledge on the translation performance of German students of English. Found that the students often lacked sufficient knowledge about British culture to deal with widely-used cultural concepts. Findings suggest that factual reference sources have an important role to play in translation…

  19. The Two Cultures Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultberg, John

    1997-01-01

    Addresses the work of British writer, C. P. Snow, and examines the differences in scientific and literary cultures. Discusses post-World War II professionalization of science and the rebellious literary culture; the scientific revolution; the lack of communication between the two cultures; the generalization of science through sociology; the need…

  20. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural

  1. Problems Confronting Visual Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efland, Arthur D.

    2005-01-01

    A new movement has appeared recommending, in part, that the field of art education should lessen its traditional ties to drawing, painting, and the study of masterpieces to become the study of visual culture. Visual cultural study refers to an all-encompassing category of cultural practice that includes the fine arts but also deals with the study…

  2. Principals as Cultural Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Karen Seashore; Wahlstrom, Kyla

    2011-01-01

    Principals have a strong role to play in forming school cultures that encourage change. Changing a school's culture requires shared or distributed leadership and instructional leadership. A multiyear study found that three elements are necessary for a school culture that stimulates teachers to improve their instruction: 1) Teachers and…

  3. Cultural Exploration through Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schall, Janine M.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing diversity in the United States means that all students must understand multiple cultural perspectives and identities. Educators need to facilitate learning engagements that highlight the complexities of culture and cultural identity, going beyond surface characteristics such as foods, holidays, and clothing that are often the focus in…

  4. Laos Culturally Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luangpraseut, Khamchong

    This booklet about the cultural background of Laos is one of three booklets that serve as a foundation for understanding the cultural diversity and values of Cambodian, Laotian, and Vietnamese students. Laos is a country of great cultural and ethnic diversity. The following political and economic factors have influenced the development of modern…

  5. Cultur(ally) Jammed: Culture Jams as a Form of Culturally Responsive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Ulyssa

    2012-01-01

    Does the person become the name or does the name become the person? This question was asked by a participant of my culture jam entitled, "What's my name?" In this culture jam, I asked people to discern the name of a person based solely on their appearance and a list of possible names below their picture. This article aims to show how culture jams…

  6. Teaching Language, Teaching Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Crozet, Chantal, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Essays and research reports on the relationship between teaching second languages and teaching culture include: "Teaching Culture as an Integrated Part of Language Teaching: An Introduction" (Chantal Crozet, Anthony J. Liddicoat); "Primary Socialization and Cultural Factors in Second Language Learning: Wending Our Way through Semi-Charted…

  7. The University Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simplicio, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the role university culture can play on a campus and how it can impact policy and practice. The article explores how a university's history, values, and vision form its culture and how this culture in turn affects its stability and continuity. The article discusses how newcomers within the university are…

  8. Cross-Cultural Impression Management: A Cultural Knowledge Audit Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spong, Abigail; Kamau, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many people moving into a new culture for work or study do so without prior cross-cultural training, yet successful cultural adaptation has important ramifications. The purpose of this paper is to focus on cross-cultural impression management as an element of cultural adaptation. Does cultural adaptation begin by paying strong attention…

  9. Cultural effects on mindreading.

    PubMed

    Perez-Zapata, Daniel; Slaughter, Virginia; Henry, Julie D

    2016-01-01

    People from other cultural backgrounds sometimes seem inscrutable. We identified a potential cause of this phenomenon in two experiments demonstrating that adults' mental state inferences are influenced by the cultural identity of the target. We adapted White, Hill, Happé, and Frith's (2009) Strange Stories to create matched intra-cultural and cross-cultural mindreading and control conditions. Experiment 1 showed that Australian participants were faster to respond and received higher scores in the intra-cultural mindreading condition relative to the cross-cultural mindreading condition, but performance in the control conditions was equivalent. Experiment 2 replicated this pattern in independent samples of Australian and Chilean participants. These findings have important implications for cross-cultural communication and understanding. PMID:26529195

  10. Paradoxical reaction of tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis: a case series.

    PubMed

    Im, Jae Hyoung; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Kwon, Hea Yoon; Lee, Jin Soo

    2015-04-01

    Paradoxical reactions of tuberculosis (TB) in vertebral osteomyelitis are very rarely reported. We experienced four cases of severe paradoxical reactions in tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis. Four cases of tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis were confirmed by an acid-fast bacilli smear or culture. The patients were human immunodeficiency virus negative, and were all initially treated with isoniazid, ethambutol, rifampicin and pyrazinamide. Their symptoms improved with anti-TB drugs. However, after 2-12 weeks, their symptoms had recurred, and spinal magnetic resonance imaging at the time of readmission revealed an aggravation of vertebral osteomyelitis. Operations were carried out to relieve severe pain or spinal cord decompression. Through continued anti-TB drug therapy, all patients recovered without sequelae. PMID:25692354

  11. Non-tuberculous mycobacterium skin infections after tattooing in healthy individuals: A systematic review of case reports.

    PubMed

    Mudedla, Sreenuvasu; Avendano, Esther E; Raman, Gowri

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, several case reports and outbreaks reported occurrence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections within 6 months after receiving a tattoo in healthy individuals. NTM species (e.g., Chelonae, Fortuitum, Hemophillum, and Abscessus) are widespread in the environment and it is often suspected that contamination may occur through unsterile instrumentation or unsterile water used for diluting tattoo ink to dilute color. In reported cases, lesions were mainly restricted to a single color 'gray' part of the tattoo. Mycobacterium Chelonae was the most common cause of tattoo associated NTM infections. Less than 50% of the case reports tested tattoo ink for acid fast bacilli stains and cultures. Subjects required treatment with either clarithromycin alone or in combination with quinolones for 6 to 9 months. An increase in NTM skin infections in healthy individuals after tattooing indicates the need for sterile standards during tattooing and improved local and regional regulatory oversight. PMID:26158355

  12. Morphological manifestations of the atypical mycobacteriosis caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria in the HIV infected patients.

    PubMed

    Mayskaya, Marina U; Otten, Tatiana F; Ariel, Boris M; Fedotova, Elena P; Hunter, Robert L; Nasyrov, Ruslan A

    2014-01-01

    Infection with atypical mycobacteria (MAC) is a well-known complication of AIDS that typically occurs only in people with advanced immunodeficiency. We studied tissues from 13 patients with HIV and atypical mycobacterial infection who died in St Petersburg Russia from 2009-2012. Three patterns of disease were identified that suggest effects of host resistance. The first pattern was in people paucibacillary disease. They had positive blood cultures and histologic changes consistent with mycobacterial infection, but no stainable acid fast bacilli (AFB). The second group had disseminated infection in many organs including the lungs with extensive necrosis with many AFB. Finally, the third group had massive infection of many organs, but not the lungs, and only minimal necrosis. These observations suggest significant heterogeneity in atypical mycobacterial infections. PMID:24795050

  13. Making a timely diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Long, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Making a timely diagnosis of adult-type pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is critical to interrupting transmission and optimizing treatment outcomes. A hypothesis based on clinical experience is that a timely diagnosis may be made by addressing seven clinical rubrics: six related to history, one to the laboratory. Responses may be considered to be part of a clinical heuristic for making a timely diagnosis of pulmonary TB. The larger the number of affirmative responses, the more likely the diagnosis, although it is probable some questions carry more weight than others. The radiograph is key and may almost be considered to be confirmatory of the history. Collectively, the responses should prompt suspicion of pulmonary TB - submission of sputum for acid-fast bacilli smear and culture, and respiratory isolation. PMID:26469154

  14. Disseminated mycobacteriosis manifesting as paraplegia in two Parma wallabies (Macropus parma) naturally exposed to Mycobacterium avium.

    PubMed

    Robveille, Cynthia; Albaric, Olivier; Gaide, Nicolas; Abadie, Jérome

    2015-11-01

    Two captive female Parma wallabies (Macropus parma) died after a history of flaccid paraplegia. On postmortem examination, granulomatous and suppurative osteomyelitis involving the left ischium and the lumbosacral region, with meningeal extension at the cauda equina, and caseonecrotic mastitis were the most significant changes. Multiple small nodules in the liver and spleen, and an enlargement of some lymph nodes with central caseous necrosis were also observed. Microscopically, a disseminated granulomatous inflammation with numerous multinucleate giant cells was seen. Numerous acid-fast bacilli were detected in macrophages, in multinucleated giant cells, and free in the central necrosis and suppurative exudate. After culture, polymerase chain reaction assays were carried out to detect the 65-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp65) and insertion sequences (IS)1245 and IS900. The causative agent was identified as Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. PMID:26450834

  15. Foreign Languages and Foreign Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Russell A.

    2002-01-01

    Calls on foreign language departments to take a closer look at a long-standing component of their curriculum: culture. The discussion focuses on language and culture, teaching foreign cultures, and foreign cultures, transnationality, and globalization. (Author/VWL)

  16. Culture and psychiatric diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning. PMID:23816860

  17. Nature/culture/seawater.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Seawater has occupied an ambiguous place in anthropological categories of "nature" and "culture." Seawater as nature appears as potentiality of form and uncontainable flux; it moves faster than culture - with culture frequently figured through land-based metaphors - even as culture seeks to channel water's (nature's) flow. Seawater as culture manifests as a medium of pleasure, sustenance, travel, disaster. I argue that, although seawater's qualities in early anthropology were portrayed impressionistically, today technical, scientific descriptions of water's form prevail. For example, processes of globalization - which may also be called "oceanization" - are often described as "currents," "flows," and "circulations." Examining sea-set ethnography, maritime anthropologies, and contemporary social theory, I propose that seawater has operated as a “theory machine” for generating insights about human cultural organization. I develop this argument with ethnography from the Sargasso Sea and in the Sea Islands. I conclude with a critique of appeals to water's form in social theory. PMID:21560270

  18. Effect of different heterotrophic plate count methods on the estimation of the composition of the culturable microbial community

    PubMed Central

    Gössl, Eva-Maria; Antonielli, Livio; Sessitsch, Angela; Kosti?, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) are routinely determined within the scope of water quality assessment. However, variable HPC methods with different cultivation parameters (i.e., temperature and media type) are applied, which could lead to significant effects in the outcome of the analysis. Therefore the effect of different HPC methods, according to DIN EN ISO 6222 and EPA, on the culturable microbial community composition was investigated by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and statistical evaluation was performed. The culturable community composition revealed significant effects assigned to temperature (p < 0.01), while for media type no statistical significance was observed. However, the abundance of certain detected bacteria was affected. Lower temperature (22 °C) showed the abundance of naturally occurring Pseudomonadaceae and Aeromonadaceae, whereas at high temperature (37 °C) numerous Enterobacteriaceae, Citrobacter spp. and Bacilli were identified. The highest biodiversity was detected at lower temperature, especially on R2A medium. These results indicate that different temperatures (low and high) should be included into HPC measurement and selection of media should, ideally, be adjusted to the monitored water source. Accordingly, it can be inferred that the HPC method is more suitable for continuous monitoring of the same water source than for single assessments of a water sample. PMID:25861554

  19. Municipal Cultural Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryyppo, Vaino; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Five articles discuss aspects of municipal cultural activity in Finland, including legislation, the adult education system, administrative cooperation, municipal recreational services, and changes in public library services. (SK)

  20. Darwinism and cultural change

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey-Smith, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary models of cultural change have acquired an important role in attempts to explain the course of human evolution, especially our specialization in knowledge-gathering and intelligent control of environments. In both biological and cultural change, different patterns of explanation become relevant at different ‘grains’ of analysis and in contexts associated with different explanatory targets. Existing treatments of the evolutionary approach to culture, both positive and negative, underestimate the importance of these distinctions. Close attention to grain of analysis motivates distinctions between three possible modes of cultural evolution, each associated with different empirical assumptions and explanatory roles. PMID:22734059

  1. Cultural change that sticks.

    PubMed

    Katzenbach, Jon R; Steffen, Ilona; Kronley, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    When a major change initiative runs aground, leaders often blame their company's culture for pushing it off course. They try to forge ahead by overhauling the culture--a tactic that tends to fizzle, fail, or backfire. Most cultures are too well entrenched to be jettisoned. The secret is to stop fighting your culture--and to work with and within it, until it evolves in the right direction. Today's best-performing companies, such as Southwest Airlines, Apple, and the Four Seasons, understand this, say the authors, three consultants from Booz & Company. These organizations follow five principles for making the most of their cultures: 1. Match strategy to culture. Culture trumps strategy every time, no matter how brilliant the plan, so the two need to be in alignment. 2. Focus on a few critical shifts in behavior. Wholesale change is hard; choose your battles wisely. 3. Honor the strengths of the existing culture. Every culture is the product of good intentions and has strengths; put them to use. 4. Integrate formal and informal interventions. Don't just implement new rules and processes; identify "influencers" who can bring other employees along. 5. Measure and monitor cultural evolution. Otherwise you can't identify backsliding or correct course. When the leaders of Aetna applied these rules while implementing a new strategy in the early 2000s, they reinvigorated the company's ailing culture and restored employee pride. That shift was reflected in the business results, as Aetna went from a $300 million loss to a $1.7 billion gain. PMID:22852451

  2. Cultural Evolution and the Shaping of Cultural Diversity

    E-print Network

    Richerson, Peter J.

    Cultural Evolution and the Shaping of Cultural Diversity Lesley Newson School of Psychology Exeter of California--Los Angeles Los Angeles CA USA Submitted for inclusion in the Handbook of Cultural Psychology focuses on the way that cultures change and how cultural diversity is created, maintained and lost. Human

  3. Cultural Diplomacy in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigh, Anthony

    The evolution of European government activities in the sphere of international cultural relations is examined. Section 1 describes the period between World War I and World War II when European governments tried to enhance their prestige and policies by means of cultural propaganda. Section 2 analyzes the period during World War II when the…

  4. Cell Culture Made Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Frank J.

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps to generate cell samples for observation and experimentation. The procedures (which use ordinary laboratory equipment) will establish a short-term primary culture of normal mammalian cells. Information on culture vessels and cell division and a list of questions to generate student interest and involvement in the topics are…

  5. Cultural Pluralism on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Harold E.; And Others

    This book is addressed primarily to higher education personnel responsible for campus programming that promotes a culturally plural environment. These chapters are included: (1) "Affirming Affirmative Action" (Harold E. Cheatham); (2) "Identity Development in a Pluralistic Society" (Harold E. Cheatham); (3) "The Minority Cultural Center on a…

  6. Culture and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Heejung S.; Sherman, David K.; Taylor, Shelley E.

    2008-01-01

    Social support is one of the most effective means by which people can cope with stressful events. Yet little research has examined whether there are cultural differences in how people utilize their social support networks. A review of studies on culture and social support presents evidence that Asians and Asian Americans are more reluctant to…

  7. Women and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweetman, Caroline, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue examines the implications of culture on gender and development work. The power of culture is of profound importance in understanding ourselves, others, gender relations and development. The twelve essays address some aspects of gender relations and the power structure of society. Chapters include: (1) "Editorial" (Caroline Sweetman);…

  8. Cultural Competence Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garran, Ann Marie; Werkmeister Rozas, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) adopted 10 discrete standards of culturally competent practice which undergird our commitment to diversity and social justice. The concept of intersectionality is newly emerging in social work, though, causing us to reflect on our current conceptualizations of cultural competence.…

  9. Understanding Corporate Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluff, Gary A.

    1988-01-01

    Considers concept of corporate culture and discusses several values which can be considered when assessing corporate culture, and the "compatibility scales" used to measure them. Included are discussions of employee attitudes, work atmosphere, internal communications, management style, employment opportunity, stability, business ethics, corporate…

  10. Developing Culturally Competent Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focal Point, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This special issue examines multicultural aspects of services provided by agencies concerned with children's mental health. The lead article is titled "Developing Culturally Competent Organizations" by James L. Mason. This article uses the cultural competence model to discuss an organization's self-evaluation and its planning in the areas of…

  11. Pop Culture in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, David Manning, Ed.

    The nature of today's popular culture, its place in American life, and its merit or lack of it are the themes of these essays from "The New York Times Magazine." Introductory essays discuss the use of leisure time, paying the cost of the arts, and whether American society can be considered "cultured." Subsequent essays discuss the nature of radio…

  12. ARS Culture Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The internationally recognized Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Culture Collection will be described to include the microorganisms maintained by the collection, preservation methods and worldwide distribution of cultures. The impact of the germplasm will be described to include discovery of the f...

  13. Teaching Languages, Teaching Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Crozet, Chantal, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines what it means to teach culture as an integrated part of language from both the language learner's and the language teacher's perspectives. The 11 papers include the following: "Teaching Cultures as an Integrated Part of Language: Implications for the Aims, Approaches and Pedagogies of Language Teaching" (Chantal…

  14. Our People, Our Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    With Liverpool approaching the end of its year as the 2008 European Capital of Culture, many of the residents in the city involved in promoting arts events have been so busy doing just that, that they have scarcely had time to stop and ask themselves what this thing called "culture" has meant in this special year. Have their efforts over the past…

  15. Cultural Awareness for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Judy; And Others

    This book documents a portion of The Learning Tree program, which develops cultural awareness. It provides activities, written from practical experience, that are designed to give children their first contact with the customs of other cultures. These activities are for teachers to share with preschool-, kindergarten-, and primary-school-age…

  16. Anaerobic thermophilic culture system

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Wiegel, Jurgen K. W. (Gottingen, DE)

    1981-01-01

    A mixed culture system of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC31550 and the microorganism Clostridium thermocellum ATCC31549 is described. In a mixed nutrient culture medium that contains cellulose, these microorganisms have been coupled and cultivated to efficiently ferment cellulose to produce recoverable quantities of ethanol under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions.

  17. Culture and cooperation.

    PubMed

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian

    2010-09-12

    Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities. PMID:20679109

  18. Teaching World Cultures through Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauf, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching world cultures in the middle-level geography classroom presents challenges both because of the complexity of culture and because of the characteristics of students of this age. One effective way to teach about a culture is through the use of cultural artifacts. This article discusses how to collect and use cultural artifacts in the…

  19. Organizational climate and culture.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Benjamin; Ehrhart, Mark G; Macey, William H

    2013-01-01

    Organizational climate and organizational culture theory and research are reviewed. The article is first framed with definitions of the constructs, and preliminary thoughts on their interrelationships are noted. Organizational climate is briefly defined as the meanings people attach to interrelated bundles of experiences they have at work. Organizational culture is briefly defined as the basic assumptions about the world and the values that guide life in organizations. A brief history of climate research is presented, followed by the major accomplishments in research on the topic with regard to levels issues, the foci of climate research, and studies of climate strength. A brief overview of the more recent study of organizational culture is then introduced, followed by samples of important thinking and research on the roles of leadership and national culture in understanding organizational culture and performance and culture as a moderator variable in research in organizational behavior. The final section of the article proposes an integration of climate and culture thinking and research and concludes with practical implications for the management of effective contemporary organizations. Throughout, recommendations are made for additional thinking and research. PMID:22856467

  20. Culture of safety.

    PubMed

    Hershey, Kristen

    2015-03-01

    In this article, the principles behind high-reliability organizations and a culture of safety are explored. Three areas in which health care has the greatest potential for improvement in safety culture are also discussed: a nonpunitive response to error; handoffs and transitions; and safe staffing. Tools for frontline nurses to help improve their organization's culture of safety in these areas are reviewed. Information is also given for nurses responding to error, including participating in root-cause analysis and supporting health care workers involved in adverse events. PMID:25680493

  1. Are Canadians Cultural Cuckoos?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickleburgh, Brita

    1977-01-01

    The author believes that teachers have been remiss in transmitting Canadian culture to their students. They have also neglected the development of self-realization and identity in the majority of students. (Author)

  2. Cultural Astronomy in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renshaw, Steven L.

    While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

  3. Multimedia and Cultural Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacino, Maria A.; Pacino, Joe L.

    1996-01-01

    Describes development of a multimedia courseware package available on videodisc and CD-ROM for use in teaching cultural awareness and diversity. This interactive package uses role-playing questions and answers and discussion. (JKP)

  4. POP CULTURE COMMUNITIES

    E-print Network

    Stryk, Oskar von

    · · ANORAK LEVEL UP POP CULTURE FUTURIST OFFLINE HANDS ON BEAKER COMMUNITIES GADGETS DUCT TAPE NOSTALGIA COMIX · · · Beaker Robot Monday: The Darmstadt Dribblers Posted: 07.19.2010 Seite 1 von 3Handshake

  5. Nature/Culture/Seawater

    E-print Network

    Helmreich, Stefan

    This essay considers seawater as a substance and symbol in anthropological and social theory. Seawater has occupied an ambiguous place with respect to anthropological categories of nature and culture. Seawater as nature ...

  6. Blood Culture Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Blood Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... Septicemia can cause a fall in blood pressure (shock), a rapid heart rate, and a decrease in ...

  7. [Depression and culture].

    PubMed

    Stompe, Thomas; Ritter, Kristina; Schrank, Beate

    2009-01-01

    It is well established knowledge that, aside from biological and biographical factors, socio-cultural patterns have a major impact in prevalence and phenomenology of depressive disorders. It is the aim of the authors (1) to clarify the different epistemological positions of transcultural research in depression, (2) to present the most important findings of this research, (3) to develop suggestions for culture-sensitive epidemiological research. PMID:19909697

  8. Astronomy in Aboriginal culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhathal, Ragbir

    2006-10-01

    In all probability, long before other civilizations had named the celestial objects in the night sky, the indigenous people of Australia had not only given them names but had also built an astronomical knowledge system which they incorporated into their social, cultural and religious life. Their socio-cultural astronomical knowledge system both assists and clashes with Australia's legal system, which is based on English law.

