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1

Use and cost-effectiveness of intraoperative acid-fast bacilli and fungal cultures in assessing infection of joint arthroplasties.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to determine a protocol for collecting acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and fungal intraoperative cultures during orthopedic procedures. An observational study was undertaken. Four hundred forty-six AFB cultures and 486 fungal cultures were processed over a 2-year period. The number of positive cultures was determined. A protocol specific to handling these types of specimens was developed. Cost analysis was completed to determine both the time and money saved if the new protocol was implemented. The infrequency of positive AFB and fungal cultures in this study suggests that it is only necessary to routinely request AFB and fungal cultures on 1 of 5 samples. Implementation of this protocol has potential to lead to substantial cost reduction and resource savings without diminishing patient outcomes. PMID:19879728

Wadey, Veronica M; Huddleston, James I; Goodman, Stuart B; Schurman, David J; Maloney, William J; Baron, Ellen J

2010-12-01

2

AFB (Acid-Fast Bacillus) Smear and Culture  

MedlinePLUS

... Mycobacteria Smear; Mycobacteria Culture; TB NAAT Formal name: Acid-Fast Bacillus Smear and Culture and Sensitivity; Mycobacteria tuberculosis Nucleic Acid Amplification Test Related tests: TB Screening Tests ; Bacterial ...

3

Ribosomes of Acid-Fast Bacilli: Immunogenicity, Serology, and In Vitro Correlates of Delayed Hypersensitivity  

PubMed Central

Ribosomal fractions obtained from Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) and M. smegmatis (strain butyricum) were studied to determine their antigenicity, their ability to stimulate the production of soluble mediators of delayed hypersensitivity (in vitro correlates) by sensitized peritoneal exudate cells, and the antigenic relations of ribosomal antigens of BCG to BCG protoplasm and H37Rv culture filtrates. The crude ribosomes and the 50-30S ribosomal subunit pool obtained from each of the organisms induced both delayed and immediate hypersensitivity when injected in incomplete Freund adjuvant into rabbits, and skin reactions could be elicited in sensitized rabbits with those antigens. The crude ribosomes and 50-30S ribosomal subunit pool of M. smegmatis stimulated lymphocytes of guinea pigs sensitized with viable organisms to produce macrophage migration inhibition factor. Comparable ribosomal fractions from BCG bacilli caused lymphocytes of guinea pigs sensitized with viable M. bovis (BCG) to produce skin reactive factor. Immunoelectrophoretic studies showed that H37Rv culture filtrate, protoplasm, crude ribosomes, and 50-30S ribosomal subunits of BCG contain multiple precipitinogens and that many of these were shared between the different antigen systems. Comparative electrophoresis revealed that BCG protoplasm and H37Rv culture filtrate shared a major portion of their components with each other and relatively few with ribosomal systems. The ribosomal systems shared the major portion of their components with each other and relatively few with the other antigen systems. Images PMID:4725699

Baker, R. E.; Hill, W. E.; Larson, C. L.

1973-01-01

4

Mistaken identity: Legionella micdadei appearing as acid fast bacilli on lung biopsy of a hematopoietic stem cell transplant patient  

PubMed Central

Legionella micdadei is a potential cause of invasive lung infections in immunocompromised hosts. On biopsy specimens, it can appear as an acid-fast bacillus (AFB) and can be mistaken for a member of genus Mycobacterium. As Legionella requires selective media to grow in culture, and a commonly used, commercially available urine antigen test for Legionella only detects Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 but not L. micdadei, it is important to consider this organism in the differential diagnosis for AFB in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of Legionella micdadei infection, which was initially treated empirically for non-tuberculous mycobacteria based on acid fast staining of biopsy tissue before the final diagnosis was made. PMID:25573597

Waldron, Paul Ravi; Martin, Brock A.; Ho, Dora Y.

2015-01-01

5

Comparison of LED and conventional fluorescence microscopy for detection of acid-fast bacilli in an area with high tuberculosis incidence.  

PubMed

The objective of the study is to compare the performance of conventional fluorescence microscopy (CFM) and light-emitting diode (LED) fluorescence microscopy (FM) for detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in clinical samples. We included AFB smears, stained using the auramine O method and blindly examined with both CFM and LED-FM. Culture results were used as reference for evaluating the reliability of the FM. We included 180 culture positive specimens and an equal number of culture negative specimens. Sensitivities for the CFM and LED-FM were 79.4% and 82.2%, respectively. Both microscopes had a high specificity (97.2%). The negative-positive (>1 cross) inter-reader agreement of LED-FM and CFM was excellent. Therefore, detection of scanty AFB was higher with LED-FM. Both microscopes were equivalent with respect to time required to read smears. Although it was not faster than CFM, the higher detection of scanty AFB smears combined with ease of use supports the consideration of LED microscopy by all tuberculosis diagnostic laboratories, as a replacement for conventional fluorescence microscopes. PMID:23632250

Marzouk, Manel; Ferjani, Asma; Dhaou, Mohamed; Ali, Moufida Haj; Hannachi, Naila; Boukadida, Jalel

2013-07-01

6

Improving sensitivity of direct microscopy for detection of acid-fast bacilli in sputum: use of chitin in mucus digestion.  

PubMed

In order to try to improve the results of direct smear microscopy, we used the mucus-digesting quality of chitin in tuberculosis (TB) laboratories. For this purpose, a total of 430 sputum specimens were processed by the N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) liquefaction, chitin sedimentation, and direct microscopy methods. Then, the smear sensitivity for acid-fast bacillus detection by chitin-treated sputum was compared with the sensitivity of smears prepared by other methods. Our results showed that the chitin solution took less time to completely homogenize the mucoid sputum than did the N-acetyl-L-cysteine and NaOCl methods. The N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration method demonstrated sensitivity and specificity levels of 83 and 97%, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity of chitin sedimentation was 80%, with a specificity of 96.7%. The NaOCl liquefaction method showed a sensitivity of 78%, with a specificity of 96%. Finally, the sensitivity of direct microscopy was lower than those of the other tested methods and was only 46%, with a specificity of 90%. The chitin and NaOCl liquefaction methods are both easy to perform, and they do not require additional equipment (centrifuges). Also, our results demonstrated that the chitin method is less time-consuming than the NaOCl method, since only 30 min of incubation is required to bring complete sedimentation of bacilli in chitin-treated sputum whereas the NaOCl method needs 10 to 12 h to give the same results in the same sputum specimens. Therefore, the chitin liquefaction and sedimentation method may provide better results in TB laboratories of developing countries than the N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration, NaOCl overnight sedimentation, and direct smear microscopy methods. PMID:11825964

Farnia, P; Mohammadi, F; Zarifi, Z; Tabatabee, D J; Ganavi, J; Ghazisaeedi, K; Farnia, P K; Gheydi, M; Bahadori, M; Masjedi, M R; Velayati, A A

2002-02-01

7

9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. 147.13 Section 147...bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. Proper precautions...presumptive conclusion of the presence of colon bacilli organisms. (Approved by the...

2010-01-01

8

Acid-fast microscopy on polycarbonate membrane filter sputum sediments.  

PubMed Central

Polycarbonate membrane filters were used to concentrate 916 sputum specimens for detecting acid-fast bacilli by microscopic examination. These results were compared with those of smears prepared from centrifugates and direct smears of the same specimens. Culture isolation, the control procedure, demonstrated the presence of acid-fast bacilli in 76 specimens. The number of positive specimens detected by microscopy was 82 on polycarbonate membrane filter concentrates, with an 80.2% sensitivity; 53 on centrifugate smears, with a 62.2% sensitivity; and 44 on direct smears, with a 55.8% sensitivity. Acid-fast microscopy results demonstrated that the sensitivity of the polycarbonate membrane filter sputum concentration method was superior to that of the recommended centrifuge concentration method and that the former method may be considered a rapid alternative when culture for acid-fast bacilli is impractical. Images PMID:6788799

Smithwick, R W; Stratigos, C B

1981-01-01

9

The Culture of Tubercle Bacilli from Laryngeal Swabs  

PubMed Central

In a considerable proportion of cases of pulmonary tuberculosis there is no spontaneous expectoration, especially in female patients and patients under collapse treatment. A simple and efficient method is described to obtain suitable material for bacteriological examination in these cases. A laryngeal swab, made up from a piece of wire with cotton-wool wrapped round its end, is passed down the larynx and the patient asked to cough. Two swabs are taken from each patient. The swabs are passed through sterile test tubes containing 10% sulphuric acid and 2% sodium hydroxide solutions for five minutes in each and 2 Petragnani media inoculated with each swab. The cultures are examined after five days for contamination, and after twenty-eight days for macroscopical colonies of tubercle bacilli. The results obtained in two groups of cases of 166 and 107 patients were: 37.95% and 54.20% positive cultures respectively. The highest positive figures were obtained in female patients. Thus tubercle bacilli were demonstrated in a considerable proportion of cases previously regarded as sputum-negative or having no sputum. Apart from diagnosis the method gives valuable help in judging the efficiency of treatment. The finding of bacilli in early infiltrative lesions is of considerable practical as well as theoretical importance. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:19992349

Nassau, E.

1941-01-01

10

Novel Approach for Improving Sensitivity of Microscopic Detection of Acid-Fast Bacilli (AFB) by Use of the ReaSLR Method  

PubMed Central

The ReaSLR methodology developed for sputum processing is a novel, low-cost, and simple technique that has improved the sensitivity of smear microscopy for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). Sample processing consists of rapid liquefaction of the sputum specimen with the ReaSLR reagent, followed by syringe filtration, concentration by centrifugation, and use of the sediment for smear microscopy. The performance of the ReaSLR kit was evaluated on 150 sputum samples and was compared with that of the modified Petroff method for sputum decontamination and concentration. Ziehl-Neelsen staining was performed for smear microscopy after processing by these two techniques; simultaneously, culture on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium was done to evaluate the two methods. The efficiency of smear microscopy was 18/150 (12%) with the modified Petroff method compared to 47/150 (31.33%) with the ReaSLR method, and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The ReaSLR method for smear microscopy demonstrated a sensitivity and specificity of 90.47% and 91.6%, respectively, whereas the modified Petroff method showed a sensitivity and specificity of 40.47% and 99.07%, respectively, compared to those of culture, which was used as the gold standard. With the newer ReaSLR method, the kappa coefficient (?) was 0.8, which implies an excellent positive agreement. The ReaSLR method was found to be more sensitive than the conventional method for sputum smear microscopy. The newer ReaSLR method holds promise for adoption in TB control programs across the globe, as it was found suitable for the laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary TB. Further large-scale studies are needed to evaluate other aspects of this method. PMID:23966489

Verma, Sheetal; Kumar, Manoj; Kashyap, Saurabh

2013-01-01

11

Cytochemical Reactions of Human Leprosy Bacilli and Mycobacteria: Ultrastructural Implications  

PubMed Central

Leprosy bacilli harvested from freshly biopsied tissue from cases of lepromatous, borderline and histoid leprosy were, in conjunction with Mycobacterium lepraemurium and representative mycobacteria, examined cytochemically with and without their pyridine-extractable acid-fastness. Unlike the mycobacteria, unextracted leprosy bacilli failed to give a positive response to the periodic acid Schiff test or to take up Sudan black B, toluidine blue O, alkaline methylene blue or safranin O. Once their acid-fastness was removed with pyridine, leprosy bacilli were stained by all of the foregoing dyes except Sudan black B, under this condition they remained gram positive. While permanent loss of acid-fastness from leprosy bacilli always resulted in a loss of acid hematein-fixing material (Smith-Dietrich-Baker tests), the reverse was not true. Mild aqueous saponification, bromination, or sequential treatment with lipase and phospholipase D resulted in a loss of acid hematein-positivity but not acid-fastness. After pyridine extraction, bromination, or aqueous saponification, true mycobacteria lost neither their acid hematein-positivity nor their acid-fastness. The acid hematein-positive material and the acid-fastness of both leprosy bacilli and mycobacteria were lost after treatment with alkaline ethanol. These cytochemical findings are discussed in the light of what is known of the ultrastructure of leprosy bacilli and mycobacteria, and of the occurrence of a dl-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine oxidase in leprosy bacilli but not in mycobacteria. An effort is made to explain the rather unique cytochemical properties of leprosy bacilli. Since pyridine-extractable acid-fastness (and acid hematein-positivity) serve to distinguish human leprosy bacilli from M. lepraemurium, one or the other, or both, are suggested as bases for differentiating these two organisms in animal experiments designed to show the in vivo propagation of human leprosy bacilli. PMID:4120605

Fisher, Clark A.; Barksdale, Lane

1973-01-01

12

Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacilli from blood cultures by the AutoMicrobic system.  

PubMed Central

A procedure was developed which allows direct identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of fermentative and nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli from positive blood cultures. A 10-ml sample was removed from turbid blood culture bottles, and the bacteria were washed and concentrated by centrifugation. The bacterial pellet was used to inoculate an Enterobacteriaceae Plus Identification Card and a Gram-Negative General Susceptibility Card of the AutoMicrobic system. Results with these cards were compared with results obtained with standard technique for 196 blood cultures seeded with recent clinical isolates. Identification of most cultures was available in 8 h, whereas the antimicrobial susceptibility results were available in an average of 4.7 h for all organisms. Direct identification was correct for 95% of the cultures, whereas the antimicrobial susceptibility data had an average agreement of 87% with 3.8% very major and 1.4% major errors. In using this procedure it was possible to provide accurate preliminary identification and results of antimicrobial susceptibility tests for gram-negative bacilli on the same day that a blood culture was determined to be positive. PMID:7016914

Moore, D F; Hamada, S S; Marso, E; Martin, W J

1981-01-01

13

Acid-fast stain  

MedlinePLUS

The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines if a sample of tissue, blood, or other body ... dye. The slide is then washed with an acid solution and a different stain is applied. Bacteria ...

14

Usefulness of the MicroSeq 500 16S rDNA bacterial identification system for identification of anaerobic Gram positive bacilli isolated from blood cultures  

PubMed Central

Using full 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing as the gold standard, 20 non?duplicating anaerobic Gram positive bacilli isolated from blood cultures were analysed by the MicroSeq 500 16S rDNA bacterial identification system. The MicroSeq system successfully identified 13 of the 20 isolates. Four and three isolates were misidentified at the genus and species level, respectively. Although the MicroSeq 500 16S rDNA bacterial identification system is better than three commercially available identification systems also evaluated, its database needs to be expanded for accurate identification of anaerobic Gram positive bacilli. PMID:16443743

Lau, S K P; Ng, K H L; Woo, P C Y; Yip, K?t; Fung, A M Y; Woo, G K S; Chan, K?m; Que, T?l

2006-01-01

15

Abdominal tuberculosis: demonstration of tubercle bacilli in tissues and experimental production of hyperplastic enteric lesions.  

PubMed

Material obtained from 35 cases of abdominal tuberculosis waps studied and an attempt was made to demonstrate tubercle bacilli by special staining of histological sections, culture and guinea-pig inoculation. Acid fast bacilli could be demonstrated in 80 per cent of cases. The remaining cases were also possibly due to tuberculous infection because granulomas with Langhans's type of giant cells and caseation or calcification of lymph nodes were present. The bacilli were demonstrated in bowel tissue showing non-specific histology in 1 case. In 2 other cases with non-specific lesions in the bowel the bacilli were demonstrated in lymph nodes. Guinea-pig inoculation studies showed that hypertrophic lesions of the bowel with a non-specific type of reaction could develop after intraperitoneal injection of tubercular material. Although it cannot be said on the basis of this study that Crohn's disease is caused by tuberculous infection, it can be concluded that tuberculous infection can give rise to a Crohn's type of lesion. PMID:809081

Das, P; Shukla, H S

1975-08-01

16

STUDIES ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN PHAGOCYTES AND TUBERCLE BACILLI  

PubMed Central

Tubercle bacilli labelled with C14 were prepared by growth on radioactive substrates such as glycerol, CO2, and acetate. These organisms were exposed in vitro to leucocytes (mostly polymorphonuclear leucocytes) from peritoneal exudates of guinea pigs. The respiration of the leucocytes and of the bacilli, alone and together, was followed by determining oxygen uptake and C14O2 production. When heat-killed labelled tubercle bacilli were exposed to leucocytes there was little or no degradation of bacillary material to C14O2 by leucocytic enzymes. On the other hand, conversion of components of sonically disrupted bacilli to C14O2 by leucocytes was significant. It was possible to determine the oxygen uptake and C14O2 production of phagocytized living tubercle bacilli, and it was found that after phagocytosis the bacilli maintained their rates of oxygen consumption and C14O2 production. This finding was in contrast to observations made with Mycobacterium phlei, a saprophytic acid-fast organism, and with Bacillus subtilis. In these cases oxygen consumption and C14O2 production declined after phagocytosis, and bacterial components were converted to carbon dioxide to a significant degree by leucocytic enzymes. PMID:13332185

Stähelin, Hartmann; Karnovsky, Manfred L.; Suter, Emanuel

1956-01-01

17

Concentration of Lymph Node Aspirate Improves the Sensitivity of Acid Fast Smear Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Tuberculous Lymphadenitis in Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN) is the most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The cytomorphological features of lymph node smears have reduced specificity for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The diagnosis of TBLN with direct smear microscopy lacks sensitivity due to the limited number of bacilli in lymph node aspirate. Therefore, we aimed to assess whether the concentration of lymph node aspirate improves the sensitivity of acid fast smear microscopy for the diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis. Methods A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 200 patients clinically suspected for tuberculous lymphadenitis in Jimma, Ethiopia. Lymph node aspirate was collected. The first two drops were used for cytomorphological study and direct acid fast staining. The remaining aspirate was treated with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NALC) and concentrated by centrifugation at 3000 g for 15 minutes. The sediment was used for acid fast staining and culture. Differentiation of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) was done by para-nitrobenzoic acid susceptibility test. Result Complete data were available for 187 study subjects. 68% (127/187) were positive for M. tuberculosis on culture. Four isolates, 2.1% (4/187), were identified as NTM. The detection rate of direct smear microscopy was 25.1% and that of the concentration method 49.7%. Cytomorphologically, 79.7% of cases were classified as TBLN. The sensitivity of direct smear microscopy was 34.6%, for concentrated smear microscopy 66.1%, and for cytomorphology 89.8%. Two AFB positive cases on concentration method were non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM). The concentration method yielded a positive result from seven cases diagnosed as suppurative abscess by cytology. Both for the direct and concentration methods the highest rate of AFB positivity was observed in smears showing caseous necrosis alone. Smear positivity rate decreased with the appearance of epithelioid cell aggregates. Conclusion The concentration of lymph node aspirates for acid fast smear microscopy had significantly higher sensitivity than direct microscopy. PMID:25184279

Tadesse, Mulualem; Abebe, Gemeda; Abdissa, Ketema; Bekele, Alemayehu; Bezabih, Mesele; Apers, Ludwig; Colebunders, Robert; Rigouts, Leen

2014-01-01

18

[Clinical application of testing methods on acid-fast bacteria].  

PubMed

Clinical bacteriology pertaining to acid-fast bacteria has made marked advances over the past decade, initiated by the development of a DNA probe kit for identification of acid-fast bacteria. Wide-spread use of nucleic acid amplification for rapid detection of tubercle bacillus contributed more greatly than any other factor to such advances in this field. At present, 90% of all kits used for nucleic acid amplification in the world are consumed in Japan. Unfortunately, not a few clinicians in Japan have a false idea that the smear method and nucleic acid amplification are necessary but culture is not. In any event nucleic acid amplification has exerted significant impacts on the routine works at bacteriology laboratories. Among others, collecting bacteria by pretreatment with NALC-NaOH has simplified the introduction of the collective mode smear method and liquid media. Furthermore, as clinicians have become increasingly more experienced with various methods of molecular biology, it now seems possible to apply these techniques for detection of genes encoding drug resistance and for utilization of molecular epidemiology in routine laboratory works. Meanwhile, attempts to diagnose acid-fast bacteriosis by checking blood for antibody have also been made, primarily in Japan. At present, two kits for detecting antibodies to glycolipids (LAM, TDM, etc.) are covered by national health insurance in Japan. We have an impression that in Japan clinicians do not have adequate knowledge and skill to make full use of these new testing methods clinically. We, as the chairmen of this symposium, hope that this symposium will help clinicians increase their skill related to new testing methods, eventually leading to stimulation of advances in clinical practices related to acid-fast bacteria in Japan. 1. Smear microscopy by concentration method and broth culture system: Kazunari TSUYUGUCHI (Clinical Research Center, National Hospital Organization Kinki-chuo Chest Medical Center) Smear microscopy and culture still remain the cornerstone to diagnose tuberculosis. However, the classical methods in Japan using direct microscopy and Ogawa solid media were not sufficient for clinical use. In recent years substantial advance has been made in these fields. Concentration of clinical samples by centrifugation improves the sensitivity of smear microscopy with excellent reproducibility. The Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) system using liquid media yields high sensitivity and rapidity. Using these methods, more and more tuberculosis cases would be correctly diagnosed and treated adequately based on drug susceptibility testing. 2. New technologies for anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing: Satoshi MITARAI (Bacteriology Division, Reference Centre for Mycobacterium, Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association) Several new technologies have been developed to obtain anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing (AST) results rapidly, utilising liquid culture and molecular technologies. Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT), as a popular liquid culturing and AST system, was evaluated for its accuracy and usefulness. As for isoniazid, MGIT showed 12.6% of discordant result comparing with standard method. These MGIT resistant and Ogawa susceptible strains had relatively high MICs ranging 0.13 to 2.0 microg/ml. The molecular detection of resistant gene mutation is also a useful method to estimate drug resistance rapidly. The rpoB mutation detection is reliable with high sensitivity and specificity. 3. Nucleic acid amplification and novel diagnostic methods: Shunji TAKAKURA (Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine) Sensitivities of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis meet clinical requirement that patients with high-risk of transmission should be identified within a day. Comparison of the performance of various NAATs is difficult because of the difference in sample processing and in samples tested among methods and reports. Con

Ichiyama, Satoshi; Suzuki, Katsuhiro

2005-02-01

19

Evaluation of the Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Systems for Identification of Nonfermenting Gram-Negative Bacilli Isolated from Cultures from Cystic Fibrosis Patients  

PubMed Central

The Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) instruments were evaluated for the identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB) by a blinded comparison to conventional biochemical or molecular methods. Two hundred NFGNB that were recovered from cultures from cystic fibrosis patients in the University of Iowa Health Care (UIHC) Microbiology Laboratory between 1 January 2006 and 31 October 2010 were sent to Mayo Clinic for analysis with the Bruker Biotyper (software version 3.0) and to bioMérieux for testing with Vitek MS (SARAMIS database version 3.62). If two attempts at direct colony testing failed to provide an acceptable MALDI-TOF identification, an extraction procedure was performed. The MS identifications from both of these systems were provided to UIHC for comparison to the biochemical or molecular identification that had been reported in the patient record. Isolates with discordant results were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing at UIHC. After discrepancy testing, the Bruker Biotyper result agreed with the biochemical or molecular method, with 72.5% of isolates to the species level, 5.5% to the complex level, and 19% to the genus level (3% not identified). The level of agreement for Vitek MS was 80% species, 3.5% complex, 6% genus, and 3.5% family (7% not identified). Both MS systems provided rapid (?3 min per isolate) and reliable identifications. The agreement of combined species/complex/genus-level identification with the reference method was higher for the Bruker Biotyper (97% versus 89.5%, P = 0.004) but required an extraction step more often. Species-level agreement with the reference method was similar for both MS systems (72.5% and 80%, P = 0.099). PMID:22495566

Marko, Daniel C.; Saffert, Ryan T.; Cunningham, Scott A.; Hyman, Jay; Walsh, John; Arbefeville, Sophie; Howard, Wanita; Pruessner, Jon; Safwat, Nedal; Cockerill, Franklin R.; Bossler, Aaron D.; Patel, Robin

2012-01-01

20

Phosphorylation of KasB regulates virulence and acid-fastness in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli display two signature features: acid-fast staining and the capacity to induce long-term latent infections in humans. However, the mechanisms governing these two important processes remain largely unknown. Ser/Thr phosphorylation has recently emerged as an important regulatory mechanism allowing mycobacteria to adapt their cell wall structure/composition in response to their environment. Herein, we evaluated whether phosphorylation of KasB, a crucial mycolic acid biosynthetic enzyme, could modulate acid-fast staining and virulence. Tandem mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that phosphorylation of KasB occurred at Thr334 and Thr336 both in vitro and in mycobacteria. Isogenic strains of M. tuberculosis with either a deletion of the kasB gene or a kasB_T334D/T336D allele, mimicking constitutive phosphorylation of KasB, were constructed by specialized linkage transduction. Biochemical and structural analyses comparing these mutants to the parental strain revealed that both mutant strains had mycolic acids that were shortened by 4-6 carbon atoms and lacked trans-cyclopropanation. Together, these results suggested that in M. tuberculosis, phosphorylation profoundly decreases the condensing activity of KasB. Structural/modeling analyses reveal that Thr334 and Thr336 are located in the vicinity of the catalytic triad, which indicates that phosphorylation of these amino acids would result in loss of enzyme activity. Importantly, the kasB_T334D/T336D phosphomimetic and deletion alleles, in contrast to the kasB_T334A/T336A phosphoablative allele, completely lost acid-fast staining. Moreover, assessing the virulence of these strains indicated that the KasB phosphomimetic mutant was attenuated in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice following aerosol infection. This attenuation was characterized by the absence of lung pathology. Overall, these results highlight for the first time the role of Ser/Thr kinase-dependent KasB phosphorylation in regulating the later stages of mycolic acid elongation, with important consequences in terms of acid-fast staining and pathogenicity. PMID:24809459

Vilchèze, Catherine; Molle, Virginie; Carrère-Kremer, Séverine; Leiba, Jade; Mourey, Lionel; Shenai, Shubhada; Baronian, Grégory; Tufariello, Joann; Hartman, Travis; Veyron-Churlet, Romain; Trivelli, Xavier; Tiwari, Sangeeta; Weinrick, Brian; Alland, David; Guérardel, Yann; Jacobs, William R; Kremer, Laurent

2014-05-01

21

Phosphorylation of KasB Regulates Virulence and Acid-Fastness in Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli display two signature features: acid-fast staining and the capacity to induce long-term latent infections in humans. However, the mechanisms governing these two important processes remain largely unknown. Ser/Thr phosphorylation has recently emerged as an important regulatory mechanism allowing mycobacteria to adapt their cell wall structure/composition in response to their environment. Herein, we evaluated whether phosphorylation of KasB, a crucial mycolic acid biosynthetic enzyme, could modulate acid-fast staining and virulence. Tandem mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that phosphorylation of KasB occurred at Thr334 and Thr336 both in vitro and in mycobacteria. Isogenic strains of M. tuberculosis with either a deletion of the kasB gene or a kasB_T334D/T336D allele, mimicking constitutive phosphorylation of KasB, were constructed by specialized linkage transduction. Biochemical and structural analyses comparing these mutants to the parental strain revealed that both mutant strains had mycolic acids that were shortened by 4–6 carbon atoms and lacked trans-cyclopropanation. Together, these results suggested that in M. tuberculosis, phosphorylation profoundly decreases the condensing activity of KasB. Structural/modeling analyses reveal that Thr334 and Thr336 are located in the vicinity of the catalytic triad, which indicates that phosphorylation of these amino acids would result in loss of enzyme activity. Importantly, the kasB_T334D/T336D phosphomimetic and deletion alleles, in contrast to the kasB_T334A/T336A phosphoablative allele, completely lost acid-fast staining. Moreover, assessing the virulence of these strains indicated that the KasB phosphomimetic mutant was attenuated in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice following aerosol infection. This attenuation was characterized by the absence of lung pathology. Overall, these results highlight for the first time the role of Ser/Thr kinase-dependent KasB phosphorylation in regulating the later stages of mycolic acid elongation, with important consequences in terms of acid-fast staining and pathogenicity. PMID:24809459

Vilchèze, Catherine; Molle, Virginie; Carrère-Kremer, Séverine; Leiba, Jade; Mourey, Lionel; Shenai, Shubhada; Baronian, Grégory; Tufariello, Joann; Hartman, Travis; Veyron-Churlet, Romain; Trivelli, Xavier; Tiwari, Sangeeta; Weinrick, Brian; Alland, David; Guérardel, Yann; Jacobs, William R.; Kremer, Laurent

2014-01-01

22

Thin layer microcolony culture associated with PCR for early identification of Mycobacterium bovis  

PubMed Central

The initial growth of mycobacteria from 49 samples of cattle and buffalo organs collected in commercial slaughterhouses was compared between modified Middlebrook 7H11 thin layer microcolony culture and Stonebrink medium used in the isolation of Mycobacterium bovis. Aliquots were decontaminated by Petroff’s method, processed and cultured in both media. The identity of the acid-fast bacilli stained by Ziehl-Neelsen was confirmed by PCR. Optical microscopy showed that results of the early observation of Mycobacterium bovis colonies in thin layer culture were similar to those obtained in macroscopic observation of the colonies in Stonebrink medium. However, early observation of the colonies enabled early confirmation by PCR, given the shorter time to the visualization of colonies when thin layer culture was used (between the 12nd and 25th day of culture). PMID:24948936

do Rosário, Tatiana Reis; Dib, Cristina Corsi; Roxo, Eliana; Pinheiro, Sônia Regina; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Benites, Nilson Roberti

2014-01-01

23

Fluorescent Acid-Fast Microscopy for Measuring Phagocytosis of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum by Tetrahymena pyriformis and Their Intracellular Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescent acid-fast microscopy (FAM) was used to enumerate intracellular Mycobacterium avium, Myco- bacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum in the ciliated phagocytic protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis. There was a linear relationship between FAM and colony counts of M. avium cells both from cultures and within protozoa. The Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain could not be used to enumerate intracellular mycobac- teria because uninfected protozoa

EILEEN D. STRAHL; GLENDA E. GILLASPY; JOSEPH O. FALKINHAM

2001-01-01

24

Inguinal lymphadenitis associated with Capnocytophaga bacilli.  

PubMed

Capnocytophaga organisms are capnophilic, gram-negative bacilli that have been associated with infections deriving from the flora of the oropharynx. We report a case of inguinal adenitis caused by Capnocytophaga species that probably represents sexual transmission of the pathogen. PMID:1890187

Johnson, C C; Poupard, J

1991-04-01

25

Thermophilic Bacilli growing with carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four strains of obligately thermophilic Bacilli capable of growing with carbon monoxide as a sole carbon and energy source were isolated from settling ponds of a sugar factory. Most of them could be identified as strains of Bacillus schlegelii on the basis of cell wall composition, DNA homology menaquinone and DNA base content. Growth with CO was very fast (td=3

Bernd Kriiger; Ortwin Meyer

1984-01-01

26

Progressive pulmonary tuberculosis is not due to increasing numbers of viable bacilli in rabbits, mice and guinea pigs, but is due to a continuous host response to mycobacterial products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tuberculosis (TB) kills more people in the world today than any other infectious disease. A better vaccine to prevent clinical tuberculosis is greatly needed. Candidate vaccines are often evaluated by infecting rabbits, mice and guinea pigs by an aerosol of virulent tubercle bacilli and culturing their lungs for viable bacilli at various times thereafter. In all three species, however, the

A. M. Dannenberg; F. M. Collins

2001-01-01

27

Identification of enzyme-producing thermophilic bacilli isolated from marine vents of Aeolian Islands (Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzyme-producing thermophilic bacilli were isolated from different thermal sites located in and around Aeolian Islands (Italy)\\u000a and characterised by both molecular and culture-based methods. Spore-forming bacteria with optimal growth from 45 to 70 °C\\u000a were isolated from submarine vents and a geothermal well of Aeolian Islands (Italy). Eighteen selected strains were screened\\u000a for extracellular enzyme presence by using nine substrates:

Valeria Lentini; Concetta Gugliandolo; Teresa Luciana Maugeri

2007-01-01

28

The use of acid-isopropyl alcohol in the acid-fast staining procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of certain capsular or cellular components of bacteria to retain cationic dyes following treatment with decolorizers such as concentrated hydrochloric, nitric or sulfuric (mineral) acids or diluted concentrations of these acids in water or ethanol, which are capable of removing the dye from non-acid-fast microorganisms, is considered as acid-fastness. The capsular material of acid-fast bacteria, in contrast to

Bernard Witlin

1974-01-01

29

Prevalence of extensively drug-resistant gram negative bacilli in surgical intensive care in Egypt  

PubMed Central

Introduction The prevalence of extensively drug resistant gram negative bacilli (XDR-GNB) is rapidly progressing; however in Egypt data are sparse. We conducted the present study to quantify the incidence, risk factors and outcome of patients harboring XDR-GNB. Methods A one year prospective study was done by collecting all the bacteriological reports for cultures sent from the surgical intensive care unit, Cairo university teaching hospital. XDR-GNB were defined as any gram negative bacilli resistant to three or more classes of antimicrobial agents. Patients with XDR-GNB compared with those sustaining non extensively drug-resistant infection. A multivariate logistic regression model was created to identify independent predictors of multi-resistance. Results During one-year study period, a total of 152 samples (65%) out of 234 gram negative bacilli samples developed extensively drug resistant infection. XDR strains were significantly higher in Acinetobacterspp (86%), followed by Pseudomonas (63%), then Proteus (61%), Klebsiella (52%), and E coli (47%). Fourth generation cephalosporine (Cefipime) had the lowest susceptibility (10%) followed by third generation cephalosporines (11%), Quinolones (31%), Amikacin (42%), Tazobactam (52%), Carbapinems (52%), and colistin (90%). Relaparotomy was the only significant risk factor for acquisition of XDR infection. Conclusion Extensively drug-resistant gram negative infections are frequent in our ICU. This is an alarming health care issue in Egypt which emphasizes the need to rigorously implement infection control practices.

Hasanin, Ahmed; Eladawy, Akram; Mohamed, Hossam; Salah, Yasmin; Lotfy, Ahmed; Mostafa, Hanan; Ghaith, Doaa; Mukhtar, Ahmed

2014-01-01

30

Genetic and Phenotypic Diversity of Plant Growth Promoting Bacilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bacilli are aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive or variable, endospore-forming bacteria that exhibit resistance\\u000a to environmental stress and produce peptide antibiotics, peptide signal molecules, and extracellular enzymes. Bacillus and Paenibacillus genera include the best knowing nitrogen-fixing species. Another characteristic of bacilli is their great potential in producing\\u000a substances that promote direct plant growth by the production of phytohormones (mainly indolic

Anelise Beneduzi; Luciane M. P. Passaglia

31

Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Contaminated BACTEC 12B Broth Cultures by Testing with Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test  

PubMed Central

Contamination of broth cultures of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) by bacterial species other than Mycobacterium species frequently occurs. Many of these contaminated cultures require redecontamination and reincubation before the appropriate tests can be performed for identification, significantly affecting the turnaround time for reporting culture results. In this study, the Amplified Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Direct Test (MTD; Gen-Probe) was performed to detect the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in 125 BACTEC 12B broth cultures with positive growth indices. Among these, 41 grew non-AFB bacteria only, and all 41 were negative by the MTD. The remaining 84 bottles contained contaminated cultures that grew both AFB and other bacteria or yeasts. Repeat decontamination and reincubation of these specimens required a mean time of 13 days (range, 3 to 40 days). The MTD results were positive for 10 samples, 9 of which were MTBC culture positive and 1 of which grew Myobacterium celatum, a species known to cross-react in the MTD. All cultures growing other mycobacterial species were negative by the MTD. The results of this study demonstrate that the MTD is both sensitive and specific in detecting MTBC in contaminated broth cultures and that, when used selectively, the MTD can potentially rule in or out a diagnosis of MTBC as much as 12 days earlier than using nonamplified DNA probe testing alone can. PMID:11574600

Zheng, Xiaotian; Pang, Minnie; Engler, Howard D.; Tanaka, Sherri; Reppun, Thomas

2001-01-01

32

Presence and destruction of tubercle bacilli in sewage*  

PubMed Central

The author examined the sewage from 5 towns with tuberculosis sanatoria and from one institution for the care of the feeble-minded, which had a tuberculosis ward, for the presence of tubercle bacilli. The 6 effluents were treated in biological-purification plants and average samples taken. These were centrifuged, and the sediment treated for 1 hour at 37°C with 4% NaOH before inoculation into guinea-pigs. Tubercle bacilli were demonstrated in the influent to all the plants and in the digested sludge of all those operating on sewage where the ratio of infective patients to all persons connected with the plant was up to 1:600. Experiments with cultivated tubercle bacilli showed that centrifuging of sewage resulted in only an insignificant loss of bacilli, but that NaOH treatment caused a loss of over 99%. After consideration of the risk of infection to both man and cattle from the sewage of tuberculosis institutions, the author reports on his own studies on the killing of tubercle bacilli in sewage. It took about 11½-15 months before tubercle bacilli could no longer be demonstrated in sludge that had been kept on the drying beds. The addition of 10 mg of chlorine per litre of biologically purified effluent from an activated-sludge plant was found effectively to destroy tubercle bacilli. Disinfection of sludge was also carried out with 0.5% lysol and 0.1%-0.2% formol; 3.1% copper sulfate proved ineffective. The author concludes that the disinfection of sewage from tuberculosis institutions presents no special difficulties, but that work on this subject in different countries should be co-ordinated in an effort to improve plant and reduce costs. PMID:13160757

Jensen, K. Erik

1954-01-01

33

Fluorescent acid-fast microscopy for measuring phagocytosis of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum by Tetrahymena pyriformis and their intracellular growth.  

PubMed

Fluorescent acid-fast microscopy (FAM) was used to enumerate intracellular Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum in the ciliated phagocytic protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis. There was a linear relationship between FAM and colony counts of M. avium cells both from cultures and within protozoa. The Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain could not be used to enumerate intracellular mycobacteria because uninfected protozoa contained acid-fast, bacterium-like particles. Starved, 7-day-old cultures of T. pyriformis transferred into fresh medium readily phagocytized M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum. Phagocytosis was rapid and reached a maximum in 30 min. M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum grew within T. pyriformis, increasing by factors of 4- to 40-fold after 5 days at 30 degrees C. Intracellular M. avium numbers remained constant over a 25-day period of growth (by transfer) of T. pyriformis. Intracellular M. avium cells also survived protozoan encystment and germination. The growth and viability of T. pyriformis were not affected by mycobacterial infection. The results suggest that free-living phagocytic protozoa may be natural hosts and reservoirs for M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum. PMID:11571139

Strahl, E D; Gillaspy, G E; Falkinham, J O

2001-10-01

34

The ecology of acid-fast organisms in water supply, treatment, and distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight locations in each of two water utilities were sampled for 18 months in order to collect data on acid-fast organisms, total conforms, standard plate count, membrane standard plate count, free and total chlorine residual, total organic carbon (TOC), pH, turbidity, and temperature. These data were analyzed by using computerized statistical packages. In raw water, densities of acid-fast organisms correlated

Charles N. Haas; Michael A. Meyer; Marc S. Paller

1983-01-01

35

Thermophilic bacilli and their importance in dairy processing.  

PubMed

The thermophilic bacilli, such as Anoxybacillus flavithermus and Geobacillus spp., are an important group of contaminants in the dairy industry. Although these bacilli are generally not pathogenic, their presence in dairy products is an indicator of poor hygiene and high numbers are unacceptable to customers. In addition, their growth may result in milk product defects caused by the production of acids or enzymes, potentially leading to off-flavours. Dairy thermophiles are usually selected for by the conditions during dairy manufacture. These bacteria are able to grow in sections of dairy manufacturing plants where temperatures reach 40-65°C. Furthermore, because they are spore formers, they are difficult to eliminate. In addition, they exhibit a wide temperature growth range, exhibit a fast growth rate (generation time of approximately 15-20 min) and tend to readily form biofilms. Many strategies have been tested to remove, prevent and/or delay the formation of thermophilic bacilli biofilms in dairy manufacture, but with limited success. This is, in part, because little is known about the structure and composition of thermophilic bacilli biofilms in general and, more specifically, in milk processing environments. Therefore, new cleaning regimes often do not target the problem optimally. A greater understanding of the structure of thermophilic biofilms within the context of the milk processing environment and their link with spore formation is needed to develop better control measures. This review discusses the characteristics and food spoilage potential, enumeration and identification methods for the thermophilic bacilli, as well as their importance to dairy manufacture, with an emphasis on biofilm development and spore formation. PMID:21047695

Burgess, Sara A; Lindsay, Denise; Flint, Steve H

2010-12-15

36

Acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in the kidneys of mallards fed lead shot  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies were found in the cells of the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidneys of mallards fed one, two, three or eight number 6 lead shot and maintained on cracked or whole corn and on grain-duck pellet diets. No acid-fast inclusion bodies were found in mallards fed one or three lead shot but maintained on a duck pellet ration. Dietary factors may be responsible for the failure of mallards fed a duck pellet ration to develop lead Inclusion bodies when treated with one or three lead shot. The authors suggest these inclusion bodies can be used as presumptive evidence for lead intoxication in mallards.

Locke, L.N.; Bagley, G.E.; Irby, H.D.

1966-01-01

37

Lymphocyte blastogenesis, complement fixation, and fecal culture as diagnostic tests for paratuberculosis in North American wild ruminants and domestic sheep.  

PubMed

The efficacy of the lymphocyte blastogenesis and complement-fixation tests and fecal culture for detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection was assessed in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (O virginianus), bighorn X mouflon (O musimon) hybrid sheep, and domestic sheep. Spontaneously infected bighorns were tested at the time of capture; experimentally infected animals were tested monthly for 12 months or periodically for 36 months. Lymphocyte blastogenesis tests were conducted with peripheral blood mononuclear cells and protein antigens of M avium, M bovis, and M paratuberculosis. Best diagnostic results were obtained when M avium purified-protein derivative was used as antigen and 20% bovine fetal serum was incorporated in the culture medium; a positive test was defined as a stimulation index greater than or equal to 3.5. Test sensitivity and specificity, respectively, were 82% and 94% in hybrid sheep and were 72% and 100% in domestic sheep. Sensitivity and specificity, respectively, were 39% and 94% in elk and 53% and 92% in deer. When infection was determined in spontaneously infected bighorns by culture of M paratuberculosis and/or the presence of acid-fast bacilli in characteristic microscopic lesions, sensitivity was 75% and specificity was 87%. Fecal cultures and the complement-fixation tests seldom correctly identified infected animals. PMID:4073642

Williams, E S; DeMartini, J C; Snyder, S P

1985-11-01

38

RNA structures regulating ribosomal protein biosynthesis in bacilli.  

PubMed

In Bacilli, there are three experimentally validated ribosomal-protein autogenous regulatory RNAs that are not shared with E. coli. Each of these RNAs forms a unique secondary structure that interacts with a ribosomal protein encoded by a downstream gene, namely S4, S15, and L20. Only one of these RNAs that interacts with L20 is currently found in the RNA Families Database. We created, or modified, existing structural alignments for these three RNAs and used them to perform homology searches. We have determined that each structure exhibits a narrow phylogenetic distribution, mostly relegated to the Firmicute class Bacilli. This work, in conjunction with other similar work, demonstrates that there are most likely many non-homologous RNA regulatory elements regulating ribosomal protein biosynthesis that still await discovery and characterization in other bacterial species. PMID:23611891

Deiorio-Haggar, Kaila; Anthony, Jon; Meyer, Michelle M

2013-07-01

39

ACID-FAST BACTERIA AND YEASTS AS INDICATORS OF DISINFECTION EFFICIENCY  

EPA Science Inventory

Since the coliform group of organisms is considered to be less resistant to chlorine than some bacterial and viral pathogens, the utility of both yeast and acid-fast oganisms as potntial indicators of disinfection efficiency was evaluated. In most laboratory studies these two gro...

40

Manual and Automated Instrumentation for Identification of Enterobacteriaceae and Other Aerobic Gram-Negative Bacilli  

PubMed Central

Identification of gram-negative bacilli, both enteric and nonenteric, by conventional methods is not realistic for clinical microbiology laboratories performing routine cultures in today's world. The use of commercial kits, either manual or automated, to identify these organisms is a common practice. The advent of rapid or “spot” testing has eliminated the need for some commonly isolated organisms to be identified with the systems approach. Commercially available systems provide more in-depth identification to the species level as well as detect new and unusual strains. The answers obtained from these systems may not always be correct and must be interpreted with caution. The patient demographics, laboratory workload and work flow, and technologist's skill levels should dictate the system of choice. Cost considerations introduce another variable into the equation affecting choice. Each system has its own strengths and weaknesses, and each laboratory must decide on the level of sophistication that fulfills its particular needs. PMID:15653824

O'Hara, Caroline M.

2005-01-01

41

Inhibition of bacilli in industrial starches by nisin.  

