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1

A STUDY OF MYCOBACTERIA INCLUDING ATYPICAL ACID FAST BACILLI (Cultural and Biochemical Characteristics)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of acid fast bacilli producing pulmonary disease in man, but differing from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cul- tural, biochemical and other characteristics has been reported sporadically for many years. Tarshis and Frisch (1952), Buhler & Pollak (1953) and Timpe & Runyon (1954) suggested that a group of these orga- nisms potentially pathogenic to man, could be distinguished by their

HARMINDER KAUR; N. L. CHITKARA

2

A rare case of acid-fast bacilli in chylothorax  

PubMed Central

Chylothorax is a rare cause of pleural effusion. Here we present a case of chylous pleural effusion in which acid-fast bacilli (AFB) was demonstrated (by AFB direct smear examination). The patient had been suffering from chronic pancreatitis for one year and had undergone pancreatoduodenostomy nine months back. He presented with abdominal pain and dyspnea of six months duration and his chest skiagram showed right-sided pleural effusion. Thoracocentasis showed milky white pleural fluid with triglyceride content of 678 mg/dl, diagnostic of chylothorax. The patient clinically improved and his pleural effusion also completely resolved with anti-tuberculosis treatment. PMID:22628934

Ananthan, V. S.; Siva, K. Kapali

2012-01-01

3

A cold staining method for acid-fast bacilli  

PubMed Central

The Ziehl-Neelsen method is probably the best known and most frequently used procedure for staining tubercle bacilli. The method requires controlled heating for its success. However, in developing countries, such as India, where most laboratories rely mainly on spirit lamps as a source of heat, the Ziehl-Neelsen method often cannot be carried out because rectified spirit is difficult to obtain. The study describes a cold staining technique that uses the same staining solutions as the conventional Ziehl-Neelsen method. For direct smears, the correlation of results of the cold staining procedure with those of the Ziehl-Neelsen method was 97% and for concentrated smears was 99%. The method described is suitable for use in basically equipped laboratories. PMID:2433067

Vasanthakumari, R.; Jagannath, K.; Rajasekaran, S.

1986-01-01

4

Ultraviolet Light Enhances the Bovine Serum Albumin Fixation for Acid Fast Bacilli Stain  

PubMed Central

The use of a liquid culture system such as MGIT broth has greatly improved the sensitivity of isolating mycobacteria in clinical laboratories. Microscopic visualization of acid fast bacilli (AFB) in the culture positive MGIT broth remains the first routine step for rapidly indicating the presence of mycobacteria. We modified an ultraviolet (UV) light fixation process to increase AFB cells adherence to the slide. The retained haze proportion of a 1-cm circle marked area on the smear slide was quantified after the staining procedure indicating the adherence degree of AFB cells. More AFB cells were preserved on the slide after exposure to UV light of either germicidal lamp or UV crosslinker in a time-dependent manner. We demonstrated both the bovine serum albumin (BSA) in MGIT media and UV light exposure were required for enhancing fixation of AFB cells. While applying to AFB stains for 302 AFB positive MGIT broths in clinics, more AFB cells were retained and observed on smear slides prepared by the modified fixation procedure rather than by the conventional method. The modified fixation procedure was thus recommended for improving the sensitivity of microscopic diagnosis of AFB cells in culture positive MGIT broth. PMID:24586725

Lai, Pei-Yin; Lee, Shih-Yi; Chou, Yu-Ching; Fu, Yung-Chieh; Wu, Chen-Cheng; Chiueh, Tzong-Shi

2014-01-01

5

Bleach Processed Smear for Acid Fast Bacilli Staining in Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed

The conventional method of processing sputum for acid fast bacilli microscopy has been a primary tool for laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in Papua New Guinea. In routine preparation, untreated sputum is directly smeared on a glass slide without undergoing any stage of processing. Mounting evidence suggests that direct smearing is less sensitive and, to a certain degree, compromises infection control. A few alternatives for processing sputum have been recommended in the literature; however, their consumables are not easily accessible and are expensive for wide use in rural laboratories. The bleach concentration and processing method appears to be the most preferable choice because bleach is inexpensive, readily available, and has bactericidal properties. PMID:25378525

Makaen, Johnson; Maure, Tobbias

2014-01-01

6

Comparison of LED and conventional fluorescence microscopy for detection of acid-fast bacilli in an area with high tuberculosis incidence.  

PubMed

The objective of the study is to compare the performance of conventional fluorescence microscopy (CFM) and light-emitting diode (LED) fluorescence microscopy (FM) for detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in clinical samples. We included AFB smears, stained using the auramine O method and blindly examined with both CFM and LED-FM. Culture results were used as reference for evaluating the reliability of the FM. We included 180 culture positive specimens and an equal number of culture negative specimens. Sensitivities for the CFM and LED-FM were 79.4% and 82.2%, respectively. Both microscopes had a high specificity (97.2%). The negative-positive (>1 cross) inter-reader agreement of LED-FM and CFM was excellent. Therefore, detection of scanty AFB was higher with LED-FM. Both microscopes were equivalent with respect to time required to read smears. Although it was not faster than CFM, the higher detection of scanty AFB smears combined with ease of use supports the consideration of LED microscopy by all tuberculosis diagnostic laboratories, as a replacement for conventional fluorescence microscopes. PMID:23632250

Marzouk, Manel; Ferjani, Asma; Dhaou, Mohamed; Ali, Moufida Haj; Hannachi, Naila; Boukadida, Jalel

2013-07-01

7

Assessment of Prevalence of Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria in Archival Acid-fast Bacilli Positive Smear Slides by TaqMan Real-time PCR Assay  

PubMed Central

Background: The emergence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria as clinically relevant pathogens has necessitated us for the study of these organisms in the context of their environment. Differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and non-tuberculous mycobacteria is important especially when we have a positive smear slide test result. Aim: In this study, we planned to survey the prevalence of tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria among archival acid-fast bacilli positive smear slides. Materials and Methods: A number of 200 acid-fast bacilli positive smear slides were collected from different parts of Sistan and Baluchestan Province, the biggest province of Iran with the highest incidence of tuberculosis. The presence of mycobacterial IS6110 was evaluated in slides’ scraped material by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Results: The real-time polymerase chain reaction tests of archival acid-fast bacilli positive smear slides showed that 171 slides from 200 examined slides had M. tuberculosis DNA and in the remaining 29 examined slides, M. tuberculosis DNA was not found. Conclusion: Our findings showed that there was no M. tuberculosis DNA in 14.5% of archival AFB positive smear slides, and this finding necessitates us to reviewing our diagnostic and anti- tuberculous protocols. PMID:22655283

Farivar, Taghi Naserpour; Johari, Pouran; Moien, Abbas Ali; Shahri, Mohammad Hashemi; Naderi, Mohammad; Oskouie, Hamid

2012-01-01

8

Improving sensitivity of direct microscopy for detection of acid-fast bacilli in sputum: use of chitin in mucus digestion.  

PubMed

In order to try to improve the results of direct smear microscopy, we used the mucus-digesting quality of chitin in tuberculosis (TB) laboratories. For this purpose, a total of 430 sputum specimens were processed by the N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) liquefaction, chitin sedimentation, and direct microscopy methods. Then, the smear sensitivity for acid-fast bacillus detection by chitin-treated sputum was compared with the sensitivity of smears prepared by other methods. Our results showed that the chitin solution took less time to completely homogenize the mucoid sputum than did the N-acetyl-L-cysteine and NaOCl methods. The N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration method demonstrated sensitivity and specificity levels of 83 and 97%, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity of chitin sedimentation was 80%, with a specificity of 96.7%. The NaOCl liquefaction method showed a sensitivity of 78%, with a specificity of 96%. Finally, the sensitivity of direct microscopy was lower than those of the other tested methods and was only 46%, with a specificity of 90%. The chitin and NaOCl liquefaction methods are both easy to perform, and they do not require additional equipment (centrifuges). Also, our results demonstrated that the chitin method is less time-consuming than the NaOCl method, since only 30 min of incubation is required to bring complete sedimentation of bacilli in chitin-treated sputum whereas the NaOCl method needs 10 to 12 h to give the same results in the same sputum specimens. Therefore, the chitin liquefaction and sedimentation method may provide better results in TB laboratories of developing countries than the N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration, NaOCl overnight sedimentation, and direct smear microscopy methods. PMID:11825964

Farnia, P; Mohammadi, F; Zarifi, Z; Tabatabee, D J; Ganavi, J; Ghazisaeedi, K; Farnia, P K; Gheydi, M; Bahadori, M; Masjedi, M R; Velayati, A A

2002-02-01

9

Mistaken identity: Legionella micdadei appearing as acid-fast bacilli on lung biopsy of a hematopoietic stem cell transplant patient.  

PubMed

Legionella micdadei is a potential cause of invasive lung infections in immunocompromised hosts. On biopsy specimens, it can appear as an acid-fast bacillus (AFB) and can be mistaken for a member of genus Mycobacterium. As Legionella requires selective media to grow in culture, and the commonly used, commercially available urine antigen test for Legionella only detects Legionella pneumophila serogroup-1, but not L. micdadei, it is important to consider this organism in the differential diagnosis for AFB in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of L. micdadei infection, which was initially treated empirically for non-tuberculous mycobacteria based on AFB staining of biopsy tissue before the final diagnosis was made. PMID:25573597

Waldron, P R; Martin, B A; Ho, D Y

2015-02-01

10

Comparison of LED and Conventional Fluorescence Microscopy for Detection of Acid Fast Bacilli in a Low-Incidence Setting  

PubMed Central

Introduction Light emitting diode fluorescence microscopes have many practical advantages over conventional mercury vapour fluorescence microscopes, which would make them the preferred choice for laboratories in both low- and high-resource settings, provided performance is equivalent. Methods In a nested case-control study, we compared diagnostic accuracy and time required to read slides with the Zeiss PrimoStar iLED, LW Scientific Lumin, and a conventional fluorescence microscope (Leica DMLS). Mycobacterial culture was used as the reference standard, and subgroup analysis by specimen source and organism isolated were performed. Results There was no difference in sensitivity or specificity between the three microscopes, and agreement was high for all comparisons and subgroups. The Lumin and the conventional fluorescence microscope were equivalent with respect to time required to read smears, but the Zeiss iLED was significantly time saving compared to both. Conclusions Light emitting diode microscopy should be considered by all tuberculosis diagnostic laboratories, including those in high income countries, as a replacement for conventional fluorescence microscopes. Our findings provide support to the recent World Health Organization policy recommending that conventional fluorescence microscopy be replaced by light emitting diode microscopy using auramine staining in all settings where fluorescence microscopy is currently used. PMID:21811622

Minion, Jessica; Pai, Madhukar; Ramsay, Andrew; Menzies, Dick; Greenaway, Christina

2011-01-01

11

Correlation of eosinophilic structures with detection of acid-fast bacilli in fine needle aspiration smears from tuberculous lymph nodes: Is eosinophilic structure the missing link in spectrum of tuberculous lesion?  

PubMed Central

Background: Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) is not seen in all necrotic tuberculous lesions. If the subset of tuberculous lesions which yield positive result for AFB can be identified, it would save on time and manpower besides optimizing use of resources. A prospective study was undertaken to assess if presence of eosinophilic structures (ESs) in necrotic tuberculous lesions correlated with the presence of AFB. Materials and Methods: Patients referred for fine needle aspiration cytology for evaluation of lymphadenopathy between July 2012 and June 2013 were analyzed. The hematoxylin and eosin and May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained slides were screened for epithelioid cell granuloma, ES and necrosis and Ziehl Neelsen stained smears for AFB. Result: One hundred and eight tuberculous lymph nodes yielded necrotic material on aspiration. Four cytologic pictures were seen: (a) ES+ AFB+ in 58.33%, (b) ES+ AFB? in 20.37%, (c) ES? AFB+ in 9.26% (d) ES? AFB? in 12.04% cases. Overall AFB was found in 67.59% cases, out of which 58.33% correlated with the presence of ES while 9.26% were seen in smears without ES. Conclusion: Presence of ESs should be included in the morphological description of tuberculous lesions. In the absence of granulomas, they indicate tuberculous nature of the lesion. Presence of ES mandates a search for AFB as probability of finding AFB is high in such lesions. Significance of ES lies in their presence and not in their absence. Eosinophilic structures appear to be the missing link in the spectrum of tuberculous lesion. PMID:25538384

Prasoon, Dev; Agrawal, Parimal

2014-01-01

12

Identification and Differentiation of Clinically Relevant Mycobacterium Species Directly from Acid-Fast Bacillus-Positive Culture Broth ?  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium species cause a variety of clinical diseases, some of which may be species specific. Therefore, it is clinically desirable to rapidly identify and differentiate mycobacterial isolates to the species level. We developed a rapid and high-throughput system, MycoID, to identify Mycobacterium species directly from acid-fast bacillus (AFB)-positive mycobacterial culture broth. The MycoID system incorporated broad-range PCR followed by suspension array hybridization to identify 17 clinically relevant mycobacterial complexes, groups, and species in one single reaction. We evaluated a total of 271 AFB-positive culture broth specimens, which were identified by reference standard methods in combination with biochemical and molecular tests. The overall identification agreement between the standard and the MycoID system was 89.7% (perfect match) or 97.8% (one match in codetection). In comparison to the standard, the MycoID system possessed an overall sensitivity of 97.1% and specificity of 98.8%. The 159 Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex isolates were further identified to the species level by MycoID as being M. avium (n = 98; 61.1%), M. intracellulare (n = 57; 35.8%), and mixed M. avium and M. intracellulare (n = 2; 1.3%). M. avium was recovered more frequently from sterile sites than M. intracellulare (odds ratio, 4.6; P = 0.0092). The entire MycoID procedure, including specimen processing, can be completed within 5 h, providing rapid and reliable identification and differentiation of mycobacterium species that is amenable to automation. Additional differentiation of Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex strains into M. avium and M. intracellulare may provide a tool to better understand the role of Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex isolates in human disease. PMID:19794046

Li, Haijing; Turhan, Vedat; Chokhani, Laxmi; Stratton, Charles W.; Dunbar, Sherry A.; Tang, Yi-Wei

2009-01-01

13

Improving acid-fast fluorescent staining for the detection of mycobacteria using a new nucleic acid staining approach.  

PubMed

Acid fast staining of sputum smears by microscopy remains the prevalent method for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The sensitivity of microscopy using acid fast stains requires 10(4) bacilli per ml of sputum. Although fluorescent acid fast stains, such as Auramine-O, show improved sensitivity, almost half of culture-positive TB cases are currently estimated to remain smear-negative. These current diagnosis problems provide impetus for improving staining procedures. We evaluated a novel fluorescent acid-fast staining approach using the nucleic acid-binding dye SYBR(®) Gold on mycobacterial in vitro cultures. The SYBR(®) Gold stain detected 99% of MTB in both actively replicating aerobic and non-replicating hypoxic cultures. Transmission light microscopy with Ziehl-Neelsen fuchsin, and fluorescence microscopy with Auramine-O or Auramine-rhodamine detected only 54%-86% of MTB bacilli. SYBR(®) Gold fluoresces more intensely than Auramine-O, and is highly resistant to fading. The signal to noise ratio is exceptionally high due to a >1000-fold enhanced fluorescence after binding to DNA/RNA, thereby reducing most background fluorescence. Although cost and stability of the dye may perhaps limit its clinical use at this time, these results warrant further research into more nucleic acid dye variants. In the meantime, SYBR(®) Gold staining shows great promise for use in numerous research applications. PMID:25130623

Ryan, Gavin J; Shapiro, Howard M; Lenaerts, Anne J

2014-09-01

14

Acid-fast stain  

MedlinePLUS

The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines if a sample of tissue, blood, or other body ... dye. The slide is then washed with an acid solution and a different stain is applied. Bacteria ...

15

Usefulness of the MicroSeq 500 16S rDNA bacterial identification system for identification of anaerobic Gram positive bacilli isolated from blood cultures  

PubMed Central

Using full 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing as the gold standard, 20 non?duplicating anaerobic Gram positive bacilli isolated from blood cultures were analysed by the MicroSeq 500 16S rDNA bacterial identification system. The MicroSeq system successfully identified 13 of the 20 isolates. Four and three isolates were misidentified at the genus and species level, respectively. Although the MicroSeq 500 16S rDNA bacterial identification system is better than three commercially available identification systems also evaluated, its database needs to be expanded for accurate identification of anaerobic Gram positive bacilli. PMID:16443743

Lau, S K P; Ng, K H L; Woo, P C Y; Yip, K?t; Fung, A M Y; Woo, G K S; Chan, K?m; Que, T?l

2006-01-01

16

Concentration of Lymph Node Aspirate Improves the Sensitivity of Acid Fast Smear Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Tuberculous Lymphadenitis in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN) is the most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The cytomorphological features of lymph node smears have reduced specificity for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The diagnosis of TBLN with direct smear microscopy lacks sensitivity due to the limited number of bacilli in lymph node aspirate. Therefore, we aimed to assess whether the concentration of lymph node aspirate improves the sensitivity of acid fast smear microscopy for the diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis. Methods A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 200 patients clinically suspected for tuberculous lymphadenitis in Jimma, Ethiopia. Lymph node aspirate was collected. The first two drops were used for cytomorphological study and direct acid fast staining. The remaining aspirate was treated with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NALC) and concentrated by centrifugation at 3000 g for 15 minutes. The sediment was used for acid fast staining and culture. Differentiation of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) was done by para-nitrobenzoic acid susceptibility test. Result Complete data were available for 187 study subjects. 68% (127/187) were positive for M. tuberculosis on culture. Four isolates, 2.1% (4/187), were identified as NTM. The detection rate of direct smear microscopy was 25.1% and that of the concentration method 49.7%. Cytomorphologically, 79.7% of cases were classified as TBLN. The sensitivity of direct smear microscopy was 34.6%, for concentrated smear microscopy 66.1%, and for cytomorphology 89.8%. Two AFB positive cases on concentration method were non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM). The concentration method yielded a positive result from seven cases diagnosed as suppurative abscess by cytology. Both for the direct and concentration methods the highest rate of AFB positivity was observed in smears showing caseous necrosis alone. Smear positivity rate decreased with the appearance of epithelioid cell aggregates. Conclusion The concentration of lymph node aspirates for acid fast smear microscopy had significantly higher sensitivity than direct microscopy. PMID:25184279

Tadesse, Mulualem; Abebe, Gemeda; Abdissa, Ketema; Bekele, Alemayehu; Bezabih, Mesele; Apers, Ludwig; Colebunders, Robert; Rigouts, Leen

2014-01-01

17

STUDIES ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN PHAGOCYTES AND TUBERCLE BACILLI  

PubMed Central

Tubercle bacilli labelled with C14 were prepared by growth on radioactive substrates such as glycerol, CO2, and acetate. These organisms were exposed in vitro to leucocytes (mostly polymorphonuclear leucocytes) from peritoneal exudates of guinea pigs. The respiration of the leucocytes and of the bacilli, alone and together, was followed by determining oxygen uptake and C14O2 production. When heat-killed labelled tubercle bacilli were exposed to leucocytes there was little or no degradation of bacillary material to C14O2 by leucocytic enzymes. On the other hand, conversion of components of sonically disrupted bacilli to C14O2 by leucocytes was significant. It was possible to determine the oxygen uptake and C14O2 production of phagocytized living tubercle bacilli, and it was found that after phagocytosis the bacilli maintained their rates of oxygen consumption and C14O2 production. This finding was in contrast to observations made with Mycobacterium phlei, a saprophytic acid-fast organism, and with Bacillus subtilis. In these cases oxygen consumption and C14O2 production declined after phagocytosis, and bacterial components were converted to carbon dioxide to a significant degree by leucocytic enzymes. PMID:13332185

Stähelin, Hartmann; Karnovsky, Manfred L.; Suter, Emanuel

1956-01-01

18

Histochemical studies relating the activation of macrophages to the intracellular destruction of tubercle bacilli.  

PubMed Central

Dermal tuberculous lesions, both primary and those of reinfection, were produced in rabbits with 14C-labeled BCG and biopsied once at various times. Macrophage activation was evaluated by the indolyl histochemical test for beta-galatosidase, the number of bacilli in macrophages by acid-fast staining, and the breakdown of bacilli by autoradiography. After the rabbits became tuberculin positive, the stongly activated macrophage population contained a) fewer parasitized cell, b) fewer bacilli in each parasitized cell, and c) more "free" 14C-label (not associated with intact bacilli) than the weakly activated macrophage population. These results suggest that the more highly activated macrophages had destroyed many of the bacilli that they once contained and that their power to do so was enhanced by immunologic mechanisms. PMID:320876

Ando, M.; Dannenberg, A. M.; Sugimoto, M.; Tepper, B. S.

1977-01-01

19

Acid-fast smear and culture of respiratory secretions, bone marrow, and stools as predictors of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection.  

PubMed Central

Disseminated infection caused by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is common in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome and is difficult to treat because of the high degree of resistance to antimycobacterial agents. Early diagnosis and treatment may prolong survival of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome and MAC infection. Twenty patients with disseminated MAC infection were evaluated for recovery of the organism from bone marrow, bronchial washings or sputum, and stools before the organism was isolated in blood culture. For 40 to 67% of patients, MAC was recovered from these specimens before it was isolated in blood culture. PMID:3584429

Poropatich, C O; Labriola, A M; Tuazon, C U

1987-01-01

20

Acid-fast smear and culture of respiratory secretions, bone marrow, and stools as predictors of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection.  

PubMed

Disseminated infection caused by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is common in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome and is difficult to treat because of the high degree of resistance to antimycobacterial agents. Early diagnosis and treatment may prolong survival of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome and MAC infection. Twenty patients with disseminated MAC infection were evaluated for recovery of the organism from bone marrow, bronchial washings or sputum, and stools before the organism was isolated in blood culture. For 40 to 67% of patients, MAC was recovered from these specimens before it was isolated in blood culture. PMID:3584429

Poropatich, C O; Labriola, A M; Tuazon, C U

1987-05-01

21

Novel Fastidious, Partially Acid-Fast, Anaerobic Gram-Positive Bacillus Associated with Abscess Formation and Recovered from Multiple Medical Centers  

PubMed Central

We report a novel anaerobe causing abscess in four patients at three hospitals. In the clinical specimen, bacilli were branching, Gram positive, and acid fast. The organism grew slowly and was not identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Our findings support the description of a new genus and species of the suborder Corynebacterineae. PMID:24025902

Bell, M.; Bernard, K.; Lagacé-Wiens, P.; Schuetz, A. N.; Hartman, B.; McQuiston, J. R.; Wilson, D.; LaSalvia, M.; Ng, B.; Richter, S.; Taege, A.

2013-01-01

22

Evaluation of the Cobas TaqMan MTB Test for the Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex According to Acid-Fast-Bacillus Smear Grades in Respiratory Specimens.  

PubMed

We evaluated the performance of the Cobas TaqMan MTB test (Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland), stratified by acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear grades. The sensitivity of this test in smear-positive specimens was >95% in all grades, while that in trace and negative specimens was 85.3% and 34.4%, respectively. PMID:25428157

Huh, Hee Jae; Koh, Won-Jung; Song, Dong Joon; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong

2015-02-01

23

Novel Multipurpose Methodology for Detection of Mycobacteria in Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Specimens by Smear Microscopy, Culture, and PCR†  

PubMed Central

A novel, robust, reproducible, and multipurpose universal sample processing (USP) methodology for highly sensitive smear microscopy, culturing on solid and liquid media, and inhibition-free PCR which is suitable for the laboratory diagnosis of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) has been developed. This method exploits the chaotropic properties of guanidinium hydrochloride for sample processing and involves incubating the specimen with USP solution, concentrating bacilli by centrifugation, and using the processed specimen for smear microscopy, culture, and PCR. The detection limit for acid-fast bacilli in spiked sputum by smear microscopy is approximately 300 bacilli per ml of specimen. USP solution-treated specimens are fully compatible with culturing on solid and liquid media. High-quality, PCR-amplifiable mycobacterial DNA can be isolated from all types of clinical specimens processed with USP solution. The method has been extensively validated with both pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens. Furthermore, the USP method is also compatible with smear microscopy, culture, and PCR of mycobacteria other than tubercle bacilli. In summary, the USP method provides smear microscopy, culture, and nucleic acid amplification technologies with a single sample-processing platform and, to the best of our knowledge, is the only method of its kind described to date. It is expected to be useful for the laboratory diagnosis of TB and other mycobacterial diseases by conventional and modern methods. PMID:15956385

Chakravorty, Soumitesh; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

2005-01-01

24

Time to Culture Positivity and Sputum Smear Microscopy during Tuberculosis Therapy  

PubMed Central

Sputum smear microscopy is widely used for tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment monitoring. We evaluated the correlation between smear microscopy and time to liquid culture positivity during early tuberculosis treatment. The study included patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis hospitalized at a tuberculosis reference centre in Germany between 01/2012 and 05/2013. Patient records were reviewed and clinical, radiological and microbiological data were analysed. Sputum samples were collected before treatment initiation and weekly thereafter. A number of 310 sputum samples from 30 patients were analysed. Time to liquid culture positivity inversely correlated with smear grade (Spearman's rho ?0.439, p<0.001). There was a better correlation within the first two months vs. after two months of therapy (?0.519 vs. ?0.416) with a trend to a more rapid increase in time to positivity between baseline and week 2 in patients who culture-converted within the first two months (5.9 days vs. 9.4 days, p?=?0.3). In conclusion, the numbers of acid-fast bacilli in sputum smears of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and time to culture positivity for M. tuberculosis cultures from sputum are correlated before and during tuberculosis treatment. A considerable proportion of patients with culture conversion after two months of therapy continued to have detectable acid-fast bacilli on sputum smears. PMID:25171337

Olaru, Ioana D.; Heyckendorf, Jan; Grossmann, Susanne; Lange, Christoph

2014-01-01

25

[Clinical application of testing methods on acid-fast bacteria].  

PubMed

Clinical bacteriology pertaining to acid-fast bacteria has made marked advances over the past decade, initiated by the development of a DNA probe kit for identification of acid-fast bacteria. Wide-spread use of nucleic acid amplification for rapid detection of tubercle bacillus contributed more greatly than any other factor to such advances in this field. At present, 90% of all kits used for nucleic acid amplification in the world are consumed in Japan. Unfortunately, not a few clinicians in Japan have a false idea that the smear method and nucleic acid amplification are necessary but culture is not. In any event nucleic acid amplification has exerted significant impacts on the routine works at bacteriology laboratories. Among others, collecting bacteria by pretreatment with NALC-NaOH has simplified the introduction of the collective mode smear method and liquid media. Furthermore, as clinicians have become increasingly more experienced with various methods of molecular biology, it now seems possible to apply these techniques for detection of genes encoding drug resistance and for utilization of molecular epidemiology in routine laboratory works. Meanwhile, attempts to diagnose acid-fast bacteriosis by checking blood for antibody have also been made, primarily in Japan. At present, two kits for detecting antibodies to glycolipids (LAM, TDM, etc.) are covered by national health insurance in Japan. We have an impression that in Japan clinicians do not have adequate knowledge and skill to make full use of these new testing methods clinically. We, as the chairmen of this symposium, hope that this symposium will help clinicians increase their skill related to new testing methods, eventually leading to stimulation of advances in clinical practices related to acid-fast bacteria in Japan. 1. Smear microscopy by concentration method and broth culture system: Kazunari TSUYUGUCHI (Clinical Research Center, National Hospital Organization Kinki-chuo Chest Medical Center) Smear microscopy and culture still remain the cornerstone to diagnose tuberculosis. However, the classical methods in Japan using direct microscopy and Ogawa solid media were not sufficient for clinical use. In recent years substantial advance has been made in these fields. Concentration of clinical samples by centrifugation improves the sensitivity of smear microscopy with excellent reproducibility. The Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) system using liquid media yields high sensitivity and rapidity. Using these methods, more and more tuberculosis cases would be correctly diagnosed and treated adequately based on drug susceptibility testing. 2. New technologies for anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing: Satoshi MITARAI (Bacteriology Division, Reference Centre for Mycobacterium, Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association) Several new technologies have been developed to obtain anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing (AST) results rapidly, utilising liquid culture and molecular technologies. Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT), as a popular liquid culturing and AST system, was evaluated for its accuracy and usefulness. As for isoniazid, MGIT showed 12.6% of discordant result comparing with standard method. These MGIT resistant and Ogawa susceptible strains had relatively high MICs ranging 0.13 to 2.0 microg/ml. The molecular detection of resistant gene mutation is also a useful method to estimate drug resistance rapidly. The rpoB mutation detection is reliable with high sensitivity and specificity. 3. Nucleic acid amplification and novel diagnostic methods: Shunji TAKAKURA (Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine) Sensitivities of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis meet clinical requirement that patients with high-risk of transmission should be identified within a day. Comparison of the performance of various NAATs is difficult because of the difference in sample processing and in samples tested among methods and reports. Con

Ichiyama, Satoshi; Suzuki, Katsuhiro

2005-02-01

26

Thin layer microcolony culture associated with PCR for early identification of Mycobacterium bovis  

PubMed Central

The initial growth of mycobacteria from 49 samples of cattle and buffalo organs collected in commercial slaughterhouses was compared between modified Middlebrook 7H11 thin layer microcolony culture and Stonebrink medium used in the isolation of Mycobacterium bovis. Aliquots were decontaminated by Petroff’s method, processed and cultured in both media. The identity of the acid-fast bacilli stained by Ziehl-Neelsen was confirmed by PCR. Optical microscopy showed that results of the early observation of Mycobacterium bovis colonies in thin layer culture were similar to those obtained in macroscopic observation of the colonies in Stonebrink medium. However, early observation of the colonies enabled early confirmation by PCR, given the shorter time to the visualization of colonies when thin layer culture was used (between the 12nd and 25th day of culture). PMID:24948936

do Rosário, Tatiana Reis; Dib, Cristina Corsi; Roxo, Eliana; Pinheiro, Sônia Regina; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Benites, Nilson Roberti

2014-01-01

27

Early Detection of Mycobacteria Using a Novel Hydrogel Culture Method  

PubMed Central

Background Early laboratory detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is crucial for controlling tuberculosis. We developed a hydrogel mycobacterial culture method that retains the advantages of both solid and liquid methods in terms of speed, cost, and efficiency. Methods Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) suspensions and 200 acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive clinical specimens were inoculated in Middlebrook 7H9 liquid media (Becton-Dickinson and Company, USA) and mixed with 75 µL of 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-Phe-Phe-OH hydrogel stock solution in an Eppendorf tube just before culture incubation. The mixtures were cultured at 37? for as long as 14 days to monitor culture status. Results The number of M. bovis BCG increased with time. For 200 AFB smear-positive specimens, 155 of 158 conventional culture-positive specimens and 4 culture-negative or contaminated specimens yielded positive cultures within 14 days. For 128 specimens positive with the liquid culture method, the time to positive culture using the hydrogel method (mean, 12.6 days; range, 7 to 14 days) was significantly shorter than that for conventional liquid culture (mean, 16.2 days; range, 6 to 31 days; P<0.0001). Conclusions The hydrogel scaffold culture system is useful for timely, economical, and efficient detection of mycobacteria in clinical specimens. PMID:24422192

Jang, Mi Hee; Kim, Shine Young; Kim, Chang-Ki; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Sung Soo; Lee, Eun Yup

2014-01-01

28

Relative Susceptibility ofAcid-Fast andNon-Acid- FastBacteria toUltraviolet Light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain Erdman, M.bovis (BCG), andM.phlei showed a1-to2-log dropinviability after exposure toultraviolet light compared toa5-log dropoverthesameperiod forStaphylococcus albus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escher- ichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, andSerratia marcescens. L.monocytogenes showed aninitial resistance toultraviolet inactivation, butlater theinactivation rate increased sharply. Thesignificance ofthese findings with regard totheuseofS.marcescens asatest organism fordetermining thebactericidal effi- ciency ofultraviolet lamps usedtosterilize equipment contaminated withtubercle bacilli

F. M. COLLINS

1971-01-01

29

Culture Conversion Rate at 2 Months of Treatment According to Diagnostic Methods among Patients with Culture-Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Introduction The culture-negative conversion rate of sputum after 2 months of treatment in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is used as a reliable surrogate marker for relapse after completion of treatment. We hypothesized that culture conversion of sputum at 2 months of anti-TB treatment and the time to culture conversion are different among pulmonary TB patients who are diagnosed using different methods. Methods Culture-confirmed pulmonary TB patients who were diagnosed between 1 January, 2011 and 31 December, 2012 were classified into three groups based on the diagnostic method that prompted treatment initiation: positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining of sputum (smear-positive group), negative AFB staining, but Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured from sputum (culture-positive group), and positive AFB staining, positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for M. tuberculosis, or culture of M. tuberculosis from a bronchoscopic specimen (bronchoscopy group). Rates of negative mycobacterial culture conversion at 2 months of anti-TB treatment and the time to negative culture conversion of sputum were compared among the three groups. Results A total of 203 patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB were included in the final analysis. TB patients in the culture-positive group (94.1%) and the bronchoscopy group (97.6%) showed a higher culture conversion rate at 2 months of treatment than those in the smear-positive group (78.7%, P?=?0.001). Additionally, the time to culture conversion was longer in the smear-positive group (median, 40 days) than in the culture-positive (median, 19 days; P?=?0.009) and bronchoscopy groups (median, 29 days; P?=?0.004). Conclusions The higher culture conversion rate at 2 months and the shorter time to culture conversion among pulmonary TB patients with a negative AFB smear suggests the feasibility of shortening treatment duration and isolation in these patients. PMID:25105410

Lee, Ha Youn; Chae, Kyoung Ok; Lee, Chang Hoon; Choi, Sun Mi; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Sang-Min; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Yim, Jae-Joon

2014-01-01

30

A simple modified membrane filtration medium for the enumeration of aerobic spore-bearing bacilli in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerobic spore-bearing bacilli have been proposed as a surrogate indicator for the removal of Cryptosporidium by drinking water treatment processes. Pasteurisation of samples followed by culture on non-selective media is the method of choice. Using white membranes for filtration of water samples makes colony counting difficult. Vital dyes such as neutral red or trypan blue can help when added to

Carol A Francis; Amanda C Lockley; David P Sartory; John Watkins

2001-01-01

31

Treatment of bone and joint infections caused by Gram-negative bacilli with a cefepime-fluoroquinolone combination.  

PubMed

A 3-year retrospective study evaluated the effectiveness and safety of cefepime plus a fluoroquinolone for treating bone and joint infections caused by Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) in 28 patients. Intra-operative cultures yielded primarily Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacter cloacae. Full recovery (cure) was observed in 79% of patients. There were no serious adverse effects and no resistant organisms were isolated. The results of the study confirmed the safety and effectiveness of cefepime combined with a fluoroquinolone for the treatment of bone and joint infections caused by Gram-negative bacilli. PMID:16961643

Legout, L; Senneville, E; Stern, R; Yazdanpanah, Y; Savage, C; Roussel-Delvalez, M; Rosele, B; Migaud, H; Mouton, Y

2006-10-01

32

Experimental lepromatous leprosy in the white-handed gibbon (Hylobatus lar): successful inoculation with leprosy bacilli of human origin.  

PubMed Central

Leprosy bacilli of human origin were inoculated into a white-handed gibbon by the i.v. and i.p. routes, and also locally into ears, testis and around an ulnar nerve. The animal was observed closely during a period of nearly 15 years and did not exhibit any clinical evidence of cutaneous or neurological disease. At death, a wide range of tissues was taken for bacterial counts and histological examination, and a disseminated and progressive infection was demonstrated. Acid-fast bacilli were found in many sites; their morphological appearance distribution in nerves, and pattern of multiplication in mouse foot-pads, and also the presence of anti-mycobacterial antibody in the serum and the absence of specific lymphocyte transformation were all in keeping with an infection by Mycobacterium leprae, at an early lepromatous stage. This is probably the first fully documented report of experimental lepromatous infection in a primate. The findings are discussed in relation to the long incubation period of le promatous leprosy and the difficulties of diagnosing the disease at an early stage in man. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Figs. 4-6 PMID:371653

Waters, M. F.; Bakri, I. B.; Isa, H. J.; Rees, R. J.; McDougall, A. C.

1978-01-01

33

Genetic and Phenotypic Diversity of Plant Growth Promoting Bacilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bacilli are aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive or variable, endospore-forming bacteria that exhibit resistance\\u000a to environmental stress and produce peptide antibiotics, peptide signal molecules, and extracellular enzymes. Bacillus and Paenibacillus genera include the best knowing nitrogen-fixing species. Another characteristic of bacilli is their great potential in producing\\u000a substances that promote direct plant growth by the production of phytohormones (mainly indolic

Anelise Beneduzi; Luciane M. P. Passaglia

34

Inhibition of bacilli in industrial starches by nisin  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The properties of Bacillus coagulans and of other bacilli that contaminate paper and paperboard manufacturing processes were investigated under simulated industrial\\u000a conditions. Nisin (0.05 to 0.125 ?2g ml?1) blocked growth of indigenous bacilli that contaminate sizing starches. B. coagulans starch isolates, B. licheniformis, B. amyloliquefaciens, and B. stearothermophilus grew at ?250C in industrial starch and produced ?2-glucosidase and cyclodextrins. The

T S M Pirttijärvi; G Wahlström; F A Rainey; P E J Saris; M S Salkinoja-Salonen

2001-01-01

35

Nonfermentative bacilli: evaluation of three systems for identification.  

PubMed Central

Three systems for the identification of nonfermentative bacilli were evaluated for their rapidity and accuracy of identification of 217 strains. Two of the systems, API 20E (API) and Oxi/Ferm tube (OxiF), are available as kits; the oxidative attack (OA) system is not commerically available. The overall accuracies of the OA, API, and OxiF systems were 91, 69, and 50%, respectively. Identification within 48 h was achieved for 98% of the strains by OA, for 50% by API, and for 18% by OxiF. Most of the organisms that were either misidentified or not identified by API and OxiF were those nonfermentative bacilli which are relatively more fastidious or rarely encountered or both. All three systems accurately identified nonfermentative bacilli commonly isolated at Olive View Medical Center, namely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter anitratus, Pseudomonas maltophilia, Acinetobacter lwoffi, saccharolytic flavobacteria (CDC IIb), moraxellae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas putida. The OA system identified 100% of the above organisms correctly, API identified 99.4%, and OxiF identified 99.3%. Since these organisms comprise 92% of the total number of nonfermentative bacilli isolated at Olive View Medical Center, we conclude that both API and OxiF may be useful alternatives to conventional methods, based on accuracy of identification alone. These two systems were considered substantially inferior to the OA system when both accuracy and rapidity of identification were taken into account. PMID:389945

Otto, L A; Blachman, U

1979-01-01

36

Lymphocyte blastogenesis, complement fixation, and fecal culture as diagnostic tests for paratuberculosis in North American wild ruminants and domestic sheep.  

PubMed

The efficacy of the lymphocyte blastogenesis and complement-fixation tests and fecal culture for detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection was assessed in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (O virginianus), bighorn X mouflon (O musimon) hybrid sheep, and domestic sheep. Spontaneously infected bighorns were tested at the time of capture; experimentally infected animals were tested monthly for 12 months or periodically for 36 months. Lymphocyte blastogenesis tests were conducted with peripheral blood mononuclear cells and protein antigens of M avium, M bovis, and M paratuberculosis. Best diagnostic results were obtained when M avium purified-protein derivative was used as antigen and 20% bovine fetal serum was incorporated in the culture medium; a positive test was defined as a stimulation index greater than or equal to 3.5. Test sensitivity and specificity, respectively, were 82% and 94% in hybrid sheep and were 72% and 100% in domestic sheep. Sensitivity and specificity, respectively, were 39% and 94% in elk and 53% and 92% in deer. When infection was determined in spontaneously infected bighorns by culture of M paratuberculosis and/or the presence of acid-fast bacilli in characteristic microscopic lesions, sensitivity was 75% and specificity was 87%. Fecal cultures and the complement-fixation tests seldom correctly identified infected animals. PMID:4073642

Williams, E S; DeMartini, J C; Snyder, S P

1985-11-01

37

[A case of pulmonary Mycobacterium gordonae infection diagnosed by gastric juice culture and successfully treated with multidrug chemotherapy].  

PubMed

In September 2008, a 60-year-old woman presented to our hospital with a complaint of bloody sputum; she was healthy until this event. Chest computed tomography scan revealed a cavity, nodular shadows, and bronchiectasis in the left upper lobe and in the left and right middle lobes. Acid-fast bacilli were detected 2 times on gastric juice culture and Mycobacterium gordonae was identified on biochemical study. No active chemotherapy was administered because the discharge of this strain was considered casual and clinically nonsignificant. However, her radiological findings worsened in the following 1 year and 3 months, and M. gordonae was detected 2 more times on gastric juice culture. Subsequently, she was diagnosed with pulmonary mycobacteriosis caused by M. gordonae and was treated with clarithromycin, rifampicin, and levofloxacin. After 1 month, her gastric juice culture yielded negative results for M. gordonae, and after a year and a half, her radiological findings improved. In this case, gastric juice culture was as useful as sputum examination for diagnosis and evaluation of the disease. Although M. gordonae is usually considered nonpathogenic, our study shows that it can be pathogenic, and M. gordonae infection may require treatment with chemotherapy. PMID:23367832

Nakazawa, Atsuhito; Hagiwara, Eri; Ikeda, Satoshi; Oda, Tsuneyuki; Komatsu, Shigeru; Ogura, Takashi

2012-11-01

38

Thermophilic bacilli and their importance in dairy processing.  

PubMed

The thermophilic bacilli, such as Anoxybacillus flavithermus and Geobacillus spp., are an important group of contaminants in the dairy industry. Although these bacilli are generally not pathogenic, their presence in dairy products is an indicator of poor hygiene and high numbers are unacceptable to customers. In addition, their growth may result in milk product defects caused by the production of acids or enzymes, potentially leading to off-flavours. Dairy thermophiles are usually selected for by the conditions during dairy manufacture. These bacteria are able to grow in sections of dairy manufacturing plants where temperatures reach 40-65°C. Furthermore, because they are spore formers, they are difficult to eliminate. In addition, they exhibit a wide temperature growth range, exhibit a fast growth rate (generation time of approximately 15-20 min) and tend to readily form biofilms. Many strategies have been tested to remove, prevent and/or delay the formation of thermophilic bacilli biofilms in dairy manufacture, but with limited success. This is, in part, because little is known about the structure and composition of thermophilic bacilli biofilms in general and, more specifically, in milk processing environments. Therefore, new cleaning regimes often do not target the problem optimally. A greater understanding of the structure of thermophilic biofilms within the context of the milk processing environment and their link with spore formation is needed to develop better control measures. This review discusses the characteristics and food spoilage potential, enumeration and identification methods for the thermophilic bacilli, as well as their importance to dairy manufacture, with an emphasis on biofilm development and spore formation. PMID:21047695

Burgess, Sara A; Lindsay, Denise; Flint, Steve H

2010-12-15

39

ACID-FAST BACTERIA AND YEASTS AS INDICATORS OF DISINFECTION EFFICIENCY  

EPA Science Inventory

Since the coliform group of organisms is considered to be less resistant to chlorine than some bacterial and viral pathogens, the utility of both yeast and acid-fast oganisms as potntial indicators of disinfection efficiency was evaluated. In most laboratory studies these two gro...