  9. [Paratuberculosis in a miniature donkey (Equus asinus f. asinus)].

    PubMed

    Stief, Birgit; Möbius, Petra; Türk, Heidemarie; Hörügel, Uwe; Arnold, Carina; Pöhle, Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    Paratuberculosis is mainly an infectious disease of ruminants with worldwide distribution. Infection occurs in early stages of life. Other animal species beyond ruminants are rarely affected, however, experimental and natural infections are possible. A case of paratuberculosis in a miniature donkey (Equus asinus f. asinus) with typical clinical and pathomorphological changes is reported here. Lesions were mainly observed in the intestine. Causative for the profuse diarrhoea with emaciation was massive diffuse granulomatous enteritis involving large quantities of acid-fast organism mainly in macrophages. Granulomatous inflammation with acid-fast bacilli again in macrophages to a lesser degree could be detected in the liver. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was isolated from intestinal contents after an incubation period of four weeks. MAP-specific DNA (IS900 and f57) was detected by polymerase chain reaction in culture material. Additionally MAP-isolates were characterized by multi-target genotyping (MIRU-VNTR- and MLSSR-typing). Isolates belonged to the Type II group and exhibited a unique genotype different from other MAP strains in Germany. The donkey originated from a donkey breeding farm in France with intensive free ranging cattle in the neighbourhood and could have been infected there. Donkeys should be considered as paratuberculosis-susceptible animals in exceptional cases and as possible reservoirs or disseminators of infection. PMID:22372323

  10. Astronomy and Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, M.

    2006-08-01

    Astronomy is, by definition, the sum of the material and spiritual values created by mankind and of the institutions necessary to communicate these values. Consequently, astronomy belongs to the culture of each society and its scientific progress does nothing but underline its role in culture. It is interesting that there is even a European society which bears this name "Astronomy for Culture" (SEAC). Its main goal is "the study of calendric and astronomical aspects of culture". Owning ancient evidence of astronomical knowledge, dating from the dawn of the first millennium, Romania is interested in this topic. But Astronomy has a much deeper role in culture and civilization. There are many aspects that deserve to be discussed. Examples? The progress of astronomy in a certain society, in connection with its evolution; the place held by the astronomy in literature and, generally, in art; the role of the SF in the epoch of super-mediatization; astronomy and belief; astronomy and astrology in the modern society, and so forth. These are problems that can be of interest for IAU, but the most important one could be her educational role, in the formation of the culture of the new generation, in the education of the population for the protection of our planet, in the ensuring of a high level of spiritual development of the society in the present epoch.

  11. Mainstreaming culture in psychology.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Fanny M

    2012-11-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks. PMID:23163473

  12. Longevity of Mycobacterium bovis in Raw and Traditional Souring Milk as a Function of Storage Temperature and Dose

    E-print Network

    Michel, AL; Geoghegan, C; Hlokwe, T; Raseleka, K; Getz, WM; Marcotty, T

    2015-01-01

    of Mycobacterium bovis in Milk acid-fast colonies, isolatedmilk sampled at Day 0 and Day 3. The presence of acid-fastacid is likely to destroy the majority of tubercle bacilli, it is also true that, compared to other food types, milk

  13. Examining Cultural Intelligence and Cross-Cultural Negotiation Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Kevin S.; Feyerherm, Ann; Gu, Minhua

    2015-01-01

    International negotiation failures are often linked to deficiencies in negotiator cross-cultural capabilities, including limited understanding of the cultures engaged in the transaction, an inability to communicate with persons from different cultural backgrounds, and limited behavioral flexibility to adapt to culturally unfamiliar contexts.…

  14. Creating Cultural Consumers: The Dynamics of Cultural Capital Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisida, Brian; Greene, Jay P.; Bowen, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    The theories of cultural reproduction and cultural mobility have largely shaped the study of the effects of cultural capital on academic outcomes. Missing in this debate has been a rigorous examination of how children actually acquire cultural capital when it is not provided by their families. Drawing on data from a large-scale experimental study…

  15. The effect of cultural interaction on cumulative cultural evolution.

    PubMed

    Nakahashi, Wataru

    2014-07-01

    Cultural transmission and cultural evolution are important for animals, especially for humans. I developed a new analytical model of cultural evolution, in which each newborn learns cultural traits from multiple individuals (exemplars) in parental generation, individually explores around learned cultural traits, judges the utility of known cultural traits, and adopts a mature cultural trait. Cultural evolutionary speed increases when individuals explore a wider range of cultural traits, accurately judge the skill level of cultural traits (strong direct bias), do not strongly conform to the population mean, increase the exploration range according to the variety of socially learned cultural traits (condition dependent exploration), and make smaller errors in social learning. Number of exemplars, population size, similarity of cultural traits between exemplars, and one-to-many transmission have little effect on cultural evolutionary speed. I also investigated how cultural interaction between two populations with different mean skill levels affects their cultural evolution. A population sometimes increases in skill level more if it encounters a less skilled population than if it does not encounter anyone. A less skilled population sometimes exceeds a more skilled population in skill level by cultural interaction between both populations. The appropriateness of this analytical method is confirmed by individual-based simulations. PMID:24613360

  16. Personalization in Cultural Heritage Personalization in Cultural Heritage: The

    E-print Network

    Ardissono, Liliana

    Personalization in Cultural Heritage 1 Personalization in Cultural Heritage: The Road Travelled://mis.hevra.haifa.ac.il/~tsvikak/Home.htm 3 http://dagda.shef.ac.uk/daniela/Daniela_Petrelli/Welcome.html Over the last twenty years, cultural to exploit cultural heritage material before, during and after the visit, having different goals

  17. From Cultural Awareness to Intercultural Awareness: Culture in ELT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Will

    2012-01-01

    Cultural awareness (CA) has emerged over the last few decades as a significant part of conceptualizing the cultural dimension to language teaching. That is, L2 users need to understand L2 communication as a cultural process and to be aware of their own culturally based communicative behaviour and that of others. However, while CA has provided a…

  18. The Culture Based Model: Constructing a Model of Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent trends reveal that models of culture aid in mapping the design and analysis of information and communication technologies. Therefore, models of culture are powerful tools to guide the building of instructional products and services. This research examines the construction of the culture based model (CBM), a model of culture that evolved…

  19. Culture, cultural factors and psychiatric diagnosis: review and projections

    PubMed Central

    ALARCÓN, RENATO D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to provide conceptual justifications for the inclusion of culture and cultural factors in psychiatric diagnosis, and logistic suggestions as to the content and use of this approach. A discussion of the scope and limitations of current diagnostic practice, criticisms from different quarters, and the role and relevance of culture in the diagnostic encounter, precede the examination of advantages and disadvantages of the approach. The cultural content of psychiatric diagnosis should include the main, well-recognized cultural variables, adequate family data, explanatory models, and strengths and weaknesses of every individual patient. The practical aspects include the acceptance of “cultural discordances” as a component of an updated definition of mental disorder, and the use of a refurbished cultural formulation. Clinical “telescoping” strategies to obtain relevant cultural data during the diagnostic interview, and areas of future research (including field trials on the cultural formulation and on “culture bound syndromes”), are outlined. PMID:19812742

  20. Communication Media in Ancient Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabusch, David M.

    Interest in early means of communication and in the uses and kinds of media that existed in ancient cultures is starting to grow among communication scholars. Conversation analysis of these cultures is obviously impossible, so that the emphasis must rest with material cultural artifacts. Many ancient cultures used non-verbal codes for dyadic…

  1. Cultural Bias in Testing ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargill-Power, C.

    Although cultural content is unavoidable as a backdrop for good language testing, cultural bias in testing English as a second language presents many dangers. A picture cue calling for a correct grammatical response may evoke an incorrect answer if the pictorial content is culturally coded. The cultural background behind a test must be accurately…

  2. STANDARD CROSS-CULTURAL SAMPLE

    E-print Network

    White, Douglas R.

    STANDARD CROSS- CULTURAL SAMPLE The Standard Cross-Cultural Sample, or SCCS (Murdock and White 1969-described societies used by scholars in the social sciences. The champion of modern cross-cultural and statistical in his coded Ethnographic Atlas into 200 distinctive world cultural provinces (Murdock 1962-1967, 1968

  3. AUTOMATED CULTURE TRAINING Lorenzo Scagnetti

    E-print Network

    Karlsson, Brynjar

    of different cultures as part of our daily lives. The results of such cross-cultural communication of misunderstanding in cross-cultural communication by providing an interactive 3D training environment, where people daily lives. The results of such cross-cultural communication are sometimes affected

  4. Preparing for Culturally Responsive Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Geneva

    2002-01-01

    Promotes the improvement of school success for ethnically diverse students via culturally responsive teachers and the preparation of preservice teachers with necessary knowledge, attitudes, and skills to do this, highlighting: development of a cultural diversity knowledge base; design of culturally relevant curricula; demonstration of cultural

  5. How Culture Shock Affects Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barna, LaRay M.

    The paper defines the term "culture shock" and discusses the changes that this state can make in a person's behavior. Culture shock refers to the emotional and physiological reaction of high activation that is brought about by sudden immersion in a new culture. Because one's own culture shields one from the unknown and reduces the need to make…

  6. Culture from the Bottom Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dwight; Sohn, Jija

    2013-01-01

    The culture concept has been severely criticized for its top-down nature in TESOL, leading arguably to its falling out of favor in the field. But what of the fact that people do "live culturally" (Ingold, 1994)? This article describes a case study of culture from the bottom up--culture as understood and enacted by its individual users.…

  7. Evaluation of Propidium Monoazide Real-Time PCR for Early Detection of Viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Clinical Respiratory Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Sun Min; Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Sung Soo; Yi, Jongyoun; Kim, Hyung Hoi; Lee, Eun Yup

    2014-01-01

    Background Conventional acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining cannot differentiate viable from dead cells. Propidium monoazide (PMA) is a photoreactive DNA-binding dye that inhibits PCR amplification by DNA modification. We evaluated whether PMA real-time PCR is suitable for the early detection of viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in clinical respiratory specimens. Methods A total of 15 diluted suspensions from 5 clinical MTB isolates were quadruplicated and subjected to PMA treatment and/or heat inactivation. Eighty-three AFB-positive sputum samples were also tested to compare the ?CT values (CT value in PMA-treated sputum samples-CT value in non-PMA-treated sputum samples) between culture-positive and culture-negative specimens. Real-time PCR was performed using Anyplex MTB/NTM Real-Time Detection (Seegene, Korea), and the CT value changes after PMA treatment were compared between culture-positive and culture-negative groups. Results In MTB suspensions, the increase in the CT value after PMA treatment was significant in dead cells (P=0.0001) but not in live cells (P=0.1070). In 14 culture-negative sputum samples, the median ?CT value was 5.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1-8.2; P<0.0001), whereas that in 69 culture-positive sputum samples was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.7-2.0). In the ROC curve analysis, the cutoff ?CT value for maximum sensitivity (89.9%) and specificity (85.7%) for differentiating dead from live cells was 3.4. Conclusions PMA real-time PCR is a useful approach for differentiating dead from live bacilli in AFB smear-positive sputum samples. PMID:24790907

  8. Cultural Heritage in the Crosshairs: Protecting Cultural Property during Conflict provides case studies of Cultural

    E-print Network

    Cultural Heritage in the Crosshairs: Protecting Cultural Property during Conflict provides case studies of Cultural Property Protection (CPP) and the military on a global scale Dr. Joris D. Kila, University of Amsterdam, and Dr. James A. Zeidler, Colorado State University, co-edited Cultural Heritage

  9. Organizational Culture and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Catherine A.

    2003-01-01

    '..only a fool perseveres in error.' Cicero. Humans will break the most advanced technological devices and override safety and security systems if they are given the latitude. Within the workplace, the operator may be just one of several factors in causing accidents or making risky decisions. Other variables considered for their involvement in the negative and often catastrophic outcomes include the organizational context and culture. Many organizations have constructed and implemented safety programs to be assimilated into their culture to assure employee commitment and understanding of the importance of everyday safety. The purpose of this paper is to examine literature on organizational safety cultures and programs that attempt to combat vulnerability, risk taking behavior and decisions and identify the role of training in attempting to mitigate unsafe acts.

  10. [Youth from cultural communities].

    PubMed

    Alvarado, E

    1993-01-01

    In Québec, young immigrants must adapt themselves at the same time as their families to the changes imposed by a society which is itself experiencing problems related to minorities and language conflicts. Parents, which have high hopes for their young, are torn between their own values and those of the new nation. Because immigrants families, especially mothers, have a poor understanding of the language, as well as the educational and social services, it is difficult for them to avoid being labelled in the academic and legal worlds. Discipline is often at the centre of problems with teens. The conflict between generations takes on special meaning, as youth are able to adapt faster and easier to the new society's culture. Nevertheless, placing value on cultural origins can help youth challenge racism and rejection. The author believes that more effort should be invested in information services for parents, as well as in schools and their cultural and pedagogical adaptation measures. PMID:8218659

  11. Comparative cultural cognition.

    PubMed

    Price, Elizabeth E; Caldwell, Christine A; Whiten, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Cultural learning is an adaptive mechanism which can lead to changes in behavior and cognition much faster than naturally selected genetic change. Although social learning is prevalent in many species, the capacity for significant cumulative culture remains restricted to humans. This capacity has been a driving force behind the evolution of complexity in our technologies and societies, and has allowed us to become the most widespread mammal on earth. The comparative study of cultural cognition assesses where important differences lie between species. A combination of observational studies in the wild, experimental studies in captivity, and field experiments together provide the most comprehensive methods with which to tackle the question. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272835

  12. Digital Microfluidic Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Ng, Alphonsus H C; Li, Bingyu Betty; Chamberlain, M Dean; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2015-12-01

    Digital microfluidics (DMF) is a droplet-based liquid-handling technology that has recently become popular for cell culture and analysis. In DMF, picoliter- to microliter-sized droplets are manipulated on a planar surface using electric fields, thus enabling software-reconfigurable operations on individual droplets, such as move, merge, split, and dispense from reservoirs. Using this technique, multistep cell-based processes can be carried out using simple and compact instrumentation, making DMF an attractive platform for eventual integration into routine biology workflows. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art in DMF cell culture, and describe design considerations, types of DMF cell culture, and cell-based applications of DMF. PMID:26643019

  13. Mass algal culture system

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Lawrence P. (Richland, WA)

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus and process for the culture of algae in a liquid medium is disclosed. The medium circulates through an open trough and is exposed to an atmosphere which is temperature regulated. The nutrient content of the liquid medium is regulated to control the chemical composition growth and reproduction characteristics of the cultured algae. Before it is allowed to strike the medium, sunlight is passed through a filter to remove wavelengths which are not photosynthetically active. Heat energy can be recovered from the filter.

  14. Mass algal culture system

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Lawrence P. (Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus and process for the culture of algae in a liquid medium is disclosed. The medium circulates through an open trough and is exposed to an atmosphere which is temperature regulated. The nutrient content of the liquid medium is regulated to control the chemical composition growth and reproduction characteristics of the cultured algae. Before it is allowed to strike the medium, sunlight is passed through a filter to remove wavelengths which are not photosynthetically active. Heat energy can be recovered from the filter.

  15. Hydroponics or soilless culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, H. D.

    1963-01-01

    Historically, hydroponics is not a new field; plant physiologists have known and used it for some 100 years. Inevitably, some enthusiasts got carried away.Claims were made of enormous potential yields; skyscraper tops were said to be capable of producing enough food for all of their occupants; and closets, basements, garages, etc. were wishfully converted into fields for hydroponic culture. Numerous publications on the subject appeared during this period. Basic requirements for hydropinc techniques are given along with examples of where soilless culture has been used commercially.

  16. Bone culture research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Nicola C.

    1993-01-01

    The experiments described are aimed at exploring PTH regulation of production of collagenase and protein inhibitors of collagenase (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases, TIMP-1 and -2) by osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells under conditions of weightlessness. The results of this work will contribute to information as to whether a microgravity environment alters the functions and responsiveness of the osteoblast. The objectives of the Bone Culture Research (BCR) experiment are: to observe the effects of microgravity on the morphology, rate of proliferation, and behavior of the osteoblastic cells, UMR 106-01; to determine whether microgravy affects the hormonal sensitivity of osteroblastic cells; and to measure the secretion of collagenase and its inhibitors into the medium under conditions of microgravity. The methods employed will consist of the following: the osteoblast-like cells, UMR-106-01, will be cultured in four NASDA cell culture chambers; two chambers will be subjected to microgravity on SL-J; two chambers will remain on the ground at KSC as ground controls but subjected to an identical set of culture conditions as on the shuttle; media will be changed four times; twice the cells will receive the hormone parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and media collected; cells will be photographed under conditions of microgravity; and media and photographs will be analyzed upon return to determine whether functions of the cells changed.

  17. Weather and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contemporary Learning Center, Houston, TX.

    This document is a minicourse on the interaction of weather, environment, and culture. It is designed for the high school student to read and self-administer. Performance objectives, enabling activities, and postassessment questions are given for each of eight modules. The modules are: (1) Basic Facts About Your Weather Known As Rain, (2) The…

  18. Cultures and Communities Certificate

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    and how they can be addressed. · Articulate approaches to democratic citizenship and community problem-solving, and the community and cultural con- texts of art, health, science, and technology. In their service for appreciating and interpreting works of art. · Describe the basic components of modern globaliza- tion

  19. Making Mathematics Culturally Relevant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Examines three strands of elementary mathematics--numerals and counting, recording and calculating, and mathematics exploration and play--and provides ways to integrate culture and mathematics experiences in each area. Specific topics include Egyptian methods for multiplication, the abacus, and the words for the numbers 1-10 in seven different…

  20. Culture's Unacknowledged Iron Grip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, John

    2007-01-01

    Ideally, education provides mutual enrichment for professor and students. In this article, the author often fears that he is learning far more than his students are in a course on intercultural communication. Its real subject sometimes seems to be the iron grip of American culture upon his students. What is most fascinating is that the power of…

  1. Rethinking Culture and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambach, Amy

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews three books that provide complementary and thought-provoking insights. The three books under review are: (1) "Reproducing class: education, neoliberalism, and the rise of the new middle class in Istanbul," by Henry J. Rutz and Erol M. Balkan; (2) "Technology, culture, family: influences on home life," by Elizabeth B. Silva; and…

  2. Visual Culture of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    Current discussions regarding the notion of visual culture in art educational practice center the actions of the viewer as participant within the networks of visuality common in many contemporary societies. Surveillance technologies and techniques shift this notion of participation from active to passive, from seeing to being seen. This article…

  3. The Cultural Twilight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treuer, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author begins by saying how privileged he feels to be included in the celebration of the American Indian Culture and Research Journal (AICRJ) and to toast forty years of American Indian studies at UCLA. He looks back over the field of Native American literature and criticism, then peeks at the present, and last, makes some…

  4. Reconciling Culture and Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    Those who study and propose policy for dealing with the non-Western world are advised to balance their urge to modernize with an appreciation for indigenous social and cultural differences. Equilibrium is important, writes Stanley Kurd, yet the leftists who dominate social sciences have largely abandoned such an appreciation, as have…

  5. Respectful Youth Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Erik K.

    2014-01-01

    Children are social beings who rely on interactions with others to survive and thrive. Since the human brain is wired to connect, cultures in schools and youth organizations must be designed so youth can bond to supportive peers and adults. Children learn through observation, modeling, and responding to people in their environments. Bronfenbrenner…

  6. Frank Trentmann, Director, Cultures

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Ian

    of consumption really like, in Britain and the rest of the world? Five years ago, the Cultures of Consumption of consumption, past and present, and implications for the future. Our research has examined a range of major subjects, from consumer politics to the rise of London as a global fashion city, from the impact of new

  7. Race, Culture and Counselling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lago, Colin; Thompson, Joyce

    Some of the major dimensions and subtleties underlying issues of race and culture and the impact these can have on counseling and psychotherapy relationships are explored. The context is British, but many of the issues and concerns are applicable to therapists in other societies. Chapter 1 describes the climate in which the discussion is set, a…

  8. Complicating Visual Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daiello, Vicki; Hathaway, Kevin; Rhoades, Mindi; Walker, Sydney

    2006-01-01

    Arguing for complicating the study of visual culture, as advocated by James Elkins, this article explicates and explores Lacanian psychoanalytic theory and pedagogy in view of its implications for art education practice. Subjectivity, a concept of import for addressing student identity and the visual, steers the discussion informed by pedagogical…

  9. Languages,cultures andsocieties.

    E-print Network

    Molinari, Marc

    during the 1990s Bosnia war. Finally, our researchers in applied linguistics are studying language specialists in linguistics, literature, culture, society, politics, history, and anthropology and region 12 How to Apply 14 Originally built as a school and opened in 1926, Avenue Campus brings together

  10. Computers, Culture, and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westby, Carol; Atencio, David J.

    2002-01-01

    Opinions vary regarding the impact of computers on children and value of using computers in the education of children. This article discusses the impact of technology on culture, attitudes about technological change, the nature of literacy in a technological society, and frameworks for thinking about teaching and learning with technology.…

  11. Cultural Literacy & Arts Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph A., Ed.

    Thirteen experts in the visual arts, literature, music, dance, and theater responded to the arguments of E. D. Hirsch's "Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know", focusing particularily on his alarm at the serious slippage that has occurred in the background knowledge and information prerequisite for effective communication. These…