PubMed

The properties of Bacillus coagulans and of other bacilli that contaminate paper and paperboard manufacturing processes were investigated under simulated industrial conditions. Nisin (0.05 to 0.125 microg ml(-1) blocked growth of indigenous bacilli that contaminate sizing starches. B. coagulans starch isolates, B. licheniformis, B. amyloliquefaciens, and B. stearothermophilus grew at > or = 50 degrees C in industrial starch and produced alpha-glucosidase and cyclodextrins. The industrial isolates and reference strains of B. amyloliquefaciens, B. cereus, B. coagulans, B. flexus, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B. sporothermodurans, B. stearothermophilus and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris were inhibited by < or = 0.125 microg of nisin on agar. B. coagulans and B. stearothermophilus were similarly inhibited by < or = 0.025 microg of nisin ml(-1) and by 3 microg of the biocide DBNPA ml(-1) in industrial starch. B. licheniformis and B. amyloliquefaciens strains were less sensitive. About 40% of nisin added to starch was retained after cooking. Fifty percent of the nisin remained active after 11 h of storage at 60 degrees C. The results show that nisin has potential as a preservative for modified industrial starches. PMID:11420648

Pirttijärvi, T S; Wahlström, G; Rainey, F A; Saris, P E; Salkinoja-Salonen, M S

2001-03-01

42

NAD+ auxotrophy is bacteriocidal for the tubercle bacilli.  

PubMed

The human tubercle bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis can synthesize NAD(+) using the de novo biosynthesis pathway or the salvage pathway. The salvage pathway of the bovine tubercle bacillus Mycobacterium bovis was reported defective due to a mutation in the nicotinamidase PncA. This defect prevents nicotinic acid secretion, which is the basis for the niacin test that clinically distinguishes M. bovis from M. tuberculosis. Surprisingly, we found that the NAD(+)de novo biosynthesis pathway (nadABC) can be deleted from M. bovis, demonstrating a functioning salvage pathway. M. bovisDeltanadABC fails to grow in mice, whereas M. tuberculosisDeltanadABC grows normally in mice, suggesting that M. tuberculosis can acquire nicotinamide from its host. The introduction of M. tuberculosis pncA into M. bovisDeltanadABC is sufficient to fully restore growth in a mouse, proving that the functional salvage pathway enables nicotinamide acquisition by the tubercle bacilli. This study demonstrates that NAD(+) starvation is a cidal event in the tubercle bacilli and confirms that enzymes common to the de novo and salvage pathways may be good drug targets. PMID:20199601

Vilchèze, Catherine; Weinrick, Brian; Wong, Ka-Wing; Chen, Bing; Jacobs, William R

2010-04-01

43

DNA amplification assay for rapid detection of bovine tubercle bacilli in semen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tubercle bacilli shed in the semen can be a potential hazard for unlimited number of cows through artificial insemination. We have evaluated the efficacy of a DNA amplification technique by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of tubercle bacilli in fresh and frozen semen using spiked samples. The test was based on insertion sequence IS 1081 and could detect

A. S. Niyaz Ahmed; J. R. Khan; N. A. Ganai

1999-01-01

44

Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsiella and other facultative bacilli  

SciTech Connect

Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carraggeenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and pectobacterium (38%). pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.

Ochuba, G.U.; Von Riesen, V.L.

1980-05-01

45

Evaluation of the Phenol Ammonium Sulfate Sedimentation Smear Microscopy Method for Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the sensitivity and specificity of the phenol ammonium sulfate (PhAS) sediment smear microscopy method for detection of acid-fast bacilli with those of direct smear microscopy, using culture results for Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the \\

N. Selvakumar; Fathima Rahman; Renu Garg; S. Rajasekaran; Nalini Sunder Mohan; K. Thyagarajan; V. Sundaram; T. Santha; Thomas R. Frieden; P. R. Narayanan

2002-01-01

46

A New Metric of Antibiotic Class Resistance in Gram-Negative Bacilli Isolated from Hospitalized Children  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to describe patterns of infection or colonization with antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacilli (GNB) in hospitalized children utilizing an electronic health record. SETTING Tertiary care facility. PARTICIPANTS Pediatric patients 18 years of age or younger hospitalized from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2008. METHODS Children were identified who had (1) at least 1 positive culture for a multidrug-resistant (MDR) GNB, defined as a GNB with resistance to 3 or more antibiotic classes; or (2) additive drug resistance, defined as isolation of more than 1 GNB that collectively as a group demonstrated resistance to 3 or more antibiotic classes over the study period. Differences in clinical characteristics between the 2 groups were ascertained, including history of admissions and transfers, comorbid conditions, receipt of procedures, and antibiotic exposure. RESULTS Of 56,235 pediatric patients, 46 children were infected or colonized with an MDR GNB, of which 16 were resistant to 3 classes and 30 were resistant to 4 classes. Another 39 patients had positive cultures for GNB that exhibited additive drug resistance. Patients with additive drug resistance were more likely than patients with MDR GNB to have had previous admissions to a long-term facility (8 vs 2; P = .04) and had more mean admissions (7 vs 3; P < .01) and more mean antibiotic-days (P < .01 to P = .02). Six patients with additive drug resistance later had a positive culture with an MDR GNB. CONCLUSIONS An electronic health record can be used to track antibiotic class resistance in GNB isolated from hospitalized children over multiple cultures and hospitalizations. PMID:22561716

Patel, Sameer J.; O’Toole, Dana; Larson, Elaine

2012-01-01

47

Persistent BCG bacilli perpetuate CD4 T effector memory and optimal protection against tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most important infectious diseases of man and animals, and the only available vaccine (BCG) requires urgent replacement or improvement. To facilitate this, the protective mechanisms induced by BCG require further understanding. As a live attenuated vaccine, persistence of BCG bacilli in the host may be a crucial mechanism. We have investigated the long term persistence of BCG following vaccination and the influence on the induced immune response and protection, using an established murine model. We sought to establish whether previously identified BCG-specific CD4 TEM cells represent genuine long-lived memory cells of a relatively high frequency, or are a consequence of continual priming by chronically persistent BCG vaccine bacilli. By clearing persistent bacilli, we have compared immune responses (spleen and lung CD4: cytokine producing T effector/TEM; TCR-specific) and BCG-induced protection, in the presence and absence of these persisting vaccine bacilli. Viable BCG bacilli persisted for at least 16 months post-vaccination, associated with specific CD4 T effector/TEM and tetramer-specific responses. Clearing these bacilli abrogated all BCG-specific CD4 T cells whilst only reducing protection by 1log10. BCG may induce two additive mechanisms of immunity: (i) dependant on the presence of viable bacilli and TEM; and (ii) independent of these factors. These data have crucial implications on the rational generation of replacement TB vaccines, and the interpretation of BCG induced immunity in animal models. PMID:25444816

Kaveh, Daryan A; Carmen Garcia-Pelayo, M; Hogarth, Philip J

2014-12-01

48

Carbohydrate-active enzymes from pigmented Bacilli: a genomic approach to assess carbohydrate utilization and degradation  

PubMed Central

Background Spore-forming Bacilli are Gram-positive bacteria commonly found in a variety of natural habitats, including soil, water and the gastro-intestinal (GI)-tract of animals. Isolates of various Bacillus species produce pigments, mostly carotenoids, with a putative protective role against UV irradiation and oxygen-reactive forms. Results We report the annotation of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) of two pigmented Bacilli isolated from the human GI-tract and belonging to the Bacillus indicus and B. firmus species. A high number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) were found in both isolates. A detailed analysis of CAZyme families, was performed and supported by growth data. Carbohydrates able to support growth as the sole carbon source negatively effected carotenoid formation in rich medium, suggesting that a catabolite repression-like mechanism controls carotenoid biosynthesis in both Bacilli. Experimental results on biofilm formation confirmed genomic data on the potentials of B. indicus HU36 to produce a levan-based biofilm, while mucin-binding and -degradation experiments supported genomic data suggesting the ability of both Bacilli to degrade mammalian glycans. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genomes of the two pigmented Bacilli, compared to other Bacillus species and validated by experimental data on carbohydrate utilization, biofilm formation and mucin degradation, suggests that the two pigmented Bacilli are adapted to the intestinal environment and are suited to grow in and colonize the human gut. PMID:21892951

2011-01-01

49

Properties of Bacillus cereus and other bacilli contaminating biomaterial-based industrial processes.  

PubMed

This paper is an overview on bacilli in industrial processes, with focus on food grade paper and paperboard production. Paperboards mainly contain sporeforming bacteria belonging to the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Brevibacillus, usually found in quantities from < 50 to 250 cfu g(-1) homogenized paperboard. Of those frequently found, Bacillus cereus group, B. licheniformis, B. subtilis and Brevibacillus brevis are important for food hygiene because of their hydrolytic activities on food components and the ability of some strains to produce food poisoning toxins or to grow at refrigerated temperatures. We found that the phenotypic properties (lecithinase activity, nitrate reduction) used in standard methods (e.g., ISO, FDA, IDF) to recognize B. cereus, were unreliable for industrial isolates. Whole cell fatty acid composition of a group of the industrial isolates deviated so much from those in a widely used commercial database that the strains were not or only poorly recognized as B. cereus. Industrial isolates, including toxigenic ones, often missed one or more of these characters, even in cases where 100% 16S rDNA identity was found with B. cereus or with B. thuringiensis. 11-Methyldodecanoic acid and trans-9-hexadecenoic acid were found without exception in over 200 industrial B. cereus group isolates and in over 30 culture collection strains. The detection of these fatty acids is a secure method for the identification of B. cereus. Negative reaction for starch hydrolysis and for BCET-RPLA test and a specific ribotype were found in all B. cereus strains producing the emetic toxin. PMID:11016612

Pirttijärvi, T S; Andersson, M A; Salkinoja-Salonen, M S

2000-09-25

50

A dually active anthrax vaccine that confers protection against both bacilli and toxins  

PubMed Central

Systemic anthrax is caused by unimpeded bacillar replication and toxin secretion. We developed a dually active anthrax vaccine (DAAV) that confers simultaneous protection against both bacilli and toxins. DAAV was constructed by conjugating capsular poly-?-d-glutamic acid (PGA) to protective antigen (PA), converting the weakly immunogenic PGA to a potent immunogen, and synergistically enhancing the humoral response to PA. PGA-specific antibodies bound to encapsulated bacilli and promoted the killing of bacilli by complement. PA-specific antibodies neutralized toxin activity and protected immunized mice against lethal challenge with anthrax toxin. Thus, DAAV combines both antibacterial and antitoxic components in a single vaccine against anthrax. DAAV introduces a vaccine design that may be widely applicable against infectious diseases and provides additional tools in medicine and biodefense. PMID:12960361

Rhie, Gi-Eun; Roehrl, Michael H.; Mourez, Michael; Collier, R. John; Mekalanos, John J.; Wang, Julia Y.

2003-01-01

51

A RAPD-based survey of thermophilic bacilli in milk powders from different countries.  

PubMed

Twenty-eight milk powders from 18 different countries were examined for the number and type of contaminating thermophilic bacilli. Of 742 isolates examined, 96.8% were assigned to the same strains of bacilli as previously found in New Zealand powders. The dominant isolate was Anoxybacillus flavithermus strain C followed by Bacillus licheniformis strain F. The former was also prevalent in New Zealand powders and the results demonstrate that A. flavithermus represents a widespread contaminant, seemingly ubiquitous in factories producing milk powder. The presence of thermophilic strains of Geobacillus stearothermophilus and to a lesser extent of Bacillus subtilis in milk powders was reconfirmed. PMID:15454316

Rückert, Andreas; Ronimus, Ron S; Morgan, Hugh W

2004-11-15

52

Growth Requirements of some Thermophilic and Mesophilic Bacilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: To approach reproducibility of mass cultures as sources of enzymes, the growth requirements of two mesophils belonging to BaciUus lichenifmis and B. Circulans, and three thermophils belonging to B. liehenifomis, B. circulans and B. steuro~hemmphilus, were determined in metal-buffered media. The mesophilic B. lichenifmis required glycerol or glucose, also alanine, aspartate, glycine, glutamate, arginine, histidine and lysine. Cytidylic acid

H. Baker; H. Sobotka; S. H. Hutner

1953-01-01

53

Direct molecular detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from clinical samples – An adjunct to cultural method of laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Tuberculosis, a communicable disease with significant morbidity and mortality, is the leading cause of death in the world from bacterial infectious disease. Because of its public health importance, there is need for rapid and definitive method of detecting the causative organism. Several approaches have been attempted, but the molecular methods, especially Polymerase Chain Reaction assays are the most promising for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from clinical samples. Aim: This study was aimed at using Polymerase Chain Reaction for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from clinical samples using universal sample processing methodology. Subjects and Methods: Two hundred clinical samples sent to Tuberculosis laboratories in Ibadan and Osogbo, Nigeria, were enrolled in this study. The samples were processed by universal sample processing methodology for PCR; smear microscopy was carried out on sputum samples by Ziehl Nelseen staining technique; and cultured on Middlebrook agar medium containing oleic acid albumin dextrose complex supplement after decontamination of samples. Results: Ninety six (48%) samples were detected positive for M. tuberculosis complex by polymerase chain reaction using the combination of boiling and vortexing and microscopy detected 72 (36%) samples positive for acid fast bacilli. Using culture method as gold standard, it was found that polymerase chain reaction assay was more sensitive (75.5%) and specific (94.8%) than microscopy (sensitivity of 48.5% and specificity of 85.7%) in detecting M. tuberculosis complex from clinical samples. There was significant difference in detecting M. tuberculosis from clinical samples when compared to microscopy (p<0.05). Conclusion: The study recommends that direct molecular detection of M. tuberculosis complex is sensitive and specific and polymerase chain reaction method should be used as an adjunct to other methods of laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis. PMID:22540099

Alli, Oyebode A. T.; Ogbolu, Olusoga D.; Alaka, Olubunmi O.

2011-01-01

54

Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the USA" (Alisa Woodring);…

1997

55

Antifouling activity of sessile bacilli derived from marine surfaces.  

PubMed

Marine biofilms are a virtually untapped source of bioactive molecules that may find application as novel antifoulants in the marine paint industry. This study aimed at determining the potential of marine biofilm bacteria to produce novel biomolecules with potential application as natural antifoulants. Nine representative strains were isolated from a range of surfaces and were grown in YEB medium and harvested during the late exponential growth phase. Bacterial biomass and spent culture medium were extracted with ethanol and ethyl acetate, respectively. Extracts were assayed for their antifouling activity using two tests: (1) antimicrobial well diffusion test against a common fouling bacterium, Halomonas marina, and (2) anti-crustacean activity test using Artemia salina. Our results showed that none of the ethanolic extracts (bacterial biomass) were active in either test. In contrast, most of the organic extracts had antimicrobial activity (88%) and were toxic towards A. salina (67%). Sequencing of full 16 S ribosomal DNA analysis showed that the isolates were related to Bacillus mojavensis and Bacillus firmus. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) profiling of ethyl acetate extracts of culture supernatants showed that these species produce the bioactive lipopeptides surfactin A, mycosubtilin and bacillomycin D. PMID:17909869

Ortega-Morales, Benjamín Otto; Chan-Bacab, Manuel Jesús; Miranda-Tello, Elizabeth; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Carrero, Julio César; Stein, Torsten

2008-01-01

56

9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...tube containing four swabs and lactose broth or other suitable media, 1 ml. will be transferred to 10 ml. lactose in a fermentation tube. (2) Incubate at 37 °C for 48 hours. The presence of acid, and gas in the amount of 10 percent or more...

2011-01-01

57

Resistance of gram-negative bacilli as related to hospital use of antimicrobial agents.  

PubMed Central

The development of resistance of gram-negative bacilli, which are common nosocomial pathogens, is an increasing problem. It is generally accepted that this resistance may directly reflect the frequency of use of various antimicrobial agents. Because our institution experienced in 1976 a dramatic change in the pattern of antimicrobial use, primarily a marked decrease in prescribing cephalosporins, we attempted to evaluate retrospectively the effects of this change upon the resistance of gram-negative bacilli that are common nosocomial pathogens. Susceptibilities of Klebsiella and Providencia spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens were determined for the years 1975 to 1979. Not unexpectedly, we observed a substantial decrease in cephalosporin resistance. An unexpected finding was a decrease in aminoglycoside resistance, despite increased use of these agents. The possibility that decreased cephalosporin use may lead to decreased aminoglycoside resistance is an intriguing and provocative thesis which can only be speculative at this time but which would seem worthy of additional formal investigation. PMID:6638994

Ma, M Y; Goldstein, E J; Friedman, M H; Anderson, M S; Mulligan, M E

1983-01-01

58

Evidence for a Structural Role for Acid-Fast Lipids in Oocyst Walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Coccidia are protozoan parasites that cause significant human disease and are of major agricultural importance. Cryptosporidium spp. cause diarrhea in humans and animals, while Toxoplasma causes disseminated infections in fetuses and untreated AIDS patients. Eimeria is a major pathogen of commercial chickens. Oocysts, which are the infectious form of Cryptosporidium and Eimeria and one of two infectious forms of Toxoplasma (the other is tissue cysts in undercooked meat), have a multilayered wall. Recently we showed that the inner layer of the oocyst walls of Toxoplasma and Eimeria is a porous scaffold of fibers of ?-1,3-glucan, which are also present in fungal walls but are absent from Cryptosporidium oocyst walls. Here we present evidence for a structural role for lipids in the oocyst walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria. Briefly, oocyst walls of each organism label with acid-fast stains that bind to lipids in the walls of mycobacteria. Polyketide synthases similar to those that make mycobacterial wall lipids are abundant in oocysts of Toxoplasma and Eimeria and are predicted in Cryptosporidium. The outer layer of oocyst wall of Eimeria and the entire oocyst wall of Cryptosporidium are dissolved by organic solvents. Oocyst wall lipids are complex mixtures of triglycerides, some of which contain polyhydroxy fatty acyl chains like those present in plant cutin or elongated fatty acyl chains like mycolic acids. We propose a two-layered model of the oocyst wall (glucan and acid-fast lipids) that resembles the two-layered walls of mycobacteria (peptidoglycan and acid-fast lipids) and plants (cellulose and cutin). PMID:24003177

Bushkin, G. Guy; Motari, Edwin; Carpentieri, Andrea; Dubey, Jitender P.; Costello, Catherine E.; Robbins, Phillips W.; Samuelson, John

2013-01-01

59

Identification of Aerobic Gram-Positive Bacilli by Use of Vitek MS  

PubMed Central

The accuracy of Vitek MS mass spectrometric identifications was assessed for 206 clinically significant isolates of aerobic Gram-positive bacilli representing 20 genera and 38 species. The Vitek MS identifications were correct for 85% of the isolates (56.3% to the species level, 28.6% limited to the genus level), with misidentifications occurring for 7.3% of the isolates. PMID:24501030

Navas, Maria; Pincus, David H.; Wilkey, Kathy; Sercia, Linda; LaSalvia, Margaret; Wilson, Deborah; Procop, Gary W.

2014-01-01

60

Physiology of biofilms of thermophilic bacilli—potential consequences for cleaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermophilic Bacillus species readily attached and grew on stainless steel surfaces, forming mature biofilms of >10 6.0 cells\\/cm 2in 6 h on a surface inoculated with the bacteria. Clean stainless steel exposed only to pasteurized skim milk at 55 °C developed a mature biofilm of >10 6.0 cells\\/cm 2 within 18 h. When bacilli were inoculated onto the steel coupons, 18-h biofilms were 30 µm thick.

S. G. Parkar; S. H. Flint; J. D. Brooks

2003-01-01

61

In vitro activity of fleroxacin against multiresistant gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with nosocomial infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the in vitro activity of fleroxacin against nosocomial gram-negative organisms, 263 multiresistant gram-negative\\u000a bacilli (203 Enterobacteriaceae and 60 non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli) were isolated from adult patients with nosocomial infections. The different\\u000a patterns of resistance to eight different antimicrobial agents (ampicillin, carbenicillin, piperacillin, cephalothin, cefamandole,\\u000a ceftazidime, gentamicin and amikacin) were determined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), using

M. Araque; E. Velazco

1998-01-01

62

Characterization of the coliform and enteric bacilli in the environment of calves with colibacillosis.  

PubMed Central

In the first part of the present study the coliform and enteric bacilli in the environment of calves with colibacillosis were examined. The occurrence, number, and pathogenic properties of Escherichia coli in barnyard soils were obtained from six cattle ranches. The O and K serogroups of E. coli isolates obtained from the feces of calves with colibacillosis born at these cattle ranches were determined, and their serotypes were compared with the E. coli O and K serotypes found in soils. The results showed a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli in barnyard soils contaminated with bovine feces. For the second part of this study, 6 healthy calves and 51 calves with colibacillosis were studied. The numbers of total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, total streptococci, fecal streptococci, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms in the feces of calves were determined. In addition, coliform and enteric bacilli from the feces of both healthy and diseased calves were identified, and their indole, methyl red, Voges-Proskauer, citrate (IMViC) types were described. In parallel, the IMViC types of coliform and enteric bacilli isolated from barnyard soils previously contaminated with bovine feces were compared with those isolated from uncontaminated soils. All fecal specimens were also examined for the presence of rotavirus. No significant effect on the numbers of the bacterial types was found. The results suggest that the predominant IMViC types found in the feces of calves with colibacillosis originate from the soil. From this study it is apparent that the occurrence, number, and survival of E. coli in barnyard soils is related to ranch husbandry and sanitary practices. PMID:3890744

Plews, P I; Bromel, M C; Schipper, I A

1985-01-01

63

Characterization of the coliform and enteric bacilli in the environment of calves with colibacillosis.  

PubMed

In the first part of the present study the coliform and enteric bacilli in the environment of calves with colibacillosis were examined. The occurrence, number, and pathogenic properties of Escherichia coli in barnyard soils were obtained from six cattle ranches. The O and K serogroups of E. coli isolates obtained from the feces of calves with colibacillosis born at these cattle ranches were determined, and their serotypes were compared with the E. coli O and K serotypes found in soils. The results showed a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli in barnyard soils contaminated with bovine feces. For the second part of this study, 6 healthy calves and 51 calves with colibacillosis were studied. The numbers of total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, total streptococci, fecal streptococci, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms in the feces of calves were determined. In addition, coliform and enteric bacilli from the feces of both healthy and diseased calves were identified, and their indole, methyl red, Voges-Proskauer, citrate (IMViC) types were described. In parallel, the IMViC types of coliform and enteric bacilli isolated from barnyard soils previously contaminated with bovine feces were compared with those isolated from uncontaminated soils. All fecal specimens were also examined for the presence of rotavirus. No significant effect on the numbers of the bacterial types was found. The results suggest that the predominant IMViC types found in the feces of calves with colibacillosis originate from the soil. From this study it is apparent that the occurrence, number, and survival of E. coli in barnyard soils is related to ranch husbandry and sanitary practices. PMID:3890744

Plews, P I; Bromel, M C; Schipper, I A

1985-04-01

64

Comparison of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) with conventional PCR, bacterial culture and ELISA for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in sheep showing pathology of Johne's disease.  

PubMed

A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay employing IS900 gene specific primers of Mycobacterium avium subsp. parartuberculosis (MAP) was compared with conventional PCR, bacterial culture and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 38 sheep showing granulomatous enteritis and lymphadenitis with and without demonstration of acid-fast bacilli (AFB). The lesions were classified as multibacillary (MB) (n?=?23), which had diffuse granulomatous lesions with abundant AFB, and paucibacillary (PB) (n?=?15), which had focal or multifocal granulomatous lesions with few or no AFB. In the multibacillary group (MB), IS900 PCR detected 19 (82.6%), and qPCR detected all 23 (100%) sheep positive for MAP in the intestine and lymph node tissues. In the paucibacillary group (PB), IS900 PCR detected 2 (13.3%), and qPCR detected all 15 (100%) sheep positive for MAP in tissues. When results of both groups were taken together, IS900 PCR detected 21(55.2%), and qPCR detected all 38 (100%) animals positive for MAP genome either in the intestine or lymph node tissues. On Herrold egg yolk medium, tissues of 14 (60.9%) MB and 5 (33.3%) PB sheep were found to be positive for MAP. Out of 27 sheep (PB?=?8, MB?=?19) tested by an ELISA, 21 (77.7%) were found to be positive for MAP antibody, of which 25% (2/8) and 100% (19/19) sheep were from PB and MB sheep, respectively. Based on the results of the present study, it was concluded that qPCR was a highly sensitive test in comparison to conventional PCR, ELISA and bacterial culture for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis on infected tissues especially from paucibacillary sheep. PMID:23539663

Sonawane, Ganesh G; Tripathi, Bhupendra N

2013-12-01

65

Risk factors for fluoroquinolone resistance in Gram-negative bacilli causing healthcare-acquired urinary tract infections  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The prevalence of urinary tract infections caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (FQ-resistant GNB-UTIs) has been increasing. Previous studies that explored risk factors for FQ resistance have focused only on UTIs caused by Escherichia coli and/or failed to distinguish colonisation from infection. We conducted a case–control study at two medical centres within the University of Pennsylvania Health System to identify risk factors for FQ resistance among healthcare-acquired GNB-UTIs. Subjects with positive urine cultures for GNB and who met Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for healthcare-acquired UTI were eligible. Cases were subjects with FQ-resistant GNB-UTI, controls were subjects with FQ-susceptible GNB-UTI matched to cases by month of isolation and species of infecting organism. In total, 251 cases and 263 controls were included from 1 January 2003 to 31 March 2005. Independent risk factors (adjusted odds ratio; 95% confidence interval) for FQ resistance included male sex (2.03; 1.21–3.39; P = 0.007), African-American race (1.80; 1.10–2.94; P = 0.020), chronic respiratory disease (2.58; 1.18–5.62); P = 0.017], residence in a long term care facility (4.41; 1.79–10.88; P = 0.001), hospitalisation within the past two weeks (2.19; 1.31–3.64; P = 0.003), hospitalisation under a medical service (2.72; 1.63–4.54; P < 0.001), recent FQ exposure (15.73; 6.15–40.26; P < 0.001), recent cotrimoxazole exposure (2.49; 1.07–5.79; P = 0.033), and recent metronidazole exposure (2.89; 1.48–5.65; P = 0.002). PMID:20643497

Rattanaumpawan, P.; Tolomeo, P.; Bilker, W.B.; Fishman, N.O.; Lautenbach, E.

2010-01-01

66

Isolation and characterisation of aerobic endospore forming Bacilli from sugarcane rhizosphere for the selection of strains with agriculture potentialities.  

PubMed

Eighteen aerobic endospore forming strains were isolated from sugarcane rhizosphere in N-free medium. A phenotypic description and analysis of the 5' end hypervariable region sequences of 16S rRNA revealed a high diversity of Bacillus and related genera. Isolates were identified, and four genera were obtained: seven strains belonged to Bacillus (Bacillaceae family), four belonged to Paenibacillus, six belonged to Brevibacillus and one strain was identified as Cohnella (Paenibacillaceae family). Four Brevibacillus strains showed in vitro inhibitory activity against plant pathogens fungi Curvularia and Fusarium. Seventy-four percent of the isolated bacteria grew on pectin as the only carbon source, showing polygalacturonase activity. Pectate lyase activity was detected for the first time in a Brevibacillus genus strain. All isolates showed endoglucanase activity. Calcium phosphate solubilisation was positive in 83.3% of the isolates, with higher values than those reported for Bacillus inorganic phosphate solubilising strains. High ethylene plant hormone secretion in the culture medium was detected in 22% of the bacteria. This is the first report of ethylene secretion in Paenibacillaceae isolates. Indole-3-acetic acid production was found in a Brevibacillus genus isolate. It was reported for the first time the presence of Cohnella genus strain on sugarcane rhizosphere bearing plant growth promoting traits. The sugarcane isolate Brevibacillus B65 was identified as a plant growth inoculant because it showed wider spectra of plant stimulation capabilities, including an antifungal effect, extracellular hydrolases secretion, inorganic phosphate solubilisation and plant hormone liberation. In this work, sugarcane was shown to be a suitable niche for finding aerobic endospore forming 'Bacilli' with agriculture biotechnological purposes. PMID:22805941

de Los Milagros Orberá Ratón, Teresa; Yano, Ricardo; Rodríguez Gámez, Odalys; Floh, Eny Iochevet Segal; de Jesús Serrat Díaz, Manuel; Barbosa, Heloíza Ramos

2012-04-01

67

Targeting dormant tuberculosis bacilli: results for molecules with a novel pyrimidone scaffold.  

PubMed

Our inability to completely control TB has been due in part to the presence of dormant mycobacteria. This also renders drug regimens ineffective and is the prime cause of the appearance of drug-resistant strains. In continuation of our efforts to develop novel antitubercular agents that especially target dormant mycobacteria, a set of 55 new compounds belonging to the pyrimidone class were designed on the basis of CoMFA and CoMSIA studies, and these were synthesized and subsequently tested against both the dormant and virulent BCG strain of M. tuberculosis. Some novel compounds have been identified which selectively inhibit the dormant tuberculosis bacilli with significantly low IC50 values. This study reports the second molecule after TMC-207, having the ability to inhibit tuberculosis bacilli exclusively in its dormant phase. The synthesis was accomplished by a modified multicomponent Biginelli reaction. A classification model was generated using the binary QSAR approach--recursive partitioning (RP) to identify structural characteristics related to the activity. Physicochemical, structural, topological, connectivity indices, and E-state key descriptors were used for generation of the decision tree. The decision tree could provide insights into structure-activity relationships that will guide the design of more potent inhibitors. PMID:24917467

Joshi, Rohit R; Barchha, Avinash; Khedkar, Vijay M; Pissurlenkar, Raghuvir R S; Sarkar, Sampa; Sarkar, Dhiman; Joshi, Rohini R; Joshi, Ramesh A; Shah, Anamik K; Coutinho, Evans C

2015-02-01

68

LNA-modified isothermal oligonucleotide microarray for differentiating bacilli of similar origin.  

PubMed

Oligonucleotide microarray has been one of the most powerful tools in the 'Post-Genome Era' for its high sensitivity, high throughput and parallel processing capability. To achieve high detection specificity, we fabricated an isothermal microarray using locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified oligonucleotide probes, since LNA has demonstrated the advanced ability to enhance the binding affinity toward their complementary nucleotides. After designing the nucleotide sequences of these oligonucleotide probes for gram-positive bacilli of similar origin (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus circulans), we unified the melting temperatures of these oligonucleotide probes by modifying some nucleotides using LNA. Furthermore, we optimized the experimental procedures of hydrating microarray slides, blocking side surface as well as labelling the PCR products. Experimental results revealed that KOD Dash DNA polymerase could efficiently incorporate Cy3-dCTP into the PCR products, and the LNA-isothermal oligonucleotide microarray were able to distinguish the bacilli of similar origin with a high degree of accuracy and specificity under the optimized experimental condition. PMID:25431409

Yan, Jing; Yuan, Ying; Mu, Runqing; Shang, Hong; Guan, Yifu

2014-12-01

69

Genomic analysis of smooth tubercle bacilli provides insights into ancestry and pathoadaptation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Global spread and limited genetic variation are hallmarks of M. tuberculosis, the agent of human tuberculosis. In contrast, Mycobacterium canettii and related tubercle bacilli that also cause human tuberculosis and exhibit unusual smooth colony morphology are restricted to East Africa. Here, we sequenced and analyzed the whole genomes of five representative strains of smooth tubercle bacilli (STB) using Sanger (4-5× coverage), 454/Roche (13-18× coverage) and/or Illumina DNA sequencing (45-105× coverage). We show that STB isolates are highly recombinogenic and evolutionarily early branching, with larger genome sizes, higher rates of genetic variation, fewer molecular scars and distinct CRISPR-Cas systems relative to M. tuberculosis. Despite the differences, all tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria share a highly conserved core genome. Mouse infection experiments showed that STB strains are less persistent and virulent than M. tuberculosis. We conclude that M. tuberculosis emerged from an ancestral STB-like pool of mycobacteria by gain of persistence and virulence mechanisms, and we provide insights into the molecular events involved. PMID:23291586

Supply, Philip; Marceau, Michael; Mangenot, Sophie; Roche, David; Rouanet, Carine; Khanna, Varun; Majlessi, Laleh; Criscuolo, Alexis; Tap, Julien; Pawlik, Alexandre; Fiette, Laurence; Orgeur, Mickael; Fabre, Michel; Parmentier, Cécile; Frigui, Wafa; Simeone, Roxane; Boritsch, Eva C; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Willery, Eve; Walker, Danielle; Quail, Michael A; Ma, Laurence; Bouchier, Christiane; Salvignol, Grégory; Sayes, Fadel; Cascioferro, Alessandro; Seemann, Torsten; Barbe, Valérie; Locht, Camille; Gutierrez, Maria-Cristina; Leclerc, Claude; Bentley, Stephen D; Stinear, Timothy P; Brisse, Sylvain; Médigue, Claudine; Parkhill, Julian; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Brosch, Roland

2013-02-01

70

Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Other Gram-Negative Bacilli in Pneumonia-Prone Age Groups in Semarang, Indonesia  

PubMed Central

Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) cause many cases of pneumonia in Indonesia. We investigated nasopharyngeal carriage of GNB in Semarang, Indonesia. Klebsiella pneumoniae carriage in adults (15%) was higher than in children (7%) (P = 0.004), while that of other GNB was comparable. Poor food and water hygiene are determinants of carriage of these bacteria. PMID:23486716

Severin, Juliëtte A.; Gasem, M. Hussein; Keuter, Monique; van den Broek, Peterhans; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Wahyono, Hendro; Verbrugh, Henri A.

2013-01-01

71

NDM-1 (New Delhi metallo beta lactamase-1) producing Gram-negative bacilli: Emergence & clinical implications  

PubMed Central

Backgound & objectives: Resistance to carbapenems in Gram-negative bacteria conferred by NDM-1 is a global health problem. We investigated the occurrence of NDM-1 in clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacilli in a tertiary care hospital in Kashmir valley, India. Methods: Gram-negative bacilli from different clinical isolates were included in the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method and interpreted using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Isolates resistant to carbapenems were subjected to different phenotypic test such as modified Hodge test (MHT), boronic acid and oxacillin based MHT (BA-MHT and OXA-MHT), combined disk test and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) with imipenem and imipenem -EDTA for determination of class B metallo enzymes. Presence of blaNDM-1 gene was established by PCR and confirmed by sequencing. Results: Of the total 1625 Gram-negative isolates received, 100 were resistant to imipenem. Of the 100 isolates, 55 (55%) were positive by modified Hodge test indicating carbapenemase production. Of the 100 isolates tested by MHT, BA-MHT and OXA-MHT, 29 (29%) isolates belonged to Class A and 15 (15%) to Class B, while 56 (56%) isolates were negative. Of the 15 class B metallo beta lactamase producers, nine carried the blaNDM-1 gene. NDM-1 was found among Escherichia coli (2 isolates), Klebsiella pneumoniae (2 isolates), Citrobacter freundii (3 isolates), Acinetobacter spp (1 isolate), and one isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Isolates were resistant to all antibiotic tested except polymyxin B and tigecycline. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed the presence of clinical isolates expressing NDM-1 in Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India. These isolates harbour plasmid mediated multiple drug resistant determinants and can disseminate easily across several unrelated genera. To halt their spread, early identification of these isolates is mandatory. PMID:25579151

Fomda, Bashir Ahmad; Khan, Asiya; Zahoor, Danish

2014-01-01

72

Potassium availability triggers Mycobacterium tuberculosis transition to, and resuscitation from, non-culturable (dormant) states  

PubMed Central

Dormancy in non-sporulating bacteria is an interesting and underexplored phenomenon with significant medical implications. In particular, latent tuberculosis may result from the maintenance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli in non-replicating states in infected individuals. Uniquely, growth of M. tuberculosis in aerobic conditions in potassium-deficient media resulted in the generation of bacilli that were non-culturable (NC) on solid media but detectable in liquid media. These bacilli were morphologically distinct and tolerant to cell-wall-targeting antimicrobials. Bacterial counts on solid media quickly recovered after washing and incubating bacilli in fresh resuscitation media containing potassium. This resuscitation of growth occurred too quickly to be attributed to M. tuberculosis replication. Transcriptomic and proteomic profiling through adaptation to, and resuscitation from, this NC state revealed a switch to anaerobic respiration and a shift to lipid and amino acid metabolism. High concordance with mRNA signatures derived from M. tuberculosis infection models suggests that analogous NC mycobacterial phenotypes may exist during disease and may represent unrecognized populations in vivo. Resuscitation of NC bacilli in potassium-sufficient media was characterized by time-dependent activation of metabolic pathways in a programmed series of processes that probably transit bacilli through challenging microenvironments during infection. PMID:25320096

Salina, Elena G.; Waddell, Simon J.; Hoffmann, Nadine; Rosenkrands, Ida; Butcher, Philip D.; Kaprelyants, Arseny S.

2014-01-01

73

Sensitivity to lytic agents and DNA base composition of several aerobic spore-bearing bacilli.  

PubMed

The authors studied the possible relationship between a genetic characteristic, like DNA base composition, and certain phenotypic characteristics, i.e., sensitivity to lytic agents, morphology of colonies, and biochemical reactions in 34 strains of spore-bearing bacilli. From the results obtained two groups of bacilli have been identified. The first group includes the species B. subtilis, B. pumilus, B. licheniformis, and B. firmus and one strain of B. megaterium. The mean value of the GC% of the DNA is 44.22 +/- 1.76. All the strains examined are highly sensitive to lysozyme and resistant to sodium lauryl sulphate (S.L.S.); the surface colonies have a "rhizoid" appearance and the microcolonies on slide microculture are star-shaped. The second group includes the species B. cereus, B. cereus var. mycoides, B. anthracis, and B. thuringiensis. The mean value of the GC% of the DNA is 33.65 +/- 0.59. All the strains belonging to this group are resistant to both lysozyme and S.L.S., and the surface macro-colonies and the microcolonies have a "medusae head" appearance. The two groups also have certain different biochemical reactions; e.g., anaerobic growth and the egg yolk reaction, with few exception, are negative for the first group and positive for the second; furthermore, the strains in the first group (with rare exceptions) cause fermentation in the three carbohydrates, glucose, arabinose, and xylose, while glucose only is fermented by all strains with one exception in the second group. The position of B. megaterium is not yet clear, although one strain may certainly be included in the first group. Lysis by lipase is extremely variable and does not correlate with any of the other characteristics studied. The other species studied in relation to the characteristics, considered in our research (B. coagulans, B. macerans, B. polymyxa, B. laterosporus, B. alvei, B. circulans, B. stearothermophilus, and B. brevis), are not susceptible to grouping, either in the first, or in the second or even in a separate group. PMID:696046

Candeli, A; Mastrandrea, V; Cenci, G; De Bartolomeo, A

1978-01-01

74

Increasing carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli and decreasing metallo-?-lactamase producers over eight years from Korea.  

PubMed

The trends and types of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli were analyzed from clinical specimens collected between 2005 and 2012 at a Korean teaching hospital. The proportions of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. increased markedly to 66%. Metallo-?-lactamase producers significantly decreased and the majority shifted from the bla(VIM-2) type to the bla(IMP-1) type. PMID:25684011

Lee, Yangsoon; Kim, Chang-Ki; Chung, Hae-Sun; Yong, Dongeun; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Yunsop

2015-03-01

75

Increasing Carbapenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli and Decreasing Metallo-?-Lactamase Producers over Eight Years from Korea  

PubMed Central

The trends and types of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli were analyzed from clinical specimens collected between 2005 and 2012 at a Korean teaching hospital. The proportions of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. increased markedly to 66%. Metallo-?-lactamase producers significantly decreased and the majority shifted from the blaVIM-2 type to the blaIMP-1 type. PMID:25684011

Lee, Yangsoon; Kim, Chang-Ki; Chung, Hae-Sun; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Yunsop

2015-01-01

76

Genomic determinants of sporulation in Bacilli and Clostridia: towards the minimal set of sporulation-specific genes  

PubMed Central

Three classes of low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (Firmicutes), Bacilli, Clostridia and Negativicutes, include numerous members that are capable of producing heat-resistant endospores. Spore-forming firmicutes include many environmentally important organisms, such as insect pathogens and cellulose-degrading industrial strains, as well as human pathogens responsible for such diseases as anthrax, botulism, gas gangrene and tetanus. In the best-studied model organism Bacillus subtilis, sporulation involves over 500 genes, many of which are conserved among other bacilli and clostridia. This work aimed to define the genomic requirements for sporulation through an analysis of the presence of sporulation genes in various firmicutes, including those with smaller genomes than B. subtilis. Cultivable spore-formers were found to have genomes larger than 2300 kb and encompass over 2150 protein-coding genes of which 60 are orthologues of genes that are apparently essential for sporulation in B. subtilis. Clostridial spore-formers lack, among others, spoIIB, sda, spoVID and safA genes and have non-orthologous displacements of spoIIQ and spoIVFA, suggesting substantial differences between bacilli and clostridia in the engulfment and spore coat formation steps. Many B. subtilis sporulation genes, particularly those encoding small acid-soluble spore proteins and spore coat proteins, were found only in the family Bacillaceae, or even in a subset of Bacillus spp. Phylogenetic profiles of sporulation genes, compiled in this work, confirm the presence of a common sporulation gene core, but also illuminate the diversity of the sporulation processes within various lineages. These profiles should help further experimental studies of uncharacterized widespread sporulation genes, which would ultimately allow delineation of the minimal set(s) of sporulation-specific genes in Bacilli and Clostridia. PMID:22882546

Galperin, Michael Y; Mekhedov, Sergei L; Puigbo, Pere; Smirnov, Sergey; Wolf, Yuri I; Rigden, Daniel J

2012-01-01

77

Epidermotropism of lepra bacilli in a patient with histoid Hansen's disease.  

PubMed

Histoid leprosy is a rare form of multibacillary leprosy with distinct clinical and histopathological features. It is a variant of lepromatous leprosy with a very high bacillary load. It appears in patients as relapse after dapsone monotherapy and resistance or rarely, "de novo." Although leprosy is slowly declining the exact mode of transmission is unclear. At least until recently, the most widely held belief was that the disease was transmitted by contact between cases of leprosy and healthy persons. Transmission by the respiratory route is also gaining ground. There are other possibilities such as transmission through insects, which cannot be completely ruled out. However, the present case report possibly suggests the role of skin as a portal of both exit and entry for the bacillus in histoid leprosy transmission. De novo form of histoid leprosy has numerous solid staining bacteria inside the epidermis. The reports show that these bacilli can be eliminated from the intact epidermis, which indicate an unusual role of the skin in the transmission of leprosy. PMID:25396142

Vora, Rita V; Pilani, Abhishek

2014-10-01

78

Mosquitocidal toxins of bacilli and their genetic manipulation for effective biological control of mosquitoes.  

PubMed Central

The identification, cloning, and characterization of protein toxins from various species of bacilli have demonstrated the existence of mosquitocidal toxins with different structures, mechanisms of action, and host ranges. A start has been made in understanding the polypeptide determinants of toxicity and insecticidal activity, and the purification of toxins from recombinant organisms may lead to the elucidation of their X-ray crystal structures and the cloning of brush border membrane receptors. The results of cloning mosquitocidal toxins in heterologous microorganisms show the potential of expanding the range of susceptible mosquito species by combining several toxins of different host specificity in one cell. Toxins have been expressed in new microorganisms with the potential for increasing potency by persisting at the larval feeding zone. The powerful tools of bacterial genetics are being applied to engineer genetically stable, persistent toxin expression and expand the insecticidal host ranges of Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis strains. These techniques, together with modern formulation technology, should eventually lead to the construction of mosquitocidal microorganisms which are effective enough to have a real impact on mosquito-borne diseases. Images PMID:7905597

Porter, A G; Davidson, E W; Liu, J W

1993-01-01

79

[Bioactive effectiveness of selected disinfective agents on Gram-negative bacilli isolated from hospital environment].  

PubMed

In our study the susceptibility (MIC) of chosen 21 strains of Gram-negative bacilli isolated in hospitals to disinfectant agents (glucoprotamine, sodium dichloroisocyanurate, potassium persulfate), the effectiveness of these disinfectants against selected bacteria and their effectiveness to biofilm forming bacteria was determined. It was found that glucoprotamine showed the highest activity to Gram-negative bacteria. Obtained MIC values for glucoprotamine (except 1 strain of S. marcescens) were 16-64 times lower that MICs for sodium dichloroisocyanurate and 4-32 times lower that MICs for potassium persulfate. The effectiveness of disinfectants containing potassium persulfate or sodium dichloroisocyanurate was 100% tested by carrier method. Glucoprotamine was ineffective against 2 out of 9 strains (18%): E. cloacae and S. marcescens. It was found that disinfectants were more effective against Gram-negative bacteria in carrier methods than for biofilm forming bacteria. 86% of bacteria growing 5 days on a catheter were resistant to working solution of disinfectant containing glucoprotamine (5200 mg/L) or potassium persulfate (4300 mg/L); 66.6% of tested bacteria were resistant to working solution of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (1795.2 mg/L). In our study the highest effectiveness to biofilm forming bacteria showed disinfectant with sodium dichloroisocyanurate, the lowest--with glucoprotamine. PMID:15810507

Pancer, Katarzyna W; Laudy, Agnieszka E; Mikulak, Ewa; Gliniewicz, Aleksandra; Staniszewska, Monika; Stypu?kowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna

2004-01-01

80

Facing the challenge of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli in Australia.  

