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There is a great need for improved methods for the diagnosis of tuberculosis by techniques that are appropriate for control programs in low-income countries. Liquefaction of sputum with sodium hypochlorite followed by concentration of bacilli through overnight sedimentation significantly increases the sensitivity of direct microscopy, and this method could be an alternative for diagnostic centers not equipped with a centrifuge. PMID:8940473
Polycarbonate membrane filters were used to concentrate 916 sputum specimens for detecting acid-fastbacilli by microscopic examination. These results were compared with those of smears prepared from centrifugates and direct smears of the same specimens. Culture isolation, the control procedure, demonstrated the presence of acid-fastbacilli in 76 specimens. The number of positive specimens detected by microscopy was 82 on polycarbonate membrane filter concentrates, with an 80.2% sensitivity; 53 on centrifugate smears, with a 62.2% sensitivity; and 44 on direct smears, with a 55.8% sensitivity. Acid-fast microscopy results demonstrated that the sensitivity of the polycarbonate membrane filter sputum concentration method was superior to that of the recommended centrifuge concentration method and that the former method may be considered a rapid alternative when culture for acid-fastbacilli is impractical. PMID:6788799
Background Early diagnosis and treatment of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung diseases (NTM-LD) and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) are important clinical issues. The present study aimed to compare and identify the chest CT characteristics that help to distinguish NTM lung disease from PTB in patients with acid-fastbacilli (AFB) smear-positive sputum. Methods From January 2009 to April 2012, we received 467 AFB smear-positive sputum specimens. A total of 95 CT scans obtained from the 159 patients were analyzed, 75 scans were from patients with PTB and 20 scans from NTM-LD. The typical chest CT findings of mycobacterial diseases were analyzed. Results In patients with PTB, the prevalence of pleural effusion (38.7% vs. 15.0%; P =0.047), nodules?10 mm in size (76.0% vs. 25.0%; P?0.001), tree-in-bud pattern (81.3% vs. 55.0%; P =0.021), and cavities (31.1% vs. 5.0%; P =0.018) were significantly higher than patients with NTM. Of the 20 patients with NTM lung diseases, bronchiectasis and cystic changes were significantly higher than patients with PTB (20.0% vs. 4.0%; P?=?0.034). In multivariate analysis, CT scan findings of nodules was independently associated with patients with diagnoses of PTB (odds ratio [OR], 0.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.02-0.30). Presence of bronchiectasis and cystic changes in CT scans was strongly associated with patients with NTM-LD (OR, 33.04; 95% CI, 3.01-362.55). Conclusions The CT distinction between NTM-LD and PTB may help radiologists and physicians to know the most likely diagnoses in AFB-smear positive patients and avoid unnecessary adverse effects and the related costs of anti-TB drugs in endemic areas.
The information on the contribution of non tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) to mycobacterial infections in Africa is scarce due to limited laboratory culture for its isolation and identification. One hundred and thirty-seven sputum smear positive patients were recruited into a study on the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Cross River State. Following sputum culture, 97 pure isolates were obtained and identified using Capilia TB-Neo and further confirmed by the GenoType Mycobacterium CM kit. Of the 97 isolates, 81 (83.5%) isolates were Capilia TB-Neo positive while 16 (16.5%) were Capilia TB-Neo negative. Further confirmation with the GenoType Mycobacterium CM kit revealed that 4 (25%) of the 16 isolates belonged to NTM and included M. fortuitum I, M. fortuitum II/M magaritense, M. abscessus, and M. avium ssp. The remaining 12 (75%) Capilia TB-Neo negative isolates were not members of the genus Mycobacterium despite their AFB appearance. Six (33.3%) of the Capilia TB-Neo negative were from HIV positive tuberculosis patients. All subjects in this study were placed on DOTS shortly after the AFB results were obtained. The implication of isolation of 16.5% nontuberculous isolates further emphasizes the need for culture of sputum specimen especially in HIV positive patients prior to administration of antituberculosis therapy. PMID:22919477
Broth culture is a standard method for detection of acid-fast bacteria (AFB) (e.g., Mycobacterium and Nocardia) from patient specimens. Direct nucleic acid-based identification from smear-positive broths expedites the infectious disease diagnosis. We developed and evaluated the performance of a pyrogram-based technique (direct-broth-pyrosequencing [DBP]) to identify AFB directly from smear-positive broths. One hundred thirteen AFB-positive broths from patient specimens were tested. Bacterial DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced using the PyroMark ID system. The DBP method correctly identified the AFB species/group in 109 (97%) of the 113 broths, including 15 Mycobacterium species and 4 Nocardia species. Three broths that yielded indeterminate results were found to be AFB-AFB mixed broths and required purified colonies on solid media for definite identification. The 4th broth was repeatedly identified by sequencing to be Mycobacterium intracellulare, even though the organism was not isolated and the AccuProbe was negative. This method did not identify the AFB organisms from broths containing 2 AFB organisms, but did not produce false identification. No cross-reaction was observed when AFB-positive broths were spiked with non-AFB microorganisms, indicating that the DBP method was specific to AFB. The DBP method gives rapid (within 8 h), accurate AFB identification directly from broth cultures and provides another useful AFB identification tool in a clinical laboratory. PMID:24745819
Mycobacterium species cause a variety of clinical diseases, some of which may be species specific. Therefore, it is clinically desirable to rapidly identify and differentiate mycobacterial isolates to the species level. We developed a rapid and high-throughput system, MycoID, to identify Mycobacterium species directly from acid-fast bacillus (AFB)-positive mycobacterial culture broth. The MycoID system incorporated broad-range PCR followed by suspension array hybridization to identify 17 clinically relevant mycobacterial complexes, groups, and species in one single reaction. We evaluated a total of 271 AFB-positive culture broth specimens, which were identified by reference standard methods in combination with biochemical and molecular tests. The overall identification agreement between the standard and the MycoID system was 89.7% (perfect match) or 97.8% (one match in codetection). In comparison to the standard, the MycoID system possessed an overall sensitivity of 97.1% and specificity of 98.8%. The 159 Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex isolates were further identified to the species level by MycoID as being M. avium (n = 98; 61.1%), M. intracellulare (n = 57; 35.8%), and mixed M. avium and M. intracellulare (n = 2; 1.3%). M. avium was recovered more frequently from sterile sites than M. intracellulare (odds ratio, 4.6; P = 0.0092). The entire MycoID procedure, including specimen processing, can be completed within 5 h, providing rapid and reliable identification and differentiation of mycobacterium species that is amenable to automation. Additional differentiation of Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex strains into M. avium and M. intracellulare may provide a tool to better understand the role of Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex isolates in human disease.
... The slide is then washed with an acid solution and a different stain is applied. Bacteria that hold onto the first dye are considered "acid-fast" because they resist the acid wash. This type of bacteria is associated with tuberculosis and other infections.
Historically, sunlight has seemed to fortify antituberculosis resistance. Evidence is presented here suggesting a role for vitamin D in this effect. The active metabolite of this photosynthesized vitamin, 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 (1,25D), promotes maturation and activation of human monocytes and macrophages (MPs). Therefore, it was tested for ability to protect MPs against virulent tubercle bacilli. MPs were derived by 7-day culture from blood monocytes, infected with the bacilli, and exposed to 1,25D in several regimens. Their inhibition of bacilli was measured by lysing samples of the cultures at 0, 4, and 7 days after infection and making bacillary CFU counts from serial dilutions of the lysates. 1,25D enabled MPs to slow or stop bacillary replication. Autologous serum supported the 1,25D-induced protection because the vitamin was not effective in medium supplemented with a serum substitute and was less effective in a heterologous AB serum than in autologous serum. The protection developed rapidly and could be induced even when 1,25D was added 3 days after infection. A concentration on the order of 4 micrograms/ml was needed for protection by the regimens used in these experiments. That is considerably higher than normal circulating concentrations of 1,25D but could be reached in infectious granulomas, because MPs can make 1,25D from precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. The precursor circulates at levels 10(3) higher than those of 1,25D and is directly influenced by dietary intake or photosynthetic production of vitamin D. These results identify 1,25D as an immunomodulator which can reproducibly activate human MPs to express tuberculoimmunity. They connect vitamin D, sunlight, and tuberculoimmunity and suggest that vitamin D should be considered a vital factor in the practical control of tuberculosis.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) can persist within the human host for years without causing disease, in a syndrome known as latent tuberculosis. The mechanisms by which M. tuberculosis establishes a latent metabolic state is unknown, but it is hypothesized that reduced oxygen tension may trigger the bacillus to enter a state of latency. Therefore, we are studying anaerobic culture of M. tuberculosis (H37RV) as a model of latency. For the first time, the sequential adaptation of latent bacilli (every 90 days for 48 months) viewed under Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Two types of adaptation were observed and are described here. First, cells are undergoing temporary adaptation (from 1 to 18 months of latency) that includes; thickening of cell wall (20.5±1.8 nm versus 15.2±1.8 nm, P<0.05), formation of ovoid cells by “folding phenomena”(65-70%), size reduction (0.8±0.1 ?m versus 2.5±0.5 ?m), and budding type of cell division (20-25%).A second feature include changes that accompany development of specialized cells i.e., production of spore like cells (0.5±0.2 ?m) and their progeny (filterable non -acidfast forms; 150 to 300 ?m in size). Although, these cells were not real spore because they fail to form a heat resistant colony forming units, after incubation for 35-40 min at 65°C. The filterable non-acidfast forms of bacilli are metabolically active and increased their number by symmetrical type of cell-division. Therefore, survival strategies that developed by M. tuberculosis under oxygen limited condition are linked to its shape, size and conspicuous loss of acidfastness.
Velayati, Ali Akbar; Farnia, Parissa; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Zhavnerko, Gennady Konstantinovich; Merza, Muayad Aghali; Ghanavi, Jalladein; Tabarsi, Payam; Farnia, Poopak; Poleschuyk, Nikolai Nikolaevich; Ignatyev, George
Disseminated infection caused by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is common in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome and is difficult to treat because of the high degree of resistance to antimycobacterial agents. Early diagnosis and treatment may prolong survival of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome and MAC infection. Twenty patients with disseminated MAC infection were evaluated for recovery of the organism from bone marrow, bronchial washings or sputum, and stools before the organism was isolated in blood culture. For 40 to 67% of patients, MAC was recovered from these specimens before it was isolated in blood culture.
The yield of mycobacterial culture from acid-fast-bacillus smear-positive sputum specimens was 387 or 439 (88.2%). Forty-nine of 52 culture-negative specimens came from patients on treatment. We conclude that the yield of culture from smear-positive sputum specimens is very high and that only two acid-fast-bacillus smear-positive specimens are needed for the initial evaluation of pulmonary mycobacteriosis.
Stone, B L; Burman, W J; Hildred, M V; Jarboe, E A; Reves, R R; Wilson, M L
A 14-year-old boy presented with a pink firm plaque with well-defined borders in the right infra-orbital skin area. On diascopy, the infiltrate exhibited a typical apple-jelly appearance. No acid-fastbacilli could be demonstrated. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay did not reveal the presence of mycobacteria in a lesional biopsy sample. Culture of biopsied tissue on Loewenstein-Jensen medium was negative.
We report a novel anaerobe causing abscess in four patients at three hospitals. In the clinical specimen, bacilli were branching, Gram positive, and acidfast. The organism grew slowly and was not identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Our findings support the description of a new genus and species of the suborder Corynebacterineae.
Bell, M.; Bernard, K.; Lagace-Wiens, P.; Schuetz, A. N.; Hartman, B.; McQuiston, J. R.; Wilson, D.; LaSalvia, M.; Ng, B.; Richter, S.; Taege, A.
Mycobacterium avium is a cause of nontuberculous chronic granulomatous infections which is attracting increased attention as a frequent opportunistic pathogen in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Some important aspects of its human pathogenicity were investigated by using cultured human macrophages infected with it. The uptake and replication of various strains of M. avium in the macrophages could be measured by CFU counts of the bacteria in samples of lysed, sonicated macrophages. Microscopic counts of acid-fastbacilli were not useful because the bacteria multiplying in the macrophages were usually not acidfast. Electron microscopy showed the intracellular bacilli to multiply by transverse fission, to be surrounded in individual vacuoles by a broad electronlucent zone, and to have thinner cell walls than extracellularly grown M. avium. Fifteen strains, including examples of serovars 1, 2, 4, 8, and 9, were studied for uptake and rate of replication in cultured macrophages from three normal subjects. The strains were isolates from patients with nontuberculous granulomatous infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or unrelated problems, or they were laboratory reference cultures. There were no differences among them in phagocytosis, but there were differences in intracellular replication. Laboratory strains tended to be avirulent, that is, they did not replicate in the macrophages. Patient isolates usually were virulent and could be compared for virulence by intracellular replication rates. Virulence correlated with flat, transparent bacterial colony morphology on nutrient agar but not with serovar or kind of patient from whom the bacteria were isolated. However, among strains of transparent colony morphology there were wide differences in virulence. A virulent bacilli generally produced domed, opalescent colonies on nutrient agar. A virulent bacilli predominated in populations of M. avium conditioned to growth in bacteriologic culture medium. Bacilli of virulent colony morphology predominated in populations passaged through cultured macrophages. The model described here presents a new approach to the investigation of the pathogenicity of M. avium for human subjects and may be more patient relevant than animal models. Images
A new broth-based nonradioactive culture system, MB-Redox (Heipha Diagnostika Biotest, Germany), was compared with the liquid\\u000a radiometric Bactec 460 TB system and the solid Löwenstein-Jensen (L-J) medium for recovery rate and time to detection of mycobacteria.\\u000a Of the 605 clinical specimens studied, 100 grew acid-fastbacilli (AFB). The isolation rate for all AFB was 84% for Bactec,\\u000a 69% for MB-Redox,
Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli display two signature features: acid-fast staining and the capacity to induce long-term latent infections in humans. However, the mechanisms governing these two important processes remain largely unknown. Ser/Thr phosphorylation has recently emerged as an important regulatory mechanism allowing mycobacteria to adapt their cell wall structure/composition in response to their environment. Herein, we evaluated whether phosphorylation of KasB, a crucial mycolic acid biosynthetic enzyme, could modulate acid-fast staining and virulence. Tandem mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that phosphorylation of KasB occurred at Thr334 and Thr336 both in vitro and in mycobacteria. Isogenic strains of M. tuberculosis with either a deletion of the kasB gene or a kasB_T334D/T336D allele, mimicking constitutive phosphorylation of KasB, were constructed by specialized linkage transduction. Biochemical and structural analyses comparing these mutants to the parental strain revealed that both mutant strains had mycolic acids that were shortened by 4-6 carbon atoms and lacked trans-cyclopropanation. Together, these results suggested that in M. tuberculosis, phosphorylation profoundly decreases the condensing activity of KasB. Structural/modeling analyses reveal that Thr334 and Thr336 are located in the vicinity of the catalytic triad, which indicates that phosphorylation of these amino acids would result in loss of enzyme activity. Importantly, the kasB_T334D/T336D phosphomimetic and deletion alleles, in contrast to the kasB_T334A/T336A phosphoablative allele, completely lost acid-fast staining. Moreover, assessing the virulence of these strains indicated that the KasB phosphomimetic mutant was attenuated in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice following aerosol infection. This attenuation was characterized by the absence of lung pathology. Overall, these results highlight for the first time the role of Ser/Thr kinase-dependent KasB phosphorylation in regulating the later stages of mycolic acid elongation, with important consequences in terms of acid-fast staining and pathogenicity. PMID:24809459
Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli display two signature features: acid-fast staining and the capacity to induce long-term latent infections in humans. However, the mechanisms governing these two important processes remain largely unknown. Ser/Thr phosphorylation has recently emerged as an important regulatory mechanism allowing mycobacteria to adapt their cell wall structure/composition in response to their environment. Herein, we evaluated whether phosphorylation of KasB, a crucial mycolic acid biosynthetic enzyme, could modulate acid-fast staining and virulence. Tandem mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that phosphorylation of KasB occurred at Thr334 and Thr336 both in vitro and in mycobacteria. Isogenic strains of M. tuberculosis with either a deletion of the kasB gene or a kasB_T334D/T336D allele, mimicking constitutive phosphorylation of KasB, were constructed by specialized linkage transduction. Biochemical and structural analyses comparing these mutants to the parental strain revealed that both mutant strains had mycolic acids that were shortened by 4–6 carbon atoms and lacked trans-cyclopropanation. Together, these results suggested that in M. tuberculosis, phosphorylation profoundly decreases the condensing activity of KasB. Structural/modeling analyses reveal that Thr334 and Thr336 are located in the vicinity of the catalytic triad, which indicates that phosphorylation of these amino acids would result in loss of enzyme activity. Importantly, the kasB_T334D/T336D phosphomimetic and deletion alleles, in contrast to the kasB_T334A/T336A phosphoablative allele, completely lost acid-fast staining. Moreover, assessing the virulence of these strains indicated that the KasB phosphomimetic mutant was attenuated in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice following aerosol infection. This attenuation was characterized by the absence of lung pathology. Overall, these results highlight for the first time the role of Ser/Thr kinase-dependent KasB phosphorylation in regulating the later stages of mycolic acid elongation, with important consequences in terms of acid-fast staining and pathogenicity.
Although granulomatous lobular mastitis is associated with gram-positive bacilli such as Corynebacterium, this association is not well known. We report 3 cases of mastitis caused by gram-positive bacilli. All 3 abscesses were suppurative with distinct enlarged cystic spaces in which rare gram-positive bacilli were identified. Two cases were also granulomatous. Cultures in all 3 cases were negative. All 3 patients recovered after biopsy and tetracycline-based therapy. Infection in the breast by gram-positive bacilli is associated with a distinct histologic pattern, including cystic spaces in the setting of neutrophilic/granulomatous inflammation that can be recognized and should prompt careful search for the organism within enlarged vacuoles. PMID:21846918
Renshaw, Andrew A; Derhagopian, Robert P; Gould, Edwin W
The initial growth of mycobacteria from 49 samples of cattle and buffalo organs collected in commercial slaughterhouses was compared between modified Middlebrook 7H11 thin layer microcolony culture and Stonebrink medium used in the isolation of Mycobacterium bovis. Aliquots were decontaminated by Petroff’s method, processed and cultured in both media. The identity of the acid-fastbacilli stained by Ziehl-Neelsen was confirmed by PCR. Optical microscopy showed that results of the early observation of Mycobacterium bovis colonies in thin layer culture were similar to those obtained in macroscopic observation of the colonies in Stonebrink medium. However, early observation of the colonies enabled early confirmation by PCR, given the shorter time to the visualization of colonies when thin layer culture was used (between the 12nd and 25th day of culture).
The algorithm for a new identification system was designed on the basis of colony color and morphology on CHROMagar Orientation medium in conjunction with simple biochemical tests such as indole (IND), lysine decarboxylase (LDC), and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) utilization tests with gram-negative bacilli isolated from urine samples as well as pus, stool, and other clinical specimens by the following colony characteristics, biochemical reactions, and serological results: pinkish to red, IND positive (IND(+)), Escherichia coli; metallic blue, IND(+), LDC(+), and ODC negative (ODC(-)), Klebsiella oxytoca; IND(+), LDC(-), and ODC(+), Citrobacter diversus; IND(+) or IND(-), LDC(-), and ODC(-), Citrobacter freundii; IND(-), LDC(+), and ODC(+), Enterobacter aerogenes; IND(-), LDC(-), and ODC(+), Enterobacter cloacae; IND(-), LDC(+), and ODC(-), Klebsiella pneumoniae; diffuse brown and IND(+), Morganella morganii; IND(-), Proteus mirabilis; aqua blue, Serratia marcescens; bluish green and IND(+), Proteus vulgaris; transparent yellow-green, serology positive, Pseudomonas aeruginosa; clear and serology positive, Salmonella sp.; other colors and reactions, the organism was identified by the full identification methods. The accuracy and cost-effectiveness of this new system were prospectively evaluated. During an 8-month period, a total of 345 specimens yielded one or more gram-negative bacilli. A total of 472 gram-negative bacillus isolates were detected on CHROMagar Orientation medium. For 466 of the isolates (98.7%), no discrepancies in the results were obtained on the basis of the identification algorithm. The cost of identification of gram-negative bacilli during this period was reduced by about 70%. The results of this trial for the differentiation of the most commonly encountered gram-negative pathogens in clinical specimens with the new algorithm were favourable in that it permitted reliable detection and presumptive identification. In addition, this rapid identification system not only significantly reduced costs but it also improved the daily work flow within the clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID:11101600
... BA, Sahm DF, Weissfeld AS, Bailey & Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology 12th Edition: Mosby Elsevier, St. Louis, MO; 2007, ... hendrickhealth.org . Mycobacteriology, Introduction to the Genus Mycobacteria. Microbiology Public Health for Northern Alberta, Bugs on the ...
This prospective study was undertaken to determine the interpretation of "scanty-positive" acid-fastbacilli on microscopy and to reevaluate simultaneous microscopy and culture of sputum for the accurate diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). A total of 2,560 specimens were processed from 727 patients. There were 435 positive specimens (17.0 percent), originating from 139 patients, 10 by microscopy only, 176 by culture only, and 249 on both microscopy and culture. Review of the hospital records showed that 107 patients had PTB, 1 had Mycobacterium kansasii colonization, and 31 were thought not to have PTB. Sensitivity and specificity were 53.1 and 99.8 percent for microscopy, 81.5 and 98.4 percent for culture, and 77.6 and 100 percent for microscopy and culture, respectively. Seventy-five microscopy specimens (46 patients) were reported as scanty-positive, of which five (four patients) were deemed false positives, yielding a positive predictive value of 93.3 percent. In those patients with positive sputum microscopy, acid-fastbacilli were detected in one of the first four specimens. Seven isolates (three patients) were mycobacteria other than tubercle (0.27 percent of specimens and 1.6 percent of mycobacteria cultured). Despite the ready availability of laboratory evidence of disease, only 73 percent of cases were diagnosed by ward staff and 36 percent notified by the primary physician. Eleven patients (10.3 percent) died, six of whom had not received diagnoses of PTB before death. Sputum microscopy and culture remains reliable despite Bayesian predictions when applied to a population with a decreasing incidence of tuberculosis. PMID:2656111
Levy, H; Feldman, C; Sacho, H; van der Meulen, H; Kallenbach, J; Koornhof, H
Evidence is presented which suggests that certain key markers of lepra bacilli reside collectively in Proprionibacterium acnes, Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum and Mycobacterium leprae. The unrestricted replication of Mycobacterium leprae depends most probably upon the presence of an immune-deficiency-inducing viral agent or possibly on the combined effects of the organisms considered. PMID:6398580
Background Early laboratory detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is crucial for controlling tuberculosis. We developed a hydrogel mycobacterial culture method that retains the advantages of both solid and liquid methods in terms of speed, cost, and efficiency. Methods Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) suspensions and 200 acid-fastbacilli (AFB)-positive clinical specimens were inoculated in Middlebrook 7H9 liquid media (Becton-Dickinson and Company, USA) and mixed with 75 µL of 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-Phe-Phe-OH hydrogel stock solution in an Eppendorf tube just before culture incubation. The mixtures were cultured at 37? for as long as 14 days to monitor culture status. Results The number of M. bovis BCG increased with time. For 200 AFB smear-positive specimens, 155 of 158 conventional culture-positive specimens and 4 culture-negative or contaminated specimens yielded positive cultures within 14 days. For 128 specimens positive with the liquid culture method, the time to positive culture using the hydrogel method (mean, 12.6 days; range, 7 to 14 days) was significantly shorter than that for conventional liquid culture (mean, 16.2 days; range, 6 to 31 days; P<0.0001). Conclusions The hydrogel scaffold culture system is useful for timely, economical, and efficient detection of mycobacteria in clinical specimens.
Jang, Mi Hee; Kim, Shine Young; Kim, Chang-Ki; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Sung Soo; Lee, Eun Yup
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which kills about 2 million people annually. Furthermore, 2 billion people worldwide are latently infected with this organism, with 10% of them reactivating to active TB due to re-growth of nonreplicating (dormant) Mtb residing in their tissues. Because of the huge reservoir of latent TB it is important to find novel drugs/drug combinations killing dormant bacilli (microaerophiles, anaerobes and drug-tolerant persisters) surviving for decades in a wide spectrum of granulomatous lesions in the lungs of TB patients. Antibiotic treatment of drug-susceptible TB requires administration of isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol for 2 months, followed by isoniazid and rifampin for 4 months. To avoid reactivation of dormant Mtb to active pulmonary TB, up to 9 months of treatment with isoniazid is required. Therefore, a strategy to eliminate dormant bacilli needs to be developed to shorten therapy of active and latent TB and reduce the reservoir of people with latent TB. Finding drugs with high rate of penetration into the caseous granulomas and understanding the biology of dormant bacilli and in particular of persister cells, phenotypically resistant to antibiotics, will be essential to eradicate Mtb from humans. In recent years unprecedented efforts have been done in TB drug discovery, aimed at identifying novel drugs and drug combinations killing both actively replicating and nonreplicating Mtb in vitro, in animal models and in clinical trials in humans.
ICRC-bacilli strain C-44 when grown in Dubos medium of its equivalent, express M. avium taxonomic biochemical characters. Assuming that difference in characters of M. leprae and ICRC bacilli, could be due to 'in vivo' and 'in vitro' milieu, we altered the substrates in the medium. The bacilli grow well in the new medium containing selenium, ferric nitrate, magnesium chloride and deleting Tween 80. The ICRC strain C-44 grown in new medium expressed characters: 9/10 similarity with M. leprae. The 10 day tween hydrolysis reaction in weak but positive. It is probable that 'M. leprae culture isolate', may have acquired 'in vitro' growth potential by recombination with M. avium, an ubiquitous mycobacterium. The M. leprae culture isolate thus may express some characters of both M. leprae and M. avium. PMID:6387003
dangerous processes in the pathogenesis of human pulmonary tuberculosis. In liquefied caseum, the tubercle bacilli grow extracellularly for thefirst time since the onset of the disease and can reach such large numbers that mutants with antimicrobial resistance may develop. From a cavity, the bacilli enter the bronchial tree and spreadtootherpartsofthelungandalsotootherpeople.Ofthecommonlyusedlaboratoryanimals,therabbit is the only one in which cavitary tuberculosis can be
PAUL J. CONVERSE; ARTHUR M. DANNENBERG; JAMES E. ESTEP; KATSUNORI SUGISAKI; YASUHARU ABE; BRIAN H. SCHOFIELD; LOUISE M. PITT; Fort Detrick
Aerobic spore-bearing bacilli have been proposed as a surrogate indicator for the removal of Cryptosporidium by drinking water treatment processes. Pasteurisation of samples followed by culture on non-selective media is the method of choice. Using white membranes for filtration of water samples makes colony counting difficult. Vital dyes such as neutral red or trypan blue can help when added to
Carol A Francis; Amanda C Lockley; David P Sartory; John Watkins
Understanding the significance of cytopathological tests in evaluating various infectious processes have become very essential nowadays, as it is a safe, fast, and cost-effective procedure. We present a case of a 52-year-old male with Salmonella empyema where the causative organisms were initially identified on cytology, and subsequently confirmed by microbiological culture. Diff-Quik stained smears showed many colorless, slender, fat short bacilli, which were visualized against the blue-gray background of the smear. These bacilli were identified both intracellularly inside the histiocytes and neutrophils cytoplasm as well as extracellularly in the smear background. We consider that this negative image represents the organism and its capsule creating an area that did not take the Diff-Quik stain. The patient was treated accordingly with suitable antibiotics. A brief discussion of this interesting finding in such a rare infection with pertinent literature review is presented. PMID:24445896
Al-Faraj, Zahrah H; Hassan, Hoda A; Abdalhamid, Baha A; Al-Abbadi, Mousa A
Anionic phosphate-containing cell wall polymers of bacilli are represented by teichoic acids and poly(glycosyl 1-phosphates).\\u000a Different locations of phosphodiester bonds in the main chain of teichoic acids as well as the nature and combination of the\\u000a constituent structural elements underlie their structural diversity. Currently, the structures of teichoic acids of bacilli\\u000a can be classified into three types, viz. poly(polyol phosphates)
N. V. Potekhina; G. M. Streshinskaya; E. M. Tul’skaya; Yu. I. Kozlova; S. N. Senchenkova; A. S. Shashkov
Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) was induced in C3H mice by subcutaneous immunization with Mycobacterium lepraemurium (MLM) antigens in Freund's complete (FCA) or Freund's incomplete (FIA) adjuvant. The total ultrasonicate (MLMSon-P) of MLM bacilli as well as the water soluble fraction (MLMSon-S) of this ultrasonicate was found effective. MLMSon-S was used as the test antigen. Specific DTH also developed after immunization with heat-killed MLM bacilli in FIA, but not with heat-killed bacilli in saline. Some mice were pre-treated with cyclophosphamide (CY) or splenectomized to augment the effect of immunization. In no instance was DTH to MLMSon-S accompanied by detectable local reactivity to live MLM bacilli measured as swelling of the infected footpad or by reduced multiplication or dissemination of the bacilli during the first 11 weeks after inoculation. As determined by testing in the infected footpad 8 weeks after inoculation, MLM infection did not induce DTH to MLMSon-S in non-immunized mice, and MLM infection was found to neither augment nor suppress established DTH to MLMSon-S. The experiments thus demonstrated a clear dissociation between DTH to MLMSon-S and local reactivity to live MLM bacilli, as well as between DTH to MLMSon-S and protective immunity to MLM infection.
BACKGROUND: Acidfast cell wall deficient forms (CWDF) of bacteria have been grown from blood, bronchial washings, and ocular anterior chamber fluid from patients with sarcoidosis. A monoclonal antibody raised against Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole cell antigen (H37RV) was used to characterise further CWDF grown from the blood of patients with sarcoidosis. METHODS: Blood from 20 patients with active sarcoidosis and from 20 controls was cultured using methods favourable for the growth of CWDF. Isolates were further characterised by indirect fluorescent antibody analysis using a monoclonal antibody highly reactive with M tuberculosis. RESULTS: CWDF were grown from the blood of 19 of 20 subjects with sarcoidosis. All isolates stained positively with the monoclonal antibody and with a modified Kinyoun stain. No organisms were grown from the blood of controls. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that CWDF can be grown from the blood of nearly all patients with active sarcoidosis. The results confirm that the organisms are mycobacterial in origin and are similar, if not identical, to M tuberculosis. Their role in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis is unknown. Images
Almenoff, P. L.; Johnson, A.; Lesser, M.; Mattman, L. H.
Fluorescent acid-fast microscopy (FAM) was used to enumerate intracellular Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum in the ciliated phagocytic protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis. There was a linear relationship between FAM and colony counts of M. avium cells both from cultures and within protozoa. The Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain could not be used to enumerate intracellular mycobacteria because uninfected protozoa contained acid-fast, bacterium-like particles. Starved, 7-day-old cultures of T. pyriformis transferred into fresh medium readily phagocytized M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum. Phagocytosis was rapid and reached a maximum in 30 min. M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum grew within T. pyriformis, increasing by factors of 4- to 40-fold after 5 days at 30°C. Intracellular M. avium numbers remained constant over a 25-day period of growth (by transfer) of T. pyriformis. Intracellular M. avium cells also survived protozoan encystment and germination. The growth and viability of T. pyriformis were not affected by mycobacterial infection. The results suggest that free-living phagocytic protozoa may be natural hosts and reservoirs for M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum.
Strahl, Eileen D.; Gillaspy, Glenda E.; Falkinham, Joseph O.
The production of the vegetative mosquitocidal toxin Mtx1 from Bacillus sphaericus was redirected to the sporulation phase by replacement of its weak, native promoter with the strong sporulation promoter of the bin genes. Recombinant bacilli developed toxicity during early sporulation, but this declined rapidly in later stages, indicating the proteolytic instability of the toxin. Inhibition studies indicated the action of
Yankun Yang; Liwei Wang; Adelaida Gaviria; Zhiming Yuan; Colin Berry
In all published reports that are concerned with the clinical picture of tetanus, as well as in a textbook about this subject, the cases of major importance are always concerned with the fact that living tetanus bacilli are found in the wound. However, a ...
Objective Endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) is defined as a tuberculous infection of the tracheobronchial tree with microbial and histopathological evidence, with or without parenchymal involvement. In this study, clinical, radiological and bronchoscopic characteristics of cases diagnosed to have EBTB were evaluated. Methods Sixteen patients with at least three negative sputum examinations for acid-fast bacillus (AFB) and diagnosed as having EBTB on the histopathological examination of bronchoscopically obtained specimens showing granulomatous structures with caseation necrosis and/or positive AFB-culture on the microbiological examination of bronchoscopically obtained specimens were included in our study. Age, sex, symptoms, tuberculin skin test (TST), microbiological examination results and radiological findings were recorded. Bronchoscopical lesions were classified according to Chung classification. Results EBTB was found to be more common in females. Most common symptoms were cough (100%), sputum (75%), weight loss (62.5%), hemoptisis (37.5%), chest pain (25%) and dyspnea (12.5%). Radiological examination findings revealed consolidations/infiltrations (87.5%), nodular lesions (37.5%), cavitary lesions (25%), unilateral (43.7%) or bilateral hilar widening (31.2%) and atelectasia (25%). Middle lob syndrome was seen in three cases. Most common lesions observed bronchoscopically were active caseous lesions, granular lesions, edematous hyperemic lesions, tumorous lesions, fibrostenotic lesions respectively. In all cases “granulomatous inflammation showing caseation” was shown in the histopathological examination of biopsy specimens. Conclusions EBTB can cause various radiological and bronchoscopical findings. In most of the cases distinct response is seen to antituberculous treatment. Bronchial stenosis is an important complication. Treatment should be given as soon as possible to avoid it.
By making use of the increased phagocytosis which follows the exposure of HeLa cells to tissue culture media containing selected horse sera, it was possible to introduce all of the mycobacterial species studied into the cells, where many of them proceeded to grow. Fully virulent strains of tubercle bacilli filled much of the cytoplasm in a few days and formed characteristic cords not seen with other strains. The strains said to be less virulent, R1Rv, BCG, H37Ra, and R1Ra, grew less rapidly and in characteristic patterns. Their rates of multiplication in HeLa cells were in the order named and correlated well with their reported pathogenicity for mice and guinea pigs. Six INH-resistant strains grew at rates characteristic of fully virulent strains. Among the "rapidly growing" species, M. phlei and M. smegmatis did not show evidence of growth in the cells, although M. fortuitum did. Some strains with optimal temperatures on bacteriological media below 37°C, M. balnei, M. marinum, and M. platypoecilus, grew rapidly in HeLa cells, especially at temperatures of 31 to 35°C. The growth patterns of the bacilli in HeLa cells appear sufficiently specific to be useful in differentiation among the mycobacteria.
In Bacilli, there are three experimentally validated ribosomal-protein autogenous regulatory RNAs that are not shared with E. coli. Each of these RNAs forms a unique secondary structure that interacts with a ribosomal protein encoded by a downstream gene, namely S4, S15, and L20. Only one of these RNAs that interacts with L20 is currently found in the RNA Families Database. We created, or modified, existing structural alignments for these three RNAs and used them to perform homology searches. We have determined that each structure exhibits a narrow phylogenetic distribution, mostly relegated to the Firmicute class Bacilli. This work, in conjunction with other similar work, demonstrates that there are most likely many non-homologous RNA regulatory elements regulating ribosomal protein biosynthesis that still await discovery and characterization in other bacterial species.
Deiorio-Haggar, Kaila; Anthony, Jon; Meyer, Michelle M.
A method for detoxifying Type Z and sp. Newcastle Sh. paradysenteriae (Flexner) has been described. This procedure involves exposing the bacilli at pH 5.0 to 0.01 M periodic acid. Microorganisms treated with this reagent for an appropriate time interval lose approximately 90 per cent of their toxicity, yet they are capable of eliciting in experimental animals antibodies effective against the unaltered organisms.
Anionic phosphate-containing cell wall polymers of bacilli are represented by teichoic acids and poly(glycosyl 1-phosphates). Different locations of phosphodiester bonds in the main chain of teichoic acids as well as the nature and combination of the constituent structural elements underlie their structural diversity. Currently, the structures of teichoic acids of bacilli can be classified into three types, viz. poly(polyol phosphates) with glycerol or ribitol as the polyol; poly(glycosylpolyol phosphates), mainly glycerol-containing polymers; and poly(acylglycosylglycerol phosphate), in which the components are covalently linked through glycosidic, phosphodiester, and amide bonds. In addition to teichoic acids, poly(glycosyl 1-phosphates) with mono- and disaccharide residues in the repeating units have been detected in cell walls of several Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus strains. The known structures of teichoic acids and poly(glycosyl 1-phosphates) of B. subtilis, B. atrophaeus, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B. stearothermophilus, B. coagulans, B. cereus as well as oligomers that link the polymers to peptidoglycan are surveyed. The reported data on the structures of phosphate-containing polymers of different strains of B. subtilis suggest heterogeneity of the species and may be of interest for the taxonomy of bacilli to allow differentiation of closely related organisms according to the "structures and composition of cell wall polymers" criterion. PMID:21999535
Potekhina, N V; Streshinskaya, G M; Tul'skaya, E M; Kozlova, Yu I; Senchenkova, S N; Shashkov, A S
Since the coliform group of organisms is considered to be less resistant to chlorine than some bacterial and viral pathogens, the utility of both yeast and acid-fast oganisms as potntial indicators of disinfection efficiency was evaluated. In most laboratory studies these two gro...
