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The existence of acidfastbacilli producing pulmonary disease in man, but differing from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cul- tural, biochemical and other characteristics has been reported sporadically for many years. Tarshis and Frisch (1952), Buhler & Pollak (1953) and Timpe & Runyon (1954) suggested that a group of these orga- nisms potentially pathogenic to man, could be distinguished by their
The efficiency of culture media was compared for the culture and subculture of very slowly growing acid-fastbacilli and spheroplast forms obtained from intestinal tissues of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis and from controls without inflammatory bowel disease. Media were developed by modifying a nutrient broth medium based on veal infusion broth and yeast extract. We evaluated the effects of pH and the addition of Tween 80, Dubo oleic albumin complex, an extract from intestinal tissue from a patient with Crohn's disease, horse serum, sucrose, magnesium sulfate, ferrous ammonium sulfate, and sodium citrate. All media contained mycobactin J (2 micrograms/ml). We developed a medium (MG3) which was highly successful in promoting the growth of very fastidious organisms and promoted reversion of spheroplasts to acid-fast rods. MG3 contained veal infusion broth, 1% yeast extract, 10% horse serum, 0.3 M sucrose, 0.2% MgSO4, 0.1% ferrous ammonium sulfate, 0.1% sodium citrate, and 2 mg of mycobactin J per liter. We were able to obtain quantities of organisms sufficient for examination of the organisms by molecular techniques. Successful cultivation of all isolates and reversion of spheroplasts to acid-fast forms encourage further studies of the possibility of a complex association of mycobacteria and Crohn's disease. Images
Pyrosequence identification of 117 isolates of acid-fastbacilli (AFB) was compared to both routine phenotypic methods and Sanger sequencing. Two (2) vendor-provided pyrosequencing primers specific for AFB were used for the study. Pyrosequence analysis correctly identified 114 (98%) of the tested 117 AFB isolates. Among the test Mycobacterium spp., 18 of 20 Mycobacterium spp. were identified correctly to the species
Jian R. Bao; Ronald N. Master; Dale A. Schwab; Richard B. Clark
1. A comparative study has been made of the cellular reactions induced by phosphatides from five strains of acid-fastbacilli. Each of these reactions is characterized principally by epithelioid cells and giant cells. 2. The phosphatides are first phagocytized by young connective tissue cells or monocytes. The lipoid is then dispersed into fine particles with the formation of classical epithelioid cells. 3. A comparison has been made of the reactions induced by heat-killed and defatted tubercle bacilli with those induced by tuberculophosphatide. 4. Further studies have been made to determine whether or not the phosphatide causes sensitization to tuberculin. It does not do so. 5. The life cycle of the epithelioid cell has been observed in all its stages. PMID:19870109
One of the biggest obstacles to the correct diagnosis and efficient treatment of tuberculosis is the absence of a rapid technique for culturing tubercle bacilli and for testing their susceptibility to antituberculosis drugs. Current procedures typically take 6-10 weeks to perform. This article describes a simple, rapid, reliable and cheap method of culturing tubercle bacilli using a liquid medium consisting of a mixture of coconut water, horse serum, glycerol and benzylpenicillin. Addition of specific concentrations of antituberculosis drugs to the medium, permits information on the drug susceptibility of tubercle bacilli to be obtained in only 6 days. The procedure requires no special instruments or technical skill and can therefore be carried out routinely in the average laboratory in developing countries.
Background: Microscopy detection of acidfastbacilli (AFB) by Ziehl–Neelsen (ZN) method has many advantages when it comes to speed and feasibility though it has a low sensitivity. If the sensitivity could be improved, it has the potential to become an even more valuable tool for detection of AFB. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of bleach concentration method in the cytodiagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis in comparison with routine Ziehl–Neelsen method and to compare the positivity in various cytomorphological categories. Materials and Methods: A total of 112 cases of tuberculous lymphadenitis diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) were categorized into six cytomorphological patterns. The acid-fastbacilli positivity by routine staining was correlated with modified bleach methods of ZN staining. Sensitivity of routine ZN and modified bleach concentration was compared. Results: The classic cytomorphological pattern of tuberculosis of epithelioid granulomas, langhans giant cells and caseous necrosis was seen in 37.5% of cases. Routine ZN staining detected AFB in 12.5% of cases and the modified bleach method in 60.7%. Modified bleach method showed AFB positivity in additional 54 cases where routine AFB staining was negative. The modified bleach method showed AFB positivity in all cases where routine ZN staining was positive. Conclusion: The modified bleach method was more sensitive and safer than routine ZN staining. As the background was clear, the bacilli were easily visible and the screening time was shorter.
...bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. 147.13 Section 147...bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. Proper precautions...presumptive conclusion of the presence of colon bacilli organisms. (Approved by the...
Introduction: The tuberculosis control program is based on a felt need–oriented basis. The diagnosis is mainly microbiological. However, sputum smear-negative AcidFastBacilli (AFB) cases with suspected radiological findings can be problematic in diagnosis. Objectives: To confirm the diagnosis of tuberculosis early, in smear-negative AFB cases by using a Fiberoptic Bronchoscope. Materials and Methods: We embarked on Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy (FOB) and Spot Scopy smear Microscopy (SSM) for 533 suspected Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PT) cases (sputum smear negative and radiologically suggestive) from February 2007 to May 2010. FOB was performed using a special device, a Trans Oro Pharyngeal Spacer (TOPS), as a conduit. Results: The yield for positivity for AFB was 341 (64%) out of 533 cases. Conclusion and Recommendation: The specimens collected by using the fiberoptic bronchoscope confirmed the disease in the smear-negative cases. Hence, FOB was recommended in smear-negative cases, to avoid delay in the treatment of tuberculosis.
Chandra, T. Jaya; Dash, Somnath; Srinivas, G.; Rao, P. V. Prabhakara
...Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. 147...Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. Proper...essential. Each State Inspector involved in eggshell culture activities must receive...
...Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. 147...Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. Proper...essential. Each State Inspector involved in eggshell culture activities must receive...
The ReaSLR methodology developed for sputum processing is a novel, low-cost, and simple technique that has improved the sensitivity of smear microscopy for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). Sample processing consists of rapid liquefaction of the sputum specimen with the ReaSLR reagent, followed by syringe filtration, concentration by centrifugation, and use of the sediment for smear microscopy. The performance of the ReaSLR kit was evaluated on 150 sputum samples and was compared with that of the modified Petroff method for sputum decontamination and concentration. Ziehl-Neelsen staining was performed for smear microscopy after processing by these two techniques; simultaneously, culture on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium was done to evaluate the two methods. The efficiency of smear microscopy was 18/150 (12%) with the modified Petroff method compared to 47/150 (31.33%) with the ReaSLR method, and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The ReaSLR method for smear microscopy demonstrated a sensitivity and specificity of 90.47% and 91.6%, respectively, whereas the modified Petroff method showed a sensitivity and specificity of 40.47% and 99.07%, respectively, compared to those of culture, which was used as the gold standard. With the newer ReaSLR method, the kappa coefficient (?) was 0.8, which implies an excellent positive agreement. The ReaSLR method was found to be more sensitive than the conventional method for sputum smear microscopy. The newer ReaSLR method holds promise for adoption in TB control programs across the globe, as it was found suitable for the laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary TB. Further large-scale studies are needed to evaluate other aspects of this method. PMID:23966489
When monocytes derived from normal guinea pigs or rabbits were infected with tubercle bacilli and cultivated in vitro, the bacilli multiplied abundantly within the cytoplasm of these cells. By contrast, intracellular multiplication of the bacilli was retarded or completely inhibited within the monocytes of rabbits or guinea pigs vaccinated with BCG. This inhibition of growth was observed with both virulent or attenuated strains of tubercle bacilli. Under the conditions used in the present study, the ability of monocytes to inhibit bacillary proliferation was the same whether serum from a normal animal or from vaccinated animals was used in the tissue culture medium. Moreover, the serum of vaccinated animals did not inhibit multiplication of tubercle bacilli within monocytes derived from a normal animal. The ability of guinea pig monocytes to interfere with intracellular bacillary proliferation was first perceptible 8 days after vaccination.
Mycobacterium species cause a variety of clinical diseases, some of which may be species specific. Therefore, it is clinically desirable to rapidly identify and differentiate mycobacterial isolates to the species level. We developed a rapid and high-throughput system, MycoID, to identify Mycobacterium species directly from acid-fast bacillus (AFB)-positive mycobacterial culture broth. The MycoID system incorporated broad-range PCR followed by suspension array hybridization to identify 17 clinically relevant mycobacterial complexes, groups, and species in one single reaction. We evaluated a total of 271 AFB-positive culture broth specimens, which were identified by reference standard methods in combination with biochemical and molecular tests. The overall identification agreement between the standard and the MycoID system was 89.7% (perfect match) or 97.8% (one match in codetection). In comparison to the standard, the MycoID system possessed an overall sensitivity of 97.1% and specificity of 98.8%. The 159 Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex isolates were further identified to the species level by MycoID as being M. avium (n = 98; 61.1%), M. intracellulare (n = 57; 35.8%), and mixed M. avium and M. intracellulare (n = 2; 1.3%). M. avium was recovered more frequently from sterile sites than M. intracellulare (odds ratio, 4.6; P = 0.0092). The entire MycoID procedure, including specimen processing, can be completed within 5 h, providing rapid and reliable identification and differentiation of mycobacterium species that is amenable to automation. Additional differentiation of Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex strains into M. avium and M. intracellulare may provide a tool to better understand the role of Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex isolates in human disease.
The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines if a sample of tissue, blood, or other body ... lab team member washes the slide with an acid solution and applies a different stain. The bacteria ...
The work shows us that the small Gram-negative bacilli frequently found in vaginal smears and capable of causing leucorrhea formerly considered non specific, are bacilli of the genre Hemophilus. They are glucidophilic and possess hemolytic properties more...