PubMed

Multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacilli (GNB) are now globally widespread and present a major challenge to modern medical practice. Resistance to common antibiotics such as ceftriaxone is becoming more frequent in Australia, primarily mediated by extended-spectrum ?-lactamase enzymes in common organisms such as Escherichia coli, and may occur in both hospital- and community-acquired infections. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae have emerged rapidly in recent years and are well established in many countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Although rare at present in Australia, they have caused significant nosocomial outbreaks. GNB have numerous mechanisms by which they can develop antibiotic resistance. Genes that encode extended-spectrum ?-lactamases or carbapenemases are frequently co-located with multiple other resistance determinants on highly transmissible genetic structures such as plasmids. A key risk factor for infection with MDR GNB is travel to countries with high rates of resistance, especially with health care exposure. With limited prospects for new antibiotics in late-stage development that are active against MDR GNB, our national response to these challenges will require a multifaceted approach, including widespread implementation of antimicrobial stewardship, enhanced surveillance, targeted screening of at-risk patients and improved infection control practices. In the longer term, restriction of agricultural use of antibiotic classes critical to human medicine, removal of barriers to new drug development, and technological advances in rapid microbiological diagnostics will be required. PMID:25758692

Harris, Patrick; Paterson, David; Rogers, Benjamin

2015-03-16

81

Insight into the evolution and origin of leprosy bacilli from the genome sequence of Mycobacterium lepromatosis.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium lepromatosis is an uncultured human pathogen associated with diffuse lepromatous leprosy and a reactional state known as Lucio's phenomenon. By using deep sequencing with and without DNA enrichment, we obtained the near-complete genome sequence of M. lepromatosis present in a skin biopsy from a Mexican patient, and compared it with that of Mycobacterium leprae, which has undergone extensive reductive evolution. The genomes display extensive synteny and are similar in size (?3.27 Mb). Protein-coding genes share 93% nucleotide sequence identity, whereas pseudogenes are only 82% identical. The events that led to pseudogenization of 50% of the genome likely occurred before divergence from their most recent common ancestor (MRCA), and both M. lepromatosis and M. leprae have since accumulated new pseudogenes or acquired specific deletions. Functional comparisons suggest that M. lepromatosis has lost several enzymes required for amino acid synthesis whereas M. leprae has a defective heme pathway. M. lepromatosis has retained all functions required to infect the Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system and therefore may also be neuropathogenic. A phylogeographic survey of 227 leprosy biopsies by differential PCR revealed that 221 contained M. leprae whereas only six, all from Mexico, harbored M. lepromatosis. Phylogenetic comparisons indicate that M. lepromatosis is closer than M. leprae to the MRCA, and a Bayesian dating analysis suggests that they diverged from their MRCA approximately 13.9 Mya. Thus, despite their ancient separation, the two leprosy bacilli are remarkably conserved and still cause similar pathologic conditions. PMID:25831531

Singh, Pushpendra; Benjak, Andrej; Schuenemann, Verena J; Herbig, Alexander; Avanzi, Charlotte; Busso, Philippe; Nieselt, Kay; Krause, Johannes; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Cole, Stewart T

2015-04-01

82

[News of antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacilli in Algeria].  

PubMed

Antibiotic resistance has become a major public health problem in Algeria. Indeed the past decade, we have seen a significant increase in resistance to antibiotics especially in Gram-negative bacilli. Resistance to ?-lactams in enterobacteria is dominated by the production of ESBL CTX-M-3 and CTX-M-15. The strains producing these enzymes are often the cause of potentially serious infections in both hospital and community settings. Identified plasmid cephalosporinases are CMY-2, CMY-12 and DHA-1. The isolation of strains of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa producing carbapenemases is rare in Algeria. Some Enterobacteriaceae producing OXA-48 or VIM-19 have been reported; so far, only VIM-2 has been identified in P. aeruginosa. However, the situation regarding the strains of Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to carbapenemases seems to be more disturbing. The carbapenemase OXA-23 is the most common and seems to be endemic in the north. The carbapenemase NDM-1 has also been identified. Resistance to aminoglycosides is marked by the identification armA gene associated with blaCTX-M genes in strains of Salmonella sp. Several other resistance genes have been identified sporadically in strains of Enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. Resistance genes to fluoroquinolones are more recent identification in Algeria. The most common are the Qnr determinants followed by the bifunctional enzyme AAC[6']-Ib-cr. Resistance to sulfonamides and trimethoprim was also reported in Enterobacteriaceae strains in the west of the country. PMID:24819127

Baba Ahmed-Kazi Tani, Z; Arlet, G

2014-06-01

83

Immunogenomics for identification of disease resistance genes in pigs: a review focusing on Gram-negative bacilli  

PubMed Central

Over the past years, infectious disease has caused enormous economic loss in pig industry. Among the pathogens, gram negative bacteria not only cause inflammation, but also cause different diseases and make the pigs more susceptible to virus infection. Vaccination, medication and elimination of sick pigs are major strategies of controlling disease. Genetic methods, such as selection of disease resistance in the pig, have not been widely used. Recently, the completion of the porcine whole genome sequencing has provided powerful tools to identify the genome regions that harboring genes controlling disease or immunity. Immunogenomics, which combines DNA variations, transcriptome, immune response, and QTL mapping data to illustrate the interactions between pathogen and host immune system, will be an effective genomics tool for identification of disease resistance genes in pigs. These genes will be potential targets for disease resistance in breeding programs. This paper reviewed the progress of disease resistance study in the pig focusing on Gram-negative bacilli. Major porcine Gram-negative bacilli and diseases, suggested candidate genes/pathways against porcine Gram-negative bacilli, and distributions of QTLs for immune capacity on pig chromosomes were summarized. Some tools for immunogenomics research were described. We conclude that integration of sequencing, whole genome associations, functional genomics studies, and immune response information is necessary to illustrate molecular mechanisms and key genes in disease resistance. PMID:23137309

2012-01-01

84

Nonfermenting Gram-negative Bacilli other than Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter Spp. Causing Respiratory Tract Infections in a Tertiary Care Center  

PubMed Central

Background: Nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli have emerged as important healthcare-associated pathogens. It is important to correctly identify all clinically significant nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli considering the intrinsic multidrug resistance exhibited by these bacteria. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken to identify the various nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli other than Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. isolated from respiratory samples (n = 9363), to understand their clinical relevance and to analyze their antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Results: Nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli were isolated from 830 (16.4%) samples showing significant growth. Thirty-three (4%) isolates constituted nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli other than P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (15, 45.5%) was the most common isolate followed by Burkholderia cepacia (4, 12.1%), Sphingomonas paucimobilis (3, 9.1%), and Achromobacter xylosoxidans (3, 9.1%). On the basis of clinicomicrobiological correlation, pathogenicity was observed in 69.7% (n = 23) isolates. Timely and correct treatment resulted in clinical improvement in 87.9% cases. Conclusion: Any nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli isolated from respiratory tract infection should not be ignored as mere contaminant, but correlated clinically for its pathogenic potential and identified using standard methods so as to institute appropriate and timely antibiotic coverage. PMID:24672175

Chawla, Kiran; Vishwanath, Shashidhar; Munim, Frenil C

2013-01-01

85

[Comparison of the performances of MTD Gene-Probe® test, BACTEC 960™ system and Löwenstein-Jensen culture methods in the diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis cases].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the results of nucleic acid amplification-based MTD (Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct test) Gene-Probe® method in samples obtained from acid-fast bacilli (ARB) smear-negative patients with suspected tuberculosis (TB), with the culture results obtained from automated BACTEC 960™ (MGIT) system and Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium. In addition, the contribution of molecular methods in early diagnosis of pulmonary TB and the effect of radiological prevalence of the disease associated with or without cavity to the molecular diagnosis and/or growth time in culture media have been evaluated. A total of 107 patients (86 male, 21 female; mean age: 49.89 ± 17.1 years, age range: 18-81 years) who were clinically and radiologically suspected of having pulmonary TB and/or TB pleurisy, were included in the study. Of the samples 65 (60.7%) were sputum, 32 (29.9%) were bronchial aspiration, 5 (4.7%) were pleural fluid, and 5 (4.7%) were transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy materials. Patient samples were cultured in solid LJ media and liquid-based BACTEC 960 system (Becton Dickinson Co., USA) in the same working day. Meanwhile, MTD Gen-Probe test (Gen-Probe Inc., USA) was studied in two separate working days of the week as specified by the laboratory. The samples were incubated until positivity was determined in BACTEC 960 system and/or growth was detected in LJ medium. Negative cultures were incubated for 42 days and were finalized. When mycobacterial growth was determined in the culture, identification of M.tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and differentiation from nontuberculous mycobacteria were performed by conventional methods and BACTEC 460 NAP test. Forty five (42%) patients were diagnosed as pulmonary paranchimal TB (40 were active pulmonary TB, 1 was miliary TB and 4 were culture-negative pulmonary TB), while 4 (3.7%) patients diagnosed as extrapulmonary TB and 58 (57.9%) patients were diagnosed as other pulmonary diseases unrelated with TB. LJ cultures yielded positive results in 32 of 45 (71%) pulmonary TB patients, and BACTEC 960 were found positive in 84.4% (38/45) of those patients. On the other hand the positivity rate of MTD Gen-Probe test was detected as 37.4% (40/107). The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for MTD Gen-Probe test were estimated as 89%, 100%, 100% and 93%, respectively. Those values for BACTEC 960 system were found as 82%, 98%, 97% and 88%, and for LJ culture method as 71%, 100%, 100% and 83%, respectively. Average periods to make a decision for diagnosis of TB by MTD Gen-Probe, BACTEC 960 (MGIT) and LJ culture methods were calculated as 2.36 days, 20.11 days and 32.49 days, respectively. In comparison of the methods in terms of turnaround times, MTD Gen-Probe test was found superior to LJ culture method, however the turnaround times for BACTEC 960 and LJ culture methods were similar. When the clinical data were evaluated, no effect of radiological density of lesion was identified on the diagnosis time of molecular test and time of growth in liquid based automated BACTEC system and/or LJ culture method. However, LJ culture demonstrated earlier reactivity in patients with cavitary lesions. As a result, MTD Gene-Probe test was observed as a reliable and rapid method for the early diagnosis of pulmonary TB patients, early initiation of therapy, prevention of disease progression and transmission. PMID:23971920

Kundurac?o?lu, Ayperen; Karasu, I??l; Biçmen, Can; Ozsöz, Ay?e; Erbaycu, Ahmet Emin

2013-07-01

86

Pulmonary tuberculosis associated with the reversed halo sign on high-resolution CT  

PubMed Central

We describe the case of a 32-year-old woman with pulmonary tuberculosis in whom a high-resolution CT scan demonstrated the reversed halo sign. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was made by lung biopsy and the detection of acid-fast bacilli in the sputum smear and culture. Follow-up assessment revealed a significant improvement in the lesions. PMID:20197429

Marchiori, E; Grando, R D; Simões Dos Santos, C E; Maffazzioli Santos Balzan, L; Zanetti, G; Mano, C M; Gutierrez, R S

2010-01-01

87

Rapid diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis by bronchoalveolar lavage enzyme-linked immunospot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: In a large proportion of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (pTB), acid-fast bacilli smear results for sputum and bronchial secretions are negative. Detectable growth of Mycobacte- rium tuberculosis (MTB) in cultures takes several weeks and MTB- specific DNA amplification results on sputum and bronchial secre- tions are variable in these patients. Objective: We investigated whether a rapid diagnosis of

Claudia Jafari; Martin Ernst; Roland Diel; Ulf Greinert; Barbara Scheuerer; Detlef Kirsten; Kathleen Marienfeld; Ajit Lalvani; Christoph Lange

2006-01-01

88

Antimicrobial Effects of Interferon-Inducible CXC Chemokines against Bacillus anthracis Spores and Bacilli?  

PubMed Central

Based on previous studies showing that host chemokines exert antimicrobial activities against bacteria, we sought to determine whether the interferon-inducible Glu-Leu-Arg-negative CXC chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 exhibit antimicrobial activities against Bacillus anthracis. In vitro analysis demonstrated that all three CXC chemokines exerted direct antimicrobial effects against B. anthracis spores and bacilli including marked reductions in spore and bacillus viability as determined using a fluorometric assay of bacterial viability and CFU determinations. Electron microscopy studies revealed that CXCL10-treated spores failed to undergo germination as judged by an absence of cytological changes in spore structure that occur during the process of germination. Immunogold labeling of CXCL10-treated spores demonstrated that the chemokine was located internal to the exosporium in association primarily with the spore coat and its interface with the cortex. To begin examining the potential biological relevance of chemokine-mediated antimicrobial activity, we used a murine model of inhalational anthrax. Upon spore challenge, the lungs of C57BL/6 mice (resistant to inhalational B. anthracis infection) had significantly higher levels of CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 than did the lungs of A/J mice (highly susceptible to infection). Increased CXC chemokine levels were associated with significantly reduced levels of spore germination within the lungs as determined by in vivo imaging. Taken together, our data demonstrate a novel antimicrobial role for host chemokines against B. anthracis that provides unique insight into host defense against inhalational anthrax; these data also support the notion for an innovative approach in treating B. anthracis infection as well as infections caused by other spore-forming organisms. PMID:19179419

Crawford, Matthew A.; Zhu, Yinghua; Green, Candace S.; Burdick, Marie D.; Sanz, Patrick; Alem, Farhang; O'Brien, Alison D.; Mehrad, Borna; Strieter, Robert M.; Hughes, Molly A.

2009-01-01

89

Antimicrobial effects of interferon-inducible CXC chemokines against Bacillus anthracis spores and bacilli.  

PubMed

Based on previous studies showing that host chemokines exert antimicrobial activities against bacteria, we sought to determine whether the interferon-inducible Glu-Leu-Arg-negative CXC chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 exhibit antimicrobial activities against Bacillus anthracis. In vitro analysis demonstrated that all three CXC chemokines exerted direct antimicrobial effects against B. anthracis spores and bacilli including marked reductions in spore and bacillus viability as determined using a fluorometric assay of bacterial viability and CFU determinations. Electron microscopy studies revealed that CXCL10-treated spores failed to undergo germination as judged by an absence of cytological changes in spore structure that occur during the process of germination. Immunogold labeling of CXCL10-treated spores demonstrated that the chemokine was located internal to the exosporium in association primarily with the spore coat and its interface with the cortex. To begin examining the potential biological relevance of chemokine-mediated antimicrobial activity, we used a murine model of inhalational anthrax. Upon spore challenge, the lungs of C57BL/6 mice (resistant to inhalational B. anthracis infection) had significantly higher levels of CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 than did the lungs of A/J mice (highly susceptible to infection). Increased CXC chemokine levels were associated with significantly reduced levels of spore germination within the lungs as determined by in vivo imaging. Taken together, our data demonstrate a novel antimicrobial role for host chemokines against B. anthracis that provides unique insight into host defense against inhalational anthrax; these data also support the notion for an innovative approach in treating B. anthracis infection as well as infections caused by other spore-forming organisms. PMID:19179419

Crawford, Matthew A; Zhu, Yinghua; Green, Candace S; Burdick, Marie D; Sanz, Patrick; Alem, Farhang; O'Brien, Alison D; Mehrad, Borna; Strieter, Robert M; Hughes, Molly A

2009-04-01

90

Virulence for guinea pigs of tubercle bacilli isolated from the sputum of participants in the BCG trial, Chingleput District, South India.  

PubMed

This study, conducted in Madras, India and in Madison, Wisconsin, USA, was concerned with the virulence of isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis obtained from the sputum of individuals living in the Chingleput district of south India. The following results were obtained. 1. The findings of Mitchison with respect to the predominance of low virulence for guinea pigs among isolates from persons living Madras, were confirmed on isolates from the sputum of residents of the Chingleput district. 2. A high correlation was found between the log10 number of tubercle bacilli recovered from the spleen of guinea pigs infected intramuscularly with 1.0 mg of tubercle bacilli and the root index of virulence. 3. A high correlation was found between the log10 number of tubercle bacilli recovered from the spleen of guinea pigs infected intramuscularly with 1.0 mg of tubercle bacilli and the number recovered from the spleen of guinea pigs infected by the respiratory route with 5-10 tubercle bacilli. 4. Relatively low correlations were found between RIV and the susceptibility of isolates to thiophene-2 carboxylic acid hydrazide or to hydrogen peroxide. PMID:3116731

Prabhakar, R; Venkataraman, P; Vallishayee, R S; Reeser, P; Musa, S; Hashim, R; Kim, Y; Dimmer, C; Wiegeshaus, E; Edwards, M L

1987-03-01

91

Isolation and Screening of Thermophilic Bacilli from Compost for Electrotransformation and Fermentation: Characterization of Bacillus smithii ET 138 as a New Biocatalyst.  

PubMed

Thermophilic bacteria are regarded as attractive production organisms for cost-efficient conversion of renewable resources to green chemicals, but their genetic accessibility is a major bottleneck in developing them into versatile platform organisms. In this study, we aimed to isolate thermophilic, facultatively anaerobic bacilli that are genetically accessible and have potential as platform organisms. From compost, we isolated 267 strains that produced acids from C5 and C6 sugars at temperatures of 55°C or 65°C. Subsequently, 44 strains that showed the highest production of acids were screened for genetic accessibility by electroporation. Two Geobacillus thermodenitrificans isolates and one Bacillus smithii isolate were found to be transformable with plasmid pNW33n. Of these, B. smithii ET 138 was the best-performing strain in laboratory-scale fermentations and was capable of producing organic acids from glucose as well as from xylose. It is an acidotolerant strain able to produce organic acids until a lower limit of approximately pH 4.5. As genetic accessibility of B. smithii had not been described previously, six other B. smithii strains from the DSMZ culture collection were tested for electroporation efficiencies, and we found the type strain DSM 4216(T) and strain DSM 460 to be transformable. The transformation protocol for B. smithii isolate ET 138 was optimized to obtain approximately 5 × 10(3) colonies per ?g plasmid pNW33n. Genetic accessibility combined with robust acid production capacities on C5 and C6 sugars at a relatively broad pH range make B. smithii ET 138 an attractive biocatalyst for the production of lactic acid and potentially other green chemicals. PMID:25556192

Bosma, Elleke F; van de Weijer, Antonius H P; Daas, Martinus J A; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M; van Kranenburg, Richard

2015-03-01

92

Oral Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli as a reservoir of ?-lactam resistance genes facilitating infections with multiresistant bacteria.  

PubMed

Many ?-lactamases have been described in various Gram-negative bacilli (Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, etc.) of the oral cavity, belonging to class A of the Ambler classification (CepA, CblA, CfxA, CSP-1 and TEM), class B (CfiA) or class D in Fusobacterium nucleatum (FUS-1). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ?-lactams are variable and this variation is often related to the presence of plasmids or other mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that modulate the expression of resistance genes. DNA persistence and bacterial promiscuity in oral biofilms also contribute to genetic transformation and conjugation in this particular microcosm. Overexpression of efflux pumps is facilitated because the encoding genes are located on MGEs, in some multidrug-resistant clinical isolates, similar to conjugative transposons harbouring genes encoding ?-lactamases. All these facts lead us to consider the oral cavity as an important reservoir of ?-lactam resistance genes and a privileged place for genetic exchange, especially in commensal strictly anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli. PMID:25465519

Dupin, Clarisse; Tamanai-Shacoori, Zohreh; Ehrmann, Elodie; Dupont, Anais; Barloy-Hubler, Frédérique; Bousarghin, Latifa; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne

2015-02-01

93

Rapid Detection of ESBL-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Blood Cultures.  

PubMed

We rapidly identified extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) producers prospectively among 245 gram-negative bacilli-positive cultured blood specimens using the Rapid ESBL Nordmann/Dortet/Poirel test and direct bacterial identification using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This combination identified ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae within 30 min and had high predictive values. PMID:25695535

Dortet, Laurent; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

2015-03-01

94

Rapid Detection of ESBL-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Blood Cultures  

PubMed Central

We rapidly identified extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) producers prospectively among 245 gram-negative bacilli–positive cultured blood specimens using the Rapid ESBL Nordmann/Dortet/Poirel test and direct bacterial identification using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This combination identified ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae within 30 min and had high predictive values. PMID:25695535

Dortet, Laurent; Poirel, Laurent

2015-01-01

95

Use of 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing for Identification of Nonfermenting Gram-Negative Bacilli Recovered from Patients Attending a Single Cystic Fibrosis Center  

PubMed Central

During 1999, we used partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing for the prospective identification of atypical nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients attending our cystic fibrosis center. Of 1,093 isolates of nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli recovered from 148 patients, 46 (4.2%) gave problematic results with conventional phenotypic tests. These 46 isolates were genotypically identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19 isolates, 12 patients), Achromobacter xylosoxidans (10 isolates, 8 patients), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (9 isolates, 9 patients), Burkholderia cepacia genomovar I/III (3 isolates, 3 patients), Burkholderia vietnamiensis (1 isolate), Burkholderia gladioli (1 isolate), and Ralstonia mannitolilytica (3 isolates, 2 patients), a recently recognized species. PMID:12354883

Ferroni, Agnes; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Abachin, Eric; Quesne, Gilles; Lenoir, Gerard; Berche, Patrick; Gaillard, Jean-Louis

2002-01-01

96

[Amphibacillus fermentum sp. nov., Amphibacillus tropicus sp. nov.--new alkaliphilic, facultatively anaerobic, saccharolytic Bacilli from Lake Magadi].  

PubMed

New alkaliphilic, saccharolytic, rod-shaped, gram-positive bacteria resistant to heating and drying and phylogenetically affiliated to the Bacillus lineage were isolated under strictly anaerobic conditions from sediments of the alkaline and highly mineralized Lake Magadi. Strain Z-7792 forms endospores; in strain Z-7984, endospore formation was not revealed. The strains are capable of both anaerobic growth (at the expense of fermentation of glucose and certain mono- and disaccharides with the formation of formate, ethanol, and acetate) and aerobic growth. Among polysaccharides, the strains hydrolyze starch, glycogen, and xylan. Yeast extract or methionine are required for growth. The strains are strict alkaliphiles exhibiting obligate requirement for Na+ and carbonate ions but not for Cl- ion. Growth occurs at a total mineralization as high as 3.3-3.6 M Na+, with an optimum at 1-1.7 M Na+. Strain Z-7792 is an obligate alkaliphile with a pH growth range of 8.5-11.5 and an optimum of 9.5-9.7. Strain Z-7984 grows in a pH range of 7.0-10.5 with an optimum at 8.0-9.5. Both strains are mesophiles having a growth optimum at 37-38 degrees C. They belong to bacilli with a low G + C content. The G + C contents of the DNA of strains Z-7792 and Z-7984 are 39.2 and 41.5 mol%, respectively. These isolates of facultatively anaerobic, strictly alkaliphilic, Na(+)-dependent bacilli can be considered representatives of the ecological group adapted to the life at drying-up shoars of soda lakes. Because of their independence of NaCl and lack of obligate dependence on sodium carbonates, the isolates are to be assigned to athalassophilic organisms. According to their physiological and phylogenetic characteristics, they taxonomically belong to group 1 of the species of bacilli, occupying a position intermediate between the genera Amphibacillus and Gracilibacillus. The isolates are described as new species of Amphibacillus: A. fermentum (type strain, Z-7984T) and A. tropicus (type strain, Z-7792T). PMID:11785140

Zhilina, T N; Garnova, E S; Turova, T P; Kostrikina, N A; Zavarzin, G A

2001-01-01

97

Hemolysin production, salt tolerance, antibacterial resistance, and prevalence of extended spectrum ?-lactamases in Proteus bacilli isolated from clinical and environmental sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and objective: Proteus bacilli are opportunistic members of Enterobacteriaceae and Proteus mirabilis is among the most common causes of community or hospital acquired urinary tract infections (UTI) in many countries. In the present study hemolysin production, salt tolerance and resistance to antibacterial agents in environmental and UTIs samples were compared. Materials and methods: Bacteria were isolated from UTIs (n=80),

Shahla Mansouri; Farehnaz Pahlavanzadeh

2009-01-01

98

Production and characterisation of mouse monoclonal antibodies reacting with the lipopolysaccharide core region of gram-negative bacilli.  

PubMed

Monoclonal antibodies to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core region were produced by immunising mice with Escherichia coli strain J5 (chemotype Rc). One of these bound to the deepest part of the core, i.e., Lipid A, and reacted with other heat-killed but not live gram-negative bacilli, including E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Eight other monoclonal antibodies, binding to the terminal glucose residue of Rc LPS, reacted with live cells of E. coli strains only. Thus, the O antigen does not necessarily render the core inaccessible to antibody. However, despite binding to live bacteria, these monoclonal antibodies neither enhanced phagocytic killing, nor protected mice from dying from gram-negative infection or endotoxaemia. It is concluded that antibodies reacting with the most immunodominant parts of the J5 core are not protective. PMID:2455054

Appelmelk, B J; Verweij-van Vught, A M; Maaskant, J J; Schouten, W F; De Jonge, A J; Thijs, L G; Maclaren, D M

1988-06-01

99

French regional surveillance program of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli: results from a 2-year period.  

PubMed

In February 2011, the CARB-LR group was created as a sentinel laboratory-based surveillance network to control the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (CR GNB) in a French Southern Region. We report the epidemiological results of a 2-year study. All the Gram-negative bacilli isolates detected in the different labs (hospital and community settings) of a French Southern Region and with reduced susceptibility to ertapenem and/or imipenem were characterised with regard to antibiotic resistance, bla genes content, repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) profiles and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 221 strains were analysed. Acinetobacter baumannii was the most prevalent carbapenemase-producing bacteria, with a majority of OXA-23 producers (n = 37). One isolate co-produced OXA-23 and OXA-58 enzymes. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most frequent carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) (OXA-48 producer: n = 29, KPC producer: n = 1), followed by Escherichia coli (OXA-48 producer: n = 8, KPC producer: n = 1) and Enterobacter cloacae (OXA-48 producer, n = 1). One isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced a VIM-1 carbapenemase. A clonal diversity of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae and E. coli was noted with different MLSTs. On the other hand, almost all OXA-23-producing A. baumannii strains belonged to the widespread ST2/international clone II. The link between the detection of CR GNB and a foreign country was less obvious, suggesting the beginning of a local cross-transmission. The number of CR GNB cases in our French Southern Region has sharply increased very recently due to the diffusion of OXA-48 producers. PMID:25037867

Pantel, A; Boutet-Dubois, A; Jean-Pierre, H; Marchandin, H; Sotto, A; Lavigne, J-P

2014-12-01

100

Evaluation of the Vitek 2 ID-GNB Assay for Identification of Members of the Family Enterobacteriaceae and Other Nonenteric Gram-Negative Bacilli and Comparison with the Vitek GNI+ Card  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the Vitek 2 ID-GNB identification card (bioMérieux, Inc., Durham, N.C.) for its ability to identify members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and other gram-negative bacilli that are isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories. Using 482 enteric stock cultures and 103 strains of oxidase-positive, gram-negative glucose-fermenting and nonfermenting bacilli that were maintained at ?70°C and passaged three times before use, we inoculated cards according to the manufacturer's directions and processed them in a Vitek 2 instrument using version VT2-R02.03 software. All panel identifications were compared to reference identifications previously confirmed by conventional tube biochemical assays. At the end of the initial 3-h incubation period, the Vitek 2 instrument demonstrated an accuracy of 93.0% for the identification of enteric strains; 414 (85.9%) were correctly identified at probability levels ranging from excellent to good, and an additional 34 (7.1%) strains were correctly identified but at a low level of discrimination. Nineteen (3.9%) strains were unidentified, and 15 (3.1%) were misidentified. The 19 unidentified strains were scattered among 10 genera. Three of the 15 misidentified strains were lactose-positive Salmonella spp. and were identified as Escherichia coli; another was a lactose-positive, malonate-negative Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae strain that was identified as E. coli. Of the 103 glucose-fermenting and nonfermenting nonenteric strains, 88 (85.4%) were correctly identified at probability levels ranging from excellent to good, and 10 (9.7%) were correctly identified, but at a low level of discrimination, for a total of 95.1% accuracy with this group. Two strains were unidentified and three were misidentified. The errors occurred for strains in three different genera. With the increased hands-off approach of the Vitek 2 instrument and accuracies of 93% for the identification of enteric organisms and 95.1% for the identification of nonenteric organisms with the ID-GNB card, use of this product presents an acceptable method for the identification of most gram-negative organisms commonly isolated in the clinical laboratory. A comparison of these results to those obtained by testing 454 of the same strains with the Vitek GNI+ card revealed no significant difference in the abilities of the two cards to identify these organisms accurately. PMID:12734254

O'Hara, Caroline M.; Miller, J. Michael

2003-01-01

101

Comparison of traditional phenotypic identification methods with partial 5' 16S rRNA gene sequencing for species-level identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli.  

PubMed

Correct identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NFB) is crucial for patient management. We compared phenotypic identifications of 96 clinical NFB isolates with identifications obtained by 5' 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Sequencing identified 88 isolates (91.7%) with >99% similarity to a sequence from the assigned species; 61.5% of sequencing results were concordant with phenotypic results, indicating the usability of sequencing to identify NFB. PMID:20164273

Cloud, Joann L; Harmsen, Dag; Iwen, Peter C; Dunn, James J; Hall, Gerri; Lasala, Paul Rocco; Hoggan, Karen; Wilson, Deborah; Woods, Gail L; Mellmann, Alexander

2010-04-01

102

Comparison of Traditional Phenotypic Identification Methods with Partial 5? 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing for Species-Level Identification of Nonfermenting Gram-Negative Bacilli?  

PubMed Central

Correct identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NFB) is crucial for patient management. We compared phenotypic identifications of 96 clinical NFB isolates with identifications obtained by 5? 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Sequencing identified 88 isolates (91.7%) with >99% similarity to a sequence from the assigned species; 61.5% of sequencing results were concordant with phenotypic results, indicating the usability of sequencing to identify NFB. PMID:20164273

Cloud, Joann L.; Harmsen, Dag; Iwen, Peter C.; Dunn, James J.; Hall, Gerri; LaSala, Paul Rocco; Hoggan, Karen; Wilson, Deborah; Woods, Gail L.; Mellmann, Alexander

2010-01-01

103

Evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for species identification of Nonfermenting Gram-Negative Bacilli.  

PubMed

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify 396 Nonfermenting Gram-Negative Bacilli clinical isolates was evaluated in comparison with conventional phenotypic tests and/or molecular methods. MALDI-TOF MS identified to species level 256 isolates and to genus or complex level 112 isolates. It identified 29 genera including uncommon species. PMID:25765149

Almuzara, Marisa; Barberis, Claudia; Traglia, Germán; Famiglietti, Angela; Ramirez, Maria Soledad; Vay, Carlos

2015-05-01

104

Clinical characteristics of the smooth tubercle bacilli 'Mycobacterium canettii' infection suggest the existence of an environmental reservoir.  

PubMed

Over a 3-year follow-up, 30 out of the 318 unique Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates recovered in the Republic of Djibouti had a smooth-type morphology and were Niacine-negative, the characteristics of 'Mycobacterium canettii' strains. Unlike M. tuberculosis, 'M. canettii' grew on nutrient-poor media at 30°C, and possessed characteristic lipids. They were isolated from respiratory and extra-respiratory sites from patients with typical forms of tuberculosis. Most cases resolved with antibiotic therapy but in two human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients 'M. canettii' infection led to septicaemia and death. No cases of human-to-human transmission were observed. The proportion of tuberculosis cases caused by 'M. canettii' was higher among French patients than among Djiboutian patients. Patients with 'M. canettii' were significantly younger than those with tuberculosis caused by other M. tuberculosis complex strains. Smooth tubercle bacilli could be misidentified as non-tuberculous mycobacteria and appear to be limited to the Horn of Africa. Their characteristics are consistent with the existence of non-human sources of infection. PMID:20831613

Koeck, J-L; Fabre, M; Simon, F; Daffé, M; Garnotel, E; Matan, A B; Gérôme, P; Bernatas, J-J; Buisson, Y; Pourcel, C

2011-07-01

105

Isolation and Characterization of Gram-Positive Biosurfactant-Producing Halothermophilic Bacilli From Iranian Petroleum Reservoirs  

PubMed Central

Background: Petroleum reservoirs have long been known as the hosts of extremophilic microorganisms. Some of these microorganisms are known for their potential biotechnological applications, particularly production of extra and intracellular polymers and enzymes. Objectives: Here, 14 petroleum liquid samples from southern Iranian oil reservoirs were screened for presence of biosurfactant?producing halothermophiles. Materials and Methods: Mixture of the reservoir fluid samples with a minimal growth medium was incubated under an N2 atmosphere in 40°C; 0.5 mL samples were transferred from the aqueous phase to agar plates after 72 hours of incubation; 100 mL cell cultures were prepared using the MSS-1 (mineral salt solution 1) liquid medium with 5% (w/v) NaCl. The time-course samples were analyzed by recording the absorbance at 600 nm using a spectrophotometer. Incubation was carried out in 40°C with mild shaking in aerobic conditions. Thermotolerance was evaluated by growing the isolates at 40, 50, 60 and 70°C with varying NaCl concentrations of 5% and 10% (w/v). Halotolerance was evaluated using NaCl concentrations of 5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% (w/v) and incubating them at 40°C under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Different phenotypic characteristics were evaluated, as outlined in Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology. Comparing 16S rDNA sequences is one of the most powerful tools for classification of microorganisms. Results: Among 34 isolates, 10 demonstrated biosurfactant production and growth at temperatures between 40°C and 70°C in saline media containing 5%?15% w/v NaCl. Using partial 16S rDNA sequencing (and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis [ARDRA]) and biochemical tests (API tests 20E and 50 CHB), all the 10 isolates proved to be facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive moderate thermohalophiles of the genus Bacillus (B. thermoglucosidasius, B. thermodenitrificans, B. thermoleovorans, B. stearothermophilus and B. licheniformis), exhibiting surface-active behaviors. Conclusions: General patterns include decreasing the thermotolerance with increasing the salt concentrations and also more halotolerance in the aerobic environment compared with anaerobic conditions. The results demonstrated that Iranian petroleum reservoirs enjoy a source of indigenous extremophilic microorganisms with potential applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery and commercial enzyme production. PMID:25485045

Zargari, Saeed; Ramezani, Amin; Ostvar, Sassan; Rezaei, Rasool; Niazi, Ali; Ayatollahi, Shahab

2014-01-01

106

Molecular modeling and in silico characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis TlyA: Possible misannotation of this tubercle bacilli-hemolysin  

PubMed Central

Background The TlyA protein has a controversial function as a virulence factor in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). At present, its dual activity as hemolysin and RNA methyltransferase in M. tuberculosis has been indirectly proposed based on in vitro results. There is no evidence however for TlyA relevance in the survival of tubercle bacilli inside host cells or whether both activities are functionally linked. A thorough analysis of structure prediction for this mycobacterial protein in this study shows the need for reevaluating TlyA's function in virulence. Results Bioinformatics analysis of TlyA identified a ribosomal protein binding domain (S4 domain), located between residues 5 and 68 as well as an FtsJ-like methyltranferase domain encompassing residues 62 and 247, all of which have been previously described in translation machinery-associated proteins. Subcellular localization prediction showed that TlyA lacks a signal peptide and its hydrophobicity profile showed no evidence of transmembrane helices. These findings suggested that it may not be attached to the membrane, which is consistent with a cytoplasmic localization. Three-dimensional modeling of TlyA showed a consensus structure, having a common core formed by a six-stranded ?-sheet between two ?-helix layers, which is consistent with an RNA methyltransferase structure. Phylogenetic analyses showed high conservation of the tlyA gene among Mycobacterium species. Additionally, the nucleotide substitution rates suggested purifying selection during tlyA gene evolution and the absence of a common ancestor between TlyA proteins and bacterial pore-forming proteins. Conclusion Altogether, our manual in silico curation suggested that TlyA is involved in ribosomal biogenesis and that there is a functional annotation error regarding this protein family in several microbial and plant genomes, including the M. tuberculosis genome. PMID:21443791

2011-01-01

107

Major Variation in MICs of Tigecycline in Gram-Negative Bacilli as a Function of Testing Method  

PubMed Central

Tigecycline is one of the few remaining therapeutic options for extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB). MICs of tigecycline to Acinetobacter baumannii have been reported to be elevated when determined by the Etest compared to determinations by the broth microdilution (BMD) method. The study aim was to compare the susceptibility of GNB to tigecycline by four different testing methods. GNB were collected from six health care systems (25 hospitals) in southeast Michigan from January 2010 to September 2011. Tigecycline MICs among A. baumannii, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, and susceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates were determined by Etest, BMD, Vitek-2, and MicroScan. Nonsusceptibility was categorized as a tigecycline MIC of ?4 ?g/ml for both A. baumannii and Enterobacteriaceae. The study included 4,427 isolates: 2,065 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, 1,105 A. baumannii, 888 susceptible Enterobacteriaceae, and 369 CRE isolates. Tigecycline nonsusceptibility among A. baumannii isolates was significantly more common as determined by Etest compared to that determined by BMD (odds ratio [OR], 10.3; P < 0.001), MicroScan (OR, 12.4; P < 0.001), or Vitek-2 (OR, 9.4; P < 0.001). These differences were not evident with the other pathogens. Tigecycline MICs varied greatly according to the in vitro testing methods among A. baumannii isolates. Etest should probably not be used by laboratories for tigecycline MIC testing of A. baumannii isolates, since MICs are significantly elevated with Etest compared to those determined by the three other methods. PMID:24599978

Pogue, Jason M.; Tzuman, Oran; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Lephart, Paul R.; Salimnia, Hossein; Painter, Theresa; Zervos, Marcus J.; Johnson, Laura E.; Perri, Mary Beth; Hartman, Pamela; Thyagarajan, Rama V.; Major, Sharon; Goodell, Melanie; Fakih, Mohamad G.; Washer, Laraine L.; Newton, Duane W.; Malani, Anurag N.; Wholehan, Jason M.; Mody, Lona; Kaye, Keith S.

2014-01-01

108

Colistin MIC Variability by Method for Contemporary Clinical Isolates of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli  

PubMed Central

In vitro evaluation of colistin susceptibility is fraught with complications, due in part to the inherent cationic properties of colistin. In addition, no reference method has been defined against which to compare the results of colistin susceptibility testing. This study systematically evaluated the available methods for colistin MIC testing in two phases. In phase I, colistin MICs were determined in 107 fresh clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) by broth microdilution with polysorbate 80 (BMD-T), broth macrodilution (TDS), and the Etest. In phase II, 50 of these isolates, 10 of which were colistin resistant, were tested in parallel using BMD-T, TDS, agar dilution, broth microdilution without polysorbate 80 (BMD), and the TREK Gram-negative extra MIC format (GNXF) Sensititre. The Etest was also performed on these 50 isolates using Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) from three different manufacturers. Colistin MIC results obtained from the five methods were compared to the MIC results obtained using BMD-T, the method that enables the highest nominal concentration of colistin in the test medium. Essential agreement ranged from 34% (BMD) to 83% (TDS), whereas categorical agreement was >90% for all methods except for BMD, which was 88%. Very major errors (VMEs) (i.e., false susceptibility) for the Etest were found in 47 to 53% of the resistant isolates, depending on the manufacturer of the MHA that was used. In contrast, VMEs were found for 10% (n = 1) of the resistant isolates by BMD and 0% of the isolates by the TDS, agar dilution, and Sensititre methods. Based on these data, we urge clinical laboratories to be aware of the variable results that can occur when using different methods for colistin MIC testing and, in particular, to use caution with the Etest. PMID:23486719

Hindler, Janet A.

2013-01-01

109

Major variation in MICs of tigecycline in Gram-negative bacilli as a function of testing method.  

PubMed

Tigecycline is one of the few remaining therapeutic options for extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB). MICs of tigecycline to Acinetobacter baumannii have been reported to be elevated when determined by the Etest compared to determinations by the broth microdilution (BMD) method. The study aim was to compare the susceptibility of GNB to tigecycline by four different testing methods. GNB were collected from six health care systems (25 hospitals) in southeast Michigan from January 2010 to September 2011. Tigecycline MICs among A. baumannii, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, and susceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates were determined by Etest, BMD, Vitek-2, and MicroScan. Nonsusceptibility was categorized as a tigecycline MIC of ?4 ?g/ml for both A. baumannii and Enterobacteriaceae. The study included 4,427 isolates: 2,065 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, 1,105 A. baumannii, 888 susceptible Enterobacteriaceae, and 369 CRE isolates. Tigecycline nonsusceptibility among A. baumannii isolates was significantly more common as determined by Etest compared to that determined by BMD (odds ratio [OR], 10.3; P<0.001), MicroScan (OR, 12.4; P<0.001), or Vitek-2 (OR, 9.4; P<0.001). These differences were not evident with the other pathogens. Tigecycline MICs varied greatly according to the in vitro testing methods among A. baumannii isolates. Etest should probably not be used by laboratories for tigecycline MIC testing of A. baumannii isolates, since MICs are significantly elevated with Etest compared to those determined by the three other methods. PMID:24599978

Marchaim, Dror; Pogue, Jason M; Tzuman, Oran; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Lephart, Paul R; Salimnia, Hossein; Painter, Theresa; Zervos, Marcus J; Johnson, Laura E; Perri, Mary Beth; Hartman, Pamela; Thyagarajan, Rama V; Major, Sharon; Goodell, Melanie; Fakih, Mohamad G; Washer, Laraine L; Newton, Duane W; Malani, Anurag N; Wholehan, Jason M; Mody, Lona; Kaye, Keith S

2014-05-01

110

Ceftolozane/tazobactam: a novel cephalosporin/?-lactamase inhibitor combination with activity against multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli.  

PubMed

Ceftolozane is a novel cephalosporin currently being developed with the ?-lactamase inhibitor tazobactam for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs), complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs), and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (VABP). The chemical structure of ceftolozane is similar to that of ceftazidime, with the exception of a modified side-chain at the 3-position of the cephem nucleus, which confers potent antipseudomonal activity. As a ?-lactam, its mechanism of action is the inhibition of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). Ceftolozane displays increased activity against Gram-negative bacilli, including those that harbor classical ?-lactamases (e.g., TEM-1 and SHV-1), but, similar to other oxyimino-cephalosporins such as ceftazidime and ceftriaxone, it is compromised by extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemases. The addition of tazobactam extends the activity of ceftolozane to include most ESBL producers as well as some anaerobic species. Ceftolozane is distinguished from other cephalosporins by its potent activity versus Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including various drug-resistant phenotypes such as carbapenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, and ceftazidime-resistant isolates, as well as those strains that are multidrug-resistant (MDR). Its antipseudomonal activity is attributed to its ability to evade the multitude of resistance mechanisms employed by P. aeruginosa, including efflux pumps, reduced uptake through porins and modification of PBPs. Ceftolozane demonstrates linear pharmacokinetics unaffected by the coadministration of tazobactam; specifically, it follows a two-compartmental model with linear elimination. Following single doses, ranging from 250 to 2,000 mg, over a 1-h intravenous infusion, ceftolozane displays a mean plasma half-life of 2.3 h (range 1.9-2.6 h), a steady-state volume of distribution that ranges from 13.1 to 17.6 L, and a mean clearance of 102.4 mL/min. It demonstrates low plasma protein binding (20 %), is primarily eliminated via urinary excretion (?92 %), and may require dose adjustments in patients with a creatinine clearance <50 mL/min. Time-kill experiments and animal infection models have demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic index that is best correlated with ceftolozane's in vivo efficacy is the percentage of time in which free plasma drug concentrations exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration of a given pathogen (%fT >MIC), as expected of ?-lactams. Two phase II clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate ceftolozane ± tazobactam in the settings of cUTIs and cIAIs. One trial compared ceftolozane 1,000 mg every 8 h (q8h) versus ceftazidime 1,000 mg q8h in the treatment of cUTI, including pyelonephritis, and demonstrated similar microbiologic and clinical outcomes, as well as a similar incidence of adverse effects after 7-10 days of treatment, respectively. A second trial has been conducted comparing ceftolozane/tazobactam 1,000/500 mg and metronidazole 500 mg q8h versus meropenem 1,000 mg q8h in the treatment of cIAI. A number of phase I and phase II studies have reported ceftolozane to possess a good safety and tolerability profile, one that is consistent with that of other cephalosporins. In conclusion, ceftolozane is a new cephalosporin with activity versus MDR organisms including P. aeruginosa. Tazobactam allows the broadening of the spectrum of ceftolozane versus ?-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacilli including ESBLs. Potential roles for ceftolozane/tazobactam include empiric therapy where infection by a resistant Gram-negative organism (e.g., ESBL) is suspected, or as part of combination therapy (e.g., with metronidazole) where a polymicrobial infection is suspected. In addition, ceftolozane/tazobactam may represent alternative therapy to the third-generation cephalosporins after treatment failure or for documented infections due to Gram-negative bacilli producing ESBLs. Finally, the increased activity of ceftolozane/tazobactam versus P. aeruginosa, including MDR

Zhanel, George G; Chung, Phillip; Adam, Heather; Zelenitsky, Sheryl; Denisuik, Andrew; Schweizer, Frank; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R S; Rubinstein, Ethan; Gin, Alfred S; Walkty, Andrew; Hoban, Daryl J; Lynch, Joseph P; Karlowsky, James A

2014-01-01

111

Bubo masquerading as an incarcerated inguinal hernia.  