Identification of gram-negative bacilli, both enteric and nonenteric, by conventional methods is not realistic for clinical microbiology laboratories performing routine cultures in today's world. The use of commercial kits, either manual or automated, to identify these organisms is a common practice. The advent of rapid or “spot” testing has eliminated the need for some commonly isolated organisms to be identified with the systems approach. Commercially available systems provide more in-depth identification to the species level as well as detect new and unusual strains. The answers obtained from these systems may not always be correct and must be interpreted with caution. The patient demographics, laboratory workload and work flow, and technologist's skill levels should dictate the system of choice. Cost considerations introduce another variable into the equation affecting choice. Each system has its own strengths and weaknesses, and each laboratory must decide on the level of sophistication that fulfills its particular needs.
A series of six flow charts have been developed to identify the Gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli most commonly isolated from clinical specimens. Colonial morphology and oxidase reactivity determine the pathway to be followed on the flow chart which then indicates the specific test to be performed. Most isolates can be identified within 24 hours using 3 to 5 tests. Each pathway was selected on the basis of 94-100 per cent confidence limits otherwise an alternate pathway is shown. Results of 2,788 nonfermenters identified by this scheme are discussed. PMID:98478
Burdash, N M; West, M E; Bannister, E R; Manos, J P
THE method described by Brieger and Cosslett1 of growing tubercle bacilli on the `Formvar' film of a stainless steel electron microscope grid has been modified for use with liquid media. In this form the method has been found suitable for a study of the action of antibiotics upon growing tubercle bacilli. In order to prevent the fluid medium contaminating the
Hog cholera bacilli fed to mice disappear from the stomach within 24 hours, but remain and perhaps multiply in the ileum for at least several weeks. They promptly penetrate the mucosa and may be found in the spleen. Bacilli introduced subcutaneously quickly pass into the intestinal tract where they may be found for some weeks. Infected mice may harbor bacilli in the spleen for several months. Mice possess a relatively high degree of natural resistance towards hog cholera bacilli which gives way to large doses. Disease is probably the result of the invasion of the viscera from the digestive tract following feeding, but the relation between the dose fed and the numbers penetrating the mucosa is a variable one and the conditions favoring such invasion not determined. Contact with mice discharging bacilli failed to cause recognizable invasion of the digestive tract or the viscera.
Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carraggeenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and pectobacterium (38%). pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.
The microbiological confirmation of pulmonary tuberculosis in children relies on cultures of gastric aspirate (GA) specimens. Conventionally, GAs are neutralized to improve culture yields of mycobacteria. However, there are limited data to support this practice. To study the utility of neutralization of GAs with sodium bicarbonate in children with intrathoracic tuberculosis, a total of 116 children of either sex, aged 6 months to 14 years (median age, 120 months; interquartile range [IQR], 7 to 192 months), underwent gastric aspiration on 2 consecutive days. Gastric aspirates were divided into two aliquots, and only one aliquot was neutralized with 1% sodium bicarbonate. Both aliquots were processed for smear and culture examinations. Out of the 232 gastric aspirates, 12 (5.17%) were acid-fastbacilli (AFB) smear positive. There were no differences in smear positivity rates from samples with or without neutralization. The yield of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on a Bactec MGIT 960 culture system was significantly lower in the neutralized samples (16.3% [38/232]) than in the nonneutralized samples (21.5% [50/232]) (P = 0.023). There was no significant difference between the neutralized and the nonneutralized samples in time to detection using the MGIT 960 system (average, 24.6 days; IQR, 12 to 37 days) (P = 0.9). The contamination rates were significantly higher in the neutralized samples than in the nonneutralized samples (17.2% [40/232] versus 3.9% [9/232]) (P = 0.001). The agreement for positive mycobacterial culture between the two approaches was 66.5% (P = 0.001). Hence, we recommend that gastric aspirate samples not be neutralized with sodium bicarbonate prior to culture for M. tuberculosis.
Parashar, Deepak; Kabra, Sushil K.; Lodha, Rakesh; Singh, Varinder; Mukherjee, Aparna; Arya, Tina; Grewal, Harleen M. S.
The microbiological confirmation of pulmonary tuberculosis in children relies on cultures of gastric aspirate (GA) specimens. Conventionally, GAs are neutralized to improve culture yields of mycobacteria. However, there are limited data to support this practice. To study the utility of neutralization of GAs with sodium bicarbonate in children with intrathoracic tuberculosis, a total of 116 children of either sex, aged 6 months to 14 years (median age, 120 months; interquartile range [IQR], 7 to 192 months), underwent gastric aspiration on 2 consecutive days. Gastric aspirates were divided into two aliquots, and only one aliquot was neutralized with 1% sodium bicarbonate. Both aliquots were processed for smear and culture examinations. Out of the 232 gastric aspirates, 12 (5.17%) were acid-fastbacilli (AFB) smear positive. There were no differences in smear positivity rates from samples with or without neutralization. The yield of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on a Bactec MGIT 960 culture system was significantly lower in the neutralized samples (16.3% [38/232]) than in the nonneutralized samples (21.5% [50/232]) (P = 0.023). There was no significant difference between the neutralized and the nonneutralized samples in time to detection using the MGIT 960 system (average, 24.6 days; IQR, 12 to 37 days) (P = 0.9). The contamination rates were significantly higher in the neutralized samples than in the nonneutralized samples (17.2% [40/232] versus 3.9% [9/232]) (P = 0.001). The agreement for positive mycobacterial culture between the two approaches was 66.5% (P = 0.001). Hence, we recommend that gastric aspirate samples not be neutralized with sodium bicarbonate prior to culture for M. tuberculosis. PMID:23536406
Parashar, Deepak; Kabra, Sushil K; Lodha, Rakesh; Singh, Varinder; Mukherjee, Aparna; Arya, Tina; Grewal, Harleen M S; Singh, Sarman
The production of the vegetative mosquitocidal toxin Mtx1 from Bacillus sphaericus was redirected to the sporulation phase by replacement of its weak, native promoter with the strong sporulation promoter of the bin genes. Recombinant bacilli developed toxicity during early sporulation, but this declined rapidly in later stages, indicating the proteolytic instability of the toxin. Inhibition studies indicated the action of a serine proteinase, and similar degradation was also seen with the purified B. sphaericus enzyme sphericase. Following the identification of the initial cleavage site involved in this degradation, mutant Mtx1 proteins were expressed in an attempt to overcome destructive cleavage while remaining capable of proteolytic activation. However, the apparently broad specificity of sphericase seems to make this impossible. The stability of a further vegetative toxin, Mtx2, was also found to be low when it was exposed to sphericase or conditioned medium. Random mutation of the receptor binding loops of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa toxin did, in contrast, allow production of significant levels of spore-associated protein in the form of parasporal crystals. The exploitation of vegetative toxins may, therefore, be greatly limited by their susceptibility to proteinases produced by the host bacteria, whereas the sequestration of sporulation-associated toxins into crystals may make them more amenable to use in strain improvement. PMID:17098916
Yang, Yankun; Wang, Liwei; Gaviria, Adelaida; Yuan, Zhiming; Berry, Colin
We evaluated the ability of a novel DNA strip assay (Speed-oligo® Mycobacteria) to differentiate mycobacterial species. It is based on polymerase chain reaction targeting 16S rRNA and 16S-23S rRNA regions and double-reverse hybridization on a dipstick using probes bound to colloidal gold and to the membrane. We blindly tested its capacity to identify 182 acid-fastbacilli grown on fresh liquid
Natalia Montiel Quezel-Guerraz; Mercedes Marín Arriaza; José Antonio Carrillo Ávila; Waldo E. Sánchez-Yebra Romera; Miguel J. Martínez-Lirola
Background Mycobacterial culture and identification provide a definitive diagnosis of TB. Culture on Löwenstein-Jensen (L-J) medium is invariably delayed because of the slow growth of M. tuberculosis on L-J slants. Automated liquid culture systems are expensive. A low-cost culturing medium capable of rapidly indicating the presence of mycobacteria is needed. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel biphasic culture medium for the recovery of mycobacteria from clinical sputum specimens from suspected pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Methods and Findings The biphasic medium consisted of 7 ml units of L-J slant medium, 3 ml units of liquid culture medium, growth indicator and a mixture of antimicrobial agents. The decontamination sediments of sputum specimens were incubated in the biphasic culture medium at 37°C. Mycobacterial growth was determined based on the appearance of red granule sediments and the examination using acid-fastbacilli (AFB). The clinical sputum specimens were cultured in the biphasic medium, on L-J slants and in the Bactec MGIT 960 culture system. Among smear-positive specimens, the mycobacteria recovery rate of the biphasic medium was higher than that of the L-J slants (P<0.001) and similar to that of MGIT 960 (P>0.05). Among smear-negative specimens, the mycobacterial recovery rate of the biphasic medium was higher than that of L-J slants (P<0.001) and lower than that of MGIT 960 (P<0.05). The median times to detection of mycobacteria were 14 days, 20 days and 30 days for cultures grown in MGIT, in biphasic medium, on L-J slants for smear negative specimens, respectively (P<0.001). Conclusions The biphasic culture medium developed in this study is low-cost and suitable for mycobacterial recovery. It does not require any expensive detection instrumentation, decreases the time required for detection of M. tuberculosis complex, and increases the detection rate of M. tuberculosis complex.
An immunosuppressed patient with malignant lymphoma died of acute pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila. Bacilli of serogroup 3 were detected in areas of pnemonia, in a mediastinal lymph node, and in the liver and spleen by direct immunofluorescence done on tissue obtained at autopsy. That the extrathoracic fluorescent material represented intact bacteria rather than antigenic fragments or antigen-antibody complexes was confirmed by finding intracellular bacilli in the liver by electron microscopy. To our knowledge, this case represents the first example of fatal disease attributed to serogroup 3 L. pneumophila and the first case in which L. pneumophila has been demonstrated in extrathoracic organs. PMID:7352723
Watts, J C; Hicklin, M D; Thomason, B M; Callaway, C S; Levine, A J
Ten of 80 endospore-forming bacilli, isolated from various habitats of Jordan, were found to be highly toxic to the 4th instar larvae of Culiseta longiareolata (Macquart). The bacilli were identified into the following species and strains: Bacillus sphaericus (H6), B. sphaericus (H9a, 9b), B. cereus Frankland and Frankland, B. brevis Migula and B. megaterium Bary. Bacillus cereus comprised 50% of the isolates. The toxic concentrations of these isolates against C. longiareolata ranged between 1.2 x 10(7) and 1.1 x 10(9) viable spores ml-1. PMID:10030033
1. The sera of twenty-six individuals who carried tetanus bacilli in their digestive tracts all contained appreciable amounts of antitoxin. 2. The sera of thirty individuals in whose stools no tetanus-like organisms were found were, with two exceptions, free from tetanus antitoxin. 3. Although we have been unable to measure accurately the antitoxin content of these human carriers of tetanus bacilli, 0.1 cc. of serum neutralizes 10 or more M.L.D. of toxin and it is evident that they have acquired an active immunity due to the bacilli in the intestinal tract. 4. These results definitely prove that tetanus bacilli grow in the intestinal tract of man. 5. Many of the individuals who have no tetanus bacilli in their intestinal tracts and whose serum is free from antitoxin show agglutinins to tetanus bacilli. It is probable that they have been carriers of the bacilli in the past and that the agglutinins have persisted longer than the antitoxins. It seems likely, therefore, that these individuals are potentially immune to tetanus. 6. If tetanus bacilli can be established in the digestive tract of man we have a means of immunization which might be useful in armies or in regions where tetanus infections are common, though we do not recommend this method of immunization at present.
There was a spontaneous outbreak of mycobacteriosis in fancy veiltail guppies, Lebistes reticulatus, raised on an ornamental fish farm in Venezuela. The clinical signs included listlessness, emaciation, spinal curvature, sunken eyes and loss of colour. Numerous acid-fast bacteria, identified as Mycobacterium species, were detected in smears from the kidneys, liver, mesentery and spleen of the fish, from fresh faecal material, and from the unborn embryos of infected gravid females. The bacteria were eradicated by the addition of kanamycin sulphate to the water at a concentration of 50 ppm, the dose being repeated on four occasions with 48 hours between each dose. Fifteen days after the treatment, none of the clinical signs described were detected in any of the treated fish. The offspring born to treated females were healthy and normal, and did not harbour acid-fast bacteria. PMID:10097326
Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the USA" (Alisa Woodring);…
In a comparison of home and sanatorium treatment for tuberculous patients in India, pretreatment cultures of tubercle bacilli showed a higher average level of resistance to p-aminosalicyclic acid (PAS) than pretreatment cultures from a representative sample of patients in Great Britain. The investigation described in the present paper was therefore undertaken to find out the nature of the difference in the PAS sensitivity of cultures from Indian and British patients. In this investigation, carried out jointly at the Tuberculosis Chemotherapy Centre, Madras, and the Postgraduate Medical School of London, sputum specimens from 147 Indian and 93 British patients were cultured and subjected to sensitivity tests. The tests were set up on slopes containing various concentrations of PAS and inoculated with 105 viable units of the cultures, and the minimal concentrations of PAS inhibiting the growth of 20, 50 and 100 colonies were determined. According to the 20-colony end-point—the one commonly used in routine sensitivity tests—the Indian strains were significantly more resistant than the British strains. This difference in sensitivity was not apparent, however, in either the 50-colony or the 100-colony results. The presence of a small proportion of resistant organisms was found to be a general characteristic of the Indian strains, but did not appear to be related to any special tendency for the patient to fail to respond to treatment with PAS. Since a chance increase in the inoculum size might well affect the 20-colony results, the authors recommend a tenfold decrease in the size of the inoculum used in routine PAS-sensitivity tests on Indian patients.
Selkon, J. B.; Subbaiah, T. V.; Bhatia, A. L.; Radhakrishna, S.; Mitchison, D. A.
The present study aims at comparing the in-vitro susceptibility of six commercially available cephalosporin--BLI combinations with cephalosporins alone against hospital isolates of Gram negative bacilli. Gram negative bacilli, numbering 500, isolated from various clinical samples, were included in the study. The isolates were also screened for ESBL production by the methods recommended by CLSI. Susceptibility pattern of six Cephalosporins/Betalactamase inhibitor (BLI) combinations were compared with their partner cephalosporins. Overall, 29.6% of Gram negative bacilli were susceptible to the five Cephalosporins (IIIrd & IVth gen); the highest activity being shown by cefepime. Susceptibility was much higher (more than double) to the Cephalosporin combinations containing Tazobactam (TZB) & sulbactam (SLB) (62.7%). However such enhanced susceptibility was completely lacking with combinations containing clavulanate (29.1%). Gram negative bacilli, as a group, exhibited very high resistance to the new cephalosporins (IIIrd & IVth gen). When these agents were tested as fixed-dose combinations with TZB & SLB, the overall susceptibility was enhanced by more than 100%. Such an enhancement was absent with clavulanate combinations. Cefepime/TZB revealed the highest activity against ESBL producing GNB. Further studies are needed in the clinical settings as they can play an important role as good alternatives to carbapenems. PMID:24968582
? The capability of the BD Phoenix™ Automated Micro- biology System (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, MD) as a means for performing same-day susceptibility testing with fluoroquinolones versus gram-negative bacilli was evaluated in six geographically diverse medical center laboratories. Clinical isolates and a collection of challenge strains were tested in both Phoenix and the NCCLS broth microdilution reference method. When results
E. MUNSON; S. RICHTER; G. DOERN; L. B. RELLER; S. MIRRETT; E. PETERSON; R. SILBERMAN; M. P. WEINSTEIN; D. BRUCKNER
Bacillus subtilis is one of the best known Gram-positive bacteria at both the genetic and physiological level. The entire sequence of its chromosome is known and efficient tools for the genetic modification of this bacterium are available. Moreover, B. subtilis and related Bacillus species are widely used in biotechnology, in particular for the production of secreted enzymes. Although bacilli can
Sierd Bron; Albert Bolhuis; Harold Tjalsma; Siger Holsappel; Gerard Venema; Jan Maarten van Dijl
This paper presents the finding of the possible cause of the high false-positive rate in acid-fast staining in histological examinations. Using acid-fast staining, culture, and PCR, acid-fastbacilli were detected in 83.7% of 49 hospital tap water samples and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) were detected in 20.4% of the same 49 samples. The 10 NTM isolates were also identified to the
A logistic kinetic model was derived and validated to characterize the dynamics of a sporogenous bacterium in stationary phase with respect to sporulation and product formation. The kinetic constants as determined using this model are particularly important for describing intrinsic properties of a sporogenous bacterial culture in stationary phase. Non-linear curve fitting of the experimental data into the mathematical model showed very good correlation with the predicted values for sporulation and lipase production by Bacillus coagulans RK-02 culture in minimal media. Model fitting of literature data of sporulation and product (protease and amylase) formation in the stationary phase by some other Bacilli and comparison of the results of model fitting with those of Bacillus coagulans helped validate the significance and robustness of the developed kinetic model. PMID:21852126
Background: Tuberculosis, a communicable disease with significant morbidity and mortality, is the leading cause of death in the world from bacterial infectious disease. Because of its public health importance, there is need for rapid and definitive method of detecting the causative organism. Several approaches have been attempted, but the molecular methods, especially Polymerase Chain Reaction assays are the most promising for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from clinical samples. Aim: This study was aimed at using Polymerase Chain Reaction for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from clinical samples using universal sample processing methodology. Subjects and Methods: Two hundred clinical samples sent to Tuberculosis laboratories in Ibadan and Osogbo, Nigeria, were enrolled in this study. The samples were processed by universal sample processing methodology for PCR; smear microscopy was carried out on sputum samples by Ziehl Nelseen staining technique; and cultured on Middlebrook agar medium containing oleic acid albumin dextrose complex supplement after decontamination of samples. Results: Ninety six (48%) samples were detected positive for M. tuberculosis complex by polymerase chain reaction using the combination of boiling and vortexing and microscopy detected 72 (36%) samples positive for acidfastbacilli. Using culture method as gold standard, it was found that polymerase chain reaction assay was more sensitive (75.5%) and specific (94.8%) than microscopy (sensitivity of 48.5% and specificity of 85.7%) in detecting M. tuberculosis complex from clinical samples. There was significant difference in detecting M. tuberculosis from clinical samples when compared to microscopy (p<0.05). Conclusion: The study recommends that direct molecular detection of M. tuberculosis complex is sensitive and specific and polymerase chain reaction method should be used as an adjunct to other methods of laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis.
Alli, Oyebode A. T.; Ogbolu, Olusoga D.; Alaka, Olubunmi O.
Carbohydrate fermentation by anaerobic gram-negative bacilli was easily detected using Taxo-Disks placed on supplemented Columbia Agar. After incubation, two drops of a 0.2% solution of bromothymol blue were added to each disk: yellow coloring was indicative of a positive reaction. In the esculin hydrolysis test paper disks impregnated with 2 mg of esculin were placed on the same medium. The results were read after addition of two drops of a 10% solution of ferric chloride. When testing slow-growing and/or serophilic anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, such as Bacteroides melaninogenicus or Bacteroides oralis, the supplemented Columbia Agar was enriched with 10% sterile horse serum. Discrepancies between results with the conventional tube technique and the disk method were occasionally observed with salicin only. PMID:7005098
Thermophilic Bacillus species readily attached and grew on stainless steel surfaces, forming mature biofilms of >10 6.0 cells\\/cm 2in 6 h on a surface inoculated with the bacteria. Clean stainless steel exposed only to pasteurized skim milk at 55 °C developed a mature biofilm of >10 6.0 cells\\/cm 2 within 18 h. When bacilli were inoculated onto the steel coupons, 18-h biofilms were 30 µm thick.
In this study, we assessed the magnitude of risk (odds ratio [OR]) of patients being colonized with fecal aerobic gram-negative bacilli in two geriatric hospitals compared with the community, and we associated the use of antimicrobial agents with bacterial resistance. One fecal sample was collected from each of 341 patients, aged 60 years or older, during the hospital stay or when visiting the outpatient service. Samples were collected in 1988 and 1993 to 1994. The aerobic gram-negative bacilli from all samples were examined for resistance to seven antimicrobials by a replica plating method. The long-term-hospitalized patients had a significantly higher risk of being colonized with bacilli resistant to ampicillin (OR, 14.3; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 6.0 to 34.1), cefuroxime (OR, 7.5; 95% CI, 2.7 to 20.8), trimethoprim (ORs, 22.3; 95% CI, 8.6 to 57.8), and tetracycline (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 2.4 to 10.9) than the outpatients. The respective ORs among the short-term-hospitalized patients compared with the outpatients were 4.0 (95% CI, 1.9 to 8.4), 7.5 (95% CI, 2.7 to 20.8), 5.5 (95% CI, 2 to 14), and 2.0 (95% CI, 1 to 4). In 1993 to 1994 compared with 1988, in both hospitals there was a significantly increased risk of colonization by bacilli resistant to ampicillin (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.9 to 5.1), cefuroxime (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.1 to 6.7), and tetracycline (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.5). However, the total use of antimicrobial agents increased only among the patients of the short-term-care hospital.
Leistevuo, T; Toivonen, P; Osterblad, M; Kuistila, M; Kahra, A; Lehtonen, A; Huovinen, P
Sensitivity tests with 12 antibiotics on 1,018 strains of Gram-negative bacilli isolated in a burns unit between 1969 and 1971 showed some important differences from results in similar tests on a series of strains isolated between 1965 and 1967. These changes included the emergence of a large proportion of kanamycin-resistant strains of Klebsiella aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis, and Escherichia coli and
Summary Carbohydrate fermentation by anaerobic gram-negative bacilli was easily detected using Taxo-Disks placed on supplemented Columbia Agar. After incubation, two drops of a 0.2% solution of bromothymol blue were added to each disk: yellow coloring was indicative of a positive reaction. In the esculin hydrolysis test paper disks impregnated with 2 mg of esculin were placed on the same medium.
Based on previous studies showing that host chemokines exert antimicrobial activities against bacteria, we sought to determine whether the interferon-inducible Glu-Leu-Arg-negative CXC chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 exhibit antimicrobial activities against Bacillus anthracis. In vitro analysis demon- strated that all three CXC chemokines exerted direct antimicrobial effects against B. anthracis spores and bacilli including marked reductions in spore and bacillus
Matthew A. Crawford; Yinghua Zhu; Candace S. Green; Marie D. Burdick; Patrick Sanz; Farhang Alem; Alison D. O'Brien; Borna Mehrad; Robert M. Strieter; Molly A. Hughes
The role of combination antibiotic therapy with a beta-lactam and a fluoroquinolone for bacteremia caused by gram-negative bacilli, to our knowledge, has not been previously described. Much of the previous study of combination therapy has included beta-lactams and aminoglycosides. We conducted a large retrospective cohort study to evaluate 28-day all-cause mortality in patients with monomicrobial bacteremia due to aerobic gram-negative bacilli who received either a combination of beta-lactams and fluoroquinolones or beta-lactam monotherapy. We enrolled adult patients admitted to Mayo Clinic hospitals from 1 January 2001 to 31 October 2006 in the study. After stratification of patients by Pitt bacteremia scores, we used Cox regression models to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) for 28-day all-cause mortality after adjusting for the propensity to receive combination therapy. We identified 398 and 304 unique patients with bacteremia caused by gram-negative bacilli who received single and combination antibiotic therapy, respectively. In less severely ill patients with Pitt bacteremia scores of <4, combination therapy was associated with lower 28-day mortality than single therapy (4.2% [9 of 214] versus 8.8% [28 of 319]; adjusted HR, 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20 to 0.98; P = 0.044). In critically ill patients with Pitt bacteremia scores of ?4, there was no difference in 28-day mortality between combination and single therapy (25.6% [23 of 90] versus 27.8% [22 of 79]; adjusted HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.47 to 1.62; P = 0.660). These findings were consistent for 14-day all-cause mortality. In this large cohort, we found for the first time that combination therapy with beta-lactams and fluoroquinolones was associated with a reduction in 28-day all-cause mortality among less severely ill patients with bacteremia caused by gram-negative bacilli.
Al-Hasan, Majdi N.; Wilson, John W.; Lahr, Brian D.; Thomsen, Kristine M.; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E.; Vetter, Emily A.; Tleyjeh, Imad M.; Baddour, Larry M.
In many environments, bacteria can attach to a surface and grow into multicellular structures, otherwise known as biofilms. Many systems for studying these biofilms in the laboratory are available. To study biofilms of the thermophilic bacilli in milk powder-manufacturing plants, standard laboratory biofilm techniques need to be adapted. The focus of this chapter is on techniques that can be used for growing and analyzing biofilms of thermophilic bacilli that are isolated from dairy processing plants. These techniques include laboratory methods as well as how to set up a pilot-scale experiment. The laboratory methods consist of a microtiter plate assay, which is used for strain selection, and the CDC reactor, which is used for testing sanitizers and antimicrobial surfaces. In dairy processing, if a new sanitizer or antimicrobial surface appears to be promising, it is useful to carry out pilot-scale experiments before introducing it to a manufacturing plant. We describe how to set up a pilot-scale experiment for testing the efficacy of sanitizers against the thermophilic bacilli. PMID:24664846
Assuming the typical colon bacillus and the typical typhoid bacillus to represent the types of this group that present the greatest divergences in biological peculiarities, we conclude, as others also have done, that there is a series of closely related forms that may be regarded as intermediate or transitional and which serve to establish a biological relationship, either near or remote, between these two typical members. From our own studies we are inclined to regard the typical colon bacillus as the type of this group, for the reason that its functional equilibrium, as observed in the intestine, is so permanent a quality that it may readily be perpetuated under what is ordinarily regarded as favorable artificial circumstances, and that with the continuance of such conditions there is no conspicuous tendency on the part of this organism to deviate from what we regard as its norm; whereas, on the other hand, with all the other members of this group with which we have worked, there is not only a lack of uniformity in the adjustment of the functions, but such as exists is readily disturbed under artificial environment; though it must be borne in mind that even with the typical colon bacillus we have also shown functional modifications to be possible under particular conditions. When the members of the colon group are cultivated under circumstances favorable to the development of both the function of fermentation and that of proteolysis, fermentation invariably takes precedence and no evidence of proteolysis is manifested until after fermentation has ceased. The cultivation of all the members of the colon group under circumstances that favor the development of one function, viz. that of proteolysis, at the expense of another, viz. that of fermentation, results first in an apparent increase of vigor; but this is of temporary duration and is quickly followed by the decline and death of the cell. The result of this increased activity of the proteolytic function is the formation of much larger amounts of indol by typical colon cultures than has ever been obtained by us by any other method. By the method of experimentation through which we were enabled to accentuate the proteolytic activity of the typical colon bacillus, as caused by an increase of indol formation, we have also induced the function of indol formation not only in atypical colon bacilli that had been devoid of it, but in every specimen of typical typhoid bacilli to which we had access as well. We feel justified in regarding one of the differential tests between the typhoid and colon bacillus, namely that of indol formation on the part of the latter and the absence of this function from the former, as of questionable value, for the reason, as shown above, that by particular methods of cultivation indol production has been shown to accompany the development of a number of specimens that we have every reason to regard as genuine typhoid bacilli. As a result of our own experiments, together with the observations of others, there can be no doubt that the bacillus coli communis at times possesses pathogenic properties, and that by artificial methods of treatment it may often be brought from a condition of benignity to one of virulence. The spleen of a typhoid patient has always been regarded as the only trustworthy source from which to obtain the typical typhoid bacillus. While we believe this to be true, still our investigations show that other members of the colon group may also be present in this viscus; in fact, from such spleens we have isolated practically all of the varieties of this group with which we are acquainted. From our experience, the value of the serum test for the differentiation of typhoid and colon bacilli would seem to be questionable. We are inclined, however, to attribute the irregularities recorded above as due more to the method of application than to defects of the principles involved; for, as stated, by the use of dried blood, as in our experiments, it is not possible to make the test with constant and accurate, or even approximately accurate
1. A method for the production of tetanus by the injection of a fixed number of spores is described together with the tests made in selecting animals for experimental work. 2. Guinea pigs fed a single serological type of tetanus bacilli will, after 6 months, show considerable amounts of antitoxin in their sera and will manifest immunity to the type fed. To other types they are just as susceptible as are controls. 3. Animals fed several types are immunized to each of these types. It is pointed out in the discussion that the digestive tract of man may carry several types and that he probably reacts in a manner resembling the guinea pig carriers. 4. Guinea pigs that carry tetanus bacilli and have antitoxin in their sera show little if any resistance to tetanus toxin. 5. As there is no relation between the amount of antitoxin in the blood and immunity to tetanus we believe that other bodies, specific for type, must occur and make for the immunity observed.
The in vitro susceptibility to BB-K8, butirosin, gentamicin, sisomicin, and tobramycin of seven groups of clinically significant gram-negative bacilli and Staphylococcus aureus was assessed by using the International Collaborative Study-World Health Organization criteria. The activity of gentamicin, sisomicin, and tobramycin generally paralleled each other. Sisomicin was the most potent compound by weight and usually demonstrated the most rapid rate of killing. BB-K8 and butirosin were less potent, but higher serum levels may be achieved with these agents. BB-K8 generally showed the greatest ratio between achieveable mean peak serum levels and concentrations needed to inhibit [Formula: see text] of each group of organisms tested. Additionally, BB-K8 was active against six of seven highly gentamicin-resistant strains. All of these antibiotics showed diminished activity at pH 6.4 but only gentamicin and sisomicin showed occasionally enhanced activity at pH 8.4.
A total of 505 fermentative and 201 nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli, identified by conventional methods, were tested by the Crystal Enteric/Non-Fermenter ID kit and by the API 20E or API 20NE identification system. The overall correct results for fermenters were 92.9% by the Crystal kit and 89.1% by the API 20E system. The false identifications (genus and species incorrect) accounted for 3.1 and 7.1% for the Crystal and API systems, respectively. For nonfermenters, figures for correct identifications by the two systems were comparable (Crystal, 75.9%; API 20NE, 75.3%) while the API 20NE system gave twice as many incorrect results (13.8%) as Crystal (6.3%); however, Crystal failed to precisely identify several species included in a "miscellaneous" group. The Crystal Enteric/Non-Fermenter system is an easy-to-use kit which compares favorably with other commercial systems.
Wauters, G; Boel, A; Voorn, G P; Verhaegen, J; Meunier, F; Janssens, M; Verbist, L
Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) cause many cases of pneumonia in Indonesia. We investigated nasopharyngeal carriage of GNB in Semarang, Indonesia. Klebsiella pneumoniae carriage in adults (15%) was higher than in children (7%) (P = 0.004), while that of other GNB was comparable. Poor food and water hygiene are determinants of carriage of these bacteria.
Severin, Juliette A.; Gasem, M. Hussein; Keuter, Monique; van den Broek, Peterhans; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Wahyono, Hendro; Verbrugh, Henri A.
Given the propensity for Enterobacteriaceae and clinically significant nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli to acquire antimicrobial resistance, consistent surveillance of the activities of agents commonly prescribed to treat infections arising from these organisms is imperative. This study determined the activities of two fluoro- quinolones, levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, and seven comparative agents against recent clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and
DANIEL F. SAHM; IAN A. CRITCHLEY; LAURIE J. KELLY; JAMES A. KARLOWSKY; DAVID C. MAYFIELD; CLYDE THORNSBERRY; YOLANDA R. MAURIZ; JAMES KAHN
The identification, cloning, and characterization of protein toxins from various species of bacilli have demonstrated the existence of mosquitocidal toxins with different structures, mechanisms of action, and host ranges. A start has been made in understanding the polypeptide determinants of toxicity and insecticidal activity, and the purification of toxins from recombinant organisms may lead to the elucidation of their X-ray crystal structures and the cloning of brush border membrane receptors. The results of cloning mosquitocidal toxins in heterologous microorganisms show the potential of expanding the range of susceptible mosquito species by combining several toxins of different host specificity in one cell. Toxins have been expressed in new microorganisms with the potential for increasing potency by persisting at the larval feeding zone. The powerful tools of bacterial genetics are being applied to engineer genetically stable, persistent toxin expression and expand the insecticidal host ranges of Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis strains. These techniques, together with modern formulation technology, should eventually lead to the construction of mosquitocidal microorganisms which are effective enough to have a real impact on mosquito-borne diseases. Images
Rapid and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens is a fundamental goal of clinical microbiology, but one that is difficult or impossible for many slow-growing and fastidious organisms. We used identification systems based on cellular fatty acid profiles (Sherlock; MIDI, Inc., Newark, Del.), carbon source utilization (Microlog; Biolog, Inc., Hayward, Calif.), and 16S rRNA gene sequence (MicroSeq; Perkin-Elmer Applied Biosystems Division, Foster City, Calif.) to evaluate 72 unusual aerobic gram-negative bacilli isolated from clinical specimens at the Mayo Clinic. Compared to lengthy conventional methods, Sherlock, Microlog, and MicroSeq were able to identify 56 of 72 (77.8%), 63 of 72 (87.5%), and 70 of 72 (97.2%) isolates to the genus level (P = 0.002) and 44 to 65 (67.7%), 55 of 65 (84.6%), and 58 of 65 (89.2%) isolates to the species level (P = 0.005), respectively. Four Acinetobacter and three Bordetella isolates which could not be identified to the species level by conventional methods were identified by MicroSeq. In comparison to the full 16S rDNA sequences, the first 527 bp provided identical genus information for all 72 isolates and identical species information for 67 (93.1%) isolates. These data show that MicroSeq provides rapid, unambiguous identification of clinical bacterial isolates. The improved turnaround time provided by genotypic identification systems may translate into improved clinical outcomes.
Tang, Yi-Wei; Ellis, Nicole M.; Hopkins, Marlene K.; Smith, Douglas H.; Dodge, Deborah E.; Persing, David H.
In our study the susceptibility (MIC) of chosen 21 strains of Gram-negative bacilli isolated in hospitals to disinfectant agents (glucoprotamine, sodium dichloroisocyanurate, potassium persulfate), the effectiveness of these disinfectants against selected bacteria and their effectiveness to biofilm forming bacteria was determined. It was found that glucoprotamine showed the highest activity to Gram-negative bacteria. Obtained MIC values for glucoprotamine (except 1 strain of S. marcescens) were 16-64 times lower that MICs for sodium dichloroisocyanurate and 4-32 times lower that MICs for potassium persulfate. The effectiveness of disinfectants containing potassium persulfate or sodium dichloroisocyanurate was 100% tested by carrier method. Glucoprotamine was ineffective against 2 out of 9 strains (18%): E. cloacae and S. marcescens. It was found that disinfectants were more effective against Gram-negative bacteria in carrier methods than for biofilm forming bacteria. 86% of bacteria growing 5 days on a catheter were resistant to working solution of disinfectant containing glucoprotamine (5200 mg/L) or potassium persulfate (4300 mg/L); 66.6% of tested bacteria were resistant to working solution of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (1795.2 mg/L). In our study the highest effectiveness to biofilm forming bacteria showed disinfectant with sodium dichloroisocyanurate, the lowest--with glucoprotamine. PMID:15810507
Pancer, Katarzyna W; Laudy, Agnieszka E; Mikulak, Ewa; Gliniewicz, Aleksandra; Staniszewska, Monika; Stypu?kowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna
Aerobic and facultative gram-negative bacilli (GNB) have been reported to increase on various body surfaces in the seriously ill and debilitated patient. This study examined quantitative aspects of GNB succession at five oral sites in cancer patients before and during myelosuppressive chemotherapy. GNB concentrations increased sharply during chemotherapy at 25 to 50% of the oral sites in both acute nonlymphocytic leukemia and small-cell lung carcinoma patients. Most sites did not exhibit shifts of GNB to levels higher than 0.1% of the cultivable flora. When shifts occurred, all sites sampled in the mouth were usually affected and GNB usually represented more than 10% of the cultivable flora. Low levels of indigenous microflora were observed in most sites exhibiting GNB shifts. None of the subjects harboring high levels of GNB developed the symptoms of acute infection which are commonly observed in myelosuppressed patients. Although Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae were recovered from some sites, most GNB were nonpathogenic species of Pseudomonas; Pseudomonas pickettii was the most frequently recovered.