Thirty one cultures were established in MG3 medium from the intestinal tissues of 29 patients, including 18 with Crohn's disease, five with ulcerative colitis, and six non-inflammatory bowel disease controls. All cultures grew either acidfastbacilli or uncharacterized spheroplasts. Pellets from these cultures were coded and assayed blind for M paratuberculosis and M avium subsp silvaticum using IS900- and
M T Moss; J D Sanderson; M L Tizard; J Hermon-Taylor; F A el-Zaatari; D C Markesich; D Y Graham
A cost-effective technology has been developed to utilise bioorganic wastes as culture media, to produce mosquitocidal biopesticides, Bacillus sphaericus and B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis. The mosquitocidal spore\\/crystal toxins produced from the experimental medium (chicken feather waste, CFW+paddy husk waste, PHW) was higher than that of the conventional medium (Nutrient Yeast Extract Salt Medium, NYSM). The bacterial toxins produced from different
Bloodstream infections are life-threatening conditions which require the timely initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. We evaluated the automated Merlin MICRONAUT system for rapid direct microtiter broth antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli from BACTEC 9240 bottles with positive blood cultures in comparison to the standard method for the Merlin MICRONAUT system. This prospective study was conducted under routine working conditions during a 9-month period. Altogether, 504 isolates from 409 patients and 11,819 organism-antibiotic combinations were evaluated for comparison of direct and standard AST methods. For gram-negative bacilli, direct and standard AST of 110 isolates was evaluated and MIC agreement was found for 98.1% of 2,637 organism-antibiotic combinations. Category (susceptible, intermediate susceptible, resistant [SIR]) agreement was found for 99.0%, with results for 0.04% of combinations showing very major errors, those for 0.2% showing major errors, and those for 0.8% showing minor errors. For gram-positive cocci, 373 isolates were evaluated and MIC agreement was found for 95.6% of 8,951 organism-antibiotic combinations. SIR agreement was found for 98.8%, with results for 0.3% of combinations showing very major errors, those for 0.4% showing major errors, and those for 0.5% showing minor errors. Although the number of tested isolates was limited (n = 33), direct AST of streptococci was performed for the first time, yielding promising results with SIR agreement for 98.6% of 363 organism-antibiotic combinations. In conclusion, direct AST of gram-negative bacilli and gram-positive cocci from positive blood cultures with the MICRONAUT system is a reliable technique that allows for the omission of repeat testing of subcultured isolates. Thereby, it reduces the time to results of blood culture testing and may have a positive impact on patient care.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) can persist within the human host for years without causing disease, in a syndrome known as latent tuberculosis. The mechanisms by which M. tuberculosis establishes a latent metabolic state is unknown, but it is hypothesized that reduced oxygen tension may trigger the bacillus to enter a state of latency. Therefore, we are studying anaerobic culture of M. tuberculosis (H37RV) as a model of latency. For the first time, the sequential adaptation of latent bacilli (every 90 days for 48 months) viewed under Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Two types of adaptation were observed and are described here. First, cells are undergoing temporary adaptation (from 1 to 18 months of latency) that includes; thickening of cell wall (20.5±1.8 nm versus 15.2±1.8 nm, P<0.05), formation of ovoid cells by "folding phenomena"(65-70%), size reduction (0.8±0.1 ?m versus 2.5±0.5 ?m), and budding type of cell division (20-25%).A second feature include changes that accompany development of specialized cells i.e., production of spore like cells (0.5±0.2 ?m) and their progeny (filterable non -acidfast forms; 150 to 300 ?m in size). Although, these cells were not real spore because they fail to form a heat resistant colony forming units, after incubation for 35-40 min at 65°C. The filterable non-acidfast forms of bacilli are metabolically active and increased their number by symmetrical type of cell-division. Therefore, survival strategies that developed by M. tuberculosis under oxygen limited condition are linked to its shape, size and conspicuous loss of acidfastness. PMID:21977232
Velayati, Ali Akbar; Farnia, Parissa; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Zhavnerko, Gennady Konstantinovich; Merza, Muayad Aghali; Ghanavi, Jalladein; Tabarsi, Payam; Farnia, Poopak; Poleschuyk, Nikolai Nikolaevich; Ignatyev, George
A crystalline substance capable of suppressing the growth of a variety of mycobacteria in vitro has been isolated from extracts of tissue in acidified dilute ethanol. This inhibitory material was found to be equally active against virulent, attenuated, and avirulent variants of human and bovine tubercle bacilli, but had little or no effect on saprophytic mycobacteria and on several non-acid-fast microorganisms under the conditions of the test. Its inhibitory activity on the growth of tubercle bacilli was essentially independent of the size of the inoculum within the limits studied. The crystalline material appeared to exert a bactericidal action on the susceptible organisms. Tubercle bacilli maintained in the presence of the agent for 4 days failed to grow when transferred to inhibitor-free media. The findings were not appreciably altered by minor variations in the composition of the medium or by shift in its reaction. When certain preparations of whole serum were used in the medium in place of albumin, no antimycobacterial activity was observed; however, this activity was restored by adding bovine albumin (fraction V) to the media containing whole serum. By chemical purification and analysis, the inhibitory material was identified as spermine, an organic base widely distributed in animal tissues.
Gram negative bacilli endocarditis are unfrequent. Nevertheless we encountered 28 cases of them (8.8%) among 320 endocarditis of which 10 were primitive and 7 cases (10.9%) among 65 prosthetic endocarditis. Bacterial species were 12 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 2 Ps, stutzeri, 1 Ps. maltophilia, 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 2 Escherichia coli, 3 Serratia marcescans, 1 Enterobacter cloacae, 1 Brucella, 1 Hemophilus aphrophilus, 1 Fusobacterium funduliformis, 18 cases were hospital acquired infections related to cardiac surgery (4 cases), intracardiac catheterization (5 cases), intravenous catheter (4 cases). Uncontrolled infection or cardiac insufficiency underwent respectively in 14 and 18 cases. The overall mortality was 50 p. cent. The death occurred more frequently in primitive endocarditis (70%) than in secondary native endocarditis (45%) or prosthetic endocarditis (29%). It was also more frequent in Pseudomonas endocarditis (59%) than with other species (36%) and more frequent when cardiac sufficiency was present (50%). 15 patients underwent surgical procedure of which 6 died (40%). The results were better if the infection was cured before surgical procedures: 5 deaths occurred when the culture of the valves remained positive (9 cases) but none when it was negative. The 5 most recent cases of prosthetic endocarditis were cured. Since 1979, no death occurred among treated patients. we concluded that surgery is usually necessary but after an effective antibiotic therapy over a 4 or 6 week period. PMID:6750526
Immune lymph node cells were obtained from mice immunized with bovine gamma globulin (BGG) in complete Freund's adjuvant or allogeneic MH134 tumor cells. They showed the capacity of conferring bactericidal activity on macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, H37Rv, when they were incubated on macrophage monolayers together with the corresponding antigen, i.e., BGG or solubilized cellular antigen of the tumor cells. However, such capacity was lower than that of tubercle bacilli-immune lymph node cells. Culture supernatants were harvested after incubation of tubercle bacilli-immune, BGG-immune or allogeneic tumor-immune lymph node cells with the corresponding antigen for 24 hr. Macrophages were altered so as to suppress intracellular bacillary growth when macrophage monolayers were exposed to the supernatants for more than 2 days. When normal lymph node cells were incubated on normal macrophage monolayers together with a mitogen such as PHA or concanavalin A, growth of tubercle bacilli within the macrophages was slightly but difinitely suppressed. The mechanism of elicitation of cellular immunity to the infection with tubercle bacilli is discussed on the basis of results presented in this and the preceding paper. PMID:186655
We report a novel anaerobe causing abscess in four patients at three hospitals. In the clinical specimen, bacilli were branching, Gram positive, and acidfast. The organism grew slowly and was not identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Our findings support the description of a new genus and species of the suborder Corynebacterineae. PMID:24025902
Harrington, S M; Bell, M; Bernard, K; Lagacé-Wiens, P; Schuetz, A N; Hartman, B; McQuiston, J R; Wilson, D; Lasalvia, M; Ng, B; Richter, S; Taege, A
It has been found that although there is some parallelism between the quantity of tubercle bacilli demonstrable histologically and the number of colonies that can be isolated from a given tissue, the culture method is far the more efficient in indicating quantitative relations. Tubercle bacilli were not perceived in the organs of rabbits 1 day after infection with the modified BCG although as many as 1,500 colonies were isolated from one of them. This may be solely because it is difficult to see widely dispersed single minute acid-fast rods in the diffuse infiltrations of mononuclears with their hyperchromatic nuclei and sparse cytoplasm. Later, with the formation of tubercle, the parallelism is much closer. The culture method gives evidence concerning the number of living tubercle bacilli in the tissue. The significance of the accumulation of acid-fast particles in the tissues has been discussed. It has been seen that from the beginning this accumulation is greater in the Kupffer cells of the liver, in the macrophages of the spleen and in the reticular cells of the bone marrow than within the mononuclears of the lung, the organ where the bacilli grow with the greatest rapidity and are destroyed with the greatest difficulty. Acid-fast particles are more prominent with the bovine than with the human bacillus or the BCG, the microorganism that is destroyed with the greatest difficulty thus leaving more incompletely digested bacillary debris at a given time within the cells. Thus it seems permissible to conclude from the presence of acid-fast material that some tubercle bacilli are undergoing destruction even 24 hours after infection. The initial accumulation of polynuclear leucocytes corresponds with the subsequent severity of the infection. Despite the greater primary localization of bacilli in the liver, this initial inflammatory reaction with all three infections is much greater in the lung than in the liver. In each organ it is more intense with the bovine than with the less virulent strains. The multiplication of the bacillus and its accumulation within large mononuclear and young epithelioid cells is accompanied by an intense formation of new mononuclears by mitosis. The more rapid the growth of the bacillus, the more conspicuous the regeneration of these cells. Thus with all strains mitosis is more intense in the more susceptible organ, as in the lung compared with the liver; with the most virulent strain the most extensive and diffuse accumulation of these new cells corresponds with the greater rise in the numbers of bovine bacilli after the lag of the 1st week. With the maturation of the epithelioid cells and the formation of tubercles the bacilli have already been greatly reduced numerically and the speed of this process diminishes with the virulence of the three strains used. The faster the development of tubercle the faster the destruction of the bacillus and the earlier the resorption of the tubercle. Tubercle bacilli never accumulate in such large numbers in the mononuclears of the liver as they do in the lung. Though at first the tubercles in the liver may be more numerous than those in the lung they never attain the same size. The formation of new mononuclears by mitosis is restricted and Langhans' giant cells appear very early (1st and 2nd weeks). In the lung, giant cells are not found until much later with the BCG and the human bacillus (4th week); they were not noted in the interstitial tubercles with the bovine type, but the extension of these tubercles was accompanied by an unabated mitosis of mononuclears until the death of the animal. The liver tubercles are resorbed early even with the bovine infection. Associated with these histological differences are the slow initial growth and the early and complete destruction of the tubercle bacilli even of bovine type in the liver, and the more rapid initial growth in the lung, with the later destruction of the BCG and the human bacillus and the unabated growth of the bovine bacillus. Similar differences were observed between the splenic pulp and corpuscle. I
Tubercle bacilli were grown in the presence of different concentrations of tween 80, ranging from 0.05 to 2.1 per cent. Equal numbers of viable bacteria from these cultures were compared in infection experiments in the mouse. The average survival time of the mice was used as a criterion for the virulence of the bacilli. High tween concentrations in the culture medium caused a reduction of the bacterial virulence. The reduction was slight in bacterial suspensions from cultures with tween 80 ranging from 0.05 to 1.0 per cent, but considerable in cultures with 2.1 per cent tween. Bacteria grown in the presence of 2.1 per cent tween gave rise to the same number of colonies, in vitro, as bacteria grown in ordinary media. Their oxygen uptake was increased as compared with that of bacilli grown in media containing less tween. Virulent bacteria grown in the presence of high amounts of tween 80 decolorized methylene blue in a test in which organisms from the same virulent strain but cultured without tween, or with only small proportions of the detergent in the medium, did not reduce the dye. A positive methylene blue test is typical of non-virulent tubercle bacilli and of saprophytic mycobacteria. Essentially the same changes occurred when virulent tubercle bacilli were grown in the presence of 0.5 µg./ml. of para-formacetanilide thiosemicarbazone (TBI). This small amount of the substance was not sufficient to prevent the growth of bacteria, or to reduce the number of viable cells in a culture, but it reduced the virulence of the bacteria considerably and rendered them capable of decolorizing methylene blue. Cord factor, a lipid constituent of virulent bacteria which is toxic for mice, was shown to be present in filtrates from cultures of virulent bacteria when the media contained 2 per cent tween 80, but no such material could be recovered from culture filtrates containing the usual 0.05 per cent tween. On the other hand, no toxic material could be extracted from bacteria grown in the presence of 0.5 µg./ml. TBI.
1. Smooth, round, shiny, non-granular, and non-spreading colonies have been observed in cultures of virulent tubercle bacilli freshly isolated from eight human sources other than sputum. The classification of six of these strains as of human type was established by inoculation into rabbits and guinea pigs. 2. The 3 per cent NaOH or 6 per cent H2SO4 frequently used in the isolation of tubercle bacilli are definitely unfavorable to the development of smooth colonies. 3. It was observed that smooth colonies are produced in greater number when the pH of the medium (Corper's egg yolk-glycerine) is adjusted to a point near to but slightly on the acid side of neutral.