PubMed

A 44-year old, male, tattooed, leather jacket clad, Harley-Davidson motorcyclist arrived at the emergency room with a tender, irreducible mass, presenting at the external inguinal ring. In 1998, lung biopsy was read as miliary granuloma. No herniation was found on urgent preperitoneal exploration. Incision of the mass showed acid-fast bacilli. Culture later revealed Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI). A blood count showed CD4 lymphopenia; HIV was negative and remains so 2 years later. PMID:11505657

Hodge, K R; Orgler, R J; Monson, T; Read, R C

2001-06-01

112

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry for identification of nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli isolated from cystic fibrosis patients.  

PubMed

The identification of nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli isolated from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is usually achieved by using phenotype-based techniques and eventually molecular tools. These techniques remain time-consuming, expensive, and technically demanding. We used a method based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for the identification of these bacteria. A set of reference strains belonging to 58 species of clinically relevant nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli was used. To identify peaks discriminating between these various species, the profile of 10 isolated colonies obtained from 10 different passages was analyzed for each referenced strain. Conserved peaks with a relative intensity greater than 0.1 were retained. The spectra of 559 clinical isolates were then compared to that of each of the 58 reference strains as follows: 400 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 54 Achromobacter xylosoxidans, 32 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, 52 Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), 1 Burkholderia gladioli, 14 Ralstonia mannitolilytica, 2 Ralstonia pickettii, 1 Bordetella hinzii, 1 Inquilinus limosus, 1 Cupriavidus respiraculi, and 1 Burkholderia thailandensis. Using this database, 549 strains were correctly identified. Nine BCC strains and one R. mannnitolilytica strain were identified as belonging to the appropriate genus but not the correct species. We subsequently engineered BCC- and Ralstonia-specific databases using additional reference strains. Using these databases, correct identification for these species increased from 83 to 98% and from 94 to 100% of cases, respectively. Altogether, these data demonstrate that, in CF patients, MALDI-TOF-MS is a powerful tool for rapid identification of nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli. PMID:18685005

Degand, Nicolas; Carbonnelle, Etienne; Dauphin, Brunhilde; Beretti, Jean-Luc; Le Bourgeois, Muriel; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Segonds, Christine; Berche, Patrick; Nassif, Xavier; Ferroni, Agnès

2008-10-01

113

Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Identification of Nonfermenting Gram-Negative Bacilli Isolated from Cystic Fibrosis Patients?  

PubMed Central

The identification of nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli isolated from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is usually achieved by using phenotype-based techniques and eventually molecular tools. These techniques remain time-consuming, expensive, and technically demanding. We used a method based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for the identification of these bacteria. A set of reference strains belonging to 58 species of clinically relevant nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli was used. To identify peaks discriminating between these various species, the profile of 10 isolated colonies obtained from 10 different passages was analyzed for each referenced strain. Conserved peaks with a relative intensity greater than 0.1 were retained. The spectra of 559 clinical isolates were then compared to that of each of the 58 reference strains as follows: 400 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 54 Achromobacter xylosoxidans, 32 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, 52 Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), 1 Burkholderia gladioli, 14 Ralstonia mannitolilytica, 2 Ralstonia pickettii, 1 Bordetella hinzii, 1 Inquilinus limosus, 1 Cupriavidus respiraculi, and 1 Burkholderia thailandensis. Using this database, 549 strains were correctly identified. Nine BCC strains and one R. mannnitolilytica strain were identified as belonging to the appropriate genus but not the correct species. We subsequently engineered BCC- and Ralstonia-specific databases using additional reference strains. Using these databases, correct identification for these species increased from 83 to 98% and from 94 to 100% of cases, respectively. Altogether, these data demonstrate that, in CF patients, MALDI-TOF-MS is a powerful tool for rapid identification of nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli. PMID:18685005

Degand, Nicolas; Carbonnelle, Etienne; Dauphin, Brunhilde; Beretti, Jean-Luc; Le Bourgeois, Muriel; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Segonds, Christine; Berche, Patrick; Nassif, Xavier; Ferroni, Agnès

2008-01-01

114

Glycolytic and Non-glycolytic Functions of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate Aldolase, an Essential Enzyme Produced by Replicating and Non-replicating Bacilli*  

PubMed Central

The search for antituberculosis drugs active against persistent bacilli has led to our interest in metallodependent class II fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA-tb), a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis absent from mammalian cells. Knock-out experiments at the fba-tb locus indicated that this gene is required for the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on gluconeogenetic substrates and in glucose-containing medium. Surface labeling and enzymatic activity measurements revealed that this enzyme was exported to the cell surface of M. tuberculosis and produced under various axenic growth conditions including oxygen depletion and hence by non-replicating bacilli. Importantly, FBA-tb was also produced in vivo in the lungs of infected guinea pigs and mice. FBA-tb bound human plasmin(ogen) and protected FBA-tb-bound plasmin from regulation by ?2-antiplasmin, suggestive of an involvement of this enzyme in host/pathogen interactions. The crystal structures of FBA-tb in the native form and in complex with a hydroxamate substrate analog were determined to 2.35- and 1.9-? resolution, respectively. Whereas inhibitor attachment had no effect on the plasminogen binding activity of FBA-tb, it competed with the natural substrate of the enzyme, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, and substantiated a previously unknown reaction mechanism associated with metallodependent aldolases involving recruitment of the catalytic zinc ion by the substrate upon active site binding. Altogether, our results highlight the potential of FBA-tb as a novel therapeutic target against both replicating and non-replicating bacilli. PMID:21949126

de la Paz Santangelo, Maria; Gest, Petra M.; Guerin, Marcelo E.; Coinçon, Mathieu; Pham, Ha; Ryan, Gavin; Puckett, Susan E.; Spencer, John S.; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Daher, Racha; Lenaerts, Anne J.; Schnappinger, Dirk; Therisod, Michel; Ehrt, Sabine; Sygusch, Jurgen; Jackson, Mary

2011-01-01

115

[A case of pleural tuberculoma with new pulmonary infiltration during anti-tuberculosis therapy].  

PubMed

A 61-year-old woman who had received treatment for tuberculous pleurisy for 2 months visited our outpatient clinic. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed the presence of a lens-shaped pleural mass with pulmonary infiltration, despite the decreased pleural effusion. Two weeks later, chest CT showed an increase in the size of the mass and expansion of the intrapulmonary shadow. Percutaneous CT-guided lung biopsy was performed, and histopathological examination revealed granulomatous inflammation without caseous necrosis or acid-fast bacilli. Sputum culture was negative for acid-fast bacilli. Anti-tuberculosis medication was continued, and the lesions eventually resolved. These lesions were diagnosed as pleural tuberculomas, and the intrapulmonary infiltration was considered to be due to the paradoxical worsening of the patient's condition. PMID:24432482

Haranaga, Shusaku; Hirai, Jun; Higa, Futoshi; Miyagi, Kazuya; Astumi, Eriko; Tateyama, Masao; Fujita, Jiro

2013-11-01

116

Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay Using Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes for Differentiation between Tuberculous and Nontuberculous Mycobacterium Species in Smears of Mycobacterium Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

TB PNA FISH is a new fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method using peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes for differentiation between species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and nontubercu- lous mycobacteria (NTM) in acid-fast bacillus-positive (AFB1) cultures is described. The test is based on fluorescein-labelled PNA probes that target the rRNA of MTC or NTM species applied to smears

HENRIK STENDER; KAARE LUND; KENNETH H. PETERSEN; OLE F. RASMUSSEN; POONPILAS HONGMANEE; HÅKAN MIORNER; SVEN E. GODTFREDSEN

1999-01-01

117

Ability of the MicroScan Rapid Gram-Negative ID Type 3 Panel To Identify Nonenteric Glucose-Fermenting and Nonfermenting Gram-Negative Bacilli  

PubMed Central

The MicroScan Rapid Neg ID3 panel is designed for the identification of Enterobacteriaceae and nonenteric glucose-fermenting and nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli. We evaluated this panel for its ability to identify gram-negative non-Enterobacteriaceae bacteria. A total of 134 strains, representing 26 genera and 42 species, were taken from storage at ?70oC, passaged three times before testing, and inoculated into the panels according to the manufacturer's directions before being inserted into a Walk/Away 96 instrument loaded with version 22.28 software. At the end of the initial 2.5-h incubation period, 89 isolates (66.4%) were correctly identified at a probability level of ?85%. After additional testing recommended by the manufacturer was completed, another 11 isolates (8.2%) were correctly identified at probability levels of ?85%. Twenty-five (18.7%) isolates were correctly identified after additional testing, but the probability levels were less than 85%. Two isolates were unidentified, and seven (5.2%) were incorrectly identified. The seven misidentified strains were not concentrated in any one genus. With an accuracy approaching 75%, this product may be used for the identification of the commonly isolated non-Enterobacteriaceae bacteria but may present problems in identification of other non-glucose-fermenting gram-negative bacilli. PMID:12354875

O'Hara, Caroline M.; Miller, J. Michael

2002-01-01

118

A Superficial Swab Culture is Useful for Microbiologic Diagnosis in Acute Prosthetic Joint Infections  

PubMed Central

The literature documents poor concordance between superficial swab and intraoperative tissue cultures in chronic prosthetic joint infections but is less clear in acute postsurgical prosthetic joint infections. We evaluated the relationship between superficial swab and deep intraoperative cultures in 56 patients with acute postsurgical prosthetic joint infections from June 2003 to June 2007; patients receiving antibiotics were excluded. There were 30 hip and 26 knee prostheses. A superficial sample of the wound drainage was taken at admission and three deep samples were obtained during open débridement. Concordance was defined when at least one of the microorganisms isolated in the superficial samples also was found in the deep samples. The analysis also was performed according to the type of microorganism: Staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative bacilli, or other gram-positive microorganisms. Concordance between superficial and deep samples was 80.3% (45 of 56). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of superficial cultures to predict the microorganism isolated in deep cultures varied depending on the type of microorganism: 93.7%, 100%, 100%, and 97.5% for S. aureus; 90%, 91.6%, 85.7%, and 94.3% for gram-negative bacilli; and 50%, 75%, 60%, and 66.7% for other gram-positive microorganisms. We therefore believe the superficial swab culture is useful in identifying the etiologic microorganism of acute prosthetic joint infections, especially when S. aureus or gram-negative bacilli were identified. Level of Evidence: Level II, diagnostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18850254

Soriano, Alex; Martínez, Juan C.; García, Sebastián; Mensa, Josep

2008-01-01

119

Evaluation of five chromogenic agar media and the Rosco Rapid Carb screen kit for detection and confirmation of carbapenemase production in Gram-negative bacilli.  

PubMed

An efficient workflow to screen for and confirm the presence of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli was developed by evaluating five chromogenic screening agar media and two confirmatory assays, the Rapid Carb screen test (Rosco Diagnostica A/S, Taastrup, Denmark) and the modified Hodge test. A panel of 150 isolates was used, including 49 carbapenemase-producing isolates representing a variety of ?-lactamase enzyme classes. An evaluation of analytical performance, assay cost, and turnaround time indicated that the preferred workflow (screening test followed by confirmatory testing) was the chromID Carba agar medium (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Étoile, France), followed by the Rapid Carb screen test, yielding a combined sensitivity of 89.8% and a specificity of 100%. As an optional component of the workflow, a determination of carbapenemase gene class via molecular means could be performed subsequent to confirmatory testing. PMID:25355764

Simner, Patricia J; Gilmour, Matthew W; DeGagne, Pat; Nichol, Kim; Karlowsky, James A

2015-01-01

120

Characterization of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance genes and their relatedness to class 1 integron and insertion sequence common region in gram-negative bacilli.  

PubMed

Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) has been used for the treatment of urinary tract infections, but increasing resistance to TMP-SMX has been reported. In this study, we analyzed TMP-SMX resistance genes and their relatedness with integrons and insertion sequence common regions (ISCRs) in uropathogenic gram-negative bacilli. Consecutive nonduplicate TMP-SMX nonsusceptible clinical isolates of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Acinetobacter spp., and P. aeruginosa were collected from urine. The minimal inhibitory concentration was determined by Etest. TMP-SMX resistance genes (sul and dfr), integrons, and ISCRs were analyzed by PCR and sequencing. A total of 45 E. coli (37.8%), 15 K. pneumoniae (18.5%), 12 Acinetobacter spp. (70.6%), and 9 Pseudomonas aeruginosa (30.0%) isolates were found to be resistant to TMP-SMX. Their MICs were all over 640. In E. coli and K. pneumoniae, sul1 and dfr genes were highly prevalent in relation with integron1. The sul3 gene was detected in E. coli. However, in P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp., only sul1 was prevalent in relation with class 1 integron; however, dfr was not detected and sul2 was less prevalent than in Enterobacteriaceae. ISCR1 and/or ISCR2 were detected in E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter spp. but the relatedness with TMP-SMX resistance genes was not prominent. ISCR14 was detected in six isolates of E. coli. In conclusion, resistance mechanisms for TMP-SMX were different between Enterobacteriaceae and glucose non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli. Class 1 integron was widely disseminated in uropathogenic gram-negative baciili, so the adoption of prudent use of antimicrobial agents and the establishment of a surveillance system are needed. PMID:25348695

Shin, Hae Won; Lim, Jinsook; Kim, Semi; Kim, Jimyung; Kwon, Gye Cheol; Koo, Sun Hoe

2015-01-28

121

Evaluation of a Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay for Differentiation between Tuberculous and Nontuberculous Mycobacterium Species in Smears of Lowenstein-Jensen and Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube Cultures Using Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new fluorescence in situ hybridization assay based on peptide nucleic acid probes (MTB and NTM probes targeting tuberculous and nontuberculous species, respectively) for the identification of Mycobacterium tuber- culosis complex and differentiation between tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) was evalu- ated using Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) solid cultures from 100 consecutive sputum samples and 50 acid-fast bacillus (AFB)-positive sputum samples as

POONPILAS HONGMANEE; HENRIK STENDER; OLE F. RASMUSSEN

122

Phenolic acridine orange fluorescent stain for mycobacteria.  

PubMed Central

A new fluorescence acid-fast staining method with acridine orange as the specific stain is presented. Only two reagents are required: the acridine orange-specific stain and a destaining-counterstaining reagent. Compared with auramine fluorescence acid-fast staining, there was less nonspecific staining of non-acid-fast debris which fluoresced a pale green contrasting color to provide a background in which to search for the red-to-orange fluorescing acid-fast bacilli. The results of the study indicate that the acridine orange method is superior to the auramine method in detecting acid-fast bacilli in specimen smears. PMID:8567921

Smithwick, R W; Bigbie, M R; Ferguson, R B; Karlix, M A; Wallis, C K

1995-01-01

123

Urine culture  

MedlinePLUS

Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You may also have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This most often means that you have a ...

124

Safeguards Culture  

SciTech Connect

The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

2012-07-01

125

Preparation of mycobacterial DNA from blood culture fluids by simple alkali wash and heat lysis method for PCR detection.  

PubMed Central

A sodium iodide-isopropanol (NI) method was compared with an alkali wash and heat lysis (AH) procedure for the preparation and extraction of DNA from BACTEC 13A blood culture fluid samples from AIDS patients for use in a PCR for the detection and identification of mycobacteria. The sensitivity and efficiency of the DNA extraction methods were assessed by a multiplex PCR which detected the members of the genus Mycobacterium and differentiated between M. intracellulare, M. tuberculosis, and M. avium isolates with a limit of detection of between 0.28 pg (67 cells) and 120 pg (28,571 cells) of standard mycobacterial DNA. The PCR amplified mycobacterial DNA prepared by the AH procedure from 40 acid-fast bacillus-positive blood cultures with growth index values of > 20 U but not from 48 blood cultures with growth index values of < 21 U. The AH method was about 10 times more sensitive than the NI method for extracting DNA from 13 acid-fast bacillus-positive BACTEC fluid samples for PCR analysis. The study shows that the AH procedure in combination with the multiplex PCR is a simple, specific, and sensitive method which can be used in the routine diagnostic laboratory to detect and identify different members of the genus Mycobacterium in blood culture fluid samples from AIDS patients. PMID:8818895

Kulski, J K; Pryce, T

1996-01-01

126

PCR diagnosis on formalin-fixed, paraYn-embedded tissues with acid-fast stain and culture negativity in chronic dialysis patients of cervico-mediastinal tuberculous lymphadenitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

defect in cellular immunity. The incidence is reported Background. Bacteriologic studies often provide nega- to be 10-16 times higher than that in the general tive results in tuberculous infection, and do not favour population (1-5). Moreover, 64-92% of diagnosed early diagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is cases are extrapulmonary tuberculosis, among which known to diagnose tuberculosis quickly. With this in

Der-Cherng Tarng; Wei-Juin Su; Tung-Po Huang

127

Comparison of Bruker Biotyper Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer to BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System for Identification of Gram-Negative Bacilli?  

PubMed Central

We compared the BD Phoenix automated microbiology system to the Bruker Biotyper (version 2.0) matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) system for identification of Gram-negative bacilli, using biochemical testing and/or genetic sequencing to resolve discordant results. The BD Phoenix correctly identified 363 (83%) and 330 (75%) isolates to the genus and species level, respectively. The Bruker Biotyper correctly identified 408 (93%) and 360 (82%) isolates to the genus and species level, respectively. The 440 isolates were grouped into common (308) and infrequent (132) isolates in the clinical laboratory. For the 308 common isolates, the BD Phoenix and Bruker Biotyper correctly identified 294 (95%) and 296 (96%) of the isolates to the genus level, respectively. For species identification, the BD Phoenix and Bruker Biotyper correctly identified 93% of the common isolates (285 and 286, respectively). In contrast, for the 132 infrequent isolates, the Bruker Biotyper correctly identified 112 (85%) and 74 (56%) isolates to the genus and species level, respectively, compared to the BD Phoenix, which identified only 69 (52%) and 45 (34%) isolates to the genus and species level, respectively. Statistically, the Bruker Biotyper overall outperformed the BD Phoenix for identification of Gram-negative bacilli to the genus (P < 0.0001) and species (P = 0.0005) level in this sample set. When isolates were categorized as common or infrequent isolates, there was statistically no difference between the instruments for identification of common Gram-negative bacilli (P > 0.05). However, the Bruker Biotyper outperformed the BD Phoenix for identification of infrequently isolated Gram-negative bacilli (P < 0.0001). PMID:21209160

Saffert, Ryan T.; Cunningham, Scott A.; Ihde, Sherry M.; Monson Jobe, Kristine E.; Mandrekar, Jayawant; Patel, Robin

2011-01-01

128

10 × '20 Progress—Development of New Drugs Active Against Gram-Negative Bacilli: An Update From the Infectious Diseases Society of America  

PubMed Central

Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially the “ESKAPE” pathogens, continue to increase in frequency and cause significant morbidity and mortality. New antimicrobial agents are greatly needed to treat infections caused by gram-negative bacilli (GNB) resistant to currently available agents. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) continues to propose legislative, regulatory, and funding solutions to this continuing crisis. The current report updates the status of development and approval of systemic antibiotics in the United States as of early 2013. Only 2 new antibiotics have been approved since IDSA's 2009 pipeline status report, and the number of new antibiotics annually approved for marketing in the United States continues to decline. We identified 7 drugs in clinical development for treatment of infections caused by resistant GNB. None of these agents was included in our 2009 list of antibacterial compounds in phase 2 or later development, but unfortunately none addresses the entire spectrum of clinically relevant GNB resistance. Our survey demonstrates some progress in development of new antibacterial drugs that target infections caused by resistant GNB, but progress remains alarmingly elusive. IDSA stresses our conviction that the antibiotic pipeline problem can be solved by the collaboration of global leaders to develop creative incentives that will stimulate new antibacterial research and development. Our aim is the creation of a sustainable global antibacterial drug research and development enterprise with the power in the short term to develop 10 new, safe, and efficacious systemically administered antibiotics by 2020 as called for in IDSA's “10 × '20 Initiative.” PMID:23599308

Boucher, Helen W.; Talbot, George H.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Bradley, John; Guidos, Robert J.; Jones, Ronald N.; Murray, Barbara E.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Gilbert, David

2013-01-01

129

10 x '20 Progress--development of new drugs active against gram-negative bacilli: an update from the Infectious Diseases Society of America.  

PubMed

Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially the "ESKAPE" pathogens, continue to increase in frequency and cause significant morbidity and mortality. New antimicrobial agents are greatly needed to treat infections caused by gram-negative bacilli (GNB) resistant to currently available agents. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) continues to propose legislative, regulatory, and funding solutions to this continuing crisis. The current report updates the status of development and approval of systemic antibiotics in the United States as of early 2013. Only 2 new antibiotics have been approved since IDSA's 2009 pipeline status report, and the number of new antibiotics annually approved for marketing in the United States continues to decline. We identified 7 drugs in clinical development for treatment of infections caused by resistant GNB. None of these agents was included in our 2009 list of antibacterial compounds in phase 2 or later development, but unfortunately none addresses the entire spectrum of clinically relevant GNB resistance. Our survey demonstrates some progress in development of new antibacterial drugs that target infections caused by resistant GNB, but progress remains alarmingly elusive. IDSA stresses our conviction that the antibiotic pipeline problem can be solved by the collaboration of global leaders to develop creative incentives that will stimulate new antibacterial research and development. Our aim is the creation of a sustainable global antibacterial drug research and development enterprise with the power in the short term to develop 10 new, safe, and efficacious systemically administered antibiotics by 2020 as called for in IDSA's "10 × '20 Initiative." PMID:23599308

Boucher, Helen W; Talbot, George H; Benjamin, Daniel K; Bradley, John; Guidos, Robert J; Jones, Ronald N; Murray, Barbara E; Bonomo, Robert A; Gilbert, David

2013-06-01

130

Evaluation of autoSCAN-W/A and the Vitek GNI+ AutoMicrobic System for Identification of Non-Glucose-Fermenting Gram-Negative Bacilli  

PubMed Central

The autoSCAN-W/A (W/A; Dade Behring Microscan Inc., West Sacramento, Calif.) and Vitek AutoMicrobic System (Vitek AMS; bioMérieux Vitek Systems, Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.) are both fully automated microbiology systems. We evaluated the accuracy of these two systems in identifying nonglucose-fermenting gram-negative bacilli. We used the W/A with conventional-panel Neg Combo type 12 and Vitek GNI+ identification systems. A total of 301 isolates from 25 different species were tested. Of these, 299 isolates were identified in the databases of both systems. The conventional biochemical methods were used for reference. The W/A correctly identified 215 isolates (71.4%) to the species level at initial testing with a high probability of ?85%. The Vitek GNI+ correctly identified 216 isolates (71.8%) to the species level at initial testing with a high probability of ?90%. After additional testing that was recommended by the manufacturer's protocol, the correct identifications of the W/A and Vitek GNI+ improved to 96.0 and 92.3%, respectively. The major misidentified species were Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Agrobacterium radiobacter in the W/A system and Acinetobacter lwoffii, Chryseobacterium indologenes, and Comamonas acidovorans in the Vitek GNI+ system. The error rates were 4.0 and 7.6%, respectively. The overall accuracy for both systems was above 90% if the supplemental tests were applied. There was no significant difference in accuracy (P > 0.05) between the two systems. PMID:10699007

Sung, Ling Ling; Yang, Dine Ie; Hung, Chia Chien; Ho, Hsin Tsung

2000-01-01

131

Tuberculosis Diagnosis and Multidrug Resistance Testing by Direct Sputum Culture in Selective Broth without Decontamination or Centrifugation ? †  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis culture usually requires sputum decontamination and centrifugation to prevent cultures from being overgrown by contaminating bacteria and fungi. However, decontamination destroys many tuberculous bacilli, and centrifugation often is not possible in resource-poor settings. We therefore assessed the performance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture with unprocessed samples plated directly by using tuberculosis-selective media and compared this procedure to conventional culture using centrifuge decontamination. Quadruplicate aliquots of strain H37RV were cultured in 7H9 broth with and without selective antimicrobials and after centrifuge decontamination. The subsequent comparison was made with 715 sputum samples. Split paired sputum samples were cultured conventionally with centrifuge decontamination and by direct culture in tuberculosis-selective media containing antibiotics. Centrifuge decontamination reduced tuberculosis H37RV colonies by 78% (P < 0.001), whereas direct culture in tuberculosis-selective media had no inhibitory effect. Similarly, in sputum cultures that were not overgrown by contaminants, conventional culture yielded fewer tuberculosis colonies than direct culture (P < 0.001). However, the sensitivity of conventional culture was greater than that of direct culture, because samples were less affected by contamination. Thus, of the 340 sputum samples that were tuberculosis culture positive, conventional culture detected 97%, whereas direct culture detected 81% (P < 0.001). Conventional and direct cultures both took a median of 8.0 days to diagnose tuberculosis (P = 0.8). In those direct cultures that detected drug resistance or susceptibility, there was a 97% agreement with the results of conventional culture (Kappa agreement statistic, 0.84; P < 0.001). Direct culture is a simple, low-technology, and rapid technique for diagnosing tuberculosis and determining drug susceptibility. Compared to that of conventional culture, direct culture has reduced sensitivity because of bacterial overgrowth, but in basic laboratories this deficit may be outweighed by the ease of use. PMID:18448689

Grandjean, Louis; Martin, Laura; Gilman, Robert H.; Valencia, Teresa; Herrera, Beatriz; Quino, Willi; Ramos, Eric; Rivero, Maribel; Montoya, Rosario; Escombe, A. Roderick; Coleman, David; Mitchison, Denis; Evans, Carlton A.

2008-01-01

132

Severe Mycobacterium tuberculosis-related immune reconstitution syndrome in an immunocompetent patient  

PubMed Central

We present a young immunocompetent male with diagnosed sputum culture-positive tuberculosis on intensive phase with observed daily four-drug antituberculosis therapy. He presented at 1-month of treatment with sequential bilateral pneumothoraces, increase in cavitation and consolidation and respiratory failure. Repeat smears for acid-fast bacilli had downgraded, and cultures were negative. Quantiferon-GOLD (initially negative) was now strongly positive. A diagnosis of possible immune reconstitution syndrome was considered and 0.25 mg/kg/day oral steroids administered. We also discuss an approach to differential diagnosis of a patient worsening on treatment for microbiologically confirmed tuberculosis in this manuscript. PMID:25624652

Rajagopala, Srinivas; Chandrasekharan, Sujatha

2015-01-01

133

Culture Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Culture Machine is a new, refereed, electronic journal encompassing cultural studies and cultural theory. The international editorial board of the interactive journal aims to "generat[e] research in culture and theory" by promoting and publishing "the most provocative of new work." The theme of the inaugural issue is Taking Risks with the Future. Content includes articles such as Life After Death of the Text by Johan Fornas, Cultural Studies in the Clouds: Mourning for Detail by Tadeusz Slawek, and The Future States of Politics by Kenneth Surin. Culture Machine is hosted by the University of Teesside, England.

134

[Influence of vermiculite particles on antioxidant properties of cultural medium of Bacillus subtilis IMV V-7023].  

PubMed

It is shown that in the process of cultivation of Bacillus subtilis IMV V-7023 in the medium with vermiculite (1.5-5.0 g/l) one can observe the oppressing of some indexes of antioxidant properties of cultural medium of bacteria. In particular, a decline of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity in the Fenton reaction by 2.8-11.6%, ability to inhibit formation of malondialdehyde - by 4.4-13.1% and inactivation of 2,2'-Diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radical - by 3.1-8.5% were observed. Thus oxidant activity increased substantially. Besides oppressing influence of particles of vermiculite on protector properties of the cultural medium of bacilli it is found out that with the increase of the content of dispersible material in the nutrient medium the reducing power of cultural medium of these bacteria increased. PMID:25509184

Skorokhod, I A; Kudrish, I K

2014-01-01

135

Culturing Protozoa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

Stevenson, Paul

1980-01-01

136

Cultural Pluralism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comment examines the roles of cultural pluralism and assimilation as guiding values in American law. In particular, it investigates the ways in which the legal system both implicitly and explicitly recognizes the value of cultural pluralism. (Author/AM)

Fong, Kevin M.

1978-01-01

137

Comparative evaluation of three immunochromatographic identification tests for culture confirmation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex  

PubMed Central

Background The rapid identification of acid-fast bacilli recovered from patient specimens as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) is critically important for accurate diagnosis and treatment. A thin-layer immunochromatographic (TLC) assay using anti-MPB64 or anti-MPT64 monoclonal antibodies was developed to discriminate between MTC and non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM). Capilia TB-Neo, which is the improved version of Capilia TB, is recently developed and needs to be evaluated. Methods Capilia TB-Neo was evaluated by using reference strains including 96 Mycobacterium species (4 MTC and 92 NTM) and 3 other bacterial genera, and clinical isolates (500 MTC and 90 NTM isolates). M. tuberculosis isolates tested negative by Capilia TB-Neo were sequenced for mpt64 gene. Results Capilia TB-Neo showed 100% agreement to a subset of reference strains. Non-specific reaction to M. marinum was not observed. The sensitivity and specificity of Capilia TB-Neo to the clinical isolates were 99.4% (99.6% for M. tuberculosis, excluding M. bovis BCG) for clinical MTC isolates and 100% for NTM isolates tested, respectively. Two M. tuberculosis isolates tested negative by Capilia TB-Neo: one harbored a 63-bp deletion in the mpt64 gene and the other possessed a 3,659-bp deletion from Rv1977 to Rv1981c, a region including the entire mpt64 gene. Conclusions Capilia TB-Neo is a simple, rapid and highly sensitive test for identifying MTC, and showed better specificity than Capilia TB. However, Capilia TB-Neo still showed false-negative results with mpt64 mutations. The limitation should be recognized for clinical use. PMID:24484470

2014-01-01

138

Distribution of 16S rRNA methylases among different species of Gram-negative bacilli with high-level resistance to aminoglycosides.  

PubMed

16S rRNA methylases confer high-level resistance to most aminoglycosides in Gram-negative bacteria. Seven 16S rRNA methylase genes, armA, rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, rmtD, rmtE and npmA, have been identified since 2003. We studied the distribution of methylase genes in more than 200 aminoglycoside-resistant Gram-negative clinical isolates collected in 2007 at our hospital in Shanghai, China. 16S rRNA methylase genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) among 217 consecutive clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacilli resistant to gentamicin and amikacin by a disk diffusion method. 16S rRNA methylase genes were present in 97.5% (193/198) of clinical isolates highly resistant to amikacin (?512 ?g/ml), with armA and rmtB detected in 67.2 and 30.3% of strains, respectively, while no 16S rRNA methylase genes were detected in 19 strains with amikacin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ?256 ?g/ml. armA or rmtB genes were detected in 100% of 104 strains of Enterobacteriaceae, and these two genes were equally represented (49 vs. 55 strains). Genes for armA or rmtB were detected in 94.7% (89/94) of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, and armA was predominant (84 vs. 5 strains with rmtB). No rmtA, rmtC, rmtD or npmA genes were found. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence (ERIC-PCR) indicated that armA and rmtB genes were spread by both horizontal transfer and clonal dissemination. PMID:20614151

Zhou, Y; Yu, H; Guo, Q; Xu, X; Ye, X; Wu, S; Guo, Y; Wang, M

2010-11-01

139

Culture evolves  

PubMed Central

Culture pervades human lives and has allowed our species to create niches all around the world and its oceans, in ways quite unlike any other primate. Indeed, our cultural nature appears so distinctive that it is often thought to separate humanity from the rest of nature and the Darwinian forces that shape it. A contrary view arises through the recent discoveries of a diverse range of disciplines, here brought together to illustrate the scope of a burgeoning field of cultural evolution and to facilitate cross-disciplinary fertilization. Each approach emphasizes important linkages between culture and evolutionary biology rather than quarantining one from the other. Recent studies reveal that processes important in cultural transmission are more widespread and significant across the animal kingdom than earlier recognized, with important implications for evolutionary theory. Recent archaeological discoveries have pushed back the origins of human culture to much more ancient times than traditionally thought. These developments suggest previously unidentified continuities between animal and human culture. A third new array of discoveries concerns the later diversification of human cultures, where the operations of Darwinian-like processes are identified, in part, through scientific methods borrowed from biology. Finally, surprising discoveries have been made about the imprint of cultural evolution in the predispositions of human minds for cultural transmission. PMID:21357216

Whiten, Andrew; Hinde, Robert A.; Laland, Kevin N.; Stringer, Christopher B.

2011-01-01

140

Clinical comparison of isolator and BACTEC 660 resin media for blood culture.  

PubMed Central

The 10-ml Isolator system (E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc., Wilmington, Del.) was compared with the BACTEC 16A-17A nonradiometric resin system (Johnston Laboratories, Inc., Towson, Md.) for isolation of organisms from 6,839 paired blood cultures. Equal volumes of blood (6 to 10 ml for each Isolator and 3 to 5 ml for each BACTEC bottle) were cultured in parallel in the two systems, and 600 isolates that were judged to be clinically significant by chart review were recovered during the study. The BACTEC resin system detected 510 (85%) and the Isolator system detected 435 (72%) of the clinically significant isolates (P less than 0.001). Of 45 polymicrobial blood cultures, the BACTEC system detected 32 (71%) and the Isolator system detected 21 (47%) (P less than 0.05). Of 253 gram-negative bacilli isolated during the study, 30% were detected only in the BACTEC system and 16% were detected only in the Isolator system (P less than 0.001), and of 56 nonfermentative or fastidious gram-negative bacilli detected, 46% were recovered only in the BACTEC system, while 14% were detected only in the Isolator system (P less than 0.001). Of 86 streptococci isolated during the study, 30% were detected only in the BACTEC system, and 4% were detected only in the Isolator system (P less than 0.001). Recoveries of anaerobic bacteria, staphylococci, and yeasts were equivalent in the two systems. Organisms judged to be contaminants were detected in approximately 1% of the cultures in each system. The results suggest that use of resin media renders the BACTEC nonradiometric system equivalent or superior to the Isolator system for detection of clinically significant organisms in blood cultures. PMID:2229373

Kelly, M T; Roberts, F J; Henry, D; Geere, I; Smith, J A

1990-01-01

141

Cultural Shock  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Demos organization in London is a think-tank that produces compelling reports on everything from public space to government spending. This report from October 2010 is by Samuel Jones, and he explores the relationship between the British government and culture and sport. His basic question is: "Why should the state get involved in culture, and if it should, how?" The 154-page report is divided into sections such as "Society and the cultural realm", "Taking the cultural pulse of a nation", and "Evidence of Potential". It's an interesting read, and the paper argues that "cultural policy must focus on the equitable distribution of individuals' cultural capabilities, indicating that this will require thinking anew about what form the structures take, and how they are run."

Jones, Samuel

142

Cultural Entomology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, succinctly written by the late Charles Hogue, was taken, with permission, from the 1987 Annual Review of Entomology. It provides an excellent explanation of cultural entomology, along with examples of the influence insects have had on art, folklore, history, literature and language, the performing arts, philosophy, religion, and other areas of culture from around the world. To delve more deeply into cultural entomology, the original 1987 article should be consulted for a listing of many specific references to the subject.

0000-00-00

143

Nasopharyngeal culture  

MedlinePLUS

Culture - nasopharyngeal; Swab for respiratory viruses; Swab for Staph carriage ... test identifies viruses and bacteria that cause upper respiratory tract symptoms. Bordetella pertussis Neisseria meningitidis Staphylococcus aureus ...

144

Outcome of Acute Prosthetic Joint Infections Due to Gram-Negative Bacilli Treated with Open Debridement and Retention of the Prosthesis?  

PubMed Central

The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcome of acute prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) due to gram-negative bacilli (GNB) treated without implant removal. Patients with an acute PJI due to GNB diagnosed from 2000 to 2007 were prospectively registered. Demographics, comorbidity, type of implant, microbiology data, surgical treatment, antimicrobial therapy, and outcome were recorded. Classification and regression tree analysis, the Kaplan-Meier survival method, and the Cox regression model were applied. Forty-seven patients were included. The mean age was 70.7 years, and there were 15 hip prostheses and 32 knee prostheses. The median number of days from the time of arthroplasty was 20. The most frequent pathogens were members of the Enterobacteriaceae family in 41 cases and Pseudomonas spp. in 20 cases. Among the Enterobacteriaceae, 14 were resistant to ciprofloxacin, while all Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. The median durations of intravenous and oral antibiotic treatment were 14 and 64 days, respectively. A total of 35 (74.5%) patients were in remission after a median follow-up of 463 days (interquartile range, 344 to 704) days. By use of the Kaplan-Meier survival curve, a C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration of ?15 mg/dl (P = 0.03) and receipt of a fluoroquinolone, when all GNB isolated were susceptible (P = 0.0009), were associated with a better outcome. By use of a Cox regression model, a CRP concentration of ?15 mg/dl (odds ratio [OR], 3.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 12.5; P = 0.043) and receipt of a fluoroquinolone (OR, 9.09; 95% CI, 1.96 to 50; P = 0.005) were independently associated with better outcomes. Open debridement without removal of the implant had a success rate of 74.5%, and the factors associated with good prognosis were a CRP concentration at the time of diagnosis ?15 mg/dl and treatment with a fluoroquinolone. PMID:19687237

Martínez-Pastor, Juan C.; Muñoz-Mahamud, Ernesto; Vilchez, Félix; García-Ramiro, Sebastián; Bori, Guillem; Sierra, Josep; Martínez, José A.; Font, Lluis; Mensa, Josep; Soriano, Alex

2009-01-01

145

Lipoarabinomannan Localization and Abundance during Growth of Mycobacterium smegmatis ? †  

PubMed Central

Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a structurally heterogeneous amphipathic lipoglycan present in Mycobacterium spp. and other actinomycetes, which constitutes a major component of the cell wall and exhibits a wide spectrum of immunomodulatory effects. Analysis of Mycobacterium smegmatis subcellular fractions and spheroplasts showed that LAM and lipomannan (LM) were primarily found in a cell wall-enriched subcellular fraction and correlated with the presence (or absence) of the mycolic acids in spheroplast preparations, suggesting that LAM and LM are primarily associated with the putative outer membrane of mycobacteria. During the course of these studies significant changes in the LAM/LM content of the cell wall were noted relative to the age of the culture. The LAM content of the M. smegmatis cell wall was dramatically reduced as the bacilli approached stationary phase, whereas LM, mycolic acid, and arabinogalactan content appeared to be unchanged. In addition, cell morphology and acid-fast staining characteristics showed variations with growth phase of the bacteria. In the logarithmic phase, the bacteria were found to be classic rod-shaped acid-fast bacilli, while in the stationary phase M. smegmatis lost the characteristic rod shape and developed a punctate acid-fast staining pattern with carbolfuchsin. The number of viable bacteria was independent of LAM content and phenotype. Taken together, the results presented here suggest that LAM is primarily localized with the mycolic acids in the cell wall and that the cellular concentration of LAM in M. smegmatis is selectively modulated with the growth phase. PMID:21840972

Dhiman, Rakesh K.; Dinadayala, Premkumar; Ryan, Gavin J.; Lenaerts, Anne J.; Schenkel, Alan R.; Crick, Dean C.

2011-01-01

146

Pediatric pulmonary tuberculoma with a solid pulmonary nodule detected on chest computed tomography.  

PubMed

A 14-year-old girl underwent a medical checkup for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection because her grandmother had been diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis three months earlier. The interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) showed a positive result. The patient's chest X-ray findings were normal. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed a single mass lesion in the right lower lobe of the lung. A sputum smear of acid-fast bacilli was positive; however, the polymerase chain reaction results for tuberculosis were negative. We diagnosed the patient with pulmonary tuberculosis based on the fact that she had come in contact with a tuberculosis patient. Six weeks later, a liquid culture examination for acid-fast bacilli was found to be positive and the acid-fast bacillus was identified as M. tuberculosis. The use of chest CT is not routinely recommended in all children suspected of having M. tuberculosis infection. However, IGRA-positive children who report frequent contact with infected individuals should undergo CT tomography if chest X-rays do not show any abnormal shadows. PMID:24739618

Ushiki, Atsuhito; Yamazaki, Yoshitaka; Ideura, Gen; Shinbo, Takashi; Sugawara, Mariko; Hama, Mineyuki; Hanaoka, Masayuki

2014-01-01

147

Mycobacterium liflandii Outbreak in a Research Colony of Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis Frogs  

PubMed Central

A research colony of Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis frogs presented with nodular and ulcerative skin lesions. Additional consistent gross findings included splenomegaly with multiple tan-yellow nodular foci in the spleen and liver of diseased frogs. Copious acid-fast positive bacteria were present in touch impression smears of spleen, skin, and livers of diseased frogs. Histologically, necrotizing and granulomatous dermatitis, splenitis, and hepatitis with numerous acid-fast bacilli were consistently present, indicative of systemic mycobacteriosis. Infrequently, granulomatous inflammation was noted in the lungs, pancreas, coelomic membranes, and rarely reproductive organs. Ultrastructurally, both extracellular bacilli and intracellular bacilli within macrophages were identified. Frogs in the affected room were systematically depopulated, and control measures were initiated. Cultured mycobacteria from affected organs were identified and genetically characterized as Mycobacterium liflandii by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the enoyl reductase domain and specific variable numbers of tandem repeats. In recent years, M. liflandii has had a devastating impact on research frog colonies throughout the United States. This detailed report with ultrastructural description of M. liflandii aids in further understanding of this serious disease in frogs. PMID:21118799

Fremont-Rahl, J. J.; Ek, C.; Williamson, H. R.; Small, P. L. C.; Fox, J. G.; Muthupalani, S.

2015-01-01

148

Plate-based dormancy culture system for Mycobacterium smegmatis and isolation of metronidazole-resistant mutants.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium smegmatis is an obligate aerobe. However, growth analyses in oxygen-limited liquid cultures have shown that the bacillus is able to survive anoxia with a half-life of 4 days by shifting down to a drug-resistant, dormant state. Metronidazole is the first lead against dormant bacilli and shows selective toxicity for this physiological state. Here, we report a plate-based dormancy culture system employing anoxic jars for M. smegmatis. Its usefulness for the genetic analysis of dormancy was demonstrated by isolating the first metronidazole-resistant mutants. Highly resistant mutants formed slightly yellow (as opposed to creamy) colonies. Furthermore, high-level metronidazole resistance correlated with an increased half-life of 12 days under anoxic conditions. This suggests a link between metronidazole susceptibility and anaerobic survival. PMID:11425478

Lim, A; Dick, T

2001-06-25

149

Organizational Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of organizational culture has received increasing attention in recent years both from academics and practitioners. This article presents the author’s view of how culture should be defined and analyzed if it is to be of use in the field of organizational psychology. Other concepts are reviewed, a brief history is provided, and case materials are presented to illustrate

Edgar H. Schein

1990-01-01

150

Mycobacterium haemophilum as the Initial Presentation of a B-Cell Lymphoma in a Liver Transplant Patient  

PubMed Central

A 66-year-old woman presented with pustular lesions of her face, trunk, and limbs and an acute arthritis of the knees and elbows. She had a complex medical background and had been on immunosuppressants for three years after a liver transplant. Tissue samples from her skin lesions and synovial fluid showed acid-fast bacilli. Mycobacterium haemophilum, an atypical mycobacteria, was later grown on culture. During her treatment with combination antibiotic therapy, she developed a pronounced generalised lymphadenopathy. Histology showed features of a diffuse B-cell lymphoma, a posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). PMID:24523979

Doherty, T.; Lynn, M.; Cavazza, A.; Sames, E.; Hughes, R.

2014-01-01

151

Chronic knee monoarthritis caused by Mycobacterium chelonae.  

PubMed

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis occurs in 20% of all patients with tuberculosis and tubercular arthritis occurs in 10% of those with extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Arthritis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is not uncommon in India. However, arthritis caused by Mycobacterium chelonae has not been reported to the best of our knowledge. We report a patient with arthritis caused by Mycobacterium chelonae in whom the diagnosis was confirmed by smear and culture of acid-fast bacilli. Polymerase chain reaction of the synovial fluid using IS6110 was negative. PMID:18254520

Dubey, Manoj; Kalantri, Yatiraj; Hemvani, Nanda; Chitnis, D S

2007-01-01

152

Urine culture - catheterized specimen  

MedlinePLUS

Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

153

Simple and Rapid Identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex by Immunochromatographic Assay Using Anti-MPB64 Monoclonal Antibodies  

PubMed Central

A newly developed immunochromatographic assay (MPB64-ICA) for identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was evaluated with 20 reference strains of mycobacterial species and 111 clinical isolates. MPB64-ICA displayed a very strong reaction band with organisms belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex but not with mycobacteria other than M. tuberculosis (MOTT bacilli), except for one of four M. marinum strains tested and one M. flavescens strain, both of which gave very weak signals. The effectiveness of MPB64-ICA in combination with two liquid culture systems (MB-REDOX and MGIT) was tested. A total of 108 of 362 sputum specimens processed were positive for acid-fast bacilli. Samples taken from the cultures on the same days when either of the two culture systems became positive for mycobacteria were assayed with MPB64-ICA. Of 108 cultures with mycobacteria, 51 showed a positive signal with the test, in which the presence of the M. tuberculosis complex was demonstrated later by the Accuprobe for M. tuberculosis complex. In addition, MPB64-ICA could correctly detect the M. tuberculosis complex in mixed cultures of the M. tuberculosis complex and MOTT bacilli. These results indicate that MPB64-ICA can be easily used for rapid identification of the M. tuberculosis complex in combination with culture systems based on liquid media without any technical complexity in clinical laboratories. PMID:10523576

Abe, Chiyoji; Hirano, Kazue; Tomiyama, Tetsuo

1999-01-01

154

Throat Culture  

MedlinePLUS

... profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you ... Throat Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Collecting | ...