Minah, G E; Rednor, J L; Peterson, D E; Overholser, C D; Depaola, L G; Suzuki, J B
Mixed Candida-bacterial biofilms in urinary catheters are common in hospitalized patients. (i) The aims of this study were to evaluate, quantitatively and qualitatively, the in vitro development of mono- and dual-species biofilms (MSBs and DSBs) of Candida albicans and two enteric gram-negative bacilli (EGNB; Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli) on Foley catheter (FC) discs, (ii) to determine the biofilm growth in tryptic soy broth or glucose supplemented artificial urine (AU) and (iii) to assess the inhibitory effects of EGNB and their lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on Candida biofilm growth. The growth of MSBs and DSBs on FC discs was monitored by cell counts and SEM. The metabolic activity of LPS-treated Candida biofilms was determined by the XTT reduction assay. Candida albicans and EGNB demonstrated significant inter- and intra-species differences in biofilm growth on FC discs (p < 0.01). Pseudomonas aeruginosa suppressed Candida albicans significantly (p < 0.001) in DSBs. Compared with MSBs, DSB of EGNB in glucose supplemented AU demonstrated robust growth. Escherichia coli and its LPS, significantly suppressed Candida biofilm growth, compared with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its LPS (p < 0.001). Candida albicans and EGNB colonization in FC is significantly increased in AU with glucose, and variably modified by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and their corresponding LPS. PMID:23656511
Samaranayake, Y H; Bandara, H M H N; Cheung, B P K; Yau, J Y Y; Yeung, S K W; Samaranayake, L P
The morphological and physiological characteristics of 20 strains of motile, gram-negative, yellow-pigmented oxidative bacilli (groups VE-1 and VE-2) isolated in clinical bacteriology are described. Electron micrographs demonstrate the polar multitrichous flagella of group VE-1 and polar monotrichous flagella of group VE-2. Data obtained from guanine plus cytosine ratio studies of 56.8% for VE-1 and 68.9% for VE-2 distinguish the two groups of bacteria. Images
Three classes of low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (Firmicutes), Bacilli, Clostridia and Negativicutes, include numerous members that are capable of producing heat-resistant endospores. Spore-forming firmicutes include many environmentally important organisms, such as insect pathogens and cellulose-degrading industrial strains, as well as human pathogens responsible for such diseases as anthrax, botulism, gas gangrene and tetanus. In the best-studied model organism Bacillus subtilis, sporulation involves over 500 genes, many of which are conserved among other bacilli and clostridia. This work aimed to define the genomic requirements for sporulation through an analysis of the presence of sporulation genes in various firmicutes, including those with smaller genomes than B. subtilis. Cultivable spore-formers were found to have genomes larger than 2300 kb and encompass over 2150 protein-coding genes of which 60 are orthologues of genes that are apparently essential for sporulation in B. subtilis. Clostridial spore-formers lack, among others, spoIIB, sda, spoVID and safA genes and have non-orthologous displacements of spoIIQ and spoIVFA, suggesting substantial differences between bacilli and clostridia in the engulfment and spore coat formation steps. Many B. subtilis sporulation genes, particularly those encoding small acid-soluble spore proteins and spore coat proteins, were found only in the family Bacillaceae, or even in a subset of Bacillus spp. Phylogenetic profiles of sporulation genes, compiled in this work, confirm the presence of a common sporulation gene core, but also illuminate the diversity of the sporulation processes within various lineages. These profiles should help further experimental studies of uncharacterized widespread sporulation genes, which would ultimately allow delineation of the minimal set(s) of sporulation-specific genes in Bacilli and Clostridia.
Galperin, Michael Y; Mekhedov, Sergei L; Puigbo, Pere; Smirnov, Sergey; Wolf, Yuri I; Rigden, Daniel J
Three classes of low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (Firmicutes), Bacilli, Clostridia and Negativicutes, include numerous members that are capable of producing heat-resistant endospores. Spore-forming firmicutes include many environmentally important organisms, such as insect pathogens and cellulose-degrading industrial strains, as well as human pathogens responsible for such diseases as anthrax, botulism, gas gangrene and tetanus. In the best-studied model organism Bacillus subtilis, sporulation involves over 500 genes, many of which are conserved among other bacilli and clostridia. This work aimed to define the genomic requirements for sporulation through an analysis of the presence of sporulation genes in various firmicutes, including those with smaller genomes than B. subtilis. Cultivable spore-formers were found to have genomes larger than 2300 kb and encompass over 2150 protein-coding genes of which 60 are orthologues of genes that are apparently essential for sporulation in B. subtilis. Clostridial spore-formers lack, among others, spoIIB, sda, spoVID and safA genes and have non-orthologous displacements of spoIIQ and spoIVFA, suggesting substantial differences between bacilli and clostridia in the engulfment and spore coat formation steps. Many B. subtilis sporulation genes, particularly those encoding small acid-soluble spore proteins and spore coat proteins, were found only in the family Bacillaceae, or even in a subset of Bacillus spp. Phylogenetic profiles of sporulation genes, compiled in this work, confirm the presence of a common sporulation gene core, but also illuminate the diversity of the sporulation processes within various lineages. These profiles should help further experimental studies of uncharacterized widespread sporulation genes, which would ultimately allow delineation of the minimal set(s) of sporulation-specific genes in Bacilli and Clostridia. PMID:22882546
Galperin, Michael Y; Mekhedov, Sergei L; Puigbo, Pere; Smirnov, Sergey; Wolf, Yuri I; Rigden, Daniel J
Over the past years, infectious disease has caused enormous economic loss in pig industry. Among the pathogens, gram negative bacteria not only cause inflammation, but also cause different diseases and make the pigs more susceptible to virus infection. Vaccination, medication and elimination of sick pigs are major strategies of controlling disease. Genetic methods, such as selection of disease resistance in the pig, have not been widely used. Recently, the completion of the porcine whole genome sequencing has provided powerful tools to identify the genome regions that harboring genes controlling disease or immunity. Immunogenomics, which combines DNA variations, transcriptome, immune response, and QTL mapping data to illustrate the interactions between pathogen and host immune system, will be an effective genomics tool for identification of disease resistance genes in pigs. These genes will be potential targets for disease resistance in breeding programs. This paper reviewed the progress of disease resistance study in the pig focusing on Gram-negative bacilli. Major porcine Gram-negative bacilli and diseases, suggested candidate genes/pathways against porcine Gram-negative bacilli, and distributions of QTLs for immune capacity on pig chromosomes were summarized. Some tools for immunogenomics research were described. We conclude that integration of sequencing, whole genome associations, functional genomics studies, and immune response information is necessary to illustrate molecular mechanisms and key genes in disease resistance.
Introduction: The continuous evolution of antimicrobial resistance poses a major threat to public health worldwide. Molecular biology techniques have been integrated to epidemiological surveillance systems to improve the control strategies of this phenomenon. Objective: To describe the phenotypic and molecular profiles of the most important Gram negative bacilli from intensive care units in 23 Colombian hospitals during the study period 2009-2012. Materials and methods: A descriptive study was conducted in 23 hospitals belonging to the Colombian Nosocomial Resistance Study Group. A total of 38.048 bacterial isolates were analyzed using WHONET over a four-year period. The antimicrobial resistant profiles were described for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii . Polymerase chain reaction was performed in 1.248 strains to detect the most clinically relevant carbapenemases. Results: Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated organism (mean=14.8%). Frequency of K. pneumoniae increased significantly from 11% in 2009 to 15% in 2012 (p<0.001). All screened isolates had rising trends of multidrug-resistant profiles. KPC ( Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase) was detected in 68.4% of K. pneumoniae isolates while VIM (Verona integron-encoded metallo-betalactamase) was present in 46.5% of them. Conclusion: In this study, an increase in the trend of multidrug-resistant organisms and a wide distribution of carbapenemases was observed. The integration of molecular biology to surveillance systems allowed the compilation of this data, which will aid in the construction of guidelines on antimicrobial stewardship for prevention in Colombia. PMID:24968040
Hernández-Gómez, Cristhian; Blanco, Víctor M; Motoa, Gabriel; Correa, Adriana; Vallejo, Marta; Villegas, María Virginia
AIM: Nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB), which are saprophytic in nature, have emerged as important healthcare-associated pathogens. They exhibit resistance not only to beta lactam and the other groups of antibiotics, but also to carbapenems. This study was undertaken to identify the nonfermenters isolated from various clinical samples, to assess their clinical significance, to know the type of healthcare-associated infections they caused, and to know their anti-microbial sensitivity pattern. Materials and Methods: The nonfermenters were identified using a standard protocol that included tests for motility, oxidase production, oxidation-fermentation test for various sugars, gelatin liquefaction, and growth on 10% lactose agar. The clinical significance was assessed by using various criteria and susceptibility testing was performed with the help of the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: A total of 193 NFGNB were isolated from 189 clinical specimens. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common nonfermenter, accounting for 53.8%, followed by Acinetobacter baumannii (22.2%), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (10.8%). Other significant NFGNB isolated were: Sphingobacterium species (5.2%), Acinetobacter lwoffii (3.1%), and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (2.6%). P. aeruginosa showed good sensitivity to imipenem (94%), cefoperazone (70%), amikacin (69%), and ticarcillin (63%). A. baumannii showed 100% sensitivity to imipenem and 70% sensitivity to piperacillin. Conclusion: P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii were the common NFGNB isolated in our study from patients of, urinary tract infection, bacteremia, surgical site infections, and ventilator associated pneumonia. P. aeruginosa showed good sensitivity to imipenem, amikacin, and cefoperazone while A. baumannii showed good sensitivity to imipenem and piperacillin.
Intestinal flora contains a reservoir of Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) resistant to cephalosporins, which are potentially pathogenic for intensive care unit (ICU) patients; this has led to increasing use of carbapenems. The emergence of carbapenem resistance is a major concern for ICUs. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to assess the intestinal carriage of imipenem-resistant GNB (IR-GNB) in intensive care patients. For 6 months, 523 consecutive ICU patients were screened for rectal IR-GNB colonization upon admission and weekly thereafter. The phenotypes and genotypes of all isolates were determined, and a case control study was performed to identify risk factors for colonization. The IR-GNB colonization rate increased regularly from 5.6% after 1 week to 58.6% after 6 weeks in the ICU. In all, 56 IR-GNB strains were collected from 50 patients: 36 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, 12 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains, 6 Enterobacteriaceae strains, and 2 Acinetobacter baumannii strains. In P. aeruginosa, imipenem resistance was due to chromosomally encoded resistance (32 strains) or carbapenemase production (4 strains). In the Enterobacteriaceae strains, resistance was due to AmpC cephalosporinase and/or extended-spectrum ?-lactamase production with porin loss. Genomic comparison showed that the strains were highly diverse, with 8 exceptions (4 VIM-2 carbapenemase-producing P. aeruginosa strains, 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, and 2 S. maltophilia strains). The main risk factor for IR-GNB colonization was prior imipenem exposure. The odds ratio for colonization was already as high as 5.9 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.5 to 25.7) after 1 to 3 days of exposure and increased to 7.8 (95% CI, 2.4 to 29.8) thereafter. In conclusion, even brief exposure to imipenem is a major risk factor for IR-GNB carriage.
The aim of this study was to compare the results of nucleic acid amplification-based MTD (Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct test) Gene-Probe® method in samples obtained from acid-fastbacilli (ARB) smear-negative patients with suspected tuberculosis (TB), with the culture results obtained from automated BACTEC 960™ (MGIT) system and Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium. In addition, the contribution of molecular methods in early diagnosis of pulmonary TB and the effect of radiological prevalence of the disease associated with or without cavity to the molecular diagnosis and/or growth time in culture media have been evaluated. A total of 107 patients (86 male, 21 female; mean age: 49.89 ± 17.1 years, age range: 18-81 years) who were clinically and radiologically suspected of having pulmonary TB and/or TB pleurisy, were included in the study. Of the samples 65 (60.7%) were sputum, 32 (29.9%) were bronchial aspiration, 5 (4.7%) were pleural fluid, and 5 (4.7%) were transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy materials. Patient samples were cultured in solid LJ media and liquid-based BACTEC 960 system (Becton Dickinson Co., USA) in the same working day. Meanwhile, MTD Gen-Probe test (Gen-Probe Inc., USA) was studied in two separate working days of the week as specified by the laboratory. The samples were incubated until positivity was determined in BACTEC 960 system and/or growth was detected in LJ medium. Negative cultures were incubated for 42 days and were finalized. When mycobacterial growth was determined in the culture, identification of M.tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and differentiation from nontuberculous mycobacteria were performed by conventional methods and BACTEC 460 NAP test. Forty five (42%) patients were diagnosed as pulmonary paranchimal TB (40 were active pulmonary TB, 1 was miliary TB and 4 were culture-negative pulmonary TB), while 4 (3.7%) patients diagnosed as extrapulmonary TB and 58 (57.9%) patients were diagnosed as other pulmonary diseases unrelated with TB. LJ cultures yielded positive results in 32 of 45 (71%) pulmonary TB patients, and BACTEC 960 were found positive in 84.4% (38/45) of those patients. On the other hand the positivity rate of MTD Gen-Probe test was detected as 37.4% (40/107). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for MTD Gen-Probe test were estimated as 89%, 100%, 100% and 93%, respectively. Those values for BACTEC 960 system were found as 82%, 98%, 97% and 88%, and for LJ culture method as 71%, 100%, 100% and 83%, respectively. Average periods to make a decision for diagnosis of TB by MTD Gen-Probe, BACTEC 960 (MGIT) and LJ culture methods were calculated as 2.36 days, 20.11 days and 32.49 days, respectively. In comparison of the methods in terms of turnaround times, MTD Gen-Probe test was found superior to LJ culture method, however the turnaround times for BACTEC 960 and LJ culture methods were similar. When the clinical data were evaluated, no effect of radiological density of lesion was identified on the diagnosis time of molecular test and time of growth in liquid based automated BACTEC system and/or LJ culture method. However, LJ culture demonstrated earlier reactivity in patients with cavitary lesions. As a result, MTD Gene-Probe test was observed as a reliable and rapid method for the early diagnosis of pulmonary TB patients, early initiation of therapy, prevention of disease progression and transmission. PMID:23971920
Free ions of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ influenced the optical density of planktonic cultures of thermophilic bacilli. Anoxybacillus flavithermus E16 and Geobacillus sp. strain F75 (milk powder manufacturing plant isolates) and A. flavithermus DSM 2641 and G. thermoleovorans DSM 5366 were studied. Ca2+ and Mg2+ were associated with increases in optical density more so than Na+ and K+. Overall, it appeared that Ca2+ and/or Mg2+ was required for the production of protein in thermophilic bacilli, as shown by results obtained with A. flavithermus E16, which was selected for further study.
Palmer, Jon; Brooks, John; Smolinski, Edward; Lindsay, Denise; Flint, Steve
Free ions of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) influenced the optical density of planktonic cultures of thermophilic bacilli. Anoxybacillus flavithermus E16 and Geobacillus sp. strain F75 (milk powder manufacturing plant isolates) and A. flavithermus DSM 2641 and G. thermoleovorans DSM 5366 were studied. Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were associated with increases in optical density more so than Na(+) and K(+). Overall, it appeared that Ca(2+) and/or Mg(2+) was required for the production of protein in thermophilic bacilli, as shown by results obtained with A. flavithermus E16, which was selected for further study. PMID:22287005
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease characterized by noncaseating granulomas in the affected organs, including skin, heart, nervous system, and joints. Diagnosis of sarcoidosis is generally based upon a compatible history, demonstration of granulomas in at least two different organs, negative staining and culture for acidfastbacilli, absence of occupational or domestic exposure to toxins, and lack of drug-induced disease.
We describe the case of a 32-year-old woman with pulmonary tuberculosis in whom a high-resolution CT scan demonstrated the reversed halo sign. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was made by lung biopsy and the detection of acid-fastbacilli in the sputum smear and culture. Follow-up assessment revealed a significant improvement in the lesions.
Marchiori, E; Grando, R D; Simoes Dos Santos, C E; Maffazzioli Santos Balzan, L; Zanetti, G; Mano, C M; Gutierrez, R S
The marked increase in the incidence of infections due to antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacilli in recent years is of great concern, as patients infected by those isolates might initially receive antibiotics that are inactive against the responsible pathogens. To evaluate the effect of inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy on survival, a total of 286 patients with antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteremia, 61 patients with Escherichia coli bacteremia, 65 with Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia, 74 with Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia, and 86 with Enterobacter bacteremia, were analyzed retrospectively. If a patient received at least one antimicrobial agent to which the causative microorganisms were susceptible within 24 h of blood culture collection, the initial antimicrobial therapy was considered to have been appropriate. High-risk sources of bacteremia were defined as the lung, peritoneum, or an unknown source. The main outcome measure was 30-day mortality. Of the 286 patients, 135 (47.2%) received appropriate initial empirical antimicrobial therapy, and the remaining 151 (52.8%) patients received inappropriate therapy. The adequately treated group had a 27.4% mortality rate, whereas the inadequately treated group had a 38.4% mortality rate (P = 0.049). Multivariate analysis showed that the significant independent risk factors of mortality were presentation with septic shock, a high-risk source of bacteremia, P. aeruginosa infection, and an increasing APACHE II score. In the subgroup of patients (n = 132) with a high-risk source of bacteremia, inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy was independently associated with increased mortality (odds ratio, 3.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.13 to 11.72; P = 0.030). Our data suggest that inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy is associated with adverse outcome in antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteremia, particularly in patients with a high-risk source of bacteremia.
Kang, Cheol-In; Kim, Sung-Han; Park, Wan Beom; Lee, Ki-Deok; Kim, Hong-Bin; Kim, Eui-Chong; Oh, Myoung-don; Choe, Kang-Won
Bacterial plasmids have become valuable markers for the comparison of strains of nosocomial gram-negative bacilli. The importance of plasmids in nosocomial infections is primarily due to their transferable antibiotic resistance genes (R plasmids), but other plasmid-mediated traits may eventually serve as potential markers. Stable cryptic plasmids have also served to relate outbreak strains, particularly nonfermenting strains of gram-negative bacteria. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcescens have been the major plasmid-containing species in outbreaks involving single or multiple species. Outbreaks of single species with common plasmid patterns have included the Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, Ewingella americana, and Legionella pneumophila. Intrageneric spread of the same or similar R plasmids has nearly always occurred within the Enterobacteriaceae in large medical centers or Veterans Administration hospitals. High-risk nurseries and burn units have been conspicuous foci for R plasmid evolution. Hospital epidemiologists and clinical microbiologists will likely have an ever-increasing need to determine the plasmid content of gram-negative bacilli producing endemic and epidemic nosocomial infections. PMID:3538313
Global spread and genetic monomorphism are hallmarks of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the agent of human tuberculosis. In contrast, Mycobacterium canettii, and related tubercle bacilli that also cause human tuberculosis and exhibit unusual smooth colony morphology, are restricted to East-Africa. Here, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of five representative strains of smooth tubercle bacilli (STB) using Sanger (4-5x coverage), 454/Roche (13-18x coverage) and/or Illumina DNA sequencing (45-105x coverage). We show that STB are highly recombinogenic and evolutionary early-branching, with larger genome sizes, 25-fold more SNPs, fewer molecular scars and distinct CRISPR-Cas systems relative to M. tuberculosis. Despite the differences, all tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria share a highly conserved core genome. Mouse-infection experiments revealed that STB are less persistent and virulent than M. tuberculosis. We conclude that M. tuberculosis emerged from an ancestral, STB-like pool of mycobacteria by gain of persistence and virulence mechanisms and we provide genome-wide insights into the molecular events involved.
Twenty-nine IMP-type ?-lactamases (IMPs) have been identified in at least 26 species of clinically important Gram-negative bacilli from more than 24 countries/regions. Most of bla(IMP) genes are harbored by class 1 integrons that are usually embedded in transposons and/or plasmids, footnoting their horizontal transfer and worldwide distribution. bla(IMP) genes usually co-exist with other resistance genes, such as aacA, catB, and bla(OXA), resulting in multi-drug resistance. Compared to other gene cassettes, 76.3% of the bla(IMP) gene cassettes are located adjacent to Pc promoter of the class 1 integrons, indicating that the bla(IMP) genes are readily expressed in most of bacterial hosts. PMID:21707466
The experiments presented in this paper involve the study of menin- gitis produced in rabbits by the introduction of living and killed tuber- cle bacilli into the subarachnoid space, as compared with the effects of the injection of various extracts from the tubercle bacillus. Every extract tested has produced some symptomatic or pathological change. The tests have been made in
The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcome of acute prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) due to gram-negative bacilli (GNB) treated without implant removal. Patients with an acute PJI due to GNB diagnosed from 2000 to 2007 were prospectively registered. Demographics, comorbidity, type of implant, microbiology data, surgical treatment, antimicrobial therapy, and outcome were recorded. Classification and regression tree
J. C. Martinez-Pastor; Ernesto Munoz-Mahamud; Felix Vilchez; S. Garcia-Ramiro; Guillem Bori; Josep Sierra; J. A. Martinez; J. Mensa; A. Soriano
Gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli (NFB) are widely spread in the environment. Besides of difficulties for identification, they often have a marked multiresistance to antimicrobial agents, including those active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The objective of this study was to evaluate the 'in vitro' activity of different antimicrobial agents on 177 gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli isolates (excluding Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp.) isolated from clinical specimens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined according to the Mueller Hinton agar dilution method against the following antibacterial agents: ampicillin, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, sulbactam, cefoperazone, cefoperazone-sulbactam, ceftazidime, cefepime, aztreonam, imipenem, meropenem, colistin, gentamicin, amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, rifampin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and minocycline. Seven isolates: Sphingobacterium multivorum (2), Sphingobacteriumspiritivorum (1), Empedobacterbrevis (1), Weeksella virosa (1), Bergeyella zoohelcum (1) and Oligella urethralis (1), were tested for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ampicillin-sulbactam susceptibility, and susceptibility to cefoperazone or sulbactam was not determined. Multiresistance was generally found in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Burkholderia cepacia, Chryseobacterium spp., Myroides spp., Achromobacter xylosoxidans, and Ochrobactrum anthropi isolates. On the other hand, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Shewanella putrefaciens-algae, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Bergeyella zoohelcum, Weeksella virosa and Oligella urethralis were widely susceptible to the antibacterial agents tested. As a result of the wide variation in antimicrobial susceptibility shown by different species, a test on susceptibility to different antibacterial agents is essential in order to select an adequate therapy. The marked multiresistance evidenced by some species, prompts the need to develop new antimicrobial agents active against this group of bacteria and to search for synergistic combinations. PMID:15991478
Vay, C A; Almuzara, M N; Rodríguez, C H; Pugliese, M L; Lorenzo Barba, F; Mattera, J C; Famiglietti, A M R
A unique hallmark of tuberculosis is the granulomatous lesions formed in the lung. Granulomas can be heterogeneous in nature and can develop a necrotic, hypoxic core which is surrounded by an acellular, fibrotic rim. Studying bacilli in this in vivo microenvironment is problematic as Mycobacterium tuberculosis can change its phenotype and also become acid-fast negative. Under in vitro models of differing environments, M. tuberculosis alters its metabolism, transcriptional profile and rate of replication. In this study, we investigated whether these phenotypic adaptations of M. tuberculosis are unique for certain environmental conditions and if they could therefore be used as differential markers. Bacilli were studied using fluorescent acid-fast auramine-rhodamine targeting the mycolic acid containing cell wall, and immunofluorescence targeting bacterial proteins using an anti-M. tuberculosis whole cell lysate polyclonal antibody. These techniques were combined and simultaneously applied to M. tuberculosis in vitro culture samples and to lung sections of M. tuberculosis infected mice and guinea pigs. Two phenotypically different subpopulations of M. tuberculosis were found in stationary culture whilst three subpopulations were found in hypoxic culture and in lung sections. Bacilli were either exclusively acid-fast positive, exclusively immunofluorescent positive or acid-fast and immunofluorescent positive. These results suggest that M. tuberculosis exists as multiple populations in most conditions, even within seemingly a single microenvironment. This is relevant information for approaches that study bacillary characteristics in pooled samples (using lipidomics and proteomics) as well as in M. tuberculosis drug development.
Ryan, Gavin J.; Hoff, Donald R.; Driver, Emily R.; Voskuil, Martin I.; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Basaraba, Randall J.; Crick, Dean C.; Spencer, John S.; Lenaerts, Anne J.
A unique hallmark of tuberculosis is the granulomatous lesions formed in the lung. Granulomas can be heterogeneous in nature and can develop a necrotic, hypoxic core which is surrounded by an acellular, fibrotic rim. Studying bacilli in this in vivo microenvironment is problematic as Mycobacterium tuberculosis can change its phenotype and also become acid-fast negative. Under in vitro models of differing environments, M. tuberculosis alters its metabolism, transcriptional profile and rate of replication. In this study, we investigated whether these phenotypic adaptations of M. tuberculosis are unique for certain environmental conditions and if they could therefore be used as differential markers. Bacilli were studied using fluorescent acid-fast auramine-rhodamine targeting the mycolic acid containing cell wall, and immunofluorescence targeting bacterial proteins using an anti-M. tuberculosis whole cell lysate polyclonal antibody. These techniques were combined and simultaneously applied to M. tuberculosis in vitro culture samples and to lung sections of M. tuberculosis infected mice and guinea pigs. Two phenotypically different subpopulations of M. tuberculosis were found in stationary culture whilst three subpopulations were found in hypoxic culture and in lung sections. Bacilli were either exclusively acid-fast positive, exclusively immunofluorescent positive or acid-fast and immunofluorescent positive. These results suggest that M. tuberculosis exists as multiple populations in most conditions, even within seemingly a single microenvironment. This is relevant information for approaches that study bacillary characteristics in pooled samples (using lipidomics and proteomics) as well as in M. tuberculosis drug development. PMID:20559431
Ryan, Gavin J; Hoff, Donald R; Driver, Emily R; Voskuil, Martin I; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Basaraba, Randall J; Crick, Dean C; Spencer, John S; Lenaerts, Anne J
The mycobacterial Rv3097c-encoded lipase LipY is considered as a true lipase involved in the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol stored in lipid inclusion bodies for the survival of dormant mycobacteria. To date, orlistat is the only known LipY inhibitor. In view of the important emerging role of this enzyme, a search for small-molecule inhibitors of LipY was made, leading to the identification of some new compounds (8a-8d, 8f, 8h and 8i) with potent inhibitory activities against recombinant LipY, with no cytotoxicity [50% inhibitory concentration (CC(50)) ? 500 ?g/mL]. The compounds 6a, 8c and 8f potently inhibited (>90%) the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv grown under hypoxia (oxygen-depleted condition) but had no effect on aerobically grown bacilli, suggesting that these new small molecules are highly selective towards the growth inhibition of hypoxic cultures of M. tuberculosis and hence provide new leads for combating latent tuberculosis. PMID:23684389
Murine peritoneal macrophages were isolated and their ability to restrict growth of a virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis in response to IFN-gamma was assessed in various conditions. Doses of IFN-gamma ranging from 10 to 100 U stimulated high levels of antimycobacterial activity, as seen by inhibition of growth. Addition of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and other scavengers of reactive oxygen species before infection failed to abrogate this restriction of growth, suggestive of a lack of involvement of reactive oxygen species in this phenomenon. Addition of arginase before infection inhibited the bacteriostatic ability of IFN-gamma-pulsed macrophages as did addition of NG-monomethyl L-arginine, an inhibitor of the synthesis of inorganic nitrogen oxide. In both cases, this inhibition was reversed by adding excess L-arginine in the medium. Moreover, nitrite production in macrophages was correlated with their ability to restrict tubercle bacilli growth. These results imply that nitric oxide or another inorganic nitrogen oxide is an important effector molecule in restricting growth of M. tuberculosis in IFN-gamma-pulsed murine macrophages.
Denis, M. (Unite de recherche, Centre de pneumologie, Hopital Laval, Sainte-Foy, Quebec (Canada))
Bacillus and related genera comprise opportunist and pathogen species that can threaten the health of a crew in confined stations required for long-term missions. In this study, 43 Bacilli from confined environments, that is, the Antarctic Concordia station and the International Space Station, were characterized in terms of virulence and plasmid exchange potentials. No specific virulence feature, such as the production of toxins or unusual antibiotic resistance, was detected. Most of the strains exhibited small or large plasmids, or both, some of which were related to the replicons of the Bacillus anthracis pXO1 and pXO2 virulence elements. One conjugative element, the capacity to mobilize and retromobilize small plasmids, was detected in a Bacillus cereus sensu lato isolate. Six out of 25 tested strains acquired foreign DNA by conjugation. Extremophilic bacteria were identified and exhibited the ability to grow at high pH and salt concentrations or at low temperatures. Finally, the clonal dispersion of an opportunist isolate was demonstrated in the Concordia station. Taken together, these results suggest that the virulence potential of the Bacillus isolates in confined environments tends to be low but genetic transfers could contribute to its capacity to spread.
Background & objectives: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates have been increasingly identified worldwide. Though molecular data regarding New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) producers are available, data regarding their rate of infection in a hospital setting and percentage among different clinical isolates are scarce. Hence, this study was undertaken to determine the occurrence of blaNDM-1 gene among clinical isolates of multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDRGNB) in a tertiary care centre in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Methods: A total of 74 MDRGNB isolates were studied. These were screened for MBL production by phenotypic assays such as double disk synergy test (DDST) and Modified Hodge's test (MHT). PCR was performed for the molecular detection of the gene and antibiograms were confirmed by automated bacteriology system. Results: Of the 74 MDRGNB isolates, 34 were positive for blaNDM-1 gene. All isolates were resistant to aztreonam and two isolates were resistant to tigecycline. Complete resistance to the tested carbapenems was seen in 28 (82.35%) of the positive isolates whereas variable carbapenem resistance was seen in six (17.64%) of the positive clinical isolates. Of the total 34 PCR positive isolates, 33 (97.05%) NDM-1 producers were identified by DDST and 26 (76.47%) by MHT as producers of MBL. Interpretation & conclusions: A high percentage of plasmid encoded NDM was noted in MDRGNB. Phenotypic and molecular screening should be employed along with routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing to reflect the true number of metallo-beta-lactamase producers.
We evaluated the Vitek 2 ID-GNB identification card (bioMérieux, Inc., Durham, N.C.) for its ability to identify members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and other gram-negative bacilli that are isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories. Using 482 enteric stock cultures and 103 strains of oxidase-positive, gram-negative glucose-fermenting and nonfermenting bacilli that were maintained at ?70°C and passaged three times before use, we inoculated cards according to the manufacturer's directions and processed them in a Vitek 2 instrument using version VT2-R02.03 software. All panel identifications were compared to reference identifications previously confirmed by conventional tube biochemical assays. At the end of the initial 3-h incubation period, the Vitek 2 instrument demonstrated an accuracy of 93.0% for the identification of enteric strains; 414 (85.9%) were correctly identified at probability levels ranging from excellent to good, and an additional 34 (7.1%) strains were correctly identified but at a low level of discrimination. Nineteen (3.9%) strains were unidentified, and 15 (3.1%) were misidentified. The 19 unidentified strains were scattered among 10 genera. Three of the 15 misidentified strains were lactose-positive Salmonella spp. and were identified as Escherichia coli; another was a lactose-positive, malonate-negative Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae strain that was identified as E. coli. Of the 103 glucose-fermenting and nonfermenting nonenteric strains, 88 (85.4%) were correctly identified at probability levels ranging from excellent to good, and 10 (9.7%) were correctly identified, but at a low level of discrimination, for a total of 95.1% accuracy with this group. Two strains were unidentified and three were misidentified. The errors occurred for strains in three different genera. With the increased hands-off approach of the Vitek 2 instrument and accuracies of 93% for the identification of enteric organisms and 95.1% for the identification of nonenteric organisms with the ID-GNB card, use of this product presents an acceptable method for the identification of most gram-negative organisms commonly isolated in the clinical laboratory. A comparison of these results to those obtained by testing 454 of the same strains with the Vitek GNI+ card revealed no significant difference in the abilities of the two cards to identify these organisms accurately.
The selection of resistant gram-negative bacilli by broad-spectrum antibiotic use is a major issue in infection control. The aim of this comparative study was to assess the impact of different antimicrobial regimens commonly used to treat intra-abdominal infections on the susceptibility patterns of gram-negative bowel flora after completion of therapy. In two international randomized open-label trials with laboratory blinding, adults
M. J. DiNubile; I. Friedland; C. Y. Chan; M. R. Motyl; H. Giezek; M. Shivaprakash; R. A. Weinstein; J. P. Quinn
Systemic colistin has shown efficacy against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp., but it has presented poor results in pneumonia. Aerosolized polymyxin in cystic fibrosis patients has had good results. In this study, inhaled polymyxin B was used to treat respiratory infections by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MR-GNBs). Nineteen patients were treated with inhaled polymyxin B: 14 pneumonia, most of which
Graziella H. Pereira; Patrícia R. Muller; Anna S. Levin
Correct identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NFB) is crucial for patient management. We compared phenotypic identifications of 96 clinical NFB isolates with identifications obtained by 5? 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Sequencing identified 88 isolates (91.7%) with >99% similarity to a sequence from the assigned species; 61.5% of sequencing results were concordant with phenotypic results, indicating the usability of sequencing to identify NFB.
Cloud, Joann L.; Harmsen, Dag; Iwen, Peter C.; Dunn, James J.; Hall, Gerri; LaSala, Paul Rocco; Hoggan, Karen; Wilson, Deborah; Woods, Gail L.; Mellmann, Alexander
We used capillary electrophoresis-single-strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) analysis of PCR- amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments for rapid identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other gram- negative nonfermenting bacilli isolated from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Target sequences were amplified by using forward and reverse primers labeled with various fluorescent dyes. The labeled PCR products were denatured by heating and separated by
RAFIAA GHOZZI; PHILIPPE MORAND; AGNES FERRONI; JEAN-LUC BERETTI; EDOUARD BINGEN; CHRISTINE SEGONDS; MARIE-ODILE HUSSON; DANIEL IZARD; PATRICK BERCHE; JEAN-LOUIS GAILLARD
A point-of-use 0.2-microm filter was evaluated for elimination of nontuberculosis mycobacteria in laboratory water to reduce false-positive acid-fast bacillus staining results. Use of the point-of-use filter can significantly reduce the false-positive rate to 1.2% compared to samples treated with tap water (10.7%) and deionized water (8.7%). PMID:17675421
Background The objectives of the study were to compare the performance of line probe assay (GenoType MTBDRplus) with solid culture method for an early diagnosis of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), and to study the mutation patterns associated with rpoB, katG and inhA genes at a tertiary care centre in north India. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 269 previously treated sputum-smear acid-fastbacilli (AFB) positive MDR-TB suspects were enrolled from January to September 2012 at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences hospital, New Delhi. Line probe assay (LPA) was performed directly on the sputum specimens and the results were compared with that of conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) on solid media [Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) method]. Results DST results by LPA and LJ methods were compared in 242 MDR-TB suspects. The LPA detected rifampicin (RIF) resistance in 70 of 71 cases, isoniazid (INH) resistance in 86 of 93 cases, and MDR-TB in 66 of 68 cases as compared to the conventional method. Overall (rifampicin, isoniazid and MDR-TB) concordance of the LPA with the conventional DST was 96%. Sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 99% respectively for detection of RIF resistance; 92% and 99% respectively for detection of INH resistance; 97% and 100% respectively for detection of MDR-TB. Frequencies of katG gene, inhA gene and combined katG and inhA gene mutations conferring all INH resistance were 72/87 (83%), 10/87 (11%) and 5/87 (6%) respectively. The turnaround time of the LPA test was 48 hours. Conclusion The LPA test provides an early diagnosis of monoresistance to isoniazid and rifampicin and is highly sensitive and specific for an early diagnosis of MDR-TB. Based on these findings, it is concluded that the LPA test can be useful in early diagnosis of drug resistant TB in high TB burden countries.