  12. Culture and Imperialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Said, Edward W.

    Growing out of a series of lectures given at universities in the United States, Canada, and England, this book reopens the dialogue between literature and the life of its time. It draws dramatic connections between the imperial endeavor and the culture that both reflected and reinforced it, describing a general pattern of relationships between the…

  13. Plant Tissue Culture Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert Alan

    Plant tissue culture has developed into a valid botanical discipline and is considered a key area of biotechnology, but it has not been a key component of the science curriculum because of the expensive and technical nature of research in this area. This manual presents a number of activities that are relatively easy to prepare and perform. The…

  14. Cross-Cultural HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    These five papers are from a symposium that was facilitated by David C. Bjorkquist on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD) at the 1995 Academy of Human Resource Development conference. "Developing Managers for Overseas Assignments in the Pacific Rim: A Study of International HRD Issues in Singapore" (A. Ahad M. Osman-Gani, Thian-Ser…

  15. Groups in Two Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Carl R.

    1979-01-01

    As result of personal experience, author examines two cultural groups, with Chinese approach leading to group unity and contentment through conformity. Person-centered approach leads to sense of community and sense of freedom coupled with anxiety from being responsible for choosing one's life. (Author/CMG)

  16. Public Knowledge Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    This article first reviews claims for the knowledge economy in terms of excludability, rivalry, and transparency indicating the way that digital goods behave differently from other commodities. In the second section it discusses the theory of "public knowledge cultures" starting from the primacy of practice based on Marx, Wittgenstein and…

  17. Persian Language & Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mir-Djalali, Elahe

    Designed to be used as complementary instructional material for American students as well as second-generation Iranians in America, this work presents a collection of material for teaching Persian language and culture. Research and analysis of some relevant linguistic issues, interactive methodology of language teaching and acquisition, and models…

  18. Students' Conceptions: Culturing Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiberghien, Andree

    2008-01-01

    This commentary on Roth, Lee, and Hwang's paper aims at analysing their theoretical approach in terms of its object of study, and the aspects that are brought to the fore, like the cultural activity of conversation, and those that are overshadowed, like the role of the material world and its perception on learning. This analysis, developed on the…

  19. Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chee, Donna Ah; Maidment, Debra; Hayes-Hampton, Margie

    The Institute for Aboriginal Development (IAD) is an Aboriginal-controlled language resource center and adult education center serving the Aboriginal communities of central Australia. Its activities include education programs, which range from literacy and numeracy to vocational and tertiary-level courses; an Aboriginal language and culture center…

  20. It Takes a Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckner, Martha; Mausbach, Ann

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, the graduation rate for the Council Bluffs Community School District was, at 68 percent, the lowest in Iowa. District leaders knew that to improve, they needed to create a cultural change throughout the community. They began by getting community members involved in creating a strategic plan and mission statement that included a guarantee…

  1. Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc. has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc. is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

  2. Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc., has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc., is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

  3. Mammalian Cell Culture Simplified.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Robert; Solomon, Sondra

    1991-01-01

    A tissue culture experiment that does not require elaborate equipment and that can be used to teach sterile technique, the principles of animal cell line maintenance, and the concept of cell growth curves is described. The differences between cancerous and normal cells can be highlighted. The procedure is included. (KR)

  4. Cultural Vignette: Mexican Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Mary Ellen; And Others

    Developed as part of a multicultural research project in the San Diego Community College District, this booklet presents the findings of a 10-member research team about various elements of Mexican-American culture. The areas covered are: (1) historical background on the Mexican heritage of the United States from pre-colonial times to the present…

  5. Researching Society and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, Clive, Ed.

    This book provides theoretically informed guidance to practicing the key research methods for investigating society and culture. It is a text in both methods and methodology, in which the importance of understanding the historical, theoretical and institutional context in which particular methods have developed is stressed. The contributors of the…

  6. Cultural Vignette: Black Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Ida; And Others

    Developed as part of a multicultural research project conducted in the San Diego Community College District, this booklet presents the findings of an eight-member research team about various elements of Black American culture and history. The booklet begins with a brief history of Black Americans from the time of the arrival of the first slaves to…

  7. Language and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramsch, Claire

    2014-01-01

    This paper surveys the research methods and approaches used in the multidisciplinary field of applied language studies or language education over the last fourty years. Drawing on insights gained in psycho- and sociolinguistics, educational linguistics and linguistic anthropology with regard to language and culture, it is organized around five…

  8. Pop Culture Peeps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruszewski, Julie; Fontes, Kris

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a classroom activity called Pop Culture Peep. In this particular activity, students are required to first research famous artists and/or famous artworks to have an image to use as a reference. Students then plan out how they would decorate the Peep, deciding what materials they would use to create the Peep in…

  9. Cultural Issues in Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on cultural issues in organizations. "Emotion Management and Organizational Functions: A Study of Action in a Not-for-Profit Organization" (Jamie Callahan Fabian) uses Hochschild's emotion systems theory and Parsons' social systems theory to explain why members of an organization managed their…

  10. Culture and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji, Ed.; And Others

    Representing a refereed selection of papers from the 1994 JALT Kansai Conference, this collection of 25 papers contains formal presentations, teaching experiences, research projects, and ideas for effective teaching. The papers and their authors are, as follows: (1) "Culturally Influenced Communication Patterns: Overview, Implications and…

  11. Quality Culture Survey Report.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pritesh; Baker, Denyse; Burdick, Rick; Chen, Cylia; Hill, Jonathon; Holland, Morgan; Sawant, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The Parenteral Drug Association conducted an anonymous global survey of quality culture in the pharmaceutical industry to determine whether there is a relationship between certain quality behaviors and certain quality attributes, and whether these quality attributes could be used as surrogates (or proxy variables) to assess quality culture. Other studies have shown that an unhealthy quality culture is a root cause of many quality or compliance issues seen by sites and organizations. Statistical analysis of survey data suggests that certain attributes are driving good behaviors, and the demographic data suggests that this relationship holds irrespective of the geographic location of the site. Executive survey respondents had a more optimistic view of the current state of quality culture than survey respondents at large, with cross-functional vision showing the biggest gap (P-value = 0.07, F-Test). The top five quality attributes that can serve as surrogates for quality culture were (1) Management communication that quality is everyone's responsibility, (2) Site has formal quality improvement objectives and targets, (3) Clear performance criteria for feedback and coaching, (4) Quality topics included in at least half of all-hands meetings, and (5) Collecting error prevention metrics. These identified mature quality attributes are related to management responsibility, and continual improvement of the pharmaceutical quality system sections of ICH Q10, and therefore may be amenable to be incorporated in audit programs or in regulatory inspections. Additional research and discussion is required to build a coherent approach, which the pharmaceutical industry and regulators can adopt. PMID:26429110

  12. Cultural Sovereignty in a Global Art Economy: Egyptian Cultural Policy

    E-print Network

    Amaral, Luis A.N.

    Cultural Sovereignty in a Global Art Economy: Egyptian Cultural Policy and the New Western Interest, the various exhibitions, concerts, plays, and film screenings drew both Egyptians and Westerners, many of whom

  13. Orthogonal cultural identification theory: the cultural identification of minority adolescents.

    PubMed

    Oetting, E R; Beauvais, F

    A theory of cultural identification is presented indicating that identification with different cultures is orthogonal. Instead of cultures being placed at opposite ends of a continuum, cultural identification dimensions are independent of each other, and increasing identification with one culture does not require decreasing identification with another. Studies of Native-American and Mexican-American youth show that: (1) identification with Anglo (White American) culture is related to having Anglo friends and to family acceptance of an Anglo marriage, (2) identification with either the minority or the majority culture is a source of personal and social strength, and (3) this greater strength, however, does not translate automatically into less drug use, because drug use is related to how much the culture that the person identifies with approves or disapproves of drugs. PMID:2101397

  14. From Material to Symbolic Cultures: Culture in Primates

    E-print Network

    in cultural transmission combining detailed field observations with ecologically and socially valid evolution, ecological validity, chimpanzees, humans, primates. Culture is probably the single most central's fear chat by opening anthropological concepts eo other species, human beings might be "threatened

  15. Cultural Education--Iroquois Cultural Study for Elementary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catherine

    Presenting a sequenced cultural education program, this curriculum guide for an Iroquois cultural study for elementary grades concentrates on providing a supplemental classroom program to an existing social studies curriculum, though it is also aimed at teaching culture in Native American classes. Program objectives are to provide students with…

  16. Teaching Culture Perception: Documenting and Transforming Institutional Teaching Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kustra, Erika; Doci, Florida; Gillard, Kaitlyn; Hondzel, Catharine Dishke; Goff, Lori; Gabay, Danielle; Meadows, Ken N.; Borin, Paola; Wolf, Peter; Ellis, Donna; Eiliat, Hoda; Grose, Jill; Dawson, Debra L.; Hughes, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    An institutional culture that values teaching is likely to lead to improved student learning. The main focus of this study was to determine faculty, graduate and undergraduate students' perception of the teaching culture at their institution and identify indicators of that teaching culture. Themes included support for teaching development; support…

  17. Teaching Language through Culture and Culture through Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somova, Svetlana

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of teaching foreign languages through culture and culture through language study. Addresses how the textbooks used to study English by Russian students must focus more on the needs of Russian students. Summarizes the findings from a survey demonstrating that Russian students' knowledge of U.S. culture originates from…

  18. Culturally Relevant Physical Education in Urban Schools: Reflecting Cultural Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flory, Sara B.; McCaughtry, Nate

    2011-01-01

    Using a three-part theoretical framework, the cultural relevance cycle--which consists of (a) knowing community dynamics, (b) knowing how community dynamics influence educational processes, and (c) implementing strategies that reflect cultural knowledge of the community--we examined teachers' and students' perspectives on culturally relevant…

  19. Efficient Cultures: Exploring the Relationship between Culture and Organizational Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Alan L.; Ouchi, William G.

    1983-01-01

    Arguing from a transaction costs perspective, this paper contends that local organizational cultures distinct from shared background cultures exist relatively infrequently. The relationship between local organizational culture and organizational efficiency is discussed, and it is concluded that changing organizations are more adaptive than is…

  20. Lake Ontario Maritime Cultural Landscape 

    E-print Network

    Ford, Benjamin L.

    2010-10-12

    The goal of the Lake Ontario Maritime Cultural Landscape project was to investigate the nature and distribution of archaeological sites along the northeast shoreline of Lake Ontario while examining the environmental, political, and cultural factors...

  1. SPONGE CULTURE ~y Jules Cotte

    E-print Network

    SPONGE CULTURE ~y Jules Cotte Adjunct Professor at the School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Marseille., September 22 to 26, 1908 #12;CONTENTS. Page. Definition of sponge culture _- - - n - n of sponges by planting

  2. Cell culture's spider silk road.

    PubMed

    Perkel, Jeffrey

    2014-06-01

    A number of synthetic and natural materials have been tried in cell culture and tissue engineering applications in recent years. Now Jeffrey Perkel takes a look at one new culture component that might surprise you-spider silk. PMID:24924388

  3. Culturally Competent School Nurse Practice.

    PubMed

    Carr, Bette; Knutson, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    School nurses are among the professional specialty disciplines in the school environment that have the unique opportunity of exploring and building upon effective practices when working and providing service to diverse populations. As such, school nurses must not only acquire the skills to survive in the culture of education; they must also develop cultural competence by engaging in self-identity and reflection, understanding cultural differences, being culturally responsive, identifying social injustices, and engaging in life-long learning experiences. PMID:26515571

  4. Efficacy of Induced Sputum for the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Adults Unable to Expectorate Sputum

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Induced sputum (IS) has been used to collect airway secretions in subjects who have inadequate sputum production. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of IS for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in adults unable to expectorate sputum. Methods Medical records of 39 PTB patients who underwent IS due to absence of spontaneous sputum production between January 2011 and March 2014 at a tertiary hospital in South Korea were reviewed. Results of acid fast bacilli smear, Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture and polymerase chain reaction assay for M. tuberculosis (TB-PCR) of IS specimens from these patients were analyzed. Clinical and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) characteristics were also analyzed to find characteristics associated with IS culture positivity. Results Of the 39 IS specimens from PTB patients, 7 (17.9%) were smear positive and 31 (79.5%) were culture positive. Twenty-four IS specimens were tested for TB-PCR and 13 (54.2%) were positive on TB-PCR. Multivariate analysis showed that younger age (p=0.04) and presence of tree-in-bud appearance on HRCT (p=0.03) were independent predictors of IS culture positivity. Conclusion IS is useful for the diagnosis of PTB in adults unable to expectorate sputum. Younger age and tree-in-bud appearance on HRCT were associated with IS culture positivity in these patients. PMID:26175773

  5. Thailand: refining cultural values.

    PubMed

    Ratanakul, P

    1990-01-01

    In the second of a set of three articles concerned with "bioethics on the Pacific Rim," Ratanakul, director of a research center for Southeast Asian cultures in Thailand, provides an overview of bioethical issues in his country. He focuses on four issues: health care allocation, AIDS, determination of death, and euthanasia. The introduction of Western medicine into Thailand has brought with it a multitude of ethical problems created in part by tension between Western and Buddhist values. For this reason, Ratanakul concludes that "bioethical enquiry in Thailand must not only examine ethical dilemmas that arise in the actual practice of medicine and research in the life sciences, but must also deal with the refinement and clarification of applicable Thai cultural and moral values." PMID:2318624

  6. The Cultural Context of Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Flora Ida

    To explicate the relevance of cultural context to educational administration practices, this paper contrasts United States cultural attitudes and administrative practices with those of Latin America. Drawing on Leslie A. White's definition of culture, the author presents the Weberian model of administration as exemplary for the United States,…

  7. New Swedish Cultural Environment Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs, Stockholm (Sweden).

    Current Swedish cultural policy was laid down in 1974. It was decided that one of the aims of that policy must be to ensure that earlier periods of history would be preserved and brought to life. The Government Bill (Prop. 1987/88:104) on protection of the cultural environment is concerned with helping the general public understand that cultural

  8. Cultural Reproduction, Cultural Mobility, Cultural Resources, or Trivial Effect? A Comparative Approach to Cultural Capital and Educational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jun; Hampden-Thompson, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    We assess explanations for the associations between cultural capital (especially cultural activities and cultural possessions) and educational performance of schooled adolescents in 22 Western industrialized countries based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). We further ascertain variations in the effect of…

  9. TOWARD AN ENRICHED CULTURAL FUTURE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY.

    DEVELOPMENT OF INTEREST IN WORTHWHILE CULTURAL ACTIVITIES HAS BEEN ONE OF IMPORTANT EMPHASES OF THE HIGH HORIZONS PROGRAM. THE CULTURAL ENRICHMENT TEACHER HAS HAD THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR TEACHING MUSIC AND/OR ART IN ADDITION TO CORRELATING CULTURAL ACTIVITIES WITH ALL FACETS OF THE CURRICULUM TO PROVIDE INSPIRATION AND NEW EXPERIENCES AS WELL AS TO…

  10. Japan: Geography, Cuisine, and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Karen

    These materials are designed as four modules: geography, foods, the kitchen, and culture and are to be used singly or jointly as a unit on Japanese food and culture. Common ingredients of Japanese food, nutritional information, methods of preparation, and illustrations of utensils and eating implements are given in conjunction with cultural

  11. Culture and Foreign Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Colin

    1997-01-01

    Considers different approaches to teaching culture within foreign language (FL) classes in Great Britain with the object of making a realistic suggestion on how to integrate language and culture. Particular focus is on FL students at the lower and intermediate levels, where cultural input is often omitted. (six references) (CK)

  12. cultural history New perspectives on

    E-print Network

    Making cultural history New perspectives on Western heritage Edited by Anna Källén nordic academic press Making cultural v10.indd 3 2013-08-26 15:54 #12;This volume is simultaneously published digitally: Johan Linder Printed by ScandBook, Falun 2013 ISBN 978-91-87351-19-8 Making cultural v10.indd 4 2013

  13. The Cultural Evolution of Technology

    E-print Network

    Richerson, Peter J.

    7 The Cultural Evolution of Technology Facts and Theories Robert Boyd, Peter J. Richerson, and Joseph Henrich Abstract The gradual cumulative cultural evolution of locally adaptive technologies has were not obviously more complex than those made by organisms that lack cultural learning and have

  14. Socioemotional Development in Cultural Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinyin, Ed.; Rubin, Kenneth H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Filling a significant gap in the literature, this book examines the impact of culture on the social behaviors, emotions, and relationships of children around the world. It also explores cultural differences in what is seen as adaptive or maladaptive development. Eminent scholars discuss major theoretical perspectives on culture and development and…

  15. Defining Cross-Cultural Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Clair, Robert N.

    In this essay, the cross cultural conflicts associated with linguistic problems are explored in terms of the development of linguistic theory from 1933 to the present. The linguistic code, positivism, the existential approach to sociolinguistics, linguistic solidarity, defining the situation, language and culture, and cross-cultural conflicts in…

  16. Cultural Literacy in Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, C. A.

    1977-01-01

    The author describes (1) how public education transmits the cultural values that make up the technological world view, (2) how the school socialization process transmits social reality in a way that obscures underlying assumptions of the cultural belief system, and (3) how to alter the socialization process to transmit culture at a more explicit…

  17. Linguistic Relativity and Cultural Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhifang, Zhu

    2002-01-01

    A culture is usually with the bias of universalization. Each culture has its ultimate concern, and its answers to the concern make up a worldview. And each culture is inclined to see its worldview as universal. The Christian thinks that Jehovah God is the creator and law-maker of the whole universe; Chinese think that the sage's teaching sheds…

  18. SEM: A Cultural Change Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Bradley; Bourke, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The authors advance the concept that institutional culture is a purposeful framework by which to view SEM's utility, particularly as a cultural change agent. Through the connection of seemingly independent functions of performance and behavior, implications emerge that deepen the understanding of the influence of culture on performance outcomes…

  19. Cultural Adaptation in Outdoor Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabrizio, Sheila M.; Neill, James

    2005-01-01

    Outdoor programs often intentionally provide a different culture and the challenge of working out how to adapt. Failure to adapt, however, can cause symptoms of culture shock, including homesickness, negative personal behavior, and interpersonal conflict. This article links cross-cultural and outdoor programming literature and provides case…

  20. Culture against Society

    E-print Network

    Hanson, F. Allan

    2005-07-01

    -human social life. Then small, more or less nomadic, groups gained their livelihood from wild plants and animals, and engaged in friendly or hostile interactions with other such groups. Ethnographic accounts of hunting-and-gathering peoples from Australia... says he feels better for having said it. Politics is .just one of many battlegrounds for the culture wars that split contemporary society. James Davison Hunter's eponymous book on the subject stresses differences between agnostics and left...

  1. When cultures collide.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Thomas W

    2010-01-01

    When it was discovered that the perpetrator of a hit and run accident that sent two severely injured victims to the author's hospital was the father of one of the victims who allegedly tried to kill her for dishonoring the family, a 15 day siege ensued. In the article, the author describes the problems involved in keeping two warring families apart without denigrating their culture and the lessons learned for dealing with such complex situations. PMID:20229935

  2. Tissue Culture in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Duray, Paul H.; Hatfill, Steven J.

    1997-01-01

    Attempts to simulate normal tissue micro-environments in vitro have been thwarted by the complexity and plasticity of the extracellular matrix, which is important in regulating cytoskeletal and nuclear matrix proteins. Gravity is one of the problems, tending to separate components that should be kept together. For space shuttle experiments, NASA engineers devised a double-walled rotating bioreactor, which is proving to be a useful tissue culture device on earth as well as in space.

  3. Measuring Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2011-07-19

    As the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) implements a State Level Approach to its safeguards verification responsibilities, a number of countries are beginning new nuclear power programs and building new nuclear fuel cycle faculties. The State Level approach is holistic and investigatory in nature, creating a need for transparent, non-discriminatory judgments about a state's nonproliferation posture. In support of this need, the authors previously explored the value of defining and measuring a state's safeguards culture. We argued that a clear definition of safeguards culture and an accompanying set of metrics could be applied to provide an objective evaluation and demonstration of a country's nonproliferation posture. As part of this research, we outlined four high-level metrics that could be used to evaluate a state's nuclear posture. We identified general data points. This paper elaborates on those metrics, further refining the data points to generate a measurable scale of safeguards cultures. We believe that this work could advance the IAEA's goals of implementing a safeguards system that is fully information driven, while strengthening confidence in its safeguards conclusions.

  4. Culture and gambling fallacies.

    PubMed

    Ji, Li-Jun; McGeorge, Kayla; Li, Ye; Lee, Albert; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Euro-Canadians and Chinese typically hold different theories about change; Euro-Canadians often engage in linear thinking whereas Chinese often engage in non-linear thinking. The present research investigated the effects of culture-specific theories of change in two related gambling fallacies: the gambler's fallacy (GF; the belief that one is due for a win after a run of losses) and the hot-hand fallacy (HHF; the belief that one's winning streak is likely to continue). In Study 1, participants predicted the outcome of a coin toss following a sequence of tosses. Study 2 involved predicting and betting on the outcome of a basketball player's shot following a sequence of shots. In Study 1, Asians (mainly Chinese) were significantly more likely than Euro-Canadians to believe that they would win (correctly predict the coin toss) after a series of losses (a non-linear thinking pattern), suggesting greater susceptibility to the gambler's fallacy. In Study 2, Euro-Canadians were more likely than Chinese to predict outcomes consistent with a basketball player's streaks (a linear thinking pattern), suggesting greater susceptibility to the hot hand fallacy. By illustrating the role of cultural differences in cognition, these findings contribute to our understanding of why certain cultural groups, such as Chinese, are more susceptible to gambling. PMID:26405630

  5. Crowdsourcing Lost Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stathopoulou, E. K.; Georgopoulos, A.; Panagiotopoulos, G.; Kaliampakos, D.