40

RNA structures regulating ribosomal protein biosynthesis in bacilli  

PubMed Central

In Bacilli, there are three experimentally validated ribosomal-protein autogenous regulatory RNAs that are not shared with E. coli. Each of these RNAs forms a unique secondary structure that interacts with a ribosomal protein encoded by a downstream gene, namely S4, S15, and L20. Only one of these RNAs that interacts with L20 is currently found in the RNA Families Database. We created, or modified, existing structural alignments for these three RNAs and used them to perform homology searches. We have determined that each structure exhibits a narrow phylogenetic distribution, mostly relegated to the Firmicute class Bacilli. This work, in conjunction with other similar work, demonstrates that there are most likely many non-homologous RNA regulatory elements regulating ribosomal protein biosynthesis that still await discovery and characterization in other bacterial species. PMID:23611891

Deiorio-Haggar, Kaila; Anthony, Jon; Meyer, Michelle M.

2013-01-01

41

RNA structures regulating ribosomal protein biosynthesis in bacilli.  

PubMed

In Bacilli, there are three experimentally validated ribosomal-protein autogenous regulatory RNAs that are not shared with E. coli. Each of these RNAs forms a unique secondary structure that interacts with a ribosomal protein encoded by a downstream gene, namely S4, S15, and L20. Only one of these RNAs that interacts with L20 is currently found in the RNA Families Database. We created, or modified, existing structural alignments for these three RNAs and used them to perform homology searches. We have determined that each structure exhibits a narrow phylogenetic distribution, mostly relegated to the Firmicute class Bacilli. This work, in conjunction with other similar work, demonstrates that there are most likely many non-homologous RNA regulatory elements regulating ribosomal protein biosynthesis that still await discovery and characterization in other bacterial species. PMID:23611891

Deiorio-Haggar, Kaila; Anthony, Jon; Meyer, Michelle M

2013-07-01

42

Sensitivity of Acid-Fast Staining for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Formalin-fixed Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microscopic examination of tissue sections of mycobacterial lesions smear data or the patient's condition. We also have believed frequently results in few or no bacilli seen, even if the lesions appear that ASH has low sensitivity; therefore, we have re-evaluated active histologically. This might be due to the effects of the fixative its sensitivity. We postulated that the low detectability

Hajime Fukunaga; Tomoyuki Murakami; Toshikazu Gondo; Kazuo Sugi; Tokuhiro Ishihara

43

Use of conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction for confirmation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a broth-based culture system ESP II.  

PubMed

The ESP II Culture System (ESP II), a broth-based culture system, has been modified and optimized for culturing Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) in animal feces since 2000. Conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays based on the IS900 sequence were performed as confirmatory tests for M. paratuberculosis in ESP II liquid culture medium. There were no differences between test results of conventional and real-time PCR assays. During the 5-week incubation period, if acid-fast bacilli (AFB) were detected in ESP culture-positive samples, IS900 PCR assays were performed to confirm whether those AFB were M. paratuberculosis. At the end of the 5-week incubation, AF staining was performed on all ESP II-negative cultures to screen any false-negative cultures; IS900 PCR assays were performed on AFB-positive cultures. During a period of 1 year, of a total of 18,499 ESP II cultures, 2,814 (15.2%) PCR confirmation assays were performed. Of those, 2,259 (80%) were both ESP and PCR positive; 104 (4%) were ESP positive and PCR negative; 423 (15%) were ESP negative and PCR positive; 28 (1%) were both ESP and PCR negative. The AF-staining step after the 5-week incubation produced 423 (15%) more PCR-positive cultures. Of a total of 2,814 AFB-positive cultures, 132 (5%) were not confirmed as M. paratuberculosis. Further studies are needed for speciation of non-M. paratuberculosis isolates. PMID:15460331

Kim, Sung G; Kim, Eun H; Lafferty, Caroline J; Miller, Loretta J; Koo, Hye J; Stehman, Susan M; Shin, Sang J

2004-09-01

44

NAD+ auxotrophy is bacteriocidal for the tubercle bacilli.  

PubMed

The human tubercle bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis can synthesize NAD(+) using the de novo biosynthesis pathway or the salvage pathway. The salvage pathway of the bovine tubercle bacillus Mycobacterium bovis was reported defective due to a mutation in the nicotinamidase PncA. This defect prevents nicotinic acid secretion, which is the basis for the niacin test that clinically distinguishes M. bovis from M. tuberculosis. Surprisingly, we found that the NAD(+)de novo biosynthesis pathway (nadABC) can be deleted from M. bovis, demonstrating a functioning salvage pathway. M. bovisDeltanadABC fails to grow in mice, whereas M. tuberculosisDeltanadABC grows normally in mice, suggesting that M. tuberculosis can acquire nicotinamide from its host. The introduction of M. tuberculosis pncA into M. bovisDeltanadABC is sufficient to fully restore growth in a mouse, proving that the functional salvage pathway enables nicotinamide acquisition by the tubercle bacilli. This study demonstrates that NAD(+) starvation is a cidal event in the tubercle bacilli and confirms that enzymes common to the de novo and salvage pathways may be good drug targets. PMID:20199601

Vilchèze, Catherine; Weinrick, Brian; Wong, Ka-Wing; Chen, Bing; Jacobs, William R

2010-04-01

45

Inhibition of bacilli in industrial starches by nisin.  

PubMed

The properties of Bacillus coagulans and of other bacilli that contaminate paper and paperboard manufacturing processes were investigated under simulated industrial conditions. Nisin (0.05 to 0.125 microg ml(-1) blocked growth of indigenous bacilli that contaminate sizing starches. B. coagulans starch isolates, B. licheniformis, B. amyloliquefaciens, and B. stearothermophilus grew at > or = 50 degrees C in industrial starch and produced alpha-glucosidase and cyclodextrins. The industrial isolates and reference strains of B. amyloliquefaciens, B. cereus, B. coagulans, B. flexus, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B. sporothermodurans, B. stearothermophilus and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris were inhibited by < or = 0.125 microg of nisin on agar. B. coagulans and B. stearothermophilus were similarly inhibited by < or = 0.025 microg of nisin ml(-1) and by 3 microg of the biocide DBNPA ml(-1) in industrial starch. B. licheniformis and B. amyloliquefaciens strains were less sensitive. About 40% of nisin added to starch was retained after cooking. Fifty percent of the nisin remained active after 11 h of storage at 60 degrees C. The results show that nisin has potential as a preservative for modified industrial starches. PMID:11420648

Pirttijärvi, T S; Wahlström, G; Rainey, F A; Saris, P E; Salkinoja-Salonen, M S

2001-03-01

46

Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsiella and other facultative bacilli  

SciTech Connect

Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carraggeenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and pectobacterium (38%). pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.

Ochuba, G.U.; Von Riesen, V.L.

1980-05-01

47

Evaluation of the Speed-oligo® Mycobacteria assay for identification of Mycobacterium spp. from fresh liquid and solid cultures of human clinical samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the ability of a novel DNA strip assay (Speed-oligo® Mycobacteria) to differentiate mycobacterial species. It is based on polymerase chain reaction targeting 16S rRNA and 16S-23S rRNA regions and double-reverse hybridization on a dipstick using probes bound to colloidal gold and to the membrane. We blindly tested its capacity to identify 182 acid-fast bacilli grown on fresh liquid

Natalia Montiel Quezel-Guerraz; Mercedes Marín Arriaza; José Antonio Carrillo Ávila; Waldo E. Sánchez-Yebra Romera; Miguel J. Martínez-Lirola

2010-01-01

48

Persistent BCG bacilli perpetuate CD4 T effector memory and optimal protection against tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most important infectious diseases of man and animals, and the only available vaccine (BCG) requires urgent replacement or improvement. To facilitate this, the protective mechanisms induced by BCG require further understanding. As a live attenuated vaccine, persistence of BCG bacilli in the host may be a crucial mechanism. We have investigated the long term persistence of BCG following vaccination and the influence on the induced immune response and protection, using an established murine model. We sought to establish whether previously identified BCG-specific CD4 TEM cells represent genuine long-lived memory cells of a relatively high frequency, or are a consequence of continual priming by chronically persistent BCG vaccine bacilli. By clearing persistent bacilli, we have compared immune responses (spleen and lung CD4: cytokine producing T effector/TEM; TCR-specific) and BCG-induced protection, in the presence and absence of these persisting vaccine bacilli. Viable BCG bacilli persisted for at least 16 months post-vaccination, associated with specific CD4 T effector/TEM and tetramer-specific responses. Clearing these bacilli abrogated all BCG-specific CD4 T cells whilst only reducing protection by 1log10. BCG may induce two additive mechanisms of immunity: (i) dependant on the presence of viable bacilli and TEM; and (ii) independent of these factors. These data have crucial implications on the rational generation of replacement TB vaccines, and the interpretation of BCG induced immunity in animal models. PMID:25444816

Kaveh, Daryan A; Carmen Garcia-Pelayo, M; Hogarth, Philip J

2014-11-01

49

THE FATE OF TYPHOID BACILLI WHEN INJECTED INTRAVENOUSLY INTO NORMAL RABBITS  

PubMed Central

Typhoid bacilli are agglutinated promptly in the circulating blood of normal rabbits and quickly removed from the blood stream. The clumped bacilli accumulate in the organs and are taken up by assembled polymorphonuclear leucocytes in the liver, spleen, and possibly other organs. The phagocyted clumps of bacilli are digested and destroyed by the phagocytes. Hence, destruction of typhoid bacilli intra vitam is brought about by an entirely different process than is the destruction by serum and whole blood in vitro. While the latter is caused by bacteriolysis, the former results from agglutination and intraphagocytic digestion. Lysis by fresh blood serum is not appreciably affected by spleen or kidney pulp, but it is inhibited by liver pulp. The action of the liver is referable to its biliary constituents, which exert anticomplementary action. Probably in certain examples of typhoid fever in man the typhoid bacilli in the circulating blood being inagglutinable cannot be removed by the organs and hence are not phagocyted and destroyed. The observed disparity between the ready destruction of typhoid bacilli by serum and shed blood and the resistance sometimes offered by the bacilli in the infected body is explained by the essential differences in the destructive processes in operation within and without the body. PMID:19867931

Bull, Carroll G.

1915-01-01

50

Isolation and Identification of Obligate Thermophilic Sporeforming Bacilli from Ocean Basin Cores  

PubMed Central

Bartholomew, J. W. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles), and George Paik. Isolation and identification of obligate thermophilic sporeforming bacilli from ocean basin cores. J. Bacteriol. 92:635–638. 1966.—Obligate thermophilic sporeforming aerobic bacilli were isolated from 11 ocean basin cores taken from locations in a 150 mile long area off of the coast from Ensenada, Mexico, to Santa Catalina Island, and ranging as far out from shore as 160 miles. Isolated strains of bacilli were all identified as being identical, or closely related, to Bacillus stearothermophilus. PMID:5922538

Bartholomew, J. W.; Paik, George

1966-01-01

51

Multi-biochemical test system for distinguishing enteric and other gram-negative bacilli.  

PubMed

A multi-biochemical test system consisting of nine tests, entitled Enterotube, was evaluated in parallel with conventional tests to determine its value in the identification of enteric and certain other gram-negative bacilli. The 242 bacterial strains studied were from a variety of pathological specimens and from our culture collection. When the results with individual tests represented in both test systems were compared, no discrepancies were noted in the indole test, and one discrepancy was recorded for dextrose. In 7 of 242 hydrogen sulfide tests, 3 of 242 phenylalanine tests, 22 of 242 urease tests, 15 of 242 dulcitol tests, 12 of 242 lactose tests, 27 of 217 lysine decarboxylase tests, and 5 of 242 citrate tests, the Enterotube results were contrary to those obtained with conventional methods. The lysine decarboxylase test in the Enterotube posed a problem of interpretation and readability and is not an acceptable alternative to the conventional methods. Fifteen of the strains studied were incorrectly identified by the Enterotube system and four could not be differentiated from other closely related strains. Salmonella could be identified as to group, whereas Shigella strains were frequently misidentified as Escherichia. The Enterotube method is simple and convenient, and all media are inoculated at once from a single colony. PMID:4940877

Elston, H R; Baudo, J A; Stanek, J P; Schaab, M

1971-09-01

52

A simple whole cell based high throughput screening protocol using Mycobacterium bovis BCG for inhibitors against dormant and active tubercle bacilli.  

PubMed

This study aimed at developing a whole cell based high throughput screening protocol to identify inhibitors against both active and dormant tubercle bacilli. A respiratory type of nitrate reductase (NarGHJI), which was induced during dormancy, could reflect the viability of dormant bacilli of Mycobacterium bovis BCG in microplate adopted model of in vitro dormancy. Correlation between reduction in viability and nitrate reductase activity was seen clearly when dormant stage inhibitor metronidazole and itaconic anhydride were applied in this in vitro microplate model. Active replicating stage could also be monitored in the same assay by measuring the A(620) of the culture. MIC values of 0.08, 0.075, 0.3 and 3.0 microg/ml, determined through monitoring A(620) in this assay for rifampin, isoniazid, streptomycin and ethambutol respectively, were well in agreement with previously reported by BACTEC and Bio-Siv assays. S/N ratio and Z' factor for the assay were 8.5 and 0.81 respectively which indicated the robustness of the protocol. Altogether the assay provides an easy, inexpensive, rapid, robust and high content screening tool to search novel antitubercular molecules against both active and dormant bacilli. PMID:18328582

Khan, Arshad; Sarkar, Dhiman

2008-04-01

53

Carbohydrate-active enzymes from pigmented Bacilli: a genomic approach to assess carbohydrate utilization and degradation  

PubMed Central

Background Spore-forming Bacilli are Gram-positive bacteria commonly found in a variety of natural habitats, including soil, water and the gastro-intestinal (GI)-tract of animals. Isolates of various Bacillus species produce pigments, mostly carotenoids, with a putative protective role against UV irradiation and oxygen-reactive forms. Results We report the annotation of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) of two pigmented Bacilli isolated from the human GI-tract and belonging to the Bacillus indicus and B. firmus species. A high number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) were found in both isolates. A detailed analysis of CAZyme families, was performed and supported by growth data. Carbohydrates able to support growth as the sole carbon source negatively effected carotenoid formation in rich medium, suggesting that a catabolite repression-like mechanism controls carotenoid biosynthesis in both Bacilli. Experimental results on biofilm formation confirmed genomic data on the potentials of B. indicus HU36 to produce a levan-based biofilm, while mucin-binding and -degradation experiments supported genomic data suggesting the ability of both Bacilli to degrade mammalian glycans. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genomes of the two pigmented Bacilli, compared to other Bacillus species and validated by experimental data on carbohydrate utilization, biofilm formation and mucin degradation, suggests that the two pigmented Bacilli are adapted to the intestinal environment and are suited to grow in and colonize the human gut. PMID:21892951

2011-01-01

54

Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Corynebacterium species and other non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli to 18 antimicrobial agents.  

PubMed Central

The susceptibilities of 265 strains of Corynebacterium species and other non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli to 18 antimicrobial agents were tested. Most strains were susceptible to vancomycin, doxycycline, and fusidic acid. Corynebacterium jeikeium and Corynebacterium urealyticum were the most resistant organisms tested. Resistance to beta-lactams, clindamycin, erythromycin, azythromycin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was common among strains of Corynebacterium xerosis and Corynebacterium minutissimum. Ampicillin resistance among Listeria monocytogenes was more prevalent than previously reported. Optochin, fosfomycin, and nitrofurantoin showed very little activity against most organisms tested, but the use of nitrofurantoin as a selective agent in culture medium may prevent the recovery of some isolates. Except for the unvarying activity of vancomycin against Corynebacterium species, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the latter to other antibiotics are usually unpredictable, such that susceptibility tests are necessary for selecting the best antimicrobial treatment. PMID:7695308

Soriano, F; Zapardiel, J; Nieto, E

1995-01-01

55

Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the USA" (Alisa Woodring);…

1997

56

[Epidemiologic study of the actual investigation of chronic excretors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli].  

PubMed

Of 1,295 patients with tuberculosis who were admitted in 33 Japanese national sanatoriums from September to October, 1994, actual investigation of patients with persistent expectorate tubercle bacilli continuously for more than 12 months was carried out by questionnaire. From the result, numbers of patients who had persistently expectorated bacteria were 85 (6.6% of inpatient). The rate of male and female was 3:1, and mean age was 63.5 years old. Many slim type patients (less than 90% of the standard body weight) were observed at the rate of 55.8%. The rate of the inpatient whose admission period was for more than 10 years were found in 22%. The past history of the tuberculosis and surgical therapy were existent at the rate of 83.3% and 18.8% respectively. The chief complications such as diabetes mellitus (12.4%), pyothorax (10.1%), alcoholism (10.1%) and hepatic dysfunction (6.7%) were observed at the respective rate. As chest X-ray findings on admission, severe cases with cavity of I or II 3 by the classification of the Japanese society for tuberculosis were found in 32.2%, and many cases with much amount persistently excreted bacteria such as more than number 7 of Gaffky scale (24.7%) or 3+ by culture (55.8%) were detected by sputum-test on admission. From the result drug-resistance, resistance of the main drugs early found from initial medication, and high degree resistance of isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INH; 80%), rifampicin (RFP; 94.4%), ethambutol (EB; 85.6%) and streptomycin (SM; 76.4%) was found. As intractable causes which were indicated by doctor in charge, drug-resistance, drug allergy, disorder of life, unfavorable medication-compliance and unsuitable treatment were considered. PMID:8808266

Tsuchiya, T; Kondo, A; Sakatani, M

1996-01-01

57

Lot quality assurance sampling of sputum acid-fast bacillus smears for assessing sputum smear microscopy centers.  

PubMed

Assessment of 12 microscopy centers in a tuberculosis unit by blinded checking of eight sputum smears selected by using a lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method and by unblinded checking of all positive and five negative slides, among the slides examined in a month in a microscopy centre, revealed that the LQAS method can be implemented in the field to monitor the performance of acid-fast bacillus microscopy centers in national tuberculosis control programs. PMID:15695704

Selvakumar, N; Murthy, B N; Prabhakaran, E; Sivagamasundari, S; Vasanthan, Samuel; Perumal, M; Govindaraju, R; Chauhan, L S; Wares, Fraser; Santha, T; Narayanan, P R

2005-02-01

58

A RAPD-based survey of thermophilic bacilli in milk powders from different countries.  

PubMed

Twenty-eight milk powders from 18 different countries were examined for the number and type of contaminating thermophilic bacilli. Of 742 isolates examined, 96.8% were assigned to the same strains of bacilli as previously found in New Zealand powders. The dominant isolate was Anoxybacillus flavithermus strain C followed by Bacillus licheniformis strain F. The former was also prevalent in New Zealand powders and the results demonstrate that A. flavithermus represents a widespread contaminant, seemingly ubiquitous in factories producing milk powder. The presence of thermophilic strains of Geobacillus stearothermophilus and to a lesser extent of Bacillus subtilis in milk powders was reconfirmed. PMID:15454316

Rückert, Andreas; Ronimus, Ron S; Morgan, Hugh W

2004-11-15

59

Evidence for a Structural Role for Acid-Fast Lipids in Oocyst Walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Coccidia are protozoan parasites that cause significant human disease and are of major agricultural importance. Cryptosporidium spp. cause diarrhea in humans and animals, while Toxoplasma causes disseminated infections in fetuses and untreated AIDS patients. Eimeria is a major pathogen of commercial chickens. Oocysts, which are the infectious form of Cryptosporidium and Eimeria and one of two infectious forms of Toxoplasma (the other is tissue cysts in undercooked meat), have a multilayered wall. Recently we showed that the inner layer of the oocyst walls of Toxoplasma and Eimeria is a porous scaffold of fibers of ?-1,3-glucan, which are also present in fungal walls but are absent from Cryptosporidium oocyst walls. Here we present evidence for a structural role for lipids in the oocyst walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria. Briefly, oocyst walls of each organism label with acid-fast stains that bind to lipids in the walls of mycobacteria. Polyketide synthases similar to those that make mycobacterial wall lipids are abundant in oocysts of Toxoplasma and Eimeria and are predicted in Cryptosporidium. The outer layer of oocyst wall of Eimeria and the entire oocyst wall of Cryptosporidium are dissolved by organic solvents. Oocyst wall lipids are complex mixtures of triglycerides, some of which contain polyhydroxy fatty acyl chains like those present in plant cutin or elongated fatty acyl chains like mycolic acids. We propose a two-layered model of the oocyst wall (glucan and acid-fast lipids) that resembles the two-layered walls of mycobacteria (peptidoglycan and acid-fast lipids) and plants (cellulose and cutin). PMID:24003177

Bushkin, G. Guy; Motari, Edwin; Carpentieri, Andrea; Dubey, Jitender P.; Costello, Catherine E.; Robbins, Phillips W.; Samuelson, John

2013-01-01

60

9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...tube containing four swabs and lactose broth or other suitable media, 1 ml. will be transferred to 10 ml. lactose in a fermentation tube. (2) Incubate at 37 °C for 48 hours. The presence of acid, and gas in the amount of 10 percent or more...

2011-01-01

61

STUDIES ON THE TOXIN PRODUCTION OF THE SHIGA BACILLI  

PubMed Central

1. The S, R, and Rn variants of the Shiga bacillus are equally toxic. 2. The effect of the toxin upon rabbits is the same, whether it is derived from filtrates of broth cultures (3 to 6 days old), or is obtained by autolysis of the killed bacteria, grown on agar surface. Rabbits show in both cases prostration, loss in weight, paralysis, and diarrhea. 3. When the toxin is heated to 80°C. for 1 hour, its poisonous effect nearly disappears, but its immunizing ability is unaltered. This heated toxin induces a formation of antitoxin, which can protect against the unheated toxins. 4. The anatomical changes observed in the spinal cord (degeneration of the motor neurons) and in the cecum (hyperemia and hemorrhages) are in agreement with the statements of previous authors. Furthermore, the toxin causes hyperemia and hemorrhages in the heart, hyperemia and degeneration in the kidneys and the liver. PMID:19870453

Waaler, Erik

1936-01-01

62

Resistance of gram-negative bacilli as related to hospital use of antimicrobial agents.  

PubMed Central

The development of resistance of gram-negative bacilli, which are common nosocomial pathogens, is an increasing problem. It is generally accepted that this resistance may directly reflect the frequency of use of various antimicrobial agents. Because our institution experienced in 1976 a dramatic change in the pattern of antimicrobial use, primarily a marked decrease in prescribing cephalosporins, we attempted to evaluate retrospectively the effects of this change upon the resistance of gram-negative bacilli that are common nosocomial pathogens. Susceptibilities of Klebsiella and Providencia spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens were determined for the years 1975 to 1979. Not unexpectedly, we observed a substantial decrease in cephalosporin resistance. An unexpected finding was a decrease in aminoglycoside resistance, despite increased use of these agents. The possibility that decreased cephalosporin use may lead to decreased aminoglycoside resistance is an intriguing and provocative thesis which can only be speculative at this time but which would seem worthy of additional formal investigation. PMID:6638994

Ma, M Y; Goldstein, E J; Friedman, M H; Anderson, M S; Mulligan, M E

1983-01-01

63

Development of a rapid detection and enumeration method for thermophilic bacilli in milk powders.  

PubMed

Thermophilic strains of Geobacillus, Anoxybacillus and Bacillus that are able to grow at 55 degrees C and above are recognized as commonly occurring contaminants during the production of milk powders. In particular, Anoxybacillus flavithermus strain C and Bacillus licheniformis strain F are often the most prevalent. We describe here the development of a TaqMan-based real-time-PCR assay using a small amplicon of the ribosomal 16S rRNA gene for the selective and quantitative detection of thermophilic bacilli in milk powders. We further present an effective, rapid and inexpensive method for the isolation of total bacterial DNA from milk powder for quantitative PCR analysis within 20 min. With this method, the detection of thermophilic bacilli in milk powder can be accomplished within 1 h. The detection limit for reconstituted and inoculated milk was 8 vegetative cfu ml(-1) and 64 spores ml(-1), respectively. PMID:15590090

Rueckert, Andreas; Ronimus, Ron S; Morgan, Hugh W

2005-02-01

64

Evaluation of Quinolone Resistance in Gram Negative Bacilli Isolated from Community- and Hospital-Acquired Infections  

PubMed Central

Objective: Gram negative bacilli are among the most important microbial agents involved in both hospital- and community-acquired infections. The quinolones are preferred antibacterial agents for the treatment of both community- and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections caused by gram negative bacilli because of their strong antibacterial effects, and because they can be administered both orally and parenterally. In this study, it was aimed to determine the sensitivity of gram negative bacteria isolated from both hospital- and community-acquired infections, to quinolones. Materials and Methods: Bacterial strains used in this study were isolated from pathologic samples of patients who were treated in different clinics or who were admitted to the polyclinics of Atatürk University Research Hospitals. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin and norfloxacin was assessed for all strains included in the study via the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to CLSI criteria. Results: Of the 205 strains tested, 116 (56.5%) were from community-acquired infections, and 89 (43.5%) were from hospital-acquired infections. Resistance rates of community-origin strains against ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and levofloxacin were 25%, whereas they were 26.7% against norfloxacin. Ciprofloxacin was the most effective quinolone (65.2%) against hospital-origin strains. E. coli was the most commonly isolated etiological agent from both community- and hospital-acquired infections. Conclusion: In this study, resistance to quinolones was observed for gram negative bacilli isolated from both hospital- and community-acquired infections, with the exception of community-acquired Salmonella and Shigella. Thus, these drugs should not be used empirically in the treatment of infections caused by gram negative bacilli, and susceptibility test results should be considered when planning therapy.

Bastopcu, Ayse; Yazgi, Halil; Uyanik, M. Hamidullah; Ayyildiz, Ahmet

2008-01-01

65

Identification of Aerobic Gram-Positive Bacilli by Use of Vitek MS  

PubMed Central

The accuracy of Vitek MS mass spectrometric identifications was assessed for 206 clinically significant isolates of aerobic Gram-positive bacilli representing 20 genera and 38 species. The Vitek MS identifications were correct for 85% of the isolates (56.3% to the species level, 28.6% limited to the genus level), with misidentifications occurring for 7.3% of the isolates. PMID:24501030

Navas, Maria; Pincus, David H.; Wilkey, Kathy; Sercia, Linda; LaSalvia, Margaret; Wilson, Deborah; Procop, Gary W.

2014-01-01

66

Antimicrobial susceptibility of intra-abdominal Gram-negative bacilli from Europe: SMART Europe 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the worldwide Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART), a total of 3,030 clinical isolates\\u000a of Gram-negative bacilli from intra-abdominal infections were collected from 43 hospital centres from 13 European countries\\u000a during 2008. Of 51 species, the most commonly isolated species were Escherichia coli (49.3%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (10.5%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.6%). Respectively, 17.9%, 11.6%,

S. Hawser; D. Hoban; S. Bouchillon; R. Badal; Y. Carmeli; P. Hawkey

2011-01-01

67

Targeting dormant tuberculosis bacilli: results for molecules with a novel pyrimidone scaffold.  

PubMed

Our inability to completely control TB has been due in part to the presence of dormant mycobacteria. This also renders drug regimens ineffective and is the prime cause of the appearance of drug-resistant strains. In continuation of our efforts to develop novel antitubercular agents that especially target dormant mycobacteria, a set of 55 new compounds belonging to the pyrimidone class were designed on the basis of CoMFA and CoMSIA studies, and these were synthesized and subsequently tested against both the dormant and virulent BCG strain of M. tuberculosis. Some novel compounds have been identified which selectively inhibit the dormant tuberculosis bacilli with significantly low IC50 values. This study reports the second molecule after TMC-207, having the ability to inhibit tuberculosis bacilli exclusively in its dormant phase. The synthesis was accomplished by a modified multicomponent Biginelli reaction. A classification model was generated using the binary QSAR approach - recursive partitioning (RP) to identify structural characteristics related to the activity. Physicochemical, structural, topological, connectivity indices, and E-state key descriptors were used for generation of the decision tree. The decision tree could provide insights into structure-activity relationships that will guide the design of more potent inhibitors. PMID:24917467

Joshi, Rohit R; Barchha, Avinash; Khedkar, Vijay M; Pissurlenkar, Raghuvir R S; Sarkar, Sampa; Sarkar, Dhiman; Joshi, Rohini R; Joshi, Ramesh A; Shah, Anamik K; Coutinho, Evans C

2015-02-01

68

Potassium availability triggers Mycobacterium tuberculosis transition to, and resuscitation from, non-culturable (dormant) states  

PubMed Central

Dormancy in non-sporulating bacteria is an interesting and underexplored phenomenon with significant medical implications. In particular, latent tuberculosis may result from the maintenance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli in non-replicating states in infected individuals. Uniquely, growth of M. tuberculosis in aerobic conditions in potassium-deficient media resulted in the generation of bacilli that were non-culturable (NC) on solid media but detectable in liquid media. These bacilli were morphologically distinct and tolerant to cell-wall-targeting antimicrobials. Bacterial counts on solid media quickly recovered after washing and incubating bacilli in fresh resuscitation media containing potassium. This resuscitation of growth occurred too quickly to be attributed to M. tuberculosis replication. Transcriptomic and proteomic profiling through adaptation to, and resuscitation from, this NC state revealed a switch to anaerobic respiration and a shift to lipid and amino acid metabolism. High concordance with mRNA signatures derived from M. tuberculosis infection models suggests that analogous NC mycobacterial phenotypes may exist during disease and may represent unrecognized populations in vivo. Resuscitation of NC bacilli in potassium-sufficient media was characterized by time-dependent activation of metabolic pathways in a programmed series of processes that probably transit bacilli through challenging microenvironments during infection. PMID:25320096

Salina, Elena G.; Waddell, Simon J.; Hoffmann, Nadine; Rosenkrands, Ida; Butcher, Philip D.; Kaprelyants, Arseny S.

2014-01-01

69

Potassium availability triggers Mycobacterium tuberculosis transition to, and resuscitation from, non-culturable (dormant) states.  

PubMed

Dormancy in non-sporulating bacteria is an interesting and underexplored phenomenon with significant medical implications. In particular, latent tuberculosis may result from the maintenance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli in non-replicating states in infected individuals. Uniquely, growth of M. tuberculosis in aerobic conditions in potassium-deficient media resulted in the generation of bacilli that were non-culturable (NC) on solid media but detectable in liquid media. These bacilli were morphologically distinct and tolerant to cell-wall-targeting antimicrobials. Bacterial counts on solid media quickly recovered after washing and incubating bacilli in fresh resuscitation media containing potassium. This resuscitation of growth occurred too quickly to be attributed to M. tuberculosis replication. Transcriptomic and proteomic profiling through adaptation to, and resuscitation from, this NC state revealed a switch to anaerobic respiration and a shift to lipid and amino acid metabolism. High concordance with mRNA signatures derived from M. tuberculosis infection models suggests that analogous NC mycobacterial phenotypes may exist during disease and may represent unrecognized populations in vivo. Resuscitation of NC bacilli in potassium-sufficient media was characterized by time-dependent activation of metabolic pathways in a programmed series of processes that probably transit bacilli through challenging microenvironments during infection. PMID:25320096

Salina, Elena G; Waddell, Simon J; Hoffmann, Nadine; Rosenkrands, Ida; Butcher, Philip D; Kaprelyants, Arseny S

2014-10-01

70

Evolution of Smooth Tubercle Bacilli PE and PE_PGRS Genes: Evidence for a Prominent Role of Recombination  

E-print Network

Evolution of Smooth Tubercle Bacilli PE and PE_PGRS Genes: Evidence for a Prominent Role in the pathogenic species, notably the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Several lines of evidence keeping genes (HKG) whose evolution is chiefly brought about by mutation (r/h = 0.012). In comparison

Boyer, Edmond

71

What renders Bacilli genetically competent? A gaze beyond the model organism.  

PubMed

Natural genetic competence enables bacteria to take in and establish exogenously supplied DNA and thus constitutes a valuable tool for strain improvement. Extensively studied in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis genetic competence has indeed proven successful for genetic manipulation aiming at enhancement of handling, yield, and biosafety. The majority of Bacilli, particularly those relevant for industrial application, do not or only poorly develop genetic competence, although rather homologous DNA-uptake machineries are routinely encoded. Establishing the competent state solely due to high cell densities (quorum sensing dependency) appears to be restricted to the model organism, in which the small signalling peptide ComS initiates the regulatory pathway that ultimately leads to the expression of all genes necessary for reaching the competent state. Agreeing with the lack of a functional ComS peptide, competence-mediated transformation of other Bacilli depends on nutrient exhaustion rather than cell density. Genetically, competent strains of the model organism B. subtilis, cultivated for a long time and selected for laboratory purposes, display probably not least to such selection a point mutation in the promoter of a regulatory gene that favors competence development whereas the wild-type progenitor only poorly displays genetic competence. Consistent with competence being a matter of deregulation, all strains of Bacillus licheniformis displaying efficient DNA uptake were found to carry mutations in regulator genes, which are responsible for their genetic competence. Thus, strain-specific genetic equipment and regulation as well as the proven role of domestication for the well-established laboratory strains ought to be considered when attempting to broaden the applicability of competence as a genetic tool for strains other than the model organism. PMID:25547840

Jakobs, Mareike; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

2015-02-01

72

NDM-1 (New Delhi metallo beta lactamase-1) producing Gram-negative bacilli: Emergence & clinical implications  

PubMed Central

Backgound & objectives: Resistance to carbapenems in Gram-negative bacteria conferred by NDM-1 is a global health problem. We investigated the occurrence of NDM-1 in clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacilli in a tertiary care hospital in Kashmir valley, India. Methods: Gram-negative bacilli from different clinical isolates were included in the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method and interpreted using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Isolates resistant to carbapenems were subjected to different phenotypic test such as modified Hodge test (MHT), boronic acid and oxacillin based MHT (BA-MHT and OXA-MHT), combined disk test and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) with imipenem and imipenem -EDTA for determination of class B metallo enzymes. Presence of blaNDM-1 gene was established by PCR and confirmed by sequencing. Results: Of the total 1625 Gram-negative isolates received, 100 were resistant to imipenem. Of the 100 isolates, 55 (55%) were positive by modified Hodge test indicating carbapenemase production. Of the 100 isolates tested by MHT, BA-MHT and OXA-MHT, 29 (29%) isolates belonged to Class A and 15 (15%) to Class B, while 56 (56%) isolates were negative. Of the 15 class B metallo beta lactamase producers, nine carried the blaNDM-1 gene. NDM-1 was found among Escherichia coli (2 isolates), Klebsiella pneumoniae (2 isolates), Citrobacter freundii (3 isolates), Acinetobacter spp (1 isolate), and one isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Isolates were resistant to all antibiotic tested except polymyxin B and tigecycline. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed the presence of clinical isolates expressing NDM-1 in Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India. These isolates harbour plasmid mediated multiple drug resistant determinants and can disseminate easily across several unrelated genera. To halt their spread, early identification of these isolates is mandatory. PMID:25579151

Fomda, Bashir Ahmad; Khan, Asiya; Zahoor, Danish

2014-01-01

73

Rapid enumeration of respiratory active mycobacteria with fluorescent double staining.  

PubMed

A new method for rapid enumeration of physiologically active mycobacteria was developed by acid-fast bacilli staining (Auramine O) following formazan reduction. Results can be obtained within 90 min by the optimized procedure, while more than one week is required for the widely used culture-dependent approach. PMID:20600362

Ichijo, Tomoaki; Izumi, Yoko; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Nasu, Masao

2010-09-01

74

The Prevalence in Canada of Drug-Resistant Tubercle Bacilli in Newly Discovered Untreated Patients with Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

During the period February 1963 to September 1964, the incidence of strains of tubercle bacilli excreted by newly diagnosed, previously untreated patients with tuberculosis in Canada that were resistant to the major antituberculosis drugs, viz. streptomycin, para-aminosalicylic acid and isoniazid, was 4.8%. Resistance to a single drug (3.8%) was observed more commonly than was resistance to two drugs (0.9%) or to all three drugs (0.3%), and the drug most frequently involved in this regard was streptomycin (1.8%). Data for the province of Ontario were almost the same as those for Canada. These data are compared with results of surveys in other countries and it is concluded that while drug-resistant tubercle bacilli do not constitute a major problem in Canada at present, awareness of this potential hazard should be maintained. PMID:20328514

Armstrong, A. Riley

1966-01-01

75

Genomic determinants of sporulation in Bacilli and Clostridia: towards the minimal set of sporulation-specific genes  

PubMed Central

Three classes of low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (Firmicutes), Bacilli, Clostridia and Negativicutes, include numerous members that are capable of producing heat-resistant endospores. Spore-forming firmicutes include many environmentally important organisms, such as insect pathogens and cellulose-degrading industrial strains, as well as human pathogens responsible for such diseases as anthrax, botulism, gas gangrene and tetanus. In the best-studied model organism Bacillus subtilis, sporulation involves over 500 genes, many of which are conserved among other bacilli and clostridia. This work aimed to define the genomic requirements for sporulation through an analysis of the presence of sporulation genes in various firmicutes, including those with smaller genomes than B. subtilis. Cultivable spore-formers were found to have genomes larger than 2300 kb and encompass over 2150 protein-coding genes of which 60 are orthologues of genes that are apparently essential for sporulation in B. subtilis. Clostridial spore-formers lack, among others, spoIIB, sda, spoVID and safA genes and have non-orthologous displacements of spoIIQ and spoIVFA, suggesting substantial differences between bacilli and clostridia in the engulfment and spore coat formation steps. Many B. subtilis sporulation genes, particularly those encoding small acid-soluble spore proteins and spore coat proteins, were found only in the family Bacillaceae, or even in a subset of Bacillus spp. Phylogenetic profiles of sporulation genes, compiled in this work, confirm the presence of a common sporulation gene core, but also illuminate the diversity of the sporulation processes within various lineages. These profiles should help further experimental studies of uncharacterized widespread sporulation genes, which would ultimately allow delineation of the minimal set(s) of sporulation-specific genes in Bacilli and Clostridia. PMID:22882546

Galperin, Michael Y; Mekhedov, Sergei L; Puigbo, Pere; Smirnov, Sergey; Wolf, Yuri I; Rigden, Daniel J

2012-01-01

76

Intravenous colistin in the treatment of sepsis from multiresistant Gram-negative bacilli in critically ill patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: The increasing prevalence of multiresistant Gram-negative strains in intensive care units (ICUs) has recently rekindled interest in colistin, a bactericidal antibiotic that was used in the 1960s for treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacilli. We conducted the present observational study to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous colistin in the treatment of critically ill patients with sepsis caused by

Nikolaos Markou; Haralampos Apostolakos; Christiana Koumoudiou; Maria Athanasiou; Alexandra Koutsoukou; Ioannis Alamanos; Leonidas Gregorakos

2003-01-01

77

Mosquitocidal toxins of bacilli and their genetic manipulation for effective biological control of mosquitoes.  

PubMed Central

The identification, cloning, and characterization of protein toxins from various species of bacilli have demonstrated the existence of mosquitocidal toxins with different structures, mechanisms of action, and host ranges. A start has been made in understanding the polypeptide determinants of toxicity and insecticidal activity, and the purification of toxins from recombinant organisms may lead to the elucidation of their X-ray crystal structures and the cloning of brush border membrane receptors. The results of cloning mosquitocidal toxins in heterologous microorganisms show the potential of expanding the range of susceptible mosquito species by combining several toxins of different host specificity in one cell. Toxins have been expressed in new microorganisms with the potential for increasing potency by persisting at the larval feeding zone. The powerful tools of bacterial genetics are being applied to engineer genetically stable, persistent toxin expression and expand the insecticidal host ranges of Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis strains. These techniques, together with modern formulation technology, should eventually lead to the construction of mosquitocidal microorganisms which are effective enough to have a real impact on mosquito-borne diseases. Images PMID:7905597

Porter, A G; Davidson, E W; Liu, J W

1993-01-01

78

[News of antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacilli in Algeria].  

PubMed

Antibiotic resistance has become a major public health problem in Algeria. Indeed the past decade, we have seen a significant increase in resistance to antibiotics especially in Gram-negative bacilli. Resistance to ?-lactams in enterobacteria is dominated by the production of ESBL CTX-M-3 and CTX-M-15. The strains producing these enzymes are often the cause of potentially serious infections in both hospital and community settings. Identified plasmid cephalosporinases are CMY-2, CMY-12 and DHA-1. The isolation of strains of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa producing carbapenemases is rare in Algeria. Some Enterobacteriaceae producing OXA-48 or VIM-19 have been reported; so far, only VIM-2 has been identified in P. aeruginosa. However, the situation regarding the strains of Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to carbapenemases seems to be more disturbing. The carbapenemase OXA-23 is the most common and seems to be endemic in the north. The carbapenemase NDM-1 has also been identified. Resistance to aminoglycosides is marked by the identification armA gene associated with blaCTX-M genes in strains of Salmonella sp. Several other resistance genes have been identified sporadically in strains of Enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. Resistance genes to fluoroquinolones are more recent identification in Algeria. The most common are the Qnr determinants followed by the bifunctional enzyme AAC[6']-Ib-cr. Resistance to sulfonamides and trimethoprim was also reported in Enterobacteriaceae strains in the west of the country. PMID:24819127

Baba Ahmed-Kazi Tani, Z; Arlet, G

2014-06-01

79

Enteric Gram-negative bacilli suppress Candida biofilms on Foley urinary catheters.  