Clinical bacteriology pertaining to acid-fast bacteria has made marked advances over the past decade, initiated by the development of a DNA probe kit for identification of acid-fast bacteria. Wide-spread use of nucleic acid amplification for rapid detection of tubercle bacillus contributed more greatly than any other factor to such advances in this field. At present, 90% of all kits used for nucleic acid amplification in the world are consumed in Japan. Unfortunately, not a few clinicians in Japan have a false idea that the smear method and nucleic acid amplification are necessary but culture is not. In any event nucleic acid amplification has exerted significant impacts on the routine works at bacteriology laboratories. Among others, collecting bacteria by pretreatment with NALC-NaOH has simplified the introduction of the collective mode smear method and liquid media. Furthermore, as clinicians have become increasingly more experienced with various methods of molecular biology, it now seems possible to apply these techniques for detection of genes encoding drug resistance and for utilization of molecular epidemiology in routine laboratory works. Meanwhile, attempts to diagnose acid-fast bacteriosis by checking blood for antibody have also been made, primarily in Japan. At present, two kits for detecting antibodies to glycolipids (LAM, TDM, etc.) are covered by national health insurance in Japan. We have an impression that in Japan clinicians do not have adequate knowledge and skill to make full use of these new testing methods clinically. We, as the chairmen of this symposium, hope that this symposium will help clinicians increase their skill related to new testing methods, eventually leading to stimulation of advances in clinical practices related to acid-fast bacteria in Japan. 1. Smear microscopy by concentration method and broth culture system: Kazunari TSUYUGUCHI (Clinical Research Center, National Hospital Organization Kinki-chuo Chest Medical Center) Smear microscopy and culture still remain the cornerstone to diagnose tuberculosis. However, the classical methods in Japan using direct microscopy and Ogawa solid media were not sufficient for clinical use. In recent years substantial advance has been made in these fields. Concentration of clinical samples by centrifugation improves the sensitivity of smear microscopy with excellent reproducibility. The Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) system using liquid media yields high sensitivity and rapidity. Using these methods, more and more tuberculosis cases would be correctly diagnosed and treated adequately based on drug susceptibility testing. 2. New technologies for anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing: Satoshi MITARAI (Bacteriology Division, Reference Centre for Mycobacterium, Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association) Several new technologies have been developed to obtain anti-tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing (AST) results rapidly, utilising liquid culture and molecular technologies. Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT), as a popular liquid culturing and AST system, was evaluated for its accuracy and usefulness. As for isoniazid, MGIT showed 12.6% of discordant result comparing with standard method. These MGIT resistant and Ogawa susceptible strains had relatively high MICs ranging 0.13 to 2.0 microg/ml. The molecular detection of resistant gene mutation is also a useful method to estimate drug resistance rapidly. The rpoB mutation detection is reliable with high sensitivity and specificity. 3. Nucleic acid amplification and novel diagnostic methods: Shunji TAKAKURA (Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine) Sensitivities of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis meet clinical requirement that patients with high-risk of transmission should be identified within a day. Comparison of the performance of various NAATs is difficult because of the difference in sample processing and in samples tested among methods and reports. Con
The Bruker Biotyper and Vitek MS matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) instruments were evaluated for the identification of nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB) by a blinded comparison to conventional biochemical or molecular methods. Two hundred NFGNB that were recovered from cultures from cystic fibrosis patients in the University of Iowa Health Care (UIHC) Microbiology Laboratory between 1 January 2006 and 31 October 2010 were sent to Mayo Clinic for analysis with the Bruker Biotyper (software version 3.0) and to bioMérieux for testing with Vitek MS (SARAMIS database version 3.62). If two attempts at direct colony testing failed to provide an acceptable MALDI-TOF identification, an extraction procedure was performed. The MS identifications from both of these systems were provided to UIHC for comparison to the biochemical or molecular identification that had been reported in the patient record. Isolates with discordant results were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing at UIHC. After discrepancy testing, the Bruker Biotyper result agreed with the biochemical or molecular method, with 72.5% of isolates to the species level, 5.5% to the complex level, and 19% to the genus level (3% not identified). The level of agreement for Vitek MS was 80% species, 3.5% complex, 6% genus, and 3.5% family (7% not identified). Both MS systems provided rapid (?3 min per isolate) and reliable identifications. The agreement of combined species/complex/genus-level identification with the reference method was higher for the Bruker Biotyper (97% versus 89.5%, P = 0.004) but required an extraction step more often. Species-level agreement with the reference method was similar for both MS systems (72.5% and 80%, P = 0.099). PMID:22495566
Marko, Daniel C; Saffert, Ryan T; Cunningham, Scott A; Hyman, Jay; Walsh, John; Arbefeville, Sophie; Howard, Wanita; Pruessner, Jon; Safwat, Nedal; Cockerill, Franklin R; Bossler, Aaron D; Patel, Robin; Richter, Sandra S
Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis depends on the bacteriological examination of sputum. Sputum smear microscopy is efficient and can confirm the disease. However, direct microscopy of sputum, though rapid, has low sensitivity. There is, therefore, an urgent need to develop rapid, much more sensitive and specific methods. In a field study we collected sputum samples from 488 tuberculosis suspects and compared the results of examining smears prepared after treatment with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and concentration of bacteria by centrifugation and direct staining with Ziehl-Neelsen stain. Direct smears stained with auramine-phenol were the reference standard. The use of NaOCl increased the sensitivity from 43.4% to 76.3%, with a specificity of 100% for both methods. The method is simple and cheap. As a potent disinfectant, NaOCl also reduces the risk of laboratory-acquired infection. Its application would increase the efficiency of tuberculosis control programmes. PMID:9850395
... Tuberculosis , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria , Meningitis In the News: New Test Could Advance TB Diagnosis and Treatment (2010) Elsewhere On The Web Familydoctor.org: Tuberculosis Centers for Disease Control and ...
The acid-fastness is the most important and the most specific characteristics in mycobacteria, the mechanism of which is not clear but may be attributed to the lipid rich cell wall of this bacterium. While the exact component(s) responsible for this staining method remained unidentified, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutant, attenuated strain that produced shorter mycolic acids with defects in trans-cyclopropanation was shown to be acidfast negative. In this study, we examined the ultrastructure of the cell envelope (CE) of the mutant strain ?kasB (missing a beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase involved in mycolic acid biosynthesis), the parental CDC1551 (wild type strain) and kasB complemented strain, and compared ultrastructural differences among them with conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (CEM). Conventional TEM revealed that there were no detectable differences in the thickness of the cell envelope among three strains (wild-type: 43.35 ± 6.13 nm; ?kasB: 45.98 ± 11.32 nm; complement: 40.71 ± 6.3 nm). However, CEM data demonstrated that the region between the inner and outer membranes of the mutant strain, which is composed mainly of cell wall anchored mycolic acids (MA), showed a significant decrease in electron density as compared to the wild type and kasB complement strain (567.1 ± 372.7 vs. 301.4 ± 262.1, or vs. 235.2 ± 174.9, p < 0.02 or p < 0.001, respectively). These results suggested that altered MA patterns in the kasB mutant may have affected the packing of the lipid rich layer of the M. tuberculosis cell envelope, resulting in a reduced electron density of this layer as seen by CEM and loss of acid-fastness in light microscopical observation, and we propose a novel model of the cell envelope structure in tubercle bacilli. PMID:22516756
Liquefaction of solid caseous tuberculous lesions and the subsequent cavity formation are probably the most dangerous processes in the pathogenesis of human pulmonary tuberculosis. In liquefied caseum, the tubercle bacilli grow extracellularly for the first time since the onset of the disease and can reach such large numbers that mutants with antimicrobial resistance may develop. From a cavity, the bacilli enter the bronchial tree and spread to other parts of the lung and also to other people. Of the commonly used laboratory animals, the rabbit is the only one in which cavitary tuberculosis can be readily produced. This report is the first to describe and analyze the complete course of cavitary tuberculosis, produced by aerosolized virulent bovine-type tubercle bacilli in commercially available New Zealand white rabbits. After the inhalation of 220 to 880 bacillary units, all of the rabbits were overtly well until they were sacrificed at 33 weeks. After the inhalation of 3,900 to 5,800 bacillary units, half of the rabbits died of progressive tuberculosis between 5 and 9 weeks and the other half lived until they were sacrificed at 18 weeks. Pulmonary cavities developed in both low- and high-dose groups, some beginning as early as 6 weeks. Bacilli from primary cavities sometimes caused nearby secondary cavities, but more frequently, they ascended the bronchial escalator, were swallowed, and caused secondary tubercles in the lymphoid tissue of the appendix and ileocecal junction. Histologically, and by culture, the number of bacilli found in the liquefied caseum varied from many to comparatively few. Strong tuberculin reactions at 4 weeks after infection were associated with fewer primary lesions, while strong tuberculin reactions at 33 weeks were associated with more cavitary lesions. In the tuberculous granulation tissue surrounding caseous and liquefied pulmonary foci and cavities, we found many mature epithelioid macrophages that contained high levels of the proteinase cathepsin D. Therefore, cathepsin D probably plays a major role in the liquefaction of solid caseous material and in the subsequent cavity formation.
Converse, P J; Dannenberg, A M; Estep, J E; Sugisaki, K; Abe, Y; Schofield, B H; Pitt, M L
Anewchromogenicplatemedium,CHROMagarOrientation,wasevaluatedforuseinthedifferentiationand presumptive identification of gram-negative bacilli and Enterococcus species by a multipoint inoculation (replicator) technique. In this study, 1,404 gram-negative bacilli and 74 enterococcal isolates were tested on CHROMagar Orientation. Six control American Type Culture Collection strains were also included with the testing to ensure quality control of the media. Of theEscherichia coliisolates (n 5588) tested, 99.3% produced a pink-to-red
JOHN MERLINO; STEVEN SIARAKAS; GRAHAM J. ROBERTSON; GLENN R. FUNNELL; THOMAS GOTTLIEB; ANDROSS BRADBURY
To evaluate the utility of Gen-Probe AccuProbes for the identification of mycobacteria directly from BACTEC TB 12B vials containing acid-fastbacilli, culture results for 11,375 clinical specimens other than blood received from 1 January 1992 to 30 September 1993 were reviewed retrospectively. During this period, a total of 359 of 11,375 BACTEC vials were positive for acid-fastbacilli and were evaluated for mycobacteria with one or more probes: 224 were probed for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, 253 were probed for Mycobacterium avium complex, 64 were probed for Mycobacterium kansasii, and 77 were probed for Mycobacterium gordonae. After initial testing with the probes, 75 vials were positive for M. tuberculosis complex, 99 were positive for M. avium complex, 11 were positive for M. kansasii, and 55 were positive for M. gordonae. Repeat testing of vials that were initially probe negative or testing of colonies from subcultures of these vials identified an additional 11 M. tuberculosis, 27 M. avium complex, 1 M. kansasii, and 9 M. gordonae that were not detected on initial screening. On the basis of these data, the percentage of organisms identified directly from the BACTEC TB 12B vials upon initial screening with each of the four AccuProbes was 87.2% for M. tuberculosis complex, 78.6% for M. avium complex, 91.7% for M. kansasii, and 85.9% for M. gordonae.
1. Certain water-soluble esters of long chain fatty acids (in particular of oleic acid) favor submerged and diffuse growth of mycobacteria throughout the depth of synthetic liquid media. 2. Esters of oleic acid increase considerably the amount of growth yielded by avian strains in synthetic media. 3. The addition of serum albumin to synthetic liquid media permits visible growth of minimal inocula of virulent human tubercle bacilli (10–8 mg.) within 11 to 15 days. 4. Cultures growing diffusely in media containing the water-soluble esters— with or without albumin—consist of cells of classical morphology and staining properties, which again exhibit the usual mode of growth when returned to the standard synthetic or egg yolk media.