155

Culture Currents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Barone and Britzman, each in a short essay, discuss the books, poetry, performances, music, and other cultural media that influence them. Cites the publications of each and lists the works discussed. (MLF)

Barone, Tom; Britzman, Deborah P.

2003-01-01

156

Gastric culture  

MedlinePLUS

... test or procedure preparation (3 to 6 years) School age test or procedure preparation (6 to 12 ... immune system. The final results of the gastric culture test may take several weeks. Your health care ...

157

Paramilitary Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies the movie, "Rambo," and "Soldier of Fortune" magazine as artifacts of "paramilitary culture." Contends that they are a social phenomenon which helps legitimate the United States government's rapid escalation of military forces. (MS)

Gibson, James William

1989-01-01

158

Primary Cutaneous Actinomycosis:A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Actinomycosis is a subacute or chronic suppurative bacterial infection caused by filamentous gram positive, anaerobic to microaerophilic non acid fast bacilli primarily of the genus Actinomyces that normally colonize the mouth, colon and vagina. Primary cutaneous actinomycosis is a rare entity and is generally associated with trauma. We report a case of primary cutaneous actinomycosis of the back and left axilla in a 32-year-old female patient with no suggestive history of trauma.The diagnosis was suggested by the characteristic lesions with multiple discharging sinuses draining sero-sanguinous fluid scattered all over the lesions. Gram positive bacilli with plenty of pus cells were demonstrated in the direct examination of the discharging pus. Diagnosis was confirmed by isolation of the organisms by anaerobic culture giving typical molar tooth colonies. Final confirmation was done by histopathological examination. PMID:25177623

Ghosh, Ranadeep; Mukherjee, Kheya; Ghoshal, Loknath

2014-01-01

159

Culturally Responsive Teaching: Understanding Disability Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To be culturally responsive teachers, we must first have an understanding of other cultures and how students from these cultures differ from one another. As we consider the many cultures represented in our classrooms, we might also consider students with disabilities as a cultural group. Within any main culture are subgroups differentiated by…

Darrow, Alice-Ann

2013-01-01

160

EAST ASIAN LANGUAGESEAST ASIAN LANGUAGESEAST ASIAN LANGUAGES & CULTURES& CULTURES& CULTURES  

E-print Network

EAST ASIAN LANGUAGESEAST ASIAN LANGUAGESEAST ASIAN LANGUAGES & CULTURES& CULTURES& CULTURES typically concentrate on one East Asian language and culture while also taking broader survey courses majoring in EALC. However, students are not restricted to focus their studies on one language or culture

Krylov, Anna I.

161

Invisible Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is invisible culture? In this instance, it is an electronic journal produced by the Visual & Cultural Studies graduate program within the Art and Art History Department at the University of Rochester. The journal was founded in 1998 under the editorship of Mario Caro and edited by a host of talented individuals since then. Currently, there are nineteen issues available online, including "Interrogating Subcultures," "The Loop as a Temporal Form," and "Making Sense of Visual Culture." Each issue contains thoughtful commentary, complemented by various slideshows of images and other complementary materials. One of the more recent issues takes on the world of the TV show "Mad Men" with the piece "Serializing the Past: Re-Evaluating History in Mad Men."

162

Postmodern Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Somehow it is not surprising that a journal titled Postmodern Culture would find a home on the Internet, which itself is a bricoleur of many different forms and styles, akin to the very notion of postmodernism. Located online since 1990, Postmodern Culture "has become the leading electronic journal of interdisciplinary thought on contemporary cultures." The journal itself is published by The Johns Hopkins University Press, with assistance by the University of Virginia and Vassar College. Visitors to the site can browse the entire contents of the current volume, and may browse through the text-only archive, which is also made available here. The current edition contains pieces by Chris Bongie titled "Exiles on Main Stream: Valuing the Popularity of Postcolonial Literature" and a trenchant exchange by Leonard Wilcox and Brad Butterfield on "Baudrillard, September 11, and the Haunting Abyss of Reversal."

163

Cultural Correspondence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the early 1970s, Paul Buhle and Dave Wagner began to think about creating a new and unique journal. They were both veterans of the journal Radical America, and they were both interested in popular culture. As August 1975 came around, they published the first issue of "Cultural Correspondence", a journal intended to serve as a critical review of popular culture. As the journal was published in Providence, it's not surprising to learn that the Brown University Library Center for Digital Initiatives (CDL) has created this most engaging archive of this publication. Visitors to the site can read the entire contents of each issue, browse around as they see fit, and also check out their virtual "Magazine Stand". First-time visitors may wish to start out by reading the Spring 1977 issue titled "Television".

164

Cultural Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity combines cultural exploration with number patterns and systems. Choose a culture or historical period and have learners make a calendar for a month in that time. For more challenge, pick a country that uses different numerals, such as India or China or go back in time and make calendars for a month in ancient Mayan times, using the Mayan number system. Ask learners to compare: How are the calendars they’ve made different from the calendars we use? How are they the same? What patterns do you notice? Available as a web page and downloadable PDF. Blank calendar template is also available as a downloadable PDF.

2012-06-26

165

Cultural Themes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of a larger report on the Four Directions Project, an American Indian technology innovation project, this section includes 10 "pathfinders" to locating information on Native American cultural themes. The pathfinders were designed by students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Texas at Austin in…

Roy, Loriene, Comp.

166

Cultural Concerns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers from a symposium on cultural concerns in human resource development (HRD). "Race, Gender, and Mentoring Patterns" (Linda M. Hite) examines mentoring patterns and opportunities among black female professionals and reports results reinforcing the need for increased availability of same-sex, same-race mentors in…

1998

167

Shanzhai Culture  

E-print Network

. Which it isn't. The shanzhai culture is deeply entrenched here. Shanzhai, fake, counterfeit, bogus. Shanzhai copies of most Western brand name items are available. Ripoff Rolexes? Check. Knockoff Nikes? Check. Bogus Blahniks? Check. And it doesn't stop...

Hacker, Randi

2011-09-07

168

Hydroponic Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a hydroponic culture technique suitable for student exercises in biology. This technique of growing plants in nutrient solutions enhances plant growth, and is an excellent way to obtain intact plants with root systems free of soil or other particulate matter. (JR)

Steucek, G. L.; Yurkiewicz, W. J.

1973-01-01

169

Cultural Diplomacy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Demos group in Britain describes itself as "the think tank for everyday democracy", and they have published a number of intelligent research reports and briefs as of late. One of their recent reports, released in February 2007, deals with the world of cultural diplomacy. Authored by Kirsten Bound, Rachel Briggs, John Holden, and Samuel Jones, the paper's central premise is that "the huge global reach and potential of Britain's world class artistic and cultural assets should be at the heart of government relationship building abroad." It's an interesting concept, and one that is developed over the course of this work through citing specific examples and also by pointing a way to forward efforts in this particular niche of public policy and international relations.

170

ET culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter invites the reader to enter the outerspaces of extraterrestrial culture, as a realm of social inquiry. Where\\u000a this journey leads is perhaps unexpected, especially for the discourse of aliens and Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs). For\\u000a while we might expect to engage fields of exotic Otherness — of technomarvels and bizarre entities, epic enterprises, and\\u000a terrors unrecognizable in their

Debbora Battaglia

171

Clinical, radiological and molecular diagnosis correlation in serum samples from patients with osteoarticular tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the role of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in serum samples, in the diagnosis of osteoarticular tuberculosis (OTB) in a setting where only clinical and imaging diagnoses determine the treatment. Methods A total of 44 consecutive serum specimens were collected from clinically suspected OTB patients, based on clinical and radiological [X-ray or magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography] features. They were screened by in-house nested PCR. In addition, a few specimens were examined by Gram stain, acid-fast bacilli stain, histopathology and routine bacterial culture. A total of 39 specimens were collected from patients suffering from other bone diseases of nontuberculous origin and included as negative controls. Results Of the 44 clinically suspected OTB patients, in-house nested PCR was positive in 40 (91%) cases; PCR was negative in 38 (97%) negative controls. Sensitivity and specificity of our in-house nested PCR was 90.9% and 97.4%, respectively. The PCR report was available within 48 h. It was possible to standardize serum PCR technique and in positive cases, a good correlation was observed in terms of an adequate treatment response. Conclusions Nested PCR in serum samples is a rapid, highly sensitive and specific modality for OTB detection. PCR should be performed in addition to clinical evaluation, imaging studies, acid-fast bacilli staining, culture and histopathology diagnosis, if possible. PMID:25183281

García-Elorriaga, Guadalupe; Martínez-Elizondo, Olga; del Rey-Pineda, Guillermo; González-Bonilla, César

2014-01-01

172

Johne's disease in a free-ranging white-tailed deer from Virginia and subsequent surveillance for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.  

PubMed

Johne's disease (paratuberculosis) was diagnosed in a 2-yr-old, male, free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Fauquier County, Virginia, USA, based on histopathology and culture for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. Clinical and pathologic findings included emaciation; loss of body fat; chronic diarrhea; severe, chronic, diffuse granulomatous colitis with intrahistiocytic acid-fast bacilli; moderate, chronic granulomatous lymphadenitis with intrahistiocytic acid-fast bacilli; as well as moderate chronic, multifocal, lymphoplasmacytic hepatitis. These findings are consistent with previous reports of Johne's disease in cervids. Subsequent targeted surveillance of 10 emaciated deer with diarrhea, as well as sampling of 72 asymptomatic deer for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis using culture of multiple tissue types, as well as serology using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) optimized for cervid antibody detection, did not reveal any additional cases of infection in this geographic region. To date, this appears to be an isolated case of Johne's disease in a free-ranging white-tailed deer, and infection with the causative agent for Johne's disease appears to be an infrequent occurrence in deer from this region. The origin of infection was most likely domestic ruminants. This is the first report of clinical Johne's disease in a free-ranging white-tailed deer outside of the Florida Keys, USA. Stressors, such as high deer population density and low selenium levels, may have contributed to the development of clinical disease in this case and warrant further investigation. PMID:19204350

Sleeman, Jonathan M; Manning, Elizabeth J B; Rohm, John H; Sims, Jerry P; Sanchez, Susan; Gerhold, Richard W; Keel, M Kevin

2009-01-01

173

Development and Validation of a Liquid Medium (M7H9C) for Routine Culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis To Replace Modified Bactec 12B Medium  

PubMed Central

Liquid culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from clinical samples, such as feces, is the most sensitive antemortem test for the diagnosis of Johne's disease in ruminants. In Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and some other countries, the Bactec 460 system with modified Bactec 12B medium (Becton, Dickinson) has been the most commonly used liquid culture system, but it was discontinued in 2012. In this study, a new liquid culture medium, M7H9C, was developed. It consists of a Middlebrook 7H9 medium base with added Casitone, albumin, dextrose, catalase, egg yolk, mycobactin J, and a cocktail of antibiotics. We found that polyoxyethylene stearate (POES) was not essential for the cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in either the Bactec 12B or the M7H9C medium. The limit of detection determined using pure cultures of the C and S strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was 7 bacilli per 50 ?l inoculum in the two media. The new medium was validated using 784 fecal and tissue samples from sheep and cattle, >25% of which contained viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Discrepant results for the clinical samples between the two media were mostly associated with samples that contained <10 viable bacilli per gram, but these results were relatively uncommon, and the performances of the two media were not significantly different. M7H9C medium was less than half the cost of the Bactec 12B medium and did not require regular examination during incubation, but a confirmatory IS900 PCR test had to be performed on every culture after the predetermined incubation period. PMID:24048541

Whittington, Ann-Michele; Waldron, Anna; Begg, Douglas J.; de Silva, Kumi; Purdie, Auriol C.; Plain, Karren M.

2013-01-01

174

Development and validation of a liquid medium (M7H9C) for routine culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to replace modified Bactec 12B medium.  

PubMed

Liquid culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from clinical samples, such as feces, is the most sensitive antemortem test for the diagnosis of Johne's disease in ruminants. In Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and some other countries, the Bactec 460 system with modified Bactec 12B medium (Becton, Dickinson) has been the most commonly used liquid culture system, but it was discontinued in 2012. In this study, a new liquid culture medium, M7H9C, was developed. It consists of a Middlebrook 7H9 medium base with added Casitone, albumin, dextrose, catalase, egg yolk, mycobactin J, and a cocktail of antibiotics. We found that polyoxyethylene stearate (POES) was not essential for the cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in either the Bactec 12B or the M7H9C medium. The limit of detection determined using pure cultures of the C and S strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was 7 bacilli per 50 ?l inoculum in the two media. The new medium was validated using 784 fecal and tissue samples from sheep and cattle, >25% of which contained viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Discrepant results for the clinical samples between the two media were mostly associated with samples that contained <10 viable bacilli per gram, but these results were relatively uncommon, and the performances of the two media were not significantly different. M7H9C medium was less than half the cost of the Bactec 12B medium and did not require regular examination during incubation, but a confirmatory IS900 PCR test had to be performed on every culture after the predetermined incubation period. PMID:24048541

Whittington, Richard J; Whittington, Ann-Michele; Waldron, Anna; Begg, Douglas J; de Silva, Kumi; Purdie, Auriol C; Plain, Karren M

2013-12-01

175

Diagnosis of intramammary infection in samples yielding negative results or minor pathogens in conventional bacterial culturing.  

PubMed

Up to half of quarter milk samples submitted for mastitis diagnosis are culture-negative results or lead to identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci or Corynebacterium bovis in conventional culturing, the so-called minor pathogens. The interpretation and usefulness of these results in terms of udder and animal health management is limited, even though the amount of resources spent is relatively high. This work aimed to test two methods of analysis of milk samples with the goal of increasing detection of intramammary pathogens. In the first study, 783 milk samples were processed in duplicate: before and after freezing at -20°C for 24 h, using standard bacteriological techniques. There was a significant difference between the two methods with samples frozen for 24 h yielding significantly fewer Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci, Gram-negative bacilli, Gram-positive bacilli and significantly more samples leading to no growth, than samples before freezing. The number of samples yielding Gram-positive catalase-negative cocci was not significantly affected by freezing. In the second study, a real-time PCR-based test was performed on milk samples with an individual quarter somatic cell count above 500,000 cells/ml that were either negative (n=51 samples) or that led to the isolation of minor pathogens in culturing: Corynebacterium bovis (n=79 samples) or non-aureus staphylococci (NAS, n=32). A mastitis pathogen, beyond the result obtained with standard bacteriology, was detected on 47% of the no-growth samples, on 35% of the samples from which C. bovis had been isolated and on 25% of the samples from which NAS had been isolated. The most commonly detected major pathogen was Escherichia coli, followed by Streptococcus uberis, Arcanobacterium pyogenes/Peptoniphilus indolicus and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. These results suggest that simply freezing milk samples for 24 h does not increase the detection of intramammary bacteria in milk samples and therefore should not be recommended. However, use of the real-time PCR-based test may be useful in diagnosing intramammary infections when milk samples with high somatic cell counts are culture-negative or when culturing results in the detection of minor pathogens. PMID:21134309

Bexiga, Ricardo; Koskinen, Mikko T; Holopainen, Jani; Carneiro, Carla; Pereira, Helena; Ellis, Kathryn A; Vilela, Cristina L

2011-02-01

176

Mixed metazoan and bacterial infection of the gas bladder of the lined seahorse-a case report.  

PubMed

Five wild-caught Lined Seahorses Hippocampus erectus from an aquarium system presented with altered buoyancy and distended upper trunks. Radiography of one specimen revealed a reduced air volume in the gas bladder. Pneumocystocentesis revealed a brown exudate of numerous leukocytes, parasite ova, and Gram- and acid-fast-positive bacilli under wet mounts and stains. Necropsies revealed enlarged, friable kidneys and distended gas bladders containing copious purulent exudate, necrotic tissue, and adult digeneans Dictysarca virens. Bacterial isolates from exudate cultures grown on Lowenstein-Jensen medium were identified as Gordonia sp. and Mycobacterium poriferae by high-performance liquid chromatography and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. Histopathology demonstrated a histiocytic response in kidney and gas bladder exudate, inflammation of the gas bladder wall, and infection of the gas bladder lumen with parasite ova and acid-fast-positive and Gomori's methenamine silver-positive bacilli. Praziquantel is prescribed for digenean infections but dissolves incompletely in seawater and is toxic to this host. Eradication of intermediate host vectors is a management option. Treatment of Gordonia infection has not been addressed in nonhuman animals, and there is no known effective treatment for Mycobacterium spp. infection in fishes. This is the first case report of digenean infection of the gas bladder in a syngnathid, Gordonia sp. infection in a nonhuman animal, and M. poriferae infection in a fish. PMID:23343385

Anderson, Paul A; Petty, Barbara D

2013-03-01

177

Cultural Leadership in Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is general recognition that leadership is important for organizational cultures, the issue of how leadership affects culture has received only scattered attention. Existing analyses have tended to focus on how leaders create or change cultures, ignoring the role that leadership plays in maintaining cultures. This paper focuses on how cultural leadership that innovates, by either creating or changing

HARRISON M. TRICE; JANICE M. BEYER

1991-01-01

178

Support Culturally Responsive Teaching!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within today's changing society, teachers must meet the needs of culturally diverse students. Beyond cultural awareness, teachers must identify cultural implications and modify instructional approaches to address both the students' academic and cultural needs. To do so will create culturally responsive classrooms and promote student success.…

Martins-Shannon, Janine; White, Meg

2012-01-01

179

A Clash Between Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding cultures, ours and others, can make for better managers. Employees, customers, investors, suppliers, and other stakeholders are increasingly becoming members of other cultures. Therefore students as future managers need to learn how to understand their own and other cultures and learn about cross-cultural attitudes and relationships if they hope to get effective results out of mixed-culture stakeholders such as

David Marshall Hunt

2001-01-01

180

Culture - joint fluid  

MedlinePLUS

Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If such microorganisms are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. For information on preparing for the removal of ...

181

Peritoneal fluid culture  

MedlinePLUS

Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... based on more than just the peritoneal fluid culture (which may be negative even if you have ...

182

Dehistoricized Cultural Identity and Cultural Othering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assumption that each culture has its own distinctive identity has been generally accepted in the discussion of cultural identities. Quite often identity formation is not perceived as a dynamic and interactive ongoing process that engages other cultures and involves change in its responses to different challenges at different times. I will…

Weiguo, Qu

2013-01-01

183

The Dynamics of Culture, Organisational Culture and Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interface between cultural anthropology, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology and indigenous psychology provides a rich context for examining recent developments within the field of organisational culture, both from a societal (national) and a cross-cultural perspective. It is argued in this paper that cultural patterns in society impact deeply on cultural patterns in organisations. In other words, organisational culture reflects the

Eunice Mccarthy

1998-01-01

184

Surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility of aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections in China: the 2002-2009 Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART).  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution and susceptibility of aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in China. From 2002 to 2009, minimum inhibitory concentrations of 14 antibiotics for 3420 aerobic and facultative GNB from up to eight hospitals in six cities were determined by the broth microdilution method. Enterobacteriaceae comprised 82.9% (2834/3420) of the total isolates, with Escherichia coli (49.2%) being the most commonly isolated species followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.0%), Enterobacter cloacae (5.8%) and Citrobacter freundii (2.3%). Amongst the antimicrobial agents tested, the three carbapenems (ertapenem, imipenem and meropenem) were the most active agents against Enterobacteriaceae, with susceptibility rates of 96.1-99.6% (2002-2009), 98.2-100% (2002-2009) and 99.6-100% (2002-2004), respectively, followed by amikacin (86.8-95.1%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (84.5-94.3%). Susceptibility rates of all tested third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins against Enterobacteriaceae declined by nearly 30%, with susceptibility rates of 40.2%, 39.1%, 56.3% and 51.8% in 2009 for ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and cefepime, respectively. The occurrence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases increased rapidly, especially for E. coli (from 20.8% in 2002 to 64.9% in 2009). Susceptibility of E. coli to ciprofloxacin decreased from 57.6% in 2002 to 24.2% in 2009. The least active agent against Enterobacteriaceae was ampicillin/sulbactam (SAM) (25.3-44.3%). In conclusion, Enterobacteriaceae were the major pathogens causing IAIs, and carbapenems retained the highest susceptibility rates over the 8-year study period. Third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and SAM may not be ideal choices for empirical therapy of IAIs in China. PMID:21036547

Yang, Qiwen; Wang, Hui; Chen, Minjun; Ni, Yuxing; Yu, Yunsong; Hu, Bijie; Sun, Ziyong; Huang, Wenxiang; Hu, Yunjian; Ye, Huifen; Badal, Robert E; Xu, Yingchun

2010-12-01

185

Popular Culture and Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The seven essays in this publication, including four read at the fall 1969 American Studies Association meeting, attempt to present both the nature of popular culture study and a guide for teachers of popular culture courses. Papers are (1) "Popular Culture: Notes toward a Definition" by Ray B. Browne; (2) "Can Popular Culture Save American…

Browne, Ray B., Ed.; Ambrosetti, Ronald J., Ed.

186

Anthropology 161 World Cultures  

E-print Network

Anthropology 161 World Cultures Fall, 2014 CRN: 10295 PLC 180 Tu/Th 10-11:20 Prof. Diane Baxter Cultural anthropology is the study of individuals and groups in the context of culture. Your textbook that are created, learned, and shared by a group of people. The study of cultural anthropology is "holistic

187

Universals of Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are objectives, activities, materials, and concepts for a social studies unit on the study of culture. The following categories make up the universals of culture (interpreted as functions which are found in some form in every culture): material culture, art and recreation, language, social organization, social control, conflict, economic…

Cleaveland, Alice Ann; And Others

1979-01-01

188

HPT: The Culture Factor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the challenges in managing performance across national cultures and within changing corporate cultures. Describes two human performance technology tools that can help performance consultants understand different cultures and provide the basis for successful management action: the culture audit and the systems model that can be adapted…

Addison, Roger M.; Wittkuhn, Klaus D.

2001-01-01

189

Many Forms of Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychologists interested in culture have focused primarily on East-West differences in individualism-collectivism, or independent-interdependent self-construal. As important as this dimension is, there are many other forms of culture with many dimensions of cultural variability. Selecting from among the many understudied cultures in psychology,…

Cohen, Adam B.

2009-01-01

190

Foreign Languages and Cultures  

E-print Network

Foreign Languages and Cultures College of Arts and Sciences Degree Options Bachelor of Arts in Foreign Languages and Cultures Spanish French Chinese Culture Spanish Teaching French Teaching Beginning fall 2014, Foreign Languages and Cultures will offer professional majors in French, German, and Spanish

Collins, Gary S.

191

Teaching Language, Learning Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of language focuses on the relationship between language learning and culture learning. The first four chapters look at the cultural context of language learning, particularly in the language classroom. The second part examines culture learning through language teaching. The first chapter discusses lexical culture, or the vocabulary…

Swiderski, Richard M.

192

Fever of unknown origin and pancytopenia caused by culture-proven delayed onset disseminated bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) infection after intravesical instillation  

PubMed Central

A 78-year-old man was diagnosed with bladder carcinoma in situ and was successfully treated with intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) instillations. At 6?months after the last dose, he developed fever, weight loss and malaise. He had an extensive negative workup at an outside hospital and was treated empirically with ciprofloxacin for 2?weeks. The fever resolved but returned months later and he was readmitted with pancytopenia, elevated alkaline phosphatase and ground glass opacities on the chest CT. Bone marrow and liver biopsies showed non-caseating granulomas and were negative for acid-fast bacillus (AFB) and fungal stains. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex PCR of the bone marrow was negative. Owing to the high clinical suspicion of disseminated BCG infection, the patient was treated empirically. After 9?weeks of incubation, the bone marrow AFB culture grew Mycobacterium bovis. Within 2?months of treatment his symptoms resolved and his laboratory results normalised. PMID:23576657

Dammert, Pedro; Boujaoude, Ziad; Rafferty, William; Kass, Jonathan

2013-01-01

193

Aging in culture.  

PubMed

This article reviews the empirical studies that test socioemotional aging across cultures. The review focuses on comparisons between Western (mostly North Americans and Germans) and Eastern cultures (mostly Chinese) in areas including age-related personality, social relationships, and cognition. Based on the review, I argue that aging is a meaning-making process. Individuals from each cultural context internalize cultural values with age. These internalized cultural values become goals that guide adult development. When individuals from different cultures each pursue their own goals with age, cultural differences in socioemotional aging occur. PMID:23585454

Fung, Helene H

2013-06-01

194

Humanities, Arts & Cultural Research and  

E-print Network

........................................................................................................................... 40 III. CULTURE & SOCIETY............................................................... 44 II. LANGUAGE, CULTURE & SOCIETY .................................................................................................... 54 IV. RACE, CLASS AND GENDER

Sokolowski, Marla

195

Cultural Approaches to Parenting  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing to social policy implications as well as future directions prompted by a cultural approach to parenting. PMID:22962544

Bornstein, Marc H.

2012-01-01

196

Experimental inoculation of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) with Mycobacterium bovis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this series of pilot studies was to determine whether the passerine species studied are susceptible to infection with Mycobacterium bovis. Separate experiments were conducted on wild-caught starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). In each experiment, four birds were challenged intraperitoneally and four were challenged orally with microorganisms. Challenge dose was 1 x 10(5) colony-forming units of M. bovis cultured from a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) case in Michigan. Birds were euthanatized at 1 and 2 mo postinoculation. Histologic lesions suggestive of mycobacteriosis, without the presence of acid-fast bacilli, were noted in all experimental groups. Mycobacterial cultures performed on pooled tissue samples were positive for M. bovis in only some of the intraperitoneal inoculates of each species. PMID:11569749

Butler, K L; Fitzgerald, S D; Berry, D E; Church, S V; Reed, W M; Kaneene, J B

2001-01-01

197

Cultural and biochemical characterization of Actinobacillus and Actinobacillus-like species from ram lambs with epididymitis.  

PubMed

Cellular, colonial, cultural, and biochemical characteristics of 25 field strains of gram-negative pleomorphic bacilli from rams with epididymitis were compared with Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strain 29522 and Actinobacillus seminis ATCC strain 15768. Three field strains were identified as A. actinomycetemcomitans, 15 as A. seminis, and 2 as Haemophilus agni; however, 5 strains (3 in group A and 2 in group B) were not identified as species in the genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, or Pasteurella based on the taxonomic criteria in Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. The 5 Actinobacillus-like organisms in groups A and B were predominantly gram-negative coccobacilli and exhibited less pleomorphism than the 2 Actinobacillus species. The colonial morphologies of groups A and B were similar to the 2 Actinobacillus species but were smaller in diameter and had a pale yellow color. Groups A and B, like the actinobacilli, were facultative anaerobic and capnophilic, did not grow on MacConkey agar, and were catalase-positive and oxidase-positive. Group A reduced nitrate but group B did not. The A. seminis strains utilized ornithine, and group A utilized arginine; but group B did not utilize either ornithine or arginine. All strains failed to utilize lysine or tryptophane. All strains produced acid but no gas from glucose, and the utilization of other carbohydrates varied markedly both between and within the 5 groups of bacteria.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2488712

Scanlan, C M; Healey, M C; Torres, A R; Johnston, A V

1989-10-01

198

Cultural Ecology: Arts of the Mountain Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes a schoolwide unit, organized around the ballad of John Henry, that integrated visual art, music, dance, and drama with ecological issues, Mountain Cultural heritage, and labor history. Gives background information on the Mountain Culture and the story of John Henry, while also discussing the students' reactions and interpretations…

Morris, Christine Ballengee

1998-01-01

199

Experiencing Cultural Differences: Reflections on Cultural Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Brazilian nurse educator working in the United States describes the difficulty of achieving cultural awareness and the importance of daily experiences of other cultures. She stresses the need to prepare faculty to work with diverse nursing students and to recruit more minority faculty. (SK)

Stacciarini, Jeanne-Marie R.

2002-01-01

200

Cultural Literacy: Negotiating Language, Culture, and Thought  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our schools see increasing numbers of students who reflect the wide diversity of this country's population, but too often these differences--culture, language, socioeconomic backgrounds, ethnicity are viewed from negative or deficit perspectives when they are, in fact, the cultural capital that enriches discussion, broadens viewpoints, and…

Clark, Ellen Riojas; Flores, Belinda Bustos

2007-01-01

201

Teaching Culture: An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses seven books on cultural awareness: (1) "Culture Learning" (Damen); (2) "Beyond the Language Classroom" (Fantini and others); (3) "Culturally Speaking" (Genzel and Cummings); (4) "Across Cultures" (Lim and Smalzer); (5) "Teaching Culture" (Seelye); (6) "Cultural Awareness" (Tomalin and Stempleski); and (7) "Culture Connection" (Wegmann…

Lessard-Clouston, Michael

1994-01-01

202

Oribaculum catoniae gen. nov., sp. nov.; Catonella morbi gen. nov., sp. nov.; Hallella seregens gen. nov., sp. nov.; Johnsonella ignava gen. nov., sp. nov.; and Dialister pneumosintes gen. nov., comb. nov., nom. rev., Anaerobic gram-negative bacilli from the human gingival crevice.  

PubMed

The following four new species of anaerobic gram-negative bacilli isolated from the human gingival crevice are described: Oribaculum catoniae, with ATCC 51270 as the type strain; Catonella morbi, with ATCC 51271 as the type strain; Hallella seregens, with ATCC 51272 as the type strain; and Johnsonella ignava, with ATCC 51276 as the type strain. C. morbi is associated with periodontitis. H. seregens and J. ignava are associated with gingivitis and periodontitis. O. catoniae has been isolated from healthy and diseased gingiva. Dialister pneumosintes (Olitsky and Gates 1921) gen. nov., comb. nov., nom. rev., associated with gingivitis, is proposed to accommodate organisms formerly classified as Bacteroides pneumosintes. PMID:8186083

Moore, L V; Moore, W E

1994-04-01

203

Antibiotic Consumption and Healthcare-Associated Infections Caused by Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli at a Large Medical Center in Taiwan from 2002 to 2009: Implicating the Importance of Antibiotic Stewardship  

PubMed Central

Background Better depicting the relationship between antibiotic consumption and evolutionary healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) may help highlight the importance of antibiotic stewardship. Methodology/Principal Findings The correlations between antibiotic consumption and MDR-GNB HAIs at a 2,700-bed primary care and tertiary referral center in Taiwan between 2002 and 2009 were assessed. MDR-GNB HAI referred to a HAI caused by MDR-Enterobacteriaceae, MDR-Pseudomonas aeruginosa or MDR-Acinetobacter spp. Consumptions of individual antibiotics and MDR-GNB HAI series were first evaluated for trend over time. When a trend was significant, the presence or absence of associations between the selected clinically meaningful antibiotic resistance and antibiotic consumption was further explored using cross-correlation analyses. Significant major findings included (i) increased consumptions of extended-spectrum cephalosporins, carbapenems, aminopenicillins/?-lactamase inhibitors, piperacillin/tazobactam, and fluoroquinolones, (ii) decreased consumptions of non-extended-spectrum cephalosporins, natural penicillins, aminopenicillins, ureidopenicillin and aminoglycosides, and (iii) decreasing trend in the incidence of the overall HAIs, stable trends in GNB HAIs and MDR-GNB HAIs throughout the study period, and increasing trend in HAIs caused by carbapenem-resistant (CR) Acinetobacter spp. since 2006. HAIs due to CR-Acinetobacter spp. was found to positively correlate with the consumptions of carbapenems, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, aminopenicillins/?-lactamase inhibitors, piperacillin/tazobactam and fluoroquinolones, and negatively correlate with the consumptions of non-extended-spectrum cephalosporins, penicillins and aminoglycosides. No significant association was found between the increased use of piperacilllin/tazobactam and increasing HAIs due to CR-Acinetobacter spp. Conclusions The trend in overall HAIs decreased and trends in GNB HAIs and MDR-GNB HAIs remained stable over time suggesting that the infection control practice was effective during the study period, and the escalating HAIs due to CR- Acinetobacter spp. were driven by consumptions of broad-spectrum antibiotics other than piperacillin/tazobactam. Our data underscore the importance of antibiotic stewardship in the improvement of the trend of HAIs caused by Acinetobacter spp. PMID:23738018

Su, Li-Hsiang; Tang, Ya-Feng; Chang, Shun-Jen; Liu, Jien-Wei

2013-01-01

204

Cultural changes in aerospace  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cultural changes; people and jobs; examples of cultural changes required; advanced launch system (ALS) philosophy; ALS operability capabilities; and ALS operability in design are outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

Strobl, Bill

1991-01-01

205

Blood Culture (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Blood Culture KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Sick Kids > Blood Culture Print A ...

206

Indian culture and psychiatry  

PubMed Central

Culture’ is an abstraction, reflecting the total way of life of a society. Culture uniquely influences mental health of people living in a given society. Similarity in thinking and understanding of mental health across the ancient cultures has been observed. Studies which relate to the demographic factors, cultural factors influencing presentation of illness, diagnosis of the illness-culture bound syndromes and influence of the cultural factors and the belief system on psychopathology, stigma and discrimination towards the patient have been reviewed. An attempt has been made to critically look at the research on culture and psychiatry in different areas. There is a need for culturally oriented modules of non-pharmacological management. PMID:21836701

Gautam, Shiv; Jain, Nikhil

2010-01-01

207

Culturally based story understanding  

E-print Network

Culture has a strong influence on how stories are understood. Accordingly, a full account of human intelligence must include an account of cultural influences on story understanding. The research reported takes a step ...

Awad, Hiba

2013-01-01

208

Rectal culture (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A rectal culture test is performed by inserting a cotton swab in the rectum. The swab is rotated gently, and withdrawn. A smear of the swab is placed in culture media to encourage the growth of microorganisms. The ...

209

Culture in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culture plays a large but often unnoticeable role in what we teach and how we teach children. We are a country of immense diversity, but in classrooms the dominant European-American culture has become the language of learning.

Medin, Douglas L.; Bang, Megan

2014-01-01

210

Cultured Pearl Information Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provides descriptions and definitions of diverse pearl varieties. Explains pearl formation, pearl grading and pearl jewelry care. Outlines the history and uses of pearls in different cultures, the technology of pearl culture and industry.

211

Potential virulence factors of Proteus bacilli.  

PubMed Central

The object of this review is the genus Proteus, which contains bacteria considered now to belong to the opportunistic pathogens. Widely distributed in nature (in soil, water, and sewage), Proteus species play a significant ecological role. When present in the niches of higher macroorganisms, these species are able to evoke pathological events in different regions of the human body. The invaders (Proteus mirabilis, P. vulgaris, and P. penneri) have numerous factors including fimbriae, flagella, outer membrane proteins, lipopolysaccharide, capsule antigen, urease, immunoglobulin A proteases, hemolysins, amino acid deaminases, and, finally, the most characteristic attribute of Proteus, swarming growth, enabling them to colonize and survive in higher organisms. All these features and factors are described and commented on in detail. The questions important for future investigation of these facultatively pathogenic microorganisms are also discussed. PMID:9106365

Rózalski, A; Sidorczyk, Z; Kote?ko, K

1997-01-01

212

Plant Tissue Culture Techniques  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Plant tissue culture techniques are essential to many types of academic inquiry, as well as to many applied aspects of plant science. Currently, tissue-cultured plants that have been genetically engineered provide insight into plant molecular biology and gene regulation. Plant tissue culture techniques are also central to innovative areas of applied plant science, including plant biotechnology and agriculture. Thus, tissue culture techniques have been, and still are, prominent in academic and applied plant science.

Lorraine Mineo (Lafayette College; )

1989-06-06

213

Europeana: Think Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Europeana: Think Culture (http://www.europeana.eu) is a wonderful cultural repository. It includes more than 15 million items (images, text, audio, and video) from 1,500 European institutions. Europeana provides access to an abundance of cultural and heritage information and knowledge. Because Europeana has partnered with and brought together so…

Kail, Candice

2011-01-01

214

America's Culturally Different Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To maintain within a national unity the richness of cultural diversity that has made America great, school curriculums should develop in the child a knowledge of the country's varying cultures. Teachers should initiate for children meaningful experiences with other cultures to help them appreciate the differences and similarities among people. One…

Donelson, Kenneth, Ed.

1969-01-01

215

Mammalian Cell Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammalian cell culture is used widely in academic, medical and industrial settings. It has provided a means to study the physiology and biochemistry of the cell and developments in the fields of cell and molecular biology have required the use of reproducible model systems that only cultured cell lines can provide. For medical use, cell culture provides test systems to

Simon P. Langdon

216

Resolving conflicting safety cultures  

SciTech Connect

Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of [open quotes]safety culture.[close quotes] This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to [open quotes]do the right thing[close quotes] even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants.

Slider, J.E. (Slider Associates, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)); Patterson, M. (SCIENTECH, Rockville, MD (United States))

1993-01-01

217

TOURISM AND CULTURAL PROXIMITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

While tourism products based on Maori culture are popular among some overseas tourists to New Zealand, there has been little research as to their appeal to the domestic market. This paper discusses notions of indigenous tourism and the role of cultural and spatial difference in European conceptualizations of the exotic other. It argues that although there is a common cultural

Chris Ryan

2002-01-01

218

Grounding Evaluations in Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The emergence of and the attention given to culture in the evaluation field over the last decade has created a heightened awareness of and need for evaluators to understand the complexity and multidimensionality of evaluations within multicultural, multiracial, and cross-cultural contexts. In this article, the authors discuss how cultural

Samuels, Maurice; Ryan, Katherine

2011-01-01

219

Organising for cultural diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corporations operating across national borders and diversified into different types of business are bound to host considerable cultural diversity within their ranks. For an effective coordination of their various activities, cultural considerations should enter into the design of their corporate structure. This demands a cultural awareness on their management's side which does not belong to the classic selection criteria for

Geert Hofstede

1989-01-01

220

Problems Confronting Visual Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new movement has appeared recommending, in part, that the field of art education should lessen its traditional ties to drawing, painting, and the study of masterpieces to become the study of visual culture. Visual cultural study refers to an all-encompassing category of cultural practice that includes the fine arts but also deals with the study…

Efland, Arthur D.

2005-01-01

221

Principals as Cultural Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Principals have a strong role to play in forming school cultures that encourage change. Changing a school's culture requires shared or distributed leadership and instructional leadership. A multiyear study found that three elements are necessary for a school culture that stimulates teachers to improve their instruction: 1) Teachers and…

Louis, Karen Seashore; Wahlstrom, Kyla

2011-01-01

222

Cultur(ally) Jammed: Culture Jams as a Form of Culturally Responsive Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Does the person become the name or does the name become the person? This question was asked by a participant of my culture jam entitled, "What's my name?" In this culture jam, I asked people to discern the name of a person based solely on their appearance and a list of possible names below their picture. This article aims to show how culture jams…

Martinez, Ulyssa

2012-01-01

223

The University Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the author discusses the role university culture can play on a campus and how it can impact policy and practice. The article explores how a university's history, values, and vision form its culture and how this culture in turn affects its stability and continuity. The article discusses how newcomers within the university are…

Simplicio, Joseph

2012-01-01

224

Anaerobic thermophilic culture  

DOEpatents

A newly discovered thermophilic anaerobe is described that was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC 3/550. T. Ethanolicus is cultured in aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions and is used in a novel process for producing ethanol by subjecting carbohydrates, particularly the saccharides, to fermentation action of the new microorganism in a biologically pure culture.

Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Wiegel, Jurgen K. W. (Gottingen, DE)

1981-01-01

225

Why Teach Visual Culture?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visual culture is a hot topic in art education right now as some teachers are dedicated to teaching it and others are adamant that it has no place in a traditional art class. Visual culture, the author asserts, can include just about anything that is visually represented. Although people often think of visual culture as contemporary visuals such…

Passmore, Kaye

2007-01-01

226

Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural

Cheung, Fanny M.

2012-01-01

227

Cultural Exploration through Mapping  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing diversity in the United States means that all students must understand multiple cultural perspectives and identities. Educators need to facilitate learning engagements that highlight the complexities of culture and cultural identity, going beyond surface characteristics such as foods, holidays, and clothing that are often the focus in…

Schall, Janine M.

2010-01-01

228

Bridges: Literature across Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This anthology of literature from the many American cultures as well as cultures around the world is intended for use in today's college composition and introductory literature courses. Offering a blend of classic favorites and selections from other cultures, the anthology contains some 300 stories, poems, and plays from the six habitable…

Muller, Gilbert H., Comp.; Williams, John A., Comp.

229

Cultural Arts Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The handbook presents activities to aid elementary school classroom teachers as they develop and implement cultural arts lessons. A cultural arts program is interpreted as a way to help students develop perceptual awareness, build a basic vocabulary in some art cultural form, evaluate their own works of art, appreciate creative expressions, and…

Pistone, Kathleen A.

230

Effect of probiotics on bacterial population and health status of shrimp in culture pond ecosystem.  

PubMed

The artificially manufactured probiotics having beneficial bacteria, Bacillus spp. was applied regularly in a modified extensive shrimp (Penaeus monodon) culture pond, located on the bank of Vellar estuary, Parangipettai. The populations of total heterotrophic bacteria (THB), beneficial bacteria (Bacillus spp.) and pathogenic bacteria (vibrios) were monitored in water and sediment of the pond. The results were compared with a control pond, situated in the same location having same water spread area, stocking density, species managed with same technologies and optimum environmental parameters in which no probiotic was applied. The populations of THB and Bacillus spp. in the experimental pond increased and the vibrios decreased after each application of probiotics. But the result of the control pond showed an increasing trend of the populations of THB, Bacillus spp. and vibrios towards days of culture. The control pond had lower levels of THB and Bacillus spp. and higher levels of vibrios than the probiotic applied (experimental) pond. Also the probiotics maintained optimum transparency and low organic load in the experimental pond as compared to control. In general, water and sediment had almost equal number of Bacillus spp. and vibrios, but sediment had higher THB load than water. The applications of probiotics lesser pathogenic vibrios and enhance beneficial bacilli in the culture leading to improved water quality, promoted growth and survival rates and increased the health status of the shrimp without stress and disease outbreaks. Thus the application of probiotics could lead to disease-free and profitable shrimp culture operations which will be helpful for shrimp farmers as most of them are now-a-days severely affected by microbial diseases. PMID:11831382

Dalmin, G; Kathiresan, K; Purushothaman, A

2001-09-01

231

Culture shock and travelers.  

PubMed

As travel has become easier and more affordable, the number of people traveling has risen sharply. People travel for many and varied reasons, from the business person on an overseas assignment to backpackers seeking new and exotic destinations. Others may take up residence in different regions, states or countries for family, business or political reasons. Other people are fleeing religious or political persecution. Wherever they go and for whatever reason they go, people take their culture with them. Culture, like language, is acquired innately in early childhood and is then reinforced through formal and complex informal social education into adulthood. Culture provides a framework for interpersonal and social interactions. Therefore, the contact with a new culture is often not the exciting or pleasurable experience anticipated. When immersed in a different culture, people no longer know how to act when faced with disparate value systems. Contact with the unfamiliar culture can lead to anxiety, stress, mental illness and, in extreme cases, physical illness and suicide. "Culture shock" is a term coined by the anthropologist Oberg. It is the shock of the new. It implies that the experience of the new culture is an unpleasant surprise or shock, partly because it is unexpected and partly because it can lead to a negative evaluation of one's own culture. It is also known as cross-cultural adjustment, being that period of anxiety and confusion experienced when entering a new culture. It affects people intellectually, emotionally, behaviorally and physically and is characterized by symptoms of psychological distress. Culture shock affects both adults and children. In travelers or workers who have prolonged sojourns in foreign countries, culture shock may occur not only as they enter the new culture, but also may occur on their return to their original culture. Children may also experience readjustment problems after returning from leading sheltered lives in expatriate compounds. This readjustment back to their own culture after a period of time abroad has been termed "reverse culture shock, a condition which has been studied in both corporate managers and Peace Corps volunteers. With culture shock and many other processes of psychological adjustment, people tend to suffer alone, thinking that they are the only ones not coping well with their new circumstance. The objective of this paper was to bring the phenomenon of culture shock to the awareness of travel health advisors, who can in turn advise travelers, especially longer term travelers, about having realistic expectations of their travel and life in new cultures. PMID:9772322

Stewart, L; Leggat, P A

1998-06-01

232

Cultural Anthropology Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Dennis O'Neil of Palomar College, these Cultural Anthropology Tutorials help students to learn and test their understanding of basic principles in cultural anthropology. Topics include ethnicity and race (which includes the subtopic, "What are you?"), political organization, kinship, culture change, and many others. In addition to the illustrated tutorials, each topic also features flashcard quizzes and links to resources for further information. O�Neil has also included a Glossary of Terms common in cultural anthropology. This site is useful for anthropology students, as well as for educators to use in the classroom to teach basic materials and evaluate student understanding of cultural anthropology topics.