PubMed

Mixed Candida-bacterial biofilms in urinary catheters are common in hospitalized patients. (i) The aims of this study were to evaluate, quantitatively and qualitatively, the in vitro development of mono- and dual-species biofilms (MSBs and DSBs) of Candida albicans and two enteric gram-negative bacilli (EGNB; Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli) on Foley catheter (FC) discs, (ii) to determine the biofilm growth in tryptic soy broth or glucose supplemented artificial urine (AU) and (iii) to assess the inhibitory effects of EGNB and their lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on Candida biofilm growth. The growth of MSBs and DSBs on FC discs was monitored by cell counts and SEM. The metabolic activity of LPS-treated Candida biofilms was determined by the XTT reduction assay. Candida albicans and EGNB demonstrated significant inter- and intra-species differences in biofilm growth on FC discs (p < 0.01). Pseudomonas aeruginosa suppressed Candida albicans significantly (p < 0.001) in DSBs. Compared with MSBs, DSB of EGNB in glucose supplemented AU demonstrated robust growth. Escherichia coli and its LPS, significantly suppressed Candida biofilm growth, compared with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its LPS (p < 0.001). Candida albicans and EGNB colonization in FC is significantly increased in AU with glucose, and variably modified by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and their corresponding LPS. PMID:23656511

Samaranayake, Y H; Bandara, H M H N; Cheung, B P K; Yau, J Y Y; Yeung, S K W; Samaranayake, L P

2014-01-01

80

Immunogenomics for identification of disease resistance genes in pigs: a review focusing on Gram-negative bacilli  

PubMed Central

Over the past years, infectious disease has caused enormous economic loss in pig industry. Among the pathogens, gram negative bacteria not only cause inflammation, but also cause different diseases and make the pigs more susceptible to virus infection. Vaccination, medication and elimination of sick pigs are major strategies of controlling disease. Genetic methods, such as selection of disease resistance in the pig, have not been widely used. Recently, the completion of the porcine whole genome sequencing has provided powerful tools to identify the genome regions that harboring genes controlling disease or immunity. Immunogenomics, which combines DNA variations, transcriptome, immune response, and QTL mapping data to illustrate the interactions between pathogen and host immune system, will be an effective genomics tool for identification of disease resistance genes in pigs. These genes will be potential targets for disease resistance in breeding programs. This paper reviewed the progress of disease resistance study in the pig focusing on Gram-negative bacilli. Major porcine Gram-negative bacilli and diseases, suggested candidate genes/pathways against porcine Gram-negative bacilli, and distributions of QTLs for immune capacity on pig chromosomes were summarized. Some tools for immunogenomics research were described. We conclude that integration of sequencing, whole genome associations, functional genomics studies, and immune response information is necessary to illustrate molecular mechanisms and key genes in disease resistance. PMID:23137309

2012-01-01

81

Influence of Cations on Growth of Thermophilic Geobacillus spp. and Anoxybacillus flavithermus in Planktonic Culture  

PubMed Central

Free ions of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ influenced the optical density of planktonic cultures of thermophilic bacilli. Anoxybacillus flavithermus E16 and Geobacillus sp. strain F75 (milk powder manufacturing plant isolates) and A. flavithermus DSM 2641 and G. thermoleovorans DSM 5366 were studied. Ca2+ and Mg2+ were associated with increases in optical density more so than Na+ and K+. Overall, it appeared that Ca2+ and/or Mg2+ was required for the production of protein in thermophilic bacilli, as shown by results obtained with A. flavithermus E16, which was selected for further study. PMID:22287005

Palmer, Jon; Brooks, John; Smolinski, Edward; Lindsay, Denise; Flint, Steve

2012-01-01

82

Influence of cations on growth of thermophilic Geobacillus spp. and Anoxybacillus flavithermus in planktonic culture.  

PubMed

Free ions of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) influenced the optical density of planktonic cultures of thermophilic bacilli. Anoxybacillus flavithermus E16 and Geobacillus sp. strain F75 (milk powder manufacturing plant isolates) and A. flavithermus DSM 2641 and G. thermoleovorans DSM 5366 were studied. Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were associated with increases in optical density more so than Na(+) and K(+). Overall, it appeared that Ca(2+) and/or Mg(2+) was required for the production of protein in thermophilic bacilli, as shown by results obtained with A. flavithermus E16, which was selected for further study. PMID:22287005

Somerton, Ben; Palmer, Jon; Brooks, John; Smolinski, Edward; Lindsay, Denise; Flint, Steve

2012-04-01

83

Emergence of Imipenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli in Intestinal Flora of Intensive Care Patients  

PubMed Central

Intestinal flora contains a reservoir of Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) resistant to cephalosporins, which are potentially pathogenic for intensive care unit (ICU) patients; this has led to increasing use of carbapenems. The emergence of carbapenem resistance is a major concern for ICUs. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to assess the intestinal carriage of imipenem-resistant GNB (IR-GNB) in intensive care patients. For 6 months, 523 consecutive ICU patients were screened for rectal IR-GNB colonization upon admission and weekly thereafter. The phenotypes and genotypes of all isolates were determined, and a case control study was performed to identify risk factors for colonization. The IR-GNB colonization rate increased regularly from 5.6% after 1 week to 58.6% after 6 weeks in the ICU. In all, 56 IR-GNB strains were collected from 50 patients: 36 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, 12 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains, 6 Enterobacteriaceae strains, and 2 Acinetobacter baumannii strains. In P. aeruginosa, imipenem resistance was due to chromosomally encoded resistance (32 strains) or carbapenemase production (4 strains). In the Enterobacteriaceae strains, resistance was due to AmpC cephalosporinase and/or extended-spectrum ?-lactamase production with porin loss. Genomic comparison showed that the strains were highly diverse, with 8 exceptions (4 VIM-2 carbapenemase-producing P. aeruginosa strains, 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, and 2 S. maltophilia strains). The main risk factor for IR-GNB colonization was prior imipenem exposure. The odds ratio for colonization was already as high as 5.9 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.5 to 25.7) after 1 to 3 days of exposure and increased to 7.8 (95% CI, 2.4 to 29.8) thereafter. In conclusion, even brief exposure to imipenem is a major risk factor for IR-GNB carriage. PMID:23318796

Angebault, Cécile; Barbier, François; Hamelet, Emilie; Defrance, Gilles; Ruppé, Etienne; Bronchard, Régis; Lepeule, Raphaël; Lucet, Jean-Christophe; El Mniai, Assiya; Wolff, Michel; Montravers, Philippe; Plésiat, Patrick; Andremont, Antoine

2013-01-01

84

Radiometric macrophage culture assay for rapid evaluation of antileprosy activity of rifampin  

SciTech Connect

The antileprosy effect of rifampin was evaluated by a newly developed rapid in vitro assay wherein 31 human-derived strains and 1 armadillo-derived strain of Mycobacterium leprae were maintained for 2 and 3 weeks, respectively, in murine and human macrophages in the presence of (3H)thymidine. Of these strains, 27 showed significant incorporation of the radiolabel in cultures of live bacilli as compared with control cultures of heat-killed bacilli of the same strain. Consistent and significant inhibition of (3H)thymidine uptake was observed in M. leprae resident cultures with 3 to 200 ng of rifampin per ml as compared with similar cultures without the drug. In general, an increase in percent inhibition was seen from 3 to 20 ng/ml, with marginal increases at 40, 50, and 100 ng/ml. M. leprae strains appear to be remarkably susceptible to this drug in the in vitro assay.

Mittal, A.; Seshadri, P.S.; Prasad, H.K.; Sathish, M.; Nath, I.

1983-10-01

85

Evaluation of Amplicor MTB Test as Adjunct to Smears and Culture for Direct Detection ofMycobacterium tuberculosis in the French Caribbean  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 784 specimens collected from 370 individuals between January and August 1995 were analyzed by using the Amplicor Mycobacterium tuberculosis test (Roche Diagnostic Systems, Basel, Switzerland), a PCR- based test for the direct detection of organisms of theM. tuberculosiscomplex. The PCR results were compared with standard bacteriological data, including those obtained by acid-fast microscopy, culture, and biochemical identification

ANNE DEVALLOIS; ERIC LEGRAND; ANDNALIN RASTOGI

1996-01-01

86

Isolation and Screening of Thermophilic Bacilli from Compost for Electrotransformation and Fermentation: Characterization of Bacillus smithii ET 138 as a New Biocatalyst.  

PubMed

Thermophilic bacteria are regarded as attractive production organisms for cost-efficient conversion of renewable resources to green chemicals, but their genetic accessibility is a major bottleneck in developing them into versatile platform organisms. In this study, we aimed to isolate thermophilic, facultatively anaerobic bacilli that are genetically accessible and have potential as platform organisms. From compost, we isolated 267 strains that produced acids from C5 and C6 sugars at temperatures of 55°C or 65°C. Subsequently, 44 strains that showed the highest production of acids were screened for genetic accessibility by electroporation. Two Geobacillus thermodenitrificans isolates and one Bacillus smithii isolate were found to be transformable with plasmid pNW33n. Of these, B. smithii ET 138 was the best-performing strain in laboratory-scale fermentations and was capable of producing organic acids from glucose as well as from xylose. It is an acidotolerant strain able to produce organic acids until a lower limit of approximately pH 4.5. As genetic accessibility of B. smithii had not been described previously, six other B. smithii strains from the DSMZ culture collection were tested for electroporation efficiencies, and we found the type strain DSM 4216(T) and strain DSM 460 to be transformable. The transformation protocol for B. smithii isolate ET 138 was optimized to obtain approximately 5 × 10(3) colonies per ?g plasmid pNW33n. Genetic accessibility combined with robust acid production capacities on C5 and C6 sugars at a relatively broad pH range make B. smithii ET 138 an attractive biocatalyst for the production of lactic acid and potentially other green chemicals. PMID:25556192

Bosma, Elleke F; van de Weijer, Antonius H P; Daas, Martinus J A; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M; van Kranenburg, Richard

2015-03-01

87

Genome analysis of smooth tubercle bacilli provides insights into ancestry and pathoadaptation of the etiologic agent of tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Global spread and genetic monomorphism are hallmarks of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the agent of human tuberculosis. In contrast, Mycobacterium canettii, and related tubercle bacilli that also cause human tuberculosis and exhibit unusual smooth colony morphology, are restricted to East-Africa. Here, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of five representative strains of smooth tubercle bacilli (STB) using Sanger (4-5x coverage), 454/Roche (13-18x coverage) and/or Illumina DNA sequencing (45-105x coverage). We show that STB are highly recombinogenic and evolutionary early-branching, with larger genome sizes, 25-fold more SNPs, fewer molecular scars and distinct CRISPR-Cas systems relative to M. tuberculosis. Despite the differences, all tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria share a highly conserved core genome. Mouse-infection experiments revealed that STB are less persistent and virulent than M. tuberculosis. We conclude that M. tuberculosis emerged from an ancestral, STB-like pool of mycobacteria by gain of persistence and virulence mechanisms and we provide genome-wide insights into the molecular events involved. PMID:23291586

Supply, Philip; Marceau, Michael; Mangenot, Sophie; Roche, David; Rouanet, Carine; Khanna, Varun; Majlessi, Laleh; Criscuolo, Alexis; Tap, Julien; Pawlik, Alexandre; Fiette, Laurence; Orgeur, Mickael; Fabre, Michel; Parmentier, Cécile; Frigui, Wafa; Simeone, Roxane; Boritsch, Eva C.; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Willery, Eve; Walker, Danielle; Quail, Michael A.; Ma, Laurence; Bouchier, Christiane; Salvignol, Grégory; Sayes, Fadel; Cascioferro, Alessandro; Seemann, Torsten; Barbe, Valérie; Locht, Camille; Gutierrez, Maria-Cristina; Leclerc, Claude; Bentley, Stephen; Stinear, Timothy P.; Brisse, Sylvain; Médigue, Claudine; Parkhill, Julian; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Brosch, Roland

2013-01-01

88

Nasal immunization with a dual antigen anthrax vaccine induced strong mucosal and systemic immune responses against toxins and bacilli.  

PubMed

Anthrax-vaccine-adsorbed (AVA), the only anthrax vaccine licensed in the U.S., suffers from many major drawbacks. Therefore, there is a need to develop new generation anthrax vaccines that can be easily administered and induce strong immune responses not only against the anthrax toxins, but also against the toxin-producing vegetative anthrax bacilli. In the present study, we evaluated the feasibility of inducing strong mucosal and systemic immune responses against both anthrax toxins and bacilli after nasal immunization using a synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly(I:C) or pI:C), as the adjuvant. We have shown that the capsular poly-gamma-D-glutamic acid (PGA) from bacillus was immunogenic when conjugated to a carrier protein and dosed intranasally to mice. We further demonstrated that nasal immunization with the PGA-carrier protein conjugate in combination with the anthrax protective antigen (PA) protein induced both anti-PGA and anti-PA immune responses in mouse sera and lung mucosal secretions. The anti-PA antibody (Ab) response was shown to have anthrax lethal toxin neutralization activity; and the anti-PGA Abs induced were able to activate complement and kill PGA-producing bacteria. These findings demonstrated that it is feasible to develop a novel dual-action nasal anthrax vaccine. PMID:16828937

Sloat, Brian R; Cui, Zhengrong

2006-09-29

89

Chronic Mycobacterium infection of first dorsal web space after accidental Bacilli Calmette-Guérin injection in a health worker: case report.  

PubMed

We present a case of inoculation of the first dorsal web space by a nurse practitioner who accidentally stuck herself while preparing Bacilli Calmette-Guérin vaccine for treatment of bladder tumor. We report the evolution and management of this resistant chronic Mycobacterium infection that ultimately required use of a vacuum wound management system followed by a microvascular free tissue transfer. PMID:18984347

Vigler, Mordechai; Mulett, Hanan; Hausman, Michael R

2008-11-01

90

Comparison of a Novel, Rapid Chromogenic Biochemical Assay, the Carba NP Test, with the Modified Hodge Test for Detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacilli  

PubMed Central

We compared carbapenemase detection among 271 Gram-negative bacilli (of which 131 were carbapenemase producers) using a novel chromogenic rapid test—the Carba NP test (CNP)—and the modified Hodge test (MHT). Sensitivities were comparable (CNP, 100%, versus MHT, 98%; P = 0.08), but CNP was more specific (100% versus 80%; P < 0.0001) and faster. PMID:23824767

Vasoo, Shawn; Cunningham, Scott A.; Kohner, Peggy C.; Simner, Patricia J.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Lolans, Karen; Hayden, Mary K.

2013-01-01

91

Hemolysin production, salt tolerance, antibacterial resistance, and prevalence of extended spectrum ?-lactamases in Proteus bacilli isolated from clinical and environmental sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and objective: Proteus bacilli are opportunistic members of Enterobacteriaceae and Proteus mirabilis is among the most common causes of community or hospital acquired urinary tract infections (UTI) in many countries. In the present study hemolysin production, salt tolerance and resistance to antibacterial agents in environmental and UTIs samples were compared. Materials and methods: Bacteria were isolated from UTIs (n=80),

Shahla Mansouri; Farehnaz Pahlavanzadeh

2009-01-01

92

The clinical impact of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli in the management of septic shock  

PubMed Central

Multi-antibiotic drug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacilli are becoming a major threat to the standard care of septic patients. Empiric antimicrobial drug regimens to cover likely bacterial pathogens have to be altered in keeping with the spread of MDR pathogens in the health care setting and in the community. Reliable antibiotics for broad spectrum coverage for sepsis such as extended spectrum ?-lactam antibiotics, carbapenems, and fluoroquinolones can no longer be counted upon to provide activity against a range of common, virulent pathogens that cause sepsis. In some regions of Asia, South America, and Eastern Europe in particular, MDR pathogens have become a major concern, necessitating the use of potentially toxic and costly antibiotic combinations as initial antibiotic therapy for septic shock. In this brief review, we will focus on the emergence of MDR gram-negative pathogens, resistance mechanisms, and suggest some management and prevention strategies against MDR pathogens. PMID:24200870

Pop-Vicas, Aurora; Opal, Steven M

2014-01-01

93

French regional surveillance program of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli: results from a 2-year period.  

PubMed

In February 2011, the CARB-LR group was created as a sentinel laboratory-based surveillance network to control the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (CR GNB) in a French Southern Region. We report the epidemiological results of a 2-year study. All the Gram-negative bacilli isolates detected in the different labs (hospital and community settings) of a French Southern Region and with reduced susceptibility to ertapenem and/or imipenem were characterised with regard to antibiotic resistance, bla genes content, repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) profiles and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 221 strains were analysed. Acinetobacter baumannii was the most prevalent carbapenemase-producing bacteria, with a majority of OXA-23 producers (n?=?37). One isolate co-produced OXA-23 and OXA-58 enzymes. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most frequent carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) (OXA-48 producer: n?=?29, KPC producer: n?=?1), followed by Escherichia coli (OXA-48 producer: n?=?8, KPC producer: n?=?1) and Enterobacter cloacae (OXA-48 producer, n?=?1). One isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced a VIM-1 carbapenemase. A clonal diversity of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae and E. coli was noted with different MLSTs. On the other hand, almost all OXA-23-producing A. baumannii strains belonged to the widespread ST2/international clone II. The link between the detection of CR GNB and a foreign country was less obvious, suggesting the beginning of a local cross-transmission. The number of CR GNB cases in our French Southern Region has sharply increased very recently due to the diffusion of OXA-48 producers. PMID:25037867

Pantel, A; Boutet-Dubois, A; Jean-Pierre, H; Marchandin, H; Sotto, A; Lavigne, J-P

2014-12-01

94

Role of aerobic gram-negative bacilli in endometritis after cesarean section.  

PubMed

Endometritis is considered to be a polymicrobial infection, involving aerobes, anaerobes, and genital mycoplasmas. Aerobic gram-negative rods make up 7%-25% of all genital isolates, but findings from studies in which special collection techniques were used suggest that many of these may be contaminants from the lower genital tract. Bacteremia occurs in 4%-30% of patients with endometritis, and aerobic gram-negative rods account for approximately 25% of blood isolates. Both selected therapy studies and studies of intrauterine cultures collected at surgery from patients at risk for endometritis suggest the significant role of aerobic gram-negative rods. Among them Escherichia coli is the most common isolate in both genital and blood cultures. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis rank next, followed by Enterobacter species. Pseudomonas species account for fewer than 0.6% of genital isolates. Overall, aerobic gram-negative rods are causally involved in 10%-20% of cases of endometritis following cesarean section. PMID:3909325

Gibbs, R S; Blanco, J D; Bernstein, S

1985-01-01

95

Effect of nitrogen source on the antimicrobial activity of the bacilli air flora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial activity of strainsBacillus megaterium NB-3,Bacillus cereus NB-4,Bacillus cereus NB-5,Bacillus subtilis NB-6 andBacillus circulans NB-7, previously isolated from the air flora, now in the Jerash Culture Collection (Jordan), was investigated in media containing\\u000a different nitrogen sources. Maximum antimicrobial activity of strains NB-4, NB-5 and NB-6 was observed using Ca(NO3)2 as nitrogen source, (NH4)2SO4 and KNO2 strongly enhanced the antimicrobial

Nasser M. El-Banna; Samar S. Quddoumi

2007-01-01

96

Antibiotic susceptibility patterns among respiratory isolates of Gram-negative bacilli in a Turkish university hospital  

PubMed Central

Background Gram-negative bacteria cause most nosocomial respiratory infections. At the University of Cumhuriyet, we examined 328 respiratory isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumanii organisms in Sivas, Turkey over 3 years. We used disk diffusion or standardized microdilution to test the isolates against 18 antibiotics. Results We cultured organisms from sputum (54%), tracheal aspirate (25%), and bronchial lavage fluid (21%). The most common organisms were Klebsiella spp (35%), A. baumanii (27%), and Escherichia coli (15%). Imipenem was the most active agent, inhibiting 90% of Enterobacteriaceae and A. baumanii organisms. We considered approximately 12% of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 21% of E. coli isolates to be possible producers of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. K. pneumoniae isolates of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase phenotype were more resistant to imipenem, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline in our study than they are in other regions of the world. Conclusions Our results suggest that imipenem resistance in our region is growing. PMID:15320954

Gonlugur, Ugur; Bakici, Mustafa Zahir; Akkurt, Ibrahim; Efeoglu, Tanseli

2004-01-01

97

In Vitro Susceptibilities of Aerobic and Facultative Non-Spore- Forming Gram-Positive Bacilli to HMR 3647 (RU 66647) and 14 Other Antimicrobials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparative in vitro activity of the ketolide HMR 3647 (RU 66647) and those of structurally related macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin compounds (erythromycin, roxithromycin, azithromycin, clarithromy- cin, josamycin, lincomycin, pristinamycin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin) as well as those of benzylpenicillin, doxycycline, vancomycin, teicoplanin, levofloxacin, and rifapentine against 247 aerobic and facultative non- spore-forming gram-positive bacilli were determined by an agar dilution method. The ketolide was

FRANCISCO SORIANO; RICARDO FERNANDEZ-ROBLAS; RAQUEL CALVO; GLORIA GARCIA-CALVO

1998-01-01

98

Genetic and phenotypic diversity of plant-growth-promoting bacilli isolated from wheat fields in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

In this work, a total of 311 putative nitrogen-fixing bacilli were isolated from seven distinct wheat production zones of the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Strains belonging to several species were grouped into 40 different nifH-RFLP-PCR profiles. The genus Paenibacillus was the most prominent group in both the rhizosphere (77.8%) and soil (79%). Paenibacillus borealis was the most frequently identified species, followed by Paenibacillus graminis. The remainder of the isolated bacteria belonged to the genus Bacillus sp. Indolic compound production (indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), indolepyruvic acid (IPyA) and indoleacetamide (IAM)) was detected in 33.6% and 26% of the isolates from the rhizosphere and soil, respectively. Among the 311 isolates, nine were able to solubilize phosphate and 48 were able to produce siderophores. The isolates SBR5, CSR16 and EsR7, identified by the 16S rRNA gene sequence as strains of Paenibacillus sp., were chosen for in vivo experiments in a greenhouse and proved to be very efficient in promoting a significant increase in the shoot and dry matter of wheat plants. Those strains could be useful in formulation of new inoculants, improving the cropping systems into which they can be most profitably applied. PMID:18490146

Beneduzi, Anelise; Peres, Daiane; da Costa, Pedro Beschoren; Bodanese Zanettini, Maria Helena; Passaglia, Luciane Maria Pereira

2008-05-01

99

Comparative 16S rRNA oligonucleotide analyses and murein types of round-spore-forming bacilli and non-spore-forming relatives.  

PubMed

The phylogenetic incoherency of the genus Bacillus as presently described is demonstrated by analysis of both published and new data from comparative 16S rRNA cataloguing of nine Bacillus species and a number of related non-Bacillus taxa, i.e. Caryophanon latum, Filibacter limicola and Planococcus citreus. While the ellipsoidal-spore-forming bacilli, e.g. B. subtilis and allied species, formed a coherent cluster, the round-spore-forming bacilli showed a higher degree of relationship to the non-spore-forming organisms than these bacilli show among each other. Thus B. sphaericus clustered with C. latum, B. globisporus grouped with F. limicola, B. pasteurii with Sporosarcina ureae, and 'B. aminovorans' with P. citreus, respectively. These organisms formed two related subclusters which, in their phylogenetic depth, are comparable to that of the B. subtilis subline. With the exception of 'B. aminovorans', the 16S rRNA phylogeny was entirely consistent with the distribution of murein types. Even more distantly related to and grouping outside the main Bacillus cluster was B. stearothermophilus, which displayed a moderate relationship to Thermoactinomyces vulgaris. Taxonomic problems arising from the new insights into the intrageneric relationships of Bacillus are discussed. PMID:2452227

Stackebrandt, E; Ludwig, W; Weizenegger, M; Dorn, S; McGill, T J; Fox, G E; Woese, C R; Schubert, W; Schleifer, K H

1987-09-01

100

Phylogenetic interrelationships of round-spore-forming bacilli containing cell walls based on lysine and the non-spore-forming genera Caryophanon, Exiguobacterium, Kurthia, and Planococcus.  

PubMed

The 16S rRNA gene sequences of "Bacillus aminovorans" and several species considered to be phylogenetically related to the group 2 bacilli of Ash et al. (C. Ash, J. A. E. Farrow, S. Wallbanks, and M. D. Collins, Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 13:202-206, 1991) were determined. A comparative analysis of the sequence data revealed that the round-spore-forming group 2 bacilli, together with some asporogenous taxa (the genera Caryophanon, Exiguobacterium, Kurthia, Planococcus), form a phylogenetically distinct cluster that is only remotely related to Bacillus subtilis, the type species of the genus Bacillus. Within this cluster, planococci, kurthiae, Caryophanon spp., and two lines defined by Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus fusiformis and by Sporosarcina ureae, Bacillus pasteurii, Bacillus globisporus, and Bacillus psychrophilus were found to be distinct genera. Exiguobacterium aurantiacum and Brevibacterium acetylicum were found to form a distinct clade, which was peripherally related to this cluster. "B. aminovorans" exhibited no specific relationship with the group 2 bacilli or with any of the other reference species examined. PMID:8123563

Farrow, J A; Wallbanks, S; Collins, M D

1994-01-01

101

Bubo masquerading as an incarcerated inguinal hernia  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   A 44-year old, male, tattooed, leather jacket clad, Harley-Davidson motorcyclist arrived at the emergency room with a tender,\\u000a irreducible mass, presenting at the external inguinal ring. In 1998, lung biopsy was read as miliary granuloma. No herniation\\u000a was found on urgent preperitoneal exploration. Incision of the mass showed acid-fast bacilli. Culture later revealed Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI). A blood count

K. Hodge; R. Orgler; T. Monson; R. Read

2001-01-01

102

Invasive infection with Mycobacterium genavense in three children with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three children with human immunodeficiency virus infection and invasive infection withMycobacterium genavense are reported. Fever spikes, abdominal cramps and distension, diarrhea or ileus, and anemia were the predominant symptoms in the severely immunodeficient patients (CD4 lymphocytes9\\/l). Numerous acid-fast bacilli were readily detectable by microscopy in stool samples and in lymph node biopsies, but cultures for mycobacteria remained negative.Mycobacterium genavense should

D. Nadal; R. Caduff; R. Kraft; M. Salfinger; T. Bodmer; P. Kirschner; E. C. Böttger; U. B. Schaad

1993-01-01

103

Endocarditis due to an atypical mycobacterium following porcine heart valve replacement.  

PubMed

Following aortic valve replacement with a porcine xenograph, a patient developed endocarditis complicated by a fistula between aorta and right ventricle. The xenograph was replaced by a mechanical valve and the fisutla oversewn. No organisms were cultured but acid-fast bacilli were seen in the aortic wall and excised valve tissue. It is likely that these were contaminants of the porcine prosthesis. PMID:6932835

Lombardo, J A; O'Rourke, M F; Shanahan, M X; Harkness, J L

1980-08-01

104

Atypical mycobcterial injection abscess.  

PubMed

Other than suppurative organisms, atypical mycobacteria are also known to cause injection abscesses following vaccinations, injections, tattooing and even after implants. Though the usage of disposable needles is practised universally, sporadic cases do occur. The disease entity should be considered, while dealing with injection abscesses, to institute specific therapy. Acid-fast bacilli should be looked for in the pus and mycobacterial culture of the material from injection abscesses should be done for a definitive diagnosis. PMID:12841506

Satyanarayana, S; Mathur, A D

2003-01-01

105

Phenotypic identification & molecular detection of blandm-1 gene in multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacilli in a tertiary care centre  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates have been increasingly identified worldwide. Though molecular data regarding New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) producers are available, data regarding their rate of infection in a hospital setting and percentage among different clinical isolates are scarce. Hence, this study was undertaken to determine the occurrence of blaNDM-1 gene among clinical isolates of multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDRGNB) in a tertiary care centre in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Methods: A total of 74 MDRGNB isolates were studied. These were screened for MBL production by phenotypic assays such as double disk synergy test (DDST) and Modified Hodge's test (MHT). PCR was performed for the molecular detection of the gene and antibiograms were confirmed by automated bacteriology system. Results: Of the 74 MDRGNB isolates, 34 were positive for blaNDM-1 gene. All isolates were resistant to aztreonam and two isolates were resistant to tigecycline. Complete resistance to the tested carbapenems was seen in 28 (82.35%) of the positive isolates whereas variable carbapenem resistance was seen in six (17.64%) of the positive clinical isolates. Of the total 34 PCR positive isolates, 33 (97.05%) NDM-1 producers were identified by DDST and 26 (76.47%) by MHT as producers of MBL. Interpretation & conclusions: A high percentage of plasmid encoded NDM was noted in MDRGNB. Phenotypic and molecular screening should be employed along with routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing to reflect the true number of metallo-beta-lactamase producers. PMID:24927351

Shenoy, K. Anjana; Jyothi, E.K.; Ravikumar, R.

2014-01-01

106

Colistin MIC variability by method for contemporary clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli.  

PubMed

In vitro evaluation of colistin susceptibility is fraught with complications, due in part to the inherent cationic properties of colistin. In addition, no reference method has been defined against which to compare the results of colistin susceptibility testing. This study systematically evaluated the available methods for colistin MIC testing in two phases. In phase I, colistin MICs were determined in 107 fresh clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) by broth microdilution with polysorbate 80 (BMD-T), broth macrodilution (TDS), and the Etest. In phase II, 50 of these isolates, 10 of which were colistin resistant, were tested in parallel using BMD-T, TDS, agar dilution, broth microdilution without polysorbate 80 (BMD), and the TREK Gram-negative extra MIC format (GNXF) Sensititre. The Etest was also performed on these 50 isolates using Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) from three different manufacturers. Colistin MIC results obtained from the five methods were compared to the MIC results obtained using BMD-T, the method that enables the highest nominal concentration of colistin in the test medium. Essential agreement ranged from 34% (BMD) to 83% (TDS), whereas categorical agreement was >90% for all methods except for BMD, which was 88%. Very major errors (VMEs) (i.e., false susceptibility) for the Etest were found in 47 to 53% of the resistant isolates, depending on the manufacturer of the MHA that was used. In contrast, VMEs were found for 10% (n = 1) of the resistant isolates by BMD and 0% of the isolates by the TDS, agar dilution, and Sensititre methods. Based on these data, we urge clinical laboratories to be aware of the variable results that can occur when using different methods for colistin MIC testing and, in particular, to use caution with the Etest. PMID:23486719

Hindler, Janet A; Humphries, Romney M

2013-06-01

107

Ceftolozane/tazobactam: a novel cephalosporin/?-lactamase inhibitor combination with activity against multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli.  

PubMed

Ceftolozane is a novel cephalosporin currently being developed with the ?-lactamase inhibitor tazobactam for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs), complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs), and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (VABP). The chemical structure of ceftolozane is similar to that of ceftazidime, with the exception of a modified side-chain at the 3-position of the cephem nucleus, which confers potent antipseudomonal activity. As a ?-lactam, its mechanism of action is the inhibition of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). Ceftolozane displays increased activity against Gram-negative bacilli, including those that harbor classical ?-lactamases (e.g., TEM-1 and SHV-1), but, similar to other oxyimino-cephalosporins such as ceftazidime and ceftriaxone, it is compromised by extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemases. The addition of tazobactam extends the activity of ceftolozane to include most ESBL producers as well as some anaerobic species. Ceftolozane is distinguished from other cephalosporins by its potent activity versus Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including various drug-resistant phenotypes such as carbapenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, and ceftazidime-resistant isolates, as well as those strains that are multidrug-resistant (MDR). Its antipseudomonal activity is attributed to its ability to evade the multitude of resistance mechanisms employed by P. aeruginosa, including efflux pumps, reduced uptake through porins and modification of PBPs. Ceftolozane demonstrates linear pharmacokinetics unaffected by the coadministration of tazobactam; specifically, it follows a two-compartmental model with linear elimination. Following single doses, ranging from 250 to 2,000 mg, over a 1-h intravenous infusion, ceftolozane displays a mean plasma half-life of 2.3 h (range 1.9-2.6 h), a steady-state volume of distribution that ranges from 13.1 to 17.6 L, and a mean clearance of 102.4 mL/min. It demonstrates low plasma protein binding (20 %), is primarily eliminated via urinary excretion (?92 %), and may require dose adjustments in patients with a creatinine clearance <50 mL/min. Time-kill experiments and animal infection models have demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic index that is best correlated with ceftolozane's in vivo efficacy is the percentage of time in which free plasma drug concentrations exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration of a given pathogen (%fT >MIC), as expected of ?-lactams. Two phase II clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate ceftolozane ± tazobactam in the settings of cUTIs and cIAIs. One trial compared ceftolozane 1,000 mg every 8 h (q8h) versus ceftazidime 1,000 mg q8h in the treatment of cUTI, including pyelonephritis, and demonstrated similar microbiologic and clinical outcomes, as well as a similar incidence of adverse effects after 7-10 days of treatment, respectively. A second trial has been conducted comparing ceftolozane/tazobactam 1,000/500 mg and metronidazole 500 mg q8h versus meropenem 1,000 mg q8h in the treatment of cIAI. A number of phase I and phase II studies have reported ceftolozane to possess a good safety and tolerability profile, one that is consistent with that of other cephalosporins. In conclusion, ceftolozane is a new cephalosporin with activity versus MDR organisms including P. aeruginosa. Tazobactam allows the broadening of the spectrum of ceftolozane versus ?-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacilli including ESBLs. Potential roles for ceftolozane/tazobactam include empiric therapy where infection by a resistant Gram-negative organism (e.g., ESBL) is suspected, or as part of combination therapy (e.g., with metronidazole) where a polymicrobial infection is suspected. In addition, ceftolozane/tazobactam may represent alternative therapy to the third-generation cephalosporins after treatment failure or for documented infections due to Gram-negative bacilli producing ESBLs. Finally, the increased activity of ceftolozane/tazobactam versus P. aeruginosa, including MDR

Zhanel, George G; Chung, Phillip; Adam, Heather; Zelenitsky, Sheryl; Denisuik, Andrew; Schweizer, Frank; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R S; Rubinstein, Ethan; Gin, Alfred S; Walkty, Andrew; Hoban, Daryl J; Lynch, Joseph P; Karlowsky, James A

2014-01-01

108

Performance of the Verigene Gram-Negative Blood Culture Assay for Rapid Detection of Bacteria and Resistance Determinants  

PubMed Central

Nonduplicate blood cultures that were positive for Gram-negative bacilli (n = 125) were tested by the Verigene Gram-negative blood culture (BC-GN) assay; 117 (90.7%) isolates were members of the panel. For identification and resistance markers, the agreements with routine methods were 97.4% (114/117) and 92.3% (12/13). The BC-GN assay is a rapid and accurate tool for the detection of pathogens from blood cultures and could be integrated alongside conventional systems to enable faster patient management, but the clinical benefits should be further evaluated. PMID:24899026

De Mendonça, Ricardo; Nonhoff, Claire; Roisin, Sandrine; Denis, Olivier

2014-01-01

109

Glycolytic and non-glycolytic functions of Mycobacterium tuberculosis fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, an essential enzyme produced by replicating and non-replicating bacilli.  

PubMed

The search for antituberculosis drugs active against persistent bacilli has led to our interest in metallodependent class II fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA-tb), a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis absent from mammalian cells. Knock-out experiments at the fba-tb locus indicated that this gene is required for the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on gluconeogenetic substrates and in glucose-containing medium. Surface labeling and enzymatic activity measurements revealed that this enzyme was exported to the cell surface of M. tuberculosis and produced under various axenic growth conditions including oxygen depletion and hence by non-replicating bacilli. Importantly, FBA-tb was also produced in vivo in the lungs of infected guinea pigs and mice. FBA-tb bound human plasmin(ogen) and protected FBA-tb-bound plasmin from regulation by ?(2)-antiplasmin, suggestive of an involvement of this enzyme in host/pathogen interactions. The crystal structures of FBA-tb in the native form and in complex with a hydroxamate substrate analog were determined to 2.35- and 1.9-? resolution, respectively. Whereas inhibitor attachment had no effect on the plasminogen binding activity of FBA-tb, it competed with the natural substrate of the enzyme, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, and substantiated a previously unknown reaction mechanism associated with metallodependent aldolases involving recruitment of the catalytic zinc ion by the substrate upon active site binding. Altogether, our results highlight the potential of FBA-tb as a novel therapeutic target against both replicating and non-replicating bacilli. PMID:21949126

de la Paz Santangelo, Maria; Gest, Petra M; Guerin, Marcelo E; Coinçon, Mathieu; Pham, Ha; Ryan, Gavin; Puckett, Susan E; Spencer, John S; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Daher, Racha; Lenaerts, Anne J; Schnappinger, Dirk; Therisod, Michel; Ehrt, Sabine; Sygusch, Jurgen; Jackson, Mary

2011-11-18

110

Fecal culture  

MedlinePLUS

Stool culture; Culture - stool ... stool tests are done in addition to the culture, such as: Gram stain of stool Fecal smear ... RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders ...

111

Safeguards Culture  

SciTech Connect

The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

2012-07-01

112

High initial bacillary load in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: an indicator of drug resistant tuberculosis.  

PubMed

This study conducted to evaluate the role of pretreatment bacillary load in predicting multi drug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Sputum smear positive cases of all pulmonary tuberculosis, who received standard short course chemotherapy under direct observation, were studied with pretreatment absolute acid fast bacilli (AFB) counts per 100 oil immersion fields and culture-sensitivity assay for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pretreatment count of > or = 850 bacilli per oil immersion field in category II cases and > or = 1200 bacilli per oil immersion field in category I cases was found to be a predictor of MDR-TB with sensitivity and specificity of 88.89% and 87.04% in category II; and 100% and 84.13% in category I subjects respectively. In conclusion, high bacillary count (3+) can be taken as a marker of MDR-TB, specially in treated cases of tuberculosis and requiring further investigation as well management of these cases on lines of multi drug resistance tuberculosis. PMID:22471192

Sunita, Singh; Amita, Jain; Prasad, R; Santosh, Kumar

2010-12-01

113

Characterization of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance genes and their relatedness to class 1 integron and insertion sequence common region in gram-negative bacilli.  

PubMed

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) has been used for the treatment of urinary tract infections, but increasing resistance to TMP-SMX has been reported. In this study, we analyzed TMP-SMX resistance genes and their relatedness with integrons and insertion sequence common regions (ISCRs) in uropathogenic gram-negative bacilli. Consecutive nonduplicate TMP-SMX nonsusceptible clinical isolates of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Acinetobacter spp., and P. aeruginosa were collected from urine. The minimal inhibitory concentration was determined by Etest. TMP-SMX resistance genes (sul and dfr), integrons, and ISCRs were analyzed by PCR and sequencing. A total of 45 E. coli (37.8%), 15 K. pneumoniae (18.5%), 12 Acinetobacter spp. (70.6%), and 9 Pseudomonas aeruginosa (30.0%) isolates were found to be resistant to TMP-SMX. Their MICs were all over 640. In E. coli and K. pneumoniae, sul1 and dfr genes were highly prevalent in relation with integron1. The sul3 gene was detected in E. coli. However, in P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp., only sul1 was prevalent in relation with class 1 integron; however, dfr was not detected and sul2 was less prevalent than in Enterobacteriaceae. ISCR1 and/or ISCR2 were detected in E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter spp. but the relatedness with TMP-SMX resistance genes was not prominent. ISCR14 was detected in six isolates of E. coli. In conclusion, resistance mechanisms for TMP-SMX were different between Enterobacteriaceae and glucose non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli. Class 1 integron was widely disseminated in uropathogenic gram-negative baciili, so the adoption of prudent use of antimicrobial agents and the establishment of a surveillance system are needed. PMID:25348695

Shin, Hae Won; Lim, Jinsook; Kim, Semi; Kim, Jimyung; Kwon, Gye Cheol; Koo, Sun Hoe

2015-01-28

114

Culture Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Culture Machine is a new, refereed, electronic journal encompassing cultural studies and cultural theory. The international editorial board of the interactive journal aims to "generat[e] research in culture and theory" by promoting and publishing "the most provocative of new work." The theme of the inaugural issue is Taking Risks with the Future. Content includes articles such as Life After Death of the Text by Johan Fornas, Cultural Studies in the Clouds: Mourning for Detail by Tadeusz Slawek, and The Future States of Politics by Kenneth Surin. Culture Machine is hosted by the University of Teesside, England.

115

Cultural Neuroscience  

PubMed Central

Cultural neuroscience issues from the apparently incompatible combination of neuroscience and cultural psychology. A brief literature sampling suggests, instead, several preliminary topics that demonstrate proof of possibilities: cultural differences in both lower-level processes (e.g. perception, number representation) and higher-order processes (e.g. inferring others’ emotions, contemplating the self) are beginning to shed new light on both culture and cognition. Candidates for future cultural neuroscience research include cultural variations in the default (resting) network, which may be social; regulation and inhibition of feelings, thoughts, and actions; prejudice and dehumanization; and neural signatures of fundamental warmth and competence judgments. PMID:23874143

Ames, Daniel L.; Fiske, Susan T.

2013-01-01

116

Detection of Colonization by Carbapenemase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacilli in Patients by Use of the Xpert MDRO Assay  

PubMed Central

Detecting colonization of patients with carbapenemase-producing bacteria can be difficult. This study compared the sensitivity and specificity of a PCR-based method (Xpert MDRO) for detecting blaKPC, blaNDM, and blaVIM carbapenem resistance genes using GeneXpert cartridges to the results of culture with and without a broth enrichment step on 328 rectal, perirectal, and stool samples. The culture method included direct inoculation of a MacConkey agar plate on which a 10-?g meropenem disk was placed and plating on MacConkey agar after overnight enrichment of the sample in MacConkey broth containing 1 ?g/ml of meropenem. Forty-three (13.1%) samples were positive by PCR for blaKPC and 11 (3.4%) were positive for blaVIM; none were positive for blaNDM. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the PCR assay for blaKPC were 100%, 99.0%, 93.0%, and 100%, respectively, compared to broth enrichment culture and sequencing of target genes. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the assay for blaVIM were 100%, 99.4%, 81.8%, and 100%, respectively. Since none of the clinical samples contained organisms with blaNDM, 66 contrived stool samples were prepared at various dilutions using three Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates containing blaNDM. The PCR assay showed 100% positivity at dilutions from 300 to 1,800 CFU/ml and 93.3% at 150 CFU/ml. The Xpert MDRO PCR assay required 2 min of hands-on time and 47 min to complete. Rapid identification of patients colonized with carbapenemase-producing organisms using multiplex PCR may help hospitals to improve infection control activities. PMID:24006011

Canton, Rafael; Kop, JoAnn; Chan, Ryan; Ryan, Jamie; Weir, Fred; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; LaBombardi, Vincent; Persing, David H.

2013-01-01

117

Direct identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from sputum on Ziehl-Neelsen acid fast stained slides by use of silica-based filter combined with polymerase chain reaction assay.  

PubMed

This paper describes a method for isolation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smears on glass slides; and isolated DNA was used for the IS6110 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based identification of M. tuberculosis. A total of 221 samples from newly diagnosed suspected tuberculosis cases were first examined by microscopic examination. For DNA extraction by silica-based filter, a home-made modified spin column gave the efficacy as did the nucleospin tissue reagent kit and therefore was selected for PCR template preparation. The extracted DNA was amplified by the IS6110 PCR using a primer pair that amplifies a 377-bp target, and the product was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis with confirmation by Southern blot hybridization. In comparison with culture, PCR with template prepared by the silica based filter showed overall sensitivity and specificity of 91.7 and 100 per cent, respectively. This study used the over one year and less than one year slides samples to study the effect of storage time. In the more than one year storage group, PCR assay gave a sensitivity and specificity of 83.3 and 100 per cent, respectively. In conclusion, the applicability of the PCR directly to DNA extracted from Ziehl-Neelsen stained smears could become a valuable alternative approach for rapid identification of M. tuberculosis, and could be used to evaluate quality of the control of local laboratories in tuberculosis (TB) screening and solve the problem of specimen transportation. In addition, the method could be used in retrospective studies involving a wide range of PCR-based analyses, such as detection of rifampicin resistant gene in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) study. PMID:15061302

Tansuphasiri, Unchalee; Boonrat, Preyanuch; Rienthong, Somsak

2004-02-01

118

Esophageal culture  

MedlinePLUS

Culture - esophageal ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture) and watched for the growth of bacteria, fungus, ... and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease Pathophysiology/Diagnosis/Management . 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap ...

119

Gastric culture  

MedlinePLUS

Gastric culture is a test to check a child's stomach contents for the bacteria that cause tuberculosis (TB). ... is placed in a special dish called a culture medium and watched for the growth of bacteria.