In this article, different aspects of virulence factors of Proteus bacilii (P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris, P. penneri i P. hauseri) are presented. These are opportunistic pathogens that cause different kinds of infections, most frequently of the urinary tract. These bacteria have developed several virulence factors, such as adherence due to the presence of fimbriae or afimbrial adhesins, invasiveness, swarming phenomenon, hemolytic activity, urea hydrolysis, proteolysis, and endotoxicity. Below we focus on data concerning the molecular basis of the pathogenicity of Proteus bacilli. PMID:17507868
Summary Background: Glucose non-fermentative Gram- negative bacilli other than P. aeruginosa (NF) are emerging pathogens. Aim: To evaluate the epidemiology, clinical charac- teristics, predictors of acquisition, and outcome of bacteraemia due to NF. Design: Retrospective analysis of prospectively recorded data. Methods: We reviewed episodes of NF bacterae- mia in patients older than 14 years, recorded through a blood culture surveillance
F. Vidal; J. MENSA; M. ALMELA; M. OLONA; J. A. MARTINEZ; F. MARCO; M. J. LOPEZ; A. SORIANO; J. P. HORCAJADA; J. M. GATELL; C. RICHART
The Gram-negative bacilli Acinetobacter baumannii, Burkholderia cepacia, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Pseudomonas mendocina, Ralstonia spp., Serratia marcescens and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia are ubiquitous environmental organisms of low virulence, and do not usually cause illness in immunocompetent hosts. We report a case of multiple concurrent opportunistic Gram-negative bacilli causing septic arthritis in a healthy patient following trauma to the knee. Repeated operations, including arthroscopy, arthrotomy and debridement, were required before tissue cultures became negative. The patient also required an extended duration of intravenous and oral antibiotic treatment before he was discharged. Gram-negative bacillary septic arthritis is an uncommon but significant condition that requires repeated debridement and washouts in order to achieve bacterial eradication. This case report highlights the importance of an awareness of the external environment at the time of injury, as it impacts the type of organisms causing the infection, and consequently, the choice of empiric antibiotics required for successful treatment. PMID:24005465
\\u000a Bacilli are aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive or variable, endospore-forming bacteria that exhibit resistance\\u000a to environmental stress and produce peptide antibiotics, peptide signal molecules, and extracellular enzymes. Bacillus and Paenibacillus genera include the best knowing nitrogen-fixing species. Another characteristic of bacilli is their great potential in producing\\u000a substances that promote direct plant growth by the production of phytohormones (mainly indolic
Microscopic examination of tissue sections of mycobacterial lesions smear data or the patient's condition. We also have believed frequently results in few or no bacilli seen, even if the lesions appear that ASH has low sensitivity; therefore, we have re-evaluated active histologically. This might be due to the effects of the fixative its sensitivity. We postulated that the low detectability
A study was undertaken to determine if current methods of antibiotic susceptibility testing could be successfully applied to the gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli. Using clinical isolates and reference strains, experiments were conducted on the inherent reliability of the Bauer-Kirby method, as well as the effect of certain modifications on the method such as elimination of the 2- to 5-h incubation in broth and use of different agar media. Results obtained using these modifications were compared to the results obtained by the standard method. It was shown that the two modifications investigated had a significant effect on the interpretation of zone diameters. It was further shown that the standard Bauer-Kirby method with some exceptions correlates with minimal inhibitory concentrations as determined by broth dilution methods. Results suggest that the Bauer-Kirby method may be a reliable technique for testing the antibiotic susceptibility of the nonfermentative bacilli.
One hundred and thirty-six fast-growing acid-fast strains were tested with 14 phages.Some species showed definite patterns, but others were phage resistant or showed a large variety of lysis patterns. Two phages, isolated from soil and chicken manure respectively, were specific for M. fortuitum, lysing 12 per cent of 73 strains. A simplified phage typing scheme is proposed.A certain amount of
Tuberculosis (TB) kills more people in the world today than any other infectious disease. A better vaccine to prevent clinical tuberculosis is greatly needed. Candidate vaccines are often evaluated by infecting rabbits, mice and guinea pigs by an aerosol of virulent tubercle bacilli and culturing their lungs for viable bacilli at various times thereafter. In all three species, however, the number of viable bacilli usually does not continuously increase until the host succumbs. The number of viable bacilli increases logarithmically for only about 3 weeks. Then, the host develops delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and cell-mediated immunity (CMI), which keep the number of viable bacilli rather constant during the subsequent weeks. In the immunized host, DTH and CMI stop the logarithmic increase sooner than in the unimmunized controls, so that the stationary bacillary levels that follow are lower. This review analyzes host-parasite interactions in the lungs of rabbits, mice and guinea pigs. All three species cannot prevent inhaled fully virulent tubercle bacilli from establishing an infection, but they differ markedly in the type of the disease produced once it is established. PMID:11466035
Serum sensitization of the acid-fast bacteria causes two definite and directly observable changes in the bacterial surface: 1. A change from a surface readily wet by oil to a surface more readily wet by aqueous salt solution than by oil. This change is observed by microscopic examination of the bacteria in a saline-oil interface; thus detected, the surface alteration is said to constitute a "positive interface reaction." 2. An increased cohesiveness of the sensitized bacteria. This may be detected either by centrifuging the bacteria and then shaking up the sediment (resuspension reaction), or by observation of the clumps in the saline-oil interface. The interface reaction is serologically specific and confirms the existence of qualitative differences among acid-fast bacteria. The interface reaction parallels the binding of agglutinins as detected by the resuspension reaction, but not agglutination as ordinarily tested for. The interface reaction is less sensitive,—i.e., gives lower titers—than the resuspension reaction in about the average ratio of 1:3. The interface reaction in most instances runs approximately parallel to the complement fixation reaction; under at least one set of conditions, however, the interface reaction is correlated with the binding of agglutinin but not with the complement fixation reaction. How much of the bacterial surface must be covered with agglutinin in order to produce agglutination varies greatly with the bacterial strain used. The bacterial surfaces are modified by treatment with fresh normal sera in a manner quantitatively less but qualitatively not observably different from the effects of immune sera. Heating normal human, sheep, goat, or rabbit sera for 30 minutes at 56°C. has usually diminished but not abolished their effect on the bacterial surface. Similar inactivation of guinea pig sera left them without detectable effect on the bacterial surface. The agglutination prezone is shown to be due to interference by excess colloidal material with the collisions of the bacteria prerequisite to clumping. The prezone maybe abolished by centrifugation and resuspension of the sediment. Antibodies may be partially dissociated from the sensitized bacteria by alkali, with return of the bacterial surface toward its normal, unsensitized condition. A carbohydrate yielding on hydrolysis a positive pentose test has been detected in the specific alcohol extracts of acid-fast bacteria studied by Furth and Aronson.27 The tentative suggestion is made that the alcohol-soluble antigens of acid-fast microorganisms may be conjugated lipins owing their specificity to carbohydrate haptenes. Protective antipneumococcus globulins after heat denaturation have shown behavior in the saline-tricaprylin interface indistinguishable from that of maximally sensitized acid-fast bacteria. This strengthens the evidence suggesting that sensitized bacteria are coated with denatured globulin.
Background: We investigated gram-negative bacilli from patients in intensive care units to determine whether antimicrobial resistance was increasing. Methods: Minimal inhibitory concentrations were determined by broth microdilution on 334 gram-negative bacilli collected in 1990, 1995, and 1998. Results: During the 3 study years, the types of gram-negative bacilli encountered in our intensive care units changed with proportional increases of Pseudomonas
D. J Flournoy; Richard L Reinert; Connie Bell-Dixon; Chris A Gentry
Many Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria in the Firmicute phylum are important members of the human commensal microbiota, which, in rare cases, cause opportunistic infections. Other spore-formers, however, have evolved to become dedicated pathogens that can cause a striking variety of diseases. Despite variations in disease presentation, the etiologic agent is often the spore, with bacterially produced toxins playing a central role in the pathophysiology of infection. This review will focus on the specific diseases caused by spores of the Clostridia and Bacilli. PMID:20632809
Mallozzi, Michael; Viswanathan, V K; Vedantam, Gayatri
Recent advances in molecular biology and better understanding of the genetic basis of drug resistance have allowed rapid identification of mycobacteria and rapid detection of drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis present in cultured isolates or in respiratory specimens. In this chapter, several simple nucleic acid amplification-based techniques are introduced as molecular approach for clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis. A one-tube nested IS6110-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used for M. tuberculosis complex identification; the use of a multiplex allele-specific PCR is demonstrated to detect the isoniazid resistance; PCR-sequencing assays are applied for rifampicin and ofloxacin resistance detection and 16S rDNA sequencing is utilized for identification of mycobacterial species from cultures of acidfastbacilli (AFB). Despite the high specificity and sensitivity of the molecular techniques, mycobacterial culture remains the "Gold Standard" for tuberculosis diagnosis. Negative results of molecular tests never preclude the infection or the presence of drug resistance. These technological advancements are, therefore, not intended to replace the conventional tests, but rather have major complementary roles in tuberculosis diagnosis. PMID:23104290
A production model of the semi-automated PASCO MIC-ID system (PASCO Laboratories, Wheat Ridge, Colo.) was evaluated with 122 groups or species of gram-negative bacilli, which included typical (499 cultures) and atypical (37 cultures) strains of fermenters and nonfermenters. The PASCO system identified 90.9% of 536 cultures accurately; these included 90.8% of 152 nonfermenters, 93.8% of 308 enteric fermenters, and 78.9% of 76 oxidase-positive fermenters. These results were obtained with the aid of serologic tests and a few additional biochemical tests, when recommended by the PASCO system. Of the 14 misidentified nonfermenters, 3 were Pseudomonas paucimobilis, 3 were Weeksella virosa (Centers for Disease Control group IIf), 2 were Xanthomonas (Pseudomonas) maltophilia, and 6 were randomly distributed among the other groups and species tested. The 19 enteric fermenters that were misidentified were randomly distributed among the groups and species tested. Of the 16 misidentified oxidase-positive fermenters, 4 were Pasteurella ureae, and 12 were randomly distributed among the other groups and species. The system identified the most commonly encountered organisms at a rate of 95% or better. The PASCO system is easy to inoculate and read. A slightly improved data base should remedy most of the identification problems.
Heat killed tubercle bacilli repeatedly injected into or below the skin of rabbits increase conspicuously their resistance against infection with virulent tubercle bacilli. Protection against tuberculous infection following the administration of heat killed tubercle bacilli to rabbits is only slightly less than that given by BCG. Addition of certain antigens, notably heated horse serum, increases the protection given by heat killed tubercle bacilli so that it is approximately the same as that afforded by BCG. These experiments and tentative observations of persons exposed to tuberculous infection indicate that heat killed tubercle bacilli may be substituted for the living attenuated microorganism in the attempt to increase resistance against tuberculous infection and to influence favorably the delicate balance between asymptomatic or latent infection and progressive manifest disease that is characteristic of human tuberculosis.
Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carraggeenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and pectobacterium (38%). pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.
The class-specific antibody response was measured in sequential serum samples from 17 patients after natural bacteremic infection with gram-negative bacilli. There was a five to sevenfold mean increase over preexisting antibody in levels of Immunoglobulin...