    2015-08-01

    Cultural Heritage all over the world is at high risk. Natural and human activities endanger the current state of monuments and sites, whereas many of them have already been destroyed especially during the last years. Preventive actions are of utmost importance for the protection of human memory and the prevention of irreplaceable. These actions may be carried out either in situ or virtually. Very often in situ preventive, or protective or restoration actions are difficult or even impossible, as e.g. in cases of earthquakes, fires or war activity. Digital preservation of cultural heritage is a challenging task within photogrammetry and computer vision communities, as efforts are taken to collect digital data, especially of the monuments that are at high risk. Visit to the field and data acquisition is not always feasible. To overcome the missing data problem, crowdsourced imagery is used to create a visual representation of lost cultural heritage objects. Such digital representations may be 2D or 3D and definitely help preserve the memory and history of the lost heritage. Sometimes they also assist studies for their reconstruction. An initiative to collect imagery data from the public and create a visual 3D representation of a recently destroyed stone bridge almost 150 years old is being discussed in this study. To this end, a crowdsourcing platform has been designed and the first images collected have been processed with the use of SfM algorithms.

  6. CULTURAL COMPETENCE AND PSYCHOTHERAPY: APPLYING ANTHROPOLOGICALLY INFORMED CONCEPTIONS OF CULTURE

    PubMed Central

    Lakes, Kimberley; López, Steven R.; Garro, Linda C.

    2013-01-01

    The authors apply two contemporary notions of culture to advance the conceptual basis of cultural competence in psychotherapy: Kleinman’s (1995) definition of culture as what is at stake in local, social worlds, and Mattingly and Lawlor’s (2001) concept of shared narratives between practitioners and patients. The authors examine these cultural constructs within a clinical case of an immigrant family caring for a young boy with an autism-spectrum disorder. Their analysis suggests that the socially based model of culture and the concept of shared narratives have the potential to broaden and enrich the definition of cultural competence beyond its current emphasis on the presumed cultural differences of specific racial and ethnic minority groups. PMID:22122131

  7. Culture systems: embryo co-culture.

    PubMed

    Ménézo, Yves J R; Servy, Edouard; Veiga, Anna; Hazout, André; Elder, Kay

    2012-01-01

    During the 1970s, domestic animal biotechnology, i.e., embryo transfer in farm animals, was confronted with the problem of embryonic developmental arrest observed in vitro, especially during the cycle in which maternal to zygotic transition (MZT) cycle takes place. In farm animals, obtaining blastocysts is mandatory, as transfer at earlier stages results in expulsion of the embryo from the vagina. In humans, the first attempts to obtain blastocysts with classical culture media were disappointing, and the use of a coculture strategy was naturally tempting: the first significant results of successful blastocyst development were obtained in the early 1980s, using trophoblastic tissue as a feeder layer in order to mimic an autocrine embryotrophic system. The next supporting cell systems were based on oviduct epithelial cells and uterine cells in order to achieve a paracrine effect. Non-hormone dependence was then demonstrated with the use of prepubertal cells, and finally with the use of established cell lines of nongenital origin (African Green Monkey Kidney, Vero cells). The embryotrophic properties are linked to features of "transport epithelia." Vero cells have been extensively used in human ART, and most of our knowledge about the human blastocyst was gathered with the use of this technology. Coculture is still in current use, but with systems that employ autologous uterine cells. Results following the use of this technology in human ART are superior to those observed with the use of sequential media. The benefit is linked to the release of free radical scavengers and growth factors by the feeder cells. In animal biotechnology, an important part of the "precious embryos," i.e., those resulting from cloning technology, involves coculture with buffalo rat liver (BRL) cells or Vero cells. PMID:22829378

  8. Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.

    2010-01-01

    To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid dynamic shear (i.e., as required for viability of shear-sensitive cells) to the developing engineered tissue construct. This bioreactor was recently utilized to show independent and interactive effects of a growth factor (IGF-I) and slow bidirectional perfusion on the survival, differentiation, and contractile performance of 3D tissue engineering cardiac constructs. The main application of this system is within the tissue engineering industry. The ideal final application is within the automated mass production of tissue- engineered constructs. Target industries could be both life sciences companies as well as bioreactor device producing companies.

  9. Cultures in Community Question Answering

    E-print Network

    Kayes, Imrul; Quercia, Daniele; Iamnitchi, Adriana; Bonchi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    CQA services are collaborative platforms where users ask and answer questions. We investigate the influence of national culture on people's online questioning and answering behavior. For this, we analyzed a sample of 200 thousand users in Yahoo Answers from 67 countries. We measure empirically a set of cultural metrics defined in Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions and Robert Levine's Pace of Life and show that behavioral cultural differences exist in community question answering platforms. We find that national cultures differ in Yahoo Answers along a number of dimensions such as temporal predictability of activities, contribution-related behavioral patterns, privacy concerns, and power inequality.

  10. Popular Cultural Pedagogy, in Theory; Or: What Can Cultural Theory Learn about Learning from Popular Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Culture has been theorized as pedagogy. In several languages and many contexts "culture" and "education" can be used interchangeably. This issue of the journal "Educational Philosophy and Theory" seeks to explore the dual proposition (1) that pedagogy is central to politicized cultural theory, but (2) that it has been…

  11. Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Cheon, Bobby K.; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed. PMID:23914126

  12. Perspectives on culture and concepts.

    PubMed

    ojalehto, Bethany l; Medin, Douglas L

    2015-01-01

    The well-respected tradition of research on concepts uses cross-cultural comparisons to explore which aspects of conceptual behavior are universal versus culturally variable. This work continues, but it is being supplemented by intensified efforts to study how conceptual systems and cultural systems interact to modify and support each other. For example, cultural studies within the framework of domain specificity (e.g., folkphysics, folkpsychology, folkbiology) are beginning to query the domains themselves and offer alternative organizing principles (e.g., folksociology, folkecology). Findings highlight the multifaceted nature of both concepts and culture: Individuals adopt distinct conceptual construals in accordance with culturally infused systems such as language and discourse, knowledge and beliefs, and epistemological orientations. This picture complicates questions about cognitive universality or variability, suggesting that researchers may productively adopt a systems-level approach to conceptual organization and cultural epistemologies. Related implications for diversity in cognitive science are discussed. PMID:25251487

  13. A typology of organisational cultures

    PubMed Central

    Westrum, R

    2004-01-01

    There is wide belief that organisational culture shapes many aspects of performance, including safety. Yet proof of this relationship in a medical context is hard to find. In contrast to human factors, whose contributions are many and notable, culture's impact remains a commonsense, rather than a scientific, concept. The objectives of this paper are to show that organisational culture bears a predictive relationship with safety and that particular kinds of organisational culture improve safety, and to develop a typology predictive of safety performance. Because information flow is both influential and also indicative of other aspects of culture, it can be used to predict how organisations or parts of them will behave when signs of trouble arise. From case studies and some systematic research it appears that information culture is indeed associated with error reporting and with performance, including safety. Yet this relationship between culture and safety requires more exploration before the connection can be considered definitive. PMID:15576687

  14. Being Mindful about the Assessment of Culture: A Cultural Analysis of Culturally Adapted Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Roche, Martin; Lustig, Kara

    2013-01-01

    In this article we review a wide range of cultural adaptations of acceptance-based behavior therapies (ABBT) from a cultural perspective. Consistent with the cultural match model, we argue that psychotherapeutic cultural adaptations are more effective as the cultural characteristics of patients are matched to the cultural characteristics of the…

  15. Equine influenza culture methods.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Thomas M; Reedy, Stephanie E

    2014-01-01

    Equine influenza viruses are cultured in embryonated hen eggs, or in mammalian cells, generally Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, using methods much the same as for other influenza A viruses. Mutations associated with host adaptation occur in both eggs and MDCK cells, but the latter show greater heterogeneity and eggs are the generally preferred host. Both equine-1 H7N7 and equine-2 H3N8 viruses replicate efficiently in 11-day-old eggs, but we find that equine-1 viruses kill the embryos whereas equine-2 viruses do not. PMID:24899449

  16. Manuals of Cultural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballonoff, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Ethnography often studies social networks including empirical descriptions of marriages and families. We initially concentrate on a special subset of networks which we call configurations. We show that descriptions of the possible outcomes of viable histories form a manual, and an orthoalgebra. We then study cases where family sizes vary, and show that this also forms a manual. In fact, it demonstrates adiabatic invariance, a property often associated with physical system conservation laws, and which here expresses conservation of the viability of a cultural system.

  17. Microfluidic Cell Culture Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takayama, Shuichi (Inventor); Cabrera, Lourdes Marcella (Inventor); Heo, Yun Seok (Inventor); Smith, Gary Daniel (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic devices for cell culturing and methods for using the same are disclosed. One device includes a substrate and membrane. The substrate includes a reservoir in fluid communication with a passage. A bio-compatible fluid may be added to the reservoir and passage. The reservoir is configured to receive and retain at least a portion of a cell mass. The membrane acts as a barrier to evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid from the passage. A cover fluid may be added to cover the bio-compatible fluid to prevent evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid.

  18. A paradox of cumulative culture.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2015-08-21

    Culture can grow cumulatively if socially learnt behaviors are improved by individual learning before being passed on to the next generation. Previous authors showed that this kind of learning strategy is unlikely to be evolutionarily stable in the presence of a trade-off between learning and reproduction. This is because culture is a public good that is freely exploited by any member of the population in their model (cultural social dilemma). In this paper, we investigate the effect of vertical transmission (transmission from parents to offspring), which decreases the publicness of culture, on the evolution of cumulative culture in both infinite and finite population models. In the infinite population model, we confirm that culture accumulates largely as long as transmission is purely vertical. It turns out, however, that introduction of even slight oblique transmission drastically reduces the equilibrium level of culture. Even more surprisingly, if the population size is finite, culture hardly accumulates even under purely vertical transmission. This occurs because stochastic extinction due to random genetic drift prevents a learning strategy from accumulating enough culture. Overall, our theoretical results suggest that introducing vertical transmission alone does not really help solve the cultural social dilemma problem. PMID:25979371

  19. Increasing Recovery of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria from Respiratory Specimens over a 10-Year Period in a Tertiary Referral Hospital in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Boksoon; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Jeon, Kyeongman; Kim, Su-Young; Lee, Nam Yong; Ki, Chang-Seok; Kwon, O Jung

    2013-01-01

    Background The number of patients with pulmonary disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term trends in the NTM recovery rate from respiratory specimens over a 10-year period in a tertiary referral hospital in South Korea. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of mycobacterial cultures of respiratory specimens at Samsung Medical Center from January 2001 to December 2011. Results During the study period, 32,841 respiratory specimens from 10,563 patients were found to be culture-positive for mycobacteria. These included 12,619 (38%) Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 20,222 (62%) NTM isolates. The proportion of NTM among all positive mycobacterial cultures increased from 43% (548/1,283) in 2001 to 70% (3,341/4,800) in 2011 (p<0.001, test for trend). The recovery rate of NTM isolates from acid-fast bacilli smear-positive specimens increased from 9% (38/417) in 2001 to 64% (1,284/1,997) in 2011 (p<0.001, test for trend). The proportion of positive liquid cultures was higher for NTM than for M. tuberculosis (p<0.001). The most frequently isolated NTM were Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (53%) and Mycobacterium abscessus-massiliense complex (25%). Conclusion The recovery rate of NTM from respiratory specimens in South Korea has increased steadily. PMID:24348667

  20. Sociality influences cultural complexity.

    PubMed

    Muthukrishna, Michael; Shulman, Ben W; Vasilescu, Vlad; Henrich, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological and ethnohistorical evidence suggests a link between a population's size and structure, and the diversity or sophistication of its toolkits or technologies. Addressing these patterns, several evolutionary models predict that both the size and social interconnectedness of populations can contribute to the complexity of its cultural repertoire. Some models also predict that a sudden loss of sociality or of population will result in subsequent losses of useful skills/technologies. Here, we test these predictions with two experiments that permit learners to access either one or five models (teachers). Experiment 1 demonstrates that naive participants who could observe five models, integrate this information and generate increasingly effective skills (using an image editing tool) over 10 laboratory generations, whereas those with access to only one model show no improvement. Experiment 2, which began with a generation of trained experts, shows how learners with access to only one model lose skills (in knot-tying) more rapidly than those with access to five models. In the final generation of both experiments, all participants with access to five models demonstrate superior skills to those with access to only one model. These results support theoretical predictions linking sociality to cumulative cultural evolution. PMID:24225461

  1. The biology of cultural conflict

    PubMed Central

    Berns, Gregory S.; Atran, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Although culture is usually thought of as the collection of knowledge and traditions that are transmitted outside of biology, evidence continues to accumulate showing how biology and culture are inseparably intertwined. Cultural conflict will occur only when the beliefs and traditions of one cultural group represent a challenge to individuals of another. Such a challenge will elicit brain processes involved in cognitive decision-making, emotional activation and physiological arousal associated with the outbreak, conduct and resolution of conflict. Key targets to understand bio-cultural differences include primitive drives—how the brain responds to likes and dislikes, how it discounts the future, and how this relates to reproductive behaviour—but also higher level functions, such as how the mind represents and values the surrounding physical and social environment. Future cultural wars, while they may bear familiar labels of religion and politics, will ultimately be fought over control of our biology and our environment. PMID:22271779

  2. Effect of Culture Conditions on the Production of an Extracellular Protease by Bacillus sp. Isolated from Soil Sample of Lavizan Jungle Park

    PubMed Central

    Akhavan Sepahy, Abbas; Jabalameli, Leila

    2011-01-01

    Soil samples of Tehran jungle parks were screened for proteolytic Bacilli. Among eighteen protease producers one of the isolates obtained from Lavizan park, in north east of Tehran, was selected for further experimental studies. This isolate was identified as Bacillus sp. strain CR-179 based on partial sequencing of 16S rRNA. Various nutritional and environmental parameters affected protease production by Bacillus sp. strain CR-179. Protease production by this Bacillus cultivated in liquid cultures reached a maximum at 24?h, with levels of 340.908?U/mL. Starch and maltose were the best substrates for enzyme production while some pure sugars such as fructose, glucose, and sucrose could not influence production of protease. Among various organic nitrogen sources corn steep liquor, which is commercial, was found as the best substrate followed by yeast extract, whey protein, and beef extract. The optimal pH and optimal temperature of enzyme production were 8.0 and 45°C, respectively. Studies on enzymatic characterization revealed that crude protease showed maximum activity at pH 9.0 and 60°C, which is indicating the enzyme to be thermoalkaline protease. PMID:22191016

  3. Gastric tissue biopsy and culture

    MedlinePLUS

    ... culture can help detect: Cancer Infections, most commonly Helicobacter pylori , the bacteria that can cause stomach ulcers ... lining of the stomach becomes inflamed or swollen Helicobacter pylori infection

  4. High density cell culture system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.

  5. CULTURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Anthropology Professors

    E-print Network

    Watkins, Joseph C.

    CULTURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Anthropology Professors E. Charles Adams TJ Ferguson Vance Holliday to select "ANTH - Anthropology Main" as the subject code. #12;Potential Helpful Minors Architecture History

  6. The cultural contagion of conflict

    PubMed Central

    Gelfand, Michele; Shteynberg, Garriy; Lee, Tiane; Lun, Janetta; Lyons, Sarah; Bell, Chris; Chiao, Joan Y.; Bruss, C. Bayan; Al Dabbagh, May; Aycan, Zeynep; Abdel-Latif, Abdel-Hamid; Dagher, Munqith; Khashan, Hilal; Soomro, Nazar

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds that conflicts between two individuals can spread across networks to involve a multitude of others. We advance a cultural transmission model of intergroup conflict where conflict contagion is seen as a consequence of universal human traits (ingroup preference, outgroup hostility; i.e. parochial altruism) which give their strongest expression in particular cultural contexts. Qualitative interviews conducted in the Middle East, USA and Canada suggest that parochial altruism processes vary across cultural groups and are most likely to occur in collectivistic cultural contexts that have high ingroup loyalty. Implications for future neuroscience and computational research needed to understand the emergence of intergroup conflict are discussed. PMID:22271785

  7. Multi-cultural network security

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, D.F.

    1996-04-01

    Education and awareness are widely acknowledged to be among the fundamental issues of Internet security, but only in the sense of making Internet users more security conscious. For the Internet to achieve its promise as an information highway, however, a complementary education effort is needed. If adequate Internet security is to be achieved, we must also increase the awareness of the professional security community of the requirements, attitudes, and habits of the many different cultures that participate in the Internet. Discussions of {open_quotes}the Internet{close_quotes} encourage the misapprehension that there is a single, uniform user community instead of a loose alliance of many cultures that differ in many fundamental aspects. This is true even if we limit our consideration to ethical cultures. At this Workshop alone we have representatives of administrative and military cultures, Governmental and commercial cultures, profit-cultures and non-profit cultures, research and operational cultures. Internet cultures are united in their desire to exploit the connectivity, flexibility, and rapidity of communication provided by the net, but differ greatly in their motivations, their attitudes towards authority, their willingness to cooperate within their own communities, their interest in technical arcana, and the patience with which they will put up with - or the enthusiasm with which they will embrace - the growing list of procedures deemed necessary for acceptable security. They even differ in how they define {open_quotes}acceptable security{close_quotes}.

  8. Cultural vulnerability and professional narratives.

    PubMed

    Gunaratnam, Yasmin

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author draws upon research with palliative care professionals in the United Kingdom to discuss the value of a stance of cultural vulnerability in intercultural care. Cultural vulnerability recognizes the reality, but also the ethical value of uncertainty and not-knowing in care. Attentiveness to professional narratives is advocated as vital in the development of greater understanding of cultural vulnerability and its effects. The role of cultural identifications and the politics of racism in social work narratives is given specific attention. PMID:22150178

  9. Cultural Evolution Peter J. Richerson

    E-print Network

    Richerson, Peter J.

    with relatively little need to depend upon cultural explanations. Noam Chomsky's ideas about linguistics inspired a pioneering generation of evolutionary psychologists (Pinker, 1994; Tooby & Cosmides, 1992). Chomsky

  10. How Darwinian is cultural evolution?

    PubMed Central

    Claidière, Nicolas; Scott-Phillips, Thomas C.; Sperber, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Darwin-inspired population thinking suggests approaching culture as a population of items of different types, whose relative frequencies may change over time. Three nested subtypes of populational models can be distinguished: evolutionary, selectional and replicative. Substantial progress has been made in the study of cultural evolution by modelling it within the selectional frame. This progress has involved idealizing away from phenomena that may be critical to an adequate understanding of culture and cultural evolution, particularly the constructive aspect of the mechanisms of cultural transmission. Taking these aspects into account, we describe cultural evolution in terms of cultural attraction, which is populational and evolutionary, but only selectional under certain circumstances. As such, in order to model cultural evolution, we must not simply adjust existing replicative or selectional models but we should rather generalize them, so that, just as replicator-based selection is one form that Darwinian selection can take, selection itself is one of several different forms that attraction can take. We present an elementary formalization of the idea of cultural attraction. PMID:24686939

  11. Beyond translation ... cultural fit.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Sherry Garrett

    2003-08-01

    Reaching non-English-speaking families, the economically disadvantaged, and those who are disproportionately represented in disease and injury statistics is challenging. This article describes the process of making a questionnaire developed in English, culturally appropriate for low-income, monolingual, Mexican and Mexican American mothers. The questionnaire, guided by the Health Belief Model, assesses maternal childhood injury health beliefs and was originally used with a 96% African American, English-speaking sample in the Eastern United States. Two research assistants from the target population worked with the non-Hispanic, bilingual investigator to redesign the questionnaire's language and presentation and to collect data. Sixty monolingual Latina mothers participated in the study to determine the internal consistency of the 42-item Spanish language Maternal Childhood Injury Health Belief Questionnaire (MCIHB). Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranged from .76 (Benefits subscale) to .90 (Consequences subscale). PMID:12955973

  12. The culture ready brain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I examine two hypotheses of language origins: the extended mirror system hypothesis and the vocal grooming hypothesis. These conflict in several respects, partly because their authors were trained in different disciplines and influenced by different kinds of evidence. I note some ethnographic/linguistic and psychological issues which, in my view, have not been sufficiently considered by these authors, and present a ‘play and display’ hypothesis which aims to explain the evolution, not of language, but of the ‘culture ready brain’—with apologies to Arbib for so extending his original concept. In the second half of the article, I will test all three hypotheses against the available fossil, archaeological and neuroimaging evidence. PMID:20558409

  13. Mineralogy and cultural heritage.

    PubMed

    Artioli, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there has been an escalation in the number of mineralogical studies involving cultural heritage materials. A number of factors have contributed to this exponential growth, including the shrinking budgets in traditional research fields, which forced the expansion of applications of mineralogical methods to novel research areas. Mineralogy as a discipline is traditionally connected to geology, petrology, and geochemistry, although it also has the strong tendency to embody the methods and techniques of modern crystallography and advanced materials science. Arguably, this makes it ideally suited and well equipped to meet the demanding challenges posed by archaeometric analysis and conservation problems. A few case studies linking mineralogy and archaeometry are discussed. PMID:21138159

  14. Cultural Leadership: The Culture of Excellence in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, William G.; Gresso, Donn W.