120

Tuberculosis diagnosis and multidrug resistance testing by direct sputum culture in selective broth without decontamination or centrifugation.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis culture usually requires sputum decontamination and centrifugation to prevent cultures from being overgrown by contaminating bacteria and fungi. However, decontamination destroys many tuberculous bacilli, and centrifugation often is not possible in resource-poor settings. We therefore assessed the performance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture with unprocessed samples plated directly by using tuberculosis-selective media and compared this procedure to conventional culture using centrifuge decontamination. Quadruplicate aliquots of strain H37RV were cultured in 7H9 broth with and without selective antimicrobials and after centrifuge decontamination. The subsequent comparison was made with 715 sputum samples. Split paired sputum samples were cultured conventionally with centrifuge decontamination and by direct culture in tuberculosis-selective media containing antibiotics. Centrifuge decontamination reduced tuberculosis H37RV colonies by 78% (P < 0.001), whereas direct culture in tuberculosis-selective media had no inhibitory effect. Similarly, in sputum cultures that were not overgrown by contaminants, conventional culture yielded fewer tuberculosis colonies than direct culture (P < 0.001). However, the sensitivity of conventional culture was greater than that of direct culture, because samples were less affected by contamination. Thus, of the 340 sputum samples that were tuberculosis culture positive, conventional culture detected 97%, whereas direct culture detected 81% (P < 0.001). Conventional and direct cultures both took a median of 8.0 days to diagnose tuberculosis (P = 0.8). In those direct cultures that detected drug resistance or susceptibility, there was a 97% agreement with the results of conventional culture (Kappa agreement statistic, 0.84; P < 0.001). Direct culture is a simple, low-technology, and rapid technique for diagnosing tuberculosis and determining drug susceptibility. Compared to that of conventional culture, direct culture has reduced sensitivity because of bacterial overgrowth, but in basic laboratories this deficit may be outweighed by the ease of use. PMID:18448689

Grandjean, Louis; Martin, Laura; Gilman, Robert H; Valencia, Teresa; Herrera, Beatriz; Quino, Willi; Ramos, Eric; Rivero, Maribel; Montoya, Rosario; Escombe, A Roderick; Coleman, David; Mitchison, Denis; Evans, Carlton A

2008-07-01

121

[Influence of vermiculite particles on antioxidant properties of cultural medium of Bacillus subtilis IMV V-7023].  

PubMed

It is shown that in the process of cultivation of Bacillus subtilis IMV V-7023 in the medium with vermiculite (1.5-5.0 g/l) one can observe the oppressing of some indexes of antioxidant properties of cultural medium of bacteria. In particular, a decline of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity in the Fenton reaction by 2.8-11.6%, ability to inhibit formation of malondialdehyde - by 4.4-13.1% and inactivation of 2,2'-Diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radical - by 3.1-8.5% were observed. Thus oxidant activity increased substantially. Besides oppressing influence of particles of vermiculite on protector properties of the cultural medium of bacilli it is found out that with the increase of the content of dispersible material in the nutrient medium the reducing power of cultural medium of these bacteria increased. PMID:25509184

Skorokhod, I A; Kudrish, I K

2014-01-01

122

Culture evolves  

PubMed Central

Culture pervades human lives and has allowed our species to create niches all around the world and its oceans, in ways quite unlike any other primate. Indeed, our cultural nature appears so distinctive that it is often thought to separate humanity from the rest of nature and the Darwinian forces that shape it. A contrary view arises through the recent discoveries of a diverse range of disciplines, here brought together to illustrate the scope of a burgeoning field of cultural evolution and to facilitate cross-disciplinary fertilization. Each approach emphasizes important linkages between culture and evolutionary biology rather than quarantining one from the other. Recent studies reveal that processes important in cultural transmission are more widespread and significant across the animal kingdom than earlier recognized, with important implications for evolutionary theory. Recent archaeological discoveries have pushed back the origins of human culture to much more ancient times than traditionally thought. These developments suggest previously unidentified continuities between animal and human culture. A third new array of discoveries concerns the later diversification of human cultures, where the operations of Darwinian-like processes are identified, in part, through scientific methods borrowed from biology. Finally, surprising discoveries have been made about the imprint of cultural evolution in the predispositions of human minds for cultural transmission. PMID:21357216

Whiten, Andrew; Hinde, Robert A.; Laland, Kevin N.; Stringer, Christopher B.

2011-01-01

123

Severe Mycobacterium tuberculosis-related immune reconstitution syndrome in an immunocompetent patient  

PubMed Central

We present a young immunocompetent male with diagnosed sputum culture-positive tuberculosis on intensive phase with observed daily four-drug antituberculosis therapy. He presented at 1-month of treatment with sequential bilateral pneumothoraces, increase in cavitation and consolidation and respiratory failure. Repeat smears for acid-fast bacilli had downgraded, and cultures were negative. Quantiferon-GOLD (initially negative) was now strongly positive. A diagnosis of possible immune reconstitution syndrome was considered and 0.25 mg/kg/day oral steroids administered. We also discuss an approach to differential diagnosis of a patient worsening on treatment for microbiologically confirmed tuberculosis in this manuscript.

Rajagopala, Srinivas; Chandrasekharan, Sujatha

2015-01-01

124

Cultural Shock  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Demos organization in London is a think-tank that produces compelling reports on everything from public space to government spending. This report from October 2010 is by Samuel Jones, and he explores the relationship between the British government and culture and sport. His basic question is: "Why should the state get involved in culture, and if it should, how?" The 154-page report is divided into sections such as "Society and the cultural realm", "Taking the cultural pulse of a nation", and "Evidence of Potential". It's an interesting read, and the paper argues that "cultural policy must focus on the equitable distribution of individuals' cultural capabilities, indicating that this will require thinking anew about what form the structures take, and how they are run."

Jones, Samuel

125

Comparison of Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer to BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System for Identification of Gram-Negative Bacilli?  

PubMed Central

We compared the BD Phoenix automated microbiology system to the Bruker Biotyper (version 2.0) matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) system for identification of Gram-negative bacilli, using biochemical testing and/or genetic sequencing to resolve discordant results. The BD Phoenix correctly identified 363 (83%) and 330 (75%) isolates to the genus and species level, respectively. The Bruker Biotyper correctly identified 408 (93%) and 360 (82%) isolates to the genus and species level, respectively. The 440 isolates were grouped into common (308) and infrequent (132) isolates in the clinical laboratory. For the 308 common isolates, the BD Phoenix and Bruker Biotyper correctly identified 294 (95%) and 296 (96%) of the isolates to the genus level, respectively. For species identification, the BD Phoenix and Bruker Biotyper correctly identified 93% of the common isolates (285 and 286, respectively). In contrast, for the 132 infrequent isolates, the Bruker Biotyper correctly identified 112 (85%) and 74 (56%) isolates to the genus and species level, respectively, compared to the BD Phoenix, which identified only 69 (52%) and 45 (34%) isolates to the genus and species level, respectively. Statistically, the Bruker Biotyper overall outperformed the BD Phoenix for identification of Gram-negative bacilli to the genus (P < 0.0001) and species (P = 0.0005) level in this sample set. When isolates were categorized as common or infrequent isolates, there was statistically no difference between the instruments for identification of common Gram-negative bacilli (P > 0.05). However, the Bruker Biotyper outperformed the BD Phoenix for identification of infrequently isolated Gram-negative bacilli (P < 0.0001). PMID:21209160

Saffert, Ryan T.; Cunningham, Scott A.; Ihde, Sherry M.; Monson Jobe, Kristine E.; Mandrekar, Jayawant; Patel, Robin

2011-01-01

126

Cultural Entomology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, succinctly written by the late Charles Hogue, was taken, with permission, from the 1987 Annual Review of Entomology. It provides an excellent explanation of cultural entomology, along with examples of the influence insects have had on art, folklore, history, literature and language, the performing arts, philosophy, religion, and other areas of culture from around the world. To delve more deeply into cultural entomology, the original 1987 article should be consulted for a listing of many specific references to the subject.

0002-11-30

127

10 × '20 Progress—Development of New Drugs Active Against Gram-Negative Bacilli: An Update From the Infectious Diseases Society of America  

PubMed Central

Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially the “ESKAPE” pathogens, continue to increase in frequency and cause significant morbidity and mortality. New antimicrobial agents are greatly needed to treat infections caused by gram-negative bacilli (GNB) resistant to currently available agents. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) continues to propose legislative, regulatory, and funding solutions to this continuing crisis. The current report updates the status of development and approval of systemic antibiotics in the United States as of early 2013. Only 2 new antibiotics have been approved since IDSA's 2009 pipeline status report, and the number of new antibiotics annually approved for marketing in the United States continues to decline. We identified 7 drugs in clinical development for treatment of infections caused by resistant GNB. None of these agents was included in our 2009 list of antibacterial compounds in phase 2 or later development, but unfortunately none addresses the entire spectrum of clinically relevant GNB resistance. Our survey demonstrates some progress in development of new antibacterial drugs that target infections caused by resistant GNB, but progress remains alarmingly elusive. IDSA stresses our conviction that the antibiotic pipeline problem can be solved by the collaboration of global leaders to develop creative incentives that will stimulate new antibacterial research and development. Our aim is the creation of a sustainable global antibacterial drug research and development enterprise with the power in the short term to develop 10 new, safe, and efficacious systemically administered antibiotics by 2020 as called for in IDSA's “10 × '20 Initiative.” PMID:23599308

Boucher, Helen W.; Talbot, George H.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Bradley, John; Guidos, Robert J.; Jones, Ronald N.; Murray, Barbara E.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Gilbert, David

2013-01-01

128

Evaluation of the VITEK 2 cards for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of non-glucose-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli.  

PubMed

We evaluated VITEK 2 cards (NGNC and AST-GN10) for the accuracy of identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of non-glucose-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NGF-GNB). In a total of 201 strains, 190 strains (94.5%) were correctly identified, seven strains (3.5%)showed low discrimination, four strains (2.0%) had discrepancies, and no strain remained unidentified.Reference AST of amikacin, aztreonam, cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, imipenem,levofloxacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was performed by the agar dilution method. Approximately 82.5% of ID and 72.9% of AST were completed within 7 and 14 h,respectively. For NGF-GNB, other than Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and the Burkholderia cepacia group, essential agreements (EAs) were 93.6-100.0%. Severe disagreements (resistant by the reference method to susceptible by AST-GN10) were observed for amikacin(0.9%), cefepime (1.8%), cefotaxime (1.8%), imipenem (0.9%), and piperacillin-tazobactam (0.9%).One major disagreement (susceptible to resistant) was observed for ceftazidime (0.1%). For P. aeruginosa,EAs were 85.7-100%, with severe disagreements observed for cefepime (4.8%) and piperacillin-tazobactam(4.8%). For Acinetobacter spp., EAs were 86.4-100% without disagreements. The VITEK 2 cards appear to be promising for rapid ID and reliable AST for most species of NGF-GNB. PMID:19343822

Hsieh, Wen-Shyang; Sung, Ling-Ling; Tsai, Kun-Chou; Ho, Hsin-Tsung

2009-04-01

129

In vitro susceptibilities of aerobic and facultative non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli to HMR 3647 (RU 66647) and 14 other antimicrobials.  

PubMed

The comparative in vitro activity of the ketolide HMR 3647 (RU 66647) and those of structurally related macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin compounds (erythromycin, roxithromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, josamycin, lincomycin, pristinamycin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin) as well as those of benzylpenicillin, doxycycline, vancomycin, teicoplanin, levofloxacin, and rifapentine against 247 aerobic and facultative non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli were determined by an agar dilution method. The ketolide was active against most organisms tested except Corynebacterium striatum, coryneform CDC group 12, and Oerskovia spp. The frequency of resistance to erythromycin and other macrolides as well as that to lincomycin was high. Pristinamycin and, to a lesser extent, quinupristin-dalfopristin were very active, but resistance to these agents was present in some strains of Rhodococcus equi, Listeria spp., C. striatum, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and Oerskovia spp. HMR 3647 was very active against all erythromycin-sensitive and many erythromycin-nonsusceptible strains, especially Corynebacterium minutissimum, Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum, Corynebacterium amycolatum, and Corynebacterium jeikeium. In vitro resistance to benzylpenicillin was common, but doxycycline, vancomycin, and teicoplanin were very active against most organisms tested except E. rhusiopathiae, against which glycopeptide antibiotics were not active. The in vitro activity of levofloxacin was remarkable, but resistance to this agent was common for C. amycolatum, Corynebacterium urealyticum, C. jeikeium, and Oerskovia spp. strains. Rifapentine was also very active in vitro against many organisms, but resistance to this agent was always present in E. rhusiopathiae and was very common in C. striatum and C. urealyticum. PMID:9593121

Soriano, F; Fernández-Roblas, R; Calvo, R; García-Calvo, G

1998-05-01

130

Comparative evaluation of three immunochromatographic identification tests for culture confirmation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex  

PubMed Central

Background The rapid identification of acid-fast bacilli recovered from patient specimens as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) is critically important for accurate diagnosis and treatment. A thin-layer immunochromatographic (TLC) assay using anti-MPB64 or anti-MPT64 monoclonal antibodies was developed to discriminate between MTC and non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM). Capilia TB-Neo, which is the improved version of Capilia TB, is recently developed and needs to be evaluated. Methods Capilia TB-Neo was evaluated by using reference strains including 96 Mycobacterium species (4 MTC and 92 NTM) and 3 other bacterial genera, and clinical isolates (500 MTC and 90 NTM isolates). M. tuberculosis isolates tested negative by Capilia TB-Neo were sequenced for mpt64 gene. Results Capilia TB-Neo showed 100% agreement to a subset of reference strains. Non-specific reaction to M. marinum was not observed. The sensitivity and specificity of Capilia TB-Neo to the clinical isolates were 99.4% (99.6% for M. tuberculosis, excluding M. bovis BCG) for clinical MTC isolates and 100% for NTM isolates tested, respectively. Two M. tuberculosis isolates tested negative by Capilia TB-Neo: one harbored a 63-bp deletion in the mpt64 gene and the other possessed a 3,659-bp deletion from Rv1977 to Rv1981c, a region including the entire mpt64 gene. Conclusions Capilia TB-Neo is a simple, rapid and highly sensitive test for identifying MTC, and showed better specificity than Capilia TB. However, Capilia TB-Neo still showed false-negative results with mpt64 mutations. The limitation should be recognized for clinical use. PMID:24484470

2014-01-01

131

Nasopharyngeal culture  

MedlinePLUS

Culture - nasopharyngeal; Swab for respiratory viruses; Swab for Staph carriage ... The test identifies viruses and bacteria that cause upper respiratory ... aureus Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus The ...

132

Cultural Communications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is too often taken for granted that the communication process with culturally different children takes place as readily as it might with children from Anglo cultures. Most teachers receive training in verbal and formal communication skills; children come to school with nonverbal and informal communication skills. This initially can create…

Armas, Jose

133

Pop Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Popular culture in America is comprehensively reviewed in this book. The book is designed for either high school or college level social studies or English courses and includes a variety of graphic illustrations that provide a thread of continuity throughout. Basically the author has developed a method of analysis that reveals how popular culture

Berger, Arthur Asa

134

Organizational Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of organizational culture has received increasing attention in recent years both from academics and practitioners. This article presents the author’s view of how culture should be defined and analyzed if it is to be of use in the field of organizational psychology. Other concepts are reviewed, a brief history is provided, and case materials are presented to illustrate

Edgar H. Schein

1990-01-01

135

Molecular bacterial load assay, a culture-free biomarker for rapid and accurate quantification of sputum Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacillary load during treatment.  

PubMed

A molecular assay to quantify Mycobacterium tuberculosis is described. In vitro, 98% (n = 96) of sputum samples with a known number of bacilli (10(7) to 10(2) bacilli) could be enumerated within 0.5 log(10). In comparison to culture, the molecular bacterial load (MBL) assay is unaffected by other microorganisms present in the sample, results are obtained more quickly (within 24 h) and are seldom inhibited (0.7% samples), and the MBL assay critically shows the same biphasic decline as observed longitudinally during treatment. As a biomarker of treatment response, the MBL assay responds rapidly, with a mean decline in bacterial load for 111 subjects of 0.99 log(10) (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.81 to 1.17) after 3 days of chemotherapy. There was a significant association between the rate of bacterial decline during the same 3 days and bacilli ml(-1) sputum at day 0 (linear regression, P = 0.0003) and a 3.62 increased odds ratio of relapse for every 1 log(10) increase in pretreatment bacterial load (95% CI, 1.53 to 8.59). PMID:21900522

Honeyborne, Isobella; McHugh, Timothy D; Phillips, Patrick P J; Bannoo, Selina; Bateson, Anna; Carroll, Nora; Perrin, Felicity M; Ronacher, Katharina; Wright, Laura; van Helden, Paul D; Walzl, Gerhard; Gillespie, Stephen H

2011-11-01

136

Urine culture - catheterized specimen  

MedlinePLUS

Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

137

Pulmonary Mycobacterium massiliense disease with septicemia during immunosuppressive treatment.  

PubMed

A 75-year-old man with interstitial pneumonia due to ANCA-related vasculitis requiring immunosuppressive treatment was admitted to our hospital because of fever and rapidly progressive dyspnea. Chest CT showed diffuse ground-glass opacity with infiltration shadow in the bilateral lungs. We established a definitive diagnosis by isolating Mycobacterium massiliense on culture examination of acid-fast bacilli from peripheral blood and sputum. We began to administer CAM, LVFX, AMK, IPM/CS to this patient two weeks after admission. However, he died of respiratory failure and septic shock. There are few case reports of pulmonary lesion with septicemia due to Mycobacterium massiliense. PMID:21532236

Kobashi, Yoshihiro; Mouri, Keiji; Obase, Yasushi; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Nakanaga, Kazue; Oka, Mikio

2011-01-01

138

[Pulmonary infection caused by Mycobacterium gordonae].  

PubMed

A 57-year-old woman who had been operated on for colon cancer and given chemotherapy, presented in September 1995 with worsening cough and abnormalities on her chest X-ray film. Acid-fast bacilli were isolated from the sputum. The organism was classified as M. gordonae by biochemical tests and DNA/DNA hybridization. The patient was treated with rifampicin and clarithromycin. Subsequently, sputum cultures became negative and the chest x-ray film showed a decrease infiltration. The findings in the present case suggest that M. gordonae may cause pulmonary infection and should be considered as an opportunistic pathogen. PMID:10386030

Yanagisawa, N; Miyamoto, D; Ichinose, Y; Toyama, K

1999-05-01

139

Mycobacterium haemophilum as the Initial Presentation of a B-Cell Lymphoma in a Liver Transplant Patient  

PubMed Central

A 66-year-old woman presented with pustular lesions of her face, trunk, and limbs and an acute arthritis of the knees and elbows. She had a complex medical background and had been on immunosuppressants for three years after a liver transplant. Tissue samples from her skin lesions and synovial fluid showed acid-fast bacilli. Mycobacterium haemophilum, an atypical mycobacteria, was later grown on culture. During her treatment with combination antibiotic therapy, she developed a pronounced generalised lymphadenopathy. Histology showed features of a diffuse B-cell lymphoma, a posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). PMID:24523979

Doherty, T.; Lynn, M.; Cavazza, A.; Sames, E.; Hughes, R.

2014-01-01

140

Cultural Correspondence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the early 1970s, Paul Buhle and Dave Wagner began to think about creating a new and unique journal. They were both veterans of the journal Radical America, and they were both interested in popular culture. As August 1975 came around, they published the first issue of "Cultural Correspondence", a journal intended to serve as a critical review of popular culture. As the journal was published in Providence, it's not surprising to learn that the Brown University Library Center for Digital Initiatives (CDL) has created this most engaging archive of this publication. Visitors to the site can read the entire contents of each issue, browse around as they see fit, and also check out their virtual "Magazine Stand". First-time visitors may wish to start out by reading the Spring 1977 issue titled "Television".

141

Evolution of Smooth Tubercle Bacilli PE and PE_PGRS Genes: Evidence for a Prominent Role of Recombination and Imprint of Positive Selection  

PubMed Central

Background PE and PE_PGRS are two mycobateria-restricted multigene families encoding membrane associated and secreted proteins that have expanded mainly in the pathogenic species, notably the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Several lines of evidence attribute to PE and PE_PGRS genes critical roles in mycobacterial pathogenicity. To get more insight into the nature of these genes, we sought to address their evolutionary trajectories in the group of smooth tubercle bacilli (STB), the putative ancestor of the clonal MTBC. Methodology/Principal Findings By focussing on six polymorphic STB PE/PE_PGRS genes, we demonstrate significant incongruence among single gene genealogies and detect strong signals of recombination using various approaches. Coalescent-based estimation of population recombination and mutation rates (? and ?, respectively) indicates that the two mechanisms are of roughly equal importance in generating diversity (?/??=?1.457), a finding in a marked contrast to house keeping genes (HKG) whose evolution is chiefly brought about by mutation (?/??=?0.012). In comparison to HKG, we found 15 times higher mean rate of nonsynonymous substitutions, with strong evidence of positive selection acting on PE_PGRS62 (dN/dS?=?1.42), a gene that has previously been shown to be essential for mycobacterial survival in macrophages and granulomas. Imprint of positive selection operating on specific amino acid residues or along branches of PE_PGRS62 phylogenetic tree was further demonstrated using maximum likelihood- and covarion-based approaches, respectively. Strikingly, PE_PGR62 proved highly conserved in present-day MTBC strains. Conclusions/Significance Overall the data indicate that, in STB, PE/PE_PGRS genes have undergone a strong diversification process that is speeded up by recombination, with evidence of positive selection. The finding that positive selection involved an essential PE_PGRS gene whose sequence appears to be driven to fixation in present-day MTBC strains lends further support to the critical role of PE/PE_PGRS genes in the evolution of mycobacterial pathogenicity. PMID:23705005

Fabre, Michel; Gutierrez, Maria Cristina; Mardassi, Helmi

2013-01-01

142

Effect of Chinese herbal medicine extracts on cell-mediated immunity in a rat model of tuberculosis induced by multiple drug-resistant bacilli.  

PubMed

Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis poses a major threat to public health. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Radix Ranunculi Ternati, Radix Sophorae Flavescentis, Prunella Vulgaris L. and Stellera Chamaejasme L. extracts on cell?mediated immunity in a rat model of tuberculosis (TB) induced by multiple drug-resistant bacilli. The bacterium was isolated from patients infected with pulmonary tuberculosis. The immunological response in humans following infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis involves a number of cytokines, including IFN-? and IFN-?, which are important for killing intracellular micro-organisms. T helper type 2 (Th2) cells express numerous cytokines, including IL-4 and IL-10, which mainly participate in humoral immunity and induce the phagocytosis of extracellular bacteria and parasites. In the present study, rats were infected with multiple drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in order to establish an MDR-TB model. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and cultivated, and the serum levels of IFN-?, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-12 were examined by ELISA. The mRNA expression levels of certain cytokines in PBMCs were additionally detected using RT-PCR. The serum levels of IFN-? in the Radix Ranunculi Ternati, Radix Sophorae Flavescentis, Prunella Vulgaris L. and Stellera Chamaejasme L. groups were 2.01±0.73, 1.92±0.56, 1.98±0.67 and 1.94±0.59 pg/ml; IL-4 levels were 6.01±1.46, 6.12±1.35, 6.47±1.46 and 6.15±1.44 pg/ml; IL-10 levels were 12.09±3.07, 12.45±4.01, 12.13±3.43 and 12.54±3.78 pg/ml; and IL-12 levels were 2.99±0.89, 2.75±0.84, 3.02±0.86 and 2.89±0.75 pg/ml, respectively. These differences were significant compared with the model group (P<0.05). RT-PCR analysis revealed a significant increase in the levels of IFN-? and IL-12, and a significant decrease in the mRNA levels of IL-4 and IL-10 (P<0.05). These results indicated that the extracts of Radix Ranunculi Ternati, Radix Sophorae Flavescentis, Prunella Vulgaris L. and Stellera Chamaejasme L. are capable of enhancing cell?mediated immunity in rats by upregulating the levels of genetic transcription. This may explain the observed therapeutic effect of Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of MDR-TB. PMID:23716296

Lu, Jun; Ye, Song; Qin, Rui; Deng, Yun; Li, Chao-Pin

2013-07-01

143

Evaluation of the Phoenix 100 ID/AST System and NID Panel for Identification of Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and Commonly Isolated Nonenteric Gram-Negative Bacilli  

PubMed Central

The Phoenix 100 ID/AST system (Becton Dickinson Co., Sparks, Md.) is an automated system for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates. This system with its negative identification (NID) panel was evaluated for its accuracy in the identification of 507 isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 57 other nonenteric gram-negative isolates that are commonly isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories, and 138 isolates of the family Vibrionaceae. All of the isolates had been characterized by using approximately 48 conventional tube biochemicals. Of the 507 isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae, 456 (89.9%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels. The five isolates of Proteus penneri required an off-line indole test, as suggested by the system to differentiate them from Proteus vulgaris. The identifications of 20 (3.9%) isolates were correct to the genus level but incorrect at the species level. Two (0.4%) isolates were reported as “no identification.” Misidentifications to the genus and species levels occurred for 29 (5.7%) isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae. These incorrect identifications were spread over 14 different genera. The most common error was the misidentification of Salmonella species. The shortest time for a correct identification was 2 h 8 min. The longest time was 12 h 27 min, for the identification of a Serratia marcescens isolate. Of the 57 isolates of nonenteric gram-negative bacilli (Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Burkholderia, Plesiomonas, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas spp.), 48 (84.2%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels and 7 (12.3%) were correctly identified to the genus level but not to the species level. The average time for a correct identification was 5 h 11 min. Of the Vibrionaceae spp., 123 (89.1%) were correctly identified at the end of the initial incubation period, which averaged 4 h. Based on the findings of this study, the Phoenix 100 ID/AST system NID panel falls short of being an acceptable new method for the identification of the Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and gram-negative nonenteric isolates that are commonly encountered in many hospital microbiology laboratories. PMID:16517878

O'Hara, Caroline M.

2006-01-01

144

Hydroponic Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a hydroponic culture technique suitable for student exercises in biology. This technique of growing plants in nutrient solutions enhances plant growth, and is an excellent way to obtain intact plants with root systems free of soil or other particulate matter. (JR)

Steucek, G. L.; Yurkiewicz, W. J.

1973-01-01

145

Cultural Themes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of a larger report on the Four Directions Project, an American Indian technology innovation project, this section includes 10 "pathfinders" to locating information on Native American cultural themes. The pathfinders were designed by students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Texas at Austin in…

Roy, Loriene, Comp.

146

Primary Cutaneous Actinomycosis:A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Actinomycosis is a subacute or chronic suppurative bacterial infection caused by filamentous gram positive, anaerobic to microaerophilic non acid fast bacilli primarily of the genus Actinomyces that normally colonize the mouth, colon and vagina. Primary cutaneous actinomycosis is a rare entity and is generally associated with trauma. We report a case of primary cutaneous actinomycosis of the back and left axilla in a 32-year-old female patient with no suggestive history of trauma.The diagnosis was suggested by the characteristic lesions with multiple discharging sinuses draining sero-sanguinous fluid scattered all over the lesions. Gram positive bacilli with plenty of pus cells were demonstrated in the direct examination of the discharging pus. Diagnosis was confirmed by isolation of the organisms by anaerobic culture giving typical molar tooth colonies. Final confirmation was done by histopathological examination. PMID:25177623

Ghosh, Ranadeep; Mukherjee, Kheya; Ghoshal, Loknath

2014-01-01

147

Cultural Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity combines cultural exploration with number patterns and systems. Choose a culture or historical period and have learners make a calendar for a month in that time. For more challenge, pick a country that uses different numerals, such as India or China or go back in time and make calendars for a month in ancient Mayan times, using the Mayan number system. Ask learners to compare: How are the calendars theyâve made different from the calendars we use? How are they the same? What patterns do you notice? Available as a web page and downloadable PDF. Blank calendar template is also available as a downloadable PDF. Students should be able to write numerals to 30 and have some familiarity with calendars.

2010-01-01

148

Culture agonistes: social differentiation, cultural policy and Cultural Olympiads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural policy?makers and analysts have recently focussed upon the particularly fruitful connections between ‘culture’ and sports. Yet for a long time the Olympic Games have involved an attempted articulation of the cultural–artistic and sportive aspects of human existence. This paper analyses the various attempts to conjoin the separate realms of ‘culture’ and sports that have characterised the Modern Olympics, as

David Inglis

2008-01-01

149

Isolation of a fastidious Mycobacterium species from two AIDS patients.  

PubMed

Two strains of fastidious mycobacteria were isolated from two patients with AIDS and clinical disease suggestive of Mycobacterium avium complex infection. Acid-fast bacilli were isolated from blood and bone marrow of both patients in BACTEC 12B and/or 13A media. The acid-fast bacilli failed to grow on subculture to routine Löwenstein-Jensen medium containing pyruvate and egg yolk agar. After several attempts, the strain from one patient was finally cultured on Middlebrook 7H9 medium with agar, charcoal, and yeast extract 13 months after the initial specimens were received in the laboratory. The second patient's strain was cultured on the same medium 6 weeks postinoculation with fresh BACTEC fluid and 5 months after specimen collection. Routine biochemical and growth tests were performed on these isolates but failed to give definitive identifications. 16S rRNA gene sequencing suggested that the organisms share at least 98.9% homology with M. simiae. Even greater homology (99.86%) was found with the recently described species "M. genavense." Recognition of the fastidious nature of some mycobacteria that infect AIDS patients is important in the treatment of infections in these patients and in understanding the epidemiology of atypical mycobacterial infections. It is suggested that a liquid culture medium such as BACTEC be employed for primary isolation of mycobacteria from AIDS patients and that subculture to the charcoal medium described here be carried out for those organisms that fail to grow on subculture to routine media. PMID:1280645

Jackson, K; Sievers, A; Ross, B C; Dwyer, B

1992-11-01

150

Clinical comparison of the isolator and BacT/Alert aerobic blood culture systems.  

PubMed

The performance characteristics of the Isolator (Wampole Laboratories, Cranbury, N.J.) and the BacT/Alert (Organon Teknika Corporation, Durham, N.C.) aerobic blood culture systems were compared for 6,009 blood culture sets obtained from patients with suspected bloodstream infections. The BacT/Alert aerobic bottle [BTA(O2)] was continuously agitated while it was incubated in 5% CO2 at 36 degrees C; culture plates prepared from the Isolator tube [I(O2)] were incubated in 5% CO2 at 37 degrees C. From 394 blood cultures, 416 clinically significant isolates of bacteria and yeasts were recovered. The overall yields for BTA(O2) and I(O2) were not significantly different (319 versus 336; P = 0.20). I(O2) recovered significantly more staphylococcus (P < 0.05) and yeast isolates (P < 0.01). BTA(O2) recovered significantly more aerobic and facultatively anaerobic gram-negative bacilli (P < 0.05). In blood culture sets which produced growth of the same organisms in both the BTA(O2) and I(O2) systems, the BTA(O2) system detected growth sooner, but more rapid identification was possible with the I(O2) system by virtue of earlier isolation of colonies on solid media. PMID:7665647

Hellinger, W C; Cawley, J J; Alvarez, S; Hogan, S F; Harmsen, W S; Ilstrup, D M; Cockerill, F R

1995-07-01

151

Deaf Culture Working.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests how insights from Paul Bohannon's book, "How Culture Works" (1995), could be used to address such questions as, "How do deaf people learn their culture?" and "How do deaf children learn (what) culture?" Bohannon's idea of cultural dynamics is applied to deaf culture to trace how that culture evolved, how it changed, and where it is…

Stokoe, William C.

1995-01-01

152

Plant Cultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With its radiant colors and well-thought-out design, the Plant Cultures website's primary goal is "to convey the richness and complexity of links between Britain and South Asia, through the story of plants and people". The project covers both the historical and contemporary aspects of Britain and South Asia through a wide range of resources, including historic images, recipes, and other items. Through a series of tabs at the top of the homepage (such as "Themes" and "Stories"), visitors can begin to explore the diverse content offered here. The "Plants" area is a good place to start, as visitors can learn about garlic, henna, holy basil, sugar cane, and 21 other plants. One rather fun area of the site is the Story Library, where visitors can place their own stories regarding the use of different plants, and read those from previous guests.

153

[Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in clinically relevant non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli: recommendations from the Antimicrobial Agents Subcommittee of the Sociedad Argentina de Bacteriología, Micología y Parasitología Clínicas, Asociación Argentina de Microbiología].  

PubMed

This document contains the recommendations for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the clinically relevant non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB), adopted after conforming those from international committees to the experience of the Antimicrobial Agents Subcommittee members and invited experts. This document includes an update on NFGNB classification and description, as well as some specific descriptions regarding natural or frequent antimicrobial resistance and a brief account of associated resistance mechanisms. These recommendations not only suggest the antimicrobial drugs to be evaluated in each case, but also provide an optimization of the disk diffusion layout and a selection of results to be reported. Finally, this document also includes a summary of the different methodological approaches that may be used for detection and confirmation of emerging b-lactamases, such as class A and B carbapenemases. PMID:21731977

Radice, Marcela; Marín, Marcelo; Giovanakis, Marta; Vay, Carlos; Almuzara, Marisa; Limansky, Adriana; Casellas, José M; Famiglietti, Angela; Quinteros, Mirta; Bantar, Carlos; Galas, Marcelo; Kovensky Pupko, Jaime; Nicola, Federico; Pasterán, Fernando; Soloaga, Rolando; Gutkind, Gabriel

2011-01-01

154

Clinical, radiological and molecular diagnosis correlation in serum samples from patients with osteoarticular tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the role of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in serum samples, in the diagnosis of osteoarticular tuberculosis (OTB) in a setting where only clinical and imaging diagnoses determine the treatment. Methods A total of 44 consecutive serum specimens were collected from clinically suspected OTB patients, based on clinical and radiological [X-ray or magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography] features. They were screened by in-house nested PCR. In addition, a few specimens were examined by Gram stain, acid-fast bacilli stain, histopathology and routine bacterial culture. A total of 39 specimens were collected from patients suffering from other bone diseases of nontuberculous origin and included as negative controls. Results Of the 44 clinically suspected OTB patients, in-house nested PCR was positive in 40 (91%) cases; PCR was negative in 38 (97%) negative controls. Sensitivity and specificity of our in-house nested PCR was 90.9% and 97.4%, respectively. The PCR report was available within 48 h. It was possible to standardize serum PCR technique and in positive cases, a good correlation was observed in terms of an adequate treatment response. Conclusions Nested PCR in serum samples is a rapid, highly sensitive and specific modality for OTB detection. PCR should be performed in addition to clinical evaluation, imaging studies, acid-fast bacilli staining, culture and histopathology diagnosis, if possible. PMID:25183281

García-Elorriaga, Guadalupe; Martínez-Elizondo, Olga; del Rey-Pineda, Guillermo; González-Bonilla, César

2014-01-01

155

[A case of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium branderi].  

PubMed

The patient was a 56-year-old man, who was found to have a cavitary lesion surrounded by small nodules in the left upper lobe (S(1+2)) on the chest computed tomography (CT) scan prior to surgery for oropharyngeal cancer. Both sputum and bronchial lavage smears for acid-fast bacilli were positive, but a polymerase chain reaction for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complex failed to identify the isolates. Mycobacterium species were cultured in 4 weeks. Mycobacterium branderi was identified by determining the nucleic acid sequences of the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) and RNA polymerase B (rpoB) genes. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy for esophageal cancer were started 5 months after the surgery for oropharyngeal cancer. The patient developed fever during the second round of chemotherapy. After chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the wall of the cavitary lesion thickened and a consolidation shadow was noted in the lower portion of the cavitary lesion on the chest CT scan. Combined therapy with clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and ethionamide improved the clinical symptoms; further, the abnormal chest shadows disappeared, and the sputum smears and cultures for acid-fast bacilli were negative. Although, currently, there are no recommended therapeutic regimens for pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteriosis caused by M. branderi, combined therapy including the drugs used in this case may have a beneficial effect on this disease. PMID:25095645

Yamazoe, Masami; Takahashi, Ryuji

2014-06-01

156

Cultural Leadership in Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is general recognition that leadership is important for organizational cultures, the issue of how leadership affects culture has received only scattered attention. Existing analyses have tended to focus on how leaders create or change cultures, ignoring the role that leadership plays in maintaining cultures. This paper focuses on how cultural leadership that innovates, by either creating or changing

HARRISON M. TRICE; JANICE M. BEYER

1991-01-01

157

Development and Validation of a Liquid Medium (M7H9C) for Routine Culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis To Replace Modified Bactec 12B Medium  

PubMed Central

Liquid culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from clinical samples, such as feces, is the most sensitive antemortem test for the diagnosis of Johne's disease in ruminants. In Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and some other countries, the Bactec 460 system with modified Bactec 12B medium (Becton, Dickinson) has been the most commonly used liquid culture system, but it was discontinued in 2012. In this study, a new liquid culture medium, M7H9C, was developed. It consists of a Middlebrook 7H9 medium base with added Casitone, albumin, dextrose, catalase, egg yolk, mycobactin J, and a cocktail of antibiotics. We found that polyoxyethylene stearate (POES) was not essential for the cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in either the Bactec 12B or the M7H9C medium. The limit of detection determined using pure cultures of the C and S strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was 7 bacilli per 50 ?l inoculum in the two media. The new medium was validated using 784 fecal and tissue samples from sheep and cattle, >25% of which contained viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Discrepant results for the clinical samples between the two media were mostly associated with samples that contained <10 viable bacilli per gram, but these results were relatively uncommon, and the performances of the two media were not significantly different. M7H9C medium was less than half the cost of the Bactec 12B medium and did not require regular examination during incubation, but a confirmatory IS900 PCR test had to be performed on every culture after the predetermined incubation period. PMID:24048541

Whittington, Ann-Michele; Waldron, Anna; Begg, Douglas J.; de Silva, Kumi; Purdie, Auriol C.; Plain, Karren M.

2013-01-01

158

Lymph node culture  

MedlinePLUS

Culture - lymph node ... or viruses grow. This process is called a culture. Sometimes, special stains are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration does not ...

159

Dehistoricized Cultural Identity and Cultural Othering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assumption that each culture has its own distinctive identity has been generally accepted in the discussion of cultural identities. Quite often identity formation is not perceived as a dynamic and interactive ongoing process that engages other cultures and involves change in its responses to different challenges at different times. I will…

Weiguo, Qu

2013-01-01

160

TRANSLATING CULTURES Cultural Mlange in Aesthetic Expressions  

E-print Network

TRANSLATING CULTURES Workshop: Cultural Mélange in Aesthetic Expressions 11­12 February, 2013 ­ Le Mirail, France) Cross-fertilization between African and European theatre: Translating cultural, NTNU) Famous Blue Raincoat in translation 14.30­14.45: Closing remarks #12;

Malinnikova, Eugenia

161

Anthropology 161 World Cultures  

E-print Network

Anthropology 161 World Cultures Fall, 2014 CRN: 10295 PLC 180 Tu/Th 10-11:20 Prof. Diane Baxter Cultural anthropology is the study of individuals and groups in the context of culture. Your textbook that are created, learned, and shared by a group of people. The study of cultural anthropology is "holistic

162

Cultural Approaches to Parenting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing

Marc H. Bornstein

2012-01-01

163

Cultural relativism as ideology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of culture was originally an expression of German nationalism, which reacted to the French Enlightenment by asserting the uniqueness and incomparability of all cultures as historical creations. This understanding of cultural diversity, which prevailed in American anthropology, is widely understood to imply the moral equality of all cultures. Yet its relativism originally applied to different individuals socialized in

Dennis H. Wrong

1997-01-01

164

Microfluidic perfusion culture.  

PubMed

Microfluidic perfusion culture is a novel technique to culture animal cells in a small-scale microchamber with medium perfusion. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is the most popular material to fabricate a microfluidic perfusion culture chip. Photolithography and replica molding techniques are generally used for fabrication of a microfluidic perfusion culture chip. Pressure-driven perfusion culture system is convenient technique to carry out the perfusion culture of animal cells in a microfluidic device. Here, we describe a general theory on microfluid network design, microfabrication technique, and experimental technique for pressure-driven perfusion culture in an 8 × 8 microchamber array on a glass slide-sized microchip made out of PDMS. PMID:24297421

Hattori, Koji; Sugiura, Shinji; Kanamori, Toshiyuki

2014-01-01

165

A Cultural Classroom Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Native American and other cultural stories provide students with a broader perspective on the world. In addition, cultural stories connect science content and knowledge about the world to cultural interpretations and people's life ways. By implementing the ideas suggested in this article, you can select books that both enrich your science library and help students begin to appreciate the science contributions and connections from various cultures while enhancing cultural literacy among students.

Maria Lawrence

2007-11-01

166

Mycobacterium marinum infection in Japanese forest green tree frogs (Rhacophorus arboreus).  

PubMed

Four Japanese forest green tree frogs (Rhacophorus arboreus) were presented with emaciation, abdominal distention and ulcerative and nodular cutaneous lesions affecting the brisket, limbs, digits and ventral abdomen. Another three frogs had been found dead in the same tank 1 year previously. Necropsy examination of these seven frogs revealed splenomegaly and hepatomegaly, with multiple tan-yellow nodular foci present in the liver, spleen, heart, lungs, ovaries and kidneys. Microscopically, five frogs had necrosis and surrounding granulomatous inflammation in the liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs, intestine and ovaries, with numerous acid-fast bacilli in the areas of necrosis. Two frogs had granulomatous lesions in the lungs, liver, spleen, heart, coelomic membrane, stomach and intestinal wall. These lesions had no or minimal necrosis and few acid-fast bacilli. Mycobacterium spp. was cultured from three frogs and identified as Mycobacterium marinum by colony growth rate and photochromogenicity and DNA sequencing. This is the first report of M. marinum infection in Japanese forest green tree frogs. PMID:25047922

Haridy, M; Tachikawa, Y; Yoshida, S; Tsuyuguchi, K; Tomita, M; Maeda, S; Wada, T; Ibi, K; Sakai, H; Yanai, T

2014-01-01

167

Evaluation of two pretreatment methods for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in suspected pulmonary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The objective of the current study was to compare the efficacy of phenol ammonium sulphate (PhAS) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) pretreatment methods for the direct microscopy with the Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture to detect acid fast bacilli (AFB) from pulmonary tuberculosis suspected cases using sputum specimens. To evaluate PhAS and NaOCl methods, sputum specimens (n?=?1145) were studied and the performance of each method was compared with LJ media. The, PhAS centrifuged smear and NaOCl centrifuged smear method demonstrated higher sensitivity (71.47% and 77%), specificity (99.61% and 98%), positive predictive value (98.8% and 94.88%) and negative predictive value (88.35% and 90.25%), respectively, when compared to LJ culture. However, the direct AFB smears and PhAS centrifugation method was ineffective to detect few Mycobacterium tuberculosis cases from sputum specimens, particularly in blood tinged specimens with scanty bacilli. Interestingly, NaOCl method could efficiently detect the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cases from blood tinged sputum specimens with scanty bacilli. The current study concluded that NaOCl method could be the most efficient and sensitive method than direct AFB smear and PhAS centrifuged smear method for the direct detection of AFB in suspected cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:22733571

Shinu, Pottathil; Nair, Anroop; Jad, Beena; Singh, Varsha

2013-03-01

168

In Vitro Activity of BL-S640 Against Gram-Negative Bacilli and Staphylococcus aureus Compared with Activity of Four Other Semisynthetic Cephalosporins  

PubMed Central

The in vitro activity of BL-S640 (cefatrizine) was determined against 674 recent clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacteriaceae. Activity against S. aureus was less than that of cephapirin, cephalothin, and cefazolin, but greater than that of cephalexin. Activity against gram-negative isolates was variable: BL-S640 was slightly less potent than cefazolin against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella, but more active than the other compounds. As for the more resistant gram-negative genera, BL-S640 was significantly superior to the control cephalosporins. The effect of inoculum size on the antibacterial activity was moderate for most organisms except Enterobacter, Providencia stuartii, and indole-positive Proteus, the median minimal inhibitory concentrations of which were 6 to 27 times lower when determined with a 10?4-diluted culture compared with the undiluted one. The stability in aqueous solution at 37 C was remarkably high at the lower pH values, but low at the neutral point. PMID:1259401

Vuye, A.; Pijck, J.; Soep, H.