An immunofluorescent-antibody test was developed for rapid detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in blood cultures. The test uses a murine monoclonal antibody specific for all strains of P. aeruginosa. In initial tests, bright uniform immunofluorescence signals were seen when each of the 17 international serotypes, as well as 14 additional isolates of P. aeruginosa, were examined. No immunofluorescent staining was observed when 37 other gram-negative and 15 gram-positive species were studied. In a clinical study, the assay was applied to broth smears of 86 gram-negative bacilli isolated from 74 bacteremic patients and 28 additional clinical isolates of Pseudomonas sp. and other oxidase-positive gram-negative bacilli recovered from various body sites. Smears were made directly from blood cultures which were positive for gram-negative bacilli by Gram staining. Eleven (15%) of 74 patients with gram-negative bacteremia had a positive test for P. aeruginosa. Including the results of these 11 isolates recovered in a prospective study and an additional 10 isolates from a retrospective study, we obtained a sensitivity and specificity of 100% (21 positive specimens and 103 negative specimens, respectively). These preliminary results suggest that this is a useful reagent for rapid presumptive identification of P. aeruginosa in blood cultures. With the immunofluorescent-antibody test, P. aeruginosa could be identified within 1 h of Gram stain evidence of gram-negative bacteremia. Images
Counts, G W; Schwartz, R W; Ulness, B K; Hamilton, D J; Rosok, M J; Cunningham, M D; Tam, M R; Darveau, R P
Tigecycline is one of the few remaining therapeutic options for extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB). MICs of tigecycline to Acinetobacter baumannii have been reported to be elevated when determined by the Etest compared to determinations by the broth microdilution (BMD) method. The study aim was to compare the susceptibility of GNB to tigecycline by four different testing methods. GNB were collected from six health care systems (25 hospitals) in southeast Michigan from January 2010 to September 2011. Tigecycline MICs among A. baumannii, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, and susceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates were determined by Etest, BMD, Vitek-2, and MicroScan. Nonsusceptibility was categorized as a tigecycline MIC of ?4 ?g/ml for both A. baumannii and Enterobacteriaceae. The study included 4,427 isolates: 2,065 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, 1,105 A. baumannii, 888 susceptible Enterobacteriaceae, and 369 CRE isolates. Tigecycline nonsusceptibility among A. baumannii isolates was significantly more common as determined by Etest compared to that determined by BMD (odds ratio [OR], 10.3; P<0.001), MicroScan (OR, 12.4; P<0.001), or Vitek-2 (OR, 9.4; P<0.001). These differences were not evident with the other pathogens. Tigecycline MICs varied greatly according to the in vitro testing methods among A. baumannii isolates. Etest should probably not be used by laboratories for tigecycline MIC testing of A. baumannii isolates, since MICs are significantly elevated with Etest compared to those determined by the three other methods. PMID:24599978
Marchaim, Dror; Pogue, Jason M; Tzuman, Oran; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Lephart, Paul R; Salimnia, Hossein; Painter, Theresa; Zervos, Marcus J; Johnson, Laura E; Perri, Mary Beth; Hartman, Pamela; Thyagarajan, Rama V; Major, Sharon; Goodell, Melanie; Fakih, Mohamad G; Washer, Laraine L; Newton, Duane W; Malani, Anurag N; Wholehan, Jason M; Mody, Lona; Kaye, Keith S
Fifty two aerobic and endospore forming Bacilli (AEFB) strains were recovered from rhizospheric soil of Phyllanthus amarus. Morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization by 16S rDNA gene sequencing has shown that these bacterial strains belong to six different genera of AEFB i.e. Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Terribacillus and Jeotgalibacillus. Analysis of their PGP activities has shown that 92.30 % strains produced indole acetic acid hormone, 86.53 % of the strains solubilized Phosphate and 44.23 % strains produced siderophore. Chitinase production activity was shown by 42.30 % of the strains and 21.15 % of the strains produced 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase. 46.15 % of isolates have shown antagonistic activity against common fungal pathogen of the plant i.e. Corynespora cassiicola. Among all of the isolated strains B. Cereus JP44SK22 and JP44SK42 have shown all of the six plant growth promoting traits tested. B. megaterium strains (JP44SK18 and JP44SK35), Lysinibacillus sphaericus strains (JP44SK3 and JP44SK4) and Brevibacillus laterosporus strain JP44SK51 have also shown multiple PGP activities except ACC deaminase production activity. In the present study bacterial strain belonging to genera Jeotgalibacillus sp. JP44SK37 has been reported first time as a member of rhizospheric soil habitat and has also shown PGP activities. It can be concluded that Rhizosphere of P. amarus has harboured a good diversity of AEFB bacterial strains having a lot of biofertilizing and biocontrol abilities. PMID:23526192
We tried to see whether it was possible to use Bactofen to decontaminate sputum for culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Bactofen showed very little bactericidal action on tubercle bacilli, lower than Desogen, and selectively destroyed many contaminants, more actively than benzalkonium chloride. Digested sputum decontaminated with 0.2% Bactofen and then applied to culture media without centrifugation gave good results in growth of colonies. PMID:6787655
HeLa, monkey kidney, and human amnion cells in tissue cultures were compared as sites for the multiplication of strains of tubercle bacilli or original and reduced pathogenicity, and for several other species of mycobacteria capable of causing disease in humans. The arrangement of the pathogenic species inorder of their growth rates in HeLa cells was Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium balnei, and the "yellow bacillus," followed closely by the tubercle bacillus. This order was also correct for these species in monkey kidney and human amnion cells, and is the same as that seen in bacteriological media. The arrangement of the strains of tubercle bacilli in order of their growth rates in all three types of cells was: H37Rv, then R1Rv, and lastly H37Ra, which multiplied about as slowly as BCG. An INH-resistant strain grew about as rapidly as H37Rv. Growth of the pathogenic species occurred at about the same rates in HeLa and monkey kidney cells, but was distinctly slower in human amnion cells, which are less active metabolically. Irradiation of the cells in doses up to 5000 r did not affect the subsequent growth of mycobacteria in them. Preliminary experiments with human leprosy bacilli indicate that they can be introduced into these cells in high numbers and that the bacilli then persist for the life of the cells.
The search for antituberculosis drugs active against persistent bacilli has led to our interest in metallodependent class II fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA-tb), a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis absent from mammalian cells. Knock-out experiments at the fba-tb locus indicated that this gene is required for the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on gluconeogenetic substrates and in glucose-containing medium. Surface labeling and enzymatic activity measurements revealed that this enzyme was exported to the cell surface of M. tuberculosis and produced under various axenic growth conditions including oxygen depletion and hence by non-replicating bacilli. Importantly, FBA-tb was also produced in vivo in the lungs of infected guinea pigs and mice. FBA-tb bound human plasmin(ogen) and protected FBA-tb-bound plasmin from regulation by ?2-antiplasmin, suggestive of an involvement of this enzyme in host/pathogen interactions. The crystal structures of FBA-tb in the native form and in complex with a hydroxamate substrate analog were determined to 2.35- and 1.9-? resolution, respectively. Whereas inhibitor attachment had no effect on the plasminogen binding activity of FBA-tb, it competed with the natural substrate of the enzyme, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, and substantiated a previously unknown reaction mechanism associated with metallodependent aldolases involving recruitment of the catalytic zinc ion by the substrate upon active site binding. Altogether, our results highlight the potential of FBA-tb as a novel therapeutic target against both replicating and non-replicating bacilli.
de la Paz Santangelo, Maria; Gest, Petra M.; Guerin, Marcelo E.; Coincon, Mathieu; Pham, Ha; Ryan, Gavin; Puckett, Susan E.; Spencer, John S.; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Daher, Racha; Lenaerts, Anne J.; Schnappinger, Dirk; Therisod, Michel; Ehrt, Sabine; Sygusch, Jurgen; Jackson, Mary
The identification of nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli isolated from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is usually achieved by using phenotype-based techniques and eventually molecular tools. These techniques remain time-consuming, expensive, and technically demanding. We used a method based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for the identification of these bacteria. A set of reference strains belonging to 58 species of clinically relevant nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli was used. To identify peaks discriminating between these various species, the profile of 10 isolated colonies obtained from 10 different passages was analyzed for each referenced strain. Conserved peaks with a relative intensity greater than 0.1 were retained. The spectra of 559 clinical isolates were then compared to that of each of the 58 reference strains as follows: 400 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 54 Achromobacter xylosoxidans, 32 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, 52 Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), 1 Burkholderia gladioli, 14 Ralstonia mannitolilytica, 2 Ralstonia pickettii, 1 Bordetella hinzii, 1 Inquilinus limosus, 1 Cupriavidus respiraculi, and 1 Burkholderia thailandensis. Using this database, 549 strains were correctly identified. Nine BCC strains and one R. mannnitolilytica strain were identified as belonging to the appropriate genus but not the correct species. We subsequently engineered BCC- and Ralstonia-specific databases using additional reference strains. Using these databases, correct identification for these species increased from 83 to 98% and from 94 to 100% of cases, respectively. Altogether, these data demonstrate that, in CF patients, MALDI-TOF-MS is a powerful tool for rapid identification of nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli. PMID:18685005
The identification of nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli isolated from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is usually achieved by using phenotype-based techniques and eventually molecular tools. These techniques remain time-consuming, expensive, and technically demanding. We used a method based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for the identification of these bacteria. A set of reference strains belonging to 58 species of clinically relevant nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli was used. To identify peaks discriminating between these various species, the profile of 10 isolated colonies obtained from 10 different passages was analyzed for each referenced strain. Conserved peaks with a relative intensity greater than 0.1 were retained. The spectra of 559 clinical isolates were then compared to that of each of the 58 reference strains as follows: 400 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 54 Achromobacter xylosoxidans, 32 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, 52 Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), 1 Burkholderia gladioli, 14 Ralstonia mannitolilytica, 2 Ralstonia pickettii, 1 Bordetella hinzii, 1 Inquilinus limosus, 1 Cupriavidus respiraculi, and 1 Burkholderia thailandensis. Using this database, 549 strains were correctly identified. Nine BCC strains and one R. mannnitolilytica strain were identified as belonging to the appropriate genus but not the correct species. We subsequently engineered BCC- and Ralstonia-specific databases using additional reference strains. Using these databases, correct identification for these species increased from 83 to 98% and from 94 to 100% of cases, respectively. Altogether, these data demonstrate that, in CF patients, MALDI-TOF-MS is a powerful tool for rapid identification of nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli.
Background The highly homologous PE_PGRS (Proline-glutamic acid_polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequence) genes are members of the PE multigene family which is found only in mycobacteria. PE genes are particularly abundant within the genomes of pathogenic mycobacteria where they seem to have expanded as a result of gene duplication events. PE_PGRS genes are characterized by their high GC content and extensive repetitive sequences, making them prone to recombination events and genetic variability. Results Comparative sequence analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes PE_PGRS17 (Rv0978c) and PE_PGRS18 (Rv0980c) revealed a striking genetic variation associated with this typical tandem duplicate. In comparison to the M. tuberculosis reference strain H37Rv, the variation (named the 12/40 polymorphism) consists of an in-frame 12-bp insertion invariably accompanied by a set of 40 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that occurs either in PE_PGRS17 or in both genes. Sequence analysis of the paralogous genes in a representative set of worldwide distributed tubercle bacilli isolates revealed data which supported previously proposed evolutionary scenarios for the M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and confirmed the very ancient origin of "M. canettii" and other smooth tubercle bacilli. Strikingly, the identified polymorphism appears to be coincident with the emergence of the post-bottleneck successful clone from which the MTBC expanded. Furthermore, the findings provide direct and clear evidence for the natural occurrence of gene conversion in mycobacteria, which appears to be restricted to modern M. tuberculosis strains. Conclusion This study provides a new perspective to explore the molecular events that accompanied the evolution, clonal expansion, and recent diversification of tubercle bacilli.
Karboul, Anis; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C; Namouchi, Amine; Vincent, Veronique; Sola, Christophe; Rastogi, Nalin; Suffys, Philip; Fabre, Michel; Cataldi, Angel; Huard, Richard C; Kurepina, Natalia; Kreiswirth, Barry; Ho, John L; Gutierrez, M Cristina; Mardassi, Helmi
A female presented to the physician with a history of right upper quadrant pain. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan dem-onstrated a multi-loculated solid lesion in the head of the pancreas concerning for a primary malignancy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of the lesion was performed and cytology revealed no evidence of malignancy. The acid-fastbacilliculture was found to be positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and pancreatic tuberculosis was diagnosed.
Patel, Devi; Loren, David; Kowalski, Thomas; Siddiqui, Ali A.
A 44-year old, male, tattooed, leather jacket clad, Harley-Davidson motorcyclist arrived at the emergency room with a tender, irreducible mass, presenting at the external inguinal ring. In 1998, lung biopsy was read as miliary granuloma. No herniation was found on urgent preperitoneal exploration. Incision of the mass showed acid-fastbacilli. Culture later revealed Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI). A blood count showed CD4 lymphopenia; HIV was negative and remains so 2 years later. PMID:11505657
In this manuscript, we want to review the biochemical and genetic characteristics of the different efflux pumps involved in both intrinsic and acquired multiresistance in non-fermentative Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, as well as the regulation of their expression. Moreover, the clinical impact of the over-expression of these efflux pumps and the investigation developed to define efflux pump inhibitors will be discussed. In this review it will be stated that antimicrobial resistance associated with the over-expression of MDR efflux pumps is widely recognised as a frequent multidrug resistant determinant in nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli. Moreover, MDR pumps contribute to the intrinsic resistance of these bacterial pathogens. Circumventing the activity of efflux pumps will thus have clear benefits for therapy, since this will increase the susceptibility of nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli, thereby increasing the therapeutic efficacy of antibiotics used for treating such infections by those pathogens. In addition, it has been shown that the lack of activity of MDR pumps impedes selection of mutants showing high-level antibiotic resistance to antibiotics like quinolones or beta-lactams. Thus, besides reducing intrinsic resistance, inhibitors of efflux pumps will reduce the emergence of mutants that acquire antibiotic resistance as the consequence of mutations in MDR-regulatory elements or in other targets. Recent advances on the search for inhibitors of MDR pumps will also be finally discussed. PMID:18781925
Ceftazidime-avibactam, aztreonam-avibactam, and comparators were tested by reference broth microdilution against 372 nonrepetitive Gram-negative bacilli (346 unselected plus 26 selected meropenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates) collected from 11 teaching hospitals in China in 2011 and 2012. Meropenem-nonsusceptible isolates produced extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs; e.g., CTX-M-14/3), AmpCs (e.g., CMY-2), and/or carbapenemases (e.g., KPC-2 and NDM-1). Avibactam potentiated the activity of ceftazidime against organisms with combinations of ESBLs, AmpCs, and KPC-2. Aztreonam-avibactam was active against all ?-lactamase producers (including producers of NDM-1 and IMP-4/8) except blaOXA-containing Acinetobacter baumannii and some Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. PMID:24342639
We used capillary electrophoresis-single-strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments for rapid identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other gram-negative nonfermenting bacilli isolated from patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Target sequences were amplified by using forward and reverse primers labeled with various fluorescent dyes. The labeled PCR products were denatured by heating and separated by capillary gel electrophoresis with an automated DNA sequencer. Data were analyzed with GeneScan 672 software. This program made it possible to control lane-to-lane variability by standardizing the peak positions relative to internal DNA size markers. Thirty-four reference strains belonging to the genera Pseudomonas, Brevundimonas, Burkholderia, Comamonas, Ralstonia, Stenotrophomonas, and Alcaligenes were tested with primer sets spanning 16S rRNA gene regions with various degrees of polymorphism. The best results were obtained with the primer set P11P-P13P, which spans a moderately polymorphic region (Escherichia coli 16S rRNA positions 1173 to 1389 [M. N. Widjojoatmodjo, A. C. Fluit, and J. Verhoef, J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:3002-3007, 1994]). This primer set differentiated the main CF pathogens from closely related species but did not distinguish P. aeruginosa from Pseudomonas alcaligenes-Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans from Alcaligenes denitrificans. Two hundred seven CF clinical isolates (153 of P. aeruginosa, 26 of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, 15 of Burkholderia spp., and 13 of A. xylosoxidans) were tested with P11P-P13P. The CE-SSCP patterns obtained were identical to those for the corresponding reference strains. Fluorescence-based CE-SSCP analysis is simple to use, gives highly reproducible results, and makes it possible to analyze a large number of strains. This approach is suited for the rapid identification of the main gram-negative nonfermenting bacilli encountered in CF. PMID:10488211
Culture - bile ... is stored in a special dish (called a culture medium). The laboratory team watches to see if ... A culture does not involve the patient, so there is no pain. See also: ERCP Gallbladder surgery
The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.
Detecting colonization of patients with carbapenemase-producing bacteria can be difficult. This study compared the sensitivity and specificity of a PCR-based method (Xpert MDRO) for detecting blaKPC, blaNDM, and blaVIM carbapenem resistance genes using GeneXpert cartridges to the results of culture with and without a broth enrichment step on 328 rectal, perirectal, and stool samples. The culture method included direct inoculation of a MacConkey agar plate on which a 10-?g meropenem disk was placed and plating on MacConkey agar after overnight enrichment of the sample in MacConkey broth containing 1 ?g/ml of meropenem. Forty-three (13.1%) samples were positive by PCR for blaKPC and 11 (3.4%) were positive for blaVIM; none were positive for blaNDM. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the PCR assay for blaKPC were 100%, 99.0%, 93.0%, and 100%, respectively, compared to broth enrichment culture and sequencing of target genes. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the assay for blaVIM were 100%, 99.4%, 81.8%, and 100%, respectively. Since none of the clinical samples contained organisms with blaNDM, 66 contrived stool samples were prepared at various dilutions using three Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates containing blaNDM. The PCR assay showed 100% positivity at dilutions from 300 to 1,800 CFU/ml and 93.3% at 150 CFU/ml. The Xpert MDRO PCR assay required 2 min of hands-on time and 47 min to complete. Rapid identification of patients colonized with carbapenemase-producing organisms using multiplex PCR may help hospitals to improve infection control activities.
Canton, Rafael; Kop, JoAnn; Chan, Ryan; Ryan, Jamie; Weir, Fred; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; LaBombardi, Vincent; Persing, David H.
Detecting colonization of patients with carbapenemase-producing bacteria can be difficult. This study compared the sensitivity and specificity of a PCR-based method (Xpert MDRO) for detecting blaKPC, blaNDM, and blaVIM carbapenem resistance genes using GeneXpert cartridges to the results of culture with and without a broth enrichment step on 328 rectal, perirectal, and stool samples. The culture method included direct inoculation of a MacConkey agar plate on which a 10-?g meropenem disk was placed and plating on MacConkey agar after overnight enrichment of the sample in MacConkey broth containing 1 ?g/ml of meropenem. Forty-three (13.1%) samples were positive by PCR for blaKPC and 11 (3.4%) were positive for blaVIM; none were positive for blaNDM. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the PCR assay for blaKPC were 100%, 99.0%, 93.0%, and 100%, respectively, compared to broth enrichment culture and sequencing of target genes. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the assay for blaVIM were 100%, 99.4%, 81.8%, and 100%, respectively. Since none of the clinical samples contained organisms with blaNDM, 66 contrived stool samples were prepared at various dilutions using three Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates containing blaNDM. The PCR assay showed 100% positivity at dilutions from 300 to 1,800 CFU/ml and 93.3% at 150 CFU/ml. The Xpert MDRO PCR assay required 2 min of hands-on time and 47 min to complete. Rapid identification of patients colonized with carbapenemase-producing organisms using multiplex PCR may help hospitals to improve infection control activities. PMID:24006011
Tenover, Fred C; Canton, Rafael; Kop, JoAnn; Chan, Ryan; Ryan, Jamie; Weir, Fred; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; LaBombardi, Vincent; Persing, David H
Zebaa Arif reflects on changes during her career as a mental health nurse in relation to cultural care issues: Cultural awareness is becoming embedded in patient care. All aspects of care are influenced by cultural beliefs and should form part of assessment. Leadership is essential in influencing cultural care, as is organisational commitment. PMID:16262169
Microbial contamination of hospital surfaces may be a source of infection for hospitalized patients. We evaluated the efficacy of Glosair™ 400 against two American Type Culture Collection strains and 18 clinical isolates, placed on glass germ-carriers. Carriers were left to air-dry for 60min and then exposed to a cycle before detection of any surviving micro-organisms. Antibiotic-susceptible Gram-negative bacilli were less susceptible (although not significantly) to this technique than resistant Gram-negative bacilli or Gram-positive cocci and yeasts (3, 3.4 and 4.6 log10 reduction, respectively). In conclusion, in areas that had not been cleaned, aerosolized hydrogen peroxide obtained >3 log10 mean destruction of patients' micro-organisms. PMID:24930705
Cultural neuroscience issues from the apparently incompatible combination of neuroscience and cultural psychology. A brief literature sampling suggests, instead, several preliminary topics that demonstrate proof of possibilities: cultural differences in both lower-level processes (e.g. perception, number representation) and higher-order processes (e.g. inferring others’ emotions, contemplating the self) are beginning to shed new light on both culture and cognition. Candidates for future cultural neuroscience research include cultural variations in the default (resting) network, which may be social; regulation and inhibition of feelings, thoughts, and actions; prejudice and dehumanization; and neural signatures of fundamental warmth and competence judgments.
Culture Machine is a new, refereed, electronic journal encompassing cultural studies and cultural theory. The international editorial board of the interactive journal aims to "generat[e] research in culture and theory" by promoting and publishing "the most provocative of new work." The theme of the inaugural issue is Taking Risks with the Future. Content includes articles such as Life After Death of the Text by Johan Fornas, Cultural Studies in the Clouds: Mourning for Detail by Tadeusz Slawek, and The Future States of Politics by Kenneth Surin. Culture Machine is hosted by the University of Teesside, England.
A sodium iodide-isopropanol (NI) method was compared with an alkali wash and heat lysis (AH) procedure for the preparation and extraction of DNA from BACTEC 13A blood culture fluid samples from AIDS patients for use in a PCR for the detection and identification of mycobacteria. The sensitivity and efficiency of the DNA extraction methods were assessed by a multiplex PCR which detected the members of the genus Mycobacterium and differentiated between M. intracellulare, M. tuberculosis, and M. avium isolates with a limit of detection of between 0.28 pg (67 cells) and 120 pg (28,571 cells) of standard mycobacterial DNA. The PCR amplified mycobacterial DNA prepared by the AH procedure from 40 acid-fast bacillus-positive blood cultures with growth index values of > 20 U but not from 48 blood cultures with growth index values of < 21 U. The AH method was about 10 times more sensitive than the NI method for extracting DNA from 13 acid-fast bacillus-positive BACTEC fluid samples for PCR analysis. The study shows that the AH procedure in combination with the multiplex PCR is a simple, specific, and sensitive method which can be used in the routine diagnostic laboratory to detect and identify different members of the genus Mycobacterium in blood culture fluid samples from AIDS patients.
The autoSCAN-W/A (W/A; Dade Behring Microscan Inc., West Sacramento, Calif.) and Vitek AutoMicrobic System (Vitek AMS; bioMérieux Vitek Systems, Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.) are both fully automated microbiology systems. We evaluated the accuracy of these two systems in identifying nonglucose-fermenting gram-negative bacilli. We used the W/A with conventional-panel Neg Combo type 12 and Vitek GNI+ identification systems. A total of 301 isolates from 25 different species were tested. Of these, 299 isolates were identified in the databases of both systems. The conventional biochemical methods were used for reference. The W/A correctly identified 215 isolates (71.4%) to the species level at initial testing with a high probability of ?85%. The Vitek GNI+ correctly identified 216 isolates (71.8%) to the species level at initial testing with a high probability of ?90%. After additional testing that was recommended by the manufacturer's protocol, the correct identifications of the W/A and Vitek GNI+ improved to 96.0 and 92.3%, respectively. The major misidentified species were Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Agrobacterium radiobacter in the W/A system and Acinetobacter lwoffii, Chryseobacterium indologenes, and Comamonas acidovorans in the Vitek GNI+ system. The error rates were 4.0 and 7.6%, respectively. The overall accuracy for both systems was above 90% if the supplemental tests were applied. There was no significant difference in accuracy (P > 0.05) between the two systems.
Burkholderia cepacia has recently been recognized as an important pathogen in chronic lung disease in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Because of the social, psychological, and medical implications of the isolation of B. cepacia from CF patients, accurate identification of this organism is essential. We compared the accuracies of four commercial systems developed for the identification of nonfermenting, gram-negative bacilli with that of conventional biochemical testing for 150 nonfermenters including 58 isolates of B. cepacia recovered from respiratory secretions from CF patients. The accuracies of the four systems for identifying all nonfermenters ranged from 57 to 80%, with the RapID NF Plus system being most accurate. The accuracies of these systems for identifying B. cepacia ranged from 43 to 86%, with the Remel system being most accurate. Depending on the commercial system, from two to seven isolates were misidentified as B. cepacia. The relatively poor performance of the commercial systems requires that identification of certain nonfermenters be confirmed by conventional biochemical testing. These organisms include B. cepacia, Burkholderia sp. other than B. cepacia, and infrequently encountered environmental species (Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium species). In addition, conventional biochemical testing should be done if a commercial system fails to assign an identification to an organism. Confirmatory testing should preferably be performed by a reference laboratory with experience in working organisms isolated from CF patients.
Kiska, D L; Kerr, A; Jones, M C; Caracciolo, J A; Eskridge, B; Jordan, M; Miller, S; Hughes, D; King, N; Gilligan, P H
Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially the “ESKAPE” pathogens, continue to increase in frequency and cause significant morbidity and mortality. New antimicrobial agents are greatly needed to treat infections caused by gram-negative bacilli (GNB) resistant to currently available agents. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) continues to propose legislative, regulatory, and funding solutions to this continuing crisis. The current report updates the status of development and approval of systemic antibiotics in the United States as of early 2013. Only 2 new antibiotics have been approved since IDSA's 2009 pipeline status report, and the number of new antibiotics annually approved for marketing in the United States continues to decline. We identified 7 drugs in clinical development for treatment of infections caused by resistant GNB. None of these agents was included in our 2009 list of antibacterial compounds in phase 2 or later development, but unfortunately none addresses the entire spectrum of clinically relevant GNB resistance. Our survey demonstrates some progress in development of new antibacterial drugs that target infections caused by resistant GNB, but progress remains alarmingly elusive. IDSA stresses our conviction that the antibiotic pipeline problem can be solved by the collaboration of global leaders to develop creative incentives that will stimulate new antibacterial research and development. Our aim is the creation of a sustainable global antibacterial drug research and development enterprise with the power in the short term to develop 10 new, safe, and efficacious systemically administered antibiotics by 2020 as called for in IDSA's “10 × '20 Initiative.”
Boucher, Helen W.; Talbot, George H.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Bradley, John; Guidos, Robert J.; Jones, Ronald N.; Murray, Barbara E.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Gilbert, David
Rapid and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens is a fundamental goal of clinical microbiology. The diagnosis and surveillance of diseases is dependent, to a great extent, on laboratory services, which cannot function without effective reliable reagents and diagnostics. Despite the advancement in microbiology diagnosis globally, resourcelimited countries still struggle to provide an acceptable diagnosis quality which helps in clinical disease management and improve their mortality and morbidity data. During this study an indigenous product, Quick Test Strip (QTS) NE, was developed for the rapid identification of biochemically slower group of Gram-negative oxidase-positive bacilli that covers 19 different bacterial genera. Some of the members belonging to these groups are well-established human pathogens, e.g. various species of Vibrio, Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Aeromonas, Achromobacter and Stenotrophomonas. This study also evaluates the performance of QTS-NE by comparing with genotypic characterization methods. A total of 232 clinical and reference bacterial isolates were tested by three different methods. QTSNE provides 100 percent concordant results with other rapid identification and molecular characterization methods and confirms the potential to be used in clinical diagnosis. PMID:23660668
Kazmi, Mahmooda; Khan, Adnan; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj
Summary. The recently -introduced semi-au toma ted bacterial iden ti fica tion sys tem, the Quantum I1 BID, is designed to identify fermentative and non-fermentative gram- negative bacilli in 4-5 h. The system was evaluated independently by the two participating laboratories. Inter-laboratory reproducibility was determined by testing 181 strains in each laboratory and found to be 97.8%. A further 893
Reasons for encouraging multicultural education in the public schools include building positive self concept among minority students and cultural awareness for all students. Supports the multicultural education argument with evidence relating to American Indian cultural heritage. (Author/DB)
... this website will be limited. Search Help? Throat Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Collecting | ... treatment | Getting results | see BLOOD SAMPLE Collecting A culture is a test that is often used to ...
A gastric culture is a test to examine a child's stomach contents for the bacteria that cause tuberculosis . ... This gastric culture can help diagnose lung (pulmonary) tuberculosis in children. This method is used because children cannot cough up and ...
Discusses the lack of literature relating to cultural differences and school library media programs and reviews the book "Beyond Culture" by Edward T. Hall. Highlights include the population/environment crisis, cultural literacy, the use of technology, and Marshall McLuhan's idea of the global village. (LRW)
Culture - esophageal ... where it is placed in a special dish (culture media) and checked daily to see if any ... There is no preparation needed for a culture. For information on how to prepare for the removal of a piece of esophageal tissue, see EGD .
Cultural proficiency is defined as "the policies and practices of an organization or the values and behaviors of an individual that enable the agency or person to interact effectively in a culturally diverse environment." The diverse composition of today's classrooms demands that schools and educators be culturally proficient, yet few of them are.…
Studies have demonstrated that matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a rapid, accurate method for the identification of clinically relevant bacteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the VITEK MS v2.0 system (bioMérieux) for the identification of the non-Enterobacteriaceae Gram-negative bacilli (NEGNB). This multi-center study tested 558 unique NEGNB clinical isolates, representing 18 genera and 33 species. Results obtained with the VITEK MS v2.0 were compared with reference 16S rRNA gene sequencing and when indicated recA sequencing and phenotypic analysis. VITEK MS v2.0 provided an identification for 92.5 % of the NEGNB isolates (516 out of 558). VITEK MS v2.0 correctly identified 90.9 % of NEGNB (507 out of 558), 77.8 % to species level and 13.1 % to genus level with multiple species. There were four isolates (0.7 %) incorrectly identified to genus level and five isolates (0.9 %), with one incorrect identification to species level. The remaining 42 isolates (7.5 %) were either reported as no identification (5.0 %) or called "mixed genera" (2.5 %) since two or more different genera were identified as possible identifications for the test organism. These findings demonstrate that the VITEK MS v2.0 system provides accurate results for the identification of a challenging and diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:24019163
Manji, R; Bythrow, M; Branda, J A; Burnham, C-A D; Ferraro, M J; Garner, O B; Jennemann, R; Lewinski, M A; Mochon, A B; Procop, G W; Richter, S S; Rychert, J A; Sercia, L; Westblade, L F; Ginocchio, C C
Culture pervades human lives and has allowed our species to create niches all around the world and its oceans, in ways quite unlike any other primate. Indeed, our cultural nature appears so distinctive that it is often thought to separate humanity from the rest of nature and the Darwinian forces that shape it. A contrary view arises through the recent discoveries of a diverse range of disciplines, here brought together to illustrate the scope of a burgeoning field of cultural evolution and to facilitate cross-disciplinary fertilization. Each approach emphasizes important linkages between culture and evolutionary biology rather than quarantining one from the other. Recent studies reveal that processes important in cultural transmission are more widespread and significant across the animal kingdom than earlier recognized, with important implications for evolutionary theory. Recent archaeological discoveries have pushed back the origins of human culture to much more ancient times than traditionally thought. These developments suggest previously unidentified continuities between animal and human culture. A third new array of discoveries concerns the later diversification of human cultures, where the operations of Darwinian-like processes are identified, in part, through scientific methods borrowed from biology. Finally, surprising discoveries have been made about the imprint of cultural evolution in the predispositions of human minds for cultural transmission.
Whiten, Andrew; Hinde, Robert A.; Laland, Kevin N.; Stringer, Christopher B.
The Demos organization in London is a think-tank that produces compelling reports on everything from public space to government spending. This report from October 2010 is by Samuel Jones, and he explores the relationship between the British government and culture and sport. His basic question is: "Why should the state get involved in culture, and if it should, how?" The 154-page report is divided into sections such as "Society and the cultural realm", "Taking the cultural pulse of a nation", and "Evidence of Potential". It's an interesting read, and the paper argues that "cultural policy must focus on the equitable distribution of individuals' cultural capabilities, indicating that this will require thinking anew about what form the structures take, and how they are run."
Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... to three weeks to get results for a nail culture. Further tests can be done to identify ...
This article, succinctly written by the late Charles Hogue, was taken, with permission, from the 1987 Annual Review of Entomology. It provides an excellent explanation of cultural entomology, along with examples of the influence insects have had on art, folklore, history, literature and language, the performing arts, philosophy, religion, and other areas of culture from around the world. To delve more deeply into cultural entomology, the original 1987 article should be consulted for a listing of many specific references to the subject.
A molecular assay to quantify Mycobacterium tuberculosis is described. In vitro, 98% (n = 96) of sputum samples with a known number of bacilli (107 to 102 bacilli) could be enumerated within 0.5 log10. In comparison to culture, the molecular bacterial load (MBL) assay is unaffected by other microorganisms present in the sample, results are obtained more quickly (within 24 h) and are seldom inhibited (0.7% samples), and the MBL assay critically shows the same biphasic decline as observed longitudinally during treatment. As a biomarker of treatment response, the MBL assay responds rapidly, with a mean decline in bacterial load for 111 subjects of 0.99 log10 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.81 to 1.17) after 3 days of chemotherapy. There was a significant association between the rate of bacterial decline during the same 3 days and bacilli ml?1 sputum at day 0 (linear regression, P = 0.0003) and a 3.62 increased odds ratio of relapse for every 1 log10 increase in pretreatment bacterial load (95% CI, 1.53 to 8.59).
Honeyborne, Isobella; McHugh, Timothy D.; Phillips, Patrick P. J.; Bannoo, Selina; Bateson, Anna; Carroll, Nora; Perrin, Felicity M.; Ronacher, Katharina; Wright, Laura; van Helden, Paul D.; Walzl, Gerhard; Gillespie, Stephen H.
The concept of organizational culture has received increasing attention in recent years both from academics and practitioners. This article presents the author’s view of how culture should be defined and analyzed if it is to be of use in the field of organizational psychology. Other concepts are reviewed, a brief history is provided, and case materials are presented to illustrate
The Ryukyu Islands of Japan, of which Okinawa is the best known, possess a lengthy history and a sophisticated cultural background, an exploration of which helps to shed light on this area and on mainland Japan. This document is an exposition of Ryukuan culture. Divided into eight sections, the areas covered include: (1) Historical perspective;…
A 67-year-old male presented with fatigue, abdominal pain , and 30-pound weight loss over 3 months. Computerized tomography (CT) abdomen displayed ascites with thickening and enhancement of the peritoneum and mottled nodular appearing as soft tissue consistent with omental caking worrisome for peritoneal carcinomatosis. A paracentesis revealed white blood cell count of 2,500 with 98% lymphocytes and serum ascites albumin gradient of 0.9?g/L. No acid-fastbacilli were seen by microscopic exam and culture was negative. Purified protein derivative skin test (PPD) was negative and CXR did not reveal any infiltrates. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and colonoscopy were unrevealing. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy with round ligament and peritoneal biopsies that revealed numerous necrotizing granulomas. Acid-fast bacteria Ziehl-Neelsen stain (AFB) of the biopsy specimen revealed single acid-fastbacilli. Treatment for M. tuberculosis was initiated and final culture revealed that mycobacterium tuberculosis was sensitive to Isoniazid, Rifampin, Ethambutol, and Pyrazinamide. After 6 months of treatment, the ascites and peritoneal carcinomatosis resolved. PMID:24715911
The 10-ml Isolator system (E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc., Wilmington, Del.) was compared with the BACTEC 16A-17A nonradiometric resin system (Johnston Laboratories, Inc., Towson, Md.) for isolation of organisms from 6,839 paired blood cultures. Equal volumes of blood (6 to 10 ml for each Isolator and 3 to 5 ml for each BACTEC bottle) were cultured in parallel in the two systems, and 600 isolates that were judged to be clinically significant by chart review were recovered during the study. The BACTEC resin system detected 510 (85%) and the Isolator system detected 435 (72%) of the clinically significant isolates (P less than 0.001). Of 45 polymicrobial blood cultures, the BACTEC system detected 32 (71%) and the Isolator system detected 21 (47%) (P less than 0.05). Of 253 gram-negative bacilli isolated during the study, 30% were detected only in the BACTEC system and 16% were detected only in the Isolator system (P less than 0.001), and of 56 nonfermentative or fastidious gram-negative bacilli detected, 46% were recovered only in the BACTEC system, while 14% were detected only in the Isolator system (P less than 0.001). Of 86 streptococci isolated during the study, 30% were detected only in the BACTEC system, and 4% were detected only in the Isolator system (P less than 0.001). Recoveries of anaerobic bacteria, staphylococci, and yeasts were equivalent in the two systems. Organisms judged to be contaminants were detected in approximately 1% of the cultures in each system. The results suggest that use of resin media renders the BACTEC nonradiometric system equivalent or superior to the Isolator system for detection of clinically significant organisms in blood cultures.
Kelly, M T; Roberts, F J; Henry, D; Geere, I; Smith, J A
Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is an infectious disease requiring special attention. It is a common cause of nosocomial infections; catheter insertion into the central veins particularly increases the risk of infection (CLA-BSI: central line-associated bloodstream infection). We examined the relationship between the number of bacterial colonies cultured from shredded central venous catheter (CVC) tips and from blood cultures in our hospital from 2011 to 2012. Coagulase-negative staphylococci topped the list of microbe isolated from the CVC tip culture, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida spp. S. aureus and Candida spp., with growth of over 15 colony-forming units in the CVC tip culture, were also detected at high rates in the blood culture. However, gramnegative bacilli (Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa) did not show a similar increase in colony number in the CVC tip culture. Because microbes adhering to shredded catheter tips are readily detected by culture, this method is useful as a routine diagnostic test. In addition, prompt clinical reporting of the bacterial number of serious CLA-BSI-causing S. aureus and Candida spp. isolated from CVC tips could contribute to earlier CLA-BSI diagnosis. PMID:24694240
We investigated the trends in antimicrobial resistance among species of Gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with hepatobiliary tract infections in Taiwan during the period 2006-2010 as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART). During the study period, 1032 isolates of Gram-negative bacilli that had been collected from patients with hepatobiliary infections were tested for susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial agents in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Enterobacteriaceae accounted for the majority (n = 874, 84.7%) of isolates and Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen (n = 323, 31.3%). There were significantly more E. coli (P = 0.001) and Proteus mirabilis (P = 0.031) isolates collected from patients who had been hospitalized for less than 48 h and significantly more Serratia marcescens (P = 0.035) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P = 0.008) isolates collected from patients who had been hospitalized for 48 h or longer. The prevalence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing pathogens was low. The decline in susceptibility rates with time was remarkable for ceftazidime (P = 0.036), ciprofloxacin (P = 0.029), and levofloxacin (P = 0.018). The most effective antibiotics, i.e., those that were active against more than 90% of Enterobacteriaceae, were amikacin, cefepime, imipenem, ertapenem, and piperacillin-tazobactam. Susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to anti-pseudomonal agents was greater than 80%. In this study, we found an overall increase in resistance to antimicrobial agents among Gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with hepatobiliary tract infections in Taiwan. Surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility and updates of treatment guidelines are recommended to help achieve optimal therapy for patients with hepatobiliary infections. PMID:22749054
The Phoenix 100 ID/AST system (Becton Dickinson Co., Sparks, Md.) is an automated system for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates. This system with its negative identification (NID) panel was evaluated for its accuracy in the identification of 507 isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 57 other nonenteric gram-negative isolates that are commonly isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories, and 138 isolates of the family Vibrionaceae. All of the isolates had been characterized by using approximately 48 conventional tube biochemicals. Of the 507 isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae, 456 (89.9%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels. The five isolates of Proteus penneri required an off-line indole test, as suggested by the system to differentiate them from Proteus vulgaris. The identifications of 20 (3.9%) isolates were correct to the genus level but incorrect at the species level. Two (0.4%) isolates were reported as “no identification.” Misidentifications to the genus and species levels occurred for 29 (5.7%) isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae. These incorrect identifications were spread over 14 different genera. The most common error was the misidentification of Salmonella species. The shortest time for a correct identification was 2 h 8 min. The longest time was 12 h 27 min, for the identification of a Serratia marcescens isolate. Of the 57 isolates of nonenteric gram-negative bacilli (Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Burkholderia, Plesiomonas, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas spp.), 48 (84.2%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels and 7 (12.3%) were correctly identified to the genus level but not to the species level. The average time for a correct identification was 5 h 11 min. Of the Vibrionaceae spp., 123 (89.1%) were correctly identified at the end of the initial incubation period, which averaged 4 h. Based on the findings of this study, the Phoenix 100 ID/AST system NID panel falls short of being an acceptable new method for the identification of the Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and gram-negative nonenteric isolates that are commonly encountered in many hospital microbiology laboratories.