Sherman propionic acid bacilli were sensitive to benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, ceporin, tetracyclines, oleandomycin, oletetrin, tetraolean, sigmamycin, levomycetin and furadonine. Methicillin, oxacillin, monomycin, kanamycin, polymyxin and furazolidone had an insignificant effect on the above organism. The subbacteriostatic concentrations of methicillin, oxacillin, streptomycin, monomycin, kanamycin, neomycin, tetraolean, sigmamycin, polymyxin M and ristomycin increased the biosynthesis of vitamin B12 by Sherman propionic acid bacilli, while benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, tetracyclines, oleandomycin, oletetrin, levomycetin and furadonine in the subbacteriostatic concentrations inhibited this process. PMID:596839
The extent to which antibiotic-resistant bacteria are excreted by humans who have not been exposed to antibiotics is not known. Children, who rarely receive fluoroquinolones, provide opportunities to assess the frequency of fecal excretion by fluoroquinolone-naive hosts of fluoroquinolone-resistant gram-negative bacilli. Fresh nondiarrheal stools from children were processed by screening them on agar containing ciprofloxacin to recover ciprofloxacin-resistant gram-negative bacilli.
Xuan Qin; Yasmin Razia; James R. Johnson; Jennifer R. Stapp; Daniel R. Boster; Treva Tsosie; Donna L. Smith; Christopher R. Braden; Kathryn Gay; Frederick J. Angulo; Phillip I. Tarr
Background Spore-forming Bacilli are Gram-positive bacteria commonly found in a variety of natural habitats, including soil, water and the gastro-intestinal (GI)-tract of animals. Isolates of various Bacillus species produce pigments, mostly carotenoids, with a putative protective role against UV irradiation and oxygen-reactive forms. Results We report the annotation of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) of two pigmented Bacilli isolated from the human GI-tract and belonging to the Bacillus indicus and B. firmus species. A high number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) were found in both isolates. A detailed analysis of CAZyme families, was performed and supported by growth data. Carbohydrates able to support growth as the sole carbon source negatively effected carotenoid formation in rich medium, suggesting that a catabolite repression-like mechanism controls carotenoid biosynthesis in both Bacilli. Experimental results on biofilm formation confirmed genomic data on the potentials of B. indicus HU36 to produce a levan-based biofilm, while mucin-binding and -degradation experiments supported genomic data suggesting the ability of both Bacilli to degrade mammalian glycans. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genomes of the two pigmented Bacilli, compared to other Bacillus species and validated by experimental data on carbohydrate utilization, biofilm formation and mucin degradation, suggests that the two pigmented Bacilli are adapted to the intestinal environment and are suited to grow in and colonize the human gut.
The susceptibilities of 265 strains of Corynebacterium species and other non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli to 18 antimicrobial agents were tested. Most strains were susceptible to vancomycin, doxycycline, and fusidic acid. Corynebacterium jeikeium and Corynebacterium urealyticum were the most resistant organisms tested. Resistance to beta-lactams, clindamycin, erythromycin, azythromycin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was common among strains of Corynebacterium xerosis and Corynebacterium minutissimum. Ampicillin resistance among Listeria monocytogenes was more prevalent than previously reported. Optochin, fosfomycin, and nitrofurantoin showed very little activity against most organisms tested, but the use of nitrofurantoin as a selective agent in culture medium may prevent the recovery of some isolates. Except for the unvarying activity of vancomycin against Corynebacterium species, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the latter to other antibiotics are usually unpredictable, such that susceptibility tests are necessary for selecting the best antimicrobial treatment. PMID:7695308
Five scotochromogenic mutants and 11 achromogenic mutants were induced by UV irradiation of the non-acid-fast photochromogenic\\u000a PN strain ofMycobacterium phlei. Spontaneous scotochromogenic and achromogenic mutants were not obtained. Colonies of the scotochromogenic mutants are orange,\\u000a except for one mutant which is ochre. Three mutants are resistant to STM. Out of 11 achromogenic mutants 3 were induced by\\u000a UV treatment of
Background Mycobacterial culture and identification provide a definitive diagnosis of TB. Culture on Löwenstein-Jensen (L-J) medium is invariably delayed because of the slow growth of M. tuberculosis on L-J slants. Automated liquid culture systems are expensive. A low-cost culturing medium capable of rapidly indicating the presence of mycobacteria is needed. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel biphasic culture medium for the recovery of mycobacteria from clinical sputum specimens from suspected pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Methods and Findings The biphasic medium consisted of 7 ml units of L-J slant medium, 3 ml units of liquid culture medium, growth indicator and a mixture of antimicrobial agents. The decontamination sediments of sputum specimens were incubated in the biphasic culture medium at 37°C. Mycobacterial growth was determined based on the appearance of red granule sediments and the examination using acid-fastbacilli (AFB). The clinical sputum specimens were cultured in the biphasic medium, on L-J slants and in the Bactec MGIT 960 culture system. Among smear-positive specimens, the mycobacteria recovery rate of the biphasic medium was higher than that of the L-J slants (P<0.001) and similar to that of MGIT 960 (P>0.05). Among smear-negative specimens, the mycobacterial recovery rate of the biphasic medium was higher than that of L-J slants (P<0.001) and lower than that of MGIT 960 (P<0.05). The median times to detection of mycobacteria were 14 days, 20 days and 30 days for cultures grown in MGIT, in biphasic medium, on L-J slants for smear negative specimens, respectively (P<0.001). Conclusions The biphasic culture medium developed in this study is low-cost and suitable for mycobacterial recovery. It does not require any expensive detection instrumentation, decreases the time required for detection of M. tuberculosis complex, and increases the detection rate of M. tuberculosis complex.
Twenty-eight milk powders from 18 different countries were examined for the number and type of contaminating thermophilic bacilli. Of 742 isolates examined, 96.8% were assigned to the same strains of bacilli as previously found in New Zealand powders. The dominant isolate was Anoxybacillus flavithermus strain C followed by Bacillus licheniformis strain F. The former was also prevalent in New Zealand powders and the results demonstrate that A. flavithermus represents a widespread contaminant, seemingly ubiquitous in factories producing milk powder. The presence of thermophilic strains of Geobacillus stearothermophilus and to a lesser extent of Bacillus subtilis in milk powders was reconfirmed. PMID:15454316
In response to the high rates of colonization and infection by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR GNB), many military treatment facilities (MTFs) have implemented additional infection control practices, such as active surveillance cultures for asymptomatic colonization. Results of surveillance cultures (June 2009-May 2012) collected from patients at Landstuhl Regional Medical Center (Landstuhl RMC), Germany, and three U.S. MTFs were analyzed to evaluate trends in MDR GNB colonization over time and across facilities. At Landstuhl RMC, 6.6 percent of patients were colonized on admission with MDR GNB compared to 12.4 percent of patients admitted to the participating U.S. MTFs. Escherichia coli was the predominant organism, representing 82.4 percent of MDR isolates at Landstuhl RMC and 67.1 to 83.3 percent at U.S. MTFs. Other common MDR GNB included Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Although Pseudomonas aeruginosa was often isolated from the surveillance cultures, it was never multidrug-resistant. Annual rates of MDR GNB colonization were not significantly different over the three-year period. Ongoing research includes assessment of predictive factors for MDR GNB colonization and the relationship between colonization and infection. PMID:24011372
Weintrob, Amy C; Murray, Clinton K; Lloyd, Bradley; Li, Ping; Lu, Dan; Miao, Zhuang; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M Leigh; Gaskins, Lakisha J; Tribble, David R
Tuberculosis is currently the world's leading cause of adult death from a single infectious disease. Sputum examination remains the c ornerstone of diagnosis in epidemic situations. To improve the diagnostic process we a re developing an automated method for the detection o f tubercle bacilli in clinical specimens, principally sputum smears. A preliminary investigation is presented h ere, which makes
K. Veropoulos; C. Campbell; G. Learmonth; B. Knight; J. Simpson
This paper is an overview on bacilli in industrial processes, with focus on food grade paper and paperboard production. Paperboards mainly contain sporeforming bacteria belonging to the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Brevibacillus, usually found in quantities from <50 to 250 cfu g?1 homogenized paperboard. Of those frequently found, Bacillus cereus group, B. licheniformis, B. subtilis and Brevibacillus brevis are important
T. S. M. Pirttijärvi; M. A. Andersson; M. S. Salkinoja-Salonen
A gas chromatographic analysis method was employed to determine the cellular fatty acid (CFA) profiles of spores and vegetative cells of some aerobic endospore-forming bacilli. The harvests of experimental strains were processed to obtain pure spores and acquire whole cell fatty acid methyl esters for the subsequent gas chromatographic analysis, and the corresponding vegetative cells were set as control. Evaluation
Molecular techniques along with clinical evaluation have been demonstrated to be effective for differentiating childhood tuberculosis (TB), and for establishing an enhanced survey of adverse reactions of Bacilli Calmette-Guerin vaccination in Taiwan. Future development and evaluation of new diagnostics should be prioritized in strengthening the management of childhood TB. PMID:22248829
The in vitro activity of doripenem against prevalent nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli and Aeromonas spp. was evaluated. The collection comprised 14979 nonduplicate clinical isolates submitted during a global Doripenem Surveillance Program conducted from 2003 through 2007. Susceptibility tests were performed using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute reference broth microdilution method and the susceptibility criteria of the US Food and Drug
Mariana Castanheira; Ronald N. Jones; David M. Livermore
Marine biofilms are a virtually untapped source of bioactive molecules that may find application as novel antifoulants in the marine paint industry. This study aimed at determining the potential of marine biofilm bacteria to produce novel biomolecules with potential application as natural antifoulants. Nine representative strains were isolated from a range of surfaces and were grown in YEB medium and harvested during the late exponential growth phase. Bacterial biomass and spent culture medium were extracted with ethanol and ethyl acetate, respectively. Extracts were assayed for their antifouling activity using two tests: (1) antimicrobial well diffusion test against a common fouling bacterium, Halomonas marina, and (2) anti-crustacean activity test using Artemia salina. Our results showed that none of the ethanolic extracts (bacterial biomass) were active in either test. In contrast, most of the organic extracts had antimicrobial activity (88%) and were toxic towards A. salina (67%). Sequencing of full 16 S ribosomal DNA analysis showed that the isolates were related to Bacillus mojavensis and Bacillus firmus. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) profiling of ethyl acetate extracts of culture supernatants showed that these species produce the bioactive lipopeptides surfactin A, mycosubtilin and bacillomycin D. PMID:17909869
Ortega-Morales, Benjamín Otto; Chan-Bacab, Manuel Jesús; Miranda-Tello, Elizabeth; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Carrero, Julio César; Stein, Torsten
Spent culture supernatant from early-stationary-phase Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra cultures increased the viability of bacilli from aged cultures of this strain and allowed small inocula to initiate growth in liquid culture. The resuscitation factor was acid labile and heat stable, with a mass of less than 1,375 Da.
1. The S, R, and Rn variants of the Shiga bacillus are equally toxic. 2. The effect of the toxin upon rabbits is the same, whether it is derived from filtrates of broth cultures (3 to 6 days old), or is obtained by autolysis of the killed bacteria, grown on agar surface. Rabbits show in both cases prostration, loss in weight, paralysis, and diarrhea. 3. When the toxin is heated to 80°C. for 1 hour, its poisonous effect nearly disappears, but its immunizing ability is unaltered. This heated toxin induces a formation of antitoxin, which can protect against the unheated toxins. 4. The anatomical changes observed in the spinal cord (degeneration of the motor neurons) and in the cecum (hyperemia and hemorrhages) are in agreement with the statements of previous authors. Furthermore, the toxin causes hyperemia and hemorrhages in the heart, hyperemia and degeneration in the kidneys and the liver.