1976-01-01

169

Basis for treatment of tuberculosis among HIV-infected patients in Tanzania: the role of chest x-ray and sputum culture  

PubMed Central

Background Active tuberculosis (TB) is common among HIV-infected persons living in tuberculosis endemic countries, and screening for tuberculosis (TB) is recommended routinely. We sought to determine the role of chest x-ray and sputum culture in the decision to treat for presumptive TB using active case finding in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients. Methods Ambulatory HIV-positive subjects with CD4 counts ? 200/mm3 entering a Phase III TB vaccine study in Tanzania were screened for TB with a physical examination, standard interview, CD4 count, chest x-ray (CXR), blood culture for TB, and three sputum samples for acid fast bacillus (AFB) smear and culture. Results Among 1176 subjects 136 (12%) were treated for presumptive TB. These patients were more frequently male than those without treatment (34% vs. 25%, respectively; p = 0.049) and had lower median CD4 counts (319/?L vs. 425/?L, respectively; p < .0001). Among the 136 patients treated for TB, 38 (28%) had microbiologic confirmation, including 13 (10%) who had a normal CXR and no symptoms. There were 58 (43%) treated patients in whom the only positive finding was an abnormal CXR. Blood cultures were negative in all patients. Conclusion Many ambulatory HIV-infected patients with CD4 counts ? 200/mm3 are treated for presumptive TB. Our data suggest that optimal detection requires comprehensive evaluation, including CXR and sputum culture on both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. PMID:18325120

Bakari, Muhammad; Arbeit, Robert D; Mtei, Lillian; Lyimo, Johnson; Waddell, Richard; Matee, Mecky; Cole, Bernard F; Tvaroha, Susan; Horsburgh, C Robert; Soini, Hanna; Pallangyo, Kisali; von Reyn, C Fordham

2008-01-01

170

Cultural Ecology: Arts of the Mountain Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes a schoolwide unit, organized around the ballad of John Henry, that integrated visual art, music, dance, and drama with ecological issues, Mountain Cultural heritage, and labor history. Gives background information on the Mountain Culture and the story of John Henry, while also discussing the students' reactions and interpretations…

Morris, Christine Ballengee

1998-01-01

171

Routine sputum culture  

MedlinePLUS

Sputum culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ... RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier ...

172

Pleural fluid culture  

MedlinePLUS

Culture - pleural fluid ... sample is also placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ... RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier ...

173

Culture in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culture plays a large but often unnoticeable role in what we teach and how we teach children. We are a country of immense diversity, but in classrooms the dominant European-American culture has become the language of learning.

Medin, Douglas L.; Bang, Megan

2014-01-01

174

Experiencing Native American Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents four experiential excercises based on Native American culture for use in education, communication training, and counseling. These excercises are intended as vehicles for personal growth and aids to learning about Native American culture. (RC)

Darou, Wes G.

1980-01-01

175

Meet the Culture Assistants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Japanese Language and Culture Assistants Program, which sent over 100 Japanese volunteers to teach Japanese language and culture in U.S. schools. Discusses the activities of four of the volunteer participants and results of the program. (LZ)

Amemiya, Keiko

1995-01-01

176

Cultural changes in aerospace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cultural changes; people and jobs; examples of cultural changes required; advanced launch system (ALS) philosophy; ALS operability capabilities; and ALS operability in design are outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

Strobl, Bill

1991-01-01

177

Culturally based story understanding  

E-print Network

Culture has a strong influence on how stories are understood. Accordingly, a full account of human intelligence must include an account of cultural influences on story understanding. The research reported takes a step ...

Awad, Hiba

2013-01-01

178

Microbial pollution indicators and culturable heterotrophic bacteria in a Mediterranean area (Southern Adriatic Sea Italian coasts)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study we evaluated the degree of microbial water pollution along the coast line between Brindisi and Santa Maria di Leuca (Southern Adriatic Sea) as well as the culturable heterotrophic bacteria abundances and biodiversity in relation to the microbiological quality of the water. A total of 3773 colonies were isolated, subcultured and identified by several morphological, cultural and biochemical methods including the standardized API 20 E and API 20 NE tests. Along the examined coastal tract the microbial pollution indicators were always below the tolerance limits for bathing waters defined by the CEE directive, suggesting a good sanitary quality. Concerning culturable heterotrophic bacteria, different temporal density trends were observed in the four sites in relation to their geographical position. A positive relationship between the bacterial abundances and the temperature was observed in S. Cataldo and Otranto. The culturable bacterial community was mainly composed of the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Photobacterium and Flavobacterium. The Enterobacteriaceae family represented a conspicuous component of the bacterial community too. Bacilli were predominant among the Gram-positive bacteria. Of interest is the isolation of yeasts (2% at the surface and 1% at the bottom) taking into account their capability of biodegradation of various materials. Because of the low level of microbial pollution recorded, our results are indicative of the natural variation and diversity of the culturable bacterial community in such an oligotrophic ecosystem and could represent a good point of comparison with other ecosystems as well as a baseline for long term studies aimed to evaluate the effects of environmental fluctuations and human impacts on this aspect of biodiversity in coastal areas.

Stabili, L.; Cavallo, R. A.

2011-05-01

179

Plant Tissue Culture Techniques  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Plant tissue culture techniques are essential to many types of academic inquiry, as well as to many applied aspects of plant science. Currently, tissue-cultured plants that have been genetically engineered provide insight into plant molecular biology and gene regulation. Plant tissue culture techniques are also central to innovative areas of applied plant science, including plant biotechnology and agriculture. Thus, tissue culture techniques have been, and still are, prominent in academic and applied plant science.

Lorraine Mineo (Lafayette College; )

1989-06-06

180

Anaerobic thermophilic culture  

DOEpatents

A newly discovered thermophilic anaerobe is described that was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC 3/550. T. Ethanolicus is cultured in aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions and is used in a novel process for producing ethanol by subjecting carbohydrates, particularly the saccharides, to fermentation action of the new microorganism in a biologically pure culture.

Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Wiegel, Jurgen K. W. (Gottingen, DE)

1981-01-01

181

Cross-Cultural Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-part presentation on cross-cultural communication consists of a discussion of cultural differences in interpersonal communication and an article from a Greek English-language publication concerning telephone use skills in a foreign country. Cultural differences in communication are divided into eight types and illustrated: (1) when to talk;…

Tannen, Deborah

182

Cultural approach to CDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a cultural approach to critical discourse analysis (CCDA) which aims at exposing the various ways in which cultural codes are embedded in discourse, and contribute to the reproduction of abuses of power. The article attempts to represent CCDA not only as a theoretical framework, but also as a practical tool for decoding the cultural ‘cargo’ contained within

Dalia Gavriely-Nuri

2011-01-01

183

Cultural approach to CDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a cultural approach to critical discourse analysis (CCDA) which aims at exposing the various ways in which cultural codes are embedded in discourse, and contribute to the reproduction of abuses of power. The article attempts to represent CCDA not only as a theoretical framework, but also as a practical tool for decoding the cultural ‘cargo’ contained within

Dalia Gavriely-Nuri

2012-01-01

184

Culture: Responsibility in Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers of culture must know and teach the rationale, the origins of the values and activities, or the problem-solving techniques of the culture being studied. Culture is the totality of the ways in which a group of people solve their basic problems at a given moment in time. As groups of people develop and come in contact with other groups, they…

Orozco, Cecilio

185

Explorations in Legal Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue of Recht der Werkelijkheid is dedicated to the topic of exploring legal cultures. As the case studies nicely illustrate, law and culture relate to each other in a variety of ways in different national and international settings. How judges in South Africa incorporate community values into the legal system and how unquestioned cultural assumptions play a significant

J. F. Bruinsma; D. Nelken

2007-01-01

186

Understanding culture across species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent claims of culture in great apes have provoked fervent argument about the ‘true’ definition of culture, most of which has been unhelpful. Instead, a range of definitions should be used to explore different aspects of the cognitive processes that together result in human culture, many of which can be productively studied in non-humans. A richer cognitive account of the

Richard W. Byrne; Philip J. Barnard; Iain Davidson; Vincent M. Janik; William C. McGrew; Ádam Miklósi; Polly Wiessner

2004-01-01

187

Cultural Arts Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The handbook presents activities to aid elementary school classroom teachers as they develop and implement cultural arts lessons. A cultural arts program is interpreted as a way to help students develop perceptual awareness, build a basic vocabulary in some art cultural form, evaluate their own works of art, appreciate creative expressions, and…

Pistone, Kathleen A.

188

Cultural Metamorphosis in Translation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper presents a case study of the cultural transformations from the original into one Chinese version of the novel Uncle Tom's Cabin. First, the paper makes an analysis of these target language culture-oriented conversions in images, moods and stylistic devices and discusses their different cultural connotations concerning such aspects as religion, ethics, aesthetics and daily life respectively in

Lin Yupeng

189

Safeguards Culture: Lessons Learned  

SciTech Connect

Today, safeguards culture can be a useful tool for measuring nonproliferation postures, but so far its impact on the international safeguards regime has been underappreciated. There is no agreed upon definition for safeguards culture nor agreement on how it should be measured. This paper argues that safeguards culture as an indicator of a country’s nonproliferation posture can be a useful tool.

Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

2010-06-01

190

Principals as Cultural Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Principals have a strong role to play in forming school cultures that encourage change. Changing a school's culture requires shared or distributed leadership and instructional leadership. A multiyear study found that three elements are necessary for a school culture that stimulates teachers to improve their instruction: 1) Teachers and…

Louis, Karen Seashore; Wahlstrom, Kyla

2011-01-01

191

A Cultural Classroom Library  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Native American and other cultural stories provide students with a broader perspective on the world. In addition, cultural stories connect science content and knowledge about the world to cultural interpretations and people's life ways. By implementing the ideas suggested in this article, you can select books that both enrich your science library…

Lawrence, Maria

2007-01-01

192

Teaching Language, Teaching Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essays and research reports on the relationship between teaching second languages and teaching culture include: "Teaching Culture as an Integrated Part of Language Teaching: An Introduction" (Chantal Crozet, Anthony J. Liddicoat); "Primary Socialization and Cultural Factors in Second Language Learning: Wending Our Way through Semi-Charted…

Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Crozet, Chantal, Ed.

1997-01-01

193

Resolving conflicting safety cultures  

SciTech Connect

Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of [open quotes]safety culture.[close quotes] This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to [open quotes]do the right thing[close quotes] even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants.

Slider, J.E. (Slider Associates, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)); Patterson, M. (SCIENTECH, Rockville, MD (United States))

1993-01-01

194

Europeana: Think Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Europeana: Think Culture (http://www.europeana.eu) is a wonderful cultural repository. It includes more than 15 million items (images, text, audio, and video) from 1,500 European institutions. Europeana provides access to an abundance of cultural and heritage information and knowledge. Because Europeana has partnered with and brought together so…

Kail, Candice

2011-01-01

195

Cultural and Ethical Relativism  

Microsoft Academic Search

American .businesspeople have become increasingly aware of cultural differences and are strivinp to be sensitive to those differences. As businesspeople are more wdling to adopt other cultures' customs, must the also ado t other cultures' values? The r P question of where the rea m of socia customs end and values begin is a difficult one, but it cannot be

Susan P. Ravenscroft; George S. Clark

1991-01-01

196

Laboratory for Computational Cultural Dynamics: Using Technology to Understand Culture  

E-print Network

Laboratory for Computational Cultural Dynamics: Using Technology to Understand Culture Can Internet search algorithms predict political violence? Can computer modeling accurately replicate culturally influenced patterns of behavior? How can we make virtual cultural training more realistic for our diplomats

Hill, Wendell T.

197

Safeguards Culture: Lessons Learned  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper builds on that theoretical discussion to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Paper: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop on “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges,” in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper, coauthored by Karyn R. Durbin and Andrew Van Duzer, described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper updates that theoretical discussion, and seeks to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Implicit in this discussion is an understanding that improving a culture is not an end in itself, but is one method of improving the underlying discipline, that is safety, security, or safeguards. Culture can be defined as a way of life, or general customs and beliefs of a particular group of people at a particular time. There are internationally accepted definitions of safety culture and nuclear security culture. As yet, there is no official agreed upon definition of safeguards culture. At the end of the paper I will propose my definition. At the Santa Fe Workshop the summary by the Co-Chairs of Working Group 1, “The Further Evolution of Safeguards,” noted: “It is clear that ‘safeguards culture’ needs to be addressed if the efficiency and effectiveness are to continue to be improved. This will require commitment and change at all levels, from States to facility operators. Cultural change has to come from good leadership, doing the right thing and ‘beliefs’ are not sufficient – behavior is what counts. We are optimistic that with sufficient effort and the right incentives, change can be accomplished quickly.”

Mladineo, Stephen V.

2009-05-27

198

Cross-Cultural Impression Management: A Cultural Knowledge Audit Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Many people moving into a new culture for work or study do so without prior cross-cultural training, yet successful cultural adaptation has important ramifications. The purpose of this paper is to focus on cross-cultural impression management as an element of cultural adaptation. Does cultural adaptation begin by paying strong attention…

Spong, Abigail; Kamau, Caroline

2012-01-01

199

Tuberculosis of the calcaneum masquerading as Haglund's deformity: a rare case and brief literature review.  

PubMed

An Asian man presented to the Foot and Ankle Clinic with a 5-month history of right ankle pain of gradual onset. He had a non-fluctuant swelling around the Achilles tendon insertion with a tender palpable lump. Radiograph demonstrated Haglund's deformity and also possible calcification at the attachment of the Achilles tendon for which he had an injection of a local anaesthetic and a steroid to treat the insertional Achilles tendinitis. A few months later, he developed acute anorexia, abdominal distension secondary to ascites and groin lymphadenopathy. Histology of the lymph node biopsy revealed granulomatous lymphadenitis consistent with tuberculosis (TB) and started on quadruple agent anti-TB treatment. The sample was not cultured. He developed constant ooze from his groin lymph node biopsy site and also fluctuance around the Achilles tendon and heel. Pus from the heel stained positive for auramine indicating TB calcaneum with subsequent culture for acid fast bacilli (AFB) confirming diagnosis of TB calcaneum. PMID:23709539

Gillott, Elizabeth; Ray, Pinak

2013-01-01

200

Endobronchial extension of granulomatous lymphadenitis in an HIV-positive man with immune reconstitution syndrome.  

PubMed

Endobronchial granuloma is a rare manifestation of endobronchial tuberculosis (TB). This case report describes a patient with endobronchial granuloma due to contiguous extension of granulomatous mediastinal lymph node inflammation, occurring following commencement of highly active anti-retroviral therapy in an HIV-positive man. Bronchoscopic findings mirrored CT imaging of endobronchial involvement of sub-carinal lymphadenopathy. Microbiologic studies were negative for acid-fast bacilli, fungal elements and malignancy. Mycobacterial and fungal culture as well as PCR for TB were all negative. Empiric anti-tuberculous therapy was commenced with complete resolution of symptoms. Immune reconstitution syndrome with development of active TB is common in patients commencing highly active retroviral therapy. Lymphadenitis is the commonest manifestation of this, and 20% of patients are culture negative for mycobacteria. Endobronchial granulomata due to TB are rare and no specific endobronchial therapy is required in such disease. PMID:19740269

Steinfort, Daniel P; Smallwood, David; Antippa, Phillip; Irving, Louis B

2009-09-01

201

Culture and psychiatric diagnosis.  

PubMed

Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning. PMID:23816860

Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

2013-01-01

202

Culture and math.  

PubMed

Cultural differences have been shown across a number of different cognitive domains from vision, language, and music. Mathematical cognition is another domain that is an integral part of modern society and because there are a fixed number of ways in which many math operations can be performed, it is also an apposite tool for cultural comparisons. This discussion examines the literature on mathematical processing in accordance with culture, summarizing the brain regions involved across various mathematical tasks. In doing so, we provide a clear picture of the anatomical similarities and differences between cultures when performing different math tasks. This information is useful to explore the possibility of enhancement of mathematical skills, where different strategies may be applicable in accordance with culture. It also contributes to the evolutionary development of different math skills and the growing theory that anatomical and behavioral studies must account for the cultural identity of their sample. PMID:24090438

Tcheang, Lili

2014-01-01

203

Cognition is … Fundamentally Cultural  

PubMed Central

A prevailing concept of cognition in psychology is inspired by the computer metaphor. Its focus on mental states that are generated and altered by information input, processing, storage and transmission invites a disregard for the cultural dimension of cognition, based on three (implicit) assumptions: cognition is internal, processing can be distinguished from content, and processing is independent of cultural background. Arguing against each of these assumptions, we point out how culture may affect cognitive processes in various ways, drawing on instances from numerical cognition, ethnobiological reasoning, and theory of mind. Given the pervasive cultural modulation of cognition—on all of Marr’s levels of description—we conclude that cognition is indeed fundamentally cultural, and that consideration of its cultural dimension is essential for a comprehensive understanding. PMID:25379225

Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard

2013-01-01

204

Non-conversion of sputum culture among patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Cameroon: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated the determinants of sputum culture non-conversion following intensive phase of treatment, and assessed the effects on the outcome among patients treated for a first episode of smear positive tuberculosis (TB). Methods This was a prospective cohort study spanning October 2009 to May 2012, among patients treated for a first episode of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in the Chest service of the Yaounde Jamot Hospital, Cameroon. Logistic regressions models were used to relate baseline characteristics with non-conversion of sputum cultures after the intensive phase of treatment. Results A total of 953 patients were admitted to the service during the study period, including 97 (10.2%) who had a positive sputum smear at the end of the intensive phase of anti-tuberculosis treatment. Eighty-six patients with persistent of smear positive sputa at the end of intensive phase of TB treatment were included, among whom 46 (53%) had positive sputum culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (C+). The absence of haemoptysis [adjusted odd ratio 4.65 (95% confidence intervals: 1.14-18.95)] and current smoking [7.26 (1.59-33.23)] were the main determinants of sputum culture non-conversion. Of the 46C + patients, 7 (15%) were resistant to at least one anti-tuberculosis drug. Treatment failure rate was 28% among C + patients and 8% among C– patients (p = 0.023). The sensitivity and specificity were 78.6% and 55.4% for culture non-conversion after intensive treatment, in predicting anti-TB treatment failure. Conclusions Failure rate is high among patients with positive sputum culture after intensive treatment, even in the absence of multi-drug resistant bacilli. Treatment should be closely monitored in these patients and susceptibility to anti-tuberculosis drugs tested in the presence of persistent positive smears following the intensive phase of treatment. PMID:24618155

2014-01-01

205

A sensitive and specific ES-31 antigen detection based fluorometric assay for confirmation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cell culture.  

PubMed

Confirmation of presence of M. tuberculosis bacilli on microscopic examination is very important in diagnosis of tuberculosis. The present study was undertaken to find the usefulness of mycobacterial ES-31 serine protease as a marker to detect tuberculosis bacilli using fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated anti-ES-31 serine protease antibody. This immunofluorescence method was compared with Ziehl-Neelsen and auramine-O staining methods for detection of tuberculosis bacilli. Slides were prepared for each serially diluted tuberculosis H37Ra bacilli (1 x 10(7) bacilli/ml to 5 bacilli/ml). Slides for each dilution group were stained by ZN method, auramine-O and immunostaining methods using fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated anti-ES-31 serine protease antibody. ZN staining method showed efficacy for detection of M. tuberculosis H37Ra upto 1 x 10(4) bacilli/ml while auramine-O method showed upto 1 x 10(2) bacilli/ml. The presence of bacilli was indicated by green fluorescence on immunostaining using anti-ES-31 antibody conjugate and this method was effective upto 10 bacilli/ml. The slides which were negative for ZN (1 x 10(3) cells/ml) and auramine-O (100 cells/ml) method showed positivity on restaining with immunofluorescent staining method. The results of this preliminary study showed that immunofluorescent staining method using specific anti-ES-31 antibody conjugate was more sensitive for detection of tuberculosis bacilli than ZN and auramine-O methods in samples of laboratory strain. The utility of this method will be studied further in clinical specimens. PMID:21614896

Majumdar, Anindita; Wankhade, Gauri; Kamble, Pranita D; Joshi, Deepti; Harinath, B C

2011-04-01

206

Cultivating Cultural Appreciation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity that addresses cultural differences and diversity through ethnobotany. Offers a multicultural framework designed to develop concepts about plant characteristics and taxonomy. (ASK)

Esprivalo, Pamela Sue; Forney, Scott

2001-01-01

207

Darwinism and cultural change  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary models of cultural change have acquired an important role in attempts to explain the course of human evolution, especially our specialization in knowledge-gathering and intelligent control of environments. In both biological and cultural change, different patterns of explanation become relevant at different ‘grains’ of analysis and in contexts associated with different explanatory targets. Existing treatments of the evolutionary approach to culture, both positive and negative, underestimate the importance of these distinctions. Close attention to grain of analysis motivates distinctions between three possible modes of cultural evolution, each associated with different empirical assumptions and explanatory roles. PMID:22734059

Godfrey-Smith, Peter

2012-01-01

208

Darwinism and cultural change.  

PubMed

Evolutionary models of cultural change have acquired an important role in attempts to explain the course of human evolution, especially our specialization in knowledge-gathering and intelligent control of environments. In both biological and cultural change, different patterns of explanation become relevant at different 'grains' of analysis and in contexts associated with different explanatory targets. Existing treatments of the evolutionary approach to culture, both positive and negative, underestimate the importance of these distinctions. Close attention to grain of analysis motivates distinctions between three possible modes of cultural evolution, each associated with different empirical assumptions and explanatory roles. PMID:22734059

Godfrey-Smith, Peter

2012-08-01

209

Identification and characterization of a spore-like morphotype in chronically starved Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis cultures.  

PubMed

Mycobacteria are able to enter into a state of non-replication or dormancy, which may result in their chronic persistence in soil, aquatic environments, and permissive hosts. Stresses such as nutrient deprivation and hypoxia provide environmental cues to enter a persistent state; however, a clear definition of the mechanism that mycobacteria employ to achieve this remains elusive. While the concept of sporulation in mycobacteria is not novel, it continues to spark controversy and challenges our perceptions of a non-replication. We investigated the potential role of sporulation in one-year old broth cultures of Mycobacterium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). We show that dormant cultures of MAP contain a mix of vegetative cells and a previously unknown morphotype resembling a spore. These spore-like structures can be enriched for using sporulating media. Furthermore, purified MAP spore forms survive exposure to heat, lysozyme and proteinase K. Heat-treated spores are positive for MAP 16SrRNA and IS900. MAP spores display enhanced infectivity as well as maintain acid-fast characteristics upon germination in a well-established bovine macrophage model. This is the first study to demonstrate a new MAP morphotype possessing spore-like qualities. Data suggest that sporulation may be a viable mechanism by which MAP accomplishes persistence in the host and/or environment. Thus, our current understanding of mycobacterial persistence, pathogenesis, epidemiology and rational drug and vaccine design may need to be reevaluated. PMID:22292005

Lamont, Elise A; Bannantine, John P; Armién, Aníbal; Ariyakumar, Don Sanjiv; Sreevatsan, Srinand

2012-01-01

210

Cultural aspects of suicide.  

PubMed

Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies. PMID:16155688

Maharajh, Hari D; Abdool, Petal S

2005-09-01

211

Bone marrow aspiration, biopsy, and culture in the evaluation of HIV-infected patients for invasive mycobacteria and histoplasma infections.  

PubMed

Bone marrow (BM) aspiration and biopsy are used commonly in clinical practice to diagnose invasive tissue infections caused by Mycobacterium avium intracellulare (MAC), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB), and Histoplasma capsulatum (HC) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) infection. However, the value of these invasive procedures relative to other diagnostic approaches has not been clearly defined. To determine the value of BM culture and BM histology in the diagnosis of opportunistic MAC/TB and HC infections in immunosuppressed patients with HIV, we retrospectively reviewed the records of 56 adult patients with HIV who underwent a single BM aspiration, biopsy, and culture because of unexplained fever and/or other clinical features suggestive of MAC/TB or HC infection. Thirty-two patients (57%) were ultimately diagnosed with MAC/TB or HC infection by positive cultures of BM, blood, sputum, or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or by the histologic detection of organisms in biopsies of BM or other tissues. The diagnostic sensitivity of BM cultures was equal to that of blood cultures (20/32, or 63%). Granuloma and/or histologically apparent organisms were seen in BM biopsy specimens in 11 of 32 individuals (34%) ultimately diagnosed with MAC/TB or HC infections. Among these 11 cases, both granuloma and acid-fast staining organisms were found in the BM biopsy specimens of 2 individuals for whom both BM and blood cultures were negative. Certain clinical symptoms and signs at the time of BM examination were found by logistic regression analysis to be significantly associated with a subsequent diagnosis of MAC/TB or HC infections; these included high fever, long duration of febrile days prior to BM examination, and elevated direct bilirubin. In conclusion, while the diagnostic sensitivity of BM cultures was found to be no greater than that of blood cultures in detecting MAC/TB or HC infections in immunosuppressed HIV+ patients, histopathologic examination of BM specimens resulted in the relatively rapid identification of nearly one third of infected patients who underwent BM examination, and also identified infections in some patients who were culture negative. These findings support the continued use of BM aspiration, biopsy, and culture for the diagnosis of opportunistic MAC/TB or HC infections in immunosuppressed HIV+ patients, particularly when selected clinical features are present. PMID:11343381

Akpek, G; Lee, S M; Gagnon, D R; Cooley, T P; Wright, D G

2001-06-01

212

East Asian Languages & Cultures Program Department of Religion & Culture  

E-print Network

East Asian Languages & Cultures Program Department of Religion & Culture Tenure-Track Assistant Professor in Chinese Culture The East Asian Languages & Cultures Program at the University of Winnipeg culture. The successful candidate will have strong research potential, and will be expected to teach

Martin, Jeff

213

Rapid detection of mycobacteria in clinical specimens by using the automated BACTEC 9000 MB system and comparison with radiometric and solid-culture systems.  

PubMed

Recovery rates of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and the mean time to their detection from clinical specimens were determined by using the fluorescent BACTEC 9000 MB system. Data were compared to those assessed by the radiometric BACTEC 460 system and by cultivation on solid media. A total of 3,095 specimens were processed with N-acetyl-L-cysteine-NaOH by two laboratories. The contamination rates for the BACTEC 9000 MB system were 6.8% (center 1) and 9.8% (center 2). A total of 451 mycobacterial isolates were detected (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, n = 296; nontuberculous mycobacteria [NTM], n = 155). These isolates originated from 94 (20.8%) smear-positive and 357 (79.2%) smear-negative specimens. The BACTEC 9000 MB system was significantly better than solid media (P < 0.05) in detecting AFB, but it was less efficient than the radiometric system (P < 0.01). The BACTEC 9000 MB system plus solid media (combination A) recovered 393 (87.1%) of the isolates, while the BACTEC 460 system plus solid media (combination B) detected 430 (95.3%) of all AFB isolates. Between combination A and B there was no statistically significant difference for the detection of isolates from smear-positive specimens (P > 0.05), in contrast to the recovery of AFB from smear-negative specimens for M. tuberculosis complex, P < 0.05; for NTM, P < 0.01). The mean time to detection of M. tuberculosis complex was 12.2 days for smear-positive specimens and 18.1 days for smear-negative specimens with the BACTEC 9000 MB system; 9.3 and 15.6 days, respectively, with the BACTEC 460 system; and 21.2 and 28.4 days, respectively, with solid media. For NTM, the average detection times were 15.1, 17.3, and 31.3 days by the three methods, respectively. In conclusion, the BACTEC 9000 MB system is a rapid, less labor-intensive detection system which allows for higher levels of recovery of AFB than solid media. There is no risk of cross contamination, which is known to be the case for the BACTEC 460 system, and data management is greatly facilitated. As a whole, however, the BACTEC 9000 MB system should only be used in conjunction with solid media. PMID:9276393

Pfyffer, G E; Cieslak, C; Welscher, H M; Kissling, P; Rüsch-Gerdes, S

1997-09-01

214

Complexity in Cultural Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite their diverse national backgrounds, 28 interviewees speak similarly about the complexity of the cultural realities with which they live, and refuse to be pinned down to specific cultural types. While nation is of great importance, unless personally inspiring, it tends to be an external force which is in conflict with a wide variety of…

Holliday, Adrian

2010-01-01

215

Building Culturally Responsive Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a variety of culturally responsive approaches and activities so as to better know and understand our students' diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. These methods will not only help to make more equitable classrooms where we make meaningful connections with our students--but also yield useful data so as to inform our…

Polleck, Jody; Shabdin, Shirin

2013-01-01

216

The Popular Culture Explosion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Popular culture is defined here as anything produced by and/or dissembled by the mass media or mass production or transportation, either directly or indirectly, and that reaches the majority of the people. This sampler from mass magazines, intended for use in the study of popular culture, includes fiction from "Playboy"; articles on cars, Johnny…

Browne, Ray B.; Madden, David

217

Why Youth Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses youth culture and raises concerns about the tricky social terrain modernity offers for youth identity. He discusses familiar "topoi" or thematics that seem to drive most work on youth culture, suggests that justice and fairness are moral imperatives, and that acknowledging the worthiness of difference is one…

Cintron, Ralph

2010-01-01

218

RACE, LANGUAGE AND CULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This course explores the relationship between humans and space. In particular, the course addresses the mental organization of spatial knowledge and highlights universal patterns that generate cultural and individual realizations of that knowledge. We will also examine how culture shapes ways of organizing and using space in daily and ritual behavior. Special emphasis will be devoted to linguistic diversity and

Franz Boas

1941-01-01

219

International Students & Cultural Adjustment  

E-print Network

The Challenge of International Students: Managing Acculturative Stress Acculturative Stress is that state-cultural adjustment. Image via freedigitalphotos.net 2 #12;9/23/2010 3 Sources of Acculturative Stress · Lack educational background and expectations of host/new culture. Attitudes toward acculturation and level

Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha

220

Introduction to Cambodian Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet about the cultural background of Cambodia is one of three booklets that serve as a foundation for understanding the cultural diversity and values of Cambodian, Laotian, and Vietnamese students. Cambodia, or Kampuchea, has a population of about 7,000,000 and is located in mainland Southeast Asia. Its history is divided into the…

Chhim, Sun-Him

221

Introduction to Vietnamese Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet about the cultural background of Vietnam is one of three booklets that serve as a foundation for understanding the cultural diversity and values of Cambodian, Laotian, and Vietnamese students. Vietnam is located on the eastern coast of the Indochinese peninsula and has a population of 56 million. Its history is divided into the…

Te, Huynh Dinh

222

Cultural Collage Paintings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes a cultural collage painting project. Three things served as the impetus for this project: (1) a desire for students to explore the theme of "culture"; (2) an appreciation for the photo-montaged, layered images one sees in print media; and (3) noticing that projects from core subject areas hanging on the walls…

Coy, Mary

2011-01-01

223

New Cultures and Economies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Don Slater, Department of Sociology, University of London, shares interdisciplinary research in economic sociology at the New Cultures and Economies site. Readers may download extensive bibliographies on consumer culture and market society topics in Word97 or .zip formats or browse course pages online, and the Sociology of the Internet section, now in progress, aims to create dialogues among scholars of electronic media.

224

Developing Culturally Competent Organizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special issue examines multicultural aspects of services provided by agencies concerned with children's mental health. The lead article is titled "Developing Culturally Competent Organizations" by James L. Mason. This article uses the cultural competence model to discuss an organization's self-evaluation and its planning in the areas of…

Focal Point, 1994

1994-01-01

225

Our People, Our Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With Liverpool approaching the end of its year as the 2008 European Capital of Culture, many of the residents in the city involved in promoting arts events have been so busy doing just that, that they have scarcely had time to stop and ask themselves what this thing called "culture" has meant in this special year. Have their efforts over the past…

Biggs, Bryan

2008-01-01

226

Pop Culture in America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of today's popular culture, its place in American life, and its merit or lack of it are the themes of these essays from "The New York Times Magazine." Introductory essays discuss the use of leisure time, paying the cost of the arts, and whether American society can be considered "cultured." Subsequent essays discuss the nature of radio…

White, David Manning, Ed.

227

Cultural competence in hospice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research shows that ethnic minorities access hospice care significantly less often than Caucasians. In part, this has been attributed to the lack of cultural competence among hospice staff. To assess cultural competence among hospice workers, this article evaluates the results of a descriptive, exploratory survey that was submitted to 125 interdisciplinary hospice employees and completed by 113 of those employees.

Ardith Z. Doorenbos; Stephanie Myers Schim

2004-01-01

228

Culturally Sensitive Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives a working definition of culture and describes a training program for Canadian Indians designed to reinforce and clarify their cultural identity while developing marketable skills. The main features of the program are consultation with community leaders and participation of trainees in goal-setting and training design. (SK)

Batdorf, Luke L.

1980-01-01

229

Anaerobic thermophilic culture system  

DOEpatents

A mixed culture system of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC31550 and the microorganism Clostridium thermocellum ATCC31549 is described. In a mixed nutrient culture medium that contains cellulose, these microorganisms have been coupled and cultivated to efficiently ferment cellulose to produce recoverable quantities of ethanol under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions.

Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Wiegel, Jurgen K. W. (Gottingen, DE)

1981-01-01

230

Culture, Conflict, and Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the end of the 20th century, culture and cultural identity became key elements in ethno- political conflicts. In traditional scholarship the origins of conflicts were located in the unequal distribution of wealth, unequal access to resources, status and power. The roots of ethnic violence and acts of terrorism, however, can only partly be explained in terms of external conditions.

Günter Bierbrauer

231

Finnish Science and Culture[.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue serves as a package of information for foreigners about Finnish science and culture and about international cooperation in these fields. It contains a speech on security and cooperation in Europe and articles on the university in an international world, the Academy of Finland, information activity in cultural studies, and activities of…

Numminen, Jaakko; And Others

1985-01-01

232

Women and Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue examines the implications of culture on gender and development work. The power of culture is of profound importance in understanding ourselves, others, gender relations and development. The twelve essays address some aspects of gender relations and the power structure of society. Chapters include: (1) "Editorial" (Caroline Sweetman);…

Sweetman, Caroline, Ed.

1995-01-01

233

Cultural Awareness for Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book documents a portion of The Learning Tree program, which develops cultural awareness. It provides activities, written from practical experience, that are designed to give children their first contact with the customs of other cultures. These activities are for teachers to share with preschool-, kindergarten-, and primary-school-age…

Allen, Judy; And Others

234

Culturally Responsive Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ethnic and cultural makeup of classrooms is changing rapidly, the percentage of school children of color is increasing, and the percentage of teachers of color is declining. This paper examines the challenge of preparing primarily white, middle-class teachers to create culturally responsive classrooms for all children. Teacher education…

Mosher, Darlean A.; Sia, Archibald P.

235

Teaching Languages, Teaching Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers examines what it means to teach culture as an integrated part of language from both the language learner's and the language teacher's perspectives. The 11 papers include the following: "Teaching Cultures as an Integrated Part of Language: Implications for the Aims, Approaches and Pedagogies of Language Teaching" (Chantal…

Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Crozet, Chantal, Ed.

236

One School, Many Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report grows out of a symposium focusing on Education and Cultural and Linguistic Pluralism (ECALP), a project of enquiry of the international Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI). The report aims to clarify trends in multicultural education, and to examine the effects of cultural and linguistic development on educational…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

237

Learning Cultures in Further Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the nature of learning cultures in English Further Education (FE), as revealed in the Transforming Learning Cultures in FE (TLC) research project. In it, we describe four characteristics of a generic FE learning culture: the significance of learning cultures in every site; the significance of the tutor in influencing site learning cultures; the often negative impact of

Phil Hodkinson; Graham Anderson; Helen Colley; Jenny Davies; Kim Diment; Tony Scaife; Mike Tedder; Madeleine Wahlberg; Eunice Wheeler

2007-01-01

238

Culturally-Sensitive Learning Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In today's global world, to provide meaningful education, teacher-librarians and their students need to become culturally competent: open to learning about other cultures and sharing one's own culture, able to change personal perspectives, and able to communicate effectively across cultures. Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions provides a…

Farmer, Lesley S. J.

2010-01-01

239

Aging, culture, and cognition.  

PubMed

There is evidence that East Asians are biased to process information in a holistic, contextual fashion, whereas Western Europeans process information in an analytic, feature-based style. We argue that these cultural differences in information-processing styles are so pervasive that they affect cognitive function at the most basic levels, including the mechanics of cognition. However, as individual age, it is not always the case that culture effects on cognitive processes magnify, despite many additional years of exposure to the culture. Neurobiological decline in cognitive function that occurs with age is a cognitive universal and can limit the strategies used in late adulthood, resulting in more similarity in cognitive function in late adulthood across cultures than is observed in young adulthood. We present a theoretical framework for understanding the impact of aging on cognitive function cross-culturally. The importance of developing culture-invariant measures of processing resources is emphasized and methodological issues associated with the cross-cultural study of aging are addressed. PMID:10097769

Park, D C; Nisbett, R; Hedden, T

1999-03-01

240

Analysis of culture filtrate and cell wall-associated antigens of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis with monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed Central

Proteins secreted by Mycobacterium species have been suggested as major immune targets in the early phase of infection. In this study, we sought to identify specific antigens in culture filtrates and in soluble cell extracts of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. The release of antigens into the culture medium during growth of the bacilli and the distribution of specific epitopes within the Mycobacterium species were investigated by immunoblot analysis with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised against M. paratuberculosis antigens. MAb B6A interacted with a cellular antigen with an apparent molecular mass of 34.5 kDa in lysates of M. paratuberculosis. MAb B6A did not interact with lysates from any other mycobacterial species, suggesting recognition of an M. paratuberculosis species-specific epitope. MAb FL1-A1 reacted with an antigen of 44.3 kDa in M. paratuberculosis and a 9-kDa antigen in Mycobacterium kansasii. MAb PII-B1 reacted with concanavalin A (ConA)-binding cellular and filtrate molecules of M. paratuberculosis and with lysates of Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium avium 18. The affinity-purified glycosylated antigens migrated as a diffuse band of between 35 and 45.6 kDa and reacted strongly with ovine and bovine paratuberculosis serum and polyclonal serum against M. tuberculosis lipoarabinomannan antigens. These glycoconjugates were the earliest antigens detected in culture filtrates of M. paratuberculosis. Deglycosylation of the ConA-binding molecules with alpha-mannosidase enzyme abolished the reaction with MAb PII-B1 and with bovine but not ovine paratuberculosis serum, suggesting selective immunogenicity in the different animal species. PMID:9009287

Mutharia, L M; Moreno, W; Raymond, M

1997-01-01

241

Histopathology and genotyping in infectious spondylitis of HIV- and HIV+ patients.  

PubMed

Approximately 2 million South Africans are HIV/TB coinfected, and many develop skeletal disease. The resurgence of spinal tuberculosis, including atypical forms, is due largely to HIV-associated immune suppression. We investigated the impact of HIV coinfection on the histological features of the disease and the occurrence of atypical opportunistic organisms in infectious spondylitis in an HIV/TB endemic region. We analyzed blood and tissue biopsies from 60 patients with tuberculous spondylitis. Investigations included full blood counts, CD4/CD8 counts, HIV-1 serology and RNA quantification (tissue and plasma), acid-fast bacilli localization and routine TB culture, histopathologic evaluation of biopsies, and bacterial genotyping using the 16S rDNA gene. Twenty-two patients (37%) were HIV positive with a mean age of 29 years (range, 2-65 years). Forty-one (68%) tissue specimens were culture negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), although nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) were identified in three HIV-negative patients. Histopathologic features were characteristic of TB infection in 91.4% of all specimens tested and 100% of the HIV-infected group. Genotyping of 10 culture-positive isolates identified Mtb (3/10), NTMs (2/10), and environmental bacilli (3/10). Our observations suggest HIV-induced immune suppression impacts the histological and clinical features of infectious spondylitis but has no impact on the incidence of NTMs in this setting. PMID:17471104

Danaviah, S; Govender, S; Cassol, S

2007-07-01

242

Phylogenetic Diversity of Gram-Positive Bacteria Cultured from Marine Sediments? †  

PubMed Central

Major advances in our understanding of marine bacterial diversity have been gained through studies of bacterioplankton, the vast majority of which appear to be gram negative. Less effort has been devoted to studies of bacteria inhabiting marine sediments, yet there is evidence to suggest that gram-positive bacteria comprise a relatively large proportion of these communities. To further expand our understanding of the aerobic gram-positive bacteria present in tropical marine sediments, a culture-dependent approach was applied to sediments collected in the Republic of Palau from the intertidal zone to depths of 500 m. This investigation resulted in the isolation of 1,624 diverse gram-positive bacteria spanning 22 families, including many that appear to represent new taxa. Phylogenetic analysis of 189 representative isolates, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence data, indicated that 124 (65.6%) belonged to the class Actinobacteria while the remaining 65 (34.4%) were members of the class Bacilli. Using a sequence identity value of ?98%, the 189 isolates grouped into 78 operational taxonomic units, of which 29 (37.2%) are likely to represent new taxa. The high degree of phylogenetic novelty observed during this study highlights the fact that a great deal remains to be learned about the diversity of gram-positive bacteria in marine sediments. PMID:17400789

Gontang, Erin A.; Fenical, William; Jensen, Paul R.

2007-01-01

243

Comparison of culture and microscopy in the diagnosis of Gardnerella vaginalis infection.  

PubMed

A comparison was made between human blood agar containing amphotericin B, nalidixic acid and either gentamicin or colistin for the isolation of Gardnerella vaginalis from cases of non-specific vaginitis seen in a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases. The medium containing gentamicin was more inhibitory for non-Gardnerella species, but not sufficiently inhibitory to allow direct plating in the clinic without spreading for single colonies. The diffuse beta haemolysis produced by G vaginalis on human, but not on horse blood agar, proved very useful in differentiating it from other vaginal organisms and was not affected by the antibiotics used. This characteristic, together with Gram stain morphology, oxidase and catalase, provides a simple, reliable methods of identifying G vaginalis. Sixty women with symptoms of vaginitis, in whom no other pathogen was isolated, were examined by culture and microscopy. Gardnerella vaginalis was grown from 45 whereas only 31 had positive microscopy (clue cells or Gram-variable bacilli). There was no significant difference between the rate of isolation of G vaginalis in the group with positive microscopy (25/31) and that with negative microscopy (20/31). PMID:6979558

Ison, C A; Dawson, S G; Hilton, J; Csonka, G W; Easmon, C S

1982-05-01

244

Cultural Anthropology Scholars Awards  

NSF Publications Database

... who are active researchers. The purpose is to help cultural anthropologists upgrade their ... the FastLane Help Desk at 1-800-673-6188 or e-mail fastlane@nsf.gov. The FastLane Help Desk answers ...