    Changing the system of rules, roles, and relationships that determine how the components of school redesign are addressed is the challenge that confronts administrators who seek to create a culture of excellence in schools. This book examines the role of effective leadership in achieving significant educational improvement, arguing that culture,…

  15. Culture in the Classroom: A Cultural Enlightenment Manual for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loridas, Laura

    This manual provides a basic understanding of cultural differences that teachers are likely to encounter among exceptional children in their classrooms. The manual aims to create an atmosphere where children respect individual differences in themselves and in others. Several cultures are introduced, including Arabic Lebanese, Hispanic, Native…

  16. Cultural Descriptions as Political Cultural Acts: An Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Interculturality may be something normal which everyone possesses to a degree. However, dominant neo-essentialist theories of culture give the impression that we are too different to easily cross-cultural boundaries. These theories support the development of academic disciplines and the need for professional certainty in intercultural training.…

  17. Grist and mills: on the cultural origins of cultural learning.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2012-08-01

    Cumulative cultural evolution is what 'makes us odd'; our capacity to learn facts and techniques from others, and to refine them over generations, plays a major role in making human minds and lives radically different from those of other animals. In this article, I discuss cognitive processes that are known collectively as 'cultural learning' because they enable cumulative cultural evolution. These cognitive processes include reading, social learning, imitation, teaching, social motivation and theory of mind. Taking the first of these three types of cultural learning as examples, I ask whether and to what extent these cognitive processes have been adapted genetically or culturally to enable cumulative cultural evolution. I find that recent empirical work in comparative psychology, developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience provides surprisingly little evidence of genetic adaptation, and ample evidence of cultural adaptation. This raises the possibility that it is not only 'grist' but also 'mills' that are culturally inherited; through social interaction in the course of development, we not only acquire facts about the world and how to deal with it (grist), we also build the cognitive processes that make 'fact inheritance' possible (mills). PMID:22734061

  18. Bridging Cultures: Evaluating Teachers' Understanding of Cross-Cultural Conflicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumbull, Elise; Greenfield, Patricia; Quiroz, Blanca; Rothstein-Fisch, Carrie

    The Bridging Cultures Project is a collaboration among several researchers and teachers (n=8) to design professional development activities on the topic of cross-cultural understanding. During the fall of 1996, participating teachers will be given a pre-assessment and post-assessment. The assessments are designed to give some information on how…

  19. International Students' Culture Learning and Cultural Adaptation in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Ran; Chiang, Shiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    This article examines international students' cultural adaptation at a major national university in China. A survey was designed to measure international students' adaptation to the Chinese sociocultural and educational environments in terms of five dimensions: (1) cultural empathy, (2) open-mindedness, (3) emotional stability, (4) social…

  20. Grist and mills: on the cultural origins of cultural learning

    PubMed Central

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Cumulative cultural evolution is what ‘makes us odd’; our capacity to learn facts and techniques from others, and to refine them over generations, plays a major role in making human minds and lives radically different from those of other animals. In this article, I discuss cognitive processes that are known collectively as ‘cultural learning’ because they enable cumulative cultural evolution. These cognitive processes include reading, social learning, imitation, teaching, social motivation and theory of mind. Taking the first of these three types of cultural learning as examples, I ask whether and to what extent these cognitive processes have been adapted genetically or culturally to enable cumulative cultural evolution. I find that recent empirical work in comparative psychology, developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience provides surprisingly little evidence of genetic adaptation, and ample evidence of cultural adaptation. This raises the possibility that it is not only ‘grist’ but also ‘mills’ that are culturally inherited; through social interaction in the course of development, we not only acquire facts about the world and how to deal with it (grist), we also build the cognitive processes that make ‘fact inheritance’ possible (mills). PMID:22734061

  1. Cultural Diversity or Cultural Imperialism: Liberal Education in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanks, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A faculty member's experience at the American University in Cairo (Egypt) reveals that pluralism and tolerance are western concepts, even within the college curriculum. National identity affords cultural stability: where the American melting-pot experience is reinforced by the notion of cultural diversity, the national identity of Egypt is…

  2. Rules, culture, and fitness

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M.

    1995-01-01

    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be “internalized,” the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain (“If you'll do X, then I'll do Y”), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule (“Dress warmly; it's cold outside”) can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:22478201

  3. 7 Reproducing Entrenchments to Scaffold Culture: The Central Role of Development in Cultural Evolution

    E-print Network

    traits and describe cultural inheritance as only a mapping relation between ``parents'' and cultural structurelike, their social and cultural differentiation, their transgenerational maintenance through

  4. Three Dimensional Primary Hepatocyte Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoffe, Boris

    1998-01-01

    Our results demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of culturing PHH in microgravity bioreactors that exceeded the longest period obtained using other methods. Within the first week of culture, isolated hepatocytes started to form aggregates, which continuously increased in size (up to 1 cm) and macroscopically appeared as a multidimensional tissue-like assembly. To improve oxygenation and nutrition within the spheroids we performed experiments with the biodegradable nonwoven fiber-based polymers made from PolyGlycolic Acid (PGA). It has been shown that PGA scaffolds stimulate isolated cells to regenerate tissue with defined sizes and shapes and are currently being studied for various tissue-engineering applications. Our data demonstrated that culturing hepatocytes in the presence of PGA scaffolds resulted in more efficient cell assembly and formations of larger cell spheroids (up to 3 cm in length, see figure). The histology of cell aggregates cultured with PGA showed polymer fibers with attached hepatocytes. We initiated experiments to co-culture primary human hepatocytes with human microvascular endothelial cells in the bioreactor. The presence of endothelial cells in co-cultures were established by immunohistochemistry using anti-CD34 monoclonal Ab. Our preliminary data demonstrated that cultures of purified hepatocytes with human microvascular endothelial cells exhibited better growth and expressed higher levels of albumin MRNA for a longer period of time than cultures of ppfified, primary human hepatocytes cultured alone. We also evaluated microsomal deethylation activity of hepatocytes cultured in the presence of endothelial cells.In summary, we have established liver cell culture, which mimicked the structure and function of the parent tissue.

  5. Facial cellulitis associated with complicating ophthalmic herpes zoster

    E-print Network

    Atzori, Laura MD; Ferreli, Caterina MD; Zucca, Myriam MD; Fanni, Daniela MD; Aste, Nicola MD

    2004-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the associated pathogen. Early recognition, appropriate antibiotic treatment,treatment. Culture of skin swabs grew numerous Gram-negative bacilli, further identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa

  6. Africa in World Cultures Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Jo

    1980-01-01

    Maintains that many world geography and culture textbooks that deal with Africa present misinformation and misleading generalities. Reviews three recent textbooks--"Insights: Sub-Saharan Africa," by Ella C. Leppert, "People and Progress: A Global History," by Milton Finkelstein, and "World Cultures," by Clarence L. Van Steeg. (DB)

  7. Culture: Copying, Compression, and Conventionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamariz, Mónica; Kirby, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Through cultural transmission, repeated learning by new individuals transforms cultural information, which tends to become increasingly compressible (Kirby, Cornish, & Smith, 2008; Smith, Tamariz, & Kirby, 2013). Existing diffusion chain studies include in their design two processes that could be responsible for this tendency: learning…

  8. Cultural Identity in Korean English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Bok-Myung

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the cultural identity of Korean English and to make the intercultural communications among non-native speakers successful. The purposes of this study can be summarized as follows: 1) to recognize the concept of English as an International Language (EIL), 2) to emphasize cross-cultural understanding in the globalized…

  9. Teacher Evaluation and School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Dyann Renee

    2013-01-01

    Teacher evaluation and school culture have been identified as powerful shaping forces in the quality of education. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study, based on a constructivist theoretical framework, was to determine the relationship between teacher evaluation and school culture in a suburban school in the northeastern part of…

  10. USF Graduate Studies Cultural Studies

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Humanities USF Graduate Studies Cultural Studies and The Master of Arts in American Studies offers that have - The MLA in Humanities track offers an interdisciplinary approach to the study of European Studies in Humanities and Cultural Studies at USF Application Deadlines Applications must be received

  11. An Elementary Language Culture Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stones, Valerie

    A five-year course sequence focusing on the relationship of language and culture in world history is described. The program, beginning in grade 3, prepares students for later study of foreign and classical languages, develops English language skills, and cultivates general cultural interest. At the first level, students are introduced to some…

  12. Art Museum of World Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Proposes an activity that acts as an end-of-the-year review for seventh-grade history in which the students demonstrate their knowledge by applying for a position in an art museum. Explains that the students choose one display and culture presented in the student-created museum and advertise their culture in a three minute presentation. (CMK)

  13. Title III and Cultural Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Title III Quarterly, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Title III projects dealing with cultural diversity in the classroom are described in this issue of the Title III Quarterly. Major articles are devoted to the following projects: Two Arts Culture Three Project, developing the crafts and music of mountain whites, blacks, and Cherokees; the Rota Bilingual Project, the Marianas District, emphasizing…

  14. Principals Influence Culture of Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Sophia

    2000-01-01

    Three New American High Schools (in Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and Greenbelt, Maryland) have successfully replaced the special-education culture of separation with a culture of inclusion. A large part of moving from self-contained practices to inclusion was helping students become self-advocates, so that the world outside school and home would not…

  15. Understanding and Shaping Organizational Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherrey, Cynthia

    1990-01-01

    Organizational culture is difficult to change, but the norms that exist are the easiest elements to identify and change. Even if changing the norms is not desirable, it is essential to understand and articulate them. A change in cultural norms is communicated through new expectations, different language, and new behaviors. (MSE)

  16. Culture and Control of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Patrick D.

    This paper describes how education as a function of society is controlled mainly by professional education associations and influenced to a small degree by local cultural groups. An alternative for control of Indian education is explored with respect to the potential of school boards for flow of power and relationship to Indian cultures. Community…

  17. Cultural Accommodation Model of Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2011-01-01

    The current article provides an overview to the cultural accommodation model (CAM) of counseling (Leong & Lee, 2006) that may help guide employment counselors' work. The integrative multidimensional model of cross-cultural counseling (Leong, 1996), a precursor to the CAM, is also reviewed.

  18. Interactive Cultural Cultivating in FLT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Youwen

    2010-01-01

    Culture cultivating in foreign language teaching (FLT) is usually conducted through factual introductions in the form of articles, books, seminars, lectures or workshops. This approach regards L2 learners as passive receivers of cultural knowledge without their interaction involved. This paper aims at raising an interactive approach to develop L2…

  19. Psychology 344 Psychology and Culture

    E-print Network

    Gallo, Linda C.

    Introductory Psychology (PSY 101) is a required prerequisite for this course. #12;Class RequirementsPsychology 344 Psychology and Culture Fall 2008 Instructor: David A. Armor, Ph.D. Office: SSE 2307K aspects of human psychology. We will address basic questions about the nature of culture--and more far

  20. Psychology 344 Psychology and Culture

    E-print Network

    Gallo, Linda C.

    Psychology (PSY 101) is a required prerequisite for this course. #12;Class Requirements and Grading The finalPsychology 344 Psychology and Culture Fall 2010 Instructor: David A. Armor, Ph.D. Office: SSE 2307K aspects of human psychology. We will address basic questions about the nature of culture--and more far

  1. April 3 2000 CULTURE WALLS

    E-print Network

    Thórisson, Kristinn Rúnar

    April 3 2000 CULTURE WALLS: Echoing Sounds of Distant Worlds Across Planet Earth Ñ A Proposal-cultural audio artifact; the Walls encircle the Earth in a network of interconnected points, symbolizing manipulation the creation of the music has no relation to the environmental sounds: A classical guitar piece

  2. Frugal Fun with Fungal Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundberg, Marshall D.

    2001-01-01

    A home kitchen can serve as a stockroom to provide the supplies needed to culture fungi for classroom use. Provides some alternative media and cultural techniques along with two alternative classroom investigations that can be employed in elementary through college-level classrooms. (Author/SAH)

  3. Building Cultural Bridges. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Ella

    2007-01-01

    The book "Building Cultural Bridges" is designed to increase multi-cultural awareness and sensitivity. There are supplemental materials available that include a leader's guide, reproducible student workbook, readings, worksheets, and activities. This material is recommended for use with students in grades 7-12. The materials included with this…

  4. Music Education and Cultural Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Renewed interest in the relationship between music education and cultural identity draws its vigor from strongly divergent sources. Globalized education and globalized musical culture supply new paradigms for understanding the central tasks of music education and their responsibility to a multicultural ethic of diversity, hybridity and difference.…

  5. Connecting Dream Networks Across Cultures

    E-print Network

    Varol, Onur

    2014-01-01

    Many species dream, yet there remain many open research questions in the study of dreams. The symbolism of dreams and their interpretation is present in cultures throughout history. Analysis of online data sources for dream interpretation using network science leads to understanding symbolism in dreams and their associated meaning. In this study, we introduce dream interpretation networks for English, Chinese and Arabic that represent different cultures from various parts of the world. We analyze communities in these networks, finding that symbols within a community are semantically related. The central nodes in communities give insight about cultures and symbols in dreams. The community structure of different networks highlights cultural similarities and differences. Interconnections between different networks are also identified by translating symbols from different languages into English. Structural correlations across networks point out relationships between cultures. Similarities between network communit...

  6. Optimum culture in the cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamori, Hisaaki

    1987-01-01

    Even with the same program and objectives, if the culture is different, there will be different approaches to the goal of flight safety. However, the cockpit environment is culture-free so it is not as important to think of a person's cultural background as it is to think of the approach to the goal of ultimate safety. Crew members can look at their individual safety goals and compare them to their own performance to see if their behavior matches their own safety goals. The cockpit environment must be culture-free in order to obtain the ultimate safety goal. One must first realize how their culture affects their behavior before they can begin to change their attitude and actions in the cockpit.

  7. Is There Cultural Safety in Australian Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochecouste, Judith; Oliver, Rhonda; Bennell, Debra

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the cultural safety offered to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students within their university environments. In the context of this paper, cultural safety includes cultural competency, as recently subscribed by Universities Australia, and "extends beyond (to) cultural awareness and cultural

  8. Ethnographic Bibliography Standard Cross-Cultural

    E-print Network

    White, Douglas R.

    Focused Ethnographic Bibliography for the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample From World Cultures Focused Ethnographic Bibliography: Standard Cross-Cultural Sample. World Cultures, Vol. 2. Douglas R Sample 14 Ethnographic Bibliography of the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample. Focused to Time and Place. 16

  9. Education and Culture. Routledge Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Jocey

    2011-01-01

    Quinn presents a radical new perspective on the interrelationships between education and culture. Rather than viewing education in isolation from major cultural debates, she demonstrates how culture shapes education and education shapes culture. Cultural perspectives and rich empirical data from a wide range of research with learners in…

  10. International HPT: Rx for Culture Shock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Clare Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    Examines the cultural adaptation process experienced by people working in foreign environments. Reviews current organizational gaps in managing cross-cultural challenges; examines the phenomenon of culture shock; and presents a model for applying HPT (human performance technology) strategies to change culture shock to cross-cultural competence.…

  11. The Need for Culturally Relevant Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy-Brown, Nyama

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for culturally relevant teaching in dance education. Many dance teachers have heard the buzz words "culturally relevant teaching methods." Yet these dance educators acknowledge that the "dance culture" is not always synonymous with "culturally relevant." This paper examines the issue of culturally relevant teaching methods in dance…

  12. Surveys of organizational culture and safety culture in nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Walter S.

    2000-07-30

    The results of a survey of organizational culture at a nuclear power plant are summarized and compared with those of a similar survey which has been described in the literature on ''high-reliability organizations''. A general-purpose cultural inventory showed a profile of organizational style similar to that reported in the literature; the factor structure for the styles was also similar to that of the plant previously described. A specialized scale designed to measure ''safety culture'' did not distinguished among groups within the organization that would be expected to differ.

  13. [Microbiological results of bronchoalveolar lavage that was performed for opportunistic pulmonary infections].

    PubMed

    Gülcü, Aylin; Sevinç, Can; Esen, Nuran; Kilinç, O?uz; Uçan, Eyüp Sabri; Itil, Oya; Cimrin, Arif Hikmet; Kömüs, Nuray; Sener, Gülper; Akkoçlu, Atila; Gülay, Zeynep; Yücesoy, Mine

    2006-01-01

    Between 2001-2002; in 62 cases, 33 (53%) male, 29 (47%) female, mean age 51.4 +/- 18.1 years) bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed for diagnosis of opportunistic pulmonary infection and specimens were evaluated for results of microbiological examinations. There was hematological malignancy in 18 (29%) and solid organ malignancy in 13 (21%) cases. Thirty-one (50%) cases were immunocompromised for reasons other than malignancy. By endoscopic evaluation endobronchial lesion was seen in 2 (3%) cases, indirect tumor signs were seen in 2 (3%) cases and signs of infection were seen in 11 (18%) cases. Forty-even (76%) cases were endoscopically normal. Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) direct examination was positive in 3 (5%) cases. In 4 (6%) cases mycobacterial culture was positive, Mycobacterium tuberculosis-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was also positive in these four cases. Examination of gram-stained smears for bacteria was associated with infection in 14 (23%) cases. Bacteriologic cultures were positive for single potential pathogen in 10 (16%) cases, and for mixed pathogens in 7 (11%) cases for a total number of 17 (27%). Fungal cultures were positive in 3 (5%) cases all of which had hematological malignancy. As a result in 24 (39%) cases microbiological agent of infection is determined: in four mycobacteria, in 17 bacteria other than mycobacteria and in three fungi. PMID:17001542

  14. Aboriginal Cultural Knowledge and Estuaries Cultural and Environmental Protection -Hand in Hand

    E-print Network

    Aboriginal Cultural Knowledge and Estuaries Cultural and Environmental Protection - Hand in Hand Nerilee Boshammer (Community Engagement Program Manager) #12;#12;Culture and Environment - Inseparable, you protect cultural heritage, and vice versa Indigenous knowledge is integral to managing our natural

  15. Discrimination of Spore-Forming Bacilli Using spoIVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; LaDuc, Myron; Stuecker, Tara

    2009-01-01

    A method of discriminating between spore-forming and non-spore-forming bacteria is based on a combination of simultaneous sporulation-specific and non-sporulation-specific quantitative polymerase chain reactions (Q-PCRs). The method was invented partly in response to the observation that for the purposes of preventing or reducing biological contamination affecting many human endeavors, ultimately, only the spore-forming portions of bacterial populations are the ones that are problematic (or, at least, more problematic than are the non-spore-forming portions). In some environments, spore-forming bacteria constitute small fractions of the total bacterial populations. The use of sporulation-specific primers in Q-PCR affords the ability to assess the spore-forming fraction of a bacterial population present in an environment of interest. This assessment can provide a more thorough and accurate understanding of the bacterial contamination in the environment, thereby making it possible to focus contamination- testing, contamination-prevention, sterilization, and decontamination resources more economically and efficiently. The method includes the use of sporulation-specific primers in the form of designed, optimized deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) oligonucleotides specific for the bacterial spoIVA gene (see table). [In "spoIVA," "IV" signifies Roman numeral four and the entire quoted name refers to gene A for the fourth stage of sporulation.] These primers are mixed into a PCR cocktail with a given sample of bacterial cells. A control PCR cocktail into which are mixed universal 16S rRNA primers is also prepared. ["16S rRNA" denotes a ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequence that is common to all organisms.] Following several cycles of heating and cooling according to the PCR protocol to amplify amounts of DNA molecules, the amplification products can be analyzed to determine the types of bacterial cells present within the samples. If the amplification product is strong, relative to the product of a control PCR sequence, then it is concluded that the bacterial population in the sample consists predominantly of spore-forming cells. If the amplification product is weak or nonexistent, then it is concluded that the bacterial population in the sample consists predominantly or entirely of non-spore-forming cells.

  16. Effect of different laser irradiation on the dysentery bacilli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Lin; Chen, Rong; Chen, Yanjiao; Li, Depin; Wen, Caixia

    1998-08-01

    The S. flexnesi, which have high drug-resistance especially in Cm, Sm, Tc, SD, were irradiated by Ar+ laser at 488 nm and semiconductor laser at 808 nm. The experiment results have shown that both Ar+ laser and semiconductor laser with power density of 1.7 w/cm2 and irradiation dose of 2000 J/cm2 can conduce to the bacterial lethality and increase the mutation rates of the bacterial drug-sensitivity, and 'Colony Count' method have the superiority over the 'Inhibacteria Ring' method. At the mean time it further indicate that the high power semiconductor laser would play an important role in the sciences of laser biological medicine. But the effect of the near infrared semiconductor laser is far lower than that of Ar+ laser of shorter wavelength at the same irradiation dose. It is clear that the output and irradiation dose of near infrared semiconductor laser shall be increased in order to get the same rates of the bacterial lethality and the drug-sensitivity mutation as Ar+ laser's.

  17. Purification and characterization of cyclodextrin ?-glucanotransferase from novel alkalophilic bacilli.

    PubMed

    Elbaz, Ashraf F; Sobhi, Ahmed; ElMekawy, Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    The discovery of novel bacterial cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) enzyme could provide advantages in terms of its production and relative activity. In this study, eight bacterial strains isolated from soils of a biodiversity-rich vegetation in Egypt based on their hydrolyzing activity of starch, were screened for CGTase activity, where the most active strain was identified as Bacillus lehensis. Optimization process revealed that the using of rice starch (25%) and a mixture of peptone/yeast extract (1%) at pH 10.5 and 37 °C for 24 h improved the bacterial growth and enzyme activity. The bacterial CGTase was successively purified by acetone precipitation, gel filtration chromatography in a Sephadex G-100 column and ion exchange chromatography in a DEAE-cellulose column. The specific activity of the CGTase was increased approximately 274-fold, from 0.21 U/mg protein in crude broth to 57.7 U/mg protein after applying the DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. SDS-PAGE showed that the purified CGTase was homogeneous with a molecular weight of 74.1 kDa. Characterization of the enzyme exhibited optimum pH and temperature of 7 and 60 °C, respectively. CGTase relative activity was strongly inhibited by Mg(2+), Zn(2+), Al(3+) and K(+), while it was slightly enhanced by 5 and 9% with Cu(2+) and Fe(2+) metal ions, respectively. PMID:25362891

  18. Gram Negative Bacilli s(a)etalosIfo.oN

    E-print Network

    Kay, Mark A.