233

Safeguards Culture: Lessons Learned  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper builds on that theoretical discussion to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Paper: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop on “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges,” in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper, coauthored by Karyn R. Durbin and Andrew Van Duzer, described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper updates that theoretical discussion, and seeks to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Implicit in this discussion is an understanding that improving a culture is not an end in itself, but is one method of improving the underlying discipline, that is safety, security, or safeguards. Culture can be defined as a way of life, or general customs and beliefs of a particular group of people at a particular time. There are internationally accepted definitions of safety culture and nuclear security culture. As yet, there is no official agreed upon definition of safeguards culture. At the end of the paper I will propose my definition. At the Santa Fe Workshop the summary by the Co-Chairs of Working Group 1, “The Further Evolution of Safeguards,” noted: “It is clear that ‘safeguards culture’ needs to be addressed if the efficiency and effectiveness are to continue to be improved. This will require commitment and change at all levels, from States to facility operators. Cultural change has to come from good leadership, doing the right thing and ‘beliefs’ are not sufficient – behavior is what counts. We are optimistic that with sufficient effort and the right incentives, change can be accomplished quickly.”

Mladineo, Stephen V.

2009-05-27

234

Expanding Cultural Awareness: Wigginton on Cultural Journalism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Eliot Wigginton, high school English teacher and founder of Foxfire magazine. Presents excerpts from an interview with Wigginton, in which he discusses his educational philosophy, including cultural journalism. (ARH)

Olmstead, Kathryn J.

1988-01-01

235

Non-conversion of sputum culture among patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Cameroon: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated the determinants of sputum culture non-conversion following intensive phase of treatment, and assessed the effects on the outcome among patients treated for a first episode of smear positive tuberculosis (TB). Methods This was a prospective cohort study spanning October 2009 to May 2012, among patients treated for a first episode of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in the Chest service of the Yaounde Jamot Hospital, Cameroon. Logistic regressions models were used to relate baseline characteristics with non-conversion of sputum cultures after the intensive phase of treatment. Results A total of 953 patients were admitted to the service during the study period, including 97 (10.2%) who had a positive sputum smear at the end of the intensive phase of anti-tuberculosis treatment. Eighty-six patients with persistent of smear positive sputa at the end of intensive phase of TB treatment were included, among whom 46 (53%) had positive sputum culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (C+). The absence of haemoptysis [adjusted odd ratio 4.65 (95% confidence intervals: 1.14-18.95)] and current smoking [7.26 (1.59-33.23)] were the main determinants of sputum culture non-conversion. Of the 46C + patients, 7 (15%) were resistant to at least one anti-tuberculosis drug. Treatment failure rate was 28% among C + patients and 8% among C– patients (p = 0.023). The sensitivity and specificity were 78.6% and 55.4% for culture non-conversion after intensive treatment, in predicting anti-TB treatment failure. Conclusions Failure rate is high among patients with positive sputum culture after intensive treatment, even in the absence of multi-drug resistant bacilli. Treatment should be closely monitored in these patients and susceptibility to anti-tuberculosis drugs tested in the presence of persistent positive smears following the intensive phase of treatment. PMID:24618155

2014-01-01

236

Cross-Cultural Impression Management: A Cultural Knowledge Audit Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Many people moving into a new culture for work or study do so without prior cross-cultural training, yet successful cultural adaptation has important ramifications. The purpose of this paper is to focus on cross-cultural impression management as an element of cultural adaptation. Does cultural adaptation begin by paying strong attention…

Spong, Abigail; Kamau, Caroline

2012-01-01

237

Foreign Languages and Foreign Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Calls on foreign language departments to take a closer look at a long-standing component of their curriculum: culture. The discussion focuses on language and culture, teaching foreign cultures, and foreign cultures, transnationality, and globalization. (Author/VWL)

Berman, Russell A.

2002-01-01

238

Bovine tuberculosis in Ethiopian wildlife.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in Ethiopian cattle. However, the status of the disease in wildlife populations that often share habitat with livestock is unknown. We screened for BTB in wildlife in five regions in Ethiopia. Blood and tissue samples from 133 mammals of 28 species were collected from 2006 to 2008. We used a rapid serology test (RT) based on lateral flow technology, and performed culture of lymph node specimens inoculated onto Lowenstein-Jensen and Middlebrook 7H11 media. Acid-fast colonies were further analyzed by molecular typing. Sera from 20 of 87 animals (23%) were positive for BTB by RT; acid-fast bacilli were cultured from 29 of 89 animals (32.5%). None of the positive cultures yielded mycobacteria from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex but many environmental mycobacteria were isolated. Among these, Mycobacterium terrae was the most common. We demonstrated a high prevalence of environmental mycobacteria in wildlife, the role of which is unknown. Flagship rare endemic species such as the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni) and the Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) may be at risk for BTB. We also assessed the utility of RT for field purposes. PMID:20688681

Tschopp, R; Berg, S; Argaw, K; Gadisa, E; Habtamu, M; Schelling, E; Young, D; Aseffa, A; Zinsstag, J

2010-07-01

239

Is a cultural ethology possible?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility, desirability, and potential outcomes of applying ethological methods to the study of culture-specific human behaviors are investigated. Ethology and culture are explored. A new term, instruction, and its use in cultural ethology are proposed. Genetics and survival value are related to cultural ethology. A cultural ethology is given a possible theoretical foundation, and current attempts at a cultural

F. T. Cloak

1975-01-01

240

Description of Pediatric Tuberculosis Evaluated in a Referral Center in Istanbul Turkey  

PubMed Central

Purpose Diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in children is more challenging than in adults. This study aimed to describe demographical, clinical and laboratory findings of children diagnosed with tuberculosis in Turkey, including the issues of contact tracing, culture positivity and forms of the disease. Materials and Methods Clinical and laboratory data of 51 children with a mean age of 8.0±4.6 years who were diagnosed with TB were retrospectively reviewed. Main diagnostic tools included tuberculin skin test, chest X-ray, sputum/gastric aspirate culture with sensitivity testing, and direct microscopy for acid-fast bacilli on available samples. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of the patients were examined. Results Thirty-six (70.6%) children were diagnosed with intra-thoracic and 15 (29.4%) with extra-thoracic tuberculosis. Twenty-eight of the patients had a positive Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine scar (28/51, 54.9%) and 23/51 (45.1%) had a positive tuberculin skin test. An adult TB contact was identified in 27 (52.9%) of the cases. On direct microscopy, acid-fast bacilli were found in nine (17.6%) patients and positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis was found in 19 (37.3%). Drug resistance to isoniazid was detected in four (7.8%). One patient with nephrotic syndrome and miliary tuberculosis died during follow-up. All other patients responded well to the treatment. Conclusion Focusing on active contact tracing among all household contacts of tuberculous cases may be helpful in early identification and controlling childhood disease, even in regions with low disease prevalence. Adopting a suspicious and proactive approach in this particular age group is warranted. PMID:23074119

Telhan, Leyla; Koçkaya, Tanyel; Erdem, Ela; Bayraktar, Banu; Palanduz, Ayse

2012-01-01

241

Culture and psychiatric diagnosis.  

PubMed

Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning. PMID:23816860

Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

2013-01-01

242

Another consequence of culture - intra-cultural variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues for the importance of intra-cultural variation (ICV) - the extent individuals of a culture vary on a particular feature. Methodologically, in making cultural comparisons, statistical significance is determined not only by cultural mean differences but also the ICVs of cultures. Ignoring ICV in making cross-cultural inference, researchers may interpret insignificant and inconsistent results as suggesting no cross-cultural

Kevin Au

1997-01-01

243

Sorghum anther culture  

E-print Network

SORGHUM ANT&lER CULTURE A Thesis Charles Daniel Caulkins Submitted to the Granua te College of Texas A&N University in partial fulfillment of the requirement fo; the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 Major Subjeci:: Plant Physiology... SORGHLP1 ANTHER CULTURE A Thesis Charles Daniel Caulkins Apprc, ed as o style and content by: (Chairman of Committee / ', , 'iead f D. artment (Member December l978 1441434 AL1STRAC1 Sorghum Anthel Culture (December 1978) Charles Daniel...

Caulkins, Charles Daniel

1978-01-01

244

Do invertebrates have culture?  

PubMed Central

A recent paper in Current Biology1 showed for the first time that female invertebrates (Drosophila melanogaster) can perform mate choice copying. Here, we discuss how female mating preferences in this species may be transmitted culturally. If culture occurs in invertebrates, it may be a relatively ancient evolutionary process that may have contributed to the evolution of many different taxa. This would considerably broaden the taxonomic range of cultural processes and suggest the need to include cultural inheritance in all animals into the general theory of evolution.2–4 PMID:20798812

Blanchet, Simon; Mery, Frédérick; Wagner, Richard H

2010-01-01

245

UNESCO Window to Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new online directory from UNESCO is devoted to "policy making in the field of culture." Though the page is relatively new, there are already more than 400 annotated links here in ten categories including Ministries of Culture, Networks and Culturenets, Research Institutes, International Organizations, and so on. Part of the larger Culture and UNESCO site, Windows to Culture is a good demonstration of "value-added"; clicking on the detailed view for a resource brings up the title, address, URL, email address, country, region, themes, and a nice description of the resource/ organization.

246

Becoming a Cultural Researcher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about material culture in this Moveable Museum lesson plan by taking a firsthand look at how culture influences the kinds of things we do. The 12-page PDF guide has educator materials including background information, teacher strategies, assessment guidelines, and detailed notes about the curriculum standards addressed. The Becoming a Cultural Researcher activity worksheet has a series of questions that prompts students to reflect on the material culture of daily activities, customs, or ceremonies. There is a kid-friendly glossary of related terms.

247

Cultivating Cultural Appreciation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity that addresses cultural differences and diversity through ethnobotany. Offers a multicultural framework designed to develop concepts about plant characteristics and taxonomy. (ASK)

Esprivalo, Pamela Sue; Forney, Scott

2001-01-01

248

Paradoxical reaction of tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis: a case series.  

PubMed

Paradoxical reactions of tuberculosis (TB) in vertebral osteomyelitis are very rarely reported. We experienced four cases of severe paradoxical reactions in tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis. Four cases of tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis were confirmed by an acid-fast bacilli smear or culture. The patients were human immunodeficiency virus negative, and were all initially treated with isoniazid, ethambutol, rifampicin and pyrazinamide. Their symptoms improved with anti-TB drugs. However, after 2-12 weeks, their symptoms had recurred, and spinal magnetic resonance imaging at the time of readmission revealed an aggravation of vertebral osteomyelitis. Operations were carried out to relieve severe pain or spinal cord decompression. Through continued anti-TB drug therapy, all patients recovered without sequelae. PMID:25692354

Im, Jae Hyoung; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Kwon, Hea Yoon; Lee, Jin Soo

2015-04-01

249

Experimental infection of anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis) with Mycobacterium ulcerans by the subcutaneous route.  

PubMed

To test whether herpetofauna could be a laboratory model for Mycobacterium ulcerans, 21 anole lizards were inoculated subcutaneously with viable M. ulcerans, 21 with autoclaved organisms, and 14 with an aqueous solution of 0.01% Tween 80. M. ulcerans was recovered in culture from the slowly progressive lesions which developed at the inoculation site in lizards receiving the viable bacteria. Progressive lesions did not occur in the two control groups. Three patterns of inflammatory response to viable M. ulcerans were observed: 14 lizards developed a diffuse, granulomatous reaction in which acid fast bacilli (AFB) were predominantly intracellular; 1 developed focal, encapsulated granulomas; 5 developed a diffuse, necrotizing granulomatous response in which most AFB were extracellular--similar to the characteristic lesion found in human infections. PMID:1155700

Marcus, L C; Stottmeier, K D; Morrow, R H

1975-07-01

250

Assessment of the BD MGIT TBc Identification Test for the Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in a Network of Mycobacteriology Laboratories  

PubMed Central

We evaluate the performance of the TBcID assay in a panel of 100 acid-fast bacilli cultures. Sixty-four isolates were TBcID positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), whereas 36 gave negative results. These included 28 nontuberculous mycobacteria, one nonmycobacterial isolate, one M. tuberculosis, and six M. bovis BCG strains. This corresponds to a sensitivity of 90.14%, specificity of 100%, and positive and negative predictive values of 100% and 80.55%, respectively. The test is rapid, easy to perform and interpret, and does not require sample preparation or instrumentation. However, a negative result does not exclude the presence of a strain belonging to MTBC, especially when mutations in mpb64 gene are present or some M. bovis BCG strains are isolated. The TBcID showed potential to assist in the identification of MTBC when the implementation and usage of molecular methods are often not possible, principally in resource-limited countries. PMID:24587985

Ramos, Jorge; Couto, Isabel; Narciso, Inácio; Coelho, Elizabeth; Viegas, Sofia

2014-01-01

251

Multiplex PCR in diagnosis of M. tuberculosis and M. avium co-infection from lymph node in an AIDS patient.  

PubMed

A 35-year-old, HIV-seropositive male (CD4 count 41 cells/mm3) on highly active antiretroviral (?HAART) presented with fever and weight loss for 3 months and new skin lesions. He was earlier diagnosed of TB and was on anti-tubercular therapy (ATT). The retroperitoneal lymph node aspirate showed acid-fast bacilli and epithelioid cell granulomas; however, cultures remained sterile. A dual infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium was diagnosed with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR). Clarithromycin was added to ATT, and on follow-up at 1 and 3 months, the patient responded well. Molecular methods like MPCR should be exploited for routine diagnosis of high-risk patients. PMID:25657138

Sharma, K; Mewara, A; Gupta, N; Sharma, A; Varma, S

2015-02-01

252

An unusual case of ileocaecal tuberculosis in an 80-year-old Caucasian male.  

PubMed

An 80-year-old Caucasian male presented with a seven-week history of diarrhoea and weight loss. Distal duodenal biopsies showed partial villous atrophy but he failed to respond to a gluten-free diet. Subsequently he developed a right iliac fossa mass associated with radiological evidence of ileocaecal ulceration. Colonoscopic biopsies from the caecum showed non-caseating granulomata and Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining and culture for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) were negative. Crohn's disease was diagnosed and he was started on steroids. Although he showed an initial response, his condition then deteriorated and he died after six weeks. ZN staining of tissue at postmortem showed AFBs. Although a rare diagnosis in the UK, a high index of suspicion should be maintained for ileocaecal TB in patients with appropriate clinical features, even if classical risk factors for TB are absent. PMID:10344072

Kelly, J; Warren, K; Coutts, M; Jenkins, A

1999-01-01

253

Enhancing students' cultural competence using cross-cultural experiential learning.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate community health students' perceptions of their cultural competence. Little is known about students' cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills after their experience working with diverse cultural groups and language barriers. A cross-cultural experiential learning exercise was used as an educational approach. Reflective writing was used to elicit students' attitudes of the other culture and their coping skills. Three themes emerged as cultural awareness and knowledge, observation and learning, and cross-cultural communication. Results underscore the need for student academic preparation using cross-cultural educational approaches to enhance cultural competence. PMID:24279125

Kratzke, Cynthia; Bertolo, Melissa

2013-01-01

254

Cultural change that sticks.  

PubMed

When a major change initiative runs aground, leaders often blame their company's culture for pushing it off course. They try to forge ahead by overhauling the culture--a tactic that tends to fizzle, fail, or backfire. Most cultures are too well entrenched to be jettisoned. The secret is to stop fighting your culture--and to work with and within it, until it evolves in the right direction. Today's best-performing companies, such as Southwest Airlines, Apple, and the Four Seasons, understand this, say the authors, three consultants from Booz & Company. These organizations follow five principles for making the most of their cultures: 1. Match strategy to culture. Culture trumps strategy every time, no matter how brilliant the plan, so the two need to be in alignment. 2. Focus on a few critical shifts in behavior. Wholesale change is hard; choose your battles wisely. 3. Honor the strengths of the existing culture. Every culture is the product of good intentions and has strengths; put them to use. 4. Integrate formal and informal interventions. Don't just implement new rules and processes; identify "influencers" who can bring other employees along. 5. Measure and monitor cultural evolution. Otherwise you can't identify backsliding or correct course. When the leaders of Aetna applied these rules while implementing a new strategy in the early 2000s, they reinvigorated the company's ailing culture and restored employee pride. That shift was reflected in the business results, as Aetna went from a $300 million loss to a $1.7 billion gain. PMID:22852451

Katzenbach, Jon R; Steffen, Ilona; Kronley, Caroline

2012-01-01

255

Cultural citizenship online: the Internet and digital culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores connections between cultural citizenship and Internet-based media. It argues that engaging with cultural citizenship assists in moving debates beyond misleadingly narrow conceptions of the digital divide. It suggests that cultural citizenship invokes questions of access, visibility and cultural recognition, as well as tensions between intra- and inter-cultural communication online. The paper calls for a reflexive and critical

Luke Goode

2010-01-01

256

East Asian Languages & Cultures Program Department of Religion & Culture  

E-print Network

East Asian Languages & Cultures Program Department of Religion & Culture Tenure-Track Assistant Professor in Chinese Culture The East Asian Languages & Cultures Program at the University of Winnipeg. East Asian Languages & Cultures is a three year-old program at the University of Winnipeg

Martin, Jeff

257

Biodegradation of tributyl phosphate by novel bacteria isolated from enrichment cultures.  

PubMed

Tributyl phosphate (TBP) is an organophosphorous compound, used extensively (3000-5000 tonnes/annum) as a solvent for nuclear fuel processing and as a base stock in the formulation of fire-resistant aircraft hydraulic fluids and other applications. Because of its wide applications and relative stability in the natural environment TBP poses the problem of pollution and health hazards. In the present study, fifteen potent bacterial strains capable of using tributyl phosphate (TBP) as sole carbon and phosphorus source were isolated from enrichment cultures. These isolates were identified on the basis of biochemical and morphological characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that two isolates belonged to class Bacilli and thirteen to ? and ?-Proteobacteria. All these isolates were found to be members of genera Alcaligenes, Providencia, Delftia, Ralstonia, and Bacillus. These isolates were able to tolerate and degrade up to 5 mM TBP, the highest concentration reported to date. The GC-MS method was developed to monitor TBP degradation. Two strains, Providencia sp. BGW4 and Delftia sp. BGW1 showed respectively, 61.0 ± 2.8% and 57.0 ± 2.0% TBP degradation within 4 days. The degradation rate constants, calculated by first order kinetic model were between 0.0024 and 0.0099 h(-1). These bacterial strains are novel for TBP degradation and could be used as an important bioresource for efficient decontamination of TBP polluted waste streams. PMID:21755325

Ahire, Kedar C; Kapadnis, Balu P; Kulkarni, Girish J; Shouche, Yogesh S; Deopurkar, Rajendra L

2012-02-01

258

An 8-year survey of strains identified in blood cultures in a clinical haematology unit.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to determine the epidemiological profile and the antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria and fungi identified from blood cultures in the patients of the clinical haematology unit. A retrospective study was carried out over an 8-year period (2003-2010) in the clinical haematology unit of the Percy Military Medical Center. During this period, we collected 723 isolates: Gram-negative bacilli (70.8%) and Gram-positive cocci (18.7%). The four most commonly isolated species were Escherichia coli (18.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14.8%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (6.2%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (5.4%). The rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 6.45% and that of coagulase-negative staphylococci 61.2%. No resistance to glycopeptides was observed. In E. coli, as in the Klebsiella-Enterobacter-Serratia group, a 27% resistance to fluoroquinolones was observed. Concerning P. aeruginosa, the phenotypes were distributed over penicillinase (23.4%) and cephalosporinase (13.1% were resistant to ceftazidime). The impermeability rate of imipenem was 9.3%. The aggressiveness and duration of haematological treatments explains why infections remain one of the main complications of neutropenia. The emergence of new or unusual bacteria is highly likely. Antibiotic selective pressure and long periods of hospitalization could explain the emergence of multiresistant bacteria. As a consequence, epidemiological surveillance is indispensable. PMID:23826912

Bousquet, A; Malfuson, J-V; Sanmartin, N; Konopacki, J; MacNab, C; Souleau, B; de Revel, T; Elouennass, M; Samson, T; Soler, C; Foissaud, V; Martinaud, C

2014-01-01

259

Cultural Legacies: Operationalizing Chicano Cultural Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey of 41 Chicanos and 39 whites ages 18-80 found that despite effects of acculturation, Chicanos held educational and developmental values and beliefs consistent with ancient Nahuatl (Aztec) society, an indigenous Mexican culture. Suggests a need to examine social service delivery systems to determine whether assumptions and procedures are…

Ordaz, Maricela; Anda, Diane de

1996-01-01

260

Campus Cultures in Conflict.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The two major cultures existing on a college campus, collegial/scholarly and administrative/corporate, can operate counterproductively. Campus human resource professionals have a role in reconciling the two cultures through orientation programs for new faculty and staff, promoting social and intellectual interaction of personnel, and communication…

Schoenfeld, Clay

1994-01-01

261

Introduction: transnational lesbian cultures.  

PubMed

This special issue examines the transnational shape and shaping of lesbian lives and cultures in and across China, India, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It uses the expression "transnational lesbian cultures" to suggest that despite sometimes radically different sociopolitical and cultural contexts, the lived experiences of same-sex desire and their emotional attachments create particular affinities between women who love women, affinities that reach across the distinct cultural and social contexts that shape them. The articles brought together explore lesbian subcultures, film, graphic novels, music, and online intimacies. They show that as a cultural and political signifier and as an analytical tool, lesbian troubles and complicates contemporary sexual politics, not least by revealing some of the gendered structures that shape debates about sexuality in a range of critical, cultural and political contexts. While the individual pieces cover a wide range of issues and concerns-which are often highly specific to the historical, cultural, and political contexts they discuss-together they tell a story about contemporary transnational lesbian culture: one that is marked by intricate links between norms and their effects and shaped by the efforts to resist denial, discrimination, and sometimes even active persecution. PMID:24972280

Bauer, Heike; Mahn, Churnjeet

2014-01-01

262

Introduction to Vietnamese Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet about the cultural background of Vietnam is one of three booklets that serve as a foundation for understanding the cultural diversity and values of Cambodian, Laotian, and Vietnamese students. Vietnam is located on the eastern coast of the Indochinese peninsula and has a population of 56 million. Its history is divided into the…

Te, Huynh Dinh

263

Culture and identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Culture and identity are not just some abstract notions, but 'living' concepts which are closely connected to people's lives, and the decision of the domestic courts reflect, in fact, how different societies respond to the issue of protecting the culture and identity of minorities. The national courts' decisions presented in this article are related to the following groups: linguistic minorities,

Sergiu Constantin; Günther Rautz

2003-01-01

264

Pop Culture in America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of today's popular culture, its place in American life, and its merit or lack of it are the themes of these essays from "The New York Times Magazine." Introductory essays discuss the use of leisure time, paying the cost of the arts, and whether American society can be considered "cultured." Subsequent essays discuss the nature of radio…

White, David Manning, Ed.

265

Cultures and Communities Certificate  

E-print Network

and international developments, issues of gender and sexuality, understanding environ- mental challenges-solving in a pluralistic society. · Use a variety of intellectual methods for exploring the conflicts of beliefs and values fulfill this area requirement. · Art, Culture, and Community (3 credits). · Science, Culture, and Society

Saldin, Dilano

266

Frank Trentmann, Director, Cultures  

E-print Network

are top in Europe when it comes to unsecured debt. Shopping, leisure and tourism are expanding by leapsFindings Frank Trentmann, Programme Director, Cultures of Consumption, ESRC and AHRC Professor public life? Are auent societies becoming like the United States? What are today's cultures

Crawford, Ian

267

Building Culturally Responsive Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a variety of culturally responsive approaches and activities so as to better know and understand our students' diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. These methods will not only help to make more equitable classrooms where we make meaningful connections with our students--but also yield useful data so as to inform our…

Polleck, Jody; Shabdin, Shirin

2013-01-01

268

Effective Cross Cultural Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

When we speak about communication it is imperative to consider it as being cultural — it draws on ways we have learned to speak and give nonverbal messages. We do not always communicate the same way from day to day, since there are factors like context, individual personality, and mood interact usually with the variety of cultural influences we have

Adriana Vintean

2008-01-01

269

Adaptation and Cultural Diffusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the role of adaptation in cultural diffusion. Explains that adaptation theory recognizes the lack of independence between innovations and their environmental settings. Discusses testing and selection, modification, motivation, and cognition. Suggests that adaptation effects are pervasive in cultural diffusion but require a broader, more…

Ormrod, Richard K.

1992-01-01

270

Cultural competence in hospice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research shows that ethnic minorities access hospice care significantly less often than Caucasians. In part, this has been attributed to the lack of cultural competence among hospice staff. To assess cultural competence among hospice workers, this article evaluates the results of a descriptive, exploratory survey that was submitted to 125 interdisciplinary hospice employees and completed by 113 of those employees.

Ardith Z. Doorenbos; Stephanie Myers Schim

2004-01-01

271

Essay: What Is Culture?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is culture? How does it figure into learning and teaching? What can educators do to make their classrooms sites of deep learning for all children? This essay examines the concept of culture, exploring how this concept has evolved historically and how its meaning continues to develop today.

Norma Gonz?lez, University of Arizona

2008-01-01

272

A School Culture Audit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators know that something needs to change; they analyze data, build a plan, and provide professional development, yet little changes. Often that is because they fail to take into account the culture of their schools. Culture reflects the complex set of values, traditions, assumptions, and patterns of behavior that are present in a school.…

Williamson, Ronald; Blackburn, Barbara R.

2009-01-01

273

Anaerobic thermophilic culture system  

DOEpatents

A mixed culture system of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC31550 and the microorganism Clostridium thermocellum ATCC31549 is described. In a mixed nutrient culture medium that contains cellulose, these microorganisms have been coupled and cultivated to efficiently ferment cellulose to produce recoverable quantities of ethanol under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions.

Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Wiegel, Jurgen K. W. (Gottingen, DE)

1981-01-01

274

Ebonics as cultural resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been said that a people without a sense of cultural identity can be compared to a tree without roots. Thus Africans in the diaspora, particularly those in the developed industrial regions of North America and Europe, have made the unrelenting quest for a cultural identity the central focus of their liberation struggle. Language is the quintessential ingredient of

Charles Green; Ian Isidore Smart

1997-01-01

275

RACE, LANGUAGE AND CULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This course explores the relationship between humans and space. In particular, the course addresses the mental organization of spatial knowledge and highlights universal patterns that generate cultural and individual realizations of that knowledge. We will also examine how culture shapes ways of organizing and using space in daily and ritual behavior. Special emphasis will be devoted to linguistic diversity and

Franz Boas

1941-01-01

276

Why Youth Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses youth culture and raises concerns about the tricky social terrain modernity offers for youth identity. He discusses familiar "topoi" or thematics that seem to drive most work on youth culture, suggests that justice and fairness are moral imperatives, and that acknowledging the worthiness of difference is one…

Cintron, Ralph

2010-01-01

277

Our People, Our Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With Liverpool approaching the end of its year as the 2008 European Capital of Culture, many of the residents in the city involved in promoting arts events have been so busy doing just that, that they have scarcely had time to stop and ask themselves what this thing called "culture" has meant in this special year. Have their efforts over the past…

Biggs, Bryan

2008-01-01

278

Cultural Or scientific literacy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

bout two hundred years ago the United States was a poorly developed oth culturally and economically), newly independent nation with a population about ten times smaller than that of either England or France. Over the years, our country seemed to have evolved as a counterweight to the dominant European culture, trying to reject the ways of the Old World, thus

Vladimir N. Garkov

2000-01-01

279

Lie detection across cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can people detect deception by watching a liar's nonverbal behavior? Can lies be detected across cultures? In the current paper, we report the first cross-cultural study to date of the detection of deception from nonverbal behavior. Americans and Jordanians were videotaped while telling lies and truths; other Americans and Jordanians watched the resulting videotapes and made lie detection judgments. Results

Charles F. Bond; Adnan Omar; Adnan Mahmoud; Richard Neal Bonser

1990-01-01

280

Culture and Divorce  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term “divorce culture” has been popularized in recent years by scholars studying American family demographics. It suggests that the high rates of divorce relative to earlier decades are in part due to changes of values in American society at large, though little direct empirical evidence exists for this claim. Does the concept of the divorce culture apply to a

Barb Schovanec; Cameron Lee

2001-01-01

281

The Cultural Curtain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of technical change into non- Western cultures has, in the past, been done rather hap hazardly. Even when the motivation for such efforts has been completely humanitarian, the effects are frequently unfortu nate. At times it is impossible to introduce changes because of cultural resistance; on other occasions an \\

Dorothy Lee

1959-01-01

282

Cultural Diplomacy in Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evolution of European government activities in the sphere of international cultural relations is examined. Section 1 describes the period between World War I and World War II when European governments tried to enhance their prestige and policies by means of cultural propaganda. Section 2 analyzes the period during World War II when the…

Haigh, Anthony

283

Complexity in Cultural Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite their diverse national backgrounds, 28 interviewees speak similarly about the complexity of the cultural realities with which they live, and refuse to be pinned down to specific cultural types. While nation is of great importance, unless personally inspiring, it tends to be an external force which is in conflict with a wide variety of…

Holliday, Adrian

2010-01-01

284

Cultural Exchange Through BD.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of and the popularity of comic strips (the BD or "bande dessinee" in French) in both France and the United States. Argues that comic strips play a major role in French-American cultural exchange because they express each culture and convey their message both visually and linguistically. (SED)

Lawlor, Patricia M.

1985-01-01

285

Cultural Collage Paintings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes a cultural collage painting project. Three things served as the impetus for this project: (1) a desire for students to explore the theme of "culture"; (2) an appreciation for the photo-montaged, layered images one sees in print media; and (3) noticing that projects from core subject areas hanging on the walls…

Coy, Mary

2011-01-01

286

Suppression of Eis and expression of Wag31 and GroES in Mycobacterium tuberculosis cytosol under anaerobic culture conditions.  

PubMed

A major impediment in chemotherapy of Tuberculosis (TB) is the persistence of M. tuberculosis in a latent or dormant state, possibly perpetuated by paucity of oxygen within the lung granuloma. Proteome analysis of the anaerobically persisting microbe could therefore provide novel targets for drugs against latent TB infection (LTBI). An Indian clinical isolate of M. tuberculosis was cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions following Wayne's hypoxia model and its cytosolic proteins were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). Peptide mass fingerprinting of 32 differentially expressed spots using MALDI TOF-TOF MS-MS resulted in identification of 23 proteins. Under the anaerobic culture conditions, expression of 12 of these proteins was highly suppressed (>2 fold reduction in spot volumes), with 4 of them (GrpE, CanB, MoxR1 and Eis) appearing as completely suppressed since corresponding spots were not detectable in the anaerobic sample. On the other hand, 4 proteins were highly expressed, with two of them (Wag31 and GroES) being uniquely expressed under anaerobic conditions. Suppression of Eis could make the anaerobically persisting bacilli susceptible to the aminoglycoside antibiotics which are known to be acetylated and inactivated by Eis. Although all 4 overexpressed proteins can be considered as putative drug targets for LTBI, Wag31 appears particularly interesting in view of its role in the cell wall biogenesis. PMID:25141539

Maurya, Vineet K; Singh, Kavita; Sinha, Sudhir

2014-08-01

287

Effect of different heterotrophic plate count methods on the estimation of the composition of the culturable microbial community  

PubMed Central

Heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) are routinely determined within the scope of water quality assessment. However, variable HPC methods with different cultivation parameters (i.e., temperature and media type) are applied, which could lead to significant effects in the outcome of the analysis. Therefore the effect of different HPC methods, according to DIN EN ISO 6222 and EPA, on the culturable microbial community composition was investigated by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and statistical evaluation was performed. The culturable community composition revealed significant effects assigned to temperature (p < 0.01), while for media type no statistical significance was observed. However, the abundance of certain detected bacteria was affected. Lower temperature (22 °C) showed the abundance of naturally occurring Pseudomonadaceae and Aeromonadaceae, whereas at high temperature (37 °C) numerous Enterobacteriaceae, Citrobacter spp. and Bacilli were identified. The highest biodiversity was detected at lower temperature, especially on R2A medium. These results indicate that different temperatures (low and high) should be included into HPC measurement and selection of media should, ideally, be adjusted to the monitored water source. Accordingly, it can be inferred that the HPC method is more suitable for continuous monitoring of the same water source than for single assessments of a water sample. PMID:25861554

Gössl, Eva-Maria; Antonielli, Livio; Sessitsch, Angela; Kosti?, Tanja

2015-01-01

288

Cultural dimensions of learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How, what, when and where we learn is frequently discussed, as are content versus process, or right brain versus left brain learning. What is usually missing is the cultural dimension. This is not an easy concept to define, but various aspects can be identified. The World Decade for Cultural Development emphasizes the need for a counterbalance to a quantitative, economic approach. In the last century poets also warned against brutalizing materialism, and Sorokin and others have described culture more recently in terms of cohesive basic values expressed through aesthetics and institutions. Bloom's taxonomy incorporates the category of affective learning, which internalizes values. If cultural learning goes beyond knowledge acquisition, perhaps the surest way of understanding the cultural dimension of learning is to examine the aesthetic experience. This can use myths, metaphors and symbols, and to teach and learn by using these can help to unlock the human potential for vision and creativity.

Eyford, Glen A.

1990-06-01

289

Culture and cooperation  

PubMed Central

Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities. PMID:20679109

Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian

2010-01-01

290

The Power of Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The link between culture and various forms of development remains a somewhat mysterious one, but this website provided by the Netherlands' Ministry of Foreign Affairs begins to explore this rather compelling connection. The website states that "Culture is not a peripheral matter", then proceeds to offer a number of themes that visitors will want to take a closer look at. The themes that are covered on the site include policy, cultural diversity, cultural heritage, and global ethics, along with several others. Within each theme, visitors can view latest news releases on each topic, along with a selection of links to related sites, such as those provided by UNESCO. The "Specials" section is well-developed, and features in-depth discussion of such emergent cultural trends as the relatively undiscovered worlds of African cinema and Chinese media art. Finally, visitors can also choose to enter their own comments in the online visitor's book.

291

Cultural Factors in Clinical Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines special issues in cross-cultural psychopathology, including culture-bound syndromes, variable distribution of psychopathology across cultures, and cultural distinctions between belief and delusion and between trance and hallucination. Offers suggestions for educating clinicians about cross-cultural conceptual issues and teaching the…

Westermeyer, Joseph

1987-01-01

292

Teaching World Cultures through Artifacts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching world cultures in the middle-level geography classroom presents challenges both because of the complexity of culture and because of the characteristics of students of this age. One effective way to teach about a culture is through the use of cultural artifacts. This article discusses how to collect and use cultural artifacts in the…

Hauf, James E.

2010-01-01

293

Culturally-Sensitive Learning Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In today's global world, to provide meaningful education, teacher-librarians and their students need to become culturally competent: open to learning about other cultures and sharing one's own culture, able to change personal perspectives, and able to communicate effectively across cultures. Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions provides a…

Farmer, Lesley S. J.

2010-01-01

294

The cultural milieu of counseling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the mono-cultural milieu of counseling. There are four primary contributors to the cultural domination of counseling by the Western culture. They are as follows: (1) the deep historical and philosophical roots of counseling in Western culture; (2) the dominant theories, practices and approaches of counseling make the assumption that counseling will take place within a Western culture;

Mahmoud A. Saleh

1989-01-01

295

ALICE's adventures in cultural computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paradigm of cultural computing, different cultures need different approaches to address the cultural determinants that strongly influences our way of thinking, feeling and worldview in general. For the western culture, our answer to this need is an artistic and interactive installation (ALICE) based on the narrative 'Alice's Adventures in Wonderland'. To address the western culture characteristics highlighted in

Jun Hu; Christoph Bartneck; Ben Salem; GWM Rauterberg

2008-01-01

296

Mycobacterium abscessus granulomatous prostatitis.  

PubMed

Infectious granulomatous prostatitis is uncommon, and most cases of granulomatous prostatitis are classified as nonspecific granulomatous prostatitis. From 2007 to 2009, 5 patients experienced poor wound healing after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer at a specialist cancer center. Mycobacterium abscessus was cultured from the debridement specimens, and acid-fast-positive bacilli were identified histologically within the prostates. All 180 radical prostatectomy specimens from May 2007 to June 2009 were reviewed, and 7 additional cases with morphologies suspicious of M. abscessus granulomatous prostatitis (MAGP) were identified. The characteristic morphologic feature of MAGP was suppurative necrotizing granulomatous inflammation extensively (10% to 80% of the gland; mean, 39%) involving the prostate. The centers of MAGP were large areas of neutrophilic abscess and necrotic debris, which were surrounded by histiocytes, lymphocytes, plasma cells, scattered multinucleated giant cells, and eosinophils. In the adjacent areas, there was a lobular extension of mixed inflammatory infiltrates into dilated and ruptured ducts. Involvement of extraprostatic soft tissue and seminal vesicles/vas deferens was found in 9 and 4 cases, respectively. Acid-fast-positive bacilli were identified in 5 radical prostatectomies. Eleven patients had fresh tissue specimens stored at -150°C, and M. abscessus was cultured from 8 prostates. Random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction showed the same clone for all isolates. After prostatectomy, 8 patients experienced prolonged wound healing, with urethrorectal fistula formation in 1 patient and a pelvic abscess in another. It is critical for pathologists to recognize MAGP and to distinguish it from the more common nonspecific granulomatous prostatitis and other granulomatous lesions within the prostate. PMID:22261705

Chuang, Ai-Ying; Tsou, Mei-Hua; Chang, Shu-Jen; Yang, Lien-Yen; Shih, Chiang-Ching; Tsai, Mung-Pei; Chen, Yu-Lin; Liu, Ting-Mei; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Hsueh, Po-Ren

2012-03-01

297

The Burden of Mycobacterial Disease in Ethiopian Cattle: Implications for Public Health  

PubMed Central

Background Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a debilitating disease of cattle. Ethiopia has one of the largest cattle populations in the world, with an economy highly dependent on its livestock. Furthermore, Ethiopia has one of the highest incidence rates of human extrapulmonary TB in the world, a clinical presentation that is often associated with transmission of M. bovis from cattle to humans. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present a comprehensive investigation of the prevalence of bTB in Ethiopia based on cases identified at slaughterhouses. Out of approximately 32,800 inspected cattle, ?4.7% showed suspect tuberculous lesions. Culture of suspect lesions yielded acid-fast bacilli in ?11% of cases, with M. bovis accounting for 58 of 171 acid-fast cultures, while 53 isolates were non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Strikingly, M. tuberculosis was isolated from eight cattle, an unusual finding that suggests human to animal transmission. Conclusions/Significance Our analysis has revealed that bTB is widely spread throughout Ethiopia, albeit at a low prevalence, and provides underpinning evidence for public health policy formulation. PMID:19352493

Berg, Stefan; Firdessa, Rebuma; Habtamu, Meseret; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Mengistu, Araya; Yamuah, Lawrence; Ameni, Gobena; Vordermeier, Martin; Robertson, Brian D.; Smith, Noel H.; Engers, Howard; Young, Douglas; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Aseffa, Abraham; Gordon, Stephen V.

2009-01-01

298

Optimizing stem cell culture  

PubMed Central

Stem cells always balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Hence, stem cell culture parameters are critical and need to be continuously refined according to progress in our stem cell biology understanding and the latest technological developments. This led to the progressive replacement of ill-defined additives such as serum or feeder cell layers by recombinant cytokines or growth factors. Another example is the control of the oxygen pressure. For many years cell cultures have been done under atmospheric oxygen pressure which is much higher than the one experienced by stem cells in vivo. A consequence of cell metabolism is that cell culture conditions are constantly changing. Therefore, the development of high sensitive monitoring processes and control algorithms is required for ensuring cell culture medium homeostasis. Stem cells also sense the physical constraints of their microenvironment. Rigidity, stiffness and geometry of the culture substrate influence stem cell fate. Hence, nanotopography is probably as important as medium formulation in the optimization of stem cell culture conditions. Recent advances include the development of synthetic bioinformative substrates designed at the micro- and nanoscale level. On going research in many different fields including stem cell biology, nanotechnology, and bioengineering suggest that our current way to culture cells in Petri dish or flasks will soon be outdated as flying across the Atlantic Ocean in the Lindbergh’s plane. PMID:20803548

Van Der Sanden, Boudewijn; Dhobb, Mehdi; Berger, François; Wion, Didier

2010-01-01

299

Popular Culture, Cultural Resistance, and Anticonsumption Activism: An Exploration of Culture Jamming as Critical Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter examines popular culture as a site of cultural resistance. Specifically, it explores how "culture jamming," a cultural-resistance activity, can be a form of adult education. It examines adult education and learning as it intersects with both consumerism and popular culture. Focus is placed on a growing social movement of individuals…

Sandlin, Jennifer A.

2007-01-01

300

ARTS & HUMANITIES Modern Languages, Culture  

E-print Network

ARTS & HUMANITIES Modern Languages, Culture and Communication (main language: ENGLISH) MODULES Languages, Culture and Communication provides solid knowledge of two languages and approaches the study of language, literature and culture from the perspective of multilingual communication. Students thus acquire

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

301

Culture of safety.  

PubMed

In this article, the principles behind high-reliability organizations and a culture of safety are explored. Three areas in which health care has the greatest potential for improvement in safety culture are also discussed: a nonpunitive response to error; handoffs and transitions; and safe staffing. Tools for frontline nurses to help improve their organization's culture of safety in these areas are reviewed. Information is also given for nurses responding to error, including participating in root-cause analysis and supporting health care workers involved in adverse events. PMID:25680493

Hershey, Kristen

2015-03-01

302

[Cultural diversity reflexive learning].  

PubMed

Recent international migration trends contribute to set up new social scenarios where an increasing cultural diversity becomes self-evident. From a global diversity on a planetary scale, we enter into a local diversity comprised by persons, groups and emerging cultures with whom we share our daily life experiences. In this context, social relationships are not always easy and we may note difficulties due to the ethnocentrism each group has and due to a lack of knowledge, or distrust or prejudices among persons or groups having diverse cultural origins. PMID:18274398

Pomarede, Ma José Morera; Caparà, Núria Roca

2007-10-01

303

Taxonomic study of aerobic thermophilic bacilli: descriptions of Geobacillus subterraneus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Geobacillus uzenensis sp. nov. from petroleum reservoirs and transfer of Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus thermocatenulatus, Bacillus thermoleovorans, Bacillus kaustophilus, Bacillus thermodenitrificans to Geobacillus as the new combinations G. stearothermophilus, G. th.  

PubMed

Five hydrocarbon-oxidizing strains were isolated from formation waters of oilfields in Russia, Kazakhstan and China. These strains were moderately thermophilic, neutrophilic, motile, spore-forming rods, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic. The G+C content of their DNA ranged from 49.7 to 52.3 mol%. The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-7; cellular fatty acid profiles consisted of significant amounts of iso-15:0, iso-16:0 and iso-17:0 fatty acids (61.7-86.8% of the total). Based on data from 16S rDNA analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization, the subsurface isolates could be divided into two groups, one of which consisted of strains UT and X and the other of which consisted of strains K, Sam and 34T. The new strains exhibited a close phylogenetic relationship to thermophilic bacilli of 'Group 5' of Ash et al. [Ash, C., Farrow, J. A. E., Wallbanks, S. & Collins, M. D. (1991). Lett Appl Microbiol 13, 202-206] and a set of corresponding signature positions of 16S rRNA. Comparative analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences and fatty acid compositions of the novel isolates and established species of thermophilic bacilli indicated that the subsurface strains represent two new species within a new genus, for which the names Geobacillus subterraneus gen. nov., sp. nov., and Geobacillus uzenensis sp. nov. are proposed. It is also proposed that Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus thermoleovorans, Bacillus thermocatenulatus, Bacillus kaustophilus, Bacillus thermoglucosidasius and Bacillus thermodenitrificans be transferred to this new genus, with Geobacillus stearothermophilus (formerly Bacillus stearothermophilus) as the type species. PMID:11321089

Nazina, T N; Tourova, T P; Poltaraus, A B; Novikova, E V; Grigoryan, A A; Ivanova, A E; Lysenko, A M; Petrunyaka, V V; Osipov, G A; Belyaev, S S; Ivanov, M V

2001-03-01

304

Blood Culture Test  

MedlinePLUS

... be detected. ^ Back to top 3. Why did my doctor order more blood cultures after the initial ... MO. Pp 166-167. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 21st ed. McPherson R, Pincus ...

305

Ethical Cultural Competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethical issues with regard to cultural competence in practice is an area that seems to be most discussed in the world of health professionals, especially as our nation becomes more and more diverse. \\

Durade Zebari

2008-01-01

306

Cultural Aspects of Sikkim  

E-print Network

IOns prcvalent in Sikkim constituting about 99% of the population. Christians. Muslims. Jains and Sikhs together constitute less than one percent. Sikkim is to some extent a culturally homogeneous unit Buddhism being the main uOIfymg factor, Bhotias...

Gulati, Mrs. Rachna

1995-01-01

307

Cultivating Cultural Appreciation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The interdisciplinary activities described in this article require students to study various ethnic groups and cultures within a context of ethnobotany, which is the study of how people use plants. Students engage in perspective taking, learn to appreciat

Pamela Sue Esprivalo and Scott Forney

2001-03-01

308

Optimal human embryo culture.  