245

Nature/Culture/Seawater  

E-print Network

This essay considers seawater as a substance and symbol in anthropological and social theory. Seawater has occupied an ambiguous place with respect to anthropological categories of nature and culture. Seawater as nature ...

Helmreich, Stefan

246

Chinese Culture and Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

Wong, Kam-Cheung

2001-01-01

247

Cultural Astronomy in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

Renshaw, Steven L.

248

Cultivating Cultural Appreciation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The interdisciplinary activities described in this article require students to study various ethnic groups and cultures within a context of ethnobotany, which is the study of how people use plants. Students engage in perspective taking, learn to appreciat

Forney, Pamela S.

2001-03-01

249

Pleural culture (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... and sent to the labarotory for testing. The sample pleural fluid is placed on culture plates containing growth media. When colonies of microorganisms have reached sufficient size, a series of biochemical tests can be performed ...

250

Rapid sampling culture chamber.  

PubMed Central

An all-glass chamber for culturing anaerobic and aerobic bacteria in liquid medium is described. The system permits both rapid sampling and turbidimetric measurements under controlled atmospheric conditions. PMID:350159

Carey, A E; Schroeder, B W

1978-01-01

251

Cultural Entomology Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cultural Entomology Digest was published in four issues from 1993 to 1997. All issues are available online. More than 30 short articles on the use of insects in human culture are presented, covering a wide variety of fascinating topics from butterflies in mythology to insects in psychiatry to the use of beetles as religious symbols. The articles are both informative and entertaining, and are written by recognized authorities.

0002-11-30

252

Comparison of Three PCR Primer Sets for Identification of vanB Gene Carriage in Feces and Correlation with Carriage of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci: Interference by vanB-Containing Anaerobic Bacilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the sensitivities and specificities of three previously described PCR primers on enrichment broth cultures of feces for the accurate detection of fecal carriage of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). In addition, we investigated specimens that were vanB PCR positive but VRE culture negative for the presence of other vanB-containing pathogens. Feces from 59 patients (12 patients carrying vanB Enterococcus faecium

S. A. Ballard; E. A. Grabsch; P. D. R. Johnson; M. L. Grayson

2005-01-01

253

Astronomy and Culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is, by definition, the sum of the material and spiritual values created by mankind and of the institutions necessary to communicate these values. Consequently, astronomy belongs to the culture of each society and its scientific progress does nothing but underline its role in culture. It is interesting that there is even a European society which bears this name "Astronomy for Culture" (SEAC). Its main goal is "the study of calendric and astronomical aspects of culture". Owning ancient evidence of astronomical knowledge, dating from the dawn of the first millennium, Romania is interested in this topic. But Astronomy has a much deeper role in culture and civilization. There are many aspects that deserve to be discussed. Examples? The progress of astronomy in a certain society, in connection with its evolution; the place held by the astronomy in literature and, generally, in art; the role of the SF in the epoch of super-mediatization; astronomy and belief; astronomy and astrology in the modern society, and so forth. These are problems that can be of interest for IAU, but the most important one could be her educational role, in the formation of the culture of the new generation, in the education of the population for the protection of our planet, in the ensuring of a high level of spiritual development of the society in the present epoch.

Stavinschi, M.

2006-08-01

254

Changing our culture.  

PubMed

Today, a great challenge of our profession is to envision how we will deliver exemplary neurosurgical care in the future. To accomplish this requires anticipating how economic, political, and societal influences will affect our ability to provide the highest quality of patient care in an arena that will look increasingly different from today's world of medicine. Already, our profession is battling a relentless assault as numerous sectors implement change that impacts us and our community every day. Surviving this requires an effective strategy that will involve significant cultural change. To accomplish this, neurosurgery must take an honest look inward and then commit to being the agents of positive cultural change. Such a path will not be easy but should reap important benefits for all of neurosurgery and our patients. Several practical and proven strategies can help us to realize the rewards of changing our culture. Vital to this process is understanding that effecting behavioral change will increase the likelihood of achieving sustainable cultural change. Innovation and diversity are crucial to encourage and reward when trying to effect meaningful cultural change, while appreciating the power of a "Tipping Point" strategy will also reap significant benefits. As a profession, if we adopt these strategies and tactics we can lead our profession to proceed in improvement, and as individuals we can use the spirit that drove us into neurosurgery to become the agents of an enduring and meaningful cultural change that will benefit our patients and us. PMID:24559225

Benzil, Deborah L

2014-05-01

255

The Cultural Landscape Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is a cultural landscape? This website answers that question, and gives hundreds of wonderful examples for visitors to consider. The link "What are Cultural Landscapes?" explains to visitors that there are four types of cultural landscapes, and they also offer a brief definition of each one. They include "designed" which is intentionally laid according to design principles; "vernacular", where people have shaped the land by cultural patterns or activities; "ethnographic" which contain natural and cultural resources that the "associated people define as heritage resources" and the "historic site", which is self-evident. In order to view examples of cultural landscapes, visitors should click on the "What's Out There?" link to go to the database of the same name. There is a basic search function, as well as an "advanced search" that allow visitors to search by design type, such as "Plaza", "Parkway" or "Contemporary Earthwork" or by landscape style, such as "Italianate", "Mission Revival" or "Prairie Style". Most entries have photos, and some have more than one. Visitors should also check out "Abbott Park" for some glorious photos.

256

Brain Tuberculomas: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Introduction: An unusual incidence of tuberculosis in different parts of the body is called tuberculomas. The rate of brain tuberculosis is rare. Case Presentation: The following case of tuberculamas of the brain, presented by enhancing rings of meninges, is reported because of its rarity. It was a case of brain tuberculomas in a 15-year-old girl with primary symptoms of headache and general weakness, and no signs of primary pulmonary infection. Discussion: The subject underwent computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Microbiological tests (acid fast bacilli smear-AFB, and culture of biopsy specimen) were applied subsequently. According to the results, the problem was diagnosed as brain tuberculomas. After operation she was completely treated with anti-TB drugs. Although brain tuberculosis is rare, it was diagnosed on the basis of histopathology and the patient's successful response to anti-tuberculous drug treatment. PMID:25368795

Saleh, Maryam; Saeedi, Ali Asghar; Ali Pooran, Ali

2014-01-01

257

Paranasal sinus infection due to atypical mycobacteria in two patients with AIDS.  

PubMed

Atypical mycobacteria, which are common opportunistic pathogens in patients with AIDS, have not been previously implicated in the pathogenesis of paranasal sinus infections; we describe two such patients. Clinical and radiographic evidence of bilateral maxillary and ethmoid sinusitis was observed for one patient; his infection proved resistant to therapy with conventional antimicrobials and decongestants. Endoscopic ethmoid sinus biopsy yielded a specimen containing acid-fast bacilli (AFB) that were later identified as Mycobacterium kansasii. Antimycobacterial therapy had not resulted in amelioration of the sinusitis > 2 months later, at which time he died of cerebral toxoplasmosis. The second patient presented with a tender right frontotemporal soft-tissue mass; a computed tomogram disclosed that it extended through the frontal bone to the frontal sinus. Inflamed tissue debrided from the sinus contained AFB; cultures first yielded M. kansasii and later Mycobacterium avium complex. Bacteremia due to both organisms was also demonstrated. Infection progressed despite therapy. PMID:7803653

Naguib, M T; Byers, J M; Slater, L N

1994-10-01

258

[A case of pulmonary Mycobacterium gordonae infection progressed for no therapy].  

PubMed

A 68-year-old woman, who had been healthy until this event, presented with a complaint of productive cough since 2000. She went to a neighboring hospital because of bloody sputum in October 2001. Although chest radiograph showed abnormal findings then, she received only an expectorant and cough remedy. She consulted us complaining of dyspnea on exertion in April 2005. Chest radiograph revealed cavity formation, bronchiectasis and a nodular shadow, and her condition had deteriorated. Microbiologically, acid-fast bacilli were detected three times in the culture of sputum, and Mycobacterium gordonae was identified by the biochemical method. However, this Mycobacterium gordonae could not be identified by the DNA-DNA hybridization method. Our case also probably was considered to be a primary type pulmonary nontuberculous infection because of her clinical course. In addition, we recognized that pulmonary M. gordonae infection also worsens without the therapy. PMID:17554990

Konishi, Mitsuru; Uno, Kenji; Kasahara, Kei; Mori, Kei; Yoshimoto, Eiichiro; Maeda, Koichi; Mikasa, Keiichi

2007-05-01

259

Mycobacterial sepsis following intravesical instillation of bacillus Calmette-Guérin.  

PubMed

Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) administration for bladder cancer may lead to BCG dissemination in the compromised host. A case of a 63-year-old man with shock secondary to BCG sepsis is reported. The recognition and treatment of disseminated BCG infection are discussed. In addition to standard therapy for urosepsis, early therapy with steroids and coverage with antitubercular medications should be initiated for patients with this condition. In general, the author recommends that all febrile patients who have received BCG immunotherapy within three years, and who have no obvious source for their fever, have acid-fast bacilli blood cultures done for Mycobacterium bovis, and that these patients be admitted to the hospital for further evaluation. PMID:8808378

Garyfallou, G T

1996-02-01

260

Assessment of the BD MGIT TBc Identification Test for the Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in a Network of Mycobacteriology Laboratories  

PubMed Central

We evaluate the performance of the TBcID assay in a panel of 100 acid-fast bacilli cultures. Sixty-four isolates were TBcID positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), whereas 36 gave negative results. These included 28 nontuberculous mycobacteria, one nonmycobacterial isolate, one M. tuberculosis, and six M. bovis BCG strains. This corresponds to a sensitivity of 90.14%, specificity of 100%, and positive and negative predictive values of 100% and 80.55%, respectively. The test is rapid, easy to perform and interpret, and does not require sample preparation or instrumentation. However, a negative result does not exclude the presence of a strain belonging to MTBC, especially when mutations in mpb64 gene are present or some M. bovis BCG strains are isolated. The TBcID showed potential to assist in the identification of MTBC when the implementation and usage of molecular methods are often not possible, principally in resource-limited countries. PMID:24587985

Ramos, Jorge; Couto, Isabel; Narciso, Inácio; Coelho, Elizabeth; Viegas, Sofia

2014-01-01

261

Assessment of the BD MGIT TBc identification test for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in a network of mycobacteriology laboratories.  

PubMed

We evaluate the performance of the TBcID assay in a panel of 100 acid-fast bacilli cultures. Sixty-four isolates were TBcID positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), whereas 36 gave negative results. These included 28 nontuberculous mycobacteria, one nonmycobacterial isolate, one M. tuberculosis, and six M. bovis BCG strains. This corresponds to a sensitivity of 90.14%, specificity of 100%, and positive and negative predictive values of 100% and 80.55%, respectively. The test is rapid, easy to perform and interpret, and does not require sample preparation or instrumentation. However, a negative result does not exclude the presence of a strain belonging to MTBC, especially when mutations in mpb64 gene are present or some M. bovis BCG strains are isolated. The TBcID showed potential to assist in the identification of MTBC when the implementation and usage of molecular methods are often not possible, principally in resource-limited countries. PMID:24587985

Machado, Diana; Ramos, Jorge; Couto, Isabel; Cadir, Nureisha; Narciso, Inácio; Coelho, Elizabeth; Viegas, Sofia; Viveiros, Miguel

2014-01-01

262

Cutaneous atypical mycobacteriosis in a clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa).  

PubMed

A 16-yr-old male clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) was presented for lethargy and anorexia. A cutaneous abdominal mass extending from the pubis to just caudal to the xiphoid process was present. A biopsy revealed histologic lesions consistent with an atypical mycobacterial infection consisting of diffuse, severe, pyogranulomatous dermatitis and panniculitis, with clear vacuoles and 3-5 microm, intravacuolar, faintly eosinophilic, filamentous bacilli that stained positively with FiteFaraco modified acid-fast stain. The clouded leopard had biochemical findings suggestive of chronic renal failure and euthanasia was elected. Histological evaluation of tissues collected at postmortem examination revealed multicentric B-cell lymphoma involving the oral cavity, liver, spleen, and multiple lymph nodes, bilateral testicular seminomas, thyroid follicular cell adenoma, thyroid C cell adenoma, and biliary cystadenomas. Bacterial culture and molecular sequencing identified the causative agent of the cutaneous abdominal mass as belonging to the Mycobacterium fortuitum group. PMID:24063108

Cerveny, Shannon N S; Thompson, Michelle E; Corner, Sarah M; Swinford, Amy K; Coke, Rob L

2013-09-01

263

Orangutan Cultures and the Evolution of Material Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic variation in some aspects of chimpanzee behavior has been interpreted as evidence for culture. Here we document similar geographic variation in orangutan behaviors. Moreover, as expected under a cultural interpretation, we find a correlation between geographic distance and cultural difference, a correlation between the abundance of opportunities for social learning and the size of the local cultural repertoire, and

Carel P. van Schaik; Marc Ancrenaz; Gwendolyn Borgen; Birute Galdikas; Cheryl D. Knott; Ian Singleton; Akira Suzuki; Sri Suci Utami; Michelle Merrill

2003-01-01

264

What is Culture? Toward Common Understandings of Culture in HCI  

E-print Network

discussions and give motivation for searching common understandings of the term culture among HCI researchers. This is important since common understandings of culture would ensure similar intentions and interpretations amongWhat is Culture? Toward Common Understandings of Culture in HCI Anette Löfstrom ITC

Boyer, Edmond

265

The Cultural Conundrum: Cultural Literacy in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the potential pitfalls of exposing students from a non-Western culture, such as Thailand, to literature in English with its accompanying baggage of cultural references. Referencing Ed Hirsch, Jr.s, "Cultural Literacy--What Every American Needs to Know," the importance of cultural literacy as opposed to mere lexical literacy is…

Malone, Stephen

2002-01-01

266

HERE, THERE & EVERYWHERE Rock music, mass culture & the counter culture  

E-print Network

HERE, THERE & EVERYWHERE Rock music, mass culture & the counter culture Rock music has always been at odds with mass culture. It is at the same time one of its essential components and among its most vocal critics. Rock benefits from mass culture's economic framework and in return feeds it with its remarkable

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

267

Why Culture is Common, Cultural Evolution is Rare  

E-print Network

Why Culture is Common, but Cultural Evolution is Rare Robert Boyd Department of Anthropology University of California Davis, CA 95616 Keywords: Cultural evolution, social learning, dual inheritance or cite without the authors' permission. #12;SUMMARY If culture is defined as variation acquired

Richerson, Peter J.

268

156 Literary and Cultural Studies Literary and Cultural Studies  

E-print Network

156 · Literary and Cultural Studies Literary and Cultural Studies Advisory Committee: Knight Center), Joyce (English), Kennedy (English ), Lowry (English), MacGovern (History/American Studies), Mac). The program in Literary and Cultural Studies brings an interdis- ciplinary perspective to the study of culture

Lewis, Robert Michael

269

Family Counseling: Cultural Sensitivity, Relativism, and the Cultural Defense.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural sensitivity, cultural relativism, and the cultural defense are defined and described. Each concept is addressed in terms of its relationship to couple and family counseling. The role of counselor must be broadened and deepened to include the role of cultural broker. (Author/EMK)

May, Kathleen M.

1998-01-01

270

Cross Cultural and Intercultural Opportunities  

E-print Network

/Pacific American Cultural Center Black Student Services (1976) Black/African American Cultural Center Native American Student Services (1979) Native American Cultural Center El Centro Student Services (1976) El awareness programs that promote student success and retention. #12;Native American Cultural Center The four

Stephens, Graeme L.

271

Risk culture in financial organisations  

E-print Network

1 Risk culture in financial organisations: An interim report Simon Ashby, Tommaso Palermo and Michael Power November 2012 #12;2 Contents Acknowledgements 3 Executive Summary 4 Risk Culture: background 5-7 Risk Culture: our approach 7-11 Risk Culture: preliminary findings and ideas 11-18 What we hope

Fryzlewicz, Piotr

272

Adolescent Maturation in Transitioning Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a theoretical study of adolescent maturation within a cultural context. Personality development and disintegration due to the pressure of a dominant culture on a minority culture is considered. An attempt is made to understand how teachers might assist students to work out their psychological growth by story telling. The need for cultural

Mulroy, Kevin; Palacios, Anna; Reid, Robert E.

273

Communication Media in Ancient Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in early means of communication and in the uses and kinds of media that existed in ancient cultures is starting to grow among communication scholars. Conversation analysis of these cultures is obviously impossible, so that the emphasis must rest with material cultural artifacts. Many ancient cultures used non-verbal codes for dyadic…

Jabusch, David M.

274

CULTURAL WORK AND TRANSFORMATIVE ARTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The model of cultural work undertaken by the Amber Film and Photography Collective represents a radical challenge to the insecure and de-politicised world of cultural work that has long been the norm within the arts. Our paper, which explores the collective's diverse forms of cultural work, including paid labour, collective labour, gift labour and creative labour, argues that cultural work

John Vail; Robert G. Hollands

2012-01-01

275

How Culture Shock Affects Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper defines the term "culture shock" and discusses the changes that this state can make in a person's behavior. Culture shock refers to the emotional and physiological reaction of high activation that is brought about by sudden immersion in a new culture. Because one's own culture shields one from the unknown and reduces the need to make…

Barna, LaRay M.

276

Cultural competence in clinician communication  

PubMed Central

Objectives To define cultural competence. To understand the need for cultural competence. To understand the changing child demographics of the United States. To understand the process of becoming a more culturally competent clinician. To learn tools and techniques that help achieve cultural competence. PMID:19188301

Kodjo, Cheryl

2009-01-01

277

cultural history New perspectives on  

E-print Network

Making cultural history New perspectives on Western heritage Edited by Anna Källén nordic academic-08-26 15:54 #12;7 Making cultural history An introduction Anna Källén & Inga Sanner Cultural history tends academic circumstances, it is not the case with cultural history: much of its strength and analytical

278

Immunohistochemical analysis of cell composition and in situ cytokine expression in HIV- and non-HIV-associated tuberculous lymphadenitis.  

PubMed

Inflammatory cells in lymph nodes of eighteen patients suffering from culture-proven tuberculous lymphadenitis were examined by histological and immunohistochemical techniques. Ten patients suffered from symptomatic HIV-infection and eight patients were immunocompetent individuals without HIV-1 serology. Characteristic granulomas with or without caseation were observed in eight immunocompetent and four HIV-1-infected patients with less marked lymphopenia of CD4 positive peripheral blood lymphocytes. No epitheloid cell formation was present in lymph nodes of HIV1-infected patients with more severe depression of CD4 positive peripheral blood lymphocyte count. Foamy macrophages were found instead of these cells. While many cells--predominantly lymphocytes--express CD25 (IL-2 receptor) in cases with typical epitheloid granulomas there is no such CD25 expression in cases without any epitheloid cell formation. This result suggest that T cell function is necessary for epitheloid granuloma formation in human tuberculosis. The phenotype of macrophages underwent progressive changes parallel to decreasing numbers of CD4 positive peripheral blood lymphocytes. Foamy macrophages in Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection represented an end-stage phenotype. They were positive for S100 protein and they did not express lysozyme, alpha-1-anti-chymotrypsin, L1 antigen (Mac387) and CD4, whereas positivity for HLA-DR, CD68 and Ki-M8 was preserved. In situ immunohistochemical demonstration of IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, TNF-alpha, IL-1 and IL-6 revealed that foamy cells in M. tuberculosis infection were highly active effector cells. They contained higher concentrations of the examined cytokines than epitheloid cells in the lesions of HIV+ and HIV-patients. Corresponding to these findings the histological proof of acid-fast bacilli was generally not successful in typical HIV-associated tuberculosis. The foamy appearance may result from the lipid-rich cell membranes of destroyed acid-fast bacilli. In contrast acid-fast bacilli-packed foamy macrophages in AIDS patients with M. avium-intracellulare (MAI) infection did not produce any of the examined cytokines. PMID:7713549

Müller, H; Krüger, S

1994-10-01

279

Perfusion Based Cell Culture Chips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performing cell culture in miniaturized perfusion chambers gives possibilities to experiment with cells under near in vivo like conditions. In contrast to traditional batch cultures, miniaturized perfusion systems provide precise control of medium composition, long term unattended cultures and tissue like structuring of the cultures. However, as this chapter illustrates, many issues remain to be identified regarding perfusion cell culture such as design, material choice and how to use these systems before they will be widespread amongst biomedical researchers.

Heiskanen, A.; Emnéus, J.; Dufva, M.

280

Basics of Cell Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These manuals are used in the Stem Cell Culture Course at City College of San Francisco. This course is about general mammalian cell culture techniques but includes a laboratory exercise using stem cells (takes 3 weeks to complete). The course is taught to high school students but the materials are also used for college students. Laboratory exercises provide instruction in basic techniques of routine cell culture using common cell lines before progressing to differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. Photographs and explanations of common equipment (laminar flow hood, inverted microscope, etc.) and reagents are provided. Laboratory exercises include the following: Basic Aseptic Technique; Media Preparation; Plating cells from frozen stock; Cell counting and plating; Survival assay (UV); Live Cell Identification; Transfection; Freezing cells; Stem cell differentiation. A student lab manual and an instructor manual are provided.

Afshar, Golnar

281

Organizational Culture and Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

'..only a fool perseveres in error.' Cicero. Humans will break the most advanced technological devices and override safety and security systems if they are given the latitude. Within the workplace, the operator may be just one of several factors in causing accidents or making risky decisions. Other variables considered for their involvement in the negative and often catastrophic outcomes include the organizational context and culture. Many organizations have constructed and implemented safety programs to be assimilated into their culture to assure employee commitment and understanding of the importance of everyday safety. The purpose of this paper is to examine literature on organizational safety cultures and programs that attempt to combat vulnerability, risk taking behavior and decisions and identify the role of training in attempting to mitigate unsafe acts.

Adams, Catherine A.

2003-01-01

282

Culture and Cognitive Development: From Cross-Cultural Research to Creating Systems of Cultural Mediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author's intellectual movement over the past two decades, from cross-cultural experimental psychology to the cultural psychology of mediation of human activities and cognitive processes, is described in this paper. Productive use of the concept of culture in psychology entails conceptualization of the future and the past in the present, and taking a process-based look at human activities. Cultural mediation

Michael Cole

1995-01-01

283

Mass algal culture system  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and process for the culture of algae in a liquid medium is disclosed. The medium circulates through an open trough and is exposed to an atmosphere which is temperature regulated. The nutrient content of the liquid medium is regulated to control the chemical composition growth and reproduction characteristics of the cultured algae. Before it is allowed to strike the medium, sunlight is passed through a filter to remove wavelengths which are not photosynthetically active. Heat energy can be recovered from the filter.

Raymond, Lawrence P. (Richland, WA)

1981-01-01

284

Mass algal culture system  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and process for the culture of algae in a liquid medium is disclosed. The medium circulates through an open trough and is exposed to an atmosphere which is temperature regulated. The nutrient content of the liquid medium is regulated to control the chemical composition growth and reproduction characteristics of the cultured algae. Before it is allowed to strike the medium, sunlight is passed through a filter to remove wavelengths which are not photosynthetically active. Heat energy can be recovered from the filter.

Raymond, Lawrence P. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01

285

Mammalian Cell Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "Course-in-a-Box" from Bio-Link is a good starting point for instructors to develop a course on how to maintain mammalian cells in culture. Students will learn "basic techniques of routine cell culture using common cell lines before progressing to differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells." Laboratories include Basic Aseptic Technique, Media Preparation, and Plating Cells from Frozen Stock. Materials include an Instructor Laboratory Manual, Student Laboratory Manual, Problem Sets, and Quizzes. A free login is required to access the materials.

286

METABOLISM OF TISSUE CULTURES  

PubMed Central

By using radioactive isotopes in tissue cultures, the rate of permeation of substances into cells can be measured independently of concurrent metabolic reactions of these substances. Techniques of obtaining and analyzing data are described. Examples are given using radioactive potassium and phosphorus. Using cultures of chick embryo muscle, turnover time for cell potassium is 6 hours, and for cell inorganic phosphate is 7 hours in the examples cited. Permeability rates, based on estimates of the cell surface involved and expressed as millimoles per cm.2 per hour, are of the order of magnitude of 10–6 for potassium and of 10–7 for phosphate. PMID:19873432

Cohn, Waldo E.; Brues, Austin M.

1945-01-01

287

Cell-culture bioreactors  

SciTech Connect

When contrasted with microbial fermentation, the characteristics having a bearing on the design and operation of cell-culture bioreactors are fragility, steam sensitivity and anchorage requirements of cells, heat lability and foaming of proteins and other components of cell culture media. Design details of agitation and gas supply, bearings, seals and drives, foam control and sterilization, temperature, oxygen and pH control, water, air and gas purification, liquid feeding and level control, gas exhaust analysis and disposal, handling of liquid effluent and bioreactor installation and scale up are given.

Beck, C.; Stiefel, H.; Stinnett, T.

1987-02-16

288

Hydroponics or soilless culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Historically, hydroponics is not a new field; plant physiologists have known and used it for some 100 years. Inevitably, some enthusiasts got carried away.Claims were made of enormous potential yields; skyscraper tops were said to be capable of producing enough food for all of their occupants; and closets, basements, garages, etc. were wishfully converted into fields for hydroponic culture. Numerous publications on the subject appeared during this period. Basic requirements for hydropinc techniques are given along with examples of where soilless culture has been used commercially.

Chapman, H. D.

1963-01-01

289

Orangutan cultures and the evolution of material culture.  

PubMed

Geographic variation in some aspects of chimpanzee behavior has been interpreted as evidence for culture. Here we document similar geographic variation in orangutan behaviors. Moreover, as expected under a cultural interpretation, we find a correlation between geographic distance and cultural difference, a correlation between the abundance of opportunities for social learning and the size of the local cultural repertoire, and no effect of habitat on the content of culture. Hence, great-ape cultures exist, and may have done so for at least 14 million years. PMID:12511649

van Schaik, Carel P; Ancrenaz, Marc; Borgen, Gwendolyn; Galdikas, Birute; Knott, Cheryl D; Singleton, Ian; Suzuki, Akira; Utami, Sri Suci; Merrill, Michelle

2003-01-01

290

Cultural relativism and cultural diversity: implications for nursing practice.  

PubMed

This article examines the doctrine of cultural relativism in nursing practice. To introduce the issue, an overview of the intellectual history of cultural relativism is presented. The academic themes of the debate surrounding cultural relativism are illustrated with an example of the social controversy in France involving cultural relativism as used to defend the practice of female genital excision among immigrant communities. The dilemma faced by nursing in making cross-cultural judgments is then examined in the light of the academic and social debates. The article concludes with a theoretical resolution of the issue of cultural relativism for nursing practice that is based on hermeneutic philosophy. PMID:9266012

Baker, C

1997-09-01

291

Bacterial diversity from the source to the tap: a comparative study based on 16S rRNA gene-DGGE and culture-dependent methods.  

PubMed

This study aimed to assess the influence of water treatment and distribution on the bacterial communities with particular emphasis on tap water. Samples from the water treatment plant, the bulk supply distribution system and household taps, supplied by the same drinking water treatment plant, were analyzed using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Water treatment imposed alterations in the composition of the bacterial community, although this effect was more evident in the cultivable bacteria rather than among the total community assessed by 16S rRNA gene-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiling. Water disinfection, mainly chlorination, promoted a reduction on bacterial diversity and cultivability, with a shift in the pattern of cultivable bacteria from predominantly Gram-negative to predominately Gram-positive and acid-fast. Downstream of the chlorination stages, tap water, in comparison with raw water, presented higher diversity indices and cultivability percentages. From the source to the tap, members of the Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were the predominant lineages identified using 16S rRNA gene-DGGE analysis. Although with a lower coverage, the DGGE-based lineage identifications were in agreement with those found using 454-pyrosequencing analysis. Despite the effectiveness of water treatment to eliminate or inactivate most of the bacteria, Proteobacteria such as Acinetobacter, Bosea and Sphingomonadaceae may successfully colonize tap water. PMID:22938591

Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Egas, Conceição; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

2013-02-01

292

On Studying Organizational Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the values of the concepts of symbol, language, ideology, belief, ritual, and myth in understanding the creation of new cultures and in unraveling the related processes by which entrepreneurs give energy, purpose, and commitment to the organizations they are bringing into being. (Author/IRT)

Pettigrew, Andrew M.

1979-01-01

293

Exploring Cultures through Maps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First and second graders can understand that the African continent is made up of many countries and cultures, especially when teachers have maps, picture books, photographs, and artifacts on hand for them to explore. It is important for young students to develop an understanding of maps and how to use them. This article offers suggestions for…

Grady, Bev

2005-01-01

294

Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Institute for Aboriginal Development (IAD) is an Aboriginal-controlled language resource center and adult education center serving the Aboriginal communities of central Australia. Its activities include education programs, which range from literacy and numeracy to vocational and tertiary-level courses; an Aboriginal language and culture center…

Chee, Donna Ah; Maidment, Debra; Hayes-Hampton, Margie

295

Writing 302: Writing Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

WRT 302: Writing Culture is an upper-level elective in the Department of Writing and Rhetoric at the University of Rhode Island (URI). As part of a group of four 300-level courses, Writing 302 draws many junior and senior majors in Writing and Rhetoric, English, and other majors who are looking to add creativity and experience with design to their…

White-Farnham, Jamie

2012-01-01

296

Rebuilding a safety culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a culture of safety and NASA since the Challenger accident is reviewed. The technical elements of the strengthened NASA safety program are described, including problem reporting, risk\\/assessment\\/risk management, operational safety, and safety assurance are addressed. Future directions in the development of safety are considered.

George A. Rodney

1991-01-01

297

Rebuilding a safety culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a culture of safety and NASA since the Challenger accident is reviewed. The technical elements of the strengthened NASA safety program are described, including problem reporting, risk/assessment/risk management, operational safety, and safety assurance are addressed. Future directions in the development of safety are considered.

Rodney, George A.

1991-11-01

298

Rebuilding a safety culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a culture of safety and NASA since the Challenger accident is reviewed. The technical elements of the strengthened NASA safety program are described, including problem reporting, risk/assessment/risk management, operational safety, and safety assurance are addressed. Future directions in the development of safety are considered.

Rodney, George A.

1991-01-01

299

High-Stakes Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that state-mandated testing will not restore the teaching of common culture in public schools, since most schools teach test-related technical skills rather than a deep and shared understanding of literature, history, mathematics, science, and foreign language. Certain choice schools, unfettered by state testing requirements, may be the…

Steiner, David

2001-01-01

300

The animal cultures debate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent interest in animal cultures has been fuelled by high-profile reports of intra- and interpopulation differ- ences in the behavioural repertoires of primates and cetaceans, consistent with the existence of socially learned traditions. Several studies have mapped spatial differences in behaviour, revealing a mosaic of beha- vioural phenotypes within species. The dominant cur- rent approach attempts to determine whether this

Kevin N. Laland; Vincent M. Janik

2006-01-01

301

Rethinking Culture and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews three books that provide complementary and thought-provoking insights. The three books under review are: (1) "Reproducing class: education, neoliberalism, and the rise of the new middle class in Istanbul," by Henry J. Rutz and Erol M. Balkan; (2) "Technology, culture, family: influences on home life," by Elizabeth B. Silva; and…

Stambach, Amy

2012-01-01

302

The Culturally Responsive Teacher  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past three decades, the K-12 student population in the United States has become ethnically and linguistically diverse. Not so with the vast majority of teachers, who are generally white, middle class, and monolingual English speaking. Successfully teaching students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds requires a new way…

Villegas, Ana Maria; Lucas, Tamara

2007-01-01

303

Quality, Culture and Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education in South Africa has been grappling with the issue of quality assurance since the early 1990s. This paper investigates the relationships or tensions between quality, culture and change as a result of the introduction of quality assurance systems in higher education institutions in South Africa. The imperatives for the introduction…

Strydom, J. F.; Zulu, N.; Murray, L.

2004-01-01

304

Bridging the Two Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an undergraduate interdisciplinary program at Cornell University (New York) in the history and philosophy of science and technology. Serving as a meeting ground for the two cultures of science and the humanities, the concentration encourages students to examine the nature and place of science and technology in the modern world. (LS)

Turner, James S.

1989-01-01

305

Culture's Unacknowledged Iron Grip  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ideally, education provides mutual enrichment for professor and students. In this article, the author often fears that he is learning far more than his students are in a course on intercultural communication. Its real subject sometimes seems to be the iron grip of American culture upon his students. What is most fascinating is that the power of…

Engle, John

2007-01-01

306

Cross-Cultural HRD.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These five papers are from a symposium that was facilitated by David C. Bjorkquist on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD) at the 1995 Academy of Human Resource Development conference. "Developing Managers for Overseas Assignments in the Pacific Rim: A Study of International HRD Issues in Singapore" (A. Ahad M. Osman-Gani, Thian-Ser…

1995

307

Validating Culturally Diverse Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's model of education forces students to assimilate, to compete against each other, to think only in abstract complex ways, and to believe that cultural separation leads to academic power. For many minority and nontraditional students, this traditional model is inappropriate. It results in many first-generation students being told that they…

Rendon, Laura I.

308

World Cultures Grade 3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Grade 3 Standard2 Objective 1 Objective: Students will learn to identify elements of cultures in the seven different continents. Assignment: You have just been hired to be a travel agent. Your first customer wants to take a trip around a continent. To be a good travel agent ...

Ms. Shunn-Mitchell

2008-11-25

309

Capitalising culture: Liverpool 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the political, economic and social contexts of Liverpool's successful bid to become European Capital of Culture, 2008. It highlights the juxtaposition in the Liverpool 2008 process of discourses of urban entrepreneurialism and a strong emphasis on community involvement. While the bid is part of a wider shift in governance in the city that has helped reverse local

Paul Jones; Stuart Wilks-Heeg

2004-01-01

310

Requiem for Cultural Internationalism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews Mary Brown Bullock's 1980 book,"An American Transplant: The Rockefeller Foundation and Peking Union Medical College." Far more than a narrow, scholarly history, this book is a case study of the far-reaching cultural impact of international educational exchange efforts. (JDH)

Ninkovich, Frank

1986-01-01

311

Subjectivity and cultural critique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the many works that try to bring back ‘the actor’ in some sense, there is a tendency to avoid questions of subjectivity, that is, complex ‘structures of feeling’ (in Raymond Williams’s phrase). This article returns to the work of Max Weber and Clifford Geertz to consider various issues of subjectivity, including both fundamental existential anxieties, and specific cultural and

Sherry B. Ortner

2005-01-01

312

Ideology and cultural policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

By examining voting behavior in a referendum on the construction of a concert hall in Germany, I show that political ideology influences cultural policy. The results suggest that resistance to the concert hall was particularly strong in electoral districts in which majorities of citizens vote for the social democrats. By contrast, constituents of rightwing parties voted more in favor of

Niklas Potrafke

2010-01-01

313

California Cultural Crossroads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is designed for readers who have an interest in developing cultural community partnerships but who may not have an in-depth understanding of the concept or process. It provides a focus for partnership and joint venture discussions within agencies, community organizations or communities at large. Seven public library community…

Wong, Patricia M.; Francisco, Grace; Keller, Shelly G.

2007-01-01

314

Cultural and Linguistic Ambidexterity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It might sound like a no-brainer that being bilingual or multilingual helps students planning engineering and just about any other career. But it is certainly true and is becoming more important as the economies of nations become more intertwined. What's more, being able to go beyond mere language ability and understand cultural distinctions are…

Galuszka, Peter

2007-01-01

315

TEACHING THE CULTURALLY DIFFERENT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TEACHING PRACTICES USED SUCCESSFULLY AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL WITH CULTURALLY DEPRIVED CHILDREN ARE PRESENTED. STUDENTS SHOULD BE PROVIDED WITH OPPORTUNITIES THAT ALLOW FOR PARTICIPATION, ACHIEVEMENT, AND SUCCESS. THIS CAN BE DONE BY DIVERSIFYING LEARNING EXPERIENCES SO THAT STUDENTS OF ALL INTERESTS CAN DO THINGS THEY LIKE AND CAN DO WELL, BY…

MCCREARY, EUGENE

316

Plant Tissue Culture Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Plant tissue culture has developed into a valid botanical discipline and is considered a key area of biotechnology, but it has not been a key component of the science curriculum because of the expensive and technical nature of research in this area. This manual presents a number of activities that are relatively easy to prepare and perform. The…

Smith, Robert Alan

317

Reconciling Culture and Democracy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Those who study and propose policy for dealing with the non-Western world are advised to balance their urge to modernize with an appreciation for indigenous social and cultural differences. Equilibrium is important, writes Stanley Kurd, yet the leftists who dominate social sciences have largely abandoned such an appreciation, as have…

Kurtz, Stanley

2003-01-01

318

Culture and Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Representing a refereed selection of papers from the 1994 JALT Kansai Conference, this collection of 25 papers contains formal presentations, teaching experiences, research projects, and ideas for effective teaching. The papers and their authors are, as follows: (1) "Culturally Influenced Communication Patterns: Overview, Implications and…

Kitao, Kenji, Ed.; And Others

319

Mammalian Cell Culture Simplified.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A tissue culture experiment that does not require elaborate equipment and that can be used to teach sterile technique, the principles of animal cell line maintenance, and the concept of cell growth curves is described. The differences between cancerous and normal cells can be highlighted. The procedure is included. (KR)

Moss, Robert; Solomon, Sondra

1991-01-01

320

Leisure and Cultural Complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early 1980s, the first author (Chick) was the University of Illinois representative to the Human Relations Area Files (HRAF), Inc. At an HRAF meeting in New Haven, Mel Ember recommended the examination of leisure, or aspects of leisure, against a backdrop of cultural complexity because “it correlates with everything.” For its part, leisure has been understudied in time

Garry Chick; Xiangyou Sharon Shen

2011-01-01

321

Race and Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

To sum up our findings regarding race: Potential function is as important as actual accomplishment and can not be left out of the reckoning. Though races differ in accomplishment this difference is not constant through the centuries. It fluctuates as the culture life of neighbors changes, and independently of changes in the physical type of the group in question. If

Wilson D. Wallis

1926-01-01

322

Public Knowledge Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article first reviews claims for the knowledge economy in terms of excludability, rivalry, and transparency indicating the way that digital goods behave differently from other commodities. In the second section it discusses the theory of "public knowledge cultures" starting from the primacy of practice based on Marx, Wittgenstein and…

Peters, Michael A.; Besley, A. C.

2006-01-01

323

Cultural Policy in Poland. Studies and Documents on Cultural Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of cultural policy in Poland, prepared for UNESCO, is one of a series showing how cultural policies are planned and implemented in member states. The dual traditions of the ready assimilation of European elements into Polish culture and Poland's determination to maintain a national identity throughout 123 years of partition are presented…

Balicki, Stanislaw Witold; And Others

324

Raskar, Camera Culture, MIT Media Lab Camera Culture  

E-print Network

Raskar, Camera Culture, MIT Media Lab Camera Culture Ramesh Raskar Computational Light Transport Computational Photography Inverse problems MIT Media Lab Ramesh Raskar http://raskar.info raskar@mit.edu #12;MIT CultureCreating new ways to capture and share visual information MIT Media Lab Ramesh Raskar http

325

Cultural Policy in Israel. Studies and Documents on Cultural Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of cultural policy in Israel, prepared for UNESCO, is one of a series of booklets to show how cultural policies are planned and implemented in various countries. The series provides a guide to these countries which have yet to establish cultural policies to help them profit from past experiences. The historical background of Israel's…

Michman, Jozeph

326

Managing Culture--Making Culture Work for You  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An understanding of culture in organisations can offer insights into individual and group behaviour, and leadership. It can help to explain not just what happens in an organisation, but why it happens. However, many people are concerned not just with understanding culture, and hence organisational life. They see culture as something to be…

National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006

2006-01-01

327

Cultural Consumption of History and Popular Culture in Alternative Spiritualities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some practices in alternative spiritualities - for example, New Age and neopaganism - have been criticized by social commentators and some indigenous people for their appropriation of indigenous cultures, such as those of Australian Aborigines and North American Indians. This article argues that appropriation is not limited to indigenous cultures but is part of a larger phenomenon, that of cultural

Adam Possamaï

2002-01-01

328

Cultural Network Analysis: A Cognitive Approach to Cultural Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this chapter is to describe a rigorous, end-to-end methodology for modeling culture as networks of ideas that are distributed among members of a population. The method, Cultural Network Analysis (CNA), represents an interdisciplinary synthesis of techniques drawn from the fields of cognitive anthropology, cultural and cognitive psychology, naturalistic decision making, and decision analysis. CNA is used to

Winston R. Sieck; Louise J. Rasmussen; Paul R. Smart

329

Transformation 1 - Plant Tissue Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explains the technique of tissue culture as used in plant transformation. It discusses important issues, such as the use of selectable markers, genotype specificity, and tissue culture alternatives.

330

Time Reference in Different Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses time references in Russian- and English-speaking cultures by means of Russian translation variants of works by twentieth-century English-language writers. Suggests the different attitudes toward time as manifested by these two distinct cultures. (HB)

Khairullin, Vladimir

1993-01-01

331

Tissue Culture in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attempts to simulate normal tissue micro-environments in vitro have been thwarted by the complexity and plasticity of the extracellular matrix, which is important in regulating cytoskeletal and nuclear matrix proteins. Gravity is one of the problems, tending to separate components that should be kept together. For space shuttle experiments, NASA engineers devised a double-walled rotating bioreactor, which is proving to be a useful tissue culture device on earth as well as in space.

Pellis, Neal R.; Duray, Paul H.; Hatfill, Steven J.

1997-01-01

332

Art and Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interesting and visually appealing site links to a variety of resources related to the visual arts, performing arts, design, literature, music, and film. From the main page, visitors can access the Arts or Culture sections or go directly to a number of Arts entries (e.g., literary theory, industrial design, jazz, photography, etc.) listed in six categories: Design Art, Film, Literature, Music, Performing Arts, and Visual Arts. In the main Arts sections, users can browse these same categories or perform a keyword search for artists or movements. For instance, a search for "dada" resulted in initial returns under design, theater, and art. The full listing under art included a brief description of the Dada movement, a few annotated links, and links to related artists and keywords. It also offered a "Cloud" of moving terms and artists that represent the "context of an artist or a movement." Clicking on any of the words brings that word to the center and also displays the respective entry from the index. The Culture section of the site is somewhat different and most definitely the weaker of the two, with links to travel, food, sports, festivals, and other cultural information, organized by region. The section also offers some world cams and a feature on visual culture, though the latter was not working at time of review. Note: Mac users should heed the site's warning to update their Flash and Shockwave plug-ins if need be, as the site may crash their browser if they don't have the most current versions.

333

Cultural Memories: An Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The revival of public and scholarly interest in collective cultural memories since the 1980s has been a genuinely global phenomenon\\u000a and is somewhat paradoxical. Memory is a form of temporal awareness more readily associated with traditional, nonindustrialized\\u000a societies rather than with the globalized, mobile, and deracinated world of today, which ostensibly floats free of all historical\\u000a moorings, disconnected from earlier

Peter Meusburger; Michael Heffernan; Edgar Wunder

334

International cultural immersion: en vivo reflections in cultural competence.  