Background: Tuberculosis, a communicable disease with significant morbidity and mortality, is the leading cause of death in the world from bacterial infectious disease. Because of its public health importance, there is need for rapid and definitive method of detecting the causative organism. Several approaches have been attempted, but the molecular methods, especially Polymerase Chain Reaction assays are the most promising for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from clinical samples. Aim: This study was aimed at using Polymerase Chain Reaction for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from clinical samples using universal sample processing methodology. Subjects and Methods: Two hundred clinical samples sent to Tuberculosis laboratories in Ibadan and Osogbo, Nigeria, were enrolled in this study. The samples were processed by universal sample processing methodology for PCR; smear microscopy was carried out on sputum samples by Ziehl Nelseen staining technique; and cultured on Middlebrook agar medium containing oleic acid albumin dextrose complex supplement after decontamination of samples. Results: Ninety six (48%) samples were detected positive for M. tuberculosis complex by polymerase chain reaction using the combination of boiling and vortexing and microscopy detected 72 (36%) samples positive for acidfastbacilli. Using culture method as gold standard, it was found that polymerase chain reaction assay was more sensitive (75.5%) and specific (94.8%) than microscopy (sensitivity of 48.5% and specificity of 85.7%) in detecting M. tuberculosis complex from clinical samples. There was significant difference in detecting M. tuberculosis from clinical samples when compared to microscopy (p<0.05). Conclusion: The study recommends that direct molecular detection of M. tuberculosis complex is sensitive and specific and polymerase chain reaction method should be used as an adjunct to other methods of laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis.
Alli, Oyebode A. T.; Ogbolu, Olusoga D.; Alaka, Olubunmi O.
Discrimination of Enterobacteriaceae and Non-fermenting Gram Negative Bacilli by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has proven to be an effective identification tool in medical microbiology. Discrimination to subspecies or serovar level has been found to be challenging using commercially available identification software. By forming our own reference database and using alternative analysis methods, we could reliably identify all implemented Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenting gram negative bacilli by MALDI-TOF MS and even succeeded to distinguish Shigella sonnei from Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella enterica spp. enterica serovar Enteritidis from Salmonella enterica spp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Furthermore, the method showed the ability to separate Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) from non-enteropathogenic E. coli.
Discrimination of Enterobacteriaceae and Non-fermenting Gram Negative Bacilli by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has proven to be an effective identification tool in medical microbiology. Discrimination to subspecies or serovar level has been found to be challenging using commercially available identification software. By forming our own reference database and using alternative analysis methods, we could reliably identify all implemented Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenting gram negative bacilli by MALDI-TOF MS and even succeeded to distinguish Shigella sonnei from Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella enterica spp. enterica serovar Enteritidis from Salmonella enterica spp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Furthermore, the method showed the ability to separate Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) from non-enteropathogenic E. coli. PMID:23919091
BackgroundTuberculous sputum provides a sample of bacilli that must be eliminated by chemotherapy and that may go on to transmit infection. A preliminary observation that Mycobacterium tuberculosis cells contain triacylglycerol lipid bodies in sputum, but not when growing in vitro, led us to investigate the extent of this phenomenon and its physiological basis.Methods and FindingsMicroscopy-positive sputum samples from the UK
Natalie J Garton; Simon J Waddell; Anna L Sherratt; Su-Min Lee; Rebecca J Smith; Claire Senner; Jason Hinds; Kumar Rajakumar; Richard A Adegbola; Gurdyal S Besra; Philip D Butcher; Michael R Barer
This study aimed at determining prevalence and resistance profile of Gram-negative bacilli isolated from nasopharynx of children attending day-care centers in Goiânia (Brazil). P. aeruginosa (100.0%), E. coli (50.0%), K. pneumoniae (35.3%), and E. aerogenes (16.7%) were the most frequent multi-drug resistant microorganisms isolated. No production of ESBL was detected. PMID:24031458
Lima, Ana Beatriz Mori; de Oliveira Leão, Lara Stefânia Netto; Oliveira, Luciana Silva da Cruz; Pimenta, Fabiana Cristina
Thermophilic Bacillus species readily attached and grew on stainless steel surfaces, forming mature biofilms of >10 6.0 cells\\/cm 2in 6 h on a surface inoculated with the bacteria. Clean stainless steel exposed only to pasteurized skim milk at 55 °C developed a mature biofilm of >10 6.0 cells\\/cm 2 within 18 h. When bacilli were inoculated onto the steel coupons, 18-h biofilms were 30 µm thick.
Systemic anthrax is caused by unimpeded bacillar replication and toxin secretion. We developed a dually active anthrax vaccine (DAAV) that confers simultaneous protection against both bacilli and toxins. DAAV was constructed by conjugating capsular poly--D-glutamic acid (PGA) to protective antigen (PA), converting the weakly immunogenic PGA to a potent immunogen, and synergistically enhancing the humoral response to PA. PGA-specific antibodies
Gi-Eun Rhie; Michael H. Roehrl; Michael Mourez; R. John Collier; John J. Mekalanos; Julia Y. Wang
To identify specific risk factors and clinical outcomes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by gram-negative bacilli\\u000a (GNB), we compared the clinical features and outcomes of patients with CAP due to GNB with those of patients with non-GNB\\u000a pneumonia. We performed a prospective observational study of 912 cases of adult CAP in Asian countries from January 2002 to\\u000a December 2004. Systemic
C.-I. Kang; J.-H. Song; W. S. Oh; K. S. Ko; D. R. Chung; K. R. Peck
Comparative 16S rRNA sequence analysis has demonstrated that the genusBacillus consists of at least five phyletic lines. rRNA group 3 bacilli of Ash, Farrow, Wallbanks and Collins (1991) comprisingBacillus polymyxa and close relatives is phylogenetically so removed fromBacillus subtilis, the type species of the genus and other aerobic, endospore-forming bacilli that they warrant reclassification in a new genusPaenibacillus. The genusPaenibacillus
From 42 different hot springs in 6 provinces belonging to distinct geographical regions of Turkey, 451 thermophilic bacilli were isolated and 67 isolates with a high amylase activity were selected to determine the alpha-glucosidase production capacities by using pNPG as a substrate. Alpha-glucosidase production capacities of the isolates varied within the range from 77.18 to 0.001 U/g. Eleven of our thermophilic bacilli produced alpha-glucosidase at significant levels comparable with that of the reference strains tested, thus five strains, F84b (77.18 U/g), A333 (48.64 U/g), F84a (36.64 U/g), E134 (32.09 U/g), and A343 (10.79 U/g) were selected for further experiments. 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed that these selected isolates all belonged to thermophilic bacilli 16S rDNA genetic group 5, four of them representing the genus Geobacillus, while strain A343 had an uncultured bacterium as the closest relative. Changes of alpha-glucosidase levels in the intracellular and extracellular fractions were determined during 48-h cultivation of A333, A343, F84a, F84b, E134, and the reference strain G. stearothermophilus ATCC 12980. According to alpha-glucosidase production type and enzyme levels in intracellular and extracellular fractions, Geobacillus spp. A333, F84a and F84b were defined as extracellular enzyme producers, whereas the thermophilic bacterium A343 was found to be an intracellular alpha-glucosidase producer, similar to ATCC 12980 strain. Geobacillus sp. E134 differed in alpha-glucosidase production type from all tested isolates and the reference strain; it was described as a membrane-associated cell-bound enzyme producer. In this study, apart from screening a great number of new thermophilic bacilli from the hot springs of Turkey, which have not yet been thoroughly studied, five new thermostable alpha-1,4-glucosidase-producing bacilli that have biotechnological potential with alpha-glucosidases located at different cell positions were obtained. PMID:19334599
Coleri, A; Cokmus, C; Ozcan, B; Akkoc, N; Akcelik, M
Agarose gel electrophoresis of the plasmid deoxyribonucleic acids from 60 gram-negative bacilli recovered during investigations of nosocomial epidemics was used to fingerprint the strains. This method was as specific at differentiating bacterial strains as more conventional phenotyping methods. In all cases, plasmid band fingerprints of epidermic strains isolates were identical whereas coisolate plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid patterns were different. Agarose gel electrophoresis of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid is proposed as a method which can be used in conventional microbiology laboratories as an adjunct to or, possibly, replacement for other methods of identifying bacterial strains. PMID:6788798
The mean mature spermatid count (MMSC) provides a useful, simplified quantitative evaluation of human spermatogenesis that is based on the number of mature spermatids in histological sections of testicular biopsies. Here, the activity of the acid-fast (AF) stain was compared to that of the usual hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain in performing the MMSC. Thirty bilateral testicular biopsies showing normal spermatogenesis were chosen retrospectively from 15 subfertile patients with obstructive azoospermia or severe oligospermia. The MMSC was determined on each biopsy by utilizing both H&E and AF stains. The AF stain proved to be specific for the mature spermatids normally counted for the MMSC. It simplified recognition of mature spermatids, thereby shortening the overall time required for the procedure. The mean AF MMSC was lower than the mean H&E MMSC, and the mean interobserver differences were decreased. The AF stain is a superior stain for the MMSC when used in conjunction with the H&E stain for descriptive histology. PMID:9639043
Eighteen aerobic endospore forming strains were isolated from sugarcane rhizosphere in N-free medium. A phenotypic description and analysis of the 5' end hypervariable region sequences of 16S rRNA revealed a high diversity of Bacillus and related genera. Isolates were identified, and four genera were obtained: seven strains belonged to Bacillus (Bacillaceae family), four belonged to Paenibacillus, six belonged to Brevibacillus and one strain was identified as Cohnella (Paenibacillaceae family). Four Brevibacillus strains showed in vitro inhibitory activity against plant pathogens fungi Curvularia and Fusarium. Seventy-four percent of the isolated bacteria grew on pectin as the only carbon source, showing polygalacturonase activity. Pectate lyase activity was detected for the first time in a Brevibacillus genus strain. All isolates showed endoglucanase activity. Calcium phosphate solubilisation was positive in 83.3% of the isolates, with higher values than those reported for Bacillus inorganic phosphate solubilising strains. High ethylene plant hormone secretion in the culture medium was detected in 22% of the bacteria. This is the first report of ethylene secretion in Paenibacillaceae isolates. Indole-3-acetic acid production was found in a Brevibacillus genus isolate. It was reported for the first time the presence of Cohnella genus strain on sugarcane rhizosphere bearing plant growth promoting traits. The sugarcane isolate Brevibacillus B65 was identified as a plant growth inoculant because it showed wider spectra of plant stimulation capabilities, including an antifungal effect, extracellular hydrolases secretion, inorganic phosphate solubilisation and plant hormone liberation. In this work, sugarcane was shown to be a suitable niche for finding aerobic endospore forming 'Bacilli' with agriculture biotechnological purposes. PMID:22805941
de Los Milagros Orberá Ratón, Teresa; Yano, Ricardo; Rodríguez Gámez, Odalys; Floh, Eny Iochevet Segal; de Jesús Serrat Díaz, Manuel; Barbosa, Heloíza Ramos
The extent to which antibiotic-resistant bacteria are excreted by humans who have not been exposed to antibiotics is not known. Children, who rarely receive fluoroquinolones, provide opportunities to assess the frequency of fecal excretion by fluoroquinolone-naïve hosts of fluoroquinolone-resistant gram-negative bacilli. Fresh nondiarrheal stools from children were processed by screening them on agar containing ciprofloxacin to recover ciprofloxacin-resistant gram-negative bacilli. Resistant isolates were identified, and ciprofloxacin MICs were determined. Resistant Escherichia coli isolates were also analyzed for urovirulence-associated loci. Thirteen (2.9%) of 455 stools yielded ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli (seven children), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (four children), and Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Enterobacter aerogenes (one child each). Neither the subjects themselves nor members of their households used fluoroquinolones in the 4 weeks preceding collection. Six of the seven resistant E. coli isolates belonged to phylogenetic groups B2 and D, in which extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli bacteria are frequently found. All resistant E. coli isolates contained at least three putative E. coli virulence loci. Most ciprofloxacin-resistant bacteria were resistant to additional antibiotics. Potentially pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to therapeutically important antimicrobial agents are excreted by some humans, despite these persons' lack of exposure to the particular drugs. The sources of these resistant organisms are unknown. This underrecognized reservoir of drug-resistant potential pathogens poses public health challenges.