PubMed

A large contributor to success during in vitro fertilization (IVF) lies in the processes occurring within the IVF laboratory. These processes make up the "culture system." This system entails numerous procedures and technical steps that must be optimized to produce a competent embryo. Notably, variations exist between programs that include differences in patient population, clinical stimulation, and other factors. Thus, a single "optimal" culture system to be utilized between all laboratories is likely not feasible. Rather, laboratory procedures should be optimized based on an individual laboratory's performance. That being said, within the scientific literature, there are key components, approaches, and techniques within the culture system that have been shown to be superior to alternatives. These key components important in improving embryo culture are discussed. PMID:25734348

Swain, Jason E

2015-03-01

309

Fruit organ cultures.  

PubMed

The culture of fruit tissues as whole organs or isolated tissue sections has been conducted with various species (1). Whole, isolated ovaries have been successfully cultured to give rise to mature fruits (e.g., strawberry). Typically, however, when an isolated portion of the fruit tissue is introduced into a sterile environment, it immediately loses structural integrity and degenerates into a rapidly dividing callus mass (2). Loss of structural integrity is correspondingly associated with an alteration of physiology that is subsequently reflected in the production of an altered metabolism. Therefore, a meaningful study of fruit development using callus derived from fruit tissues is often not possible. Recently, we studied the parameters involved in the maintenance of citrus fruit tissue integrity (2). In this paper, the culture of isolated fruit tissues, as well as half and whole fruit culture, is demonstrated using the lemon fruit (Fig. 1-3). PMID:21390600

Tisserat, B; Galletta, P D; Jones, D

1990-01-01

310

Nature/Culture/Seawater  

E-print Network

This essay considers seawater as a substance and symbol in anthropological and social theory. Seawater has occupied an ambiguous place with respect to anthropological categories of nature and culture. Seawater as nature ...

Helmreich, Stefan

311

Pleural fluid culture  

MedlinePLUS

Culture - pleural fluid ... is used to get a sample of pleural fluid. The sample is sent to a laboratory and ... around the lungs, called the pleural space. As fluid drains into a collection bottle, you may cough ...

312

Pericardial fluid culture  

MedlinePLUS

Culture - pericardial fluid ... the heart (the pericardium). A small amount of fluid is removed. You may have an ECG and ... x-ray after the test. Sometimes the pericardial fluid is taken during open heart surgery. The sample ...

313

Capturing Cultural Value  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Various policy analysts, politicians, and other persons have become increasingly intrigued by the potential that various cultural programs and initiatives may have in terms of economic development in their respective regions. This report, authored by John Holden on behalf of the Demos Group in London, examines the way in which government views the potential benefits of various cultural programs. In this 62-page report, Holden argues that arts and other such programs should be funded because of their cultural contribution to society, rather than for the increasingly popular reason given by many units of governance, which is that they can effectively deliver government policy. The report goes on to argue that government should move from a target-oriented, top-down approach to one that is more cognizant of the full range of values created by culture.

314

Cultural Astronomy in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

Renshaw, Steven L.

315

Lymph node culture  

MedlinePLUS

... are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration ... normal result means there was no growth of microorganisms on the lab dish. Normal value ranges may ...

316

Cultural Environmental Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Studies Program of Washington State University offers this online directory to Websites and resources in cultural environmental studies. The directory presents a subject overview followed by a dozen or more subtopic headings which lead to annotated listings further broken down by subheadings. The site is frequently updated and provides a wealth of links for studying the last two centuries from a cultural studies viewpoint.

317

Culture against Society  

E-print Network

yourself," and afterwards says he feels better for having said it. Politics is .just one of many battlegrounds for the culture wars that split contemporary society. James Davison Hunter's eponymous book on the subject stresses differences between.... This view is consistent with Hunter, who defines "cultural conflict very simply as political and social hostility rooted in different systems of moral understanding...[that] always have a character of ultimacy to them. They are basic commitments...

Hanson, F. Allan

2005-07-01

318

Cultural Entomology Digest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cultural Entomology Digest was published in four issues from 1993 to 1997. All issues are available online. More than 30 short articles on the use of insects in human culture are presented, covering a wide variety of fascinating topics from butterflies in mythology to insects in psychiatry to the use of beetles as religious symbols. The articles are both informative and entertaining, and are written by recognized authorities.

0000-00-00

319

Cultural Astronomy of Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like people all over the world, Africans have a long history of observing and trying to understand the workings of the heavens. Though many African cultures did not have writing systems, their understandings of the night sky have been preserved and passed on through stories, art, dance, and artifacts, sometimes in unexpected and complex ways. Focusing on specific ethnic groups, this talk is a survey of some of the ways that Africans have woven their knowledge of the night sky into their cultures.

Holbrook, Jarita

2004-06-01

320

Changing our culture.  

PubMed

Today, a great challenge of our profession is to envision how we will deliver exemplary neurosurgical care in the future. To accomplish this requires anticipating how economic, political, and societal influences will affect our ability to provide the highest quality of patient care in an arena that will look increasingly different from today's world of medicine. Already, our profession is battling a relentless assault as numerous sectors implement change that impacts us and our community every day. Surviving this requires an effective strategy that will involve significant cultural change. To accomplish this, neurosurgery must take an honest look inward and then commit to being the agents of positive cultural change. Such a path will not be easy but should reap important benefits for all of neurosurgery and our patients. Several practical and proven strategies can help us to realize the rewards of changing our culture. Vital to this process is understanding that effecting behavioral change will increase the likelihood of achieving sustainable cultural change. Innovation and diversity are crucial to encourage and reward when trying to effect meaningful cultural change, while appreciating the power of a "Tipping Point" strategy will also reap significant benefits. As a profession, if we adopt these strategies and tactics we can lead our profession to proceed in improvement, and as individuals we can use the spirit that drove us into neurosurgery to become the agents of an enduring and meaningful cultural change that will benefit our patients and us. PMID:24559225

Benzil, Deborah L

2014-05-01

321

The Cultural Landscape Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is a cultural landscape? This website answers that question, and gives hundreds of wonderful examples for visitors to consider. The link "What are Cultural Landscapes?" explains to visitors that there are four types of cultural landscapes, and they also offer a brief definition of each one. They include "designed" which is intentionally laid according to design principles; "vernacular", where people have shaped the land by cultural patterns or activities; "ethnographic" which contain natural and cultural resources that the "associated people define as heritage resources" and the "historic site", which is self-evident. In order to view examples of cultural landscapes, visitors should click on the "What's Out There?" link to go to the database of the same name. There is a basic search function, as well as an "advanced search" that allow visitors to search by design type, such as "Plaza", "Parkway" or "Contemporary Earthwork" or by landscape style, such as "Italianate", "Mission Revival" or "Prairie Style". Most entries have photos, and some have more than one. Visitors should also check out "Abbott Park" for some glorious photos.

322

Astronomy and Culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is, by definition, the sum of the material and spiritual values created by mankind and of the institutions necessary to communicate these values. Consequently, astronomy belongs to the culture of each society and its scientific progress does nothing but underline its role in culture. It is interesting that there is even a European society which bears this name "Astronomy for Culture" (SEAC). Its main goal is "the study of calendric and astronomical aspects of culture". Owning ancient evidence of astronomical knowledge, dating from the dawn of the first millennium, Romania is interested in this topic. But Astronomy has a much deeper role in culture and civilization. There are many aspects that deserve to be discussed. Examples? The progress of astronomy in a certain society, in connection with its evolution; the place held by the astronomy in literature and, generally, in art; the role of the SF in the epoch of super-mediatization; astronomy and belief; astronomy and astrology in the modern society, and so forth. These are problems that can be of interest for IAU, but the most important one could be her educational role, in the formation of the culture of the new generation, in the education of the population for the protection of our planet, in the ensuring of a high level of spiritual development of the society in the present epoch.

Stavinschi, M.

2006-08-01

323

The Culture Based Model: Constructing a Model of Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent trends reveal that models of culture aid in mapping the design and analysis of information and communication technologies. Therefore, models of culture are powerful tools to guide the building of instructional products and services. This research examines the construction of the culture based model (CBM), a model of culture that evolved…

Young, Patricia A.

2008-01-01

324

Anth 161: World Cultures An Introduction to Cultural Anthropology  

E-print Network

Anth 161: World Cultures An Introduction to Cultural Anthropology 1 Instructor: Ian B. Edwards, PhD Email: iedwards@uoregon.edu Location: online Course Description: Anthropology is the study of human to give students an introduction to the anthropological study of human cultures, and the field of cultural

325

Exploring Cultural Tensions in Cross-Cultural Social Work Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of cultural tension in the social work literature is piecemeal. As part of a grounded theory study, this article reports some major findings on cultural tensions experienced by 30 frontline social workers. Cultural tensions caused by cultural similarities and differences among social workers, clients, organizations, and society are…

Yan, Miu Chung

2008-01-01

326

Understanding Cultural Omnivorousness: Or, the Myth of the Cultural Omnivore  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of omnivorousness has become influential in the sociologies of culture and consumption, cited variously as evidence of altered hierarchies in cultural participation and as indicative of broader socio-cultural changes. The ‘omnivore thesis’ contends that there is a sector of the population of western countries who do and like a greater variety of forms of culture than previously, and

Alan Warde; David Wright; Modesto Gayo-Cal

2007-01-01

327

cultural history New perspectives on  

E-print Network

Making cultural history New perspectives on Western heritage Edited by Anna Källén nordic academic-08-26 15:54 #12;7 Making cultural history An introduction Anna Källén & Inga Sanner Cultural history tends academic circumstances, it is not the case with cultural history: much of its strength and analytical

328

Cultural Perspectives Toward Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural conflicts may be derived from using inappropriate language. Appropriate linguistic-pragmatic competence may also be produced by providing various and multicultural backgrounds. Culture and language are linked together naturally, unconsciously, and closely in daily social lives. Culture affects language and language affects culture through…

Lin, Li-Li

2008-01-01

329

Risk culture in financial organisations  

E-print Network

1 Risk culture in financial organisations: An interim report Simon Ashby, Tommaso Palermo and Michael Power November 2012 #12;2 Contents Acknowledgements 3 Executive Summary 4 Risk Culture: background 5-7 Risk Culture: our approach 7-11 Risk Culture: preliminary findings and ideas 11-18 What we hope

Fryzlewicz, Piotr

330

Culture from the Bottom Up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The culture concept has been severely criticized for its top-down nature in TESOL, leading arguably to its falling out of favor in the field. But what of the fact that people do "live culturally" (Ingold, 1994)? This article describes a case study of culture from the bottom up--culture as understood and enacted by its individual users.…

Atkinson, Dwight; Sohn, Jija

2013-01-01

331

Examining Equity Theory across Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to better understand culture's role between perceived equity in one's romantic relationship and relationship satisfaction, we sampled two groups from different cultural backgrounds and attempted to answer the question of whether culture would impact the relationship between equity and relationship satisfaction. We interviewed men and women from the University of Hawai'i (UH), a relatively individualist culture, and from

Katherine Aumer-Ryan; Elaine Hatfield; Rosemary Frey

2007-01-01

332

Adolescent Maturation in Transitioning Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a theoretical study of adolescent maturation within a cultural context. Personality development and disintegration due to the pressure of a dominant culture on a minority culture is considered. An attempt is made to understand how teachers might assist students to work out their psychological growth by story telling. The need for cultural

Mulroy, Kevin; Palacios, Anna; Reid, Robert E.

333

Mycobacterium fortuitum Infection following Reconstructive Breast Surgery: Differentiation from Classically Described Red Breast Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background: Red breast syndrome (RBS) has been described as an erythema that may be associated with 2-stage prosthetic reconstructive breast surgery using biologic mesh. RBS is differentiated from infectious cellulitis through absence of fever and laboratory abnormalities and usually has a self-limiting course. There have been no clinical reports on etiology, risk factors, or management of RBS. This report describes patient data that raise the need to rule out mycobacterial infection when RBS is being considered as a diagnosis. Methods: We present 6 cases of Mycobacterium fortuitum infection occurring after prosthetic breast reconstruction performed with a human-derived acellular dermal matrix, including the timing and course of erythema, laboratory results, treatments used, and long-term outcomes. We also describe the differential diagnoses of RBS in the context of these cases, including emergence of acid-fast bacilli and diagnostic and treatment considerations. Exact two-tailed 95% confidence intervals based on the F-distribution are provided with estimates of the incidence rates of infection. Results: The 6 cases presented here do not fit the typical description of RBS and were caused by mycobacterium infection. Statistical evaluation of the estimated incidence rate of M. fortuitum infection in a patient thought to have RBS, which occurred 100% of the time in this series, revealed a 95% confidence interval of 54.1–100%. Conclusions: When presented with possible RBS, surgeons must rule out cellulitis, culture for acid-fast bacilli such as mycobacterium species, and then determine the best course of treatment. Patient counseling regarding potential household sources of infection is warranted to minimize postoperative infection risk. PMID:25289245

Foles, Van Brandon; Sieger, Barry; Musselman, Kelly

2013-01-01

334

Globalization, culture and psychology.  

PubMed

This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies. PMID:25343628

Melluish, Steve

2014-10-01

335

Organizational Culture and Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

'..only a fool perseveres in error.' Cicero. Humans will break the most advanced technological devices and override safety and security systems if they are given the latitude. Within the workplace, the operator may be just one of several factors in causing accidents or making risky decisions. Other variables considered for their involvement in the negative and often catastrophic outcomes include the organizational context and culture. Many organizations have constructed and implemented safety programs to be assimilated into their culture to assure employee commitment and understanding of the importance of everyday safety. The purpose of this paper is to examine literature on organizational safety cultures and programs that attempt to combat vulnerability, risk taking behavior and decisions and identify the role of training in attempting to mitigate unsafe acts.

Adams, Catherine A.

2003-01-01

336

Maintaining prophetic cultures.  

PubMed

The Catholic health ministry was founded by "prophetic people," people who shared some of the qualities shown by biblical prophets. If it is to endure and prosper, Catholic health care must foster prophetic cultures-cultures that positively encourage the development of new leaders possessing prophetic qualities. The Scriptures, particularly the Hebrew Scriptures, eloquently describe the characteristics these new leaders will require. The chief qualities that will be needed are memory (of the Hebrew and Christian tradition), creative imagination, orientation toward the community, steadfastness in commitment, patience in adversity, humility, a sense of humor, and an ability to express lamentation. To foster prophetic cultures, sponsors and board members must perform certain actions. They must act hopefully, set high standards, and clarify four leadership functions: conserve the organization's mission, manage resources efficiently, empower associates, and encourage everyone involved to respond to problems creatively. PMID:16250605

Arbuckle, Gerald A

2005-01-01

337

Basics of Cell Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These manuals are used in the Stem Cell Culture Course at City College of San Francisco. This course is about general mammalian cell culture techniques but includes a laboratory exercise using stem cells (takes 3 weeks to complete). The course is taught to high school students but the materials are also used for college students. Laboratory exercises provide instruction in basic techniques of routine cell culture using common cell lines before progressing to differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. Photographs and explanations of common equipment (laminar flow hood, inverted microscope, etc.) and reagents are provided. Laboratory exercises include the following: Basic Aseptic Technique; Media Preparation; Plating cells from frozen stock; Cell counting and plating; Survival assay (UV); Live Cell Identification; Transfection; Freezing cells; Stem cell differentiation. A student lab manual and an instructor manual are provided.

Afshar, Golnar

338

Virtual Cultural Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new site from UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) offers the full text of a select collection of works on cultural heritage published by the organization, many of them currently out of print. The content of the Library is divided into two sections: Books and Conventions. At present, the Books section contains eleven titles in English, nine in French, and one in Spanish. A summary, image of the cover, and page total are offered for each book, along with a link to the full text in .pdf format. The Conventions section includes links to the full text of ten conventions in the fields of creativity and copyright and cultural heritage. These are presented in HTML format. These texts are only the initial offering, and UNESCO plans to expand the library based in part on user input.

339

Landscape of culture and culture of landscape: does landscape ecology need culture?  

E-print Network

EDITORIAL Landscape of culture and culture of landscape: does landscape ecology need culture Science+Business Media B.V. 2010 The objects of study in landscape ecology become increasingly ``cultural), and almost all ecosys- tems and landscapes around the world have been influenced or even ``domesticated

Wu, Jianguo "Jingle"

340

Culture and Cognitive Development: From Cross-Cultural Research to Creating Systems of Cultural Mediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author's intellectual movement over the past two decades, from cross-cultural experimental psychology to the cultural psychology of mediation of human activities and cognitive processes, is described in this paper. Productive use of the concept of culture in psychology entails conceptualization of the future and the past in the present, and taking a process-based look at human activities. Cultural mediation

Michael Cole

1995-01-01

341

Culture, Personality, Health, and Family Dynamics: Cultural Competence in the Selection of Culturally Sensitive Treatments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural sensitivity and cultural competence in the selection of culturally sensitive treatments is a requisite for effective counseling practice in working with diverse clients and their families, particularly when clients present with health issues or medical problems. Described here is a strategy for selecting culturally sensitive treatments…

Sperry, Len

2010-01-01

342

The ethics of cultural competence.  

PubMed

Cultural competence curricula have proliferated throughout medical education. Awareness of the moral underpinnings of this movement can clarify the purpose of such curricula for educators and trainees and serve as a way to evaluate the relationship between the ethics of cultural competence and normative Western medical ethics. Though rarely stated explicitly, the essential principles of cultural competence are (1) acknowledgement of the importance of culture in people's lives, (2) respect for cultural differences, and (3) minimization of any negative consequences of cultural differences. Culturally competent clinicians promote these principles by learning about culture, embracing pluralism, and proactive accommodation. Generally, culturally competent care will advance patient autonomy and justice. In this sense, cultural competence and Western medical ethics are mutually supportive movements. However, Western bioethics and the personal ethical commitments of many medical trainees will place limits on the extent to which they will endorse pluralism and accommodation. Specifically, if the values of cultural competence are thought to embrace ethical relativity, inexorable conflicts will be created. The author presents his view of the ethics of cultural competence and places the concepts of cultural competence in the context of Western moral theory. Clarity about the ethics of cultural competence can help educators promote and evaluate trainees' integration of their own moral intuitions, Western medical ethics, and the ethics of cultural competence. PMID:15044168

Paasche-Orlow, Michael

2004-04-01

343

Cultural similarity, cultural competence, and nurse workforce diversity.  

PubMed

Proponents of health workforce diversity argue that increasing the number of minority health care providers will enhance cultural similarity between patients and providers as well as the health system's capacity to provide culturally competent care. Measuring cultural similarity has been difficult, however, given that current benchmarks of workforce diversity categorize health workers by major racial/ethnic classifications rather than by cultural measures. This study examined the use of national racial/ethnic categories in both patient and registered nurse (RN) populations and found them to be a poor indicator of cultural similarity. Rather, we found that cultural similarity between RN and patient populations needs to be established at the level of local labor markets and broadened to include other cultural parameters such as country of origin, primary language, and self-identified ancestry. Only then can the relationship between cultural similarity and cultural competence be accurately determined and its outcomes measured. PMID:20634397

McGinnis, Sandra L; Brush, Barbara L; Moore, Jean

2010-11-01

344

Mass algal culture system  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and process for the culture of algae in a liquid medium is disclosed. The medium circulates through an open trough and is exposed to an atmosphere which is temperature regulated. The nutrient content of the liquid medium is regulated to control the chemical composition growth and reproduction characteristics of the cultured algae. Before it is allowed to strike the medium, sunlight is passed through a filter to remove wavelengths which are not photosynthetically active. Heat energy can be recovered from the filter.

Raymond, Lawrence P. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01

345

Mass algal culture system  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and process for the culture of algae in a liquid medium is disclosed. The medium circulates through an open trough and is exposed to an atmosphere which is temperature regulated. The nutrient content of the liquid medium is regulated to control the chemical composition growth and reproduction characteristics of the cultured algae. Before it is allowed to strike the medium, sunlight is passed through a filter to remove wavelengths which are not photosynthetically active. Heat energy can be recovered from the filter.

Raymond, Lawrence P. (Richland, WA)

1981-01-01

346

Hydroponics or soilless culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Historically, hydroponics is not a new field; plant physiologists have known and used it for some 100 years. Inevitably, some enthusiasts got carried away.Claims were made of enormous potential yields; skyscraper tops were said to be capable of producing enough food for all of their occupants; and closets, basements, garages, etc. were wishfully converted into fields for hydroponic culture. Numerous publications on the subject appeared during this period. Basic requirements for hydropinc techniques are given along with examples of where soilless culture has been used commercially.

Chapman, H. D.

1963-01-01

347

Mammalian Cell Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This "Course-in-a-Box" from Bio-Link is a good starting point for instructors to develop a course on how to maintain mammalian cells in culture. Students will learn "basic techniques of routine cell culture using common cell lines before progressing to differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells." Laboratories include Basic Aseptic Technique, Media Preparation, and Plating Cells from Frozen Stock. Materials include an Instructor Laboratory Manual, Student Laboratory Manual, Problem Sets, and Quizzes. A free login is required to access the materials.

348

Evaluation of bleach-sedimentation for sterilising and concentrating Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum specimens  

E-print Network

, Masjedi MR, Velayati AA: Improving sensitivity of direct microscopy for detection of acid-fast bacilli in sputum: use of chitin in mucus digestion. J Clin Microbiol 2002, 40:508-511. 18. Yassin MA, Cuevas LE, Gebrexabher H, Squire SB: Efficacy and safety...

Chew, Rusheng; Calderon, Carmen; Schumacher, Samuel G.; Sherman, Jonathan M.; Caviedes, Luz; Fuentes, Patricia; Coronel, Jorge; Valencia, Teresa; Hererra, Beatriz; Zimic, Mirko; Huaroto, Lucy; Sabogal, Ivan; Escombe, A. Rod; Gilman, Robert H.; Evans, Carlton A.

2011-10-11

349

Comparison of Sputum Induction with Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy in the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis Experience at an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Reference Center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) do not produce sputum spontaneously or are smear-negative for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). We prospectively compared the yield of sputum in- duction (SI) and fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar la- vage (BAL) for the diagnosis of PTB in a region with a high preva- lence of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Fifty seven

MARCUS B. CONDE; SERGIO L. M. SOARES; FERNANDA C. Q. MELLO; VALERIA M. REZENDE; LUCIANA L. ALMEIDA; ARTHUR L. REINGOLD; CHARLES L. DALEY; AFRANIO L. KRITSKI

350

Lesions of tuberculosis in mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni).  

PubMed

Lesions of tuberculosis in mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) were present in all visceral organs. The tubercles were composed of large rounded macrophages which contained numerous intracytoplasmic acid-fast bacilli. The lesions were not encapsulated and mineralization was not observed. PMID:650789

Lund, J E; Abernethy, C S

1978-04-01

351

Mammalian Cell Culture Simplified.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A tissue culture experiment that does not require elaborate equipment and that can be used to teach sterile technique, the principles of animal cell line maintenance, and the concept of cell growth curves is described. The differences between cancerous and normal cells can be highlighted. The procedure is included. (KR)

Moss, Robert; Solomon, Sondra

1991-01-01

352

Groups in Two Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As result of personal experience, author examines two cultural groups, with Chinese approach leading to group unity and contentment through conformity. Person-centered approach leads to sense of community and sense of freedom coupled with anxiety from being responsible for choosing one's life. (Author/CMG)

Rogers, Carl R.

1979-01-01

353

Native American Cultural Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of a larger report on the Four Directions Project, an American Indian technology innovation project, this section includes 13 "pathfinders" to locating information on Native American and other indigenous cultural groups. The pathfinders were designed by students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of…

Roy, Loriene, Comp.

354

ASSESSING NURSERY CULTURE ALTERNATIVES  

E-print Network

testing were investigated in nursery and field studies of Douglas-fir from coastal and inland regions successful on coastal sites in northwest California and southwest Oregon. Efforts to assess nursery culture option for reforestation in the Pacific Slope regions of Oregon and northern California. Advantages

Standiford, Richard B.

355

School As Equity Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A proposed equity model outlines a school-transformation process by questioning tacit cultural beliefs and pondering how education aims are realized in daily practice. The process honors best teaching practice and serves as a stepping-stone for inquiry into the outcomes, values, and criteria guiding curriculum and instruction decisions. Democratic…

Wilbur, Gretchen

1998-01-01

356

Rebuilding a safety culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a culture of safety and NASA since the Challenger accident is reviewed. The technical elements of the strengthened NASA safety program are described, including problem reporting, risk\\/assessment\\/risk management, operational safety, and safety assurance are addressed. Future directions in the development of safety are considered.

George A. Rodney

1991-01-01

357

Requiem for Cultural Internationalism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews Mary Brown Bullock's 1980 book,"An American Transplant: The Rockefeller Foundation and Peking Union Medical College." Far more than a narrow, scholarly history, this book is a case study of the far-reaching cultural impact of international educational exchange efforts. (JDH)

Ninkovich, Frank

1986-01-01

358

A Cultural Trinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a framework for understanding the intersections of spirituality, religion, and gender in mental health and relationship problems, with special emphasis on gender equality. Clinicians are encouraged to distinguish religion and spirituality and to engage with clients at the spiritual level. Principles for practice that facilitate differentiation from cultural constructions that promote and reinforce gender inequality are proposed

L. Scott Kimball; Carmen Knudson-Martin

2002-01-01

359

Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc., has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc., is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

2004-01-01

360

Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc. has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc. is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

2004-01-01

361

Respectful Youth Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children are social beings who rely on interactions with others to survive and thrive. Since the human brain is wired to connect, cultures in schools and youth organizations must be designed so youth can bond to supportive peers and adults. Children learn through observation, modeling, and responding to people in their environments. Bronfenbrenner…

Laursen, Erik K.

2014-01-01

362

Who Owns Culture?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that Margaret Mead's distinctions among three kinds of culture--here referred to as "traditional,""transitional," and "learning"--are useful in understanding the current controversy over how much the Western tradition should be emphasized in the curriculum. (EVL)

Carroll, Thomas G.

1990-01-01

363

Culture's Unacknowledged Iron Grip  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ideally, education provides mutual enrichment for professor and students. In this article, the author often fears that he is learning far more than his students are in a course on intercultural communication. Its real subject sometimes seems to be the iron grip of American culture upon his students. What is most fascinating is that the power of…

Engle, John

2007-01-01

364

Exploring Cultures through Maps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First and second graders can understand that the African continent is made up of many countries and cultures, especially when teachers have maps, picture books, photographs, and artifacts on hand for them to explore. It is important for young students to develop an understanding of maps and how to use them. This article offers suggestions for…

Grady, Bev

2005-01-01

365

Cultural Issues in Organizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four symposium papers on cultural issues in organizations. "Emotion Management and Organizational Functions: A Study of Action in a Not-for-Profit Organization" (Jamie Callahan Fabian) uses Hochschild's emotion systems theory and Parsons' social systems theory to explain why members of an organization managed their…

1999

366

Cultural Identity and Diaspora  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new cinema of the Caribbean is emerging, joining the company of the other 'Third Cinemas'. It is related to, but different from the vibrant film and other forms of visual representation of the Afro-Caribbean (and Asian) 'blacks' of the diasporas of the West - the new post-colonial subjects. All these cultural practices and forms of representation have the black

STUART HALL

367

Stem cell culture engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem cells have the capacity for self renewal and undergo multilineage differentiation. Stem cells isolated from both blastocysts and adult tissues represent valuable sources of cells for applications in cell therapy, drug screening and tissue engineering. While expanding stem cells in culture, it is critical to maintain their self?renewal and differentiation capacity. In generating particular cell types for specific applications,

Gargi Seth; Catherine M. Verfaillie

2005-01-01

368

It Takes a Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2005, the graduation rate for the Council Bluffs Community School District was, at 68 percent, the lowest in Iowa. District leaders knew that to improve, they needed to create a cultural change throughout the community. They began by getting community members involved in creating a strategic plan and mission statement that included a guarantee…

Bruckner, Martha; Mausbach, Ann

2015-01-01

369

National cultures revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropology can make a holistic contribution to the study of the complex societies of today's nations by identifying key issues, relevant to both the individual and the social system, on which these nations differ in empirically verifiable ways. This is labelled the ‘national cultures approach’ and can be considered an extension, with a broader purpose and more effective research methods,

Geert Hofstede

1984-01-01

370

Cross-Cultural Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching of physics principles by drawing examples from African students' surroundings in a cross-cultural environment is discussed. The concepts of pressure, center of gravity, and the action of salt on melting are described using examples that Nigerien students would understand. (KR)

Opalko, Jane

1991-01-01

371

Bone culture research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experiments described are aimed at exploring PTH regulation of production of collagenase and protein inhibitors of collagenase (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases, TIMP-1 and -2) by osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells under conditions of weightlessness. The results of this work will contribute to information as to whether a microgravity environment alters the functions and responsiveness of the osteoblast. The objectives of the Bone Culture Research (BCR) experiment are: to observe the effects of microgravity on the morphology, rate of proliferation, and behavior of the osteoblastic cells, UMR 106-01; to determine whether microgravy affects the hormonal sensitivity of osteroblastic cells; and to measure the secretion of collagenase and its inhibitors into the medium under conditions of microgravity. The methods employed will consist of the following: the osteoblast-like cells, UMR-106-01, will be cultured in four NASDA cell culture chambers; two chambers will be subjected to microgravity on SL-J; two chambers will remain on the ground at KSC as ground controls but subjected to an identical set of culture conditions as on the shuttle; media will be changed four times; twice the cells will receive the hormone parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and media collected; cells will be photographed under conditions of microgravity; and media and photographs will be analyzed upon return to determine whether functions of the cells changed.

Partridge, Nicola C.

1993-01-01

372

Cultural Perspectives on Love.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine how different cultures define and express love, a study focused on the discourse concerning love as advanced by four students from India, Iran, Japan, and Norway. The discourse was recorded on two different occasions: an extended interview about students' perceptions of love both in their countries and in the United States; and a panel…

Lindstrom, Anna K. B.; Samovar, Larry A.

373

Bridging the Two Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an undergraduate interdisciplinary program at Cornell University (New York) in the history and philosophy of science and technology. Serving as a meeting ground for the two cultures of science and the humanities, the concentration encourages students to examine the nature and place of science and technology in the modern world. (LS)

Turner, James S.

1989-01-01

374

California Cultural Crossroads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is designed for readers who have an interest in developing cultural community partnerships but who may not have an in-depth understanding of the concept or process. It provides a focus for partnership and joint venture discussions within agencies, community organizations or communities at large. Seven public library community…

Wong, Patricia M.; Francisco, Grace; Keller, Shelly G.

2007-01-01

375

Respecting Cultural Beliefs  

MedlinePLUS

... tell the hospice/palliative care team about your culture? ? One of the things that can help the team understand you is sharing your life’s story, your experiences, and how they may influence the care that you want now ? Let the team know: ? What language you are most comfortable speaking ? How you want ...

376

Weather and Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a minicourse on the interaction of weather, environment, and culture. It is designed for the high school student to read and self-administer. Performance objectives, enabling activities, and postassessment questions are given for each of eight modules. The modules are: (1) Basic Facts About Your Weather Known As Rain, (2) The…

Contemporary Learning Center, Houston, TX.

377

Wealth, Culture, and Corruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of national wealth, income distribution, government size, and four cultural variables on the perceived level of corruption in a country. The study finds that corruption is significantly correlated to GNP per capita, power distance, masculinity, and uncertainty avoidance. Significant interaction effects occur in collectivistic and high power-distance countries. Suggestions for future research are developed.© 1999

Bryan W. Husted

1999-01-01

378

Quality, Culture and Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education in South Africa has been grappling with the issue of quality assurance since the early 1990s. This paper investigates the relationships or tensions between quality, culture and change as a result of the introduction of quality assurance systems in higher education institutions in South Africa. The imperatives for the introduction…

Strydom, J. F.; Zulu, N.; Murray, L.

2004-01-01

379

Understanding Quality Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a holistic understanding of quality in higher education which reveals the current debates about accreditation or quality process standards as insufficient, and to propose an enhanced model for quality culture in educational organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The conceptual framework is…

Ehlers, Ulf Daniel

2009-01-01

380

Persian Language & Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to be used as complementary instructional material for American students as well as second-generation Iranians in America, this work presents a collection of material for teaching Persian language and culture. Research and analysis of some relevant linguistic issues, interactive methodology of language teaching and acquisition, and models…

Mir-Djalali, Elahe

381

Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at the University of California, Berkeley, the Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative (ECAI) is a "global consortium of people who share the vision of creating a distributed virtual library of cultural information with a time and place interface." While visitors can elect to read about the technical aspects of working on such ambitious efforts, many will want to look at the "Cultural Atlas Portal" to get a start on things. Visitors will find that the Portal contains an interactive map of the world which can be used to look for materials from Australia to North America. These cultural atlases include projects like "The Salem Witch Trials Documentary Archive and Transcription Project" and "Mapping St. Petersburg". After looking over a few of these projects, visitors may wish to click on the "Community" area. Here they can learn how to contribute their own projects to ECAI or how to work with partner institutions to create a new piece of work, visitors can also find out about ongoing projects around the globe.

382

Culture and Imperialism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growing out of a series of lectures given at universities in the United States, Canada, and England, this book reopens the dialogue between literature and the life of its time. It draws dramatic connections between the imperial endeavor and the culture that both reflected and reinforced it, describing a general pattern of relationships between the…

Said, Edward W.

383

De-Mythologizing Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the problems of dispelling mistaken concepts about a country, or de-mythologizing students' ideas about a country's daily life, in foreign language instruction. Some conclusions about teaching culture are offered, and the teaching experiences which led to those conclusions are related. It is felt that much teaching about the…

Gartman, Max

384

Cross-Cultural HRD.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of three papers presented at a symposium on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD) moderated by Connie Fletcher at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Intercultural Adjustment of U.S. Expatriates in the People's Republic of China" (Hallett G. Hullinger, Robert E. Nolan) presents…

1996

385

Cultural practices updates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cultural practice updates from 2013 included the effects of shredding in spring, residue management, periodic flooding, no-till fertilizer applications, and billet planting on cane tonnage and sugar yield. Shredding, whether high or low, had little impacts in 2013. However, burning following shreddi...

386

Composition, Culture, Citizenship.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special issue of "Kansas English" focuses on composition, culture, and citizenship. Included in this issue are the following articles: "Composing: When Artifice Is a Real Help" by Tom Hemmens and Micheal Roberts, which discusses the composing process and suggests various artifices, such as structure charts and sketch outlines, as a means of…

Stewart, Donald, Ed.

1975-01-01

387

Plant Tissue Culture Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Plant tissue culture has developed into a valid botanical discipline and is considered a key area of biotechnology, but it has not been a key component of the science curriculum because of the expensive and technical nature of research in this area. This manual presents a number of activities that are relatively easy to prepare and perform. The…

Smith, Robert Alan

388

Rapid detection and identification of Staphylococcus aureus from blood culture specimens using real-time fluorescence PCR.  

PubMed

Molecular surveillance of pathogens has shown the need for rapid and dependable methods for the detection and identification of organisms of clinical and epidemiologic importance. Staphylococcus aureus, one of the most frequent causes of human infections, was used as a model organism to develop and refine a real-time fluorescence PCR assay and enhanced DNA purification method. One hundred clinical isolates of S. aureus, verified by biochemical reactions and latex agglutination and 90 negative control clinical isolates were screened in the assay. Moreover, fifty blood broth samples from blood culture bottles showing Gram-positive cocci in clusters on direct Gram's stain and 25 showing Gram-negative bacilli were screened. The probes, constructed from the nuc gene, correctly detected all S. aureus genomes present without cross-reaction to negative controls. The speed and ease of this approach will make it adaptable to identification of many bacterial pathogens and provide potential for adaptation to direct detection from other types of clinical specimens. PMID:12663159

Palomares, Concepción; Torres, María J; Torres, Antonio; Aznar, Javier; Palomares, José C

2003-03-01

389

Seasonal abundance and diversity of culturable heterotrophic bacteria in relation to environmental factors in the Gulf of Antalya, Eastern Mediterranean, Turkey.  

PubMed

The abundance of culturable heterotropic bacteria studied on and according to depth levels and seasons in the Gulf of Antalya. Environmental factors were compared regarding culturable heterotrophic bacteria abundance and diversities of bacteria. During the study period (between August 2009 and April 2010, seasonally in the Gulf of Antalya, at six stations and six depth levels (0-20 cm, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200 m). The bacterial isolates were identified in the automated micro identification system VITEK 2 Compact 30 (Biomereux, France). The mean abundance was higher in Sts. D, E and F than Sts. A, B and C, located in the eastern part of the gulf. The mean abundance decreased as the depth level increased. The mean abundance of CHB ranged between 8.15 × 10(6) and 2.54 × 10(8) CFU ml(-1) throughout the year. Abundance of CHB differed according to the variations of biotic and abiotic factors. A total of 27 taxa of bacteria including six bacterial classes were reported in this study as the first records for the Gulf of Antalya. Six bacterial classes: Gamma Proteobacteria (46.81 %), Bacilli (27.66 %), Beta Proteobacteria (12.77 %), Alfa Proteobacteria (6.38 %), Actinobacteria (4.26 %) and Flavobacteria (2.13 %) were determined. The study resulted in increased knowledge on the composition and biochemical response of bacteria isolated from eutrophic and oligotrophic areas. 23 bacteria species belonging to 16 families were reported. PMID:25663240

Çardak, Mine; Özgür Özbek, Elif; Kebapçio?lu, Turhan

2015-04-01

390

Evaluation of Propidium Monoazide Real-Time PCR for Early Detection of Viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Clinical Respiratory Specimens  

PubMed Central

Background Conventional acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining cannot differentiate viable from dead cells. Propidium monoazide (PMA) is a photoreactive DNA-binding dye that inhibits PCR amplification by DNA modification. We evaluated whether PMA real-time PCR is suitable for the early detection of viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in clinical respiratory specimens. Methods A total of 15 diluted suspensions from 5 clinical MTB isolates were quadruplicated and subjected to PMA treatment and/or heat inactivation. Eighty-three AFB-positive sputum samples were also tested to compare the ?CT values (CT value in PMA-treated sputum samples-CT value in non-PMA-treated sputum samples) between culture-positive and culture-negative specimens. Real-time PCR was performed using Anyplex MTB/NTM Real-Time Detection (Seegene, Korea), and the CT value changes after PMA treatment were compared between culture-positive and culture-negative groups. Results In MTB suspensions, the increase in the CT value after PMA treatment was significant in dead cells (P=0.0001) but not in live cells (P=0.1070). In 14 culture-negative sputum samples, the median ?CT value was 5.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1-8.2; P<0.0001), whereas that in 69 culture-positive sputum samples was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.7-2.0). In the ROC curve analysis, the cutoff ?CT value for maximum sensitivity (89.9%) and specificity (85.7%) for differentiating dead from live cells was 3.4. Conclusions PMA real-time PCR is a useful approach for differentiating dead from live bacilli in AFB smear-positive sputum samples. PMID:24790907

Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Sun Min; Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Sung Soo; Yi, Jongyoun; Kim, Hyung Hoi; Lee, Eun Yup

2014-01-01

391

Isolation and culture of protoplasts from cotton cell cultures  

E-print Network

ISOLATION AND CULTURE OF PROTOPLASTS FROM COTTON CELL CULTURES A Thesis by JOHN JAMES FINER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1981... Major Subject: Plant Physiology ISOLATION AND CULTURE OF PROTOPLASTS FROM COTTON CELL CULTURES A Thesis by John James Finer Approved as tc style and content by: (Chairman ot Committee) (Member) (Member) (Member) (Head oF Department) May 1981...

Finer, John James

1981-01-01

392

Cultural competency training in psychiatry.  

PubMed

Recent reports indicate that the quality of care provided to immigrant and ethnic minority patients is not at the same level as that provided to majority group patients. Although the European Board of Medical Specialists recognizes awareness of cultural issues as a core component of the psychiatry specialization, few medical schools provide training in cultural issues. Cultural competence represents a comprehensive response to the mental health care needs of immigrant and ethnic minority patients. Cultural competence training involves the development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that can improve the effectiveness of psychiatric treatment. Cognitive cultural competence involves awareness of the various ways in which culture, immigration status, and race impact psychosocial development, psychopathology, and therapeutic transactions. Technical cultural competence involves the application of cognitive cultural competence, and requires proficiency in intercultural communication, the capacity to develop a therapeutic relationship with a culturally different patient, and the ability to adapt diagnosis and treatment in response to cultural difference. Perhaps the greatest challenge in cultural competence training involves the development of attitudinal competence inasmuch as it requires exploration of cultural and racial preconceptions. Although research is in its infancy, there are increasing indications that cultural competence can improve key aspects of the psychiatric treatment of immigrant and minority group patients. PMID:18371580

Qureshi, A; Collazos, F; Ramos, M; Casas, M

2008-01-01

393

Culture shocks” in inter-cultural service encounters?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service customers perceive quality in the moment of interaction with the service provider. In times of globalization, it is important for a growing number of service companies to ask if the perceived service encounter quality differs among customers from different cultures. Particularly needed is information about whether problematic “culture shocks” occur in service encounters due to culture-bound expectations and perceptions.

Bernd Stauss; Paul Mang

1999-01-01

394

Culturally Relevant Physical Education in Urban Schools: Reflecting Cultural Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a three-part theoretical framework, the cultural relevance cycle--which consists of (a) knowing community dynamics, (b) knowing how community dynamics influence educational processes, and (c) implementing strategies that reflect cultural knowledge of the community--we examined teachers' and students' perspectives on culturally relevant…

Flory, Sara B.; McCaughtry, Nate

2011-01-01

395

Social, Cultural, and Educational Legacies 459 Cultural, and  

E-print Network

Social, Cultural, and Educational Legacies 459 Social, Cultural, and Educational Legacies NASA Reflects America's Changing Opportunities; NASA Impacts US Culture Education: Inspiring Students as Only NASA Can #12;The Space Shuttle, which began flying in 1981 and ushered in an entirely new human

396

Morality, Culture and the Dialogic Self: Taking Cultural Pluralism Seriously  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores moral reasoning within the framework of contemporary cultural theory, in which moral functioning is action mediated by tools (such as socially available discourses) within a social and cultural context. This cultural model of a "dialogic moral self" challenges many of the assumptions inherent in the individualistic Kantian…

Haste, Helen; Abrahams, Salie

2008-01-01

397

Cultural Borderlands: Cultural Dissonance in the International School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses an investigation into the process of intercultural learning in an international school. Reports that cultural dissonance among students, between students and teachers, and in relation to the school culture, seemed to be the catalyst by which intercultural learning took place. Describes Hofstede's study of national cultural dimensions in…

Allan, Michael

2002-01-01

398

Managing Culture--Making Culture Work for You  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An understanding of culture in organisations can offer insights into individual and group behaviour, and leadership. It can help to explain not just what happens in an organisation, but why it happens. However, many people are concerned not just with understanding culture, and hence organisational life. They see culture as something to be…

National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006

2006-01-01

399

Teaching Culture as a Second Language: Private Culture and Kinesics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culture-specific non-verbal communication is regarded here as an essential "language" that has been neglected in modern language teaching pedagogy, though the substance of culture is often referred to in the curriculum. A distinction is drawn between the public aspects of culture commonly experienced by the second language learner and the private…

Heaton, James

400

Cultural Analysis in Geography: A Course Outline.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article offers a description of a one semester college-level course in cultural geography. The outline is based on six themes--cultural analysis in geography, cultural universals, perception of the cultural environment, cultural diffusion, folk culture and popular culture, and humans and the land. (DB)

Norton, W.

1981-01-01

401

Ancestry: Religion, Death and Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The paintings in Ancestry: Religion, Death and Culture document the native culture of Central Appalachia. The work portrays a sense of place and character, as well as spiritual conviction, all reinforced by a repetition of visual imagery.

402

Transformation 1 - Plant Tissue Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson explains the technique of tissue culture as used in plant transformation. It discusses important issues, such as the use of selectable markers, genotype specificity, and tissue culture alternatives.

403

Cell culture's spider silk road.  

PubMed

A number of synthetic and natural materials have been tried in cell culture and tissue engineering applications in recent years. Now Jeffrey Perkel takes a look at one new culture component that might surprise you-spider silk. PMID:24924388

Perkel, Jeffrey

2014-06-01

404

How Social Movements Do Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much social science literature has analyzed the cultural bases of social movement, activity, and the content of cultural\\u000a production by social movements, relatively little has been written about the concrete social relations within which social\\u000a movements do culture. This paper addresses the issue of what social movements are doing when they produce culture. Four dimensions\\u000a of social relations within

William G. Roy

2010-01-01

405

CULTURE'S CONSEQUENCES ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Culture is a powerful force in regulating human behavior. Although many researchers have sought to understand the influence of culture on consumer behavior, most of their attempts were,made in a piecemeal basis (i.e. examining effects of certain aspect of culture ona,specific aspect ,of consumer behavior). Relatively little attempt has ,been made to develop,a general ,framework ,of cultural ,influence on

Ah Keng Kau; Kwon Jung

2004-01-01

406

Guardian Culture Podcast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're not a culture vulture already, you may become one just by dipping into even one of the audio offerings here at the Guardian Culture podcast site. They have dozens of wonderful conversations covering the Edinburgh Fringe Festival, the creation of digital public space, and the Royal Opera House. First-time visitors should look at the Days in the Life at the Guardian, which offers "unique soundscapes from historic editions of the Guardian." The Everyday Moments podcasts feature "audio dramas for private performance." For example, "Everyday Moments 1" offers up a "playlet designed to be listened to in the early hours of the morning, in bed with a hot drink." [KMG

2012-08-13

407

Southwest Journal of Cultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by Northeastern State University in Oklahoma, the Southwest Journal of Cultures is an online scholarly book review venue that is intended to bring academics and others book reviews from the field of culture studies. The Journal was first published in September 2008, and its editors have managed to cover a broad range of topics in a short time. Visitors can scroll through the most recent reviews, some of which include critical appraisals of works like "Chinese Street Opera in Singapore" and "Spare Time in Texas: Recreation and History in the Lone Star State". Visitors are welcome to leave their own comments on each review, and they can also look through the online archive. Those interested in starting their own like-minded project would do well to spend sometime navigating this well-thought out site.