PubMed

A baccalaureate nursing program developed and implemented an international cultural immersion course in Guatemala to explore the impact of cultural immersion on student nurses' cultural competence. This qualitative descriptive study generated data through in-depth interviews and en vivo reflective journals. The three themes: Navigating daily life, Broadening the lens, and Making a difference, revealed an expanded context and worldview of culture. International service learning seemed to pervade all aspects of the students' experience. Exercises in participant-observation and reflective writing could enhance student self-awareness and their ability to benefit from a cultural immersion course. PMID:20586365

Larson, Kim L; Ott, Melissa; Miles, Jane M

2010-01-01

335

TOWARD AN ENRICHED CULTURAL FUTURE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

DEVELOPMENT OF INTEREST IN WORTHWHILE CULTURAL ACTIVITIES HAS BEEN ONE OF IMPORTANT EMPHASES OF THE HIGH HORIZONS PROGRAM. THE CULTURAL ENRICHMENT TEACHER HAS HAD THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR TEACHING MUSIC AND/OR ART IN ADDITION TO CORRELATING CULTURAL ACTIVITIES WITH ALL FACETS OF THE CURRICULUM TO PROVIDE INSPIRATION AND NEW EXPERIENCES AS WELL AS TO…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY.

336

Humanities, Arts & Cultural Research and  

E-print Network

Humanities, Arts & Cultural Research and Innovation Office of the Vice President, Research and Innovation www.research.utoronto.ca #12;U of T Humanities, Arts & Culture v 1.9 March 14, 2013 Report errors or omissions to andy.torr@utoronto.ca Page 2 of 71 HUMANITIES, ARTS & CULTURAL RESEARCH AND INNOVATION

Sokolowski, Marla

337

Visual culture in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary Western culture increasingly uses visual images as a method of communicating ideas, meaning and concepts. The reliance on visual information has dramatically increased with the evolution of newer imaging technologies. Images play a critical role within the media, advertising, popular culture, personal memories, medical science and forensic science. This paper will discuss relationships between methodologies used in visual culture

Glenn Porter

2007-01-01

338

The Cultural Evolution of Technology  

E-print Network

7 The Cultural Evolution of Technology Facts and Theories Robert Boyd, Peter J. Richerson with "stylized" facts, empirical generalizations relevant to the cultural evolution of technology. We then move the gradual cultural evolution of complex, adaptive technologies. We think that these facts and theoretical

Richerson, Peter J.

339

Cultural Backgrounds and Textual Appropriation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines interviews with 46 undergraduates to explore if participants with differing language and cultural backgrounds view plagiarism or textual appropriation primarily as a) a language problem because of a lack of words of one's own, or b) a cultural challenge as a result of either some first language (L1) cultural training to…

Shi, Ling

2006-01-01

340

Linguistic Relativity and Cultural Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A culture is usually with the bias of universalization. Each culture has its ultimate concern, and its answers to the concern make up a worldview. And each culture is inclined to see its worldview as universal. The Christian thinks that Jehovah God is the creator and law-maker of the whole universe; Chinese think that the sage's teaching sheds…

Zhifang, Zhu

2002-01-01

341

Culture-Orientated Product Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is little in-depth research that can assist designers to use culture as a catalyst for designing innovative products within Botswana's context. The concept of culture and design are intertwined, thus modifications stemming from cultural evolution both reflect and determine developments in design. The paper discusses an experimental design…

Moalosi, Richie; Popovic, Vesna; Hickling-Hudson, Anne

2010-01-01

342

German cultural policy: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important aspect of cultural policy in Germany is its federally devolved nature. Hence the article begins with an examination of the different levels of cultural policy, from the all-important municipal authorities to the relatively autonomous regional government and, finally, the national government, which discharges certain responsibilities in cultural matters through a number of departments, including the recently created

Rob Burns; Wilfried Van der Will

2003-01-01

343

Socioemotional Development in Cultural Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Filling a significant gap in the literature, this book examines the impact of culture on the social behaviors, emotions, and relationships of children around the world. It also explores cultural differences in what is seen as adaptive or maladaptive development. Eminent scholars discuss major theoretical perspectives on culture and development and…

Chen, Xinyin, Ed.; Rubin, Kenneth H., Ed.

2011-01-01

344

STANDARD CROSS-CULTURAL SAMPLE  

E-print Network

STANDARD CROSS- CULTURAL SAMPLE The Standard Cross-Cultural Sample, or SCCS (Murdock and White 1969 methods, George P. Murdock, in prepara- tion for a standard sample, had classified the 1,267 soci- eties in his coded Ethnographic Atlas into 200 distinctive world cultural provinces (Murdock 1962-1967, 1968

White, Douglas R.

345

Culture of organized cell communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cells cultured in vitro will tend to retain their differentiated phenotype under conditions that resemble their natural in vivo environment, for example, when cultured on polymer scaffolds in tissue culture bioreactors. In this chapter, we define organized cell communities as three-dimensional in vitro grown cell–polymer constructs that display important structural and functional features of the natural tissue. We review representative

Lisa E. Freed; Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic

1998-01-01

346

Complicating the Concept of Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay argues against a simple, reified view of culture as a set of ideas and norms belonging to a group or nation, and considers the implications of a more complicated concept for discussion of world culture and the global/local nexus. Most anthropologists define culture as the making of meaning, with an emphasis on the process itself as…

Anderson-Levitt, Kathryn M.

2012-01-01

347

The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes  

E-print Network

The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations Gabriel A. Almond and Sidney to answer these questions and, by doing so, to get to the heart of democratic political culture. They argued power of the ordinary citizen. The Civic Culture represented the best early fruit of a new re- search

Landweber, Laura

348

Cultural Reproduction, Cultural Mobility, Cultural Resources, or Trivial Effect? A Comparative Approach to Cultural Capital and Educational Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We assess explanations for the associations between cultural capital (especially cultural activities and cultural possessions) and educational performance of schooled adolescents in 22 Western industrialized countries based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). We further ascertain variations in the effect of…

Xu, Jun; Hampden-Thompson, Gillian

2012-01-01

349

Transformational Leadership And Organizational Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine types of organizational cultures are defined in terms of the extent transformational and transactional leadership and their effects form accepted ways of behaving. The Organizational Description Questionnaire (ODQ) is used by members of the organizations to describe their cultures.The nine types of organizations include the high-contrast culture with both strong transformational and transactional qualities to the \\

Bernard M. Bass; Bruce J. Avolio

1994-01-01

350

Organizational communication as cultural performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past ten to fifteen years, the “systems” metaphor has guided organizational communication research. Recently, a sizable number of management and organizational communication scholars have suggested a different guiding metaphor—that of organizational culture. Present notions of organizational culture, however, tend to focus on static, structural features of culture, and researchers are often content to document the existence of such

Michael E. Pacanowsky

1983-01-01

351

The relativity of cultural relativism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the author in an earlier publication (1971) has argued in favour of cultural relativism, recently he has become more critical of the concept, as it inevitably leads to an aporia.The concept of intercultural relativism has become blurred with intracultural relativism. The sharply increased communication between the various cultures has led to an increasing differentiation within these cultures and less

Douwe Fokkema

1993-01-01

352

Cultures & Conflits 73 (printemps 2009)  

E-print Network

Cultures & Conflits 73 (printemps 2009) Frontières, marquages et disputes disputes frontalières », Cultures & Conflits [En ligne], 73 | printemps 2009, mis en ligne le 28 décembre, rédacteur en chef des revues International Political Sociology et Cultures & Conflits. Dernière publication

Boyer, Edmond

353

Hmong Cultural Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hmong people came to the United States as refugees after the Vietnam War, and they were mainly resettled in California, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. The Hmong Cultural Center was established in St. Paul, Minnesota in 1992, and their website has a wealth of resources "that enhance cross-cultural awareness and understanding between Hmong and non-Hmong persons." Visitors in the healthcare field will find value in one such resource, "View the Hmong History and Culture Presentation for Healthcare Providers", which can be found on the menu on the left-hand side of the page. Visitors will learn that some Hmong beliefs about the body conflict with Western medicine, such as the belief that drawing blood may weaken the physical body and that surgery may hinder reincarnation or allow evil spirits to enter the body. Visitors interested in doing research on the Hmong people should click on the "Research Data and Publications" link to find a "Hmong Studies Journal", "Tutorial on How to Access Hmong Census Data", and "Hmong Studies Research Bibliographies".

354

Variable Cultural Acquisition Costs Constrain Cumulative Cultural Evolution  

PubMed Central

One of the hallmarks of the human species is our capacity for cumulative culture, in which beneficial knowledge and technology is accumulated over successive generations. Yet previous analyses of cumulative cultural change have failed to consider the possibility that as cultural complexity accumulates, it becomes increasingly costly for each new generation to acquire from the previous generation. In principle this may result in an upper limit on the cultural complexity that can be accumulated, at which point accumulated knowledge is so costly and time-consuming to acquire that further innovation is not possible. In this paper I first review existing empirical analyses of the history of science and technology that support the possibility that cultural acquisition costs may constrain cumulative cultural evolution. I then present macroscopic and individual-based models of cumulative cultural evolution that explore the consequences of this assumption of variable cultural acquisition costs, showing that making acquisition costs vary with cultural complexity causes the latter to reach an upper limit above which no further innovation can occur. These models further explore the consequences of different cultural transmission rules (directly biased, indirectly biased and unbiased transmission), population size, and cultural innovations that themselves reduce innovation or acquisition costs. PMID:21479170

Mesoudi, Alex

2011-01-01

355

Mycobacterium fortuitum Infection following Reconstructive Breast Surgery: Differentiation from Classically Described Red Breast Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background: Red breast syndrome (RBS) has been described as an erythema that may be associated with 2-stage prosthetic reconstructive breast surgery using biologic mesh. RBS is differentiated from infectious cellulitis through absence of fever and laboratory abnormalities and usually has a self-limiting course. There have been no clinical reports on etiology, risk factors, or management of RBS. This report describes patient data that raise the need to rule out mycobacterial infection when RBS is being considered as a diagnosis. Methods: We present 6 cases of Mycobacterium fortuitum infection occurring after prosthetic breast reconstruction performed with a human-derived acellular dermal matrix, including the timing and course of erythema, laboratory results, treatments used, and long-term outcomes. We also describe the differential diagnoses of RBS in the context of these cases, including emergence of acid-fast bacilli and diagnostic and treatment considerations. Exact two-tailed 95% confidence intervals based on the F-distribution are provided with estimates of the incidence rates of infection. Results: The 6 cases presented here do not fit the typical description of RBS and were caused by mycobacterium infection. Statistical evaluation of the estimated incidence rate of M. fortuitum infection in a patient thought to have RBS, which occurred 100% of the time in this series, revealed a 95% confidence interval of 54.1–100%. Conclusions: When presented with possible RBS, surgeons must rule out cellulitis, culture for acid-fast bacilli such as mycobacterium species, and then determine the best course of treatment. Patient counseling regarding potential household sources of infection is warranted to minimize postoperative infection risk. PMID:25289245

Foles, Van Brandon; Sieger, Barry; Musselman, Kelly

2013-01-01

356

Latent tuberculosis among pregnant mothers in a resource poor setting in Northern Tanzania: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Untreated latent TB infection (LTBI) is a significant risk factor for active pulmonary tuberculosis, hence predisposing to adverse pregnancy outcomes and mother to child transmission. The prevalence of latent tuberculosis in pregnancy and its association, if any, with various socio-demographic, obstetric and clinical characteristics was evaluated. Methods Northern Tanzania was chosen as the study site. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 286 pregnant women from 12 weeks gestational age to term were assessed. Screening was undertaken using an algorithm involving tuberculin skin testing, symptom screening in the form of a questionnaire, sputum testing for acid fast bacilli followed by shielded chest X-rays if indicated. HIV serology was also performed on consenting participants. Results Prevalence of latent infection ranged between 26.2% and 37.4% while HIV sero prevalence was 4.5%. After multivariate logistic analysis it was found that age, parity, body mass index, gestational age, and HIV sero status did not have any significant association with tuberculin skin test results. However certain ethnic groups were found to be less vulnerable to LTBI as compared to others (Chi square = 10.55, p = 0.03). All sputum smears for acid fast bacilli were negative. Conclusion The prevalence of latent tuberculosis in pregnant women was found to be relatively high compared to that of the general population. In endemic areas, socio-demographic parameters alone are rarely adequate in identifying women susceptible to TB infection; therefore targeted screening should be conducted for all pregnant women at high risk for activation (especially HIV positive women). As opposed to the current policy of passive case detection, there appears to be an imminent need to move towards active screening. Ethnicity may provide important clues into genetic and cultural differences which predispose to latent tuberculosis, and is worth exploring further. PMID:20205938

2010-01-01

357

Prevalence of antimicrobial resistant pathogens from blood cultures from Canadian hospitals: results of the CANWARD 2007-2009 study.  

PubMed

This study assessed the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of pathogens associated with bloodstream infections in Canadian hospitals between 2007 and 2009. Tertiary-care medical centers representing 8 of 10 Canadian provinces submitted bloodstream infection pathogens from patients attending hospital clinics, emergency rooms, medical/surgical wards, and intensive care units. Over 8,000 blood culture pathogens were collected. The 10 most common pathogens (representing 80.9% of all isolates) were Escherichia coli (1856 [22.6%]), Staphylococcus aureus (1457 [17.7%] including 1101 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and 356 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), coagulase-negative staphylococci (907 [11.0%]), Klebsiella pneumoniae (600 [7.3%]), Streptococcus pneumoniae (470 [5.7%]), Enterococcus faecalis (360 [4.4%]), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (333 [4.0%]), viridans group streptococci (321 [3.9%]), Enterobacter cloacae (193 [2.3%]), and Streptococcus pyogenes (159 [1.9%]). The most active agents against Gram-negative bacilli were carbapenems (e.g., meropenem and ertapenem) and piperacillin-tazobactam, while for Gram-positive cocci, they were vancomycin, linezolid, and daptomycin. PMID:21353958

Adam, Heather J; DeCorby, Melanie; Rennie, Robert; Karlowsky, James A; Hoban, Daryl J; Zhanel, George G

2011-03-01

358

From cultural traditions to cumulative culture: parameterizing the differences between human and nonhuman culture.  

PubMed

Diverse species exhibit cultural traditions, i.e. population-specific profiles of socially learned traits, from songbird dialects to primate tool-use behaviours. However, only humans appear to possess cumulative culture, in which cultural traits increase in complexity over successive generations. Theoretically, it is currently unclear what factors give rise to these phenomena, and consequently why cultural traditions are found in several species but cumulative culture in only one. Here, we address this by constructing and analysing cultural evolutionary models of both phenomena that replicate empirically attestable levels of cultural variation and complexity in chimpanzees and humans. In our model of cultural traditions (Model 1), we find that realistic cultural variation between populations can be maintained even when individuals in different populations invent the same traits and migration between populations is frequent, and under a range of levels of social learning accuracy. This lends support to claims that putative cultural traditions are indeed cultural (rather than genetic) in origin, and suggests that cultural traditions should be widespread in species capable of social learning. Our model of cumulative culture (Model 2) indicates that both the accuracy of social learning and the number of cultural demonstrators interact to determine the complexity of a trait that can be maintained in a population. Combining these models (Model 3) creates two qualitatively distinct regimes in which there are either a few, simple traits, or many, complex traits. We suggest that these regimes correspond to nonhuman and human cultures, respectively. The rarity of cumulative culture in nature may result from this interaction between social learning accuracy and number of demonstrators. PMID:24928150

Kempe, Marius; Lycett, Stephen J; Mesoudi, Alex

2014-10-21

359

Popular Cultural Pedagogy, in Theory; Or: What Can Cultural Theory Learn about Learning from Popular Culture?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culture has been theorized as pedagogy. In several languages and many contexts "culture" and "education" can be used interchangeably. This issue of the journal "Educational Philosophy and Theory" seeks to explore the dual proposition (1) that pedagogy is central to politicized cultural theory, but (2) that it has been…

Bowman, Paul

2013-01-01

360

Cultural Heritage in the Crosshairs: Protecting Cultural Property during Conflict provides case studies of Cultural  

E-print Network

by participating nations. This volume provides a series of case studies and "lessons learned" to assess the current" by Michael Hallett Chapter 9: "A Case Study in Cultural Heritage Protection in a Time of War" by CPT BenjaminCultural Heritage in the Crosshairs: Protecting Cultural Property during Conflict provides case

361

Science as culture and leisure: cultural policy, industry and scientific culture in the Canadian context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government ministries of industry have long been promoters, co?producers and even sometimes producers of cultural policy – from local and regional development strategies to initiatives that fund cultural organizations to support emerging fields such as the technological arts. This article explores the relationship between cultural policy?making, science museums and industry ministries in Canada. More specifically, this article investigates the emergence

Jonathan Paquette

2011-01-01

362

Prevalence of tuberculosis in pigs slaughtered at two abattoirs in Ethiopia and molecular characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from tuberculous-like lesions in pigs  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious, granulomatous disease caused by acid-fast bacilli of the genus Mycobacterium. The disease affects practically all species of vertebrates. Although mammalian tuberculosis has been nearly controlled in many developed countries, it is still a serious problem in humans and domestic animals including pigs in developing countries. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of TB in pigs is not known. Therefore, this study was designed to estimate the prevalence of TB in pigs in central Ethiopia and to characterize the causative agents using molecular techniques. Results The estimated prevalence of TB was 5.8% (49/841). Age and origin of pigs were significantly associated (P<0.001) with the prevalence. In contrast, an association of sex, floor type and water source with the prevalence could not be shown. Culture positivity was confirmed in 30.6% (15/49) of the tuberculous-like lesions. Of the 15 isolates, 12 were acid fast positive while five of the latter were confirmed by multiplex PCR as members of the M. tuberculosis complex. Speciation of the five isolates further confirmed that they were M. tuberculosis, belonging to SIT1088 (two isolates) and SIT1195 (one isolate). The remaining two isolates belong to an identical spoligotype, the pattern of which was not found in the spoligotype database (SpolDB4). Conclusions The isolation of M. tuberculosis from pigs suggests a possible risk of transmission between humans and pigs. Hence, establishing feasible control methods is required. PMID:23647845

2013-01-01

363

Clinical application of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct test: case report, literature review, and proposed clinical algorithm.  

PubMed

The relatively new Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct test (MTDT) enzymatically amplifies M tuberculosis complex 16s ribosomal RNA. The sensitivity of the test ranges from 75 to 100%, with specificity of 95 to 100%, positive predictive value between 78% and 100%, and negative predictive value between 95% and 100%. Similar test characteristics have been documented in nonrespiratory specimens and in specimens that ultimately grow nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM). This test allows for rapid identification of M tuberculosis in the smear-positive patient and may greatly improve sensitivity over acid-fast bacilli smear alone. A negative test result with a positive smear suggests infection with NTM or Mycobacterium avium complex. We present a case that illustrates the value of MTDT for analysis of tissue specimens in immunocompromised patients with suspected mycobacterial disease and review the rapidly developing literature about this test. We propose an algorithm using MTDT, acid-fast smear, and mycobacterial culture for the diagnosis and treatment of the immunocompromised patient with suspected mycobacterial infection. PMID:9674487

Gladwin, M T; Plorde, J J; Martin, T R

1998-07-01

364

[A case of cold abscess of the chest wall due to thoracic drainage for tuberculous pleuritis].  

PubMed

A 56-year-old man underwent thoracic drainage for two weeks for tuberculous pleuritis. He was put on antituberculosis chemotherapy with INH (400 mg), RFP (450 mg), and EB (750 mg). Two months later, he developed an elastic hard subcutaneous mass in the area of the previous thoracic drainage. The mass was 10 cm in diameter, warm, reddish and painful. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed localized and encapsulated empyema in the left thoracic space and a subcutaneous abscess with rim enhancement in the left lateral chest wall. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a dumbbell abscess in the subcutaneous tissue communicating with the empyema through the chest wall. A needle aspiration of the subcutaneous abscess had acid-fast bacilli smears of 2+ and tested positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Thus, he was diagnosed with a cold abscess of the chest, with the empyema in the thoracic space draining into the chest wall through the cut for artificial drainage. Continuation of the anti-tuberculosis treatment and the drainage of the empyema with repeated aspiration reduced the subcutaneous mass, and the clinical and radiological course was favorable. Both the smear and culture for acid-fast test became negative. After completion of chemotherapy, there has been no disease recurrence. PMID:20845687

Komiya, Kosaku; Ariga, Haruyuki; Nagayama, Naohiro; Matsui, Yoshinori; Oshima, Nobuharu; Masuda, Kimihiko; Matsui, Hirotoshi; Teramoto, Shinji; Tamura, Atsuhisa; Toyota, Emiko; Nagai, Hideaki; Akagawa, Shinobu; Nakajima, Yutsuki

2010-08-01

365

Perspectives on culture and concepts.  

PubMed

The well-respected tradition of research on concepts uses cross-cultural comparisons to explore which aspects of conceptual behavior are universal versus culturally variable. This work continues, but it is being supplemented by intensified efforts to study how conceptual systems and cultural systems interact to modify and support each other. For example, cultural studies within the framework of domain specificity (e.g., folkphysics, folkpsychology, folkbiology) are beginning to query the domains themselves and offer alternative organizing principles (e.g., folksociology, folkecology). Findings highlight the multifaceted nature of both concepts and culture: Individuals adopt distinct conceptual construals in accordance with culturally infused systems such as language and discourse, knowledge and beliefs, and epistemological orientations. This picture complicates questions about cognitive universality or variability, suggesting that researchers may productively adopt a systems-level approach to conceptual organization and cultural epistemologies. Related implications for diversity in cognitive science are discussed. PMID:25251487

Ojalehto, Bethany L; Medin, Douglas L

2015-01-01

366

Cultural competence: a constructivist definition.  

PubMed

In nursing education, most of the current teaching practices perpetuate an essentialist perspective of culture and make it imperative to refresh the concept of cultural competence in nursing. The purpose of this article is to propose a constructivist definition of cultural competence that stems from the conclusions of an extensive critical review of the literature on the concepts of culture, cultural competence, and cultural safety among nurses and other health professionals. The proposed constructivist definition is situated in the unitary-transformative paradigm in nursing as defined by Newman and colleagues. It makes the connection between the field of competency-based education and the nursing discipline. Cultural competence in a constructivist paradigm that is oriented toward critical, reflective practice can help us develop knowledge about the role of nurses in reducing health inequalities and lead to a comprehensive ethical reflection about the social mandate of health care professionals. PMID:25037305

Garneau, Amélie Blanchet; Pepin, Jacinthe

2015-01-01

367

Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise  

PubMed Central

The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed. PMID:23914126

Chiao, Joan Y.; Cheon, Bobby K.; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.

2013-01-01

368

A typology of organisational cultures  

PubMed Central

There is wide belief that organisational culture shapes many aspects of performance, including safety. Yet proof of this relationship in a medical context is hard to find. In contrast to human factors, whose contributions are many and notable, culture's impact remains a commonsense, rather than a scientific, concept. The objectives of this paper are to show that organisational culture bears a predictive relationship with safety and that particular kinds of organisational culture improve safety, and to develop a typology predictive of safety performance. Because information flow is both influential and also indicative of other aspects of culture, it can be used to predict how organisations or parts of them will behave when signs of trouble arise. From case studies and some systematic research it appears that information culture is indeed associated with error reporting and with performance, including safety. Yet this relationship between culture and safety requires more exploration before the connection can be considered definitive. PMID:15576687

Westrum, R

2004-01-01

369

Being Mindful about the Assessment of Culture: A Cultural Analysis of Culturally Adapted Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we review a wide range of cultural adaptations of acceptance-based behavior therapies (ABBT) from a cultural perspective. Consistent with the cultural match model, we argue that psychotherapeutic cultural adaptations are more effective as the cultural characteristics of patients are matched to the cultural characteristics of the…

La Roche, Martin; Lustig, Kara

2013-01-01

370

Cultural Competency Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cultural competency is defined as the ability to effectively interact with people from diverse cultures and recognize the importance of cultural differences. These skills will be increasingly important for environmental engineers who work on teams with professionals from diverse backgrounds and design solutions to global problems. For example, these skills are particularly important when engaging in projects for Engineers Without Borders (EWB) and similar organizations. In order to evaluate if curriculum help develop these skills in students, an assessment instrument is needed. A wide variety of such surveys have been developed and validated, although generally for settings outside engineering academia. In this research, the Miville-Guzman Universality-Diversity Scale short form (MGUDS-S) was used. It is a written 15 question survey with responses on a 6-point Likert scale. It evaluates universal-diverse orientation (UDO) and has been most widely used in medical school settings. The overall UDO score is composed of three subscales: diversity of contact, relativistic appreciation, and discomfort with differences. The author also added four of the Pittsburgh Freshman Engineering Attitudes Survey (PFEAS) questions and eight self-created questions to the survey, in addition to five demographic questions. The self-created questions were specific to engineering. This survey was administered in three freshmen courses (environmental, civil, and undeclared engineering) and two senior design courses (environmental and civil engineering) in fall 2006. Four of the eight self-created questions were modified and two additional demographic questions were added prior to administering the survey in two freshmen courses (environmental and civil engineering) and an Engineering for the Developing World course for seniors and graduate students in fall 2007. The results from the survey and evaluation of its usefulness are presented.

Bielefeldt, Angela

2009-09-28

371

Utah Culture Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Research one of Utah's many cultural festivals and send a text message explaining what you've learned! Step One: Research Select one of the following ethnic festivals in Utah to research. Navigate the webiste to find out what the festival is about and what one can do if they go to the festival. Look at available photos and videos to help learn about the festival. Asian Festival Festival of Colors Greek Festival India Fest Living Traditional Festival Scottish Festival St. Patrick s Day Parade Swiss Days Step Two: Text Message Pretend ...

Mrs. Wheeler

2011-03-02

372

Lesions of tuberculosis in mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni).  

PubMed

Lesions of tuberculosis in mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) were present in all visceral organs. The tubercles were composed of large rounded macrophages which contained numerous intracytoplasmic acid-fast bacilli. The lesions were not encapsulated and mineralization was not observed. PMID:650789

Lund, J E; Abernethy, C S

1978-04-01

373

Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in latently infected lungs by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy.  

PubMed

Detection of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a challenge in the diagnosis of asymptomatic, subclinical tuberculosis. We report the development of an immunofluorescence technique to visualize and enumerate M. tuberculosis in latently infected rabbit lungs where no acid-fast-stained organisms were seen and no cultivable bacilli were obtained by the agar-plating method. PMID:25161200

Subbian, Selvakumar; Eugenin, Eliseo; Kaplan, Gilla

2014-11-01

374

The importance of Mycobacterium bovis as a zoonosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium bovis and closely associated acid-fast bacilli cause disease in humans. Epidemiologic investigations reveal that the organism may be ingested or inhaled. Extra pulmonary lesions may occur associated to the consumption of infected milk, even though with the practice of boiling milk, and the growth of milk pasteurization plants all over the world, the digestive route of infection became less

Charles Thoen; Philip LoBue; Isabel de Kantor

2006-01-01

375

Sensitivity Analysis and Potential Uses of a Novel Gamma Interferon Release Assay for Diagnosis of Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) are the primary methods for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in many countries. The tuberculin skin test (TST) is the primary method for diagnosis of latent TB infection (LTBI) worldwide. The poor sensitivity of the former and the poor specificity of the latter warrant the development of new tests and strategies to enhance diagnostic capabilities.

Simon J. Tsiouris; David Coetzee; Patricia L. Toro; Judy Austin; Zena Stein; Wafaa El-Sadr

2006-01-01

376

Multiple M. tuberculosis Phenotypes in Mouse and Guinea Pig Lung Tissue Revealed by a Dual-Staining Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique hallmark of tuberculosis is the granulomatous lesions formed in the lung. Granulomas can be heterogeneous in nature and can develop a necrotic, hypoxic core which is surrounded by an acellular, fibrotic rim. Studying bacilli in this in vivo microenvironment is problematic as Mycobacterium tuberculosis can change its phenotype and also become acid-fast negative. Under in vitro models of

Gavin J. Ryan; Donald R. Hoff; Emily R. Driver; Martin I. Voskuil; Mercedes Gonzalez-Juarrero; Randall J. Basaraba; Dean C. Crick; John S. Spencer; Anne J. Lenaerts; Jérome Nigou

2010-01-01

377

PCR-based diagnosis of leprosy in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differentiation of leprosy from other cutaneous granulomatous disease is routinely based on characteristic histopathological features and demonstration of acid-fast bacilli by microscopy. Increased presence of other mycobacterial infections in the skin has made this task more difficult, but the distinction remains fundamental in selecting appropriate treatment. We review a 9-year experience using PCR for identifying Mycobacterium leprae in specimens from

Diana L. Williams; David M. Scollard; Thomas P. Gillis

2003-01-01

378

Cutaneous miliary tuberculosis in two patients with hiv infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cutaneous manifestations of miliary tuberculosis are rare. We report two patients with previously unknown advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, who presented with respiratory collapse and an erythematous papulopustular skin eruption. Skin biopsies demonstrated focal dermal microabscess in one patient, and a subcorneal vesicle with an underlying dermal microabscess in the other. Despite the lack of granulomatous inflammation, acid-fast bacilli

Whitney A High; Colby C Evans; Mai P Hoang

2004-01-01

379

Immunological Studies in Tuberculosis Non-pathogenic Mycobacteria and Immunity to Tuberculosis in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides using the attenuated human or bovine tubercle bacilli to produce immunity against tuberculosis, some attempts have been made, using mycobacteria isolated from various animal species and also some saprophytic mycobacteria. Thus the use of the vole bacillus, occurring naturally in the voles (Wells 1937), the acid- fast organisms occurring in the turtle (Friedmann 1903, 1904), the use of Mycobac-

P. R. J. GANGADHARAM; M. SIRSI

380

Comparison of Sputum Induction with Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy in the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis Experience at an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Reference Center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) do not produce sputum spontaneously or are smear-negative for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). We prospectively compared the yield of sputum in- duction (SI) and fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar la- vage (BAL) for the diagnosis of PTB in a region with a high preva- lence of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Fifty seven

MARCUS B. CONDE; SERGIO L. M. SOARES; FERNANDA C. Q. MELLO; VALERIA M. REZENDE; LUCIANA L. ALMEIDA; ARTHUR L. REINGOLD; CHARLES L. DALEY; AFRANIO L. KRITSKI

381

Sociality influences cultural complexity  

PubMed Central

Archaeological and ethnohistorical evidence suggests a link between a population's size and structure, and the diversity or sophistication of its toolkits or technologies. Addressing these patterns, several evolutionary models predict that both the size and social interconnectedness of populations can contribute to the complexity of its cultural repertoire. Some models also predict that a sudden loss of sociality or of population will result in subsequent losses of useful skills/technologies. Here, we test these predictions with two experiments that permit learners to access either one or five models (teachers). Experiment 1 demonstrates that naive participants who could observe five models, integrate this information and generate increasingly effective skills (using an image editing tool) over 10 laboratory generations, whereas those with access to only one model show no improvement. Experiment 2, which began with a generation of trained experts, shows how learners with access to only one model lose skills (in knot-tying) more rapidly than those with access to five models. In the final generation of both experiments, all participants with access to five models demonstrate superior skills to those with access to only one model. These results support theoretical predictions linking sociality to cumulative cultural evolution. PMID:24225461

Muthukrishna, Michael; Shulman, Ben W.; Vasilescu, Vlad; Henrich, Joseph

2014-01-01

382

Cultural Evolution Peter J. Richerson  

E-print Network

with relatively little need to depend upon cultural explanations. Noam Chomsky's ideas about linguistics inspired a pioneering generation of evolutionary psychologists (Pinker, 1994; Tooby & Cosmides, 1992). Chomsky

Richerson, Peter J.

383

High density cell culture system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.

Spaulding, Glenn F. (inventor)

1994-01-01

384

How Darwinian is cultural evolution?  

PubMed Central

Darwin-inspired population thinking suggests approaching culture as a population of items of different types, whose relative frequencies may change over time. Three nested subtypes of populational models can be distinguished: evolutionary, selectional and replicative. Substantial progress has been made in the study of cultural evolution by modelling it within the selectional frame. This progress has involved idealizing away from phenomena that may be critical to an adequate understanding of culture and cultural evolution, particularly the constructive aspect of the mechanisms of cultural transmission. Taking these aspects into account, we describe cultural evolution in terms of cultural attraction, which is populational and evolutionary, but only selectional under certain circumstances. As such, in order to model cultural evolution, we must not simply adjust existing replicative or selectional models but we should rather generalize them, so that, just as replicator-based selection is one form that Darwinian selection can take, selection itself is one of several different forms that attraction can take. We present an elementary formalization of the idea of cultural attraction. PMID:24686939

Claidière, Nicolas; Scott-Phillips, Thomas C.; Sperber, Dan

2014-01-01

385

Warrior culture, spirituality, and prayer.  

PubMed

Research has shown an increase in suicides by military veterans and law enforcement officers in the United States. Etiologic research elucidates warrior culture and subculture as contributing factors of this pathology. This paper examines the idiosyncratic nature and influence of warrior culture and subculture and offers recommendations to promote culture change. Faith-based spirituality and prayer are examined as adjunct modalities for stress management and emotional healing. Further research is recommended to assess the associated hidden cost factors and long-term financial impact of warrior culture on society. PMID:23430532

Malmin, Mark

2013-09-01

386

Earth, the Universe, and Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will help students understand the cultural nature of scientific research. Students explore famous scientists, their theories, places of origin, and their culture. They document scientific viewpoints of famous scientists throughout history and discuss geographical region, culture, gender, and other factors effecting scientific theories and discoveries. This activity helps students understand the cultural nature of scientific research and how people interpret science in different ways based on their social environments. This activity is one of several in the Swift: Eyes through Time collection available on the Teachers' Domain website.

2012-08-03

387

The culture ready brain  

PubMed Central

In this article, I examine two hypotheses of language origins: the extended mirror system hypothesis and the vocal grooming hypothesis. These conflict in several respects, partly because their authors were trained in different disciplines and influenced by different kinds of evidence. I note some ethnographic/linguistic and psychological issues which, in my view, have not been sufficiently considered by these authors, and present a ‘play and display’ hypothesis which aims to explain the evolution, not of language, but of the ‘culture ready brain’—with apologies to Arbib for so extending his original concept. In the second half of the article, I will test all three hypotheses against the available fossil, archaeological and neuroimaging evidence. PMID:20558409

2010-01-01

388

Culture and change blindness.  

PubMed

Research on perception and cognition suggests that whereas East Asians view the world holistically, attending to the entire field and relations among objects, Westerners view the world analytically, focusing on the attributes of salient objects. These propositions were examined in the change-blindness paradigm. Research in that paradigm finds American participants to be more sensitive to changes in focal objects than to changes in the periphery or context. We anticipated that this would be less true for East Asians and that they would be more sensitive to context changes than would Americans. We presented participants with still photos and with animated vignettes having changes in focal object information and contextual information. Compared to Americans, East Asians were more sensitive to contextual changes than to focal object changes. These results suggest that there can be cultural variation in what may seem to be basic perceptual processes. PMID:21702819

Masuda, Takahiko; Nisbett, Richard E

2006-03-01

389

Sublimation, culture, and creativity.  

PubMed

Combining insights from Freud and Weber, this article explores whether Protestants (vs. Catholics and Jews) are more likely to sublimate their taboo feelings and desires toward productive ends. In the Terman sample (Study 1), Protestant men and women who had sexual problems related to anxieties about taboos and depravity had greater creative accomplishments, as compared to those with sexual problems unrelated to such concerns and to those reporting no sexual problems. Two laboratory experiments (Studies 2 and 3) found that Protestants produced more creative artwork (sculptures, poems, collages, cartoon captions) when they were (a) primed with damnation-related words, (b) induced to feel unacceptable sexual desires, or (c) forced to suppress their anger. Activating anger or sexual attraction was not enough; it was the forbidden or suppressed nature of the emotion that gave the emotion its creative power. The studies provide possibly the first experimental evidence for sublimation and suggest a cultural psychological approach to defense mechanisms. PMID:23834638

Kim, Emily; Zeppenfeld, Veronika; Cohen, Dov

2013-10-01

390

Cultural Honours and Career Promotions: Re-conceptualizing Prizes in the Field of Cultural Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their implications for careers, cultural goods and honours in the field of cultural production have rarely been examined as career events by culture researchers. More typi- cally, cultural prizes are examined as they relate to the process of cultural valorization or are used to construct samples of venerated cultural products or producers for subsequent analysis. However, embedding cultural goods

Anne E. Lincoln

2007-01-01

391

Rules, culture, and fitness  

PubMed Central

Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be “internalized,” the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain (“If you'll do X, then I'll do Y”), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule (“Dress warmly; it's cold outside”) can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:22478201

Baum, William M.

1995-01-01

392

Grist and mills: on the cultural origins of cultural learning.  

PubMed

Cumulative cultural evolution is what 'makes us odd'; our capacity to learn facts and techniques from others, and to refine them over generations, plays a major role in making human minds and lives radically different from those of other animals. In this article, I discuss cognitive processes that are known collectively as 'cultural learning' because they enable cumulative cultural evolution. These cognitive processes include reading, social learning, imitation, teaching, social motivation and theory of mind. Taking the first of these three types of cultural learning as examples, I ask whether and to what extent these cognitive processes have been adapted genetically or culturally to enable cumulative cultural evolution. I find that recent empirical work in comparative psychology, developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience provides surprisingly little evidence of genetic adaptation, and ample evidence of cultural adaptation. This raises the possibility that it is not only 'grist' but also 'mills' that are culturally inherited; through social interaction in the course of development, we not only acquire facts about the world and how to deal with it (grist), we also build the cognitive processes that make 'fact inheritance' possible (mills). PMID:22734061

Heyes, Cecilia

2012-08-01

393

THREE CROSS-CULTURAL STUDIES OF SUBJECTIVE CULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 INTERRELATED CROSS CULTURAL STUDIES, USING AMERICAN AND GREEK SS, CONCERNED THE (1) ROLE PERCEPTIONS, (2) BEHAVIORAL INTENTIONS, AND (3) PERCEPTIONS OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOR IN THE SS. IN 1, 100 ROLES WERE JUDGED ON A SAMPLE OF 120 BEHAVIOR DESCRIPTIVE SCALES. BEHAVIORS WERE OBTAINED FROM POOLS OF SEVERAL THOUSAND BEHAVIORS ELICITED INDEPENDENTLY IN EACH CULTURE. SS JUDGED THE APPROPRIATENESS OF

HARRY C. TRIANDIS; VASSO VASSILIOU; MARIA NASSIAKOU

1968-01-01

394

Cultural Tourism: Marketing Challenges and Opportunities for German Cultural Heritage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the generally precarious state of public finance in Germany, at federal, state and community levels, expenditure for cultural purposes is being reduced constantly. Therefore, cultural institutions such as heritage sites are virtually compelled to find additional sources of funding to improve their financial situation and ensure their long?term survival. One of the more suitable means of increasing the

Andrea Hausmann

2007-01-01

395

Teaching Culture. The Long Revolution in Cultural Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 12 papers that trace the connections and tensions between the original aims and forms of cultural studies in Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the current settings, goals, and methodologies of cultural studies. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (Nannette Aldred and Martin Ryle); "Marginal Occupations: Adult…

Aldred, Nannette, Ed.; Ryle, Martin, Ed.

396

Indian culture and the culture for TQM: a comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to argue against the conventional wisdom in the current TQM literature that hierarchy is not conducive for TQM. It aims to identify the cultural dynamics that can aid TQM implementation in a hierarchical country like India. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper reflects on the existing literature on culture and TQM and develops a mechanism that explains

Madhu Ranjan Kumar; Shankar Sankaran

2007-01-01

397

Culture, cultural models, and the division of labor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part of a larger project involving the interplay of culture, cognition, and society, this article opens with an overview of that project, and then proceeds to kinds of collective (or shared) cognitive structures and their role in the larger enterprise. The remainder of the article focuses on one kind of shared cognitive structure, cultural models. It describes them and then

David Kronenfeld; Kimberly Hedrick

2005-01-01

398

Cultural and Ethical Issues in Working with Culturally Diverse Patients  

E-print Network

1960s the NASW Code of Ethics has had an anti-discrimi- nation section, and in last ten years there has been much stress on cul- tural competent practice. In the most recent Code of Ethics social workersCultural and Ethical Issues in Working with Culturally Diverse Patients and Their Families: The Use

Arizona, University of

399

Cultural Relativism: As Strategy for Teaching the "Culturally-Different."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Cultural relativism" exists when individuals can choose the values and responsible life styles that afford the natural and best vehicles of productive and positive expression. This paper suggests a strategy for accomplishing this kind of cultural acceptance in the present educational system. It calls for the transmission of basic, unbiased data…

Palmer, Cecelia Nails

400

The Role of Culture in the Language Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the role of culture in second language instruction; Examines properties of culture, culture as a product of human activity, culture as a shared product, culture as an artificial product, cultural diversity, cultural relativism, cultural sensitivity, and stages of cultural awareness. Focuses on how to teach cultural knowledge, and the…

Dwyer, David; Folarin-Schleicher, Antonia; Moshi, Lioba

1999-01-01

401

Culture, Ethics, Scripts, and Gifts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses gift-giving patterns in different cultures, particularly in relation to teacher-student interactions in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) instruction. Situations in which gift-giving can raise ethical questions and how to teach culturally diverse students about this issue are highlighted. Script theory provides a theoretical basis for…

Messerschmitt, Dorothy; Hafernik, Johnnie Johnson; Vandrick, Stephanie

1997-01-01

402

American Civilization--Popular Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This syllabus introduces the purposes and organization of a course on Popular Culture as evidence of American civilization offered at Meramec Community College. The guide first presents a rationale for the study of popular culture and then lists course requirements; discusses techniques such as comparative analysis and psychoanalytic investigation…

Miller, Carol F.

403

Which Culture Shall We Teach?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While language programs often include a cultural component as a requirement for language majors or as an option for other students, there is little agreement about the design of a civilization component for serious programs in languages for business. Although the traditional approach to cultural education is valid, a curriculum focusing on…

Rahilly, Leonard J.