All cultures have had means and techniques that express their immediate aims. The thing that interests me is that today, painters do not have to go to a subject matter outside of themselves. They work from a different source. They work from within. It seems to me that the modern artist cannot express this age, the airplane, the atom bomb, the radio, in the old form of the Renaissance or of any of the old cultures. PMID:12465211
A 14-year-old girl underwent a medical checkup for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection because her grandmother had been diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis three months earlier. The interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) showed a positive result. The patient's chest X-ray findings were normal. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed a single mass lesion in the right lower lobe of the lung. A sputum smear of acid-fastbacilli was positive; however, the polymerase chain reaction results for tuberculosis were negative. We diagnosed the patient with pulmonary tuberculosis based on the fact that she had come in contact with a tuberculosis patient. Six weeks later, a liquid culture examination for acid-fastbacilli was found to be positive and the acid-fast bacillus was identified as M. tuberculosis. The use of chest CT is not routinely recommended in all children suspected of having M. tuberculosis infection. However, IGRA-positive children who report frequent contact with infected individuals should undergo CT tomography if chest X-rays do not show any abnormal shadows. PMID:24739618
Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a structurally heterogeneous amphipathic lipoglycan present in Mycobacterium spp. and other actinomycetes, which constitutes a major component of the cell wall and exhibits a wide spectrum of immunomodulatory effects. Analysis of Mycobacterium smegmatis subcellular fractions and spheroplasts showed that LAM and lipomannan (LM) were primarily found in a cell wall-enriched subcellular fraction and correlated with the presence (or absence) of the mycolic acids in spheroplast preparations, suggesting that LAM and LM are primarily associated with the putative outer membrane of mycobacteria. During the course of these studies significant changes in the LAM/LM content of the cell wall were noted relative to the age of the culture. The LAM content of the M. smegmatis cell wall was dramatically reduced as the bacilli approached stationary phase, whereas LM, mycolic acid, and arabinogalactan content appeared to be unchanged. In addition, cell morphology and acid-fast staining characteristics showed variations with growth phase of the bacteria. In the logarithmic phase, the bacteria were found to be classic rod-shaped acid-fastbacilli, while in the stationary phase M. smegmatis lost the characteristic rod shape and developed a punctate acid-fast staining pattern with carbolfuchsin. The number of viable bacteria was independent of LAM content and phenotype. Taken together, the results presented here suggest that LAM is primarily localized with the mycolic acids in the cell wall and that the cellular concentration of LAM in M. smegmatis is selectively modulated with the growth phase.
Dhiman, Rakesh K.; Dinadayala, Premkumar; Ryan, Gavin J.; Lenaerts, Anne J.; Schenkel, Alan R.; Crick, Dean C.
To be culturally responsive teachers, we must first have an understanding of other cultures and how students from these cultures differ from one another. As we consider the many cultures represented in our classrooms, we might also consider students with disabilities as a cultural group. Within any main culture are subgroups differentiated by…
In the early 1970s, Paul Buhle and Dave Wagner began to think about creating a new and unique journal. They were both veterans of the journal Radical America, and they were both interested in popular culture. As August 1975 came around, they published the first issue of "Cultural Correspondence", a journal intended to serve as a critical review of popular culture. As the journal was published in Providence, it's not surprising to learn that the Brown University Library Center for Digital Initiatives (CDL) has created this most engaging archive of this publication. Visitors to the site can read the entire contents of each issue, browse around as they see fit, and also check out their virtual "Magazine Stand". First-time visitors may wish to start out by reading the Spring 1977 issue titled "Television".
Somehow it is not surprising that a journal titled Postmodern Culture would find a home on the Internet, which itself is a bricoleur of many different forms and styles, akin to the very notion of postmodernism. Located online since 1990, Postmodern Culture "has become the leading electronic journal of interdisciplinary thought on contemporary cultures." The journal itself is published by The Johns Hopkins University Press, with assistance by the University of Virginia and Vassar College. Visitors to the site can browse the entire contents of the current volume, and may browse through the text-only archive, which is also made available here. The current edition contains pieces by Chris Bongie titled "Exiles on Main Stream: Valuing the Popularity of Postcolonial Literature" and a trenchant exchange by Leonard Wilcox and Brad Butterfield on "Baudrillard, September 11, and the Haunting Abyss of Reversal."
This activity combines cultural exploration with identifying number patterns and provides an opportunity for learners to explore how different cultures celebrate a specific date in different ways. Students make a calendar for a month in another country or historical period. They could choose a country, such as India or China that uses different numerals or go back to ancient Mayan times, using the Mayan number system to make a calendar for a month. Available as a web page and downloadable PDF. Blank calendar template is also available as a downloadable PDF.
The Cobas Amplicor PCR system (CA-PCR) was compared with culture and staining for acid-fastbacilli (AFB) for the early detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in respiratory clinical specimens and otherwise normal sterile body fluids. The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of CA-PCR were determined with AFB-positive and AFB-negative specimens. The sensitivity of CA-PCR ranged from 73.6% to 100% for AFB-positive samples, while sputa collected after bronchoscopy were the most useful specimens, with 70% sensitivity and 98.6% specificity among the AFB-negative samples. PMID:15966983
Fegou, E; Jelastopulu, E; Sevdali, M; Anastassiou, E D; Dimitracopoulos, G; Spiliopoulou, I
An 8-year-old boy developed cervical lymphadenitis four months after an injection of dental anaesthetic. Histology of the lymphatic tissue showed a tuberculoid granulomatous reaction with scanty acid-fastbacilli. Mycobacterium chelonei was isolated in pure culture (NCTC 10882). The patient showed specific skin hypersensitivity to an extract of M. chelonei, but not to that of M. ranae. This is thought to be the first recorded case of lymphadenitis in man caused by M. chelonei; it adds another possibility to be considered in the differential diagnosis of `a lump in the neck'. Images
Morris, C. A.; Grant, G. H.; Everall, P. H.; Myres, A. T. M.
Part of a larger report on the Four Directions Project, an American Indian technology innovation project, this section includes 10 "pathfinders" to locating information on Native American cultural themes. The pathfinders were designed by students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Texas at Austin in…
Military autocracy is more deeply rooted in German culture than in Italian. A change toward democracy is not a political matter but involves a complete change in values, family, and group life. If the form of government is left to the people, power groups will rapidly impose autocracy on war-torn Europe, but democracy will develop more slowly and only under
Recent cross-cultural studies of child development reveal that child rearing, while strikingly culturally variable, is everywhere designed to make the child's experience of important lessons constant, to link those lessons to emotional arousal, and to connect them to evaluations of the child's goodness and badness. These claims are illustrated from research on Americans, Chinese, Germans, Gusii (Kenya), Ifaluk (Micronesia), and Inuit (Baffin Island). These three universal features of child rearing accomplish what is a highly specialized task. Constancy of experience alters synaptic connections to grant the pattern of their firing especially high-resolution, so that the lessons to be learned are unmistakable ones. Accompanied by emotional arousal, these lessons are especially motivating and unforgettable. Brought home with evaluations of the learner's goodness and badness, these lessons are even more motivating and unforgettable. Children get the point of the lesson, enact it once they get it, and remember to enact it on subsequent occasions. Cultural models of child rearing, thus, exploit the neural capacities of the children so reared, to achieve a result, human adulthood, that could not be accomplished by the human brain alone. From exposure to these practices result distinctive cultural selves. These selves are partly implicit, based on the largely unmarked practices designed to make children's experience of important lessons constant and these lessons arousing, and partly explicit, based on the labeling and other marking that connects these lessons to evaluations of children's goodness and badness. The conscious, self-reflective self that emerges from such explicit evaluation lays the basis for identity-everywhere profoundly culturally shaped, infused with powerful evaluative meanings, and itself highly motivating. PMID:14625360
This paper addresses three questions related to cultural geography--(1) do cultural geographers have a serious interest in culture theory? (2) is there some indication in the ways in which cultural geographers have traditionally approached their subject which has given rise to an apparent lack of concern with the implications of culture theory?…
The Demos group in Britain describes itself as "the think tank for everyday democracy", and they have published a number of intelligent research reports and briefs as of late. One of their recent reports, released in February 2007, deals with the world of cultural diplomacy. Authored by Kirsten Bound, Rachel Briggs, John Holden, and Samuel Jones, the paper's central premise is that "the huge global reach and potential of Britain's world class artistic and cultural assets should be at the heart of government relationship building abroad." It's an interesting concept, and one that is developed over the course of this work through citing specific examples and also by pointing a way to forward efforts in this particular niche of public policy and international relations.
This chapter invites the reader to enter the outerspaces of extraterrestrial culture, as a realm of social inquiry. Where\\u000a this journey leads is perhaps unexpected, especially for the discourse of aliens and Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs). For\\u000a while we might expect to engage fields of exotic Otherness — of technomarvels and bizarre entities, epic enterprises, and\\u000a terrors unrecognizable in their
The performance characteristics of the Isolator (Wampole Laboratories, Cranbury, N.J.) and the BacT/Alert (Organon Teknika Corporation, Durham, N.C.) aerobic blood culture systems were compared for 6,009 blood culture sets obtained from patients with suspected bloodstream infections. The BacT/Alert aerobic bottle [BTA(O2)] was continuously agitated while it was incubated in 5% CO2 at 36 degrees C; culture plates prepared from the Isolator tube [I(O2)] were incubated in 5% CO2 at 37 degrees C. From 394 blood cultures, 416 clinically significant isolates of bacteria and yeasts were recovered. The overall yields for BTA(O2) and I(O2) were not significantly different (319 versus 336; P = 0.20). I(O2) recovered significantly more staphylococcus (P < 0.05) and yeast isolates (P < 0.01). BTA(O2) recovered significantly more aerobic and facultatively anaerobic gram-negative bacilli (P < 0.05). In blood culture sets which produced growth of the same organisms in both the BTA(O2) and I(O2) systems, the BTA(O2) system detected growth sooner, but more rapid identification was possible with the I(O2) system by virtue of earlier isolation of colonies on solid media.
Hellinger, W C; Cawley, J J; Alvarez, S; Hogan, S F; Harmsen, W S; Ilstrup, D M; Cockerill, F R
The performance characteristics of the Isolator (Wampole Laboratories, Cranbury, N.J.) and the BacT/Alert (Organon Teknika Corporation, Durham, N.C.) aerobic blood culture systems were compared for 6,009 blood culture sets obtained from patients with suspected bloodstream infections. The BacT/Alert aerobic bottle [BTA(O2)] was continuously agitated while it was incubated in 5% CO2 at 36 degrees C; culture plates prepared from the Isolator tube [I(O2)] were incubated in 5% CO2 at 37 degrees C. From 394 blood cultures, 416 clinically significant isolates of bacteria and yeasts were recovered. The overall yields for BTA(O2) and I(O2) were not significantly different (319 versus 336; P = 0.20). I(O2) recovered significantly more staphylococcus (P < 0.05) and yeast isolates (P < 0.01). BTA(O2) recovered significantly more aerobic and facultatively anaerobic gram-negative bacilli (P < 0.05). In blood culture sets which produced growth of the same organisms in both the BTA(O2) and I(O2) systems, the BTA(O2) system detected growth sooner, but more rapid identification was possible with the I(O2) system by virtue of earlier isolation of colonies on solid media. PMID:7665647
Hellinger, W C; Cawley, J J; Alvarez, S; Hogan, S F; Harmsen, W S; Ilstrup, D M; Cockerill, F R
From October 17, 2000 to October 19, 2000, the San Francisco Chronicle ran a three-part series exploring the clash between the economic boom led by New Economy start-ups and the artists, musicians, and writers that have historically been part of the city's make-up. According to a survey by Grubb & Ellis Realtors, the only cities with higher rent than San Francisco are London and Hong Kong. The series mainly focuses on the plight of the arts, with articles on city's lack of affordable studio spaces and apartments, the artists's backlash against regentrification, and profiles of art communities that have been successful and unsuccessful in staying in San Francisco. Finally, the series examines the routes that other large cities, such as Chicago and Seattle, have taken in order to ensure affordable live/ work spaces for artists. Culture Crash offers insight and hope for about this ongoing battle in a city where the US's economic boom is driving out the cultural and artistic communities that have always thrived there.
The cultural atmosphere in a society is accumulated over time through the consumption of cultural services and is diminished through depreciation. Using cultural capital (e.g., cultural heritage, paintings, music scores), cultural services are provided by the cultural-services industry (e.g., museums, opera houses); cultural capital is enlarged by new cultural goods created by individuals. Individuals’ utilities are positively affected by the
Traditional personality theories do not consider the impact of culture on personality development. Yet, to provide culturally relevant services to the increasing Hispanic population in the U.S., more culturally relevant theories must be identified. This paper presents Relational Cultural Theory (RCT) as an alternative model to understanding…
With its radiant colors and well-thought-out design, the Plant Cultures website's primary goal is "to convey the richness and complexity of links between Britain and South Asia, through the story of plants and people". The project covers both the historical and contemporary aspects of Britain and South Asia through a wide range of resources, including historic images, recipes, and other items. Through a series of tabs at the top of the homepage (such as "Themes" and "Stories"), visitors can begin to explore the diverse content offered here. The "Plants" area is a good place to start, as visitors can learn about garlic, henna, holy basil, sugar cane, and 21 other plants. One rather fun area of the site is the Story Library, where visitors can place their own stories regarding the use of different plants, and read those from previous guests.
We report successful culture of Calymmatobacterium granulomatis by standard cell culture methods. Swabs were obtained from lesions in three patients with a clinical diagnosis of donovanosis. For two patients, there was histological confirmation of the disease (i.e., the presence of Donovan bodies in Giemsa-stained smears). Specimens were inoculated onto cycloheximide-treated HEp-2 cell monolayers in RPMI 1640 medium (supplemented with fetal calf serum, NaHCO3, vancomycin hydrochloride, and benzylpenicillin). At 48 h, organisms resembling Donovan bodies were identified in monolayer cultures from all three specimens. The organisms appeared as pleomorphic bacilli with characteristic bipolar staining and "safety pin" appearance. Using a PCR designed to differentiate C. granulomatis from the Klebsiella species (which have a high degree of molecular homology), we were able to demonstrate that the cultured organisms produced a PCR product identical to that obtained from the original swab specimens. It is now possible to test in vitro susceptibility of C. granulomatis to antibiotics and to provide a ready source of DNA and antigenic material to enable the development of serological tests and, possibly in the future, a vaccine.
Carter, J; Hutton, S; Sriprakash, K S; Kemp, D J; Lum, G; Savage, J; Bowden, F J
Liquid culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from clinical samples, such as feces, is the most sensitive antemortem test for the diagnosis of Johne's disease in ruminants. In Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and some other countries, the Bactec 460 system with modified Bactec 12B medium (Becton, Dickinson) has been the most commonly used liquid culture system, but it was discontinued in 2012. In this study, a new liquid culture medium, M7H9C, was developed. It consists of a Middlebrook 7H9 medium base with added Casitone, albumin, dextrose, catalase, egg yolk, mycobactin J, and a cocktail of antibiotics. We found that polyoxyethylene stearate (POES) was not essential for the cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in either the Bactec 12B or the M7H9C medium. The limit of detection determined using pure cultures of the C and S strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was 7 bacilli per 50 ?l inoculum in the two media. The new medium was validated using 784 fecal and tissue samples from sheep and cattle, >25% of which contained viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Discrepant results for the clinical samples between the two media were mostly associated with samples that contained <10 viable bacilli per gram, but these results were relatively uncommon, and the performances of the two media were not significantly different. M7H9C medium was less than half the cost of the Bactec 12B medium and did not require regular examination during incubation, but a confirmatory IS900 PCR test had to be performed on every culture after the predetermined incubation period. PMID:24048541
Whittington, Richard J; Whittington, Ann-Michele; Waldron, Anna; Begg, Douglas J; de Silva, Kumi; Purdie, Auriol C; Plain, Karren M
Liquid culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from clinical samples, such as feces, is the most sensitive antemortem test for the diagnosis of Johne's disease in ruminants. In Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and some other countries, the Bactec 460 system with modified Bactec 12B medium (Becton, Dickinson) has been the most commonly used liquid culture system, but it was discontinued in 2012. In this study, a new liquid culture medium, M7H9C, was developed. It consists of a Middlebrook 7H9 medium base with added Casitone, albumin, dextrose, catalase, egg yolk, mycobactin J, and a cocktail of antibiotics. We found that polyoxyethylene stearate (POES) was not essential for the cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in either the Bactec 12B or the M7H9C medium. The limit of detection determined using pure cultures of the C and S strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was 7 bacilli per 50 ?l inoculum in the two media. The new medium was validated using 784 fecal and tissue samples from sheep and cattle, >25% of which contained viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Discrepant results for the clinical samples between the two media were mostly associated with samples that contained <10 viable bacilli per gram, but these results were relatively uncommon, and the performances of the two media were not significantly different. M7H9C medium was less than half the cost of the Bactec 12B medium and did not require regular examination during incubation, but a confirmatory IS900 PCR test had to be performed on every culture after the predetermined incubation period.
Whittington, Ann-Michele; Waldron, Anna; Begg, Douglas J.; de Silva, Kumi; Purdie, Auriol C.; Plain, Karren M.
Inoculation of an automated system for rapid identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) directly from positive blood culture bottles will reduce the turnaround time of laboratory diagnosis of septicemic patients, which benefits clinical outcome and decreases patient costs. Direct test results, however, must always be confirmed by testing a pure overnight culture, which is the “gold standard.” We studied the accuracy of direct testing versus repeat testing in order to investigate the possibility of refraining from repeat testing. We also assessed the clinical risk of reporting results based on direct testing only. We inoculated Vitek 2 (bioMérieux) directly from 410 positive BACTEC 9240 (BD) blood culture bottles containing gram-negative rods and studied the ID and AST results. In a comparison of direct inoculation with the standard method, a total of 344 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were tested, and 93.0% were correctly identified. Of the 39 (10.2%) samples that contained bacilli not identifiable by Vitek 2, only 1 gave a conclusive, correct result. The overall MIC agreement among 312 isolates was 99.2%, with 0.8% very major and 0.02% major error rates. Of only three (polymicrobial) samples, the direct susceptibility pattern would be reported to the clinician as too sensitive. Vitek 2 results obtained from direct inoculation of blood culture bottles containing gram-negative bacilli are safe enough for immediate reporting, provided that ID and AST are consistent. Repeat testing is not necessary, unless Gram stain or overnight subculture results raise doubt about the purity of the culture.
Bruins, Marjan J.; Bloembergen, Peter; Ruijs, Gijs J. H. M.; Wolfhagen, Maurice J. H. M.
Objective To assess the role of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in serum samples, in the diagnosis of osteoarticular tuberculosis (OTB) in a setting where only clinical and imaging diagnoses determine the treatment. Methods A total of 44 consecutive serum specimens were collected from clinically suspected OTB patients, based on clinical and radiological [X-ray or magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography] features. They were screened by in-house nested PCR. In addition, a few specimens were examined by Gram stain, acid-fastbacilli stain, histopathology and routine bacterial culture. A total of 39 specimens were collected from patients suffering from other bone diseases of nontuberculous origin and included as negative controls. Results Of the 44 clinically suspected OTB patients, in-house nested PCR was positive in 40 (91%) cases; PCR was negative in 38 (97%) negative controls. Sensitivity and specificity of our in-house nested PCR was 90.9% and 97.4%, respectively. The PCR report was available within 48 h. It was possible to standardize serum PCR technique and in positive cases, a good correlation was observed in terms of an adequate treatment response. Conclusions Nested PCR in serum samples is a rapid, highly sensitive and specific modality for OTB detection. PCR should be performed in addition to clinical evaluation, imaging studies, acid-fastbacilli staining, culture and histopathology diagnosis, if possible.
Garcia-Elorriaga, Guadalupe; Martinez-Elizondo, Olga; del Rey-Pineda, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Bonilla, Cesar
Understanding cultures, ours and others, can make for better managers. Employees, customers, investors, suppliers, and other stakeholders are increasingly becoming members of other cultures. Therefore students as future managers need to learn how to understand their own and other cultures and learn about cross-cultural attitudes and relationships if they hope to get effective results out of mixed-culture stakeholders such as
Summary An algae screening program, including cultured macroalgae, cultured cyanobacteria and cultured eukaryotic microalgae has been undertaken. Methods for the isolation, purification, preservation and cultivation of axenic cyanobacteria and eukaryotic cultures have been developed. Screening of these groups for biologically active components has lead to the isolation of pachydictyol and caulerpenyne from cultured macroalgae, while a series of hapalindoles and
Robert E. Schwartz; Charles F. Hirsch; David F. Sesin; James E. Flor; Michel Chartrain; Robert E. Fromtling; Guy H. Harris; Michael J. Salvatore; Jerrold M. Liesch; Katherine Yudin
Various studies find that marketing communications reflect specific cultures. Most of these studies conceptualize culture in terms of one cultural framework, use a two-country sample, focus on print or television advertising, and do not statistically validate the measures used. This study addresses these issues by testing the applicability of the cultural frameworks of Hofstede [Hofstede G. Culture's consequences: international differences
Many teachers have only a cursory understanding of culturally relevant pedagogy, and their efforts to bridge the cultural gap often fall short. Culturally relevant pedagogy is a term that describes effective teaching in culturally diverse classrooms. It can be a daunting idea to understand and implement. Yet people tend to appreciate culturally…
While planet Earth endeavors to transmit information instantaneously, cultural misunderstanding interferes with communication more than any language barrier. The article urges teachers of French to be cognizant of their role as cultural mediators. (Author/CK)
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ID 32E bacterial identification system for accuracy in the identification of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Acinetobacter baumannii/Iwoffii. METHODS: Stock cultures of 497 Enterobacteriaceae and 27 commonly encountered non-enteric Gram-negative rods were tested in the ID 32E system. For each isolate, the resulting 11-digit profile number was converted to an identification using the APILAB Plus software (version 3.2.2). This identification was then compared to the reference identification obtained using conventional biochemicals. RESULTS: Of the 524 isolates tested, 405 (77.3%) were identified correctly; 52 (9.9%) were identified incorrectly. Sixty-seven (12.8%) identifications were either doubtful or unacceptable, and were not limited to any particular genus or species, with the exception of Ewingella americana and Serratia plymuthica, which did not grow well enough in the strip at 35 degrees C to be correctly identified. All five isolates of Acinetobacter Iwoffii were misidentified as Alcaligenes spp. CONCLUSIONS: With this challenge set of organisms, the ID 32E correctly identified 77.3% of the isolates tested. For commonly encountered isolates, the accuracy approached 90%. We conclude that the ID 32E offers an alternative for the identification of common clinical isolates. PMID:11856267
This project explores the impact of culture on goal-oriented behaviour within a gaming environment. Culture consists of values, rituals, heroes, symbols, and behavioural practices and can be differentiated using five cultural dimensions (Hofstede, 1991; c...
Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... based on more than just the peritoneal fluid culture (which may be negative even if you have ...
... Us: Social Media Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Blood Culture KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Sick Kids > Blood Culture ... fungi has been determined. Why Do a Blood Culture? During some illnesses, certain infection-causing bacteria and ...
Considers ways in which teachers can determine and teach aspects of cultural appreciation through foreign language literature and evaluate whether the culture depicted is authentic, aculture, burlesque, or deformation of culture. (Author/CB)
Psychologists interested in culture have focused primarily on East-West differences in individualism-collectivism, or independent-interdependent self-construal. As important as this dimension is, there are many other forms of culture with many dimensions of cultural variability. Selecting from among the many understudied cultures in psychology, the author considers three kinds of cultures: religion, socioeconomic status, and region within a country. These cultures vary in a number of psychologically interesting ways. By studying more types of culture, psychologists stand to enrich how they define culture, how they think about universality and cultural specificity, their views of multiculturalism, how they do research on culture, and what dimensions of culture they study. Broadening the study of culture will have far-reaching implications for clinical issues, intergroup relations, and applied domains. PMID:19348520
Argues that traditional bridges between the literary culture and publishing culture have increasingly weakened in past decade. The publishing culture has become like that of big business, marked by effort to standardize product, distribution, and consumer, and the advent of bookstore chains has put into practice the mass-merchandising system.…
The assumption that each culture has its own distinctive identity has been generally accepted in the discussion of cultural identities. Quite often identity formation is not perceived as a dynamic and interactive ongoing process that engages other cultures and involves change in its responses to different challenges at different times. I will…
Ecologies shape cultures; cultures influence the development of personalities. There are both universal and culture-specific aspects of variation in personality. Some culture-specific aspects correspond to cultural syndromes such as complexity, tightness, individualism, and collectivism. A large body of literature suggests that the Big Five personality factors emerge in various cultures. However, caution is required in arguing for such universality, because most studies have not included emic (culture-specific) traits and have not studied samples that are extremely different in culture from Western samples. PMID:11752482
Background Tuberculosis of the breast is an uncommon disease with non-specific clinical, radiological and histological findings. Misdiagnosis is common as biopsy specimens are pauci-bacillary and investigations such as microscopy and culture are frequently negative. Case presentation We report a case of a breast abscess in a 34-year old Bangladeshi woman attributed to tuberculosis infection. Equivocal histology, negative Ziehl-Neelsen stain and culture for acid-fastbacilli resulted in the abscess initially being diagnosed as granulomatous mastitis and treated accordingly. However failure to respond to therapy raised suspicion of culture negative breast tuberculosis. Treatment with standard antituberculosis drugs was associated with complete resolution of the breast abscess. Conclusion This case highlights the difficulty in differentiating culture negative tuberculosis from granulomatous mastitis and the importance of a high index of clinical suspicion.
The interface between cultural anthropology, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology and indigenous psychology provides a rich context for examining recent developments within the field of organisational culture, both from a societal (national) and a cross-cultural perspective. It is argued in this paper that cultural patterns in society impact deeply on cultural patterns in organisations. In other words, organisational culture reflects the
Discusses how cultural vitality drives successful community development. Links cultural, community, and environmental values. Examines successes and failures of programs attempting to link culture and development in Panama, Ecuador, and Colombia. Examines role of cultural self-examination for creating new development paradigm. Examines prospects…
Provides ways of developing students' awareness of cultural patterns among the different cultures of the world. Describes a lesson in which students learn about basic attitudes different cultures have toward three cultural value dimensions: the role of the individual in society, power distance, and time orientation. (Author/VWL)
The cultural literacy perspective in education suggests that all cultural systems have a set of core ideas that form the basis of communication in that culture. Because of that the perspective holds that it is essential for the educational system to teach those ideas to successive generations of students to facilitate communication and to perpetuate the “shared” quality of culture.
Microfluidic perfusion culture is a novel technique to culture animal cells in a small-scale microchamber with medium perfusion. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is the most popular material to fabricate a microfluidic perfusion culture chip. Photolithography and replica molding techniques are generally used for fabrication of a microfluidic perfusion culture chip. Pressure-driven perfusion culture system is convenient technique to carry out the perfusion culture of animal cells in a microfluidic device. Here, we describe a general theory on microfluid network design, microfabrication technique, and experimental technique for pressure-driven perfusion culture in an 8 × 8 microchamber array on a glass slide-sized microchip made out of PDMS. PMID:24297421
SYNOPSIS This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing to social policy implications as well as future directions prompted by a cultural approach to parenting.
As public policy, cultural policy focuses on providing conditions for free and undisturbed exercise of cultural rights: right to culture and information, right to cultural identity, right of intellectual property protection, right of participation in cultural life, etc.Cultural rights are specified as a distinct class in the catalogue of international principles regarding culture created by The Cultural Diversity Network, consisting
A 36 year-old female was pointed out of pulmonary abnormal shadows in the annual chest survey. Chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT) disclosed bilateral diffuse infiltrative shadows and tree-in-bud appearance in the right upper lung field and the left lingula. A sputum smear for acid-fastbacilli was negative. Histopathologically, the transbronchial lung biopsy specimen revealed non-caseous epithelioid granulomas with numerous giant cells. Acid-fastbacilli were cultured from her sputum, however, nontuberculous mycobacteria was not detected by DNA-DNA hybridization method. Mycobacterium mageritense was identified by 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing with 100% matching. The isolated colony of M. mageritense was resistant to nine anti-tuberculous drugs. Follow-up chest CT scan showed a gradual decrease of infiltrative shadows without therapy. To the best of our knowledge, M. mageritense infections are rare, and this is the first case report of pulmonary infection in the literature. We conclude that the pulmonary infection of M. mageritense is one of causes of granuloma formation, and in some case it is difficult to differentiate clinically from sarcoidosis. PMID:17444123
The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution and susceptibility of aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in China. From 2002 to 2009, minimum inhibitory concentrations of 14 antibiotics for 3420 aerobic and facultative GNB from up to eight hospitals in six cities were determined by the broth microdilution method. Enterobacteriaceae comprised 82.9% (2834/3420) of the total isolates, with Escherichia coli (49.2%) being the most commonly isolated species followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.0%), Enterobacter cloacae (5.8%) and Citrobacter freundii (2.3%). Amongst the antimicrobial agents tested, the three carbapenems (ertapenem, imipenem and meropenem) were the most active agents against Enterobacteriaceae, with susceptibility rates of 96.1-99.6% (2002-2009), 98.2-100% (2002-2009) and 99.6-100% (2002-2004), respectively, followed by amikacin (86.8-95.1%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (84.5-94.3%). Susceptibility rates of all tested third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins against Enterobacteriaceae declined by nearly 30%, with susceptibility rates of 40.2%, 39.1%, 56.3% and 51.8% in 2009 for ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and cefepime, respectively. The occurrence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases increased rapidly, especially for E. coli (from 20.8% in 2002 to 64.9% in 2009). Susceptibility of E. coli to ciprofloxacin decreased from 57.6% in 2002 to 24.2% in 2009. The least active agent against Enterobacteriaceae was ampicillin/sulbactam (SAM) (25.3-44.3%). In conclusion, Enterobacteriaceae were the major pathogens causing IAIs, and carbapenems retained the highest susceptibility rates over the 8-year study period. Third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and SAM may not be ideal choices for empirical therapy of IAIs in China. PMID:21036547
In a preliminary study, the preparation of a modified charcoal yeast extract by predialysis of yeast extract (CDYE) allowed us to obtain short non filamentous forms of Legionella pneumophila ser 1 (Philadelphia) found to be more virulent in the chick embryo than the long forms grown on conventional media. We confirmed these findings in guinea pigs inoculated by either intraperitoneal injection or aerosol inhalation. LD50s were calculated using the method of Reed and Muench. Survival curves were established using Liddell's method. If for chick embryo the most virulent organisms were those derived from yolk sac culture, organisms grown on CDYE agar were more virulent than those grown on the other media. There was a significant positive correlation between the mean length of the bacilli and the log 10 of the LD50 (r = 0.96; 0.02 less than p less than 0.05). For guinea pigs by either intraperitoneal injection or inhalation we confirmed that the bacteria cultured on CDYE were more virulent than those grown on other solid media. Thus for the guinea pig inoculated intraperitoneally, the LD50s of the CDYE and BCYE cultures were 1.4 X 10(7) and greater than 3 X 10(9) CFU, respectively. The mortality of guinea pigs inoculated by aerosol with CDYE cultures was significantly higher than that of guinea pigs infected with BCYE cultures using suspensions of 10(8) and 10(9) CFU/ml (p less than 0.01) and 10(10) CFU/ml (p less than 0.05). PMID:3630472
In the present study we evaluated the degree of microbial water pollution along the coast line between Brindisi and Santa Maria di Leuca (Southern Adriatic Sea) as well as the culturable heterotrophic bacteria abundances and biodiversity in relation to the microbiological quality of the water. A total of 3773 colonies were isolated, subcultured and identified by several morphological, cultural and biochemical methods including the standardized API 20 E and API 20 NE tests. Along the examined coastal tract the microbial pollution indicators were always below the tolerance limits for bathing waters defined by the CEE directive, suggesting a good sanitary quality. Concerning culturable heterotrophic bacteria, different temporal density trends were observed in the four sites in relation to their geographical position. A positive relationship between the bacterial abundances and the temperature was observed in S. Cataldo and Otranto. The culturable bacterial community was mainly composed of the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Photobacterium and Flavobacterium. The Enterobacteriaceae family represented a conspicuous component of the bacterial community too. Bacilli were predominant among the Gram-positive bacteria. Of interest is the isolation of yeasts (2% at the surface and 1% at the bottom) taking into account their capability of biodegradation of various materials. Because of the low level of microbial pollution recorded, our results are indicative of the natural variation and diversity of the culturable bacterial community in such an oligotrophic ecosystem and could represent a good point of comparison with other ecosystems as well as a baseline for long term studies aimed to evaluate the effects of environmental fluctuations and human impacts on this aspect of biodiversity in coastal areas.
Considers the importance of ethical understanding, moral values, and cultural literacy in various aspects of life. Argues that community college leaders have a responsibility to enlighten students and the community with respect to morality, values, and culture. (DMM)
A rectal culture test is performed by inserting a cotton swab in the rectum. The swab is rotated gently, and withdrawn. A smear of the swab is placed in culture media to encourage the growth of microorganisms. The ...
Chile has not yet developed a shrimp aquaculture industry. A variety of factors suggest that the country has a limited potential to culture shrimp. Indigenous species are untried in pond culture. Climatic factors, especially low seasurface temperatures, a...
Provides descriptions and definitions of diverse pearl varieties. Explains pearl formation, pearl grading and pearl jewelry care. Outlines the history and uses of pearls in different cultures, the technology of pearl culture and industry.
Various components were tested as nutrients in media for barnacle tissue cultures. Bovine embryo extract and yeastolate were favorable additions for both cell outgrowth and organ cultures. Glucose did not improve the media. Bovine serum and Callinectes he...
Cultural changes; people and jobs; examples of cultural changes required; advanced launch system (ALS) philosophy; ALS operability capabilities; and ALS operability in design are outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.
Describes four approaches to utilizing and addressing cultural differences in the classroom: multicultural education, anti-bias curriculum, global education, and international education. Presents diversity education techniques in terms of direct communication (explicit), indirect communication (implicit), cultural information resources available…
Discusses seven books on cultural awareness: (1) "Culture Learning" (Damen); (2) "Beyond the Language Classroom" (Fantini and others); (3) "Culturally Speaking" (Genzel and Cummings); (4) "Across Cultures" (Lim and Smalzer); (5) "Teaching Culture" (Seelye); (6) "Cultural Awareness" (Tomalin and Stempleski); and (7) "Culture Connection" (Wegmann…
Abstract. The pattern ,community ,came ,about ,from ,a consciously crafted culture, a culture that has persisted, grown, and arguably thrived,for a decade. ,The culture ,was ,built on a ,small ,number ,of explicit principles. The culture ,became ,embodied ,in its ,activities— conferences,called ,PLoPs that ,centered ,on a ,social ,activity ,for reviewing,technical ,works—and ,in a body ,of literature ,that ,has wielded,broad ,influence
The incidence of schizophrenia, as well as the symptoms, course, and outcomes for people so diagnosed seem to vary across\\u000a some cultural contexts. The mechanisms by which cultural variations may protect one from or increase one’s risk of developing\\u000a schizophrenia remain unclear. Recent findings from transdisciplinary cross-cultural research, indicate ways that we may better\\u000a understand how socioenvironmental and cultural variables
Plant tissue culture techniques are essential to many types of academic inquiry, as well as to many applied aspects of plant science. Currently, tissue-cultured plants that have been genetically engineered provide insight into plant molecular biology and gene regulation. Plant tissue culture techniques are also central to innovative areas of applied plant science, including plant biotechnology and agriculture. Thus, tissue culture techniques have been, and still are, prominent in academic and applied plant science.