    100 91 89 75 68 Klebsiella pneumoniae 76 93 10083 92 92 99 100 93 9388 100 92 77 93 20 Morganella) 100 0 0 100 Enterococcus sp. (not identified to species) 148 95 0 5 85 98 97 Streptococcus group B (vag/anal screen) 236 100 0 0 66 viridans group streptococci 38 76 21 3 97 89 56 100 Streptococcus

  19. THE MAMMALIAN SAFETY OF BACILLIS THURENGIENSIS-BASED INSECTICIDES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency between the years 1961 and 1995 registered 177 products containing viable Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Numerous laboratory studies have demonstrated that Bt and Bt products are noninfectious and are toxic to mammals only at a dose >/= one hundred mil...

  20. Genomic comparison of sporeforming bacilli isolated from milk

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sporeformers in the order Bacillales are important contributors to spoilage of pasteurized milk. While only a few Bacillus and Viridibacillus strains can grow in milk at 6°C, the majority of Paenibacillus isolated from pasteurized fluid milk can grow under these conditions. To gain a better understanding of genomic features of these important spoilage organisms and to identify candidate genomic features that may facilitate cold growth in milk, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of selected dairy associated sporeformers representing isolates that can and cannot grow in milk at 6°C. Results The genomes for seven Paenibacillus spp., two Bacillus spp., and one Viridibacillus sp. isolates were sequenced. Across the genomes sequenced, we identified numerous genes encoding antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, bacteriocins, and pathways for synthesis of non-ribosomal peptide antibiotics. Phylogenetic analysis placed genomes representing Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Viridibacillus into three distinct well supported clades and further classified the Paenibacillus strains characterized here into three distinct clades, including (i) clade I, which contains one strain able to grow at 6°C in skim milk broth and one strain not able to grow under these conditions, (ii) clade II, which contains three strains able to grow at 6°C in skim milk broth, and (iii) clade III, which contains two strains unable to grow under these conditions. While all Paenibacillus genomes were found to include multiple copies of genes encoding ?-galactosidases, clade II strains showed significantly higher numbers of genes encoding these enzymes as compared to clade III strains. Genome comparison of strains able to grow at 6°C and strains unable to grow at this temperature identified numerous genes encoding features that might facilitate the growth of Paenibacillus in milk at 6°C, including peptidases with cold-adapted features (flexibility and disorder regions in the protein structure) and cold-adaptation related proteins (DEAD-box helicases, chaperone DnaJ). Conclusions Through a comparative genomics approach we identified a number of genomic features that may relate to the ability of selected Paenibacillus strains to cause spoilage of refrigerated fluid milk. With additional experimental evidence, these data will facilitate identification of targets to detect and control Gram positive spore formers in fluid milk. PMID:24422886

  1. NASA Bioreactor tissue culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  2. Cultural horizons for mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Kay; Paraides, Patricia; Jannok Nutti, Ylva; Johansson, Gunilla; Bennet, Maria; Doolan, Pat; Peckham, Ray; Hill, John; Doolan, Frank; O'Sullivan, Dominic; Murray, Libbey; Logan, Patricia; McNair, Melissa; Sunnari, Vappu; Murray, Beatrice; Miller, Alissa; Nolan, John; Simpson, Alca; Ohrin, Christine; Doolan, Terry; Doolan, Michelle; Taylor, Paul

    2011-06-01

    As a result of a number of government reports, there have been numerous systemic changes in Indigenous education in Australia revolving around the importance of partnerships with the community. A forum with our local Dubbo community established the importance of working together and developed a model which placed the child in an ecological perspective that particularly noted the role of Elders and the place of the child in the family. However, there was also the issue of curriculum and mathematics education to be addressed. It was recognised that a colonised curriculum reduces the vision of what might be the potential for Indigenous mathematics education. This paper reports on the sharing that developed between our local community and some researchers and teachers from Sweden, Papua New Guinea and New Zealand. It has implications for recognising the impact of testing regimes, the teaching space, understanding the ways children learn, the curriculum, and teacher education. As a result of these discussions, a critical pedagogy that considers culture and place is presented as an ecocultural perspective on mathematics education. This perspective was seen as critical for the curriculum and learning experiences of Indigenous children.

  3. The Cultural Content of Business Spanish Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Christine Uber; Uber, David

    1992-01-01

    Eight business Spanish texts were examined to learn about the cultural content of the business Spanish curriculum. Questions of cultural topics and themes, presentation of cultural information, activities and techniques, and use of authentic materials were considered. (16 references) (LB)

  4. Assessment of Creativity in Culturally Different Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruch, Catherine B.

    1975-01-01

    The assessment of creativity and giftedness in culturally different or economically disadvantaged children is discussed in terms of cultural conditions, general measurement concern, and suggestions for improving creativity measurement in the culturally different. (LH)

  5. MSU at Work in Africa: Cultural Documentation

    E-print Network

    are strongly committed to documenting, preserving, and making accessible the continent's cultural heritage' identifying their cultural heritage. Safeguarding and making accessible the artifacts, oral histories cultural tourism, an increasingly important draw for the international tourism trade that is Africa

  6. Department of Foreign Languages, Literatures & Cultures

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Elizabeth A.

    Department of Foreign Languages, Literatures & Cultures CHOICES 2015 #12;Overview #12;Choices 2013 Department of Foreign Languages, Literatures & Cultures · Mission Statement · Academic Offerings · Placement Statement #12;Choices 2013 Department of Foreign Languages, Literatures & Cultures · The Department

  7. Urban Cultural Heritage Endangerment: Degradation of historico-cultural landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Eric; Cabral, Pedro; Caetano, Mário; Painho, Marco; Nijkamp, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Sustainable development has become one of the great debates of policy-making of the XXI century. The world, is facing unprecedented change following the anthropocentrism of socio-economic growth. However, the commitment of man to ‘transmit to future generations at least the same as had' (ref) seems to be a narrowing, given extensive urban growth, population increase and climate change. However, over the last twenty years, the usage of spatial information systems have brought a positive contribution for better acknowledging the problem of environmental change, and bringing more constructive approaches to planning. Prompted by much research interest in Europe, a broad specter of biodiversity loss models, pollution and environmental degradation algorithms as well as climate change models, have become important tools under the European umbrella. Recognizing the essence of sustainable development, historico-cultural and archaeological regions have a remarkable role in the transformation of landscapes and maintenance of cultural and regional identity. Furthermore, the socio-economic, political-geographic and cultural-scientific history of the dynamics of places and localities on our earth is reflected in their historico-cultural heritage. This patrimony comprises cultural assets, such as old churches, palaces, museums, urban parks, historical architecture of cities, or landscapes of historical interest. Historico-cultural heritage also includes archaeological sites, which sometimes not only have a local value but may have a worldwide significance (e.g. Pompeii). However, massive urban growth is affecting directly the existing historico-cultural resources throughout the European region, and little attention is given to this juxtaposing reality of peri-urban growth and cultural / archaeological heritage preservation. Also, the settling patterns within historico-cultural local clusters follow a similar pattern as current growth tendencies, given the physical conditions of land-use. This brings forth a dichotomy between areas to cope with population increase (and therefore highly probable of urbanization) and regions of valuable historico-cultural and archaeological legacy. To bridge this dichotomy, this paper attempts to provide a methodology for measuring cultural heritage endangerment brought by urban pressure. By using spatial modeling to prompt urban growth combined with archaeological predictive models, composing a secondary layer, a propensity map for areas with extremely high cultural value and where urban growth should be dealt with especial care become evident. Fundamentally, the joined model of Cultural Heritage Endangerment, tackles a recent and unprecedented problem at global level: Committing urban planning to allow the conservation of cultural and archaeological legacy for future generation. In an attempt to abridge the consequences of the decadence of historico-cultural landscapes, the historico-cultural endangerment (HCE) method will be applied to two entirely different regions in the world. On one side, the methodology will be applied on a regional emphasis in the Algarve region in Portugal, addressing the input of maintaining the integrity of archaeological landscapes, and on the other, a local micro-simulation of the Giza Pyramids in Egypt, shall allow to envision a segment of local consequences of urban pressure on irreplaceable monuments. The conclusions of both study-cases abridge the global nature of this problem as well as the importance of HCE implementation at different scales.

  8. Convergence of Culture and ICTs: E-Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drigas, Athanasios; Koukianakis, Lefteris

    In modern society where digital technology prevails, the combination of Information and Communication technology (ICT) and the various human activities created the term e-services. This paper presents an e-culture services portal, focusing on e-culture applications like e-literature, e-gallery and music servers. The user-visitor has the opportunity to navigate through its pages which contain a large amount of information about Greek literature, galleries and music in the form of text, images and sound. Although it started as an early e-culture application, today it has been updated with new web-based technologies, in order to be accessible by people with visual disabilities, using dynamical techniques for content management. Its goals are mainly to make the so-called "Information for All" scheme a palpable reality and secondly to spread the aforementioned Greek cultural heritage aspects to a global level.

  9. Building Cross-Cultural Bridges--Cultural Analysis of Critical Incidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Caroline

    Culture forms the basis for cross-cultural awareness and understanding. The initial response to a new culture is to find it fascinating, exotic, and thrilling. Although, to function in a new cultural environment, and become aware of deep cultural patterns people need time, research, and investigation. Dealing with a new culture, people need a…

  10. Chinese culture and fertility decline.

    PubMed

    Wu, C; Jia, S

    1992-01-01

    Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self-reliance, education and cultivation of moral character, and atheism. Confucian beliefs that interfere with fertility decline are the advocacy of self-sufficient livelihood, the emphasis on family and lineage, autocracy, patriarchy and feudal rule, the 5 constant virtues, contempt for labor and working people, science and technology, and a closed-door policy. Socialism hindered fertility decline by promoting population growth as a symbol of the superiority of socialism and by lack of recognition of population or environmental problems in socialist countries. The goal is to accept Westernization, reduce obstacles, develop economically, and use cultural influence positive to fertility decline. PMID:12317926

  11. Primary Hepatocytes in Sandwich Culture.

    PubMed

    Keemink, Janneke; Oorts, Marlies; Annaert, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocytes in sandwich configuration constitute of primary hepatocytes cultured between two layers of extracellular matrix. Sandwich-cultured hepatocytes maintain expression of liver-specific proteins and gradually form intact bile canaliculi with functional biliary excretion of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. Both freshly isolated and cryopreserved hepatocytes can be used to establish sandwich cultures. Therefore, this preclinical model has become an invaluable in vitro tool to evaluate hepatobiliary drug transport, metabolism, hepatotoxicity, and drug interactions. In this chapter, commonly used procedures to cultivate primary hepatocytes from human and rat in sandwich configuration are described. PMID:26272142

  12. THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY MUSHROOM CULTURE COLLECTION

    E-print Network

    Guiltinan, Mark

    THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY MUSHROOM CULTURE COLLECTION July 2, 2015 Agaricus abruptibulbus/11/87 #12;The Pennsylvania State University Mushroom Culture Collection -- Page 2 Agaricus subfloccosus 781

  13. Culture’s building blocks: investigating cultural evolution in a LEGO construction task

    PubMed Central

    McGraw, John J.; Wallot, Sebastian; Mitkidis, Panagiotis; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    One of the most essential but theoretically vexing issues regarding the notion of culture is that of cultural evolution and transmission: how a group’s accumulated solutions to invariant challenges develop and persevere over time. But at the moment, the notion of applying evolutionary theory to culture remains little more than a suggestive trope. Whereas the modern synthesis of evolutionary theory has provided an encompassing scientific framework for the selection and transmission of biological adaptations, a convincing theory of cultural evolution has yet to emerge. One of the greatest challenges for theorists is identifying the appropriate time scales and units of analysis in order to reduce the intractably large and complex phenomenon of “culture” into its component “building blocks.” In this paper, we present a model for scientifically investigating cultural processes by analyzing the ways people develop conventions in a series of LEGO construction tasks. The data revealed a surprising pattern in the selection of building bricks as well as features of car design across consecutive building sessions. Our findings support a novel methodology for studying the development and transmission of culture through the microcosm of interactive LEGO design and assembly. PMID:25309482

  14. Culture experiments on conductive polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoda, Mitsuyoshi

    2012-04-01

    Fibroblast L929 and myoblast C2C12 cells of the mouse connective tissue origin were sown on the surface of conductive polymer films (polypyrrole, PPy and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT) in the cell culture medium, and the proliferative process of these cells was observed. Without changing the form, fibroblast L929 and myoblast C2C12 cells were observed to proliferate almost similarly to the cell which cultured on a dish on the market and to maintain compatibility. In other word, it has been understood these two kinds of conductive polymers used in this study, the PEDOT films maintain the secretion function of the cell cultured on the surface of these polymers. Therefore, the PPy- and the PEDOT-coated electrode suggested the possibility usable as a nerve stimulation electrode with biocompatibility, because these polymers were effective to culture the cell.

  15. Cross-Cultural Counseling Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahia, Chikezie Emmanuel

    1984-01-01

    Examines problems and concerns of cross cultural counseling and psychotherapy. Raises specific questions concerning research designs and approaches, differences in cosmology, epistemology, differences in nosology, and problems of evaluation or testing. (JAC)

  16. Cultural Preservation Program for Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbaran, Francisco Ramon

    2011-01-01

    In this technical report, an innovative cultural preservation program for implementation in Athabascan villages is presented. The parameters for success in implementing such a project is discussed based on a workshop with Athabascan elders.

  17. Indian comics as public culture

    E-print Network

    Das, Abhimnanyu, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    The Amar Chitra Katha (ACK) series of comic books have, since 1967, dominated the market for domestic comic books in India. In this thesis, I examine how these comics function as public culture, creating a platform around ...

  18. The African Cultural Astronomy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, Johnson O.; Holbrook, Jarita C.

    2011-06-01

    Indigenous, endogenous, traditional, or cultural astronomy focuses on the many ways that people and cultures interact with celestial bodies. In most parts of Africa, there is very little or no awareness about modern astronomy. However, like ancient people everywhere, Africans wondered at the sky and struggled to make sense of it. The African Cultural Astronomy Project aims to unearth the body of traditional knowledge of astronomy possessed by peoples of the different ethnic groups in Africa and to consider scientific interpretations when appropriate for cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices. Regardless of scientific validity, every scientist can relate to the process of making observations and creating theoretical mechanisms for explaining what is observed. Through linking the traditional and the scientific, it is believed that this would be used to create awareness and interest in astronomy in most parts of Africa. This paper discusses the vision, challenges and prospects of the African Cultural Astronomy Project in her quest to popularize astronomy in Africa.

  19. Maintaining islet quality during culture

    E-print Network

    Rappel, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Islet transplantation has become a promising treatment for type I diabetes mellitus due to recent success since the development of the Edmonton Protocol. Islet culture prior to transplantation is standard practice in most ...

  20. Culturing larvae of marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Strathmann, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    Larvae of marine invertebrates cultured in the laboratory experience conditions that they do not encounter in nature, but development and survival to metamorphic competence can be obtained in such cultures. This protocol emphasizes simple methods suitable for a wide variety of larvae. Culturing larvae requires seawater of adequate quality and temperature within the tolerated range. Beyond that, feeding larvae require appropriate food, but a few kinds of algae and animals are sufficient as food for diverse larvae. Nontoxic materials include glass, many plastics, hot-melt glue, and some solvents, once evaporated. Cleaners that do not leave toxic residues after rinsing include dilute hydrochloric or acetic acid, sodium hypochlorite (commercial bleach), and ethanol. Materials that can leave toxic residues, such as formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, detergents, and hand lotions, should be avoided, especially with batch cultures that lack continuously renewed water. Reverse filtration can be used to change water gently at varying frequencies, depending on temperature and the kinds of food that are provided. Bacterial growth can be limited by antibiotics, but antibiotics are often unnecessary. Survival and growth are increased by low concentrations of larvae and stirring of large or dense cultures. One method of stirring large numbers of containers is a rack of motor-driven paddles. Most of the methods and materials are inexpensive and portable. If necessary, a room within a few hours of the sea could be temporarily equipped for larval culture. PMID:24567204

  1. Relaciones Culturales de Mexico: Convenios de Intercambio Cultural y Asistencia Tecnica (Mexican Cultural Relations: Cultural Exchange and Technical Assistance Agreements).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    n10 p43-83, 1971

    1971-01-01

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1500 words) describing briefly Mexico's cultural relations with 23 nations with which she has cultural exchange agreements. The reasons for cultural exchange are stated, such as the belief that cultural relations promote good relations among nations. The agreements concluded between…

  2. "Mixing Pop (Culture) and Politics": Cultural Resistance, Culture Jamming, and Anti-Consumption Activism as Critical Public Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlin, Jennifer A.; Milam, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Culture jamming, the act of resisting and re-creating commercial culture in order to transform society, is embraced by groups and individuals who seek to critique and (re)form how culture is created and enacted in our daily lives. In this article, we explore how two groups--Adbusters and Reverend Billy and the Church of Stop Shopping--use culture

  3. Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, T. P.; Bickham, U.; Bayne, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome. PMID:24198436

  4. Cultural Norms and Nonverbal Communication: An Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yanrong

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication takes place in specific cultural contexts and is influenced by cultural norms. Cultural norms are "social rules for what certain types of people should and should not do" (Hall, 2005). Different cultures might have different norms for nonverbal behaviors in specific social, relational, and geographical contexts.…

  5. The Cultural Content of Business Spanish Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Christine Uber; Uber, David

    A study examined eight business Spanish textbooks for cultural content by looking at commonly appearing cultural topics and themes, presentation of cultural information, activities and techniques used to promote cultural understanding, and incorporation of authentic materials. The texts were evenly divided among beginning, intermediate, and…

  6. Culturally Appropriate Education: Insights from Educational Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Jiaxian; Fischer, Kurt W.

    2013-01-01

    Culturally appropriate education focuses on educational competence needed in a global world and respect for different world views of learners and teachers from different cultural contexts. The relationship between gene, brain, and culture is complex and dynamical. Cultural experience and learning sculpts the anatomy and function of the human brain…

  7. Culture and Influence in Multisite Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkhart, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the influence of multisite evaluation requires careful consideration of cultural context. The author illustrates dimensions of influence and culture with excerpts from four National Science Foundation evaluation case studies and summarizes what influence teaches everyone about culture and what culture teaches everyone about…

  8. Cultured normal mammalian tissue and process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (inventor); Wolf, David A. (inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Normal mammalian tissue and the culturing process has been developed for the three groups of organ, structural and blood tissue. The cells are grown in vitro under microgravity culture conditions and form three dimensional cell aggregates with normal cell function. The microgravity culture conditions may be microgravity or simulated microgravity created in a horizontal rotating wall culture vessel.

  9. Application of Tissue Culture in Ornamental Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant tissue culture can be broadly defined as the culture of plant cells, tissues, or organs under sterile or aseptic conditions. To most growers, micropropagation is the term that perhaps best describes plant tissue culture. However, plant tissue culture plays an important role through its many ap...