404

cultural history New perspectives on  

E-print Network

the German exca- Making cultural v10.indd 141 2013-08-26 15:54 #12;making cultural history 142 vation of European art and literature is to expropriate this heritage from the elite, and, in the long run of the books we read were germane to our experiences, if they depicted people who were close to us

405

Educational Leadership: Culture and Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim in writing this book is to explore the relationships between school leadership and culture. Educational leadership is a socially bounded process. It is subject to the cultural traditions and values of the society in which it is exercised. In this it is no different from other social processes. It thus manifests itself in different ways in…

Dimmock, Clive; Walker, Allan

2005-01-01

406

Culture: Copying, Compression, and Conventionality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through cultural transmission, repeated learning by new individuals transforms cultural information, which tends to become increasingly compressible (Kirby, Cornish, & Smith, 2008; Smith, Tamariz, & Kirby, 2013). Existing diffusion chain studies include in their design two processes that could be responsible for this tendency: learning…

Tamariz, Mónica; Kirby, Simon

2015-01-01

407

Preschool in Three Cultures Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When "Preschool in Three Cultures" was published in 1989, it attracted great attention, as a result of the insights into the three cultures explored as well as the methodology that anchored the research. What made the book so intriguing to many scholars, regardless of their geographical areas of interest, however, was the unique methodology…

Bjork, Christopher

2009-01-01

408

POND CULTURE fishery leaflet 311  

E-print Network

TEXTBOOK OF POND CULTURE fishery leaflet 311 Ifish and wildlife service UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR #12;#12;TEXTBOOK OF POND CULTURE REARING AND KEEPING OF CARP , TROUT AND ALLIED FISHES by Vr Experiment Station for Fisheries in Berlin-Friedrichsliagen. Translated from the German by Frederick Hund W

409

Basic Writing as Cultural Conflict.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the deficit theories and skills approaches shaping how teachers, administrators, and students conceive of basic writers. Critiques research on cultural conflict in the classroom and the theory that students must be initiated into academic discourse. Explores John Ogbu's "oppositional culture" theory to better understand basic writers…

Fox, Tom

1990-01-01

410

Cultural Accommodation Model of Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current article provides an overview to the cultural accommodation model (CAM) of counseling (Leong & Lee, 2006) that may help guide employment counselors' work. The integrative multidimensional model of cross-cultural counseling (Leong, 1996), a precursor to the CAM, is also reviewed.

Leong, Frederick T. L.

2011-01-01

411

Cultural Identity in Korean English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to investigate the cultural identity of Korean English and to make the intercultural communications among non-native speakers successful. The purposes of this study can be summarized as follows: 1) to recognize the concept of English as an International Language (EIL), 2) to emphasize cross-cultural understanding in the globalized…

Chang, Bok-Myung

2010-01-01

412

8?Culture, Evil, and Horror  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bstract.? This chapter develops a concept of aesthetic and existential horror and suggests its importance for understanding modern and postmodern culture. It makes three distinct claims. First, the experience of horror signifies a breakdown in the symbolic categories and valuations of a culture. Second, this experience has ontological significance because in horror the human is exposed to the naked

P aul S antilli

2007-01-01

413

Cultural Considerations and Treatment Complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As ethnic and racial minority groups continue to grow (United States Bureau of the Census, 2005), the field of clinical psychology\\u000a must meet the mental health needs in a culturally appropriate manner. Despite the acknowledgement of the need for culturally\\u000a relevant responses, the Surgeon General reports that ethnic minority members.

Stuart J. Spendlove; Carolyn T. Jackson; Joaquin P. Borrego

414

Race, Culture, and Educational Opportunity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article criticizes the view that, if cultural factors within the black community explain poor educational outcomes for blacks, then blacks should bear all of the disadvantages that follow from this. Educational outcomes are the joint, iterated product of schools' responses to students' and parents' culturally conditioned conduct. Schools are…

Anderson, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

415

Environmental scanning and organizational culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the connection between environmental scanning for market intelligence, organizational culture and generic strategies. The generic strategies, based on the Miles and Snow typology, are related to the organizational culture types developed by Deshpande et al. An enhanced model of the one proposed by Deshpande et al. is presented. By providing a more complete model, it is possible

Carl L. Saxby; Kevin R. Parker; Philip S. Nitse; Paul L. Dishman

2002-01-01

416

Behavior Analysis and Cultural Geography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural geography lacks a conceptually rigorous and empirically meaningful understanding of human behavior to facilitate analyses of human landscape creation. A possible solution is employment of the concepts and principles of behavior analysis, as developed in psychology, and as applied in sociology, anthropology, and economics. For cultural geographers, this suggestion is at variance with most other recent conceptual contributions that

William Norton

1997-01-01

417

Frugal Fun with Fungal Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A home kitchen can serve as a stockroom to provide the supplies needed to culture fungi for classroom use. Provides some alternative media and cultural techniques along with two alternative classroom investigations that can be employed in elementary through college-level classrooms. (Author/SAH)

Sundberg, Marshall D.

2001-01-01

418

Cultural Diversity in Rural Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As rural communities become more culturally diverse, the institutions and organizations that serve them must assist this cultural transition by providing a framework for change. Such a framework includes a vision of healthy diverse communities that are conscious of changing demographics and willing to reevaluate community self-image. Three…

Castania, Kathy

1992-01-01

419

Cultural Voucher Program; Program Abstract.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description of the Museums Collaborative Voucher Program, a system through which cultural institutions conduct programs with large, heterogeneous, adult populations in New York City is provided in this paper. The program began with two goals: to broaden the audience served by New York City's cultural institutions and to provide the institutions…

Museums Collaborative, Inc., New York, NY.

420

Sustainable development and cultural theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is sustainable development? Why is at an issue? Ideally, what needs to be done? and Practically, what can be done? are answered here by relying on the cultural theory of Mary Douglas and her colleagues, more especially Aaron Wildavsky and Michael Thompson, both of whom have used the model to address sustainable development. The implications of cultural theory for

E. M. Roe

1996-01-01

421

A Comparison of the Cultural  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a critical unit for identifying family-constructed meanings of education, a deeper contextual understanding of Korean immigrant parents' cultural/ethnic perceptions in relation to educational beliefs should be central to culturally responsive education designed to support Korean immigrant families. It is necessary for educators to examine…

Hwang, Eun Jin

2012-01-01

422

Culture and Text: Equivalence Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses two English translations of an identical passage from "The Divine Comedy" by Dante Alighieri. Considers the different approaches manifested by these two translators. Argues that cultural elements exert great influence on the work of translators and that culture must become central to any theory of translation. (HB)

Crisafulli, Edoardo

1993-01-01

423

Culture-Aware Collaborative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In a collaborative learning environment there will be many learners with diverse cultures. These learners should be supported to communicate and collaborate among themselves. The variety of the communication and collaboration tools and modes available to each learner would depend on his/her personal cultural background. The purpose of…

Economides, Anastasios A.

2008-01-01

424

Culturally competent psychiatric nursing care.  

PubMed

Evidence-based descriptions of culturally competent psychiatric nursing care are scarce. This study explored the perceptions of clients with mental illness regarding the overall effectiveness of psychiatric nursing care in meeting their cultural needs, and psychiatric nurses' perceptions of how and to what extent they provided culturally competent psychiatric mental health nursing care to diverse client populations. This descriptive study employed a qualitative research design using a multi-method data collection approach consisting of in-depth individual client interviews and a self-administered nurse questionnaire. Client participants tended to minimize the importance of receiving care related to their cultural needs. They described (1) encouraging and reassuring me; (2) speaking up for me; and (3) praying a lot as essential to their care. Nurse participants perceived their psychiatric nursing care to be culturally competent; however, few described specific strategies for incorporating cultural beliefs and practices into nursing care. Client participant lacked awareness of their cultural needs and had difficulty identifying and describing specific nursing interventions that contributed to positive mental health outcomes. Nurses perceived that they provided culturally competent care but actually lacked specific knowledge and skills to do so effectively. PMID:21050338

Wilson, D W

2010-10-01

425

Organizational culture and job satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This empirical investigation examines the impact of organizational culture types on job satisfaction in a survey of marketing professionals in a cross-section of firms in the USA. Cameron and Freeman’s (1991) model of organizational cultures comprising of clan, adhocracy, hierarchy, and market was utilized as the conceptual framework for analysis. The results indicate that job satisfaction levels varied across corporate

Daulatram B. Lund

2003-01-01

426

Culture and generalized inattentional blindness  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent mathematical treatment of Baars' Global Workspace consciousness model, much in the spirit of Dretske's communi- cation theory analysis of high level mental function, is used to study the eects of embedding cultural heritage on a general- ized form of inattentional blindenss. Culture should express itself quite distinctly in this basic psychophysical phenom- enon, acting across a variety of

Rodrick Wallace

427

How to use... blood cultures.  

PubMed

Positive blood culture is the gold standard for diagnosing bacteraemia and fungaemia, yet there is significant variability in aspects of performing and interpreting the test in children and neonates. Processing a blood culture can take several days, and includes use of semi-automated incubation with growth detection and a broad range of laboratory techniques such as Gram staining, phenotypic or molecular identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing on a cultured isolate. Sensitivity and specificity of a blood culture and time-to-positivity depend on a number of factors related to host/pathogen interaction, collection and transport of the specimen to the laboratory and methods employed to process the specimen. Interpretation of a positive result relies on correlation of the identity of the cultured microorganism with the clinical assessment of the child. PMID:24334340

De, Surjo Kiran; Shetty, Nandini; Kelsey, Michael

2014-08-01

428

The Two Cultures in Psychiatry.  

PubMed

The division between the two cultures of the literary and scientific worlds is considered, as is the division between the two cultures of humanism and somaticism. The development of psychiatric thought important to this latter dichotomy is described through the Age of Enlightenment, the Romantic Movement and the New Enlightenment. The two cultures of our present literary and scientific milieux are equated with the romanticism and somaticism of the past. The development of two cultures in psychiatry is traced, beginning with Freud's attempt to combine science and romanticism, to the present day where one finds some degree of convergence between the somatic and psychoanalytic approaches. Criteria are presented for a greater union of the two cultures in psychiatry. PMID:20328284

Cleghorn, R A

1965-07-10

429

Optimum culture in the cockpit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Even with the same program and objectives, if the culture is different, there will be different approaches to the goal of flight safety. However, the cockpit environment is culture-free so it is not as important to think of a person's cultural background as it is to think of the approach to the goal of ultimate safety. Crew members can look at their individual safety goals and compare them to their own performance to see if their behavior matches their own safety goals. The cockpit environment must be culture-free in order to obtain the ultimate safety goal. One must first realize how their culture affects their behavior before they can begin to change their attitude and actions in the cockpit.

Yamamori, Hisaaki

1987-01-01

430

International HPT: Rx for Culture Shock.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the cultural adaptation process experienced by people working in foreign environments. Reviews current organizational gaps in managing cross-cultural challenges; examines the phenomenon of culture shock; and presents a model for applying HPT (human performance technology) strategies to change culture shock to cross-cultural competence.…

Carey, Clare Elizabeth

1999-01-01

431

Extending Counseling Cross-Culturally: Invisible Barriers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to develop competence in cross-cultural counseling, awareness of one's own culture must be developed. To survive, cultures incorporate both obvious mechanisms, like a distinctive language, and less obvious mechanisms, like patterns of thought. Culture acts as an invisible veil which prevents us from being aware of the cultural filters…

Lauver, Philip J.

432

[Longitudinal observation of pulmonary tuberculosis patients by Gen-Probe Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct test (MTD)].  

PubMed

To study the clinical significance of conducting Gen-Probe Mycobacterium tuberculosis Direct Test (MTD) during the course of the disease, sputum specimens from 19 pulmonary tuberculosis patients were smeared, cultured, and tested by MTD, once a month for five months from the initiation of chemotherapy. 1) MTD-positive rates declined in parallel with decreased pulmonary tuberculosis activity, and the MTD findings of 16 patients who presented mild to moderate pulmonary tuberculosis at admission became negative by four months after the beginning of treatment. Three patients (15.8%) who were consistently positive for MTD during five months after the beginning of treatment were serious pulmonary tuberculosis patients, excreting a large number of organisms at admission. 2) During the course, a total of 43 MTD negative findings were observed, of which one (2.3%) was positive for Ogawa medium culture and the other 42 (92.7%) were negative. MTD was useful in briefly determining the absence of infection, provided that a negative culture on Ogawa medium means no infection. 3) Eleven of the 12 specimens (91.7%) showing positive smears and negative cultures on Ogawa medium were positive for MTD. Since MTD shows negative results for atypical mycobacteria, this is a very useful test in identifying acid fast bacilli which shows a positive smear and a negative culture. PMID:7745308

Toyoda, T; Aoyagi, T; Osumi, M; Kawashiro, T

1995-03-01

433

Evaluation of Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction for Rapid Diagnosis of Clinically Suspected Tuberculous Pleurisy  

PubMed Central

Background: Early diagnosis of tuberculosis is important in its control. The conventional techniques like smear microscopy and culture suffer from low sensitivity for diagnosis of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis like Pleural Tuberculosis (PTB) due to paucibacillary nature of the fluid. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is presently seen as a promising alternative to conventional techniques. In this study we have evaluated IS6110 sequence based nested PCR (nPCR) for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) DNA directly from clinical samples. The results of PCR were compared with the results of conventional methods like smear, culture and Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) activity. Material and Methods: A total of 50 pleural fluid samples from the patients with history suggestive of tuberculosis were taken. All the samples were processed for Ziehl-Neelsan (ZN) staining for Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB), culture ADA activity and PCR with primers targeting 123bp fragment of IS6110 of MTB complex. Results: A significant difference was seen in the sensitivities of conventional methods and PCR (p<0.05). Out of these 50 samples 3 were positive by smear, culture was positive in 5 samples, 21 samples showed high ADA activity and 29 were positive by PCR with overall 100% sensitivity of PCR using culture on LJ media as gold standard. Conclusions: The combined analysis of nPCR, ADA activity and other lab investigations can be very useful in the rapid diagnosis in cases of PTB. PMID:24392371

Gill, Manmeet Kaur; Kukreja, Sahiba; Chhabra, Namrata

2013-01-01

434

NASA Bioreactor tissue culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

435

SURVEYS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND SAFETY CULTURE IN NUCLEAR POWER.  

SciTech Connect

The results of a survey of organizational culture at a nuclear power plant are summarized and compared with those of a similar survey which has been described in the literature on ''high-reliability organizations''. A general-purpose cultural inventory showed a profile of organizational style similar to that reported in the literature; the factor structure for the styles was also similar to that of the plant previously described. A specialized scale designed to measure ''safety culture'' did not distinguished among groups within the organization that would be expected to differ.

BROWN,W.S.

2000-07-30

436

SURVEYS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND SAFETY CULTURE IN NUCLEAR POWER  

SciTech Connect

The results of a survey of organizational culture at a nuclear power plant are summarized and compared with those of a similar survey which has been described in the literature on high-reliability organizations. A general-purpose cultural inventory showed a profile of organizational style similar to that reported in the literature; the factor structure for the styles was also similar to that of the plant previously described. A specialized scale designed to measure safety culture did not distinguish among groups within the organization that would be expected to differ.

BROWN,B.S.

2000-07-30

437

Understanding culture and culture management in the English NHS: a comparison of professional and  

E-print Network

Andrews, UK Keywords clinical governance, organizational culture, patient, perspectives, quality, safety, managers and health professionals in managing organizational cultures as a lever for improving qualityUnderstanding culture and culture management in the English NHS: a comparison of professional

Birmingham, University of

438

Socioemotional Development across Cultures: Context, Complexity, and Pathways.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a cultural framework for examining socioemotional development of infants and young children across cultures. The framework recommends three distinct yet interrelated units of analysis for research on socioemotional development across cultures: cultural contexts, cultural complexity, and cultural pathways. (JPB)

Sharma, Dinesh; Fischer, Kurt W.

1998-01-01

439

IMPORTANCE OF SAFETY CULTURE ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect

Safety Management has lately been considered by some Nuclear Regulatory agencies as the tool on which to concentrate their efforts to implement modern regulation structures, because Safety Culture was said to be difficult to monitor. However, Safety Culture can be assessed and monitored even if it is problematical to make Safety Culture the object of regulation. This paper stresses the feasibility and importance of Safety Culture Assessment based on self-assessment applications performed in several nuclear organizations in Latin America. Reasons and ownership for assessing Safety Culture are discussed, and relevant aspects considered for setting up and programming such an assessment are shown. Basic principles that were taken into account, as well as financial and human resources used in actual self-assessments are reviewed, including the importance of adequate statistical analyses and the necessity of proper feed-back of results. The setting up of action plans to enhance Safety Culture is the final step of the assessment program that once implemented will enable to establish a Safety Culture monitoring process within the organization.

Spitalnik, J.

2004-10-06

440

Convergence of Culture and ICTs: E-Culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In modern society where digital technology prevails, the combination of Information and Communication technology (ICT) and the various human activities created the term e-services. This paper presents an e-culture services portal, focusing on e-culture applications like e-literature, e-gallery and music servers. The user-visitor has the opportunity to navigate through its pages which contain a large amount of information about Greek literature, galleries and music in the form of text, images and sound. Although it started as an early e-culture application, today it has been updated with new web-based technologies, in order to be accessible by people with visual disabilities, using dynamical techniques for content management. Its goals are mainly to make the so-called "Information for All" scheme a palpable reality and secondly to spread the aforementioned Greek cultural heritage aspects to a global level.

Drigas, Athanasios; Koukianakis, Lefteris

441

Urban Cultural Heritage Endangerment: Degradation of historico-cultural landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable development has become one of the great debates of policy-making of the XXI century. The world, is facing unprecedented change following the anthropocentrism of socio-economic growth. However, the commitment of man to ‘transmit to future generations at least the same as had' (ref) seems to be a narrowing, given extensive urban growth, population increase and climate change. However, over the last twenty years, the usage of spatial information systems have brought a positive contribution for better acknowledging the problem of environmental change, and bringing more constructive approaches to planning. Prompted by much research interest in Europe, a broad specter of biodiversity loss models, pollution and environmental degradation algorithms as well as climate change models, have become important tools under the European umbrella. Recognizing the essence of sustainable development, historico-cultural and archaeological regions have a remarkable role in the transformation of landscapes and maintenance of cultural and regional identity. Furthermore, the socio-economic, political-geographic and cultural-scientific history of the dynamics of places and localities on our earth is reflected in their historico-cultural heritage. This patrimony comprises cultural assets, such as old churches, palaces, museums, urban parks, historical architecture of cities, or landscapes of historical interest. Historico-cultural heritage also includes archaeological sites, which sometimes not only have a local value but may have a worldwide significance (e.g. Pompeii). However, massive urban growth is affecting directly the existing historico-cultural resources throughout the European region, and little attention is given to this juxtaposing reality of peri-urban growth and cultural / archaeological heritage preservation. Also, the settling patterns within historico-cultural local clusters follow a similar pattern as current growth tendencies, given the physical conditions of land-use. This brings forth a dichotomy between areas to cope with population increase (and therefore highly probable of urbanization) and regions of valuable historico-cultural and archaeological legacy. To bridge this dichotomy, this paper attempts to provide a methodology for measuring cultural heritage endangerment brought by urban pressure. By using spatial modeling to prompt urban growth combined with archaeological predictive models, composing a secondary layer, a propensity map for areas with extremely high cultural value and where urban growth should be dealt with especial care become evident. Fundamentally, the joined model of Cultural Heritage Endangerment, tackles a recent and unprecedented problem at global level: Committing urban planning to allow the conservation of cultural and archaeological legacy for future generation. In an attempt to abridge the consequences of the decadence of historico-cultural landscapes, the historico-cultural endangerment (HCE) method will be applied to two entirely different regions in the world. On one side, the methodology will be applied on a regional emphasis in the Algarve region in Portugal, addressing the input of maintaining the integrity of archaeological landscapes, and on the other, a local micro-simulation of the Giza Pyramids in Egypt, shall allow to envision a segment of local consequences of urban pressure on irreplaceable monuments. The conclusions of both study-cases abridge the global nature of this problem as well as the importance of HCE implementation at different scales.

Vaz, Eric; Cabral, Pedro; Caetano, Mário; Painho, Marco; Nijkamp, Peter

2010-05-01

442

For Cultural Interpretation: A Study of the Culture of Homelessness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to demonstrate the value of conjunctural interpretive analysis (which is multilevel, multimodal, and explicitly theoretical and political) through an interpretation of the culture of homelessness in the United States. Addresses differences between positivist epistemologies. (SR)

Fiske, John

1991-01-01

443

Cultural History in Europe institutions -themes -perspectives  

E-print Network

1 Cultural History in Europe institutions - themes - perspectives International Conference questions: The institutionalisation of cultural history at universities, research institutes and other tradition of cultural history in the Scandinavian countries Denmark, Sweden and Norway, the common roots

Hanke-Bourgeois, Martin

444

7 CFR 58.433 - Cheese cultures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cheese cultures. 58.433 Section 58.433 Agriculture...Specifications for Raw Material § 58.433 Cheese cultures. Harmless microbial cultures used in the development of acid and flavor...

2012-01-01

445

7 CFR 58.433 - Cheese cultures.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cheese cultures. 58.433 Section 58.433 Agriculture...Specifications for Raw Material § 58.433 Cheese cultures. Harmless microbial cultures used in the development of acid and flavor...

2014-01-01

446

Making the Case for Middlebrow Culture  

E-print Network

The history of leisure culture in the Anglophone  Caribbean between serious and leisure culture that  preoccupies the culture  is  heavily  weighted  toward  women  in  that  women  are  more  apt  to  be  considered  “leisure”  (

Edmondson, Belinda

2010-01-01

447

Puerto Rican Cultural Center Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Puerto Rican Cultural Center Collection tells the story of the Juan Antonio Corretjer Puerto Rican Cultural Center in Chicago. The Center was created in 1973 to address both the social and cultural needs of the community. This digital offering was produced as part of a collaborative project between the Special Collections Department at the University of Illinois at Chicago, the University of Illinois Graduate School of Information and Library Science, and the Center. Users of the site can make their way through photographs, newspapers, books, and other ephemera. Currently there are over 400 items in the collection, which visitors can browse at their leisure or search via the included search engine.

2012-08-10

448

Cultural relativism and psychiatric illness.  

PubMed

Psychiatry has had a long-standing association with sociology and, especially, cultural anthropology. These social sciences have been influential in developing the concept of cultural relativism and applying it to psychiatry, sometimes in a challenging way and with much detriment. The concept has been used by some antipsychiatrists in attempts to discredit psychiatric practice. Contemporary psychiatrists endorsing a form of biological determinism have tended to either disregard the concept or judge it as trivial if not nonsensical. This study describes the concept of cultural relativism, reviews its applications to illness, and analyzes its implications from a historical and theoretical point of view. Its varied aspects, power, and limitations are discussed. PMID:2664073

Fabrega, H

1989-07-01

449

21 CFR 876.5885 - Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications. 876...culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications. (a...culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications...

2010-04-01

450

21 CFR 876.5885 - Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications. 876...culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications. (a...culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications...

2011-04-01

451

21 CFR 876.5885 - Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications. 876...culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications. (a...culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications...

2013-04-01

452

21 CFR 876.5885 - Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications. 876...culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications. (a...culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications...

2012-04-01

453

21 CFR 876.5885 - Tissue culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications.  

...culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications. 876...culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications. (a...culture media for human ex vivo tissue and cell culture processing applications...

2014-04-01

454

Homophily, Cultural Drift, and the Co-Evolution of Cultural Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies of cultural differentiation have shown that social mechanisms that normally lead to cultural convergence--homophily and influence--can also explain how distinct cultural groups can form. However, this emergent cultural diversity has proven to be unstable in the face of cultural drift--small errors or innovations that allow cultures to…

Centola, Damon; Gonzalez-Avella, Juan Carlos; Eguiluz, Victor M.; San Miguel, Maxi

2007-01-01

455

Corporate culture in a multicultural context: Analysis of signs of speech connected to cultural metaphors  

E-print Network

1 Corporate culture in a multicultural context: Analysis of signs of speech connected to cultural remains intact if not reinforced, or the bringing together of cultures wipes out diversity and creates hybrid cultures. Problem How is the influence of the local culture of a company on the corporate culture

Boyer, Edmond

456

world cultures Journal of Comparative and Cross-Cultural Research Vol 15 No 2 Spring 2006  

E-print Network

1045-0564 world cultures Journal of Comparative and Cross-Cultural Research Vol 15 No 2 Spring 2006 World Cultures CD Data Disk William Divale #12;WORLD CULTURES PUBLISHER William Divale EDITOR J. Patrick reserved. #12;world cultures Journal of Comparative and Cross-Cultural Research Vol 15 No 2 Spring 2006

White, Douglas R.

457

world cultures Journal of Comparative and Cross-Cultural Research Vol 15 No 1 Fall 2004  

E-print Network

1045-0564 world cultures Journal of Comparative and Cross-Cultural Research Vol 15 No 1 Fall 2004 J World Cultures CD Data Disk William Divale #12;WORLD CULTURES PUBLISHER William Divale EDITOR J. Patrick, CUNY. All rights reserved. #12;world cultures Journal of Comparative and Cross-Cultural Research Vol 15

White, Douglas R.

458

Organizational Culture andOrganizational Culture and Human Factors in HealthcareHuman Factors in Healthcare  

E-print Network

Organizational Culture andOrganizational Culture and Human Factors in HealthcareHuman Factors;TEAMWORK!TEAMWORK! #12;OverviewOverview ·· Organizational culture and adaptationOrganizational culture #12;Organizational Culture andOrganizational Culture and AdaptationAdaptation #12;Definitions

459

Culture’s building blocks: investigating cultural evolution in a LEGO construction task  

PubMed Central

One of the most essential but theoretically vexing issues regarding the notion of culture is that of cultural evolution and transmission: how a group’s accumulated solutions to invariant challenges develop and persevere over time. But at the moment, the notion of applying evolutionary theory to culture remains little more than a suggestive trope. Whereas the modern synthesis of evolutionary theory has provided an encompassing scientific framework for the selection and transmission of biological adaptations, a convincing theory of cultural evolution has yet to emerge. One of the greatest challenges for theorists is identifying the appropriate time scales and units of analysis in order to reduce the intractably large and complex phenomenon of “culture” into its component “building blocks.” In this paper, we present a model for scientifically investigating cultural processes by analyzing the ways people develop conventions in a series of LEGO construction tasks. The data revealed a surprising pattern in the selection of building bricks as well as features of car design across consecutive building sessions. Our findings support a novel methodology for studying the development and transmission of culture through the microcosm of interactive LEGO design and assembly. PMID:25309482

McGraw, John J.; Wallot, Sebastian; Mitkidis, Panagiotis; Roepstorff, Andreas

2014-01-01

460

Technical improvements in culturing blood.  

PubMed

Blood culture is a laboratory test where a blood specimen, taken from a patient, is inoculated into bottles containing culture media to determine if infection-causing microorganisms (bacteria or fungi) have invaded the patient's bloodstream. This test is an important investigation with major implications for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with bloodstream infections and possible sepsis. Moreover, blood culture will also provide the etiologic agent for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, enabling optimization of antibiotic therapy with significant impact on the outcome of the disease. Even if the potential benefices of blood culture are well known, critical factors mainly in pre- and post-analytical phases can reduce the clinical value of this test. PMID:25319777

Pardini, Giacomo

2015-01-01

461

Maintaining islet quality during culture  

E-print Network

Islet transplantation has become a promising treatment for type I diabetes mellitus due to recent success since the development of the Edmonton Protocol. Islet culture prior to transplantation is standard practice in most ...

Rappel, Michael J

2007-01-01

462

Culture: Copying, Compression, and Conventionality.  

PubMed

Through cultural transmission, repeated learning by new individuals transforms cultural information, which tends to become increasingly compressible (Kirby, Cornish, & Smith, ; Smith, Tamariz, & Kirby, ). Existing diffusion chain studies include in their design two processes that could be responsible for this tendency: learning (storing patterns in memory) and reproducing (producing the patterns again). This paper manipulates the presence of learning in a simple iterated drawing design experiment. We find that learning seems to be the causal factor behind the increase in compressibility observed in the transmitted information, while reproducing is a source of random heritable innovations. Only a theory invoking these two aspects of cultural learning will be able to explain human culture's fundamental balance between stability and innovation. PMID:25039798

Tamariz, Mónica; Kirby, Simon

2014-07-11

463

The Energy--Culture Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Understanding other cultures provides students with a global identification, which allows them to see how our nation fits into the world society. When advances in science are incorporated into multicultural lessons, students comprehend the relevance of sc

Barbara Urban

2000-03-01

464

[Culture and durability].  

PubMed

The concept of sustainability is usually defined according to specific socioeconomic contexts and is vague in application, but nevertheless essential for defining longterm objectives. This work seeks to demonstrate that the place of sustainability in a development model depends on the cultural values behind abstract ideas and on the perceptions and interests of different social and political groups regarding the environment more than it does on the biophysical exchanges between societies and the natural environment. The idea of sustainable development reflects a new political will to continue to live on earth in the same fashion as at present, but new forms on international organization, government, and commerce more conducive to sustainable development have not yet clearly emerged. Other concepts used in social and anthropological analysis, such as social reproduction, appear relevant in considering sustainability. Sustainable development should be analyzed and applied at both the macroeconomic and microeconomic levels. Demographic growth is a determining factor in use of natural resources in today's world, but its dysfunctionality at the macro level contrasts with its continuing functionality at the family level in many poor rural communities. An exploratory analysis of the living conditions of the natives of the tropical forest of southeast Mexico, the Lacandon, suggests how different populations understand the concept of sustainability and manage their vital resources accordingly. The Lacandon tropical forest of 1.4 million hectares had lost only 6% of its original cover through the early 1960s. But beginning in 1963, the Mexican government, as part of the Alliance for Progress program, began a colonization project that eventually led to disorganized migration and uncontrolled harvesting of tropical woods in the forests of Chiapas. A settlement program begun in the area nearest the Guatemalan border to control the movements of Guatemalan refugees and guerillas in the area led to massive deforestation. Although deforestation in the Lacandon forest has been prohibited, it continues to occur as new arrivals hoping for quick profits harvest anything of value they find. The major groups involved in the preservation or destruction of the Lacandon forest were the Indian and mestizo inhabitants, the opportunists in search of quick wealth, cattle ranchers, functionaires, and the urban populations of nearby Palenque. Although all groups believed that the forest had been created by a God, they differed as to its purpose. Some felt it existed to be exploited by humans in whatever fashion they desired, others felt a responsibility to protect the forest and its life. The natives appeared to have a more "sustainable" ideal of ecological protection, but in fact their rapid population growth represented an acute threat to the forest's resources. PMID:12343877

Arizpe, L; Paz, F

1992-01-01

465

Cultural perspectives on pain management.  

PubMed

Bedouin women tend to remain quiet and expressionless while giving birth despite reporting high levels of pain and fear (Harrison 1991). Culture undoubtedly influences pain perception and expression but there are dangers in making assumptions about particular groups. This article explores the underlying research and the complex clinical picture highlighting the need for cultural awareness--but ultimately we must care for the individual person in pain. PMID:19051959

Briggs, Emma

2008-11-01

466

Defining and Measuring Safeguards Culture  

SciTech Connect

In light of the shift toward State Level Evaluations and information driven safeguards, this paper offers a refined definition of safeguards culture and a set of metrics for measuring the extent to which a safeguards culture exists in a state. Where the IAEA is able to use the definition and metrics to come to a positive conclusion about the country, it may help reduce the burden on the Agency and the state.

Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

2010-07-31

467

Culture of Human Leukaemia Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

THIS communication describes the culture of four additional cell lines derived from the buffy coats of patients with leukaemia. Iwakata and Grace1 provided key information for culturing leukaemia cells and reported the establishment of a cell line, R.P.M.I. No. 6410. Fifteen cell lines were subsequently derived from the buffy coats of four patients with acute and chronic myelocytic leukaemia and

G. E. Moore; E. Ito; P. Citron

1966-01-01

468

Computer applications in cultural anthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This paper covers important developments in the use of computers for quantitative research in cultural anthropology, particularly\\u000a in areas which (unlike statistics) are uniquely anthropological. These fall into statistical topics and topics in scaling\\u000a and measurement. By far the largest single usage of computers by cultural anthropologists is for statistical summaries of\\u000a field data and for simple statistical tests such

Michael L. Burton

1970-01-01

469

The Pace of Cultural Evolution  

PubMed Central

Today, humans inhabit most of the world’s terrestrial habitats. This observation has been explained by the fact that we possess a secondary inheritance mechanism, culture, in addition to a genetic system. Because it is assumed that cultural evolution occurs faster than biological evolution, humans can adapt to new ecosystems more rapidly than other animals. This assumption, however, has never been tested empirically. Here, I compare rates of change in human technologies to rates of change in animal morphologies. I find that rates of cultural evolution are inversely correlated with the time interval over which they are measured, which is similar to what is known for biological rates. This correlation explains why the pace of cultural evolution appears faster when measured over recent time periods, where time intervals are often shorter. Controlling for the correlation between rates and time intervals, I show that (1) cultural evolution is faster than biological evolution; (2) this effect holds true even when the generation time of species is controlled for; and (3) culture allows us to evolve over short time scales, which are normally accessible only to short-lived species, while at the same time allowing for us to enjoy the benefits of having a long life history. PMID:23024804

Perreault, Charles

2012-01-01

470

[Cultural safety: a concept analysis].  

PubMed

Cultural safety is a concept that is getting more attention in scientific literature related to the cultural dimension of care. Difficulty to grasp the meaning and implications for research, education and practice is frequently raised by the authors. A concept analysis inspired by the evolutionary method of Rodgers was performed to better understand its meaning and its utility to the various fields of nursing. A systematic review of the literature was conducted in the databases CINAHL, PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, and Sociological Abstracts to identify literature published between 1988 and 2012 and containing the expression "cultural safety". 68 documents were analyzed. Findings included attributes, antecedents and consequences of cultural safety. The evolution of cultural safety through the various sociocultural and political contexts and application domains is also addressed. Issues related to the definition and operationalization of the concept, as well as the ability to export it out of its context of emergence, are discussed. The concept of cultural safety needs further development and a theoretical integration before reaching a conceptual clarity and effective operationalization. PMID:23409542

Blanchet Garneau, Amélie; Pepin, Jacinthe

2012-12-01

471

Relaciones Culturales de Mexico: Convenios de Intercambio Cultural y Asistencia Tecnica (Mexican Cultural Relations: Cultural Exchange and Technical Assistance Agreements).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1500 words) describing briefly Mexico's cultural relations with 23 nations with which she has cultural exchange agreements. The reasons for cultural exchange are stated, such as the belief that cultural relations promote good relations among nations. The agreements concluded between…

n10 p43-83, 1971

1971-01-01

472

Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines  

PubMed Central

In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome. PMID:24198436

Yoshino, T. P.; Bickham, U.; Bayne, C. J.

2013-01-01

473

Teaching History with Material Culture Evidence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews several definitions of material culture and material culture research. Identifies the special characteristics and pitfalls of material culture research appraising how such research can be useful in historical explanation. Forecasts expectations for materials culture research over the next decade. (JDH)

Schlereth, Thomas J.

1986-01-01

474

Cultural Variations in Learning and Learning Styles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for cross-cultural understanding of the relationship between culture and learning style is becoming increasingly important because of the changing cultural mix of classrooms and society at large. The research done regarding the two variables is mostly quantitative. This review summarizes results of the existing research on cultural

Omidvar, Pegah; Tan, Bee Hoon

2012-01-01

475

Globalized E-Learning Cultural Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Globalized E-Learning Cultural Challenges" explores the issues educators, administrators, and instructional designers face when transferring knowledge and skills to other cultures through e-learning. Most e-learning courses have been designed in Western cultures, but the largest and fastest-growing consumer groups live in Eastern cultures.…

Edmundson, Andrea, Ed.

2007-01-01

476

Culture, Time Orientation, and Exploratory Buying Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides researchers and practitioners with a better understanding of how consumers behave within a cross-cultural context. Literature often focuses on culture per se, but to understand consumer behavior better in a cross-cultural context, some studies have considered variables other than the key component elements of culture, encompassing families friends, society, etc. This research focuses on two slightly different

Patrick Legohérel; Bruno Daucé; Cathy H. C. Hsu; Ashok Ranchhold

2009-01-01

477

Scientific Knowledge and Cultural Diversity Proceedings  

E-print Network

: a cultural question? 218 Science on TV and radio: quality, quantity and new trends 240 Are InternetScientific Knowledge and Cultural Diversity Proceedings #12;Scientific Knowledge and Cultural Diversity PCST-8 www.pcst2004.org Forum of Cultures, Barcelona 2004 Proceedings PCST Network www

Verschure, Paul

478

The Cultural Context of Infant Caregiving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the significance of culture in infant care. Questions the universality of child development theory and research findings. Discusses cultural issues related to sleeping routines, including co-sleeping arrangements, the role of cultural elders or expert specialists, consequences of co-sleeping, and using an evolutionary, cross-cultural,…

Bhavnagri, Navaz Peshotan; Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

1997-01-01

479

Culturalizing Achievement Goal Theory and Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is primarily designed to provide a cultural analysis of the literature on achievement goals. First, an overview of the four dominant approaches to the study of culture--namely, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology, indigenous psychology, and psychological anthropology--is offered. Second, we analyze the extant body of…

Zusho, Akane; Clayton, Karen

2011-01-01

480

CULTURE AND MENTAL HEALTH FALL TERM, 2009  

E-print Network

illness". We will be exploring what our culture and various cultures of the world have to say about mental health, mental illness, and treatment of mental illness. We will be addressing questions like the following: --What is a mental illness? Do different cultures define it differently? What is meant by culture

Lockery, Shawn

481

CULTURE AND MENTAL HEALTH WINTER TERM, 2008  

E-print Network

illness". We will be exploring what our culture and various cultures of the world have to say about mental health, mental illness, and treatment of mental illness. We will be addressing questions like the following: --What is a mental illness? Do different cultures define it differently? What is meant by culture

Lockery, Shawn

482

Does Cultural Background Affect Volunteering Behavior?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this qualitative investigation is to help nonprofit organizations which rely heavily on the support of volunteers increase the effectiveness of their marketing by accounting for differences in cultural background among community members. It was conducted in the multi?cultural Australian context and included 79 participants from different cultural backgrounds. Findings indicate that as a whole, cultural groups differ

Melanie Randle; Sara Dolnicar

2009-01-01

483

Cultural Framing: Foreign Correspondents and Their Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the notion of cultural framing as a theoretical backdrop, a study examined the role of culture in the work of foreign correspondents. The aim was to explore cultural aspects of international news reporting that may suggest avenues for more systematic inquiry into the role of culture in the work of the foreign correspondent. Of 75 examined…

Starck, Kenneth; Villanueva, Estela

484

Ethnographic Bibliography Standard Cross-Cultural  

E-print Network

Focused Ethnographic Bibliography for the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample From World Cultures Focused Ethnographic Bibliography: Standard Cross-Cultural Sample. World Cultures, Vol. 2. Douglas R-quality description for each so as to construct a representative world sample of high-quality ethnographies

White, Douglas R.

485

Cross-Cultural Mentoring in Institutional Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both White faculty members and Black students bring their own cross-cultural ideology to mentoring relationships. Additionally, institutional culture and type often impact cross-cultural relationships via institutional mission, faculty expectation, and student development. Some researchers have found that race is not a factor in cross-cultural

Barker, Marco J.

2007-01-01

486

Shaping Teachers' Minds: Reflections on Cultural Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights certain cultural models that have been effective in swaying culturally inexperienced teachers to reflect upon their attitudes and biases toward culture and literacy. It presents the actual reflections of student teachers as they respond to learning about cultural models of learning and discourse that may differ from their…

Aminy, Marina; Neophytos-Richardson, Aspasia

487

Nature/Culture/Seawater Stefan Helmreich  

E-print Network

Nature/Culture/Seawater Stefan Helmreich ABSTRACT Seawater has occupied an ambiguous place in anthropological categories of "nature" and "culture." Seawater as nature appears as potentiality of form and uncontainable flux; it moves faster than culture--with culture frequently figured through land-based metaphors

Polz, Martin

488

Political Culture as Context for Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One way to understand the context of evaluation is in terms of its interaction with political culture. That culture includes citizens' views of the role of government and of evaluation and the history of the polity. This chapter illustrates the relationship of political culture and evaluation by means of two accounts of Danish political culture.…

Dahler-Larsen, Peter; Schwandt, Thomas A.

2012-01-01

489

world cultures J. Patrick Gray, Editor  

E-print Network

1045-0564 world cultures J. Patrick Gray, Editor PROLEGOMENA Contents and How to Use This Issue J: A Reconsideration Andrey Korotayev World Cultures CD Data Disk William Divale Journal of Comparative and Cross-Cultural Research Vol 13 No 1 Spring 2002 #12;WORLD CULTURES PUBLISHER William Divale EDITOR J. Patrick Gray

White, Douglas R.

490

Influence of organizational culture on human error  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corporate culture plays an important role in the level of success an organization can achieve. Several electric utilities have documented strategic culture change resulting in improved operational and financial performance. Building on this, PP&L undertook a study to identify the relationship between organizational culture and human error at the Susquehanna Steam Electric Station, USA. Cultural values deemed important were determined

M. A. Fiedlander; Susan A. Evans

1997-01-01

491

SNL/CA Cultural Resources Management Plan.  

SciTech Connect

The SNL/CA Cultural Resources Management Plan satisfies the site's Environmental Management System requirement to promote long-term stewardship of cultural resources. The plan summarizes the cultural and historical setting of the site, identifies existing procedures and processes that support protection and preservation of resources, and outlines actions that would be initiated if cultural resources were discovered onsite in the future.3

Larsen, Barbara L.

2005-11-01

492

The business of international business is culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

National cultures are distinguished from organizational cultures. The first have been studied from over 50 countries, and described with the help of five dimensions. The differences shown set limits to the validity of management theories across borders. Special attention is paid to characteristics of East Asian cultures that help explain the recent economic success of these countries. Organizational cultures were

Geert Hofstede

1994-01-01

493

From Artificial Intelligence to Artificial Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, cognitive sciences in general and artificial intelligence in particular have had little to say about human culture. However, if the modest success of nascent field of cognitive science of culture in explaining aspects of culture is any indication, further contributions from cognitive scientists may be needed to develop a predictive computational science of culture. This paper outlines a number

M. Afzal Upal

494

ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE, SAFETY CULTURE, AND SAFETY PERFORMANCE AT RESEARCH FACILITIES.  

SciTech Connect

Organizational culture surveys of research facilities conducted several years ago and archival occupational injury reports were used to determine whether differences in safety performance are related to general organizational factors or to ''safety culture'' as reflected in specific safety-related dimensions. From among the organizations surveyed, a pair of facilities was chosen that were similar in size and scientific mission while differing on indices of work-related injuries. There were reliable differences in organizational style between the facilities, especially among workers in environment, safety, and health functions; differences between the facilities (and among job categories) on the safety scale were more modest and less regular.

BROWN,W.S.

2000-07-30

495

Algal culture studies for CELSS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microalgae are well-suited as a component of a Closed Environmental Life Support System (CELSS), since they can couple the closely related functions of food production and atmospheric regeneration. The objective was to provide a basis for predicting the response of CELSS algal cultures, and thus the food supply and air regeneration system, to changes in the culture parameters. Scenedesmus growth was measured as a function of light intensity, and the spectral dependence of light absorption by the algae as well as algal respiration in the light were determined as a function of cell concentration. These results were used to test and confirm a mathematical model that describes the productivity of an algal culture in terms of the competing processes of photosynthesis and respiration. The relationship of algal productivity to cell concentration was determined at different carbon dioxide concentrations, temperatures, and light intensities. The maximum productivity achieved by an air-grown culture was found to be within 10% of the computed maximum productivity, indicating that CO2 was very efficiently removed from the gas stream by the algal culture. Measurements of biomass productivity as a function of cell concentration at different light intensities indicated that both the productivity and efficiency of light utilization were greater at higher light intensities.

Radmer, R.; Behrens, P.; Arnett, K.; Gladue, R.; Cox, J.; Lieberman, D.

1987-01-01

496