Based on theory gained from the science and culture research domain, this paper considers the relationship between computer\\u000a forensic science and culture. In order to develop a theoretical relationship between computer forensics and culture, this\\u000a paper examines computer forensics as science and discusses the universal nature of science. It points to an ongoing cross-cultural\\u000a work being carried out among computer
Drawing on the relevant literature and the authors' own experience and work, this article discusses therapy in the context of culture. Culture is defined and distinguished from race and the implications of cultural variables discussed in relation to the practice of therapy as well as the training of therapists. Rogers's (1957\\/1990b, 1959) six conditions of therapeutic personality change are developed
For organizations to succeed and endure, trust, collaboration, and performance cultures must coexist. A culture of trust starts with a school board that is independent and fully accountable and that holds all only its employees accountable. In a culture of collaboration, the board becomes a partner in setting goals but allows the experts to do…
In the ongoing debate over whether or what sort of multiculturalism should be provided by schools, the origin, evolution, and rhetorical function of the basic term "culture" have been unwisely neglected. The 19th century notion of "culture" implied a process of growth and development, of culturing an organism, or of the human organism becoming…
Analyzes the relationship between literacy and cultural identity in a multicultural society and argues that cultures differ in what they view as literate behavior, influencing how individuals acquire and engage in literacy. Asserts that the type and content of literacy education received influences cultural identity. (Author/SK)
Does the person become the name or does the name become the person? This question was asked by a participant of my culture jam entitled, "What's my name?" In this culture jam, I asked people to discern the name of a person based solely on their appearance and a list of possible names below their picture. This article aims to show how culture jams…
In this article the author discusses the role university culture can play on a campus and how it can impact policy and practice. The article explores how a university's history, values, and vision form its culture and how this culture in turn affects its stability and continuity. The article discusses how newcomers within the university are…
The emergence of and the attention given to culture in the evaluation field over the last decade has created a heightened awareness of and need for evaluators to understand the complexity and multidimensionality of evaluations within multicultural, multiracial, and cross-cultural contexts. In this article, the authors discuss how cultural…
The handbook presents activities to aid elementary school classroom teachers as they develop and implement cultural arts lessons. A cultural arts program is interpreted as a way to help students develop perceptual awareness, build a basic vocabulary in some art cultural form, evaluate their own works of art, appreciate creative expressions, and…
A two-part presentation on cross-cultural communication consists of a discussion of cultural differences in interpersonal communication and an article from a Greek English-language publication concerning telephone use skills in a foreign country. Cultural differences in communication are divided into eight types and illustrated: (1) when to talk;…
Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…
An in-use evaluation of a commercially available lysis-centrifugation blood culture system (Isolator; Du Pont Co., Wilmington, Del.) is presented. The Isolator was compared with biphasic bottles containing Trypticase soy broth and agar for the detection of organisms in 3,129 paired blood samples. Of 272 potential pathogens recovered, 78% were detected by the Isolator system, and 69% were detected by the biphasic bottle. A total of 31% of these organisms were detected only by the Isolator, and 22% were detected only by the biphasic bottle. The Isolator demonstrated enhanced detection of facultative gram-negative bacilli, anaerobic bacteria, and polymicrobial cultures. The biphasic bottle was more effective for the recovery of facultative gram-positive cocci, especially Streptococcus pneumoniae. The two systems were equally effective for the recovery of yeasts. Contamination rates were 3% for the Isolator and 3.2% for the biphasic bottle. The results indicate that the Isolator system performs well in routine clinical use, but it should be complemented by another method to obtain optimal detection of bacteremia. The biphasic bottle provides an acceptable complementary system both in terms of utility and performance.
Abstract: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper builds on that theoretical discussion to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Paper: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop on “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges,” in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper, coauthored by Karyn R. Durbin and Andrew Van Duzer, described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper updates that theoretical discussion, and seeks to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Implicit in this discussion is an understanding that improving a culture is not an end in itself, but is one method of improving the underlying discipline, that is safety, security, or safeguards. Culture can be defined as a way of life, or general customs and beliefs of a particular group of people at a particular time. There are internationally accepted definitions of safety culture and nuclear security culture. As yet, there is no official agreed upon definition of safeguards culture. At the end of the paper I will propose my definition. At the Santa Fe Workshop the summary by the Co-Chairs of Working Group 1, “The Further Evolution of Safeguards,” noted: “It is clear that ‘safeguards culture’ needs to be addressed if the efficiency and effectiveness are to continue to be improved. This will require commitment and change at all levels, from States to facility operators. Cultural change has to come from good leadership, doing the right thing and ‘beliefs’ are not sufficient – behavior is what counts. We are optimistic that with sufficient effort and the right incentives, change can be accomplished quickly.”
As travel has become easier and more affordable, the number of people traveling has risen sharply. People travel for many and varied reasons, from the business person on an overseas assignment to backpackers seeking new and exotic destinations. Others may take up residence in different regions, states or countries for family, business or political reasons. Other people are fleeing religious or political persecution. Wherever they go and for whatever reason they go, people take their culture with them. Culture, like language, is acquired innately in early childhood and is then reinforced through formal and complex informal social education into adulthood. Culture provides a framework for interpersonal and social interactions. Therefore, the contact with a new culture is often not the exciting or pleasurable experience anticipated. When immersed in a different culture, people no longer know how to act when faced with disparate value systems. Contact with the unfamiliar culture can lead to anxiety, stress, mental illness and, in extreme cases, physical illness and suicide. "Culture shock" is a term coined by the anthropologist Oberg. It is the shock of the new. It implies that the experience of the new culture is an unpleasant surprise or shock, partly because it is unexpected and partly because it can lead to a negative evaluation of one's own culture. It is also known as cross-cultural adjustment, being that period of anxiety and confusion experienced when entering a new culture. It affects people intellectually, emotionally, behaviorally and physically and is characterized by symptoms of psychological distress. Culture shock affects both adults and children. In travelers or workers who have prolonged sojourns in foreign countries, culture shock may occur not only as they enter the new culture, but also may occur on their return to their original culture. Children may also experience readjustment problems after returning from leading sheltered lives in expatriate compounds. This readjustment back to their own culture after a period of time abroad has been termed "reverse culture shock, a condition which has been studied in both corporate managers and Peace Corps volunteers. With culture shock and many other processes of psychological adjustment, people tend to suffer alone, thinking that they are the only ones not coping well with their new circumstance. The objective of this paper was to bring the phenomenon of culture shock to the awareness of travel health advisors, who can in turn advise travelers, especially longer term travelers, about having realistic expectations of their travel and life in new cultures. PMID:9772322
A 44-year-old woman with a history of transient right hemiparesis presented with personality change. One year later, she was admitted with ophthalmoparesis, dysarthria and regression phenomenon. MRI indicated acute infarction of the paramedian region of the midbrain and a nodular lesion in the interpeduncular fossa with contrast enhancement. Two years later, the patient was admitted with sudden onset of right hemiplegia. MRI showed acute infarction in the left side of the pons, diffuse brain atrophy, and abnormal contrast enhancement in the nodular lesion of interpeduncular fossa and leptomeninges of the ventral pons. MR angiography revealed that cerebral main tracts were intact, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed mild pleocytosis and slightly elevated protein levels. Cervical lymph node biopsy demonstrated caseating granuloma with acid-fastbacilli. The patient was diagnosed with chronic tuberculous meningitis, even though tuberculous bacilli were not detected on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or in culture. Antituberculous medication resulted in radiological resolution and neurological improvement. Although the patient had mild headache and pyrexia at the first admission, no signs of meningeal irritation were confirmed throughout the clinical course. We suspect that a paucity of tuberculous bacilli released from the tuberculous foci in the meninges to the subarachnoid space caused prolonged clinical course and lack of meningeal irritation signs. PMID:24705835
Thirteen supervisees' of color and 13 European American supervisees' experiences of culturally responsive and unresponsive cross-cultural supervision were studied using consensual qualitative research. In culturally responsive supervision, all supervisees felt supported for exploring cultural issues, which positively affected the supervisee, the supervision relationship, and client outcomes. In culturally unresponsive supervision, cultural issues were ignored, actively discounted, or dismissed by supervisors,
Alan W. Burkard; Adanna J. Johnson; Michael B. Madson; Nathan T. Pruitt; Deborah A. Contreras-Tadych; JoEllen M. Kozlowski; Shirley A. Hess; Sarah Knox
Purpose: Many people moving into a new culture for work or study do so without prior cross-cultural training, yet successful cultural adaptation has important ramifications. The purpose of this paper is to focus on cross-cultural impression management as an element of cultural adaptation. Does cultural adaptation begin by paying strong attention…
This paper seeks to improve approaches to the learning and teaching of culture using new technologies by relating the key qualities and dimensions of the culture concept to elements within a pedagogical framework. In Part One, five facets of the culture concept are developed: culture as elemental; culture as relative; culture as group membership;…
Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning. PMID:23816860
Immunosuppressive drugs are commonly used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Patients receiving immunosuppressants are susceptible to a variety of infections with opportunistic pathogens. We present a case of skin infection with Mycobacterium chelonae in a 60-year-old Caucasian woman with ulcerative colitis who had been treated with corticosteroids and azathioprine. The disease manifested with fever and rash involving the right leg. Infliximab was administered due to a presumptive diagnosis of pyoderma gangrenosum, leading to worsening of the clinical syndrome and admission to our hospital. Routine cultures from various sites were all negative. However, Ziehl-Neelsen staining of pus from the lesions revealed acid-fastbacilli, and culture yielded a rapidly growing mycobacterium further identified as M. chelonae. The patient responded to a clarithromycin-based regimen. Clinicians should be aware of skin lesions caused by atypical mycobacteria in immunocompromised patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Furthermore, they should be able to thoroughly investigate and promptly treat these conditions.
Bamias, Giorgos; Daikos, George L.; Siakavellas, Spyros I.; Kaltsa, Garyfallia; Smilakou, Stavroula; Katsogridakis, Ioannis; Vafiadis-Zouboulis, Irene; Ladas, Spiros D.
Background Cellulitis caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare has rarely been described. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare is a rare cause of septic arthritis after intra-articular injection, though the causative role of injection is difficult to ascertain in such cases. Case presentation A 57-year-old with rheumatoid arthritis treated with prednisone and azathioprine developed bilateral painful degenerative shoulder arthritis. After corticosteroid injections into both acromioclavicular joints, he developed bilateral cellulitis centered over the injection sites. Skin biopsy showed non-caseating granulomas, and culture grew Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare. Joint aspiration also revealed Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection. Conclusion Although rare, skin and joint infections caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare should be considered in any immunocompromised host, particularly after intra-articular injection. Stains for acid-fastbacilli may be negative in pathologic samples even in the presence of infection; cultures of tissue specimens should always be obtained.
\\u000a Prior to the discussion on the meeting of cultures, one should determine what is meant by “culture”—and this is no mean task.\\u000a I wish to point out, first of all, that I will stick to a rather abstract definition, which will enable me to include extremely\\u000a diverse phenomena: culture refers to common representations, thus shared by at least two human
Critics of Darwinian cultural evolution frequently assert that whereas biological evolution is blind and undirected, cultural\\u000a change is directed or guided by people who possess foresight, thereby invalidating any Darwinian analysis of culture. Here\\u000a I show this argument to be erroneous and unsupported in several respects. First, critics commonly conflate human foresight\\u000a with supernatural clairvoyance, resulting in the premature rejection
Evolutionary models of cultural change have acquired an important role in attempts to explain the course of human evolution, especially our specialization in knowledge-gathering and intelligent control of environments. In both biological and cultural change, different patterns of explanation become relevant at different 'grains' of analysis and in contexts associated with different explanatory targets. Existing treatments of the evolutionary approach to culture, both positive and negative, underestimate the importance of these distinctions. Close attention to grain of analysis motivates distinctions between three possible modes of cultural evolution, each associated with different empirical assumptions and explanatory roles. PMID:22734059
Evolutionary models of cultural change have acquired an important role in attempts to explain the course of human evolution, especially our specialization in knowledge-gathering and intelligent control of environments. In both biological and cultural change, different patterns of explanation become relevant at different ‘grains’ of analysis and in contexts associated with different explanatory targets. Existing treatments of the evolutionary approach to culture, both positive and negative, underestimate the importance of these distinctions. Close attention to grain of analysis motivates distinctions between three possible modes of cultural evolution, each associated with different empirical assumptions and explanatory roles.
This new online directory from UNESCO is devoted to "policy making in the field of culture." Though the page is relatively new, there are already more than 400 annotated links here in ten categories including Ministries of Culture, Networks and Culturenets, Research Institutes, International Organizations, and so on. Part of the larger Culture and UNESCO site, Windows to Culture is a good demonstration of "value-added"; clicking on the detailed view for a resource brings up the title, address, URL, email address, country, region, themes, and a nice description of the resource/ organization.
Students learn about material culture in this Moveable Museum lesson plan by taking a firsthand look at how culture influences the kinds of things we do. The 12-page PDF guide has educator materials including background information, teacher strategies, assessment guidelines, and detailed notes about the curriculum standards addressed. The Becoming a Cultural Researcher activity worksheet has a series of questions that prompts students to reflect on the material culture of daily activities, customs, or ceremonies. There is a kid-friendly glossary of related terms.
Presents an activity that addresses cultural differences and diversity through ethnobotany. Offers a multicultural framework designed to develop concepts about plant characteristics and taxonomy. (ASK)
Radio, television, film, and the other products of media culture provide materials out of which we forge our very identities; our sense of selfhood; our notion of what it means to be male or female; our sense of class, of ethnicity and race, of nationality, of sexuality; and of \\
There is much research suggesting that cultural biases or attitudes are difficult to change. This study assumes that the reason for the difficulty is that such biases are deeply rooted in a variety of situational and individual sources that must work simultaneously for change to occur. In searching for a way to conform to this requirement, a…
Survey of 41 Chicanos and 39 whites ages 18-80 found that despite effects of acculturation, Chicanos held educational and developmental values and beliefs consistent with ancient Nahuatl (Aztec) society, an indigenous Mexican culture. Suggests a need to examine social service delivery systems to determine whether assumptions and procedures are…
The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate community health students' perceptions of their cultural competence. Little is known about students' cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills after their experience working with diverse cultural groups and language barriers. A cross-cultural experiential learning exercise was used as an educational approach. Reflective writing was used to elicit students' attitudes of the other culture and their coping skills. Three themes emerged as cultural awareness and knowledge, observation and learning, and cross-cultural communication. Results underscore the need for student academic preparation using cross-cultural educational approaches to enhance cultural competence. PMID:24279125
This article offers a variety of culturally responsive approaches and activities so as to better know and understand our students' diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. These methods will not only help to make more equitable classrooms where we make meaningful connections with our students--but also yield useful data so as to inform our…
Neurons have eluded the attempts of researchers to maintain them in continuous cultures largely because most neurons do not divide and/or proliferate. Investigators have been able to maintain fetal or newborn rat neurons in culture, however, the neurons a...
In 2000, Professor Geneva Gay wrote that culturally responsive teaching connects students' cultural knowledge, prior experiences, and performance styles to academic knowledge and intellectual tools in ways that legitimize what students already know. By embracing the sociocultural realities and histories of students through what is taught and how,…
This special issue examines the transnational shape and shaping of lesbian lives and cultures in and across China, India, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It uses the expression "transnational lesbian cultures" to suggest that despite sometimes radically different sociopolitical and cultural contexts, the lived experiences of same-sex desire and their emotional attachments create particular affinities between women who love women, affinities that reach across the distinct cultural and social contexts that shape them. The articles brought together explore lesbian subcultures, film, graphic novels, music, and online intimacies. They show that as a cultural and political signifier and as an analytical tool, lesbian troubles and complicates contemporary sexual politics, not least by revealing some of the gendered structures that shape debates about sexuality in a range of critical, cultural and political contexts. While the individual pieces cover a wide range of issues and concerns-which are often highly specific to the historical, cultural, and political contexts they discuss-together they tell a story about contemporary transnational lesbian culture: one that is marked by intricate links between norms and their effects and shaped by the efforts to resist denial, discrimination, and sometimes even active persecution. PMID:24972280
Educators know that something needs to change; they analyze data, build a plan, and provide professional development, yet little changes. Often that is because they fail to take into account the culture of their schools. Culture reflects the complex set of values, traditions, assumptions, and patterns of behavior that are present in a school.…
The nature of today's popular culture, its place in American life, and its merit or lack of it are the themes of these essays from "The New York Times Magazine." Introductory essays discuss the use of leisure time, paying the cost of the arts, and whether American society can be considered "cultured." Subsequent essays discuss the nature of radio…
Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) somatic tissues and seeds were tried for raising tissue cultures. The explants of shoot tips, immature inflorescences, leaf sections, capitulum explants, axillary buds and receptacles explants from field grown plants had contamination problems. Another trouble was slow growth of explant cultures as they were treated with sterilizing chemicals which damage their growing regions. However, callusing was in
NAFEES ALTAF; ABDUL REHMAN KHAN; LIAQAT ALI; INKSAR AHMAD BHATTI
This book is addressed primarily to higher education personnel responsible for campus programming that promotes a culturally plural environment. These chapters are included: (1) "Affirming Affirmative Action" (Harold E. Cheatham); (2) "Identity Development in a Pluralistic Society" (Harold E. Cheatham); (3) "The Minority Cultural Center on a…
Don Slater, Department of Sociology, University of London, shares interdisciplinary research in economic sociology at the New Cultures and Economies site. Readers may download extensive bibliographies on consumer culture and market society topics in Word97 or .zip formats or browse course pages online, and the Sociology of the Internet section, now in progress, aims to create dialogues among scholars of electronic media.
This booklet about the cultural background of Cambodia is one of three booklets that serve as a foundation for understanding the cultural diversity and values of Cambodian, Laotian, and Vietnamese students. Cambodia, or Kampuchea, has a population of about 7,000,000 and is located in mainland Southeast Asia. Its history is divided into the…
While indigenous rights are being widely discussed and cultures of indigenous peoples are becoming more known to the world, the current status of the indigenous Ainu people and their culture in contemporary Japanese society has not been fully explored. According to a 1999 Hokkaido local government survey, there are approximately 23,767 Ainu people living in Hokkaido and about 5000 in
Developed by the Texas Department of Human Resources' Child Development Division, this guide supports and encourages the integration of cultural diversity into children's programs; furnishes basic information related to race, ethnicity, and culture; and briefly considers some issues associated with the concepts. While not dealing in depth with all…
In this article, the author describes a cultural collage painting project. Three things served as the impetus for this project: (1) a desire for students to explore the theme of "culture"; (2) an appreciation for the photo-montaged, layered images one sees in print media; and (3) noticing that projects from core subject areas hanging on the walls…
Language is inseparable from its cultural context. Considered here are: aspects of culture to be learned (not just odd differences); method; use of suitable, well-balanced materials; aims - informational, communicative (for life situations), and motivational. Motivation is higher in students with favorable attitudes toward the foreign people.…
What is culture? How does it figure into learning and teaching? What can educators do to make their classrooms sites of deep learning for all children? This essay examines the concept of culture, exploring how this concept has evolved historically and how its meaning continues to develop today.
There is increasing interest in the nature and both environmental and cognitive origins of culturally associated differences in a range of behaviors. This special issue of Cognitive Neuroscience presents six empirical papers investigating diverse categories of potential culturally related effects as well as a review article, all of which provide timely updates of the current state of knowledge in this area. PMID:24499407
In this article, the author discusses youth culture and raises concerns about the tricky social terrain modernity offers for youth identity. He discusses familiar "topoi" or thematics that seem to drive most work on youth culture, suggests that justice and fairness are moral imperatives, and that acknowledging the worthiness of difference is one…
This collection of papers examines what it means to teach culture as an integrated part of language from both the language learner's and the language teacher's perspectives. The 11 papers include the following: "Teaching Cultures as an Integrated Part of Language: Implications for the Aims, Approaches and Pedagogies of Language Teaching" (Chantal…
A mixed culture system of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC31550 and the microorganism Clostridium thermocellum ATCC31549 is described. In a mixed nutrient culture medium that contains cellulose, these microorganisms have been coupled and cultivated to efficiently ferment cellulose to produce recoverable quantities of ethanol under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions.
Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Wiegel, Jurgen K. W. (Gottingen, DE)
It has been said that a people without a sense of cultural identity can be compared to a tree without roots. Thus Africans in the diaspora, particularly those in the developed industrial regions of North America and Europe, have made the unrelenting quest for a cultural identity the central focus of their liberation struggle. Language is the quintessential ingredient of
Provides references to the work of cross-cultural psychologists that can be integrated into regular undergraduate psychology courses. Discusses methodological problems, benefits, and difficulties of cross-cultural research. Reviews contributions of this field to the study of perception, cognition, motivation, interpersonal interaction, and group…
Cross-Cultural psychology refers to the collective efforts of researchers who work among people who live in different societies, with different languages and different forms of government. There are a number of benefits to the study of human behavior which can be accrued by carrying out research in various cultures, largely concerned with better…
A substantial amount of literature suggests that illness behavior in the United States is a product of a patient's core culture; equally credible findings do not support this contention. Most students and graduates in the health care professions believe that illness and disability behavior are affected by a patient's culture, but they are hard put to find convincing examples of that relationship. In experience with medical students studying the social and cultural bases of illness behavior, with patients who are disabled and with persons who claim disability in the absence of physical disease or disabling psychopathology, I observed no deviant disability behavior that was typical for the members of any cultural group, and no behavior was displayed by the members of one cultural group that was not seen in members of other cultural groups. No cultural stereotypes were upheld. I did find evidence that disability behavior is influenced by personality factors, social situations and the gains derived from the disability status. Evolving concepts of “entitlement,” which are closely related to socioeconomic status, also have a significant influence. The impact of feedback from others in a person's many social and medical subcultures is a more crucial determinant of illness and disability behavior, except in those for whom illness and disability behavior is determined by the limitations imposed by the disease or by a personality structure resistant to cultural expectations and social feedback.
Third Culture Kids (TCKs) represent a group of youth who have lived overseas with their families for business, service, or missionary work. The implications of living in multiple cultures, especially during the developmental and formative years of youth, warrant investigation. This study informs the US counseling community about the…
When we speak about communication it is imperative to consider it as being cultural — it draws on ways we have learned to speak and give nonverbal messages. We do not always communicate the same way from day to day, since there are factors like context, individual personality, and mood interact usually with the variety of cultural influences we have
Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities. PMID:20679109
Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian
Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities.
Gachter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thoni, Christian
The link between culture and various forms of development remains a somewhat mysterious one, but this website provided by the Netherlands' Ministry of Foreign Affairs begins to explore this rather compelling connection. The website states that "Culture is not a peripheral matter", then proceeds to offer a number of themes that visitors will want to take a closer look at. The themes that are covered on the site include policy, cultural diversity, cultural heritage, and global ethics, along with several others. Within each theme, visitors can view latest news releases on each topic, along with a selection of links to related sites, such as those provided by UNESCO. The "Specials" section is well-developed, and features in-depth discussion of such emergent cultural trends as the relatively undiscovered worlds of African cinema and Chinese media art. Finally, visitors can also choose to enter their own comments in the online visitor's book.
Mycobacteria are able to enter into a state of non-replication or dormancy, which may result in their chronic persistence in soil, aquatic environments, and permissive hosts. Stresses such as nutrient deprivation and hypoxia provide environmental cues to enter a persistent state; however, a clear definition of the mechanism that mycobacteria employ to achieve this remains elusive. While the concept of sporulation in mycobacteria is not novel, it continues to spark controversy and challenges our perceptions of a non-replication. We investigated the potential role of sporulation in one-year old broth cultures of Mycobacterium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). We show that dormant cultures of MAP contain a mix of vegetative cells and a previously unknown morphotype resembling a spore. These spore-like structures can be enriched for using sporulating media. Furthermore, purified MAP spore forms survive exposure to heat, lysozyme and proteinase K. Heat-treated spores are positive for MAP 16SrRNA and IS900. MAP spores display enhanced infectivity as well as maintain acid-fast characteristics upon germination in a well-established bovine macrophage model. This is the first study to demonstrate a new MAP morphotype possessing spore-like qualities. Data suggest that sporulation may be a viable mechanism by which MAP accomplishes persistence in the host and/or environment. Thus, our current understanding of mycobacterial persistence, pathogenesis, epidemiology and rational drug and vaccine design may need to be reevaluated. PMID:22292005
Lamont, Elise A; Bannantine, John P; Armién, Aníbal; Ariyakumar, Don Sanjiv; Sreevatsan, Srinand
A longitudinal study explored cultural historical change within the Zinacantecan Mayan culture to create theoretical and empirical links between individual processes of cultural apprenticeship and societal processes of cultural change. The study examined the transmission of culture from parent to child in an apprenticeship relationship as the…
In today's global world, to provide meaningful education, teacher-librarians and their students need to become culturally competent: open to learning about other cultures and sharing one's own culture, able to change personal perspectives, and able to communicate effectively across cultures. Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions provides a…
Examines special issues in cross-cultural psychopathology, including culture-bound syndromes, variable distribution of psychopathology across cultures, and cultural distinctions between belief and delusion and between trance and hallucination. Offers suggestions for educating clinicians about cross-cultural conceptual issues and teaching the…
Teaching world cultures in the middle-level geography classroom presents challenges both because of the complexity of culture and because of the characteristics of students of this age. One effective way to teach about a culture is through the use of cultural artifacts. This article discusses how to collect and use cultural artifacts in the…
Blood cultures are an essential diagnostic tool. However, contamination may impact on patients' care and lead to increased patient stay, additional tests, and inappropriate antibiotic use. The aim of this study was to review the literature for factors that influence the rate of blood culture contamination. A comprehensive literature search was performed using Medline and CINAHL on blood culture contamination. Hospitals/units should have in place a protocol for staff on how to take blood cultures, incorporating use of an aseptic technique. Studies have shown that several key factors in the process may lower contamination rates such as adherence to a protocol, sampling by peripheral venepuncture route rather than via an intravascular catheter, use of sterile gloves, cleaning tops of blood culture bottles with antiseptics and inoculating blood culture bottles before other blood tubes, samples being taken by a phlebotomy team, monitoring contamination rates, and providing individual feedback and retraining for those with contaminants. Although skin antisepsis is advocated there is still debate on which antiseptic is most effective, as there is no conclusive evidence, only that there is benefit from alcohol-containing preparations. In conclusion, hospitals should aim to minimize their blood culture contamination rates. They should monitor their rate regularly and aim for a rate of ?3%. PMID:24768211
Stem cells always balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Hence, stem cell culture parameters are critical and need to be continuously refined according to progress in our stem cell biology understanding and the latest technological developments. In the past few years, major efforts have been made to define more precisely the medium composition in which stem cells grow or differentiate. This led to the progressive replacement of ill-defined additives such as serum or feeder cell layers by recombinant cytokines or growth factors. Another example is the control of the oxygen pressure. For many years cell cultures have been done under atmospheric oxygen pressure which is much higher than the one experienced by stem cells in vivo. A consequence of cell metabolism is that cell culture conditions are constantly changing. Therefore, the development of high sensitive monitoring processes and control algorithms is required for ensuring cell culture medium homeostasis. Stem cells also sense the physical constraints of their microenvironment. Rigidity, stiffness, and geometry of the culture substrate influence stem cell fate. Hence, nanotopography is probably as important as medium formulation in the optimization of stem cell culture conditions. Recent advances include the development of synthetic bioinformative substrates designed at the micro- and nanoscale level. On going research in many different fields including stem cell biology, nanotechnology, and bioengineering suggest that our current way to culture cells in Petri dish or flasks will soon be outdated as flying across the Atlantic Ocean in the Lindbergh's plane. PMID:20803548
van der Sanden, Boudewijn; Dhobb, Mehdi; Berger, François; Wion, Didier
Stem cells always balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Hence, stem cell culture parameters are critical and need to be continuously refined according to progress in our stem cell biology understanding and the latest technological developments. This led to the progressive replacement of ill-defined additives such as serum or feeder cell layers by recombinant cytokines or growth factors. Another example is the control of the oxygen pressure. For many years cell cultures have been done under atmospheric oxygen pressure which is much higher than the one experienced by stem cells in vivo. A consequence of cell metabolism is that cell culture conditions are constantly changing. Therefore, the development of high sensitive monitoring processes and control algorithms is required for ensuring cell culture medium homeostasis. Stem cells also sense the physical constraints of their microenvironment. Rigidity, stiffness and geometry of the culture substrate influence stem cell fate. Hence, nanotopography is probably as important as medium formulation in the optimization of stem cell culture conditions. Recent advances include the development of synthetic bioinformative substrates designed at the micro- and nanoscale level. On going research in many different fields including stem cell biology, nanotechnology, and bioengineering suggest that our current way to culture cells in Petri dish or flasks will soon be outdated as flying across the Atlantic Ocean in the Lindbergh’s plane.
Van Der Sanden, Boudewijn; Dhobb, Mehdi; Berger, Francois; Wion, Didier
Tributyl phosphate (TBP) is an organophosphorous compound, used extensively (3000-5000 tonnes/annum) as a solvent for nuclear fuel processing and as a base stock in the formulation of fire-resistant aircraft hydraulic fluids and other applications. Because of its wide applications and relative stability in the natural environment TBP poses the problem of pollution and health hazards. In the present study, fifteen potent bacterial strains capable of using tributyl phosphate (TBP) as sole carbon and phosphorus source were isolated from enrichment cultures. These isolates were identified on the basis of biochemical and morphological characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that two isolates belonged to class Bacilli and thirteen to ? and ?-Proteobacteria. All these isolates were found to be members of genera Alcaligenes, Providencia, Delftia, Ralstonia, and Bacillus. These isolates were able to tolerate and degrade up to 5 mM TBP, the highest concentration reported to date. The GC-MS method was developed to monitor TBP degradation. Two strains, Providencia sp. BGW4 and Delftia sp. BGW1 showed respectively, 61.0 ± 2.8% and 57.0 ± 2.0% TBP degradation within 4 days. The degradation rate constants, calculated by first order kinetic model were between 0.0024 and 0.0099 h(-1). These bacterial strains are novel for TBP degradation and could be used as an important bioresource for efficient decontamination of TBP polluted waste streams. PMID:21755325
Social interactions and personal tastes shape our consumption behavior of cultural products. In this study, we present a computational model of a cultural market and we aim to analyze the behavior of the consumer population as an emergent phenomena. Our results suggest that the final market shares of cultural products dramatically depend on consumer heterogeneity and social interaction pressure. Furthermore, the relation between the resulting market shares and social interaction is robust with respect to a wide range of variation in the parameter values and the type of topology.
\\u000a Teaching across cultures, whether as an expatriate teaching in a different culture, or as a local teaching international students,\\u000a is an experience that many university teachers see as problematic. The following comment from the United Kingdom on teaching\\u000a international students is typical:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a many overseas students now originate in Pacific Rim countries, whose educational cultures characteristically value a highly\\u000a deferential approach
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is an increasing public health concern worldwide. On a global scale it has a devastating impact in developing nations. Genital TB, an extrapulmonary form, is not uncommon particularly in areas where pulmonary TB is prevalent. Genital TB may be asymptomatic or may even masquerade as other gynaecological conditions; hence, diagnosis requires a high degree of suspicion and the use of appropriate investigations. Objective: This study attempted to identify endometrial TB in endometrial biopsies taken from women evaluated for infertility by comparison of various staining techniques. Materials and Methods: A comparative cross sectional study was conducted from February 2011 to April 2011 in Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, New Delhi. Endometrial biopsy specimens from 55 endometrial TB suspects were stained for acidfastbacilli by Ziehl Neelson staining and Gabbet staining. The biopsy samples were also subjected to Auramine Phenol fluroscent staining and H and E staining. Culture on Lowenstein Jensen medium was taken as the gold standard. Results: Three samples were culture positive giving positivity rate of 5.4%. Considering culture as the gold standard the senstivities of ZN, Gabbet, fluorescent and H and E staining were 33, 33, 66, and 66% respectively while their specificities were 100, 100, 98, and100% respectively. Conclusion: Combination of fluorescent staining techniques along with one of the acidfast staining techniques or histopathology achieves sufficient sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of female genital tuberculosis. There is an urgent need for developing definitive diagnostic methods to make a conclusive diagnosis of genital TB. PMID:24639789
Kashyap, Bineeta; Srivastava, Namita; R Kaur, Iqbal; Jhamb, Rajat; K Singh, Deepak
This chapter examines popular culture as a site of cultural resistance. Specifically, it explores how "culture jamming," a cultural-resistance activity, can be a form of adult education. It examines adult education and learning as it intersects with both consumerism and popular culture. Focus is placed on a growing social movement of individuals…
To investigate chondrocyte biology in an organized structure, limb explant cultures have been established that allow the cultivation of the entire cartilaginous skeletal elements. In these organ cultures, the arrangement of chondrocytes in the cartilage elements and their interaction with the surrounding perichondrium and joint tissue are maintained. Chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation can thus be studied under nearly in vivo conditions. Growth factors and other soluble agents can be administered to the explants, and their effect on limb morphogenesis, gene expression, and cell-matrix interactions can be studied. Co-treatment with distinct growth factors and their inhibitors as well as use of transgenic mice will allow one to decipher the epistatic relationship between different signaling systems and other regulators of chondrocyte differentiation. Here we describe the protocol to culture cartilage explants ex vivo and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the culture system. PMID:24482167
The history of U.S. military operations is replete with examples of major errors made due to cultural misunderstandings. This paper examines three cases (Korean War, Vietnam War, Kosovo) that illustrate the consequences of past failings to understand cult...
Conventional Western-model psychotherapy is based on a number of premises regarding its rationale and technique. The increasing experience in psychotherapy globally is questioning the universality of these premises, suggesting that these could be to a large extent culture-specific, having developed in a particular culture at a particular time. Hence, the need to move from a dogmatic approach to psychotherapy to a flexible approach taking into account the socio-cultural reality. The paper identifies a number of cultural variables involving the intrapsychic mechanisms (e.g. cognitive and expressive), social relatedness (e.g. autonomy, social distance) and religious-philosophical belief systems (concept of sin, and belief in fatalism and after-life/reincarnation) and discusses their role in the approach to and process of psychotherapy, illustrating it with the situation in the Indian setting. PMID:3410660
Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…
... are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration ... normal result means there was no growth of microorganisms on the lab dish. Normal value ranges may ...
This report on cultural resources investigations conducted by the Office of History and Archaeology (Alaska Division of Parks) during 1981 includes the results of projects in the following nineteen locations: Mud Bay Road, Haines; Stikine Avenue, Wrangell...
The interdisciplinary activities described in this article require students to study various ethnic groups and cultures within a context of ethnobotany, which is the study of how people use plants. Students engage in perspective taking, learn to appreciat
The American Studies Program of Washington State University offers this online directory to Websites and resources in cultural environmental studies. The directory presents a subject overview followed by a dozen or more subtopic headings which lead to annotated listings further broken down by subheadings. The site is frequently updated and provides a wealth of links for studying the last two centuries from a cultural studies viewpoint.
Cultural Entomology Digest was published in four issues from 1993 to 1997. All issues are available online. More than 30 short articles on the use of insects in human culture are presented, covering a wide variety of fascinating topics from butterflies in mythology to insects in psychiatry to the use of beetles as religious symbols. The articles are both informative and entertaining, and are written by recognized authorities.
In all probability, long before other civilizations had named the celestial objects in the night sky, the indigenous people of Australia had not only given them names but had also built an astronomical knowledge system which they incorporated into their social, cultural and religious life. Their socio-cultural astronomical knowledge system both assists and clashes with Australia's legal system, which is based on English law.
Cell isolation and culture are essential tools for the study of cell function. Isolated cells grown under controlled conditions can be manipulated and imaged at a level of resolution that is not possible in whole animals or even tissue explants. Recent advances have allowed for large-scale isolation and culture of primary C. elegans cells from both embryos and all four larval stages. Isolated cells can be used for single-cell profiling, electrophysiology, and high-resolution microscopy to assay cell autonomous development and behavior. This chapter describes protocols for the isolation and culture of C. elegans embryonic and larval stage cells. Our protocols describe isolation of embryonic and L1 stage cells from nematodes grown on high-density NA22 bacterial plates and isolation of L2 through L4 stage cells from nematodes grown in axenic liquid culture. Both embryonic and larval cells can be isolated from nematode populations within 3 hours and can be cultured for several days. A primer on sterile cell culture techniques is given in the appendices. PMID:23430760
Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks. PMID:23163473
Astronomy is, by definition, the sum of the material and spiritual values created by mankind and of the institutions necessary to communicate these values. Consequently, astronomy belongs to the culture of each society and its scientific progress does nothing but underline its role in culture. It is interesting that there is even a European society which bears this name "Astronomy for Culture" (SEAC). Its main goal is "the study of calendric and astronomical aspects of culture". Owning ancient evidence of astronomical knowledge, dating from the dawn of the first millennium, Romania is interested in this topic. But Astronomy has a much deeper role in culture and civilization. There are many aspects that deserve to be discussed. Examples? The progress of astronomy in a certain society, in connection with its evolution; the place held by the astronomy in literature and, generally, in art; the role of the SF in the epoch of super-mediatization; astronomy and belief; astronomy and astrology in the modern society, and so forth. These are problems that can be of interest for IAU, but the most important one could be her educational role, in the formation of the culture of the new generation, in the education of the population for the protection of our planet, in the ensuring of a high level of spiritual development of the society in the present epoch.