  10. Globalized E-Learning Cultural Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Andrea, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Globalized E-Learning Cultural Challenges" explores the issues educators, administrators, and instructional designers face when transferring knowledge and skills to other cultures through e-learning. Most e-learning courses have been designed in Western cultures, but the largest and fastest-growing consumer groups live in Eastern cultures.…

  11. Dating human cultural capacity using phylogenetic principles

    E-print Network

    Lindenfors, Patrik

    Dating human cultural capacity using phylogenetic principles J. Lind1,2 , P. Lindenfors1,2 , S. Ghirlanda1,3 , K. Lide´n1,4 & M. Enquist1,2 1 Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution, Stockholm based unique abilities making complex culture possible; an assemblage of traits which we term ``cultural

  12. Cultural Variations in Learning and Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omidvar, Pegah; Tan, Bee Hoon

    2012-01-01

    The need for cross-cultural understanding of the relationship between culture and learning style is becoming increasingly important because of the changing cultural mix of classrooms and society at large. The research done regarding the two variables is mostly quantitative. This review summarizes results of the existing research on cultural

  13. Culture and Social Psychology: Converging Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimaggio, Paul; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2010-01-01

    Views of culture in psychology and sociology have converged markedly in the past two decades. Both have rejected what Adams and Markus (2004) refer to as the "entity" conception of culture--the view that culture is coherent, stable, and located in the heads of collectivities' members--in favor of more supple and dynamic constructs. Culture, in…

  14. Culturalizing Achievement Goal Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zusho, Akane; Clayton, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article is primarily designed to provide a cultural analysis of the literature on achievement goals. First, an overview of the four dominant approaches to the study of culture--namely, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology, indigenous psychology, and psychological anthropology--is offered. Second, we analyze the extant body of…

  15. Social Studies: Selected Cultures. Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Marshall R.

    This revised teachers guide attempts to facilitate the study of selected cultures through a conceptual approach and multimedia instruction in a spiral curriculum. There are six units: 1) Cultures and Archaeology --cultural factors, cultural study, artifacts, fossils, archaeological sites and evidence; 2) Food Gathering Complex --life styles,…

  16. SNL/CA Cultural Resources Management Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2005-11-01

    The SNL/CA Cultural Resources Management Plan satisfies the site's Environmental Management System requirement to promote long-term stewardship of cultural resources. The plan summarizes the cultural and historical setting of the site, identifies existing procedures and processes that support protection and preservation of resources, and outlines actions that would be initiated if cultural resources were discovered onsite in the future.3

  17. Cross-Cultural Mentoring in Institutional Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Marco J.

    2007-01-01

    Both White faculty members and Black students bring their own cross-cultural ideology to mentoring relationships. Additionally, institutional culture and type often impact cross-cultural relationships via institutional mission, faculty expectation, and student development. Some researchers have found that race is not a factor in cross-cultural

  18. Culturing and Using Protozoans in the Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummer, Paul J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Provides instructions for teachers and students to culture protozoans for use in science laboratories. Sections include setting up a culture area, basic culture media, amoeba culture technique, powdered milk-wheat-rice medium, alfalfa medium, and uses of the protozoa in the laboratory. (PR)

  19. Culture: The Missing Link to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Nathan; Howard, Kathleen; Pearson, Carl

    2013-01-01

    A high functioning school and district culture is an essential underpinning to all improvement efforts. Yet school and district culture can be difficult to assess. Culture is the cornerstone of all good districts and schools. It is the foundation for all school improvement efforts. As one looks deeper into the culture of a school or district, one…

  20. Political Culture as Context for Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter; Schwandt, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    One way to understand the context of evaluation is in terms of its interaction with political culture. That culture includes citizens' views of the role of government and of evaluation and the history of the polity. This chapter illustrates the relationship of political culture and evaluation by means of two accounts of Danish political culture.…

  1. Research into Practice: Cultural and Intercultural Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Will

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the role of cultural awareness (CA) and intercultural awareness (ICA) in classroom theory and practice. CA and ICA can be roughly characterised as an awareness of the role of culture in communication with CA focused on national cultures and ICA on more dynamic and flexible relationships between languages and cultures. There…

  2. Going to Teach in Prisons: Culture Shock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Randall

    2005-01-01

    Novice prison teachers experience confusion and disorientation--culture shock--when they go to teach in prison because teaching and prison cultures collide. The stages of acculturation associated with culture shock are predictable and so are the identities and experiences of teachers who are positioned by the cultural dynamics of prison teaching.…

  3. Cultural Studies Student Handbook Contact Info

    E-print Network

    Fletcher, Robin

    . The Cultural Studies Program is committed to advancing accessibility for persons with disabilities at Queen1 Cultural Studies Student Handbook #12;2 Contact Info Office Cultural Studies Program Office B408;3 How to Use this Guide The Cultural Studies Student Handbook is written by students for students

  4. Organizational culture, safety culture, and safety performance at research facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, William S.

    2000-07-30

    Organizational culture surveys of research facilities conducted several years ago and archival occupational injury reports were used to determine whether differences in safety performance are related to general organizational factors or to ''safety culture'' as reflected in specific safety-related dimensions. From among the organizations surveyed, a pair of facilities was chosen that were similar in size and scientific mission while differing on indices of work-related injuries. There were reliable differences in organizational style between the facilities, especially among workers in environment, safety, and health functions; differences between the facilities (and among job categories) on the safety scale were more modest and less regular.

  5. Molecular Identification of Mycobacterium Species of Public Health Importance in Cattle in Zimbabwe by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Padya, Leah; Chin'ombe, Nyasha; Magwenzi, Marcelyn; Mbanga, Joshua; Ruhanya, Vurayai; Nziramasanga, Pasipanodya

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium species are naturally found in the environment as well as in domestic animals such as cattle. So far, more than 150 species of Mycobacterium, some of which are pathogenic, have been identified. Laboratory isolation, detection and identification of Mycobacterium species are therefore critical if human and animal infections are to be controlled. The objective of this study was to identify Mycobacterium species isolated in cattle in Zimbabwe using 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplification and sequencing. A total of 134 cow dung samples were collected throughout Zimbabwe and mycobacteria were isolated by culture. Only 49 culture isolates that were found to be acid-fast bacilli positive by Ziehl-Neelsen staining. The 16S rRNA gene was successfully amplified by PCR in 41 (84%) of the samples. There was no amplification in 8 (16%) of the samples. Out of the 41 samples that showed amplification, 26 (63%) had strong PCR bands and were selected for DNA sequencing. Analysis of the DNA sequences showed that 7 (27%) belonged to Mycobacterium neoaurum, 6 (23%) belonged to Mycobacterium fortuitum, 3 (12%) to Mycobacterium goodii, 2 (1%) to Mycobacterium arupense, 2 (1%) to Mycobacterium peregrinum or M. septicum and 1 isolate (0.04%) to Mycobacterium elephantis. There were 5 (19%) isolates that were non-mycobacteria and identified as Gordonia terrae, a close relative of Mycobacterium. The study therefore provided a molecular basis for detection and identification of Mycobacterium species in animals and humans.

  6. [A case of pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection with pleural effusion, distinguished from pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yosuke; Kurosawa, Takayuki; Hosaka, Kiminori

    2014-09-01

    A case of pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection with pleural effusion is very rare. We report a case of pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection with pleural effusion, distinguished from pulmonary tuberculosis. A 44-year-old man presented to a clinic with a productive cough, sputum, and loss of appetite for several months. Chest X-ray and chest computed tomography (CT) showed right pleural effusion, centrilobular nodules and infiltrative shadows with cavities in the bilateral lung fields. The direct smear examination showed positive acid-fast bacilli (Gaffky 5). He was referred to our hospital for suspected recurrent pulmonary tuberculosis. We started anti-tuberculosis drugs because pulmonary tuberculosis complicated with pleurisy was first suspected from the findings of high ADA level (78.6 IU/l) of the effusion and positive result of interferon-gamma release assay (QuantiFERON TB-2G). But Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. avium complex was not identified by the polymerase chain reaction method and the culture of the sputum was negative. At a later date, Mycobacterium kansasii was detected by sputum culture. The patient was diagnosed as pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection and treatment with anti-tuberculosis drugs including RFP resulted in a good clinical response. This case was a rare case of pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection with pleural effusion, distinguished from pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:25730945

  7. Performance of Clinical Algorithms for Smear-Negative Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Persons in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duc T M; Nguyen, Hung Q; Beasley, R Palmer; Ford, Charles E; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Graviss, Edward A

    2012-01-01

    Background. Tuberculosis (TB) disease diagnosis in Vietnam relies on symptom screening, chest radiography (CXR), and acid fast bacilli (AFB) sputum smear which have a poor sensitivity in HIV patients. We evaluated the performance of clinical algorithms in screening and diagnosing AFB smear-negative TB in HIV patients. Methods. We enrolled 399 HIV-positive patients seeking care at a HIV clinic in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Participants' demographics, medical history, common TB symptoms, CXR, and laboratory tests were collected. Results. Of 399 HIV patients, 390 had initial AFB-negative smears and 22/390 patients had positive cultures. Symptom screening missed 54% (12/22) of smear-negative pulmonary TB (PTB) cases. Multivariate analysis found CD4+ cell level and CXR were significant PTB predictors. An algorithm combining four TB symptoms and TST presented a high sensitivity (100%), but poorly specific (24%) diagnostic performance for smear-negative PTB. Conclusion. Up to 54% of PTB cases in the HIV-infected population may be missed in the routine screening and diagnostic procedures used in Vietnam. Symptom screening was a poor overall diagnostic measure in detecting smear-negative TB in HIV patients. Our study results suggest that routine sputum cultures should be implemented to achieve a more accurate diagnosis of TB in HIV patients. PMID:23227329

  8. High incidence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis infection in a zoo population of bongo antelopes (Tragelaphus eurycerus).

    PubMed

    Moravkova, Monika; Mrlik, Vojtech; Parmova, Ilona; Kriz, Petr; Pavlik, Ivo

    2013-07-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (Mah) infection was diagnosed in 5 captive bongo antelopes (Tragelaphus eurycerus) originating from a collection in a zoological garden. The animals suffered from emaciation. Postmortem examination revealed nodular lesions in the lungs of all 5 examined animals. Acid-fast bacilli were observed in the lungs of 4 animals. Culture and polymerase chain reaction identification based on IS901 negativity and IS1245 positivity confirmed Mah infection in the lungs of all 5 antelopes. In 3 animals, Mah was also isolated from other organs (liver, spleen, and kidney). Molecular analysis of these isolates using IS1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism and/or mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number tandem repeat revealed that the studied antelopes were infected by 1 identical genotype. Furthermore, in 2 antelopes, other genotypes were also detected. This shows the possibility of either genetic modifications occurring during infection or polyclonal infection. Culture examination of environmental samples from the enclosures holding the bongos revealed Mah in mulch bark, peat, and soil. Genotyping of these environmental isolates determined several genotypes with 1 dominant genotype that was identical to the dominant genotype detected in antelopes. PMID:23780935

  9. Algal culture studies for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radmer, R.; Behrens, P.; Arnett, K.; Gladue, R.; Cox, J.; Lieberman, D.

    1987-01-01

    Microalgae are well-suited as a component of a Closed Environmental Life Support System (CELSS), since they can couple the closely related functions of food production and atmospheric regeneration. The objective was to provide a basis for predicting the response of CELSS algal cultures, and thus the food supply and air regeneration system, to changes in the culture parameters. Scenedesmus growth was measured as a function of light intensity, and the spectral dependence of light absorption by the algae as well as algal respiration in the light were determined as a function of cell concentration. These results were used to test and confirm a mathematical model that describes the productivity of an algal culture in terms of the competing processes of photosynthesis and respiration. The relationship of algal productivity to cell concentration was determined at different carbon dioxide concentrations, temperatures, and light intensities. The maximum productivity achieved by an air-grown culture was found to be within 10% of the computed maximum productivity, indicating that CO2 was very efficiently removed from the gas stream by the algal culture. Measurements of biomass productivity as a function of cell concentration at different light intensities indicated that both the productivity and efficiency of light utilization were greater at higher light intensities.

  10. Sexual Hookup Culture: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Justin R.; Reiber, Chris; Massey, Sean G.; Merriwether, Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    “Hookups,” or uncommitted sexual encounters, are becoming progressively more engrained in popular culture, reflecting both evolved sexual predilections and changing social and sexual scripts. Hook-up activities may include a wide range of sexual behaviors, such as kissing, oral sex, and penetrative intercourse. However, these encounters often transpire without any promise of, or desire for, a more traditional romantic relationship. A review of the literature suggests that these encounters are becoming increasingly normative among adolescents and young adults in North America, representing a marked shift in openness and acceptance of uncommitted sex. We reviewed the current literature on sexual hookups and considered the multiple forces influencing hookup culture, using examples from popular culture to place hooking up in context. We argue that contemporary hookup culture is best understood as the convergence of evolutionary and social forces during the developmental period of emerging adulthood. We suggest that researchers must consider both evolutionary mechanisms and social processes, and be considerate of the contemporary popular cultural climate in which hookups occur, in order to provide a comprehensive and synergistic biopsychosocial view of “casual sex” among emerging adults today. PMID:23559846

  11. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently.

  12. Culturally-Based and Culturally-Biased Aspects of Knowing the Other

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarova, Elena A.; Makarova, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Interaction of cultures calls for cultural awareness development. Knowledge is a powerful weapon to overcome prejudices, stereotyping and xenophobia. To build cultural awareness and tolerance to the peculiarities of someone else's culture, global learners must learn how to determine the existence of differences between cultures and how to adapt…

  13. Mechanisms of Cultural Evolution 11-179 Chapter 11. MECHANISMS OF CULTURAL EVOLUTION

    E-print Network

    Richerson, Peter J.

    Mechanisms of Cultural Evolution 11-179 Chapter 11. MECHANISMS OF CULTURAL EVOLUTION "Mohammedans of cultural evolution. There is no generally accepted set of mecha- nisms underpinning ideas about human cultural evolution or cultural adaptation that has anything like the appeal of Darwinian theory

  14. Information and Culture: Cultural Differences in the Perception and Recall of Information from Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Information in general is congruent with cultural values because a culture consists of transmitted social knowledge. Cross-cultural research demonstrates that audiences who are fostered by different cultures may have different understandings of information. This research represents a comprehensive cross-cultural study using an experimental method,…

  15. Family Perspectives: Using a Cultural Prism to Understand Families from Asian Cultural Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Suk-Hyang; Turnbull, Ann P.; Zan, Fei

    2009-01-01

    Educators can better serve students who come from diverse cultural backgrounds by understanding the differing cultural values of these students and their families. This article explores different cultural perspectives using a cultural prism approach, focused most specifically on the Korean and Chinese cultures. (Contains 2 tables.)

  16. Learner Cultures and Corporate Cultural Differences in E-Learning Behaviors in the IT Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swierczek, Fredric William; Bechter, Clemens; Chankiew, Jeerawan

    2012-01-01

    Corporate cultural values have a major influence on learning. For learning to be effective it must be adapted to the cultural context in which it takes place. E-learning neither eliminates cultural differences nor is it culture free. This study focuses on two major Indian IT companies with different Corporate Cultures sharing the same expected…

  17. Linguistics across Cultures: The Impact of Culture on Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Ming-Mu; Lai, Cheng-Chieh

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the inseparable relation between culture and language and the implementation of instructional strategies for teaching second language through culture to enhance students' linguistic comprehension. Language is not only the product of culture, but also is the symbol of culture (Gleason, 1961). Culture must…

  18. Unpacking Privilege: Memory, Culture, Gender, Race, and Power in Visual Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keifer-Boyd, Karen; Amburgy, Patricia M.; Knight, Wanda B.

    2007-01-01

    The term "visual culture" includes all manifestations of cultural life that are significantly expressed through visual aspects and interpreted through individual and shared experiences. Visual culture includes art, cultural practices, media images, and other forms. However, teaching visual culture involves more than extending the range of visual…

  19. 12-206 Natural Selection on Cultural Variation Chapter 12. NATURAL SELECTION ON CULTURAL

    E-print Network

    Richerson, Peter J.

    12-206 Natural Selection on Cultural Variation Chapter 12. NATURAL SELECTION ON CULTURAL VARIATION of reference. It pro- poses a solution to the genes-culture problem, namely that cultural transmission as a "leash" constraining cultural variation to serve the ends of genetic fitness. If this hadn't been so, how

  20. Friends of Ewing Cultural Center Ewing Cultural Center, which includes Ewing Manor, the Theatre at

    E-print Network

    Branoff, Theodore J.

    Friends of Ewing Cultural Center Ewing Cultural Center, which includes Ewing Manor, the Theatre annual summer productions; and public access to the garden pathways. Ewing Cultural Center Operational Cultural Center will: Purpose 1. Aid in the financial stability of Ewing Cultural Center; 2. Build the base

  1. First-Year English and Cultural Studies Handbook First-Year English and Cultural Studies

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Michael

    First-Year English and Cultural Studies Handbook First-Year English and Cultural Studies Handbook Department of English & Cultural Studies Contents Checklist for Essay Writing 1 Essay Format 3 Essay and Cultural Studies at McMaster 9 This booklet is designed for students in first-year English and Cultural

  2. Cumulative Culture and Future Thinking: Is Mental Time Travel a Prerequisite to Cumulative Cultural Evolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, G. L.; Flynn, E. G.; Kendal, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Cumulative culture denotes the, arguably, human capacity to build on the cultural behaviors of one's predecessors, allowing increases in cultural complexity to occur such that many of our cultural artifacts, products and technologies have progressed beyond what a single individual could invent alone. This process of cumulative cultural evolution…

  3. Medical science, culture, and truth

    PubMed Central

    Gillett, Grant

    2006-01-01

    There is a fairly closed circle between culture, language, meaning, and truth such that the world of a given culture is a world understood in terms of the meanings produced in that culture. Medicine is, in fact, a subculture of a powerful type and has its own language and understanding of the range of illnesses that affect human beings. So how does medicine get at the truth of people and their ills in such a way as to escape its own limited constructions? There is a way out of the closed circle implicit in the idea of a praxis and the engagement with reality that is central to it and the further possibility introduced by Jacques Lacan that signification is never comprehensive in relation to the subject's encounter with the real. I will explore both of these so as to develop a conception of truth that is apt for the knowledge that arises in the clinic. PMID:17178003

  4. Hanford cultural resources management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Chatters, J.C.

    1989-06-01

    As a federal agency, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by Congress and the President to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historical, and cultural resources on lands it administers, to manage these in a spirit of stewardship for future generations, and to protect and preserve the rights of Native Americans to religious freedom. The purpose of this document is to describe how the DOE-Richland Operations (DOE-RL) will meet those responsibilities on the Hanford Site, pursuant to guidelines for Agency Responsibilities under the Historic Preservation Act (FR 53:31, February 17, 1988). This document is intended for multiple uses. Among other things, the text is designed as a manual for cultural resource managers to follow and as an explanation of the process of cultural resource regulatory compliance for the DOE-RL and Site contractors. 10 refs., 17 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Perspectives on Changing Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.; Durbin, Karyn R.; Van Duzer, Andrew

    2005-12-01

    The importance of culture in the nuclear field has become widely recognized. In the wake of the 9-11 attacks in the United States, and terrorist attacks worldwide, the international community has become interested in strengthening nuclear security culture for much of the same reasons that it became interested in strengthening the nuclear safety culture in the 1980’s. The accidents that occurred at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl led to a realization that nuclear operations in one country can directly affect other countries. The accidents also led to the realization that technology alone cannot guarantee safety and that the human element has a key role to play in the safety operation of nuclear power plans.

  6. Representing culture in interstellar messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    2008-09-01

    As scholars involved with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have contemplated how we might portray humankind in any messages sent to civilizations beyond Earth, one of the challenges they face is adequately representing the diversity of human cultures. For example, in a 2003 workshop in Paris sponsored by the SETI Institute, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) SETI Permanent Study Group, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (ISAST), and the John Templeton Foundation, a varied group of artists, scientists, and scholars from the humanities considered how to encode notions of altruism in interstellar messages . Though the group represented 10 countries, most were from Europe and North America, leading to the group's recommendation that subsequent discussions on the topic should include more globally representative perspectives. As a result, the IAA Study Group on Interstellar Message Construction and the SETI Institute sponsored a follow-up workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA in February 2005. The Santa Fe workshop brought together scholars from a range of disciplines including anthropology, archaeology, chemistry, communication science, philosophy, and psychology. Participants included scholars familiar with interstellar message design as well as specialists in cross-cultural research who had participated in the Symposium on Altruism in Cross-cultural Perspective, held just prior to the workshop during the annual conference of the Society for Cross-cultural Research . The workshop included discussion of how cultural understandings of altruism can complement and critique the more biologically based models of altruism proposed for interstellar messages at the 2003 Paris workshop. This paper, written by the chair of both the Paris and Santa Fe workshops, will explore the challenges of communicating concepts of altruism that draw on both biological and cultural models.

  7. CT-Guided Transthoracic Core Biopsy for Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Diagnostic Value of the Histopathological Findings in the Specimen

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, Hozumi Ibukuro, Kenji; Tsukiyama, Toshitaka; Ishii, Rei

    2004-09-15

    We evaluated the value of CT-guided transthoracic core biopsy for the diagnosis of mycobacterial pulmonary nodules. The 30 subjects in this study had pulmonary nodules that had been either diagnosed histopathologically as tuberculosis or were suspected as tuberculosis based on a specimen obtained by CT-guided transthoracic core biopsy. The histopathological findings, the existence of acid-fast bacilli in the biopsy specimens, and the clinical course of the patients after the biopsy were reviewed retrospectively. Two of the three histological findings for tuberculosis that included epithelioid cells, multinucleated giant cells and caseous necrosis were observed in 21 of the nodules which were therefore diagnosed as histological tuberculosis. Six of these 21 nodules were positive for acid-fast bacilli, confirming the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Thirteen of the 21 nodules did not contain acid-fast bacilli but decreased in size in response to antituberculous treatment and were therefore diagnosed as clinical tuberculosis. Seven nodules with only caseous necrosis were diagnosed as suspected tuberculosis, with a final diagnosis of tuberculosis being made in 4 of the nodules and a diagnosis of old tuberculosis in 2 nodules. Two nodules with only multinucleated giant cells were diagnosed as suspected tuberculosis with 1 of these nodules being diagnosed finally as tuberculosis and the other nodule as a nonspecific granuloma. When any two of the three following histopathological findings - epithelioid cells, multinucleated giant cells or caseous necrosis - are observed in a specimen obtained by CT-guided transthoracic core biopsy, the diagnosis of tuberculosis can be established without the detection of acid-fast bacilli or Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  8. Endobronchial tuberculosis mimicking malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shahid M; Iyer, Aparna; Jayalakshmi, TK; Nair, Girija

    2015-01-01

    Endobronchial tuberculosis has a very varied presentation. Diagnosis is often very challenging as typical radiological features are absent and sputum smear for acid-fast bacilli is often negative. However, detection is essential as it may lead to long-term sequelae such as bronchial stenosis. Bronchoscopy is a very useful investigation in such cases. Our case is a rare manifestation of endobronchial tuberculosis as it mimicked malignancy.