Qin, Xuan; Razia, Yasmin; Johnson, James R.; Stapp, Jennifer R.; Boster, Daniel R.; Tsosie, Treva; Smith, Donna L.; Braden, Christopher R.; Gay, Kathryn; Angulo, Frederick J.; Tarr, Phillip I.
A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay employing IS900 gene specific primers of Mycobacterium avium subsp. parartuberculosis (MAP) was compared with conventional PCR, bacterial culture and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 38 sheep showing granulomatous enteritis and lymphadenitis with and without demonstration of acid-fastbacilli (AFB). The lesions were classified as multibacillary (MB) (n?=?23), which had diffuse granulomatous lesions with abundant AFB, and paucibacillary (PB) (n?=?15), which had focal or multifocal granulomatous lesions with few or no AFB. In the multibacillary group (MB), IS900 PCR detected 19 (82.6%), and qPCR detected all 23 (100%) sheep positive for MAP in the intestine and lymph node tissues. In the paucibacillary group (PB), IS900 PCR detected 2 (13.3%), and qPCR detected all 15 (100%) sheep positive for MAP in tissues. When results of both groups were taken together, IS900 PCR detected 21(55.2%), and qPCR detected all 38 (100%) animals positive for MAP genome either in the intestine or lymph node tissues. On Herrold egg yolk medium, tissues of 14 (60.9%) MB and 5 (33.3%) PB sheep were found to be positive for MAP. Out of 27 sheep (PB?=?8, MB?=?19) tested by an ELISA, 21 (77.7%) were found to be positive for MAP antibody, of which 25% (2/8) and 100% (19/19) sheep were from PB and MB sheep, respectively. Based on the results of the present study, it was concluded that qPCR was a highly sensitive test in comparison to conventional PCR, ELISA and bacterial culture for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis on infected tissues especially from paucibacillary sheep. PMID:23539663
The increasing demand for a steady, healthy food supply requires an efficient control of the major pests and plant diseases. Current management practices are based largely on the application of synthetic pesticides. The excessive use of agrochemicals has caused serious environmental and health problems. Therefore, there is a growing demand for new and safer methods to replace or at least supplement the existing control strategies. Biological control, that is, the use of natural antagonists to combat pests or plant diseases has emerged as a promising alternative to chemical pesticides. The Bacilli offer a number of advantages for their application in agricultural biotechnology. Several Bacillus-based products have been marketed as microbial pesticides, fungicides or fertilisers. Bacillus-based biopesticides are widely used in conventional agriculture, by contrast, implementation of Bacillus-based biofungicides and biofertilizers is still a pending issue. PMID:21211960
Pérez-García, Alejandro; Romero, Diego; de Vicente, Antonio
Gram-negative bacilli have become increasingly resistant to antibiotics over the past 2 decades due to selective pressure from the extensive use of antibiotics in the hospital and community. In addition, these bacteria have made optimum use of their innate genetic capabilities to extensively mutate structural and regulatory genes of antibiotic resistance factors, broadening their ability to modify or otherwise inactivate
Despite a decline in the frequency of gram-negative infections in cancer patients, there has been an increase in the proportion of such infections caused by nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB). We tested the in vitro activity of several quinolones against NFGNB isolated from cancer patients between February 2000 and February 2003, using a broth microdilution method. Ciprofloxacin was the most potent
Kenneth V. I. Rolston; Dimitrios P. Kontoyiannis; Davood Yadegarynia; Issam I. Raad
The authors studied the possible relationship between a genetic characteristic, like DNA base composition, and certain phenotypic characteristics, i.e., sensitivity to lytic agents, morphology of colonies, and biochemical reactions in 34 strains of spore-bearing bacilli. From the results obtained two groups of bacilli have been identified. The first group includes the species B. subtilis, B. pumilus, B. licheniformis, and B. firmus and one strain of B. megaterium. The mean value of the GC% of the DNA is 44.22 +/- 1.76. All the strains examined are highly sensitive to lysozyme and resistant to sodium lauryl sulphate (S.L.S.); the surface colonies have a "rhizoid" appearance and the microcolonies on slide microculture are star-shaped. The second group includes the species B. cereus, B. cereus var. mycoides, B. anthracis, and B. thuringiensis. The mean value of the GC% of the DNA is 33.65 +/- 0.59. All the strains belonging to this group are resistant to both lysozyme and S.L.S., and the surface macro-colonies and the microcolonies have a "medusae head" appearance. The two groups also have certain different biochemical reactions; e.g., anaerobic growth and the egg yolk reaction, with few exception, are negative for the first group and positive for the second; furthermore, the strains in the first group (with rare exceptions) cause fermentation in the three carbohydrates, glucose, arabinose, and xylose, while glucose only is fermented by all strains with one exception in the second group. The position of B. megaterium is not yet clear, although one strain may certainly be included in the first group. Lysis by lipase is extremely variable and does not correlate with any of the other characteristics studied. The other species studied in relation to the characteristics, considered in our research (B. coagulans, B. macerans, B. polymyxa, B. laterosporus, B. alvei, B. circulans, B. stearothermophilus, and B. brevis), are not susceptible to grouping, either in the first, or in the second or even in a separate group. PMID:696046
Candeli, A; Mastrandrea, V; Cenci, G; De Bartolomeo, A
Rapid and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens is a fundamental goal of clinical microbiology, but one that is difficult or impossible for many slow-growing and fastidious organisms. We used identification systems based on cellular fatty acid profiles (Sherlock; MIDI, Inc., Newark, Del.), carbon source utilization (Microlog; Biolog, Inc., Hayward, Calif.), and 16S rRNA gene sequence (MicroSeq; Perkin-Elmer Applied Biosystems Division, Foster City, Calif.) to evaluate 72 unusual aerobic gram-negative bacilli isolated from clinical specimens at the Mayo Clinic. Compared to lengthy conventional methods, Sherlock, Microlog, and MicroSeq were able to identify 56 of 72 (77.8%), 63 of 72 (87.5%), and 70 of 72 (97.2%) isolates to the genus level (P = 0.002) and 44 to 65 (67.7%), 55 of 65 (84.6%), and 58 of 65 (89.2%) isolates to the species level (P = 0.005), respectively. Four Acinetobacter and three Bordetella isolates which could not be identified to the species level by conventional methods were identified by MicroSeq. In comparison to the full 16S rDNA sequences, the first 527 bp provided identical genus information for all 72 isolates and identical species information for 67 (93.1%) isolates. These data show that MicroSeq provides rapid, unambiguous identification of clinical bacterial isolates. The improved turnaround time provided by genotypic identification systems may translate into improved clinical outcomes.
Tang, Yi-Wei; Ellis, Nicole M.; Hopkins, Marlene K.; Smith, Douglas H.; Dodge, Deborah E.; Persing, David H.
Mixed Candida-bacterial biofilms in urinary catheters are common in hospitalized patients. (i) The aims of this study were to evaluate, quantitatively and qualitatively, the in vitro development of mono- and dual-species biofilms (MSBs and DSBs) of Candida albicans and two enteric gram-negative bacilli (EGNB; Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli) on Foley catheter (FC) discs, (ii) to determine the biofilm growth in tryptic soy broth or glucose supplemented artificial urine (AU) and (iii) to assess the inhibitory effects of EGNB and their lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on Candida biofilm growth. The growth of MSBs and DSBs on FC discs was monitored by cell counts and SEM. The metabolic activity of LPS-treated Candida biofilms was determined by the XTT reduction assay. Candida albicans and EGNB demonstrated significant inter- and intra-species differences in biofilm growth on FC discs (p < 0.01). Pseudomonas aeruginosa suppressed Candida albicans significantly (p < 0.001) in DSBs. Compared with MSBs, DSB of EGNB in glucose supplemented AU demonstrated robust growth. Escherichia coli and its LPS, significantly suppressed Candida biofilm growth, compared with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its LPS (p < 0.001). Candida albicans and EGNB colonization in FC is significantly increased in AU with glucose, and variably modified by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and their corresponding LPS. PMID:23656511
Samaranayake, Y H; Bandara, H M H N; Cheung, B P K; Yau, J Y Y; Yeung, S K W; Samaranayake, L P
In our study the susceptibility (MIC) of chosen 21 strains of Gram-negative bacilli isolated in hospitals to disinfectant agents (glucoprotamine, sodium dichloroisocyanurate, potassium persulfate), the effectiveness of these disinfectants against selected bacteria and their effectiveness to biofilm forming bacteria was determined. It was found that glucoprotamine showed the highest activity to Gram-negative bacteria. Obtained MIC values for glucoprotamine (except 1 strain of S. marcescens) were 16-64 times lower that MICs for sodium dichloroisocyanurate and 4-32 times lower that MICs for potassium persulfate. The effectiveness of disinfectants containing potassium persulfate or sodium dichloroisocyanurate was 100% tested by carrier method. Glucoprotamine was ineffective against 2 out of 9 strains (18%): E. cloacae and S. marcescens. It was found that disinfectants were more effective against Gram-negative bacteria in carrier methods than for biofilm forming bacteria. 86% of bacteria growing 5 days on a catheter were resistant to working solution of disinfectant containing glucoprotamine (5200 mg/L) or potassium persulfate (4300 mg/L); 66.6% of tested bacteria were resistant to working solution of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (1795.2 mg/L). In our study the highest effectiveness to biofilm forming bacteria showed disinfectant with sodium dichloroisocyanurate, the lowest--with glucoprotamine. PMID:15810507
Pancer, Katarzyna W; Laudy, Agnieszka E; Mikulak, Ewa; Gliniewicz, Aleksandra; Staniszewska, Monika; Stypu?kowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna
The susceptibilities of 265 strains of Corynebacterium species and other non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli to 18 antimicrobial agents were tested. Most strains were susceptible to vancomycin, doxycycline, and fusidic acid. Corynebacterium jeikeium and Corynebacterium urealyticum were the most resistant organisms tested. Resistance to b-lactams, clindamycin, erythromycin, azythromycin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was common among strains of Corynebacterium xerosis and Corynebacterium minutissimum. Ampicillin
Three classes of low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (Firmicutes), Bacilli, Clostridia and Negativicutes, include numerous members that are capable of producing heat-resistant endospores. Spore-forming firmicutes include many environmentally important organisms, such as insect pathogens and cellulose-degrading industrial strains, as well as human pathogens responsible for such diseases as anthrax, botulism, gas gangrene and tetanus. In the best-studied model organism Bacillus subtilis, sporulation involves over 500 genes, many of which are conserved among other bacilli and clostridia. This work aimed to define the genomic requirements for sporulation through an analysis of the presence of sporulation genes in various firmicutes, including those with smaller genomes than B. subtilis. Cultivable spore-formers were found to have genomes larger than 2300 kb and encompass over 2150 protein-coding genes of which 60 are orthologues of genes that are apparently essential for sporulation in B. subtilis. Clostridial spore-formers lack, among others, spoIIB, sda, spoVID and safA genes and have non-orthologous displacements of spoIIQ and spoIVFA, suggesting substantial differences between bacilli and clostridia in the engulfment and spore coat formation steps. Many B. subtilis sporulation genes, particularly those encoding small acid-soluble spore proteins and spore coat proteins, were found only in the family Bacillaceae, or even in a subset of Bacillus spp. Phylogenetic profiles of sporulation genes, compiled in this work, confirm the presence of a common sporulation gene core, but also illuminate the diversity of the sporulation processes within various lineages. These profiles should help further experimental studies of uncharacterized widespread sporulation genes, which would ultimately allow delineation of the minimal set(s) of sporulation-specific genes in Bacilli and Clostridia. PMID:22882546
Galperin, Michael Y; Mekhedov, Sergei L; Puigbo, Pere; Smirnov, Sergey; Wolf, Yuri I; Rigden, Daniel J