408

MIT Visualizing Cultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 2002, the Visualizing Cultures website is produced by MIT, and it was designed "to explore the potential of the Web for developing innovative image-driven scholarship and learning." The site contains topical units of self-discovery which are focused on Japan's role in the modern world and early-modern China. The various units address cultures of modernization, war and peace, and consumerism, among others. Each unit is represented by a different image, and visitors will find a short narrative essay along with plenty of visual images which document teach topic. One unit that should not be missed is "Felice Beato's Japan". Here visitors can learn about the pioneering work of Felice Beato, as he took photos of the "exotic" Japanese people in his Yokohama studio and captured the transitional period between the "feudal governance of the Edo period (1600-1868) and the imperial rule of the Meiji era (1868-1912)."

409

Cryopreservation of Embryogenic Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first reports on somatic embryogenesis date back to 1958 (Reinert 1958; Steward et al. 1958) and represent one of the\\u000a most important milestones in plant tissue culture, as they give clear evidence of the concept of ‘totipotency’ of vegetative\\u000a cells, a peculiarity which makes possible the regeneration of a whole plant from a single somatic cell (Bajaj 1995). Indeed,

Maurizio Lambardi; E. Aylin Ozudogru; Carla Benelli

410

Cultural influences on delusion.  

PubMed

The nature and content of delusions were studied among 51 schizophrenic patients. The most common delusions in order of frequency were delusions of persecution, religious, magic, ideas of reference, passivity feelings and grandeur. The beliefs of the head of the family, or his equivalent, did not contribute directly to the content. It was concluded that the general cultural beliefs, rather than the immediate environment, play a dominant role in determining the contents of delusion. PMID:704948

Ahmed, S H

1978-01-01

411

Art and Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interesting and visually appealing site links to a variety of resources related to the visual arts, performing arts, design, literature, music, and film. From the main page, visitors can access the Arts or Culture sections or go directly to a number of Arts entries (e.g., literary theory, industrial design, jazz, photography, etc.) listed in six categories: Design Art, Film, Literature, Music, Performing Arts, and Visual Arts. In the main Arts sections, users can browse these same categories or perform a keyword search for artists or movements. For instance, a search for "dada" resulted in initial returns under design, theater, and art. The full listing under art included a brief description of the Dada movement, a few annotated links, and links to related artists and keywords. It also offered a "Cloud" of moving terms and artists that represent the "context of an artist or a movement." Clicking on any of the words brings that word to the center and also displays the respective entry from the index. The Culture section of the site is somewhat different and most definitely the weaker of the two, with links to travel, food, sports, festivals, and other cultural information, organized by region. The section also offers some world cams and a feature on visual culture, though the latter was not working at time of review. Note: Mac users should heed the site's warning to update their Flash and Shockwave plug-ins if need be, as the site may crash their browser if they don't have the most current versions.

412

FAUVISM AND CULTURAL NATIONALISM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay argues that early twentieth-century Paris, as the most artistically avant-garde metropolitan centre of its time, enabled a group of artists and writers from British colonies to define their own national identity. Their nationalism was not primarily political but cultural. The Scottish Colourist J. D. Fergusson, the Canadian life-writer and painter Emily Carr and the Australian artist Margaret Preston

Angela Smith

2002-01-01

413

Cultural Memories: An Introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The revival of public and scholarly interest in collective cultural memories since the 1980s has been a genuinely global phenomenon\\u000a and is somewhat paradoxical. Memory is a form of temporal awareness more readily associated with traditional, nonindustrialized\\u000a societies rather than with the globalized, mobile, and deracinated world of today, which ostensibly floats free of all historical\\u000a moorings, disconnected from earlier

Peter Meusburger; Michael Heffernan; Edgar Wunder

414

Personal Epistemology and Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role that personal epistemology plays in intellectual development, learning, and education has been investigated for several\\u000a decades in the USA (see Hofer & Pintrich, 1997, 2002) and has recently been pursued in other cultural environments. Research\\u000a suggests that epistemological understanding has important implications for learning: for example, beliefs about the nature\\u000a of knowledge may influence strategy use, comprehension, cognitive

Barbara K. Hofer

415

Tissue Culture in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attempts to simulate normal tissue micro-environments in vitro have been thwarted by the complexity and plasticity of the extracellular matrix, which is important in regulating cytoskeletal and nuclear matrix proteins. Gravity is one of the problems, tending to separate components that should be kept together. For space shuttle experiments, NASA engineers devised a double-walled rotating bioreactor, which is proving to be a useful tissue culture device on earth as well as in space.

Pellis, Neal R.; Duray, Paul H.; Hatfill, Steven J.

1997-01-01

416

Culture-Orientated Product Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is little in-depth research that can assist designers to use culture as a catalyst for designing innovative products within Botswana's context. The concept of culture and design are intertwined, thus modifications stemming from cultural evolution both reflect and determine developments in design. The paper discusses an experimental design…

Moalosi, Richie; Popovic, Vesna; Hickling-Hudson, Anne

2010-01-01

417

Cultural Reproduction, Cultural Mobility, Cultural Resources, or Trivial Effect? A Comparative Approach to Cultural Capital and Educational Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We assess explanations for the associations between cultural capital (especially cultural activities and cultural possessions) and educational performance of schooled adolescents in 22 Western industrialized countries based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). We further ascertain variations in the effect of…

Xu, Jun; Hampden-Thompson, Gillian

2012-01-01

418

Transformational Leadership And Organizational Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine types of organizational cultures are defined in terms of the extent transformational and transactional leadership and their effects form accepted ways of behaving. The Organizational Description Questionnaire (ODQ) is used by members of the organizations to describe their cultures.The nine types of organizations include the high-contrast culture with both strong transformational and transactional qualities to the \\

Bernard M. Bass; Bruce J. Avolio

1994-01-01

419

Organizational communication as cultural performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past ten to fifteen years, the “systems” metaphor has guided organizational communication research. Recently, a sizable number of management and organizational communication scholars have suggested a different guiding metaphor—that of organizational culture. Present notions of organizational culture, however, tend to focus on static, structural features of culture, and researchers are often content to document the existence of such

Michael E. Pacanowsky

1983-01-01

420

Play and Culture. Beginnings Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents five articles on the interactions of play and culture in early childhood education. The workshop titles are: "Play and Cultural Differences" (Cronin and Jones); "Play in a Classroom of Iu-Mien Children: (Evans); "The Culture of Play: A Personal Perspective" (Jarman); "'But They're Only Playing': Interpreting Play to Parents" (Cooper); and…

Cronin, Sharon; Jones, Elizabeth; Evans, Kathleen; Jarman, Cheryl Greer; Cooper, Renatta M.; Reynolds, Gretchen

1999-01-01

421

Edinburgh Research Explorer Cultural Identity  

E-print Network

Edinburgh Research Explorer Cultural Identity Citation for published version: Joseph, JE 2013, 'Cultural Identity'. in CA Chapelle (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. Blackwell Publishing Linguistics Publisher Rights Statement: © Joseph, J. E. (2013). Cultural Identity. In C. A. Chapelle (Ed

Millar, Andrew J.

422

Socioemotional Development in Cultural Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Filling a significant gap in the literature, this book examines the impact of culture on the social behaviors, emotions, and relationships of children around the world. It also explores cultural differences in what is seen as adaptive or maladaptive development. Eminent scholars discuss major theoretical perspectives on culture and development and…

Chen, Xinyin, Ed.; Rubin, Kenneth H., Ed.

2011-01-01

423

Creating a Collaborative Campus Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Organizational culture influences whether or not community colleges maintain local support as well as overall institutional effectiveness. This paper discusses culture and the context of culture at River Parishes Community College (RPCC) a new institution within the Louisiana Community and Technical College System, currently in its fifth academic…

Lee, Crystal

2004-01-01

424

New Swedish Cultural Environment Protection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current Swedish cultural policy was laid down in 1974. It was decided that one of the aims of that policy must be to ensure that earlier periods of history would be preserved and brought to life. The Government Bill (Prop. 1987/88:104) on protection of the cultural environment is concerned with helping the general public understand that cultural

Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs, Stockholm (Sweden).

425

Internalized Culture, Culturocentrism, and Transcendence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author presents culture as a psychological construct. Since both intracultural and intercultural views mirror each other, all interpersonal encounters are cross-cultural in nature, requiring counselors to confront barriers in interpersonal understanding. Overcoming these barriers demands both an awareness of cultural processes and the…

Ho, David Y. F.

1995-01-01

426

Measuring Safeguards Culture  

SciTech Connect

As the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) implements a State Level Approach to its safeguards verification responsibilities, a number of countries are beginning new nuclear power programs and building new nuclear fuel cycle faculties. The State Level approach is holistic and investigatory in nature, creating a need for transparent, non-discriminatory judgments about a state's nonproliferation posture. In support of this need, the authors previously explored the value of defining and measuring a state's safeguards culture. We argued that a clear definition of safeguards culture and an accompanying set of metrics could be applied to provide an objective evaluation and demonstration of a country's nonproliferation posture. As part of this research, we outlined four high-level metrics that could be used to evaluate a state's nuclear posture. We identified general data points. This paper elaborates on those metrics, further refining the data points to generate a measurable scale of safeguards cultures. We believe that this work could advance the IAEA's goals of implementing a safeguards system that is fully information driven, while strengthening confidence in its safeguards conclusions.

Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

2011-07-19

427

Cosmos and Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What can science do for us? Perhaps a better question is what can science not do for us? These are but a few questions posed by the NPR blog, "Cosmos and Culture". The contributors to the blog include a range of scientists, including a theoretical physicist, a biologist, and an astrophysicist. The goal of the blog is "to engage in a discussion with each other'and you'about how science has shaped culture and how culture has shaped science." Visitors should go ahead and read the daily post on the site, and they can also search through past blog posts and learn more about each contributor. Another way to get started here is by clicking on the "Most Popular" blog postings, which have included "How Rare is Life?" and "Hawking and God: An Intimate Relationship". Overall, it is a thoughtful and meaningful way to engage in a dialogue about some of the most crucial issues of our day, and it is well worth a look.

428

Hmong Cultural Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hmong people came to the United States as refugees after the Vietnam War, and they were mainly resettled in California, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. The Hmong Cultural Center was established in St. Paul, Minnesota in 1992, and their website has a wealth of resources "that enhance cross-cultural awareness and understanding between Hmong and non-Hmong persons." Visitors in the healthcare field will find value in one such resource, "View the Hmong History and Culture Presentation for Healthcare Providers", which can be found on the menu on the left-hand side of the page. Visitors will learn that some Hmong beliefs about the body conflict with Western medicine, such as the belief that drawing blood may weaken the physical body and that surgery may hinder reincarnation or allow evil spirits to enter the body. Visitors interested in doing research on the Hmong people should click on the "Research Data and Publications" link to find a "Hmong Studies Journal", "Tutorial on How to Access Hmong Census Data", and "Hmong Studies Research Bibliographies".

429

Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid dynamic shear (i.e., as required for viability of shear-sensitive cells) to the developing engineered tissue construct. This bioreactor was recently utilized to show independent and interactive effects of a growth factor (IGF-I) and slow bidirectional perfusion on the survival, differentiation, and contractile performance of 3D tissue engineering cardiac constructs. The main application of this system is within the tissue engineering industry. The ideal final application is within the automated mass production of tissue- engineered constructs. Target industries could be both life sciences companies as well as bioreactor device producing companies.

Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.

2010-01-01

430

From cultural traditions to cumulative culture: parameterizing the differences between human and nonhuman culture.  

PubMed

Diverse species exhibit cultural traditions, i.e. population-specific profiles of socially learned traits, from songbird dialects to primate tool-use behaviours. However, only humans appear to possess cumulative culture, in which cultural traits increase in complexity over successive generations. Theoretically, it is currently unclear what factors give rise to these phenomena, and consequently why cultural traditions are found in several species but cumulative culture in only one. Here, we address this by constructing and analysing cultural evolutionary models of both phenomena that replicate empirically attestable levels of cultural variation and complexity in chimpanzees and humans. In our model of cultural traditions (Model 1), we find that realistic cultural variation between populations can be maintained even when individuals in different populations invent the same traits and migration between populations is frequent, and under a range of levels of social learning accuracy. This lends support to claims that putative cultural traditions are indeed cultural (rather than genetic) in origin, and suggests that cultural traditions should be widespread in species capable of social learning. Our model of cumulative culture (Model 2) indicates that both the accuracy of social learning and the number of cultural demonstrators interact to determine the complexity of a trait that can be maintained in a population. Combining these models (Model 3) creates two qualitatively distinct regimes in which there are either a few, simple traits, or many, complex traits. We suggest that these regimes correspond to nonhuman and human cultures, respectively. The rarity of cumulative culture in nature may result from this interaction between social learning accuracy and number of demonstrators. PMID:24928150

Kempe, Marius; Lycett, Stephen J; Mesoudi, Alex

2014-10-21

431

Bacterial isolates from the bryozoan Membranipora membranacea: influence of culture media on isolation and antimicrobial activity.  

PubMed

From specimens of the bryozoan Membranipora membranacea collected in the Baltic Sea, bacteria were isolated on four different media, which significantly increased the diversity of the isolated groups. All isolates were classified according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and tested for antimicrobial properties using a panel of five indicator strains and six different media. Each medium featured a unique set of isolated phylotypes, and a phylogenetically diverse collection of isolates was obtained. A total of 96 isolates were assigned to 49 phylotypes and 29 genera. Only one-third of the members of these genera had been isolated previously from comparable sources. The isolates were affiliated with Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria. A comparable large portion of up to 22 isolates, i.e., 15 phylotypes, probably represent new species. Likewise, 47 isolates (approximately 50%) displayed antibiotic activities, mostly against grampositive indicator strains. Of the active strains, 63.8 % had antibiotic traits only on one or two of the growth media, whereas only 12.7 % inhibited growth on five or all six media. The application of six different media for antimicrobial testing resulted in twice the number of positive hits as obtained with only a single medium. The use of different media for the isolation of bacteria as well as the variation of media considered suitable for the production of antibiotic substances significantly enhanced both the number of isolates obtained and the proportion of antibiotic active cultures. Thus the approach described herein offers an improved strategy in the search for new antibiotic compounds. PMID:22837149

Heindl, Herwig; Thiel, Vera; Wiese, Jutta; Imhoff, Johannes F

2012-03-01

432

Popular Cultural Pedagogy, in Theory; Or: What Can Cultural Theory Learn about Learning from Popular Culture?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culture has been theorized as pedagogy. In several languages and many contexts "culture" and "education" can be used interchangeably. This issue of the journal "Educational Philosophy and Theory" seeks to explore the dual proposition (1) that pedagogy is central to politicized cultural theory, but (2) that it has been…

Bowman, Paul

2013-01-01

433

Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise  

PubMed Central

The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed. PMID:23914126

Chiao, Joan Y.; Cheon, Bobby K.; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.

2013-01-01

434

A typology of organisational cultures  

PubMed Central

There is wide belief that organisational culture shapes many aspects of performance, including safety. Yet proof of this relationship in a medical context is hard to find. In contrast to human factors, whose contributions are many and notable, culture's impact remains a commonsense, rather than a scientific, concept. The objectives of this paper are to show that organisational culture bears a predictive relationship with safety and that particular kinds of organisational culture improve safety, and to develop a typology predictive of safety performance. Because information flow is both influential and also indicative of other aspects of culture, it can be used to predict how organisations or parts of them will behave when signs of trouble arise. From case studies and some systematic research it appears that information culture is indeed associated with error reporting and with performance, including safety. Yet this relationship between culture and safety requires more exploration before the connection can be considered definitive. PMID:15576687

Westrum, R

2004-01-01

435

Perspectives on culture and concepts.  

PubMed

The well-respected tradition of research on concepts uses cross-cultural comparisons to explore which aspects of conceptual behavior are universal versus culturally variable. This work continues, but it is being supplemented by intensified efforts to study how conceptual systems and cultural systems interact to modify and support each other. For example, cultural studies within the framework of domain specificity (e.g., folkphysics, folkpsychology, folkbiology) are beginning to query the domains themselves and offer alternative organizing principles (e.g., folksociology, folkecology). Findings highlight the multifaceted nature of both concepts and culture: Individuals adopt distinct conceptual construals in accordance with culturally infused systems such as language and discourse, knowledge and beliefs, and epistemological orientations. This picture complicates questions about cognitive universality or variability, suggesting that researchers may productively adopt a systems-level approach to conceptual organization and cultural epistemologies. Related implications for diversity in cognitive science are discussed. PMID:25251487

ojalehto, Bethany l; Medin, Douglas L

2015-01-01

436

Cultural competence: a constructivist definition.  

PubMed

In nursing education, most of the current teaching practices perpetuate an essentialist perspective of culture and make it imperative to refresh the concept of cultural competence in nursing. The purpose of this article is to propose a constructivist definition of cultural competence that stems from the conclusions of an extensive critical review of the literature on the concepts of culture, cultural competence, and cultural safety among nurses and other health professionals. The proposed constructivist definition is situated in the unitary-transformative paradigm in nursing as defined by Newman and colleagues. It makes the connection between the field of competency-based education and the nursing discipline. Cultural competence in a constructivist paradigm that is oriented toward critical, reflective practice can help us develop knowledge about the role of nurses in reducing health inequalities and lead to a comprehensive ethical reflection about the social mandate of health care professionals. PMID:25037305

Blanchet Garneau, Amélie; Pepin, Jacinthe

2015-01-01

437

Cultural Awareness: One Goal of International Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International education should help promote an understanding of cultures and the changing cultural patterns. Cultural diffusion should not result in a form of paternalism, but instead should facilitate an understanding and appreciation of cultural diversity. (Author)

Bellon, Jerry

1971-01-01

438

Cultural Competency Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cultural competency is defined as the ability to effectively interact with people from diverse cultures and recognize the importance of cultural differences. These skills will be increasingly important for environmental engineers who work on teams with professionals from diverse backgrounds and design solutions to global problems. For example, these skills are particularly important when engaging in projects for Engineers Without Borders (EWB) and similar organizations. In order to evaluate if curriculum help develop these skills in students, an assessment instrument is needed. A wide variety of such surveys have been developed and validated, although generally for settings outside engineering academia. In this research, the Miville-Guzman Universality-Diversity Scale short form (MGUDS-S) was used. It is a written 15 question survey with responses on a 6-point Likert scale. It evaluates universal-diverse orientation (UDO) and has been most widely used in medical school settings. The overall UDO score is composed of three subscales: diversity of contact, relativistic appreciation, and discomfort with differences. The author also added four of the Pittsburgh Freshman Engineering Attitudes Survey (PFEAS) questions and eight self-created questions to the survey, in addition to five demographic questions. The self-created questions were specific to engineering. This survey was administered in three freshmen courses (environmental, civil, and undeclared engineering) and two senior design courses (environmental and civil engineering) in fall 2006. Four of the eight self-created questions were modified and two additional demographic questions were added prior to administering the survey in two freshmen courses (environmental and civil engineering) and an Engineering for the Developing World course for seniors and graduate students in fall 2007. The results from the survey and evaluation of its usefulness are presented.

Bielefeldt, Angela

439

Cryopreservation of yeast cultures.  

PubMed

A method is described that allows a wide range of yeast species to be stored in liquid nitrogen while maintaining a high level of viability. Yeast cultures are sealed in commercially available polypropylene straws after having been mixed with a glycerol-based cryoprotectant. Once placed in a secondary cryotube the temperature of the sealed straws is reduced slowly to -30 degrees C in a methanol bath over a period of up to 3 h. The straws are then transferred directly to the liquid nitrogen and placed in a racking system for long-term storage. PMID:18080465

Bond, Chris

2007-01-01

440

Equine influenza culture methods.  

PubMed

Equine influenza viruses are cultured in embryonated hen eggs, or in mammalian cells, generally Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, using methods much the same as for other influenza A viruses. Mutations associated with host adaptation occur in both eggs and MDCK cells, but the latter show greater heterogeneity and eggs are the generally preferred host. Both equine-1 H7N7 and equine-2 H3N8 viruses replicate efficiently in 11-day-old eggs, but we find that equine-1 viruses kill the embryos whereas equine-2 viruses do not. PMID:24899449

Chambers, Thomas M; Reedy, Stephanie E

2014-01-01

441

Utah Culture Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Research one of Utah's many cultural festivals and send a text message explaining what you've learned! Step One: Research Select one of the following ethnic festivals in Utah to research. Navigate the webiste to find out what the festival is about and what one can do if they go to the festival. Look at available photos and videos to help learn about the festival. Asian Festival Festival of Colors Greek Festival India Fest Living Traditional Festival Scottish Festival St. Patrick s Day Parade Swiss Days Step Two: Text Message Pretend ...

Mrs. Wheeler

2011-03-02

442

Manuals of Cultural Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethnography often studies social networks including empirical descriptions of marriages and families. We initially concentrate on a special subset of networks which we call configurations. We show that descriptions of the possible outcomes of viable histories form a manual, and an orthoalgebra. We then study cases where family sizes vary, and show that this also forms a manual. In fact, it demonstrates adiabatic invariance, a property often associated with physical system conservation laws, and which here expresses conservation of the viability of a cultural system.

Ballonoff, Paul

2014-10-01

443

Microfluidic Cell Culture Device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microfluidic devices for cell culturing and methods for using the same are disclosed. One device includes a substrate and membrane. The substrate includes a reservoir in fluid communication with a passage. A bio-compatible fluid may be added to the reservoir and passage. The reservoir is configured to receive and retain at least a portion of a cell mass. The membrane acts as a barrier to evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid from the passage. A cover fluid may be added to cover the bio-compatible fluid to prevent evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid.

Takayama, Shuichi (Inventor); Cabrera, Lourdes Marcella (Inventor); Heo, Yun Seok (Inventor); Smith, Gary Daniel (Inventor)

2014-01-01

444

Time Use Flows from School Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How educators think about and use time is woven into school cultures. School leaders must learn to read the culture and focus staff development on cultural issues affecting how people use time. This paper discusses cultures that nurture and wound and describes how to shape more nurturing cultures (read the school's culture, assess views of time,…

Peterson, Kent D.

1999-01-01

445

Learning cultures for sustained innovation success  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this conceptual paper, we expose learning cultures that contribute to firms’ sustained success in innovations. The learning cultures we propose are based on the cultural theory proposed by Mary Douglas. We argue that different learning cultures have different preferences for modes of learning: the hierarchical learning culture prefers internal knowledge creation; the competitive learning culture learns through external knowledge

Taran Patel; Chirag Patel

2008-01-01

446

Conceptions of School Culture: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is not clear what the term culture means in current discussion of school culture. Is it to refer globally to everything that happens routinely in schools, or are there more precise definitions that can be useful? This article reviews a range of definitions of culture. Three main conceptions of culture are discussed; a culture as bits of information, culture

Frederick Erickson

1987-01-01

447

Culture and identity in higher education research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to develop a cultural approach in higher education studies. It will be argued that the cultural approach is rooted mainly in two different intellectual starting points to analyze academic communities as cultural entities: studies of disciplinary cultures and institutional cultures. Notions of disciplines as cultural entities have been developed in Europe in relation to

Jussi Välimaa

1998-01-01

448

From cultural adaptation to cross-cultural discursive competence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-cultural competence is often studied as part of the foreigner's one-way adaptation to the host culture while ignoring the dynamic nature of adaptation at the discourse level of interactions. To address this issue, this article proposes a conceptual model to study cross-cultural discursive competence exhibited in individual interactions in business settings. The model is based on relational empathy and genre

Yunxia Zhu

2008-01-01

449

Bovine tuberculosis in South Darfur State, Sudan: an abattoir study based on microscopy and molecular detection methods.  

PubMed

Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread zoonosis in developing countries but has received little attention in many sub-Saharan African countries including Sudan and particularly in some parts such as Darfur states. This study aimed to detect bovine tuberculosis among caseous materials of cattle slaughtered in abattoirs in South Darfur State, Sudan by using microscopic and PCR-based methods. The study was a cross-sectional abattoir-based study which examined a total of 6,680 bovine carcasses for caseous lesions in South Darfur State between 2007 and 2009. Collected specimens were examined for the presence of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) by using microscopic and culture techniques. Isolated mycobacteria were identified by selected conventional cultural and biochemical tests in comparison to a single tube multiplex PCR (m-PCR) assay which detect Mycobacterium bovis-specific 168-bp amplicons. Of the total 6,680 slaughtered cattle examined in South Darfur, 400 (6 %) showed caseations restricted to lymph nodes (86.8 %) or generalized (13.2 %). Bovine tuberculosis was diagnosed in 12 (0.18 %), bovine farcy in 59 (0.88 %), unidentified mycobacteria in 6 (0.09 %), and missed or contaminated cultures in 7 (0.1 %). Out of 18 cultures with nonbranching acid-fast rods, 12 amplified unique 168-bp sequence specific for M. bovis and subsequently confirmed as M. bovis. With the exception of the reference M. tuberculosis strains, none of the remaining AFB amplified the 337-bp amplicon specific for M. tuberculosis. It could be concluded that bovine tuberculosis is prevalent among cattle in South Darfur representing 4.5 % from all slaughtered cattle with caseous lesions. The study sustains microscopy as a useful and accessible technique for detecting AFB. m-PCR assay proved to be valuable for confirmation of BTB and its differentiation from other related mycobacteriosis, notably bovine farcy. PMID:22843216

Asil, El Tigani A; El Sanousi, Sulieman M; Gameel, Ahmed; El Beir, Haytham; Fathelrahman, Maha; Terab, Nasir M; Muaz, Magzoub A; Hamid, Mohamed E

2013-02-01

450

Sociality influences cultural complexity  

PubMed Central

Archaeological and ethnohistorical evidence suggests a link between a population's size and structure, and the diversity or sophistication of its toolkits or technologies. Addressing these patterns, several evolutionary models predict that both the size and social interconnectedness of populations can contribute to the complexity of its cultural repertoire. Some models also predict that a sudden loss of sociality or of population will result in subsequent losses of useful skills/technologies. Here, we test these predictions with two experiments that permit learners to access either one or five models (teachers). Experiment 1 demonstrates that naive participants who could observe five models, integrate this information and generate increasingly effective skills (using an image editing tool) over 10 laboratory generations, whereas those with access to only one model show no improvement. Experiment 2, which began with a generation of trained experts, shows how learners with access to only one model lose skills (in knot-tying) more rapidly than those with access to five models. In the final generation of both experiments, all participants with access to five models demonstrate superior skills to those with access to only one model. These results support theoretical predictions linking sociality to cumulative cultural evolution. PMID:24225461

Muthukrishna, Michael; Shulman, Ben W.; Vasilescu, Vlad; Henrich, Joseph

2014-01-01

451

Sigmund Freud: Conflict & Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sigmund Freud: Conflict and Culture was organized by the Library of Congress in cooperation with the Sigmund Freud-Museum, Vienna and the Freud Museum, London. The exhibit features vintage photographs, prints, and original manuscripts. In addition, selected film and television clips, along with materials from newspapers, magazines, and comic books, are interwoven throughout the exhibition to highlight the influence of psychoanalysis on popular culture. The physical exhibition is composed of three major sections. Section one, Formative Years, highlights the milieu of Freud's early professional development in late nineteenth-century Vienna. Section two, The Individual: Therapy and Theory, examines key psychoanalytic concepts and how Freud used them in some of his most famous cases. Lastly, section three, From the Individual to Society, focuses on the diffusion of psychoanalytic ideas and Freud's speculations about the origins of society, the social functions of religion and art, and how crises reveal fundamental aspects of human nature. On the whole, the exhibition offers a moderate examination of Freud's life and his key ideas, as well as their effect upon the twentieth century.

2001-01-01

452

Citrus Tissue Culture  

PubMed Central

In vitro growth of explant (juice vesicle or albedo tissues) cultures from citron (Citrus medica), lemon (C. limon), grapefruit (C. paradisi), sweet orange (C. sinensis), and mandarin (C. reticulata) fruits was stimulated by addition of orange juice (10% v/v optimum) to a basal medium containing Murashige and Skoog salts, 50 grams per liter sucrose, 100 milligrams per liter myo-inositol, 5 milligrams per liter thiamine·HCl, 2 milligrams per liter 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.5 milligrams per liter kinetin. In analyzing this effect of orange juice on citron explant cultures, we failed to obtain increased yields by addition of appropriate concentrations of citric acid to the basal medium but obtained growth stimulation when the medium was supplemented with juice from an “acidless” orange variety (cv. Lima). These facts suggest that some component(s) other than citric acid is involved. Addition of the inorganic ash corresponding to 10% (v/v) orange juice to the basal medium had no effect on yields. Similarly, the stimulatory effect of orange juice could not be explained based on its content of sucrose or of organic growth factors already present in the basal medium. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:16660631

Einset, John W.

1978-01-01

453

Cultural aspects of orthopaedic nursing.  

PubMed

In today's highly mobile and transnational healthcare world, attention to the cultural background of orthopaedic patients is no longer a luxury when implementing care. Nurses can overcome cultural blindness by developing an awareness of their own cultural backgrounds and an understanding about nursing values as an expression of cultural norms of the discipline. Developing cultural sensitivity without stereotyping patients is a challenge to the professionalism of the nurse. However, assessment and care of orthopaedic patients can be enhanced by attention to aspects of both the nurse's and the patient's cultural backgrounds. Such analysis can lead to some depth of understanding of the patient and a genuine desire of the nurse to interact with the patient. PMID:10410049

Martsolf, D S

1999-01-01

454

Center for Arts and Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1994, the Center for Arts and Culture is an independent think thank that "aims to broaden and deepen the national conversation on culture and cultural policies." One of the Center's core missions is to function as a place for public discussions of cultural issues and policies throughout the United States. To this end, the Center commissions research, facilitates public roundtables, and publishes a number of research reports and guidebooks for practitioners and policymakers. On their site, visitors can read about their public programs (most of which take place in Washington, DC) and the Center's history. The publications section of the site is particularly impressive, as visitors can download works dealing with a number of germane topics, such as globalization and cultural diplomacy, copyright issues in cultural policy, and national investment in the arts.

455

The biology of cultural conflict  

PubMed Central

Although culture is usually thought of as the collection of knowledge and traditions that are transmitted outside of biology, evidence continues to accumulate showing how biology and culture are inseparably intertwined. Cultural conflict will occur only when the beliefs and traditions of one cultural group represent a challenge to individuals of another. Such a challenge will elicit brain processes involved in cognitive decision-making, emotional activation and physiological arousal associated with the outbreak, conduct and resolution of conflict. Key targets to understand bio-cultural differences include primitive drives—how the brain responds to likes and dislikes, how it discounts the future, and how this relates to reproductive behaviour—but also higher level functions, such as how the mind represents and values the surrounding physical and social environment. Future cultural wars, while they may bear familiar labels of religion and politics, will ultimately be fought over control of our biology and our environment. PMID:22271779

Berns, Gregory S.; Atran, Scott

2012-01-01

456

Cultural competency in genetic counseling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporating a cross-cultural curriculum into genetic counseling training programs demonstrates a professional conviction of genetic counselors that cultural issues are important in genetic counseling. Funded by the Special Projects Fund in 1993 from the National Society of Genetic Counselors and the Kitson Fund from the Department of Social, Organizational, and Counseling Psychology, Teachers College, Columbia University, theHandbook of Cross-Cultural Genetic

Vivian Ota Wang

1994-01-01

457

Biotransformations with plant tissue cultures.  

PubMed

Suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus, Apocynum cannabinum and Conium maculatum were examined for their capacity to transform aniline, anisole, acetanilide, benzoic acid and coumarin. None of the cultures transformed acetanilide but each produced acetanilide when fed aniline. All three cultures converted benzoic acid to its para-hydroxy derivative. Coumarin was selectively hydroxylated at the 7-position by Catharanthus and Conium and anisole was O-demethylated only by older Catharanthus tissue. PMID:1084950

Carew, D P; Bainbridge, T

1976-01-01

458

Multi-cultural network security  

SciTech Connect

Education and awareness are widely acknowledged to be among the fundamental issues of Internet security, but only in the sense of making Internet users more security conscious. For the Internet to achieve its promise as an information highway, however, a complementary education effort is needed. If adequate Internet security is to be achieved, we must also increase the awareness of the professional security community of the requirements, attitudes, and habits of the many different cultures that participate in the Internet. Discussions of {open_quotes}the Internet{close_quotes} encourage the misapprehension that there is a single, uniform user community instead of a loose alliance of many cultures that differ in many fundamental aspects. This is true even if we limit our consideration to ethical cultures. At this Workshop alone we have representatives of administrative and military cultures, Governmental and commercial cultures, profit-cultures and non-profit cultures, research and operational cultures. Internet cultures are united in their desire to exploit the connectivity, flexibility, and rapidity of communication provided by the net, but differ greatly in their motivations, their attitudes towards authority, their willingness to cooperate within their own communities, their interest in technical arcana, and the patience with which they will put up with - or the enthusiasm with which they will embrace - the growing list of procedures deemed necessary for acceptable security. They even differ in how they define {open_quotes}acceptable security{close_quotes}.

Stevens, D.F.

1996-04-01

459

How Darwinian is cultural evolution?  

PubMed Central

Darwin-inspired population thinking suggests approaching culture as a population of items of different types, whose relative frequencies may change over time. Three nested subtypes of populational models can be distinguished: evolutionary, selectional and replicative. Substantial progress has been made in the study of cultural evolution by modelling it within the selectional frame. This progress has involved idealizing away from phenomena that may be critical to an adequate understanding of culture and cultural evolution, particularly the constructive aspect of the mechanisms of cultural transmission. Taking these aspects into account, we describe cultural evolution in terms of cultural attraction, which is populational and evolutionary, but only selectional under certain circumstances. As such, in order to model cultural evolution, we must not simply adjust existing replicative or selectional models but we should rather generalize them, so that, just as replicator-based selection is one form that Darwinian selection can take, selection itself is one of several different forms that attraction can take. We present an elementary formalization of the idea of cultural attraction. PMID:24686939

Claidière, Nicolas; Scott-Phillips, Thomas C.; Sperber, Dan

2014-01-01

460

The cultural contagion of conflict  

PubMed Central

Anecdotal evidence abounds that conflicts between two individuals can spread across networks to involve a multitude of others. We advance a cultural transmission model of intergroup conflict where conflict contagion is seen as a consequence of universal human traits (ingroup preference, outgroup hostility; i.e. parochial altruism) which give their strongest expression in particular cultural contexts. Qualitative interviews conducted in the Middle East, USA and Canada suggest that parochial altruism processes vary across cultural groups and are most likely to occur in collectivistic cultural contexts that have high ingroup loyalty. Implications for future neuroscience and computational research needed to understand the emergence of intergroup conflict are discussed. PMID:22271785

Gelfand, Michele; Shteynberg, Garriy; Lee, Tiane; Lun, Janetta; Lyons, Sarah; Bell, Chris; Chiao, Joan Y.; Bruss, C. Bayan; Al Dabbagh, May; Aycan, Zeynep; Abdel-Latif, Abdel-Hamid; Dagher, Munqith; Khashan, Hilal; Soomro, Nazar

2012-01-01

461

How Darwinian is cultural evolution?  

PubMed

Darwin-inspired population thinking suggests approaching culture as a population of items of different types, whose relative frequencies may change over time. Three nested subtypes of populational models can be distinguished: evolutionary, selectional and replicative. Substantial progress has been made in the study of cultural evolution by modelling it within the selectional frame. This progress has involved idealizing away from phenomena that may be critical to an adequate understanding of culture and cultural evolution, particularly the constructive aspect of the mechanisms of cultural transmission. Taking these aspects into account, we describe cultural evolution in terms of cultural attraction, which is populational and evolutionary, but only selectional under certain circumstances. As such, in order to model cultural evolution, we must not simply adjust existing replicative or selectional models but we should rather generalize them, so that, just as replicator-based selection is one form that Darwinian selection can take, selection itself is one of several different forms that attraction can take. We present an elementary formalization of the idea of cultural attraction. PMID:24686939

Claidière, Nicolas; Scott-Phillips, Thomas C; Sperber, Dan

2014-05-19

462

Earth, the Universe, and Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson will help students understand the cultural nature of scientific research. Students explore famous scientists, their theories, places of origin, and their culture. They document scientific viewpoints of famous scientists throughout history and discuss geographical region, culture, gender, and other factors effecting scientific theories and discoveries. This activity helps students understand the cultural nature of scientific research and how people interpret science in different ways based on their social environments. This activity is one of several in the Swift: Eyes through Time collection available on the Teachers' Domain website.

2012-08-03

463

High density cell culture system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.

Spaulding, Glenn F. (inventor)

1994-01-01

464

Cultural Evolution Peter J. Richerson  

E-print Network

with relatively little need to depend upon cultural explanations. Noam Chomsky's ideas about linguistics inspired a pioneering generation of evolutionary psychologists (Pinker, 1994; Tooby & Cosmides, 1992). Chomsky

Richerson, Peter J.

465

Mineralogy and cultural heritage.  

PubMed

In recent years there has been an escalation in the number of mineralogical studies involving cultural heritage materials. A number of factors have contributed to this exponential growth, including the shrinking budgets in traditional research fields, which forced the expansion of applications of mineralogical methods to novel research areas. Mineralogy as a discipline is traditionally connected to geology, petrology, and geochemistry, although it also has the strong tendency to embody the methods and techniques of modern crystallography and advanced materials science. Arguably, this makes it ideally suited and well equipped to meet the demanding challenges posed by archaeometric analysis and conservation problems. A few case studies linking mineralogy and archaeometry are discussed. PMID:21138159

Artioli, Gilberto

2010-01-01

466

Sublimation, culture, and creativity.  

PubMed

Combining insights from Freud and Weber, this article explores whether Protestants (vs. Catholics and Jews) are more likely to sublimate their taboo feelings and desires toward productive ends. In the Terman sample (Study 1), Protestant men and women who had sexual problems related to anxieties about taboos and depravity had greater creative accomplishments, as compared to those with sexual problems unrelated to such concerns and to those reporting no sexual problems. Two laboratory experiments (Studies 2 and 3) found that Protestants produced more creative artwork (sculptures, poems, collages, cartoon captions) when they were (a) primed with damnation-related words, (b) induced to feel unacceptable sexual desires, or (c) forced to suppress their anger. Activating anger or sexual attraction was not enough; it was the forbidden or suppressed nature of the emotion that gave the emotion its creative power. The studies provide possibly the first experimental evidence for sublimation and suggest a cultural psychological approach to defense mechanisms. PMID:23834638

Kim, Emily; Zeppenfeld, Veronika; Cohen, Dov

2013-10-01

467

Celtic Art and Cultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Celtic Art and Cultures Website was originally created for art history students at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill and can now be used by any would-be student of Celtic Art with access to a newer Web browser. The main feature of the site is its multimedia database of Celtic-related images, maps, timelines, and vocabulary aids complete with spoken pronunciations. Images can be viewed by period, material, object, and country. If you find yourself uncertain of which time period or object type to choose, as I did, helpful information is available in the Maps & Timelines section. The course syllabus, which can be found under site info, also provides an overview of Celtic Art.

468

Beyond translation ... cultural fit.  

PubMed

Reaching non-English-speaking families, the economically disadvantaged, and those who are disproportionately represented in disease and injury statistics is challenging. This article describes the process of making a questionnaire developed in English, culturally appropriate for low-income, monolingual, Mexican and Mexican American mothers. The questionnaire, guided by the Health Belief Model, assesses maternal childhood injury health beliefs and was originally used with a 96% African American, English-speaking sample in the Eastern United States. Two research assistants from the target population worked with the non-Hispanic, bilingual investigator to redesign the questionnaire's language and presentation and to collect data. Sixty monolingual Latina mothers participated in the study to determine the internal consistency of the 42-item Spanish language Maternal Childhood Injury Health Belief Questionnaire (MCIHB). Cronbach's alpha coefficients ranged from .76 (Benefits subscale) to .90 (Consequences subscale). PMID:12955973

Hendrickson, Sherry Garrett

2003-08-01

469

Journal of Aesthetics & Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 2009, the Journal of Aesthetics & Culture (JAC) is an open-access journal "that aims to develop inter-disciplinary theoretical models as applied to human science research on aesthetic questions." The JAC has assembled an editorial board of scholars from across the world, including experts from New York University, Lund University, and the University of Bergen. On their website, visitors can read over the author guidelines, sign up for e-alerts, peruse the journal's announcements, and view the latest peer-reviewed article. Their first volume, published in 2009, included the articles "Calling on Witnesses: testimony and the deictic" and "Confronting The Wind: a reading of a Hollywood film by Victor Sj�¶str�¶m".

470

TISSUE CULTURE STUDIES  

PubMed Central

Some of the compounds in the active fraction of ultrafiltrates of chick embryo extract have been identified as taurine, serine, glutamic acid, xanthine, uracil, glucose-6-phosphate, glucose, ferrous iron, and inorganic phosphate. Based on the identity of these compounds a synthetic replacement for the ultrafilterable portion of chick embryo extract has been devised. There is an additional nutritional requirement that can be met by vitamin B12. Folic acid appears to be beneficial to the system though the requirements of this or any of the above compounds except vitamin B12 remain for future research. The low nitrogen content of the isolated fraction and the synthetic mixture suggests that the main nutrition of chick cells in roller tube cultures is derived from the non-dialyzable portion of the medium. PMID:13109159

Rosenberg, Sheldon; Kirk, Paul L.

1953-01-01

471

Rules, culture, and fitness  

PubMed Central

Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be “internalized,” the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain (“If you'll do X, then I'll do Y”), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule (“Dress warmly; it's cold outside”) can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:22478201

Baum, William M.

1995-01-01

472

Teaching Culture. The Long Revolution in Cultural Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 12 papers that trace the connections and tensions between the original aims and forms of cultural studies in Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the current settings, goals, and methodologies of cultural studies. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (Nannette Aldred and Martin Ryle); "Marginal Occupations: Adult…

Aldred, Nannette, Ed.; Ryle, Martin, Ed.

473

Grist and mills: on the cultural origins of cultural learning  

PubMed Central

Cumulative cultural evolution is what ‘makes us odd’; our capacity to learn facts and techniques from others, and to refine them over generations, plays a major role in making human minds and lives radically different from those of other animals. In this article, I discuss cognitive processes that are known collectively as ‘cultural learning’ because they enable cumulative cultural evolution. These cognitive processes include reading, social learning, imitation, teaching, social motivation and theory of mind. Taking the first of these three types of cultural learning as examples, I ask whether and to what extent these cognitive processes have been adapted genetically or culturally to enable cumulative cultural evolution. I find that recent empirical work in comparative psychology, developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience provides surprisingly little evidence of genetic adaptation, and ample evidence of cultural adaptation. This raises the possibility that it is not only ‘grist’ but also ‘mills’ that are culturally inherited; through social interaction in the course of development, we not only acquire facts about the world and how to deal with it (grist), we also build the cognitive processes that make ‘fact inheritance’ possible (mills). PMID:22734061

Heyes, Cecilia

2012-01-01

474

Personality and Culture Revisited: Linking Traits and Dimensions of Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Culture and personality” was a focus of anthropology and psychology in the first half of the 20th century. It was concerned with traditional and preliterate societies and drew many of its constructs from psychoanalysis. In this article, we note that taxonomies of personality traits and cultural values developed independently since 1980 have created new possibilities for exploring the topic. The

Geert Hofstede; Robert R. McCrae

2004-01-01

475

What is Culture? Toward Common Understandings of Culture in HCI  

E-print Network

. This article also includes a discussion of how such a change can be launched. Geert Hofstede's thoughts about. Moreover, because the cultural thoughts of Geert Hofstede have had great impact on our field. Keywords: Culture, HCI, Hofstede, 1 Introduction The idea to this paper evolved during the Interact

Boyer, Edmond

476

Does Cultural Capital Matter?: Cultural Divide and Quality of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the remarkable work of Pierre Bourdieu, the concept of cultural capital has gained wide popularity along with theoretical and conceptual debates. This trend represents the social-structural change from materialism to postmaterialism. However, there are few empirical studies which find the cause and effect of cultural capital. Based on…

Kim, Seoyong; Kim, Hyesun

2009-01-01

477

Culture in the Classroom: A Cultural Enlightenment Manual for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides a basic understanding of cultural differences that teachers are likely to encounter among exceptional children in their classrooms. The manual aims to create an atmosphere where children respect individual differences in themselves and in others. Several cultures are introduced, including Arabic Lebanese, Hispanic, Native…

Loridas, Laura

478