  9. Mycobacterium pinnipedii tuberculosis in a free-ranging Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Wayne S J; Shephard, Lisa; Bastian, Ivan; Globan, Maria; Fyfe, Janet A M; Cousins, Debby V; Machado, Aaron; Woolford, Lucy

    2014-12-01

    This report describes the first case in South Australia, Australia, of Mycobacterium pinnipedii tuberculosis in a free-ranging Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Severe pyogranulomatous pleuropneumonia with intrahistocytic acid-fast beaded filamentous bacilli was seen on histology. M. pinnipedii was confirmed by full 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Spillover concerns for public health and cattle are discussed. PMID:25632695

  10. Screening Madness in American Culture.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    This two-step argument first establishes that the majority of recent American films dealing with mental illness draw on a traditional iconography of madness as it has been established over the centuries in Western culture. In this vocabulary of images, the mad are typically seen as wise fools, as dangerous villains or as gifted geniuses. The author then argues that some of these new films add a fourth category in which the mad are defined as normal and the person with autism as the embodiment of this normalcy. A close examination of the films then suggests that high functioning autism has become the embodiment of America's current cultural condition. PMID:24894459

  11. Men as cultural ideals: Cultural values moderate gender stereotype content.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, Amy J C; Wolf, Elizabeth Baily; Glick, Peter; Crotty, Susan; Chong, Jihye; Norton, Michael I

    2015-10-01

    Four studies tested whether cultural values moderate the content of gender stereotypes, such that male stereotypes more closely align with core cultural values (specifically, individualism vs. collectivism) than do female stereotypes. In Studies 1 and 2, using different measures, Americans rated men as less collectivistic than women, whereas Koreans rated men as more collectivistic than women. In Study 3, bicultural Korean Americans who completed a survey in English about American targets rated men as less collectivistic than women, whereas those who completed the survey in Korean about Korean targets did not, demonstrating how cultural frames influence gender stereotype content. Study 4 established generalizability by reanalyzing Williams and Best's (1990) cross-national gender stereotype data across 26 nations. National individualism-collectivism scores predicted viewing collectivistic traits as more-and individualistic traits as less-stereotypically masculine. Taken together, these data offer support for the cultural moderation of gender stereotypes hypothesis, qualifying past conclusions about the universality of gender stereotype content. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26414843

  12. Culture and Psychiatric Evaluation: Operationalizing Cultural Formulation for DSM-5

    PubMed Central

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan; Bäärnhielm, Sofie; Rohlof, Hans; Kirmayer, Laurence J.; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Jadhav, Sushrut; Hinton, Ladson; Alarcón, Renato D.; Bhugra, Dinesh; Groen, Simon; van Dijk, Rob; Qureshi, Adil; Collazos, Francisco; Rousseau, Cécile; Caballero, Luis; Ramos, Mar; Lu, Francis

    2015-01-01

    The Outline for Cultural Formulation (OCF) introduced with DSM-IV provided a framework for clinicians to organize cultural information relevant to diagnostic assessment and treatment planning. However, use of the OCF has been inconsistent, raising questions about the need for guidance on implementation, training, and application in diverse settings. To address this need, DSM-5 introduced a cultural formulation interview (CFI) that operationalizes the process of data collection for the OCF. The CFI includes patient and informant versions and 12 supplementary modules addressing specific domains of the OCF. This article summarizes the literature reviews and analyses of experience with the OCF conducted by the DSM-5 Cross-Cultural Issues Subgroup (DCCIS) that informed the development of the CFI. We review the history and contents of the DSM-IV OCF, its use in training programs, and previous attempts to render it operational through questionnaires, protocols, and semi-structured interview formats. Results of research based on the OCF are discussed. For each domain of the OCF, we summarize findings from the DCCIS that led to content revision and operationalization in the CFI. The conclusion discusses training and implementation issues essential to service delivery. PMID:24865197

  13. The Afghans: Their History and Culture. Culture Profile, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Barbara; Lipson, Juliene

    This booklet provides a basic introduction to the people, history, and cultures of Afghanistan. It is designed primarily for service providers and others assisting the Afghan refugees in their new communities in the United States. The 12 sections focus on: (1) "Preface"; (2) "Introduction" (recent Afghan refugees); (3) "The Land"; (4) "The…

  14. Collisions of Culture: Academic Culture in the Neoliberal University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeCompte, Margaret D.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how different constituencies in a major research university tried to initiate change despite disagreements over common goals, norms and principles. The context was a culture war. The university administration wanted to impose a corporatising and privatising philosophy which it felt was crucial to preserving the…

  15. Developing Cultural Understanding: The Culture Triangle Paradigm in FCS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Deborah A.; Schmidt-Rinehart, Barbara C.; Morris, Nancy A.

    2011-01-01

    Academic institutions as well as professional organizations are faced with providing their constituents with the knowledge and tools that will enable them to interact with people of other cultures--to be global citizens in both their personal and professional lives. The foreign language profession developed a paradigm that has been effectively…

  16. The Cultured Word: Cultural Background, Bilingualism, and the School Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agosto, Denise E.

    2001-01-01

    Presents major research related to cultural background as a framework for textual meaning-making, bilingualism, and literacy development. Discusses bilingualism, literacy, and social context; considers why these issues are important to school librarians; and offers suggestions for making multicultural materials central aspects of school library…

  17. Culture, Diversity, and Language: What Is Culturally Competent Translation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Antonio P.

    2009-01-01

    As the cultural and ethnic diversity of the student population rises within school districts across the nation, the matter of translating materials in a language that is understandable and meaningful to the target population becomes more pressing. There are multitude of problems inherent in translation of materials from one language to another. To…

  18. Culturing Mouse Cardiac Valves in the Miniature Tissue Culture System.

    PubMed

    Kruithof, Boudewijn P T; Lieber, Samuel C; Kruithof-de Julio, Marianna; Gaussin, Vincian; Goumans, Marie José

    2015-01-01

    Heart valve disease is a major burden in the Western world and no effective treatment is available. This is mainly due to a lack of knowledge of the molecular, cellular and mechanical mechanisms underlying the maintenance and/or loss of the valvular structure. Current models used to study valvular biology include in vitro cultures of valvular endothelial and interstitial cells. Although, in vitro culturing models provide both cellular and molecular mechanisms, the mechanisms involved in the 3D-organization of the valve remain unclear. While in vivo models have provided insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying valvular development, insight into adult valvular biology is still elusive. In order to be able to study the regulation of the valvular 3D-organization on tissue, cellular and molecular levels, we have developed the Miniature Tissue Culture System. In this ex vivo flow model the mitral or the aortic valve is cultured in its natural position in the heart. The natural configuration and composition of the leaflet are maintained allowing the most natural response of the valvular cells to stimuli. The valves remain viable and are responsive to changing environmental conditions. This MTCS may provide advantages on studying questions including but not limited to, how does the 3D organization affect valvular biology, what factors affect 3D organization of the valve, and which network of signaling pathways regulates the 3D organization of the valve. PMID:26555276

  19. Rapid detection of tuberculosis using droplet-based microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Liat; Cheng, Yunfeng; Rao, Jianghong; Tang, Sindy K. Y.

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most deadly diseases that kills over one million people each year and infects one-third of the world's population. The disease is spread by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Owing to its airborne transmission, early diagnosis is critical to the prevention and control of TB. Standard diagnostic methods, acid-fast smear from sputum, often do not become positive until after transmission occurs, which allows the spread of the disease. Culture-based techniques are more sensitive, but take weeks to obtain results because of the extremely slow growth rate of Mtb. In this study a new method to detect indicator enzyme based on the isolation of tubercle bacillus in a large number of picoliter droplets combined with a fluorescent probe has been developed. We use BlaC (an enzyme naturally expressed/secreted by tubercle bacilli) as a marker and a designed BlaC-specific fluorogenic substrates as probes for Mtb detection. We present here a new method to detect the indicator enzyme based on the isolation, digitization and concentration of bacteria samples in a large number of picoliter drops. We show that by controlling the size of the droplets we can control the rate of conversion. Hence rapid increase in signal has been observed as the size of the drops has been decreased. Our vision is that this tool will be able to detect tubercle bacilli in a sensitive, rapid, specific and quantitative manner in vitro at a low cost, particularly in resource limited settings where TB is the most prevalent.

  20. Culturally Focused Community-Centered Service Learning: An International Cultural Immersion Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson-Clarke, Saundra M.; Clarke, Darren

    2010-01-01

    An immersion training model is described that incorporates culturally focused community-centered service in South Africa as an experiential learning approach. Recommendations for developing international cultural immersion training with a goal of developing cultural competencies are suggested.

  1. Inventing Japan's `robotics culture': The repeated assembly of science, technology, and culture in social robotics

    E-print Network

    Sabanovic, Selma

    1 Inventing Japan's `robotics culture': The repeated assembly of science, technology, and culture in social robotics Selma Sabanovi School of Informatics and Computing, Indiana University analyzes the co- construction of robotics and culture in Japan through the technical discourse

  2. Culturing Conceptions: From First Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Lee, Yew Jin; Hwang, SungWon

    2008-01-01

    Over the past three decades, science educators have accumulated a vast amount of information on conceptions--variously defined as beliefs, ontologies, cognitive structures, mental models, or frameworks--that generally (at least initially) have been derived from interviews about certain topics. During the same time period, cultural studies has…

  3. Culturally and Linguistically Relevant Readalouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Laura A.; Bingham, Gary E.; Pendergast, Meghan L.

    2014-01-01

    The teacher readaloud is an instructional tool established in its ability to foster children's language and literacy development. Increasing cultural and linguistic diversity and changing standards place pressure on teachers to provide literacy and language instruction relevant to children's everyday lives and learning. This article…

  4. Cultural Disconnection in Virtual Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Patrick; Wang, Ruolan; Tearle, Penni

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports a small-scale investigation into the differences in learning behaviour exhibited by members of an intercultural group undertaking an online course on educational enquiry in support of doctoral research in education. Differences in learning behaviour can be attributed in part to the different cultural and linguistic backgrounds…

  5. Culture Studies: Hawaiian Studies Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazama, Dorothy, Ed.

    Reports and materials from the Hawaiian Studies Project are presented. The document, designed for elementary school teachers contains two major sections. The first section describes the planning phase of the project, the Summer Institute for Hawaiian Culture Studies (1976) and the follow-up workshops and consultant help (1976-77). The appendix to…

  6. The Cultural Heritage of Syria

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    for transporting water to the town or the fields - a tentative world heritage site Norias on the river Orontes in Hama, previously used for transporting water to the town or the fields - a tentative world heritage of Aleppo, Homs and other cities. An entire cultural landscape of diverse intangible heritage

  7. Autism across Cultures: Rethinking Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun Uk

    2012-01-01

    Whereas the autism prevalence rate has been very closely monitored in the United States, the same has not been observed in many other countries. This may be attributed to the fact that each culture views and defines autism differently. Using field notes and semi-structured interviews with family members with an individual with autism, teachers,…

  8. Research Reconsiderations Concerning Cultural Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becher, Aslaug Andreassen

    2004-01-01

    "Minority children" experience a lot of shifts in their cultural contexts. The author's work as a professional teacher in multicultural classes enabled her to focus on the research questions presented in this article. These questions concern the need for some minority children to achieve equal opportunities in the Norwegian…

  9. Disability within the African Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskay, M.; Onu, V. C.; Igbo, J. N.; Obiyo, N.; Ugwuanyi, L.

    2012-01-01

    For a long time, children with special needs were educated along with other regular children in schools. The notion of special education was a Western phenomenon and concept in Nigeria. How were children with special needs educated without special education programs? This article will provide cultural perspectives on issues of disability and care…

  10. Contemporary Cultures: Issues and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maubrey, Pierre; And Others

    The articles on culture in the Northeast Conference Report are intended especially for those teaching French, German, Italian, or Spanish. Generally they provide an update in the target language about current concerns including the family, education, economics, politics, and other matters of interest to second language learners. The following…

  11. Cultural Enrichment through Community Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, O. J.

    This project was conceived as a technique for helping to eliminate a cultural void in the areas of art, music, and theatre in the service area of Western Kentucky University. To implement this concept, demonstrations were conducted in art, music, theatre, and in library and lecture resources in 16 counties over a four-year period. The attendance…

  12. Rethinking Popular Culture and Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Elizabeth, Ed.; Sensoy, Ozlem, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Rethinking Popular Culture and Media" is a provocative collection of articles that begins with the idea that the "popular" in classrooms and in the everyday lives of teachers and students is fundamentally political. This anthology includes outstanding articles by elementary and secondary public school teachers, scholars, and activists who…

  13. Core Knowledge and Cultural Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, John M.; Pelletier, Karen

    1997-01-01

    Three Oaks Elementary School in Fort Myers, Florida, was the first school to adopt Core Knowledge, an articulated K-6 curriculum promoted by E.D. Hirsch, author of "Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know" (1987). Hirsch feels that emphasizing skills over knowledge unintentionally injures disadvantaged students. Program specifics and…

  14. TOTAL CULTURABLE VIRUS QUANTAL ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes a quantal method for assaying culturable human enteric viruses from water matrices. The assay differs from the plaque assay described in Chapter 10 (December 1987 Revision) in that it is based upon the direct microscopic viewing of cells for virus-induced ...

  15. A Test of Cultural Empathy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, F. H.

    A 150-item Test of Cultural Empathy originated in the spring of 1973 with a group of 16 students of three major ethnic groups in a class in Intercultural Communication at Texas Christian University (TCU). Although the test items were generally original, a few items came from the Dove Counterbalance I.Q. Test. The test was validated through four…

  16. Beauty Culture II. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mankiw, Dorothy S.; Elefante, Michael A.

    This teacher's manual presents a course outline for the second semester (270 hours) of a four-semester course in beauty culture. The syllabus is divided into nine sections and includes the following areas of instruction: the shop and the cosmetologist; scalp applications and shampooing; hair styling; hair cutting; manicuring and pedicuring;…

  17. Cultural Evolution of Human Cooperation

    E-print Network

    Richerson, Peter J.

    -selected cultural institutions to produce just the kinds of social and moral faculties originally proposed by Darwin motives. It is proposed that innate aspects of human social psychology coevolved with group. This is termed the "tribal social instincts" hypothesis. The account is systemic in the sense that human social

  18. Cultural Activities for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Cultural activities for the deaf are described and discussed in seven conference papers. Two papers by P. R. Wisher of Gallaudet College treat "The Role of Physical Education and Athletics for the Deaf in a Hearing World" and "Psychological Contributions of Dance to the Adjustment of the Deaf." Also included are three papers from Poland: H.…

  19. Campus Cultures Fostering Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The 2004 and 2005-06 workshops sponsored by the Council of Independent Colleges and the National Institute for Technology & Liberal Education have generated much data that can be used to describe aspects of the campus cultures at some 130 institutions that foster information literacy. These data are particularly informative regarding collaboration…

  20. Perks and Culture Competitive compensation

    E-print Network

    Ghosh, Joydeep

    Perks and Culture · Competitive compensation · Annual bonus · Equity · Employee Stock Purchase Plan with the largest corporate data warehouse in the world. We create and implement new strategies, software achiever. Corporate summer Internship: Interning at Walmart is not only a unique opportunity to gain both

  1. Acquisition streamlining: A cultural change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Jesse

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the defense systems management college, educational philosophy, the defense acquisition environment, streamlining initiatives, organizational streamlining types, defense law review, law review purpose, law review objectives, the Public Law Pilot Program, and cultural change.

  2. Cultural Language Study: Grade 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Betty L.; Tappenden, Jacqueline W.

    This course guide, the first in a two-year sequence, is designed to give students an overview of Greek and Roman culture and language from the era of the early Aegean civilizations in Greece and Asia Minor to the Augustan Age in Rome. Six units of study are concerned with the growth and development of Greece and with the metamorphosis of Rome from…

  3. Transforming Cultural Trauma into Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brokenleg, Martin

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges facing Aboriginal populations increasingly is being called "intergenerational trauma." Restoring the cultural heritage is a central theme in the book, "Reclaiming Youth at Risk." That work describes the Circle of Courage model for positive development which blends Native child and youth care philosophy with research…

  4. Cultural Transmission (or Social Learning)

    E-print Network

    Brown, Christopher A.

    's behavior We can define 4 types: Local enhancement Social facilitation Copying Imitation #12;2 Local locations Mating aggregations Social Facilitation Observer is drawn to an area by the presence alone1 Cultural Transmission (or Social Learning) An Example in Japanese Macaques One macaque (Imo

  5. Digital Technology and Culture Program

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    communicate through writing and speech why and how digital media texts make meaning. Student Club The Digital Technology and Culture Club serves DTC students' professional interests and need in the creative media field and Sciences Career Options Graphic design Social media consulting Web development Game design Information

  6. Wound Drainage Culture (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Español Teachers - Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading All About Allergies First Aid: What to Do Pregnant? What to Expect Sports: Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Wound Drainage Culture KidsHealth > Parents > ...

  7. Serious Pursuit of Cultural Trivialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurmuehlen, Marilyn

    1989-01-01

    Criticizes the approach towards literacy taken by E. D. Hirsch, Jr. in "Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know." Compares Hirsch's list of "What Literate Americans Know" with lists in books on trivia. Expresses concern about the narrow sense in which Hirsch conceives context in relationship to literacy. (LS)

  8. Canoe Journeys and Cultural Revival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01

    For the state of Washington's one-hundredth birthday, in 1989, Native peoples there decided to revive a distinctive mode of transportation--long-distance journeys by canoe--along with an entire culture associated with it. Born as the "Paddle to Seattle," during the past two decades these canoe journeys have become a summertime staple for Native…

  9. The Culture of School Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontenot, Robert

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to examine the nature and causes of school discipline problems and school violence including an increase in the number of racial, cultural, and class hostility incidents; and (2) to offer remedies which might help alleviate disruptions to the learning process. Eight middle schools with a total of 3,212…

  10. Oppositional Culture and Educational Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The most common lay explanation for the racial gap in educational achievement in the US is the "oppositional culture hypothesis", which holds that Black students tend to undervalue education and stigmatize their high-achieving peers, accusing them of "acting White". Many believe that, insofar as this hypothesis is true, Black underachievement is…

  11. Political Parody and Public Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hariman, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Parody and related forms of political humor are essential resources for sustaining democratic public culture. They do so by exposing the limits of public speech, transforming discursive demands into virtual images, setting those images before a carnivalesque audience, and celebrating social leveling while decentering all discourses within the…

  12. The Technological Culture of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretorius, Joelien

    2008-01-01

    The article proceeds from the argument that war is a social institution and not a historical inevitability of human interaction, that is, war can be "unlearned." This process involves deconstructing/dismantling war as an institution in society. An important step in this process is to understand the philosophical and cultural bases on which…

  13. Teaching Religion and Material Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carp, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    Because religions discipline and interpret bodies; create and define sacred spaces; generate, adore and study images in all media; regulate the intake of food; structure temporal experience; and in general interpenetrate and are permeated by the cultural landscapes in which they exist, religious studies must engage material religion and religious…

  14. Lacing Together Mathematics and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirich, Denise L.; Cavey, Laurie O.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors drew on the cultural traditions associated with the Shoshoni-Paiute tribes to design a lesson to engage students in problem solving and making arguments for their strategies. The reservation school is in an isolated rural community 100 miles from any other larger town and the participants for this article were the…

  15. Cultural Differences in Justificatory Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soong, Hannah; Lee, Richard; John, George

    2012-01-01

    Justificatory reasoning, the ability to justify one's beliefs and actions, is an important goal of education. We develop a scale to measure the three forms of justificatory reasoning--absolutism, relativism, and evaluativism--before validating the scale across two cultures and domains. The results show that the scale possessed validity and…

  16. Publishing and Using Cultural Heritage

    E-print Network

    Hyvönen, Eero

    Publishing and Using Cultural Heritage Linked Data on the Semantic Web Copyright © 2012 by Morgan & Claypool, Palo Alto, CA, USA #12;Synthesis Lectures on Semantic Web: Theory and Technology Editors James Web: Theory and Application is edited by James Hendler of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Whether

  17. The Cultural Preparation of Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, J. Tim

    This paper describes an ongoing doctoral study on the preparation of teachers to work in a variety of student cultural populations. It will examine teachers from three distinctly different geographical and sociocultural areas. The three areas are urban, suburban/rural, and rural isolated school jurisdictions in Alberta and Saskatchewan (Canada).…

  18. Archaeoastronomical Concepts in Popular Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, Edwin C.

    Broad public embrace of archaic astronomy probably began in the eighteenth century with awareness of the summer solstice sunrise's affiliation with Stonehenge. Since that time, Stonehenge has retained an astronomical mystique that attracts crowds mobilized by the monument's supposed cosmic purpose. They are committed to witness prehistoric heritage operating in real time and with enduring function. More recently, mass media have intermittently thrown a spotlight on new archaeoastronomical discoveries. While the details, ambiguities, and nuances of disciplined study of astronomy in antiquity do not usually infiltrate popular culture, some astronomical alignments, celestial events, sky-tempered symbols, and astral narratives have become well known and referenced in popular culture. Places and relics that command public interest with astronomical connotations are transformed into cultural icons and capture visitors on a quest for the authenticity the past is believed to possess. Monuments and ideas that successfully forge a romantic bond with the past and inspire an imagined sense of sharing the experience, perspective, and wisdom of antiquity persist in the cultural landscape.

  19. Acquisition streamlining: A cultural change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Jesse

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the defense systems management college, educational philosophy, the defense acquisition environment, streamlining initiatives, organizational streamlining types, defense law review, law review purpose, law review objectives, the Public Law Pilot Program, and cultural change.

  20. Cross-Cultural HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    The first of three papers from this symposium on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD), "Determinants of Supply of Technical Training Opportunities for Human Capital Development in Kenya" (Moses Waithanji Ngware, Fredrick Muyia Nafukho) reports findings from interviews of technical training institute department heads in Kenya who…