Today, a great challenge of our profession is to envision how we will deliver exemplary neurosurgical care in the future. To accomplish this requires anticipating how economic, political, and societal influences will affect our ability to provide the highest quality of patient care in an arena that will look increasingly different from today's world of medicine. Already, our profession is battling a relentless assault as numerous sectors implement change that impacts us and our community every day. Surviving this requires an effective strategy that will involve significant cultural change. To accomplish this, neurosurgery must take an honest look inward and then commit to being the agents of positive cultural change. Such a path will not be easy but should reap important benefits for all of neurosurgery and our patients. Several practical and proven strategies can help us to realize the rewards of changing our culture. Vital to this process is understanding that effecting behavioral change will increase the likelihood of achieving sustainable cultural change. Innovation and diversity are crucial to encourage and reward when trying to effect meaningful cultural change, while appreciating the power of a "Tipping Point" strategy will also reap significant benefits. As a profession, if we adopt these strategies and tactics we can lead our profession to proceed in improvement, and as individuals we can use the spirit that drove us into neurosurgery to become the agents of an enduring and meaningful cultural change that will benefit our patients and us. PMID:24559225
The term 'cultural awareness' serves as the new favorite Department of Defense buzzword but fails in its definition to adequately articulate the complexity of culture and the high level of cultural competence needed by operational commanders in the contem...
Advances in communication technologies have made great progress in bridging time and distance, but social and cultural differences are still formidable obstacles to effective communication. Communication processes occur in specific cultural contexts, with unique normative beliefs, assumptions, and shared symbols. Culture influences what people communicate, to whom they communicate, and how they communicate. There has been little systematic cross-cultural research
Karen Moustafa Leonard; James R. Van Scotter; Fatma Pakdil
Cultural awareness (CA) has emerged over the last few decades as a significant part of conceptualizing the cultural dimension to language teaching. That is, L2 users need to understand L2 communication as a cultural process and to be aware of their own culturally based communicative behaviour and that of others. However, while CA has provided a…
This paper discusses the elaboration and application of "scientific culture" categories to the analysis of students' discourse while solving problems in inquiry contexts. Scientific culture means the particular domain culture of science, the culture of science practitioners. The categories proposed include both epistemic operations and procedural…
Jimenez-Aleixandre, Maria Pilar; Diaz de Bustamante, Joaquin; Duschl, Richard A.
Cultural transmission and cultural evolution are important for animals, especially for humans. I developed a new analytical model of cultural evolution, in which each newborn learns cultural traits from multiple individuals (exemplars) in parental generation, individually explores around learned cultural traits, judges the utility of known cultural traits, and adopts a mature cultural trait. Cultural evolutionary speed increases when individuals explore a wider range of cultural traits, accurately judge the skill level of cultural traits (strong direct bias), do not strongly conform to the population mean, increase the exploration range according to the variety of socially learned cultural traits (condition dependent exploration), and make smaller errors in social learning. Number of exemplars, population size, similarity of cultural traits between exemplars, and one-to-many transmission have little effect on cultural evolutionary speed. I also investigated how cultural interaction between two populations with different mean skill levels affects their cultural evolution. A population sometimes increases in skill level more if it encounters a less skilled population than if it does not encounter anyone. A less skilled population sometimes exceeds a more skilled population in skill level by cultural interaction between both populations. The appropriateness of this analytical method is confirmed by individual-based simulations. PMID:24613360
This paper analyzes how public administration may improve the service it offers to citizens through a suitable organizational culture; for this purpose, it starts by studying the specific features of the culture of public administration. In this respect, it analyzes the existing taxonomies in public administration, the role of culture in these agencies and how a diagnosis of such culture
Enrique Claver; Juan Llopis; José L. Gascó; Hipólito Molina; Francisco J. Conca
Mycobacteruim kansasii occasionally causes disseminated infection with poor outcome in immunocompromised patients. We report the first case of disseminated M. kansasii infection associated with multiple skin lesions in a 48-yr-old male with myelodysplastic syndrome. The patient continuously had taken glucocorticoid during 21 months and had multiple skin lesions developed before 9 months without complete resolution until admission. Skin and mediastinoscopic paratracheal lymph node (LN) biopsies showed necrotizing granuloma with many acid-fastbacilli. M. kansasii was cultured from skin, sputum, and paratracheal LNs. The patient had been treated successfully with isoniazid, rifampin, ethmabutol, and clarithromycin, but died due to small bowel obstruction. Our case emphasizes that chronic skin lesions can lead to severe, disseminated M. kansasii infection in an immunocompromised patient. All available cases of disseminated M. kansasii infection in non HIV-infected patients reported since 1953 are comprehensively reviewed. PMID:20119588
Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kyoung Min; Chin, Bum Sik; Choi, Suk Hoon; Lee, Han Sung; Kim, Myung Soo; Jeong, Su Jin; Choi, Hee Kyoung; Kim, Chang Oh; Choi, Jun Yong; Song, Young Goo; Kim, June Myung
We report a case of under treated necrotizing fasciitis (NF) in a 65-year-old woman with diabetes misdiagnosed as Mycobacterium ulcerans infection. She came to the Institut Médical Evangélique (IME) with an extensive painful edematous ulcerated lesion on the dorsum of the right foot and ankle. The diagnosis of Buruli ulcer (BU) was based initially on clinical findings and place of residence (Songololo Territory, the largest known focus of BU in Bas-Congo province). Tissue specimens gave negative results for acid-fastbacilli (AFB), culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for M. ulcerans. Histopathologic analysis revealed marked necrosis of the lower dermis and subcutaneous tissue. No AFB was found. Later, scattered foci of intracellular gram-positive cocci typical of streptococci were seen. Clinicopathologic correlation of these findings strongly supported the diagnosis of NF. This patient shows the difficulties that may be encountered even in known endemic areas in recognizing BU cases purely on clinical findings.
Phanzu, Mavinga D.; Bafende, Aombe E.; Imposo, Bofunga B. D.; Meyers, Wayne M.; Portaels, Francoise
Although papulonecrotic tuberculid is an uncommon cutaneous manifestation of tuberculosis (TB) associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, the simultaneous occurrence of papulonecrotic tuberculid and erythema induratum is even rarer. Papulonecrotic tuberculid occurs predominantly in young adults and is characterized by eruptions of necrotizing papules that heal with varioliform scars. Histopathologic findings include wedge-shaped necrosis of the dermis, poorly formed granulomatous infiltration, and vasculitis. Stainings and culture for acid-fastbacilli from skin biopsies are usually negative for M. tuberculosis, although the eruptions resolve with antitubercular therapy. Few patients with papulonecrotic tuberculid, especially with concurrent occurrence of erythema induratum, have been reported in the English literature. Here we report a case of a 12-year-old girl with simultaneous occurrence of papulonecrotic tuberculid and erythema induratum accompanying pulmonary TB. PMID:22472030
Kim, Gun-Wook; Park, Hyun-Je; Kim, Hoon-Soo; Chin, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Su-Han; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum; Kim, Byung-Soo
Scrofuloderma is a common type of cutaneous tuberculosis usually manifests over an infected lymphnode, bone or joint that breaks down to form an undermined ulcer leading to discharging sinuses. We present a case of a 22 year old woman with diffuse swelling of right arm with overlying nodulo ulcerative skin lesions associated with seropurulent discharge. Routine investigations were normal and X-Ray of the right humerus showed the features of chronic osteomyelitis. Smears of the discharge for bacteria, fungi and acidfastbacilli were negative, but culture of skin biopsy showed Mycobacterium tuberculosis which was confirmed by PCR. Histopathology of skin biopsy showed epithelioid granulomatous inflammation suggestive of tuberculosis. After treating the patient with antitubercular therapy complete regression of the lesions occurred. PMID:24082212
This case report describes tuberculosis (TB) due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) in alpaca (Lama pacos) on a farm in Ireland. Two severely debilitated alpaca were presented to the University Veterinary Hospital, University College Dublin in November 2004. Bloods were taken, and haematology and biochemistry results were indicative of chronic infection. Radiological examination showed evidence of diffuse granulomatous pneumonia suggestive of tuberculosis. On necropsy there were granulomatous lesions present throughout many body organs including lung, liver, kidney, intestine as well on peritoneum and mesentery. Culture of acid-fastbacilli from lesions led to a diagnosis of tuberculosis due to M. bovis. The use of intradermal skin testing proved inefficient and unreliable for ante mortem diagnosis of tuberculosis in alpaca. Infection due to M. bovis should be considered among the differential diagnoses of debilitating diseases in alpaca, particularly those farmed in areas known to be traditional black spots for tuberculosis in cattle.
We report a 25-year-old HIV-positive man with a past medical history of disseminated cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, who developed cutaneous lesions during a disseminated mycobacterium infection. The histological changes of CMV and acid-fastbacilli were seen on histopathology of the lesions. Cultures were positive for M. tuberculosis and M. avium-intracellulare (MAI). CMV is frequently isolated from HIV patients, but skin involvement is rare. The association of CMV and mycobacteria can occur in cutaneous lesions of AIDS patients, but concurrent cutaneous involvement of CMV, M. tuberculosis, and MAI is unusual. These findings emphasize the polymorphous presentation of infectious disorders in AIDS patients and the need for multiple biopsies and for special stains in such patients. PMID:9241969
Núñez, M; Miralles, E S; Hilara, Y; Pintado, V; Harto, A; Ledo, A
A 45-year-old HIV-negative man was treated with intravenous etimicin sulphate for an unintentionally found, non-tender neck mass at a local outpatient clinic. His symptoms seemed improved initially. However, the unilateral mass subsequently became enlarged quickly and painful. Spontaneous discharge occurred after admission to our department. The smear of the pus from surgical drainage was positive for acid-fastbacilli and the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed by culture. He was diagnosed with an acute paradoxical reaction (PR) of cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis. Our case was unusual in that acute PR of tuberculosis was caused by receiving single aminoglycoside agent which has not been proven to have therapeutic effect on TB infection and it is also the first case of PR induced by etimicin. The patient recovered well from a 6-month antituberculosis chemotherapy.
Data on non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) infection in non-HIV patients in Tanzania are scarce. However, NTM infections are emerging in Africa as in many parts of the world. Healthcare providers and physicians working in high tuberculosis incidence regions should also consider NTM as one of the differential diagnosis. A 35-year-old Tanzanian man presented with history of cough, fever, chest pain and night sweats for 4 weeks. The patient had a history of tuberculosis 4 years ago. On physical examination, there were no significant findings. Sputum smears were positive for acidfastbacilli, while Xpert MTB/RIF showed negative results. Culture and subsequent differentiation confirmed Mycobacterium intracellulare infection. With no specific national guidelines at our setting the patient received standard antituberculosis treatment and is kept under close follow-up.
Haraka, Fredrick; Rutaihwa, Liliana Kokusanilwa; Battegay, Manuel; Reither, Klaus
We evaluate the performance of the TBcID assay in a panel of 100 acid-fastbacillicultures. Sixty-four isolates were TBcID positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), whereas 36 gave negative results. These included 28 nontuberculous mycobacteria, one nonmycobacterial isolate, one M. tuberculosis, and six M. bovis BCG strains. This corresponds to a sensitivity of 90.14%, specificity of 100%, and positive and negative predictive values of 100% and 80.55%, respectively. The test is rapid, easy to perform and interpret, and does not require sample preparation or instrumentation. However, a negative result does not exclude the presence of a strain belonging to MTBC, especially when mutations in mpb64 gene are present or some M. bovis BCG strains are isolated. The TBcID showed potential to assist in the identification of MTBC when the implementation and usage of molecular methods are often not possible, principally in resource-limited countries. PMID:24587985
Breast tuberculosis is an uncommon form of entity especially in the infra-mammary area. A 25- year-old female, presented with a lump in the breast and infra-mammary area. She was having off and on fever without any other complaints. There was no positive family history. Primary breast tuberculosis was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology wherein ZN stain for acidfastbacilli was positive. The patient received antitubercular drugs and at 3 month follow up the swelling had resolved and the patient was asymptomatic. Breast tuberculosis is a rare disease with non-specific clinical, radiological, and histological findings. Misdiagnosis is common as biopsy specimens are pauci-bacillary and investigations such as microscopy and culture are frequently negative.
We report an unusual case in which a 28-year-old woman presented with a long-standing history of ear discharge, hearing loss, facial weakness with ipsilateral facial swelling and cellulitis, a postauricular fistula, and an abscess of the temporozygomatic, infratemporal, and parotid areas. The pus stained positive for bacteria and acid-fastbacilli, and culture was positive for Proteus vulgaris and mycobacteria. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of tuberculous otitis media with complications was made. Computed tomography showed extensive destruction of the tympanic and mastoid part of the temporal bone, as well as lytic lesions in the skull. The patient was placed on antituberculosis drug therapy. Although her facial nerve palsy and hearing loss persisted, she otherwise responded well and did not require surgery. PMID:23354894
Explores the criminalization of young people's alternative cultural spaces as a strategy of social and cultural control, a defense of mainstream cultural space and its boundaries. Contemporary social control, the emerging political economy of urban life, and the evolving connections of youth, crime, and cultural space are considered. (SLD)
The technical and artistic character of animation made itself close related with the field of cultural education. From two institution of cultural education which were schools and museums, this paper discussed the application of animation technology in the teaching and the transmission of cultural heritage, and illustrated the function of animation technology in the field of cultural education. Theoretical analysis
Cultural conflicts may be derived from using inappropriate language. Appropriate linguistic-pragmatic competence may also be produced by providing various and multicultural backgrounds. Culture and language are linked together naturally, unconsciously, and closely in daily social lives. Culture affects language and language affects culture through…
The paper defines the term "culture shock" and discusses the changes that this state can make in a person's behavior. Culture shock refers to the emotional and physiological reaction of high activation that is brought about by sudden immersion in a new culture. Because one's own culture shields one from the unknown and reduces the need to make…
Recent trends in the understanding of culture contact, with concepts such as hybridization, cosmopolitanism, and cultural innovation, open up the possibility of a new understanding of human interaction. While the social imaginary is rich with images of conflict resulting from culture contact, images of creativity are far rarer. We propose the creation of an extensive research project to document cultural
The culture concept has been severely criticized for its top-down nature in TESOL, leading arguably to its falling out of favor in the field. But what of the fact that people do "live culturally" (Ingold, 1994)? This article describes a case study of culture from the bottom up--culture as understood and enacted by its individual users.…
This is a theoretical study of adolescent maturation within a cultural context. Personality development and disintegration due to the pressure of a dominant culture on a minority culture is considered. An attempt is made to understand how teachers might assist students to work out their psychological growth by story telling. The need for cultural…
The author has written this article as a reflexion on the relation between depression and guilt feelings by comparing her clinical experience-acquired in a western context-to knowledge gained from psychiatric anthropology studies. Manifestations of suffering are different according to different cultural contexts; in the western world the idea of guilt is prevalent, whereas it is somatic troubles and the idea of persecution that are in the foreground in non-western cultures, more particularly in Black Africa and the Maghreb. In the western world melancholy is not only a genuine standard model of depression but is also a cultural fact as witnessed by the numerous references in the literary and pictorial fields. The author asks us to ponder relations between the strength and frequency of guilt feelings on the one hand and the question of the debt and interiority of evil (sin) in the western christian tradition. PMID:8092662
Paranoid Reaction (or bouffée délirante) according to the french classification was the basic psychosis of primitive societies. It corresponds to a need of defense of restructuration or restitution according to a pattern of "misconduction" admitted by the cultural environment. Paranoid reaction, in this respect, offers some relative good pronostic as soon as the goal is reached even if the previous personality remains modified. Paranoid reaction may get closer to hysterical crepuscular states. Some symptoms may also evoke schizophrenias. Evolution toward a lasting psychosis may be considered only in case the process of deculturation/acculturation is already engaged in an irreversible way and the defensive mode presented in the new cultural system shows schizophrenic patterns. Quick transformations and strong cultural pressures, trough that primitive societies are going, might increase dramatically chronic evolution of paranoid reactions. A case has been related to illustrate those considerations. PMID:3448958
This new site from UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) offers the full text of a select collection of works on cultural heritage published by the organization, many of them currently out of print. The content of the Library is divided into two sections: Books and Conventions. At present, the Books section contains eleven titles in English, nine in French, and one in Spanish. A summary, image of the cover, and page total are offered for each book, along with a link to the full text in .pdf format. The Conventions section includes links to the full text of ten conventions in the fields of creativity and copyright and cultural heritage. These are presented in HTML format. These texts are only the initial offering, and UNESCO plans to expand the library based in part on user input.
There is a congruence of hermeneutic method between cultural history and psychoanalysis which includes a recognition of the subjectivity and self-reflexivity of interpretation and of the centrality of emotions in the structuring of historical motivation and action. Psychoanalysis is a humanistic discipline that offers tentative multi-causal conclusions, combining in its method both self-reflection and empiricism, but basing itself on a unique process of inquiry different from either the natural or the cultural sciences. Distinguished shapers of the historian's craft, including Dilthey, Collingwood, and Bloch, used the self as an instrument of research and insight. Freud was a cultural pessimist, as was Burckhardt whom he admired. Leading contemporary American historians, such as Williamson, foreground self-reflection as an acknowledged tool of historical discovery and cognition. The "Bauhaus," 1919-1939, is presented as a case study of creative group process utilizing Winnicott's concepts of transitional space. PMID:19780235
The University of Oregon's arts and administration program is highly regarded, and they also happen to put out a visually compelling broadside for arts and culture workers called "CultureWork." As its mission statement notes, the primary goal of the publication is "to provide timely workplace-oriented information on culture, the arts, education, policy, and community." The first issue appeared back in May 1997, and visitors are invited to view all of the back issues (along with the current one) here at this site. Some of the recent broadsides have included "Canaries in the Coal Mine: Art, Freedom, and Community," "Boomers, XY's and the Making of a Generational Shift in Arts Management," and "Recognizing Artists as Public Intellectuals: A Pedagogical Imperative."
'..only a fool perseveres in error.' Cicero. Humans will break the most advanced technological devices and override safety and security systems if they are given the latitude. Within the workplace, the operator may be just one of several factors in causing accidents or making risky decisions. Other variables considered for their involvement in the negative and often catastrophic outcomes include the organizational context and culture. Many organizations have constructed and implemented safety programs to be assimilated into their culture to assure employee commitment and understanding of the importance of everyday safety. The purpose of this paper is to examine literature on organizational safety cultures and programs that attempt to combat vulnerability, risk taking behavior and decisions and identify the role of training in attempting to mitigate unsafe acts.
An apparatus and process for the culture of algae in a liquid medium is disclosed. The medium circulates through an open trough and is exposed to an atmosphere which is temperature regulated. The nutrient content of the liquid medium is regulated to control the chemical composition growth and reproduction characteristics of the cultured algae. Before it is allowed to strike the medium, sunlight is passed through a filter to remove wavelengths which are not photosynthetically active. Heat energy can be recovered from the filter.
An apparatus and process for the culture of algae in a liquid medium is disclosed. The medium circulates through an open trough and is exposed to an atmosphere which is temperature regulated. The nutrient content of the liquid medium is regulated to control the chemical composition growth and reproduction characteristics of the cultured algae. Before it is allowed to strike the medium, sunlight is passed through a filter to remove wavelengths which are not photosynthetically active. Heat energy can be recovered from the filter.
Some of the major dimensions and subtleties underlying issues of race and culture and the impact these can have on counseling and psychotherapy relationships are explored. The context is British, but many of the issues and concerns are applicable to therapists in other societies. Chapter 1 describes the climate in which the discussion is set, a…
Developed as part of a multicultural research project in the San Diego Community College District, this booklet presents the findings of a 10-member research team about various elements of Mexican-American culture. The areas covered are: (1) historical background on the Mexican heritage of the United States from pre-colonial times to the present…
Examines three strands of elementary mathematics--numerals and counting, recording and calculating, and mathematics exploration and play--and provides ways to integrate culture and mathematics experiences in each area. Specific topics include Egyptian methods for multiplication, the abacus, and the words for the numbers 1-10 in seven different…
This paper sets out an explanation about the nature of learning cultures and how they work. In so doing, it directly addresses some key weaknesses in current situated learning theoretical writing, by working to overcome unhelpful dualisms, such as the individual and the social, and structure and agency. It does this through extensive use of some…
Eight criteria for culturally competent scholarship (contextuality, relevance, communication styles, awareness of identity and power differences, disclosure, reciprocation, empowerment, time) were applied to an international education/research nursing program. Appropriate measures for each were developed and ways to improve the program were…
Nigeria has a rich cultural heritage. Cultural practices include extended family; adequate care for new mothers for 40 days after delivery; prolonged breastfeeding; and respect for elders. Many negative practices exist, most of them affecting the health of children and women. About 90% of babies are delivered by mostly untrained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and healers. Child marriage is a common Nigerian practice. This deprives the girl of education and results in teenage pregnancy. Legislation does not seem to be very effective. It is hoped that will education, girls will be allowed to remain in school until the age of 18. Female circumcision and vaginal mutilation and also common in Nigerian culture. TBAs and healers have stated that there is severe bleeding after circumcision, sometimes so severe that it leads to death. Other harmful delivery practices include bathing in boiling water; gishiri cut, a crude local symphysiotomy; and agurya cut--removal of the hymen loop on 7-day-old females. Bathing in boiling water results in many women being burned or disfigured; gishiri cut has resulted in vesicovaginal fistula in many young girls. Other harmful practices are purging of infants to get rid of impurities "they might have swallowed while in the uterus;" uvulectomy in infants, and induction of postpartum hemorrhage to clear the uterus of impure blood. The list goes on and on. Women and children are exposed to many unhealthy practices in the name of tradition or culture. PMID:12157983
There is certainly an accumulation of evidence indicating that hardiness is a key to transforming stressful circumstances from potential disasters into growth opportunities instead. As to the emerging question of whether there are demographic and cultural differences in the role of hardiness, there are only a few relevant findings at this time. Although these available findings suggest little or no
First and second graders can understand that the African continent is made up of many countries and cultures, especially when teachers have maps, picture books, photographs, and artifacts on hand for them to explore. It is important for young students to develop an understanding of maps and how to use them. This article offers suggestions for…
The 20 articles in this volume provide varying perspectives on the concepts of multiculturalism, multiethnicity, and global literacy and how to correct art curricula to include the diversity. The development and application of viable multiethnic curricula is a function of the interrelationship of pedagogy and social-cultural realities. The…
When we examine the cultural characteristics that influence mental disorders and related behavior among the Chinese, no major differences are found between Chinese and other groups in the range of disorders or in overall prevalence. Several cultural factors influence the recognition and treatment of mental illness, among which are attitudes toward emotional display, somatic as opposed to psychogenic disorders and features of the traditional medical belief system in Chinese culture. The Chinese have a relatively favorable prognosis of schizophrenia, low rates of depressive illness, a strong tendency towards somatization and the presence of several unique culture-bound syndromes. From studying Chinese in Vancouver, it was found that they have a characteristic way of dealing with mental illness in the family, in that there is first a protracted period of intrafamilial coping with serious psychiatric illness, followed by recourse to friends, elders and neighbors in the community; third, consultation with traditional specialists, religious healers or general physicians; fourth, outpatient or inpatient treatment from specialists, and, finally, a process of rejection and scapegoating of the patient. The efficacy of Western psychiatric treatment of Chinese patients has yet to be objectively assessed.
This document is designed for readers who have an interest in developing cultural community partnerships but who may not have an in-depth understanding of the concept or process. It provides a focus for partnership and joint venture discussions within agencies, community organizations or communities at large. Seven public library community…
Wong, Patricia M.; Francisco, Grace; Keller, Shelly G.
The world increasingly asks 'how do I benefit?' as opposed to 'how can I contribute?'. In an age of consumerism and the 'me' culture how can an ethos of community contribution flourish. As the SIG sees' it's numbers stable but it's student numbers converting to professional memberships decline, how can we stem the tide. It's time to think differently about
This article is about gun culture in Kumasi today. Gun use in Asante, and elsewhere in Ghana, has increased significantly in the last decade. In practice and in the public imagination this is associated with the rise of youth gangs and the criminalization of urban space. Much has been written about youths and violence elsewhere in Africa, but this article
Examines the values of the concepts of symbol, language, ideology, belief, ritual, and myth in understanding the creation of new cultures and in unraveling the related processes by which entrepreneurs give energy, purpose, and commitment to the organizations they are bringing into being. (Author/IRT)
Over the past three decades, the K-12 student population in the United States has become ethnically and linguistically diverse. Not so with the vast majority of teachers, who are generally white, middle class, and monolingual English speaking. Successfully teaching students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds requires a new way…
A tissue culture experiment that does not require elaborate equipment and that can be used to teach sterile technique, the principles of animal cell line maintenance, and the concept of cell growth curves is described. The differences between cancerous and normal cells can be highlighted. The procedure is included. (KR)
More and more research is focusing on the importance of a healthy work environment and its impact on workers' well-being and productivity. A culture of collaboration has been shown to have an important impact on school-reform efforts and is recognized by several authors as an effective platform for progress within an organization. A collaborative…
This article first reviews claims for the knowledge economy in terms of excludability, rivalry, and transparency indicating the way that digital goods behave differently from other commodities. In the second section it discusses the theory of "public knowledge cultures" starting from the primacy of practice based on Marx, Wittgenstein and…
Those who study and propose policy for dealing with the non-Western world are advised to balance their urge to modernize with an appreciation for indigenous social and cultural differences. Equilibrium is important, writes Stanley Kurd, yet the leftists who dominate social sciences have largely abandoned such an appreciation, as have…
Forces in industrial societies have caused modern humans to lose their sense of place in the natural order. A cultural conscience is necessary if people hope to survive. Changes in public attitudes toward work, agriculture, science and technology, self-sufficiency, global interdependence, and education are needed. (AM)
Ernest Everett Just Middle School, located in Mitchellville, Maryland, has a student population that is almost homogenous. In fact, 98% of the students are Black. As a veteran principal, the author's greatest fear has been not being able to provide students with a broad spectrum of ethnic, cultural, and religious experiences--experiences that they…
The purpose of this essay is to consider some of the practical implications of Martin Heideger's view that "Language is the house of Being," for the academic study of cultural transformation and intercultural communication. The paper describes the ontological basis of Heidegger's work, and the inquiry into Being, and contains sections on "Speaking…
The genre of fairytales, one structured form of storytelling, has been labeled "Marchen." German culture is orally transmitted in this generic form, and can be traced to a collection of 210 fairytales, the Grimm brothers'"Kinder-und Taus-Marchen," first published shortly after 1800. For this study, research questions were posed relating to…
This book focuses on the micro-political implications of the work of Gilles Deleuze (and Felix Guattari). General philosophical articles are coupled to more specific analyses of films (such as Fight Club and Schindler's List) and other expressions of contemporary culture. The choice of giving specific attention to the analyses of images and sounds is not only related to the fact
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a holistic understanding of quality in higher education which reveals the current debates about accreditation or quality process standards as insufficient, and to propose an enhanced model for quality culture in educational organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The conceptual framework is…
This collection of articles includes: "Implementing Discourse Analysis for Intermediate and Advanced Language Learners" (Maria Palmira Massi); "A Comparison of Front-Page News in Japanese and British Quality Press Newspapers: Cultural Differences Reflected in the Press" (Christopher Bond); "Have You Ever Heard of Ogino Ginko? Japanese Women in…
This document consists of three papers presented at a symposium on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD) moderated by Connie Fletcher at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Intercultural Adjustment of U.S. Expatriates in the People's Republic of China" (Hallett G. Hullinger, Robert E. Nolan) presents…
The experiments described are aimed at exploring PTH regulation of production of collagenase and protein inhibitors of collagenase (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases, TIMP-1 and -2) by osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells under conditions of weightlessness. The results of this work will contribute to information as to whether a microgravity environment alters the functions and responsiveness of the osteoblast. The objectives of the Bone Culture Research (BCR) experiment are: to observe the effects of microgravity on the morphology, rate of proliferation, and behavior of the osteoblastic cells, UMR 106-01; to determine whether microgravy affects the hormonal sensitivity of osteroblastic cells; and to measure the secretion of collagenase and its inhibitors into the medium under conditions of microgravity. The methods employed will consist of the following: the osteoblast-like cells, UMR-106-01, will be cultured in four NASDA cell culture chambers; two chambers will be subjected to microgravity on SL-J; two chambers will remain on the ground at KSC as ground controls but subjected to an identical set of culture conditions as on the shuttle; media will be changed four times; twice the cells will receive the hormone parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and media collected; cells will be photographed under conditions of microgravity; and media and photographs will be analyzed upon return to determine whether functions of the cells changed.
This dictionary is an encyclopedic survey of the cultural background and development of the black American, covering the basic issues, events, contributions and biographies germane to the subject. The author-compiler is Chairman of Classical Languages Department at Southeastern State College, Durant, Oklahoma. Richard Runes is practicing law as a…
Based at the University of California, Berkeley, the Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative (ECAI) is a "global consortium of people who share the vision of creating a distributed virtual library of cultural information with a time and place interface." While visitors can elect to read about the technical aspects of working on such ambitious efforts, many will want to look at the "Cultural Atlas Portal" to get a start on things. Visitors will find that the Portal contains an interactive map of the world which can be used to look for materials from Australia to North America. These cultural atlases include projects like "The Salem Witch Trials Documentary Archive and Transcription Project" and "Mapping St. Petersburg". After looking over a few of these projects, visitors may wish to click on the "Community" area. Here they can learn how to contribute their own projects to ECAI or how to work with partner institutions to create a new piece of work, visitors can also find out about ongoing projects around the globe.
Designed to be used as complementary instructional material for American students as well as second-generation Iranians in America, this work presents a collection of material for teaching Persian language and culture. Research and analysis of some relevant linguistic issues, interactive methodology of language teaching and acquisition, and models…
These five papers are from a symposium that was facilitated by David C. Bjorkquist on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD) at the 1995 Academy of Human Resource Development conference. "Developing Managers for Overseas Assignments in the Pacific Rim: A Study of International HRD Issues in Singapore" (A. Ahad M. Osman-Gani, Thian-Ser…
Grade 3 Standard2 Objective 1 Objective: Students will learn to identify elements of cultures in the seven different continents. Assignment: You have just been hired to be a travel agent. Your first customer wants to take a trip around a continent. To be a good travel agent ...
Describes an undergraduate interdisciplinary program at Cornell University (New York) in the history and philosophy of science and technology. Serving as a meeting ground for the two cultures of science and the humanities, the concentration encourages students to examine the nature and place of science and technology in the modern world. (LS)
WRT 302: Writing Culture is an upper-level elective in the Department of Writing and Rhetoric at the University of Rhode Island (URI). As part of a group of four 300-level courses, Writing 302 draws many junior and senior majors in Writing and Rhetoric, English, and other majors who are looking to add creativity and experience with design to their…
Before proceeding to a discussion of the experiments upon cold-blooded animals, it is necessary to review briefly some of the work recently done with the bacillus of leprosy. The appearance of the bacillus in man and its behavior under artificial cultivation, and in the tissues of lower animals, should be considered in order that comparisons may be drawn. In their studies with the organism under cultivation, Duval and Gurd pointed out that the long, slender, and beaded appearance of the leprosy bacillus described by Hansen, in 1872, is lost when removed for several generations from the parent stem, and under artificial cultivation the organism becomes unbeaded, short, and coccoid. Duval also noted that these changes in morphology were always followed by rapid multiplication of the organism. Duval argues, a priori, that the bacillus is not in a favorable environment in the human tissues. If these deductions are correct, the morphology of the leprosy bacillus should vary according to the resistance offered by the tissues of different animals. The resistance of the human host to the leprosy bacillus becomes more evident in the light of the clinical aspect of the disease. The long period of incubation, the duration of the disease, and the disappearance of the bacilli preceding the healing of the infected foci show that the resistance offered to the bacillus by the human tissues is not to be overestimated. This opinion is confirmed when the behavior of the leprosy bacillus under cultivation and in the tissues of various mammals is compared. When cats, rabbits, bats, guinea pigs, and rats are inoculated either below the skin or into the peritoneal cavity with large quantities of Bacillus lepræ, a slight local reaction follows within twenty-four to forty-eight hours, but no definite lesions are produced and the bacilli soon disappear. The resistance of some animals to Bacillus lepræ is well illustrated by two cats which were inoculated subcutaneously and intraperitoneally with a heavy suspension of Bacillus lepræ. These animals were killed and examined three days later, but the bacilli were not demonstrable from the regions about the sites of inoculation. Pigeons are likewise refractory. It is impossible to cause a local reaction in these birds, and the injected bacilli disappear rapidly. Hence, probably no multiplication takes place in them. Goats, young pigs, and white and dancing mice are in a degree susceptible to injections, and though undoubted lesions are produced, and multiplication of the bacilli occurs, the lesions and bacilli disappear after a limited time. Acid-fastbacilli which are recovered from the lesions are long, slim, and beaded, though the organisms used in the inoculations were short, unbeaded, and coccoid. Monkeys inoculated with cultures of the short unbeaded forms react promptly. The lesions resulting, though confined in most instances to the site of inoculation, occasionally appear at distant points. The number of bacilli present in the nodules and their arrangement within typical lepra cells show that multiplication has taken place. The organism has, however, changed from the short coccoid form to the long, slender, beaded form. Though the lesions induced and the bacilli present are in every way similar to those found in man, their tendency to disappear gradually after a quiescent stage clearly denotes that the tissues of the monkey, although less refractory than the tissues of the animals previously mentioned, still offer resistance to invasion. While mammals react but poorly to inoculations of the leprosy bacillus, this reaction manifests itself in various ways in different species. For example, while multiplication of the organism with the production of lesions occurs in some species, in others that are more refractory, the injected bacilli assume the involuted or beaded forms and do not multiply or produce lesions; in others, still more resistant to the action of the leprosy bacillus, the organisms quickly undergo granular metamorphosis and disappear. Furthermore, in some species th
The association between urolithiasis and growth of bacteria in the urine or urolith has not been recently evaluated in the past 15 years, and the effects of antimicrobial administration on urolith cultures have not been reported. As well, laboratory techniques for urolith cultures have not been critically evaluated. The objectives of the current study were to 1) report bacterial isolates from uroliths and their association with signalment, urolith composition, antimicrobial use, and urine cultures and 2) evaluate laboratory techniques for urolith cultures. For the first objective, a retrospective search of bacterial isolates cultured from uroliths submitted to the laboratory as well as the signalment, urine culture results, and antimicrobial use were recorded. For the second objective, 50 urolith pairs were cultured by washing each urolith either 1or 4 times and culturing the core. Five hundred twenty canine and 168 feline uroliths were reviewed. Struvite-containing uroliths had an increased prevalence of a positive culture compared to nonstruvite-containing uroliths (P < 0.0001, odds ratio [OR] = 5.4), as did uroliths from female dogs (P < 0.0001, OR = 2.9). No significant difference between culture results and previous antimicrobial administration was found (P = 0.41). Eighteen percent of cases with negative urine cultures had positive urolith cultures. There was no significant difference in core culture results whether the urolith was washed 1 or 4 times (P = 0.07). Urolith culture outcome was not always influenced by previous antimicrobial administration, and bacterial culture of a urolith may not yield the same results as those obtained from the urine. The modified protocol, which requires less time and expense for urolith cultures, may be an acceptable alternative. PMID:23404481
Perry, Leigh A; Kass, Philip H; Johnson, Dee L; Ruby, Annette L; Shiraki, Ryoji; Westropp, Jodi L
An understanding of culture in organisations can offer insights into individual and group behaviour, and leadership. It can help to explain not just what happens in an organisation, but why it happens. However, many people are concerned not just with understanding culture, and hence organisational life. They see culture as something to be…
National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006
Many software applications marketed outside the country of origin are internationalised and\\/or localised. In this article, I propose a strategy to localise the software by creating Cultural User Interface a (CUI) for each of the target cultures. A CUI is a user interface that is intuitive to a particular culture. The CUI takes advantage of the shared or common knowledge
Discusses an investigation into the process of intercultural learning in an international school. Reports that cultural dissonance among students, between students and teachers, and in relation to the school culture, seemed to be the catalyst by which intercultural learning took place. Describes Hofstede's study of national cultural dimensions in…
Discusses the importance of teaching foreign languages through culture and culture through language study. Addresses how the textbooks used to study English by Russian students must focus more on the needs of Russian students. Summarizes the findings from a survey demonstrating that Russian students' knowledge of U.S. culture originates from…
Using a three-part theoretical framework, the cultural relevance cycle--which consists of (a) knowing community dynamics, (b) knowing how community dynamics influence educational processes, and (c) implementing strategies that reflect cultural knowledge of the community--we examined teachers' and students' perspectives on culturally relevant…
"Exploring Cultural Diversity" and "Out of the Comfort Zone" are companion articles written from a professor's and student's perspective about experiences in transcultural nursing. The nursing professor describes the planning and implementation phases of the program, and the student describes the life-changing experiences and impressions which occurred. The theory portion of the program takes place at the university in the semester prior to the clinical segment, and the experiential component of the course includes traveling to, living, and practicing within a developing country. A journey to the Dominican Republic in 1994 is recounted. Together the articles emphasize the need for increasing global understanding of the relationship of culture to health in order to promote high level wellness for all the citizens of this planet. PMID:9287597
Started in 2002, the Visualizing Cultures website is produced by MIT, and it was designed "to explore the potential of the Web for developing innovative image-driven scholarship and learning." The site contains topical units of self-discovery which are focused on Japan's role in the modern world and early-modern China. The various units address cultures of modernization, war and peace, and consumerism, among others. Each unit is represented by a different image, and visitors will find a short narrative essay along with plenty of visual images which document teach topic. One unit that should not be missed is "Felice Beato's Japan". Here visitors can learn about the pioneering work of Felice Beato, as he took photos of the "exotic" Japanese people in his Yokohama studio and captured the transitional period between the "feudal governance of the Edo period (1600-1868) and the imperial rule of the Meiji era (1868-1912)."
This review describes the relationships and links between culture collections, which act as sources of genomes, transcriptomes, proteome, and metabolomes, and fields of research biochemistry that demand their support and help. In addition, the invaluable but not always rewarded efforts of these organizations as a source and conservator of organism diversity is discussed. Biological waste-water treatment, ethanol as a non-finite source of energy, Rhodococcus fascians as the source of a citrus-juice debittering agent, the sporulation of filamentous fungi in liquid medium, and biotransformation with growing and resting cells are processes developed by the authors that demonstrate some of the applications of organisms from culture collections in the general field of biotechnology and related areas, including industrial biochemistry and biocatalytic synthesis. PMID:12739105
Sponsored by Northeastern State University in Oklahoma, the Southwest Journal of Cultures is an online scholarly book review venue that is intended to bring academics and others book reviews from the field of culture studies. The Journal was first published in September 2008, and its editors have managed to cover a broad range of topics in a short time. Visitors can scroll through the most recent reviews, some of which include critical appraisals of works like "Chinese Street Opera in Singapore" and "Spare Time in Texas: Recreation and History in the Lone Star State". Visitors are welcome to leave their own comments on each review, and they can also look through the online archive. Those interested in starting their own like-minded project would do well to spend sometime navigating this well-thought out site.
The paintings in Ancestry: Religion, Death and Culture document the native culture of Central Appalachia. The work portrays a sense of place and character, as well as spiritual conviction, all reinforced by a repetition of visual imagery.
From the social sciences, we know the space between life and death is historically and culturally constructed, fluid and open to dispute. The definition of death has cultural, legal, and political dimensions. As healthcare becomes more culturally diverse, the interface between culture and the delivery of healthcare will increase. In our increasingly pluralistic, interdependent society, there is a growing demand to integrate healthcare, including transplantation, into a broader context that respects both individual and cultural diversity. It is important that we first consider and explore what elements of Western healthcare practices including definitions and advances, such as brain death and organ donation, are culturally influenced. This article highlights some of the cultural influences on brain death by focusing on Western and Japanese perspectives on the permissibility of organ procurement from brain-dead persons. It also offers 4 recommendations for healthcare workers working cross-culturally. PMID:14558636
A number of synthetic and natural materials have been tried in cell culture and tissue engineering applications in recent years. Now Jeffrey Perkel takes a look at one new culture component that might surprise you-spider silk. PMID:24924388
Reprints of two Harvard Educational Review articles from 1970, "The Adult Literacy Process in Cultural Action for Freedom" and "Cultural Action and Conscientization," highlight the importance of education to human rights. (SK)
This lesson explains the technique of tissue culture as used in plant transformation. It discusses important issues, such as the use of selectable markers, genotype specificity, and tissue culture alternatives.
Suggests that the F.C.C. should amend its Policy Statement on Programing to differentiate cultural programing from other entertainment, and offers proposals for effecting cultural programing improvements. (MH)
Maintains that child care teachers can help remedy cultural tunnel vision by promoting cultural diversity and understanding as they work with children and communicate with parents about what they are doing. (BB)
Attempts to simulate normal tissue micro-environments in vitro have been thwarted by the complexity and plasticity of the extracellular matrix, which is important in regulating cytoskeletal and nuclear matrix proteins. Gravity is one of the problems, tending to separate components that should be kept together. For space shuttle experiments, NASA engineers devised a double-walled rotating bioreactor, which is proving to be a useful tissue culture device on earth as well as in space.
Pellis, Neal R.; Duray, Paul H.; Hatfill, Steven J.
This interesting and visually appealing site links to a variety of resources related to the visual arts, performing arts, design, literature, music, and film. From the main page, visitors can access the Arts or Culture sections or go directly to a number of Arts entries (e.g., literary theory, industrial design, jazz, photography, etc.) listed in six categories: Design Art, Film, Literature, Music, Performing Arts, and Visual Arts. In the main Arts sections, users can browse these same categories or perform a keyword search for artists or movements. For instance, a search for "dada" resulted in initial returns under design, theater, and art. The full listing under art included a brief description of the Dada movement, a few annotated links, and links to related artists and keywords. It also offered a "Cloud" of moving terms and artists that represent the "context of an artist or a movement." Clicking on any of the words brings that word to the center and also displays the respective entry from the index. The Culture section of the site is somewhat different and most definitely the weaker of the two, with links to travel, food, sports, festivals, and other cultural information, organized by region. The section also offers some world cams and a feature on visual culture, though the latter was not working at time of review. Note: Mac users should heed the site's warning to update their Flash and Shockwave plug-ins if need be, as the site may crash their browser if they don't have the most current versions.
The interplay of culture and self has been one of the most active areas of research in self and identity. It has provided\\u000a a number of theoretical concepts and research methodologies that have advanced the psychological understanding about self\\u000a processes. This paper provides a concise review of the field’s underlying assumptions, and points to its contemporary issues\\u000a and future directions.
This review describes the relationships and links between culture collections, which act as sources of genomes, transcriptomes,\\u000a proteome, and metabolomes, and fields of research biochemistry that demand their support and help. In addition, the invaluable\\u000a but not always rewarded efforts of these organizations as a source and conservator of organism diversity is discussed. Biological\\u000a waste-water treatment, ethanol as a non-finite
This article introduces the idea of cultural reinvention for cultural textile products. Fundamentally, the term ‘cultural products’ consists of culture and product. Culture means a symbol of a particular time and society. Cultural products can be thought of as artefacts produced by and for a specific cultural group. However, commercial needs and desires may and often do mean that although
The Hmong people came to the United States as refugees after the Vietnam War, and they were mainly resettled in California, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. The Hmong Cultural Center was established in St. Paul, Minnesota in 1992, and their website has a wealth of resources "that enhance cross-cultural awareness and understanding between Hmong and non-Hmong persons." Visitors in the healthcare field will find value in one such resource, "View the Hmong History and Culture Presentation for Healthcare Providers", which can be found on the menu on the left-hand side of the page. Visitors will learn that some Hmong beliefs about the body conflict with Western medicine, such as the belief that drawing blood may weaken the physical body and that surgery may hinder reincarnation or allow evil spirits to enter the body. Visitors interested in doing research on the Hmong people should click on the "Research Data and Publications" link to find a "Hmong Studies Journal", "Tutorial on How to Access Hmong Census Data", and "Hmong Studies Research Bibliographies".
What can science do for us? Perhaps a better question is what can science not do for us? These are but a few questions posed by the NPR blog, "Cosmos and Culture". The contributors to the blog include a range of scientists, including a theoretical physicist, a biologist, and an astrophysicist. The goal of the blog is "to engage in a discussion with each other'and you'about how science has shaped culture and how culture has shaped science." Visitors should go ahead and read the daily post on the site, and they can also search through past blog posts and learn more about each contributor. Another way to get started here is by clicking on the "Most Popular" blog postings, which have included "How Rare is Life?" and "Hawking and God: An Intimate Relationship". Overall, it is a thoughtful and meaningful way to engage in a dialogue about some of the most crucial issues of our day, and it is well worth a look.
This study assessed the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of pathogens associated with bloodstream infections in Canadian hospitals between 2007 and 2009. Tertiary-care medical centers representing 8 of 10 Canadian provinces submitted bloodstream infection pathogens from patients attending hospital clinics, emergency rooms, medical/surgical wards, and intensive care units. Over 8,000 blood culture pathogens were collected. The 10 most common pathogens (representing 80.9% of all isolates) were Escherichia coli (1856 [22.6%]), Staphylococcus aureus (1457 [17.7%] including 1101 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and 356 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), coagulase-negative staphylococci (907 [11.0%]), Klebsiella pneumoniae (600 [7.3%]), Streptococcus pneumoniae (470 [5.7%]), Enterococcus faecalis (360 [4.4%]), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (333 [4.0%]), viridans group streptococci (321 [3.9%]), Enterobacter cloacae (193 [2.3%]), and Streptococcus pyogenes (159 [1.9%]). The most active agents against Gram-negative bacilli were carbapenems (e.g., meropenem and ertapenem) and piperacillin-tazobactam, while for Gram-positive cocci, they were vancomycin, linezolid, and daptomycin. PMID:21353958
Adam, Heather J; DeCorby, Melanie; Rennie, Robert; Karlowsky, James A; Hoban, Daryl J; Zhanel, George G
In a multimethod evaluation of cross-cultural training tools involving 102 exchange students at a midwestern university, a theory-based individualism and collectivism assimilator tool had significant advantages over culture-specific and culture-general assimilators and a control condition. Results support theory-based culture assimilators. (SLD)
Cultures influence individual identities and cognitive schema that influence the way help is sought and how the inner world of the individual is explored. Help-seeking and sources for help are identified through cultural explanations and expectations. Traditional ego-based psychotherapy may not work with various ethnic and cultural groups. Here, we highlight some of the factors that clinicians must be aware
There is little in-depth research that can assist designers to use culture as a catalyst for designing innovative products within Botswana's context. The concept of culture and design are intertwined, thus modifications stemming from cultural evolution both reflect and determine developments in design. The paper discusses an experimental design…
Moalosi, Richie; Popovic, Vesna; Hickling-Hudson, Anne
A culture is usually with the bias of universalization. Each culture has its ultimate concern, and its answers to the concern make up a worldview. And each culture is inclined to see its worldview as universal. The Christian thinks that Jehovah God is the creator and law-maker of the whole universe; Chinese think that the sage's teaching sheds…
Current Swedish cultural policy was laid down in 1974. It was decided that one of the aims of that policy must be to ensure that earlier periods of history would be preserved and brought to life. The Government Bill (Prop. 1987/88:104) on protection of the cultural environment is concerned with helping the general public understand that cultural…
Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs, Stockholm (Sweden).
Prague's main feature is that, out of many cultural treasures, it preserved its architectural culture and put it to practical use to present day. Particularly Prague has embraced a wealth of architectural styles from many ages. From the Romanesque, the Gothic culture of Czech's pinnacle age, Baroque, Neo Classicism, the Art Nouveau style buildings that concentrated in Prague at the
Technology is a form of cultural expression, formed of and forming culture. A paradox about technological innovation is that, in addition to creating new human arrangements and possibilities, it often serves only to reinforce existing sociocultural practices, norms, and values. The technologically radical is often the culturally conservative. Conceptive technology has contributed toward the redefinition of patienthood, the multiplication of
We assess explanations for the associations between cultural capital (especially cultural activities and cultural possessions) and educational performance of schooled adolescents in 22 Western industrialized countries based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). We further ascertain variations in the effect of…
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the common assumption that teachers of color (TOC) are more culturally competent than White teachers by assessing physical education teachers' cultural competency. A secondary purpose was to ascertain the possible differences in cultural competence levels of White teachers in diverse school settings versus…
Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Carson, Russell L.; Burden, Joe, Jr.
This discussion examines some of the major issues and attributes of culturally responsive teaching. It begins with explaining my views of culturally responsive teaching and how I incorporate cultural responsiveness in my writing to teach readers what it means. These general conceptual frameworks are followed by a discussion of some specific…
Culture is the social and intergenerational glue that defines, connects, sustains, and enriches the members of successful communities--including schools and classrooms. A classroom culture is a psychological atmosphere that nurtures and shapes students' attitudes about their own identity, classes, school, and learning in general. Classroom culture…
One of the hallmarks of the human species is our capacity for cumulative culture, in which beneficial knowledge and technology is accumulated over successive generations. Yet previous analyses of cumulative cultural change have failed to consider the possibility that as cultural complexity accumulates, it becomes increasingly costly for each new generation to acquire from the previous generation. In principle this may result in an upper limit on the cultural complexity that can be accumulated, at which point accumulated knowledge is so costly and time-consuming to acquire that further innovation is not possible. In this paper I first review existing empirical analyses of the history of science and technology that support the possibility that cultural acquisition costs may constrain cumulative cultural evolution. I then present macroscopic and individual-based models of cumulative cultural evolution that explore the consequences of this assumption of variable cultural acquisition costs, showing that making acquisition costs vary with cultural complexity causes the latter to reach an upper limit above which no further innovation can occur. These models further explore the consequences of different cultural transmission rules (directly biased, indirectly biased and unbiased transmission), population size, and cultural innovations that themselves reduce innovation or acquisition costs.
This paper explores whether we can interpret the notion of 'forensic culture' as something akin to what Knorr-Cetina called an 'epistemic culture'. Can we speak of a 'forensic culture', and, if so, how is it similar to, or different from, other epistemic cultures that exist in what is conventionally called 'science'? This question has important policy implications given the National Academy Science's (NAS) recent identification of 'culture' as one of the problems at the root of what it identified as 'serious deficiencies' in U.S. forensic science and 'scientific culture' as an antidote to those problems. Finding the NAS's characterisation of 'scientific culture' overly general and naïve, this paper offers a preliminary exploration of what might be called a 'forensic culture'. Specifically, the paper explores the way in which few of the empirical findings accumulated by sociologists of science about research science seem to apply to forensic science. Instead, forensic science seems to have developed a distinct culture for which a sociological analysis will require new explanatory tools. Faithful sociological analysis of 'forensic culture' will be a necessary prerequisite for the kind of culture change prescribed by external reformist bodies like the NAS. PMID:23021588
Debates in development theory have recently swung back to taking seriously the relationship of culture to development, especially in the face of manifest failures of conventional approaches to economic growth and social transformation. This has happened at a moment when, especially within anthropology, the concept of culture itself is undergoing critical examination, and when cultural studies has emerged as a
The cultural consensus model is a method that is used by anthropologists to study intracultural variance, intercultural differences and cultural consonance across a variety of contexts. In order to provide academic scholars who study consumer, organizational and national culture with an additional tool that could be used to triangulate on ethnographic conclusions, this paper reviews the conceptual and methodological foundations
Culture has been theorized as pedagogy. In several languages and many contexts "culture" and "education" can be used interchangeably. This issue of the journal "Educational Philosophy and Theory" seeks to explore the dual proposition (1) that pedagogy is central to politicized cultural theory, but (2) that it has been…
A graduate course on cultural diversity, based in constructivist theory and structured on the Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services model, was developed and taught through classroom and online methods. The following research questions were explored: 1) Can an educational experience, built on constructivist learning theory tenets, change students' perceptions, attitudes, knowledge, and skills in the area of cultural competence? 2) Does the delivery method, online or traditional classroom, influence the degree of change? The study used a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest control group design using the Inventory for Assessing the Process of Cultural Competence Among healthcare Professionals Revised. Findings showed significant changes (p<0.001) in cultural competence scores and subscores for all learners with both teaching modalities based on interval scale and in categories of cultural knowledge, skills, desire, and overall competence based on a nominal scale. The untaught construct of cultural desire showed the most significant improvement. PMID:20143755
The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed.
Chiao, Joan Y.; Cheon, Bobby K.; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.
There is wide belief that organisational culture shapes many aspects of performance, including safety. Yet proof of this relationship in a medical context is hard to find. In contrast to human factors, whose contributions are many and notable, culture's impact remains a commonsense, rather than a scientific, concept. The objectives of this paper are to show that organisational culture bears a predictive relationship with safety and that particular kinds of organisational culture improve safety, and to develop a typology predictive of safety performance. Because information flow is both influential and also indicative of other aspects of culture, it can be used to predict how organisations or parts of them will behave when signs of trouble arise. From case studies and some systematic research it appears that information culture is indeed associated with error reporting and with performance, including safety. Yet this relationship between culture and safety requires more exploration before the connection can be considered definitive.
Cultural competency is defined as the ability to effectively interact with people from diverse cultures and recognize the importance of cultural differences. These skills will be increasingly important for environmental engineers who work on teams with professionals from diverse backgrounds and design solutions to global problems. For example, these skills are particularly important when engaging in projects for Engineers Without Borders (EWB) and similar organizations. In order to evaluate if curriculum help develop these skills in students, an assessment instrument is needed. A wide variety of such surveys have been developed and validated, although generally for settings outside engineering academia. In this research, the Miville-Guzman Universality-Diversity Scale short form (MGUDS-S) was used. It is a written 15 question survey with responses on a 6-point Likert scale. It evaluates universal-diverse orientation (UDO) and has been most widely used in medical school settings. The overall UDO score is composed of three subscales: diversity of contact, relativistic appreciation, and discomfort with differences. The author also added four of the Pittsburgh Freshman Engineering Attitudes Survey (PFEAS) questions and eight self-created questions to the survey, in addition to five demographic questions. The self-created questions were specific to engineering. This survey was administered in three freshmen courses (environmental, civil, and undeclared engineering) and two senior design courses (environmental and civil engineering) in fall 2006. Four of the eight self-created questions were modified and two additional demographic questions were added prior to administering the survey in two freshmen courses (environmental and civil engineering) and an Engineering for the Developing World course for seniors and graduate students in fall 2007. The results from the survey and evaluation of its usefulness are presented.
A fraction of the ultrafilterable portion of chick embryo extract was isolated by alcohol extraction of a lyophilized powder of the ultrafiltrate followed by ion exchange removal of many of the inert components of the alcohol extract. This fraction contained 3 per cent of the ultrafilterable nitrogen but was capable of completely restoring the growth-promoting activity of dialyzed embryo extract, when tested with chick heart fibroblasts in roller tube cultures. The low nitrogen content, shape of the ultraviolet absorption spectrum, and presence of few free amino acids, suggest that non-dialyzable compounds serve as the chief source of nutrition for this system.
Background Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious, granulomatous disease caused by acid-fastbacilli of the genus Mycobacterium. The disease affects practically all species of vertebrates. Although mammalian tuberculosis has been nearly controlled in many developed countries, it is still a serious problem in humans and domestic animals including pigs in developing countries. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of TB in pigs is not known. Therefore, this study was designed to estimate the prevalence of TB in pigs in central Ethiopia and to characterize the causative agents using molecular techniques. Results The estimated prevalence of TB was 5.8% (49/841). Age and origin of pigs were significantly associated (P<0.001) with the prevalence. In contrast, an association of sex, floor type and water source with the prevalence could not be shown. Culture positivity was confirmed in 30.6% (15/49) of the tuberculous-like lesions. Of the 15 isolates, 12 were acidfast positive while five of the latter were confirmed by multiplex PCR as members of the M. tuberculosis complex. Speciation of the five isolates further confirmed that they were M. tuberculosis, belonging to SIT1088 (two isolates) and SIT1195 (one isolate). The remaining two isolates belong to an identical spoligotype, the pattern of which was not found in the spoligotype database (SpolDB4). Conclusions The isolation of M. tuberculosis from pigs suggests a possible risk of transmission between humans and pigs. Hence, establishing feasible control methods is required.
Background In vitro culture of pathogens on growth media forms a "pillar" for both infectious disease diagnosis and drug sensitivity profiling. Conventional cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) on Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium, however, take over two months to yield observable growth, thereby delaying diagnosis and appropriate intervention. Since DNA duplication during interphase precedes microbial division, "para-DNA synthesis assays" could be used to predict impending microbial growth. Mycobacterial thymidylate kinase (TMKmyc) is a phosphotransferase critical for the synthesis of the thymidine triphosphate precursor necessary for M.tb DNA synthesis. Assays based on high-affinity detection of secretory TMKmyc levels in culture using specific antibodies are considered. The aim of this study was to define algorithms for predicting positive TB cultures using antibody-based assays of TMKmyc levels in vitro. Methods and results Systems and chemical biology were used to derive parallel correlation of "M.tb growth curves" with "TMKmyc curves" theoretically in four different scenarios, showing that changes in TMKmyc levels in culture would in each case be predictive of M.tb growth through a simple quadratic curvature, |tmk| = at2+ bt + c, consistent with the "S" pattern of microbial growth curves. Two drug resistance profiling scenarios are offered: isoniazid (INH) resistance and sensitivity. In the INH resistance scenario, it is shown that despite the presence of optimal doses of INH in LJ to stop M.tb proliferation, bacilli grow and the resulting phenotypic growth changes in colonies/units are predictable through the TMKmyc assay. According to our current model, the areas under TMKmyc curves (AUC, calculated as the integral ?(at2+ bt + c)dt or ~1/3 at3+ 1/2 bt2+ct) could directly reveal the extent of prevailing drug resistance and thereby aid decisions about the usefulness of a resisted drug in devising "salvage combinations" within resource-limited settings, where second line TB chemotherapy options are limited. Conclusion TMKmyc assays may be useful for reducing the time-lines to positive identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) cultures, thereby accelerating disease diagnosis and drug resistance profiling. Incorporating "chemiluminiscent or fluorescent" strategies may enable "photo-detection of TMKmyc changes" and hence automation of the entire assay.
BACKGROUND: Relapse of tuberculosis (TB) may develop as the result of reactivation of the endogenous primary infection, or as a result of a exogenous reinfection. This survey evaluated the rate of reactivation versus recent transmission among Iranian and Afghan relapse cases. METHODS: The sputum specimens were digested, examined microscopically for acid-fastbacilli, and inoculated into Löwenstein-Jensen slants by standard procedures.
Parissa-Farnia; Mohammad Reza Masjedi; Mohammad Varahram; Mehdi Mirsaeidi; Mojtaba Ahmadi; Mehdi Khazampour; Payam Tabarsi; Parvaneh Baghei; Mojtaba Marjane; Muslam Bahadori; Abolhasan Zia Zarifi; Ali Akbar Velayati
Necropsy of two llamas revealed numerous caseous nodules containing abundant acid-fastbacilli (AFB) in various organs. The AFB were identified by spoligotyping as Mycobacterium microti, vole type. Infection caused by M. microti should be considered in the differential diagnosis of debilitating diseases in New World camelids.
Oevermann, A.; Pfyffer, G. E.; Zanolari, P.; Meylan, M.; Robert, N.
Psychotherapy is a Western method of treating mental illness. Culturally adapting psychotherapy to better meet the needs of ethnic minorities is an important endeavor. Hall et al. (2011) did an excellent job of reviewing the intersection and divergence between Asian culture and mindfulness and acceptance-based therapies. They also point out that some therapies can be naturally syntonic with Asian American cultural values and belief systems. This is especially important given cultural differences between the East and West. Below, I provide an overview of the complexities involved in adapting treatments for diverse clients. I also discuss the importance of deconstructing stereotypes and understanding the complex interplay between clinical and cultural issues. Individualization of treatment for diverse clients can be achieved through culturally formed practice.
Psychotherapy is a Western method of treating mental illness. Culturally adapting psychotherapy to better meet the needs of ethnic minorities is an important endeavor. Hall et al. (2011) did an excellent job of reviewing the intersection and divergence between Asian culture and mindfulness and acceptance-based therapies. They also point out that some therapies can be naturally syntonic with Asian American cultural values and belief systems. This is especially important given cultural differences between the East and West. Below, I provide an overview of the complexities involved in adapting treatments for diverse clients. I also discuss the importance of deconstructing stereotypes and understanding the complex interplay between clinical and cultural issues. Individualization of treatment for diverse clients can be achieved through culturally formed practice. PMID:21966098
Background Conventional acid-fastbacilli (AFB) staining cannot differentiate viable from dead cells. Propidium monoazide (PMA) is a photoreactive DNA-binding dye that inhibits PCR amplification by DNA modification. We evaluated whether PMA real-time PCR is suitable for the early detection of viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in clinical respiratory specimens. Methods A total of 15 diluted suspensions from 5 clinical MTB isolates were quadruplicated and subjected to PMA treatment and/or heat inactivation. Eighty-three AFB-positive sputum samples were also tested to compare the ?CT values (CT value in PMA-treated sputum samples-CT value in non-PMA-treated sputum samples) between culture-positive and culture-negative specimens. Real-time PCR was performed using Anyplex MTB/NTM Real-Time Detection (Seegene, Korea), and the CT value changes after PMA treatment were compared between culture-positive and culture-negative groups. Results In MTB suspensions, the increase in the CT value after PMA treatment was significant in dead cells (P=0.0001) but not in live cells (P=0.1070). In 14 culture-negative sputum samples, the median ?CT value was 5.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1-8.2; P<0.0001), whereas that in 69 culture-positive sputum samples was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.7-2.0). In the ROC curve analysis, the cutoff ?CT value for maximum sensitivity (89.9%) and specificity (85.7%) for differentiating dead from live cells was 3.4. Conclusions PMA real-time PCR is a useful approach for differentiating dead from live bacilli in AFB smear-positive sputum samples.
Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Sun Min; Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Sung Soo; Yi, Jongyoun; Kim, Hyung Hoi; Lee, Eun Yup
The aim of this article is to develop a cultural approach in higher education studies. It will be argued that the cultural approach is rooted mainly in two different intellectual starting points to analyze academic communities as cultural entities: studies of disciplinary cultures and institutional cultures. Notions of disciplines as cultural entities have been developed in Europe in relation to
Five studies indicate that conceptualizations of power are important elements of culture and serve culturally relevant goals. These studies provide converging evidence that cultures nurture different views of what is desirable and meaningful to do with power. Vertical individualism is associated with a conceptualization of power in personalized terms (i.e., power is for advancing one's personal status and prestige), whereas horizontal collectivism is associated with a conceptualization of power in socialized terms (i.e., power is for benefiting and helping others). Cultural variables are shown to predict beliefs about appropriate uses of power, episodic memories about power, attitudes in the service of power goals, and the contexts and ways in which power is used and defended. Evidence for the cultural patterning of power concepts is observed at both the individual level and the cultural-group level of analysis. PMID:20649366
Bacteriocidal activity of metabolites synthesized by 17 plasmid-containing cultures of Streptomyces has been studied. These cultures were isolated from soils of Ukraine with different anthropogenic contamination. The cultures, in their majority (85.3%), synthesized bioactive metabolites, which suppressed growth of microorganisms of different taxonomical groups, pathogenic for people, animals or plants. None of 17 Streptomyces cultures was able to suppress growth of yeasts or Escherichia coli. All 17 investigated cultures of Streptomyces were polyresistant to antibiotics, which were used in medicine and veterinary: makrolide, aminoglycoside, beta-lactam and other groups. Resistance of 8 cultures to the antibiotic thiostrepton, which was widely used in some branches of science, was found. PMID:23088099
Although culture is usually thought of as the collection of knowledge and traditions that are transmitted outside of biology, evidence continues to accumulate showing how biology and culture are inseparably intertwined. Cultural conflict will occur only when the beliefs and traditions of one cultural group represent a challenge to individuals of another. Such a challenge will elicit brain processes involved in cognitive decision-making, emotional activation and physiological arousal associated with the outbreak, conduct and resolution of conflict. Key targets to understand bio-cultural differences include primitive drives-how the brain responds to likes and dislikes, how it discounts the future, and how this relates to reproductive behaviour-but also higher level functions, such as how the mind represents and values the surrounding physical and social environment. Future cultural wars, while they may bear familiar labels of religion and politics, will ultimately be fought over control of our biology and our environment. PMID:22271779
This review outlines the current status and recent developments in the technology of microalgal culturing in enclosed photobioreactors.\\u000a Light distribution and mixing are the primary variables that affect productivities of photoautotrophic cultures and have strong\\u000a impacts on photobioreactor designs. Process monitoring and control, physiological engineering, and heterotrophic microalgae\\u000a are additional aspects of microalgal culturing, which have gained considerable attention in
There is little in-depth research that can assist designers to use culture as a catalyst for designing innovative products\\u000a within Botswana’s context. The concept of culture and design are intertwined, thus modifications stemming from cultural evolution\\u000a both reflect and determine developments in design. The paper discusses an experimental design approach conducted at the University\\u000a of Botswana and participants challenge was
Richie Moalosi; Vesna Popovic; Anne Hickling-Hudson
Suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus, Apocynum cannabinum and Conium maculatum were examined for their capacity to transform aniline, anisole, acetanilide, benzoic acid and coumarin. None of the cultures transformed acetanilide but each produced acetanilide when fed aniline. All three cultures converted benzoic acid to its para-hydroxy derivative. Coumarin was selectively hydroxylated at the 7-position by Catharanthus and Conium and anisole was O-demethylated only by older Catharanthus tissue. PMID:1084950
In most societies, members of a culture have attempted to help each other in times of trouble with various types of healing methods. Demoralization - an individual experience related to a group phenomenon - responds to certain elements shared by all psychotherapies. This article has three objectives: (1) to review the theoretical background leading to our current views on culture and demoralization in psychotherapy, (2) to discuss the methodological challenges faced in the cross-cultural study of demoralization and psychotherapy, and (3) to describe the clinical applications and research prospects of this area of inquiry. Demoralization follows a shattering of the individual's assumptive world and it is different from homeostatic responses to a stressful situation or from depressive disorders. Only a few comparative studies of this construct across cultures have been undertaken. The presentation of distress may vary widely from culture to culture and even within the same culture. To avoid 'category fallacy', it is important to understand the idioms of distress peculiar to a cultural group. A cultural psychiatrist or psychotherapist would have to identify patient's values and sentiments, reconstruct his/her personal and collective ambient worlds, and only then study demoralization. The limitations of our current diagnostic systems have resulted in methodological challenges. Cultural clinicians should consider using a combination of both 'clinimetric' and 'perspectivistic' approaches in order to arrive at a diagnosis and identify the appropriate intervention. The presenting problem has to be understood in the context of the patient's individual, social and cultural background, and patients unfamiliar with Western-type psychotherapies have to be prepared to guide their own expectations before the former are used. Future research should identify the gaps in knowledge on the effectiveness of cultural psychotherapy at reversing or preventing demoralization. PMID:23816865
The following activity will help the students understand the cultural nature of scientific research. The students will understand how people interpret science in different ways based on their social environments. Students willExplore famous scientists, their theories, places of origin, and their culture, Discuss geographical region, culture, gender, other factors effecting scientific theories and discoveries, and document scientific viewpoints of famous scientists throughout history,
Combining insights from Freud and Weber, this article explores whether Protestants (vs. Catholics and Jews) are more likely to sublimate their taboo feelings and desires toward productive ends. In the Terman sample (Study 1), Protestant men and women who had sexual problems related to anxieties about taboos and depravity had greater creative accomplishments, as compared to those with sexual problems unrelated to such concerns and to those reporting no sexual problems. Two laboratory experiments (Studies 2 and 3) found that Protestants produced more creative artwork (sculptures, poems, collages, cartoon captions) when they were (a) primed with damnation-related words, (b) induced to feel unacceptable sexual desires, or (c) forced to suppress their anger. Activating anger or sexual attraction was not enough; it was the forbidden or suppressed nature of the emotion that gave the emotion its creative power. The studies provide possibly the first experimental evidence for sublimation and suggest a cultural psychological approach to defense mechanisms. PMID:23834638
In this article, I examine two hypotheses of language origins: the extended mirror system hypothesis and the vocal grooming hypothesis. These conflict in several respects, partly because their authors were trained in different disciplines and influenced by different kinds of evidence. I note some ethnographic/linguistic and psychological issues which, in my view, have not been sufficiently considered by these authors, and present a ‘play and display’ hypothesis which aims to explain the evolution, not of language, but of the ‘culture ready brain’—with apologies to Arbib for so extending his original concept. In the second half of the article, I will test all three hypotheses against the available fossil, archaeological and neuroimaging evidence.
In recent years there has been an escalation in the number of mineralogical studies involving cultural heritage materials. A number of factors have contributed to this exponential growth, including the shrinking budgets in traditional research fields, which forced the expansion of applications of mineralogical methods to novel research areas. Mineralogy as a discipline is traditionally connected to geology, petrology, and geochemistry, although it also has the strong tendency to embody the methods and techniques of modern crystallography and advanced materials science. Arguably, this makes it ideally suited and well equipped to meet the demanding challenges posed by archaeometric analysis and conservation problems. A few case studies linking mineralogy and archaeometry are discussed. PMID:21138159
Started in 2009, the Journal of Aesthetics & Culture (JAC) is an open-access journal "that aims to develop inter-disciplinary theoretical models as applied to human science research on aesthetic questions." The JAC has assembled an editorial board of scholars from across the world, including experts from New York University, Lund University, and the University of Bergen. On their website, visitors can read over the author guidelines, sign up for e-alerts, peruse the journal's announcements, and view the latest peer-reviewed article. Their first volume, published in 2009, included the articles "Calling on Witnesses: testimony and the deictic" and "Confronting The Wind: a reading of a Hollywood film by Victor SjÃÂÃÂ¶strÃÂÃÂ¶m".
Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be “internalized,” the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain (“If you'll do X, then I'll do Y”), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule (“Dress warmly; it's cold outside”) can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior. ImagesFigure 1
An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.
Darwin-inspired population thinking suggests approaching culture as a population of items of different types, whose relative frequencies may change over time. Three nested subtypes of populational models can be distinguished: evolutionary, selectional and replicative. Substantial progress has been made in the study of cultural evolution by modelling it within the selectional frame. This progress has involved idealizing away from phenomena that may be critical to an adequate understanding of culture and cultural evolution, particularly the constructive aspect of the mechanisms of cultural transmission. Taking these aspects into account, we describe cultural evolution in terms of cultural attraction, which is populational and evolutionary, but only selectional under certain circumstances. As such, in order to model cultural evolution, we must not simply adjust existing replicative or selectional models but we should rather generalize them, so that, just as replicator-based selection is one form that Darwinian selection can take, selection itself is one of several different forms that attraction can take. We present an elementary formalization of the idea of cultural attraction.
Claidiere, Nicolas; Scott-Phillips, Thomas C.; Sperber, Dan
This article reviews research on cross-cultural organizational behavior (OB). After a brief review of the history of cross-cultural OB, we review research on work motivation, or the factors that energize, direct, and sustain effort across cultures. We next consider the relationship between the individual and the organization, and review research on culture and organizational commitment, psychological contracts, justice, citizenship behavior, and person-environment fit. Thereafter, we consider how individuals manage their interdependence in organizations, and review research on culture and negotiation and disputing, teams, and leadership, followed by research on managing across borders and expatriation. The review shows that developmentally, cross-cultural research in OB is coming of age. Yet we also highlight critical challenges for future research, including moving beyond values to explain cultural differences, attending to levels of analysis issues, incorporating social and organizational context factors into cross-cultural research, taking indigenous perspectives seriously, and moving beyond intracultural comparisons to understand the dynamics of cross-cultural interfaces. PMID:17044797
Materials about the culture specific to French-speaking people in Canada are presented as part of the cultural component of the prescribed second language curriculum. The materials follow the suggested sequence of studying the "French Fact" in Alberta in grade 7, the study of French settlements in Canada in grade 8, and in-depth study of Quebec…
Since the remarkable work of Pierre Bourdieu, the concept of cultural capital has gained wide popularity along with theoretical and conceptual debates. This trend represents the social-structural change from materialism to postmaterialism. However, there are few empirical studies which find the cause and effect of cultural capital. Based on…
A faculty member's experience at the American University in Cairo (Egypt) reveals that pluralism and tolerance are western concepts, even within the college curriculum. National identity affords cultural stability: where the American melting-pot experience is reinforced by the notion of cultural diversity, the national identity of Egypt is…
Welcome to Peace Corps' cross-cultural training, one of the most challenging and rewarding dimensions of the toughest job you'll ever love. This workbook is a map to guide you through your cross-cultural experience and also a way for you to record your th...
This report summarizes programs, studies, and symposia conducted by the Council for Cultural Cooperation (CCC) to enhance communication and interaction on educational and cultural matters between the members of the Council of Europe. The first section describes activities undertaken to promote European interaction. These include (1) exchange…
Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).
Cumulative cultural evolution is what ‘makes us odd’; our capacity to learn facts and techniques from others, and to refine them over generations, plays a major role in making human minds and lives radically different from those of other animals. In this article, I discuss cognitive processes that are known collectively as ‘cultural learning’ because they enable cumulative cultural evolution. These cognitive processes include reading, social learning, imitation, teaching, social motivation and theory of mind. Taking the first of these three types of cultural learning as examples, I ask whether and to what extent these cognitive processes have been adapted genetically or culturally to enable cumulative cultural evolution. I find that recent empirical work in comparative psychology, developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience provides surprisingly little evidence of genetic adaptation, and ample evidence of cultural adaptation. This raises the possibility that it is not only ‘grist’ but also ‘mills’ that are culturally inherited; through social interaction in the course of development, we not only acquire facts about the world and how to deal with it (grist), we also build the cognitive processes that make ‘fact inheritance’ possible (mills).
This book contains 12 papers that trace the connections and tensions between the original aims and forms of cultural studies in Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the current settings, goals, and methodologies of cultural studies. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (Nannette Aldred and Martin Ryle); "Marginal Occupations: Adult…
Cumulative cultural evolution is what 'makes us odd'; our capacity to learn facts and techniques from others, and to refine them over generations, plays a major role in making human minds and lives radically different from those of other animals. In this article, I discuss cognitive processes that are known collectively as 'cultural learning' because they enable cumulative cultural evolution. These cognitive processes include reading, social learning, imitation, teaching, social motivation and theory of mind. Taking the first of these three types of cultural learning as examples, I ask whether and to what extent these cognitive processes have been adapted genetically or culturally to enable cumulative cultural evolution. I find that recent empirical work in comparative psychology, developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience provides surprisingly little evidence of genetic adaptation, and ample evidence of cultural adaptation. This raises the possibility that it is not only 'grist' but also 'mills' that are culturally inherited; through social interaction in the course of development, we not only acquire facts about the world and how to deal with it (grist), we also build the cognitive processes that make 'fact inheritance' possible (mills). PMID:22734061