Anthrax-vaccine-adsorbed (AVA), the only anthrax vaccine licensed in the U.S., suffers from many major drawbacks. Therefore, there is a need to develop new generation anthrax vaccines that can be easily administered and induce strong immune responses not only against the anthrax toxins, but also against the toxin-producing vegetative anthrax bacilli. In the present study, we evaluated the feasibility of inducing
Background: The extensive use of the ?-lactam antibiotics in hospitals and in the community has created major resistance problems which has led to increased morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. The use of the ?-lactamase inhibitors in combination with the ?-lactam antibiotics is currently the most successful strategy used for circumventing the resistance mechanisms. Objective: To evaluate the in-vitro activity of six commercially available ?-lactam/?-lactamase inhibitor combinations against Gram Negative Bacilli (GNB). Materials and Methods: A total of 384 non duplicate, consecutive, gram negative bacilli (278 Enterobacteriaceae and 106 non fermenters) isolated from various clinical samples were subjected to antimicrobial sensitivity testing by the Kirby-Bauer method. The following ?-lactam/?-lactamase inhibitor combinations were tested: amoxycillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin-sulbactam, cefoperazonesulbactam, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime-tazobactam and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid. Results: Against the Enterobacteriacae, the sensitivity of Cefepime- tazobactam was 90. 64%, followed by Cefoperazone-sulbactam (84.89%) and Piperacillin - tazobactam (53.95 %). The sensitivity of the non fermenters was the highest for Cefepime- tazobactam (49.04%) and was least for Ampicillin-sulbactam and Amoxycillinclavulanic acid (4.71% each). Cefepime-tazobactam was sensitive for all the extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) isolates. Conclusion: Among the six ?-lactam/?-lactamase inhibitor combinations tested, Cefepime-tazobactam exhibited the best in-vitro activity against the gram negative bacilli isolated at our centre. PMID:23543071
A few studies have suggested that the inhibitory effect of serum on activity of broad-spectrum cephalosporins is less than that predicted by the degree of protein binding. Microdilution MICs of ceftriaxone, cefoperazone, moxalactam, and ceftizoxime were therefore determined against ATCC and clinical strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus in Mueller-Hinton broth containing either human albumin (as 0, 2.5, or 5% solution) or heat-inactivated human serum (as 0, 25, 50, or 95% solution). Arithmetic linear dilutions were used to improve accuracy. For standard bacterial strains, MICs in the presence of 5% albumin were higher than in broth alone by multiples of 10.9 to 21 for ceftriaxone, 5.5 to 16.4 for cefoperazone, 1.9 to 3.7 for moxalactam, and 1.1 to 1.4 for ceftizoxime, as expected by their protein binding. MICs in the presence of 95% serum were similar to those in 5% albumin for all four drugs against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa but were 2.2- to 4.8-fold lower (P less than 0.001) against E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Similar findings were observed at lower protein concentrations and with clinical isolates, except that for some strains of P. aeruginosa MICs were lower in serum than in albumin. Individual sera from five subjects gave comparable results. The addition of serum ultrafiltrate to albumin-containing solutions reduced MICs of ceftriaxone and cefoperazone 1.6- to 7.4-fold against E. coli and K. pneumoniae (P less than 0.01) but did not alter the MICs for S. aureus. Serum may contain an ultrafiltrable component(s) that enhances the activity of third-generation cephalosporins against many gram-negative bacilli.
The broad-spectrum bacteriocin enterocin AS-48 was tested for biopreservation of ready-to-eat vegetable foods (soups and purees) against aerobic mesophilic endospore-forming bacteria. By adding AS-48 (10 microg/ml), Bacillus cereus LWL1 was completely inhibited in all six vegetable products tested (natural vegetable cream, asparagus cream, traditional soup, homemade-style traditional soup, vegetable soup, and vichyssoise) for up to 30 days at 6, 15, and 22 degrees C. A collection of strains isolated from spoiled purees showed slightly higher resistance to AS-48 in the order Paenibacillus sp. > Bacillus macroides > B. cereus, although they were also completely inhibited in natural vegetable cream by AS-48 at 10 microg/ml. However, cocktails of five or eight strains composed of B. cereus (three strains), B. macroides (two strains), and Paenibacillus sp., Paenibacillus polymyxa, and Paenibacillus amylolyticus showed higher bacteriocin resistance with AS-48 of up to 50 microg/ml required for complete inactivation in natural vegetable cream stored at 22 degrees C. Repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) analysis showed that paenibacilli (along with some B. cereus) was the predominant survivor in the cocktails after bacteriocin treatment. To increase the effectiveness of enterocin AS-48, the bacteriocin was tested (at 20 microg/ml) against the eight-strain cocktail in natural vegetable cream in combination with other antimicrobials. The combination of AS-48 and nisin had a slight but significant additive effect. Bactericidal activity was greatly enhanced by phenolic compounds (carvacrol, eugenol, geraniol, and hydrocinnamic acid), achieving a rapid and complete inactivation of bacilli in the tested puree at 22 degrees C. PMID:17969616
Grande, Maria J; Abriouel, Hikmate; Lucas López, Rosario; Valdivia, Eva; Ben Omar, Nabil; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Gálvez, Antonio
Intestinal flora contains a reservoir of Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) resistant to cephalosporins, which are potentially pathogenic for intensive care unit (ICU) patients; this has led to increasing use of carbapenems. The emergence of carbapenem resistance is a major concern for ICUs. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to assess the intestinal carriage of imipenem-resistant GNB (IR-GNB) in intensive care patients. For 6 months, 523 consecutive ICU patients were screened for rectal IR-GNB colonization upon admission and weekly thereafter. The phenotypes and genotypes of all isolates were determined, and a case control study was performed to identify risk factors for colonization. The IR-GNB colonization rate increased regularly from 5.6% after 1 week to 58.6% after 6 weeks in the ICU. In all, 56 IR-GNB strains were collected from 50 patients: 36 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, 12 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains, 6 Enterobacteriaceae strains, and 2 Acinetobacter baumannii strains. In P. aeruginosa, imipenem resistance was due to chromosomally encoded resistance (32 strains) or carbapenemase production (4 strains). In the Enterobacteriaceae strains, resistance was due to AmpC cephalosporinase and/or extended-spectrum ?-lactamase production with porin loss. Genomic comparison showed that the strains were highly diverse, with 8 exceptions (4 VIM-2 carbapenemase-producing P. aeruginosa strains, 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, and 2 S. maltophilia strains). The main risk factor for IR-GNB colonization was prior imipenem exposure. The odds ratio for colonization was already as high as 5.9 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.5 to 25.7) after 1 to 3 days of exposure and increased to 7.8 (95% CI, 2.4 to 29.8) thereafter. In conclusion, even brief exposure to imipenem is a major risk factor for IR-GNB carriage.
BACKGROUND Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) cause as many as 20% of episodes of late-onset sepsis among very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight < or =1500 g) infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. As the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can serve as a reservoir for GNB, we hypothesized that VLBW infants with prior GI tract colonization with gentamicin-susceptible GNB who developed bloodstream infections (BSI) would do so with gentamicin-susceptible GNB. METHODS A prospective cohort study of VLBW infants was performed in 2 level III neonatal intensive care units from September 2004 to October 2007. GI tract surveillance cultures were obtained weekly. Risk factors for GNB BSI and for GI tract colonization with GNB were assessed. RESULTS Fifty-one (7.3%) of 698 subjects experienced 59 GNB BSIs of which 34 occurred by 6 weeks of life and 625 (90%) of 698 subjects were colonized with GNB. Overall, 25% of BSI and 16% of GI tract isolates were nonsusceptible to gentamicin and colonization with the same species and same gentamicin susceptibility profile preceded 98% of GNB BSIs. Vaginal delivery, birth weight < or =750 g, GI tract pathology, increased use of central venous catheters, use of vancomycin, mechanical ventilation, and H2 blockers/proton pump inhibitors were associated with GNB BSI. Vaginal delivery, birth weight >1000 g, and treatment with carbapenem agents were associated with GNB colonization. CONCLUSIONS These data support the use of empiric gentamicin to treat late-onset sepsis in infants colonized with gentamicin-susceptible GNB. Targeted GI tract surveillance cultures of infants with specific risk factors during weeks 2 to 6 of life could be used to guide empiric therapy for late-onset sepsis.
Smith, Ann; Saiman, Lisa; Zhou, Juyan; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Jia, Haomiao; Graham, Philip L.
A prevalence study was carried out on a 100-bed Veterans Administration nursing home care unit to determine the extent of colonization with gentamicin-resistant gram-negative bacilli (GRGNB). Hand cultures of 12 employees and 17 environmental cultures were negative. Twenty-six of 86 (30%) patients were colonized with 49 GRGNB. Sixteen patients (19%) had urinary colonization. Multivariate analysis revealed significant associations between rectal or perineal colonization (P less than 0.01), and the presence of a urinary device (82% condom catheters) (P less than 0.05), with urinary colonization. The most common isolates were Providencia stuartii (20), Escherichia coli (nine) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (nine). Twenty-six of 49 isolates carried plasmids. Restriction endonuclease digestion of plasmid DNA was performed for 21. Cross-colonization, as defined by the presence of the identical species with the identical restriction endonuclease digestion profile of purified plasmid DNA found in different patients, was observed for eight of 21 (38%) strains. All were geographically clustered. No strains could transfer gentamicin-resistance by conjugation and only two plasmids could transform our E coli recipient to gentamicin resistance. One E coli plasmid was identical to two Citrobacter freundii plasmids and a P stuartii plasmid isolated from three different patients. This 105 kb plasmid is conjugative and encodes resistance to ampicillin, carbenicillin, tetracycline, and sulfonamides. Thus, 57% of strains were cross-colonizing or contained identical R-plasmids. Southern hybridization using a 1 kb TEM-1 gene probe demonstrated sequences homologous to this probe in five of five nursing home plasmids examined.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3536783
Shlaes, D M; Lehman, M H; Currie-McCumber, C A; Kim, C H; Floyd, R
The pipette method has proved a feasible method of obtaining one-cell pure cultures of anaerobes. Both bacilli and spores may be used as seeding material, but spores give a much higher percentage of positives. Boiling alone affords a sufficient degree of anaerobiosis to the medium for initiating one-cell growths, and semisolid agar is the most convenient form of medium. Exposure to air during isolation apparently has no effect on the viability of spores of anaerobes, but young bacilli of some species suffer from a comparatively short exposure to free oxygen.
Ten cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, one of Mycobacterium kansasii (nonsignificant), and one of Mycobacterium phlei were submitted to starvation. As a result they lost first their acidfastness and then all other staining affinities but, in this chromophobic state, they survived for at least 2 years and, after that time, produced cultures of acid-fastbacilli when transferred onto nutrient media. Chromophobic tubercle bacilli similar to those produced experimentally had previously been demonstrated in caseous lesions of lungs surgically removed from patients under chemotherapy. Since it has been shown that experimentally produced chromophobic bacilli can recover their original biological properties, the opinion is warranted that, under suitable conditions, those in the lung could also become reactivated and cause a relapse of the disease. Images
An air-membrane surface (AMS) bioreactor was designed to allow bacteria to grow attached to a surface as a biofilm in contact with air. When Bacillus licheniformis strain EI-34-6, isolated from the surface of a marine alga, was grown in this reactor, cells produced antimicrobial compounds which they did not produce when they were grown in shake flask cultures. An unidentified red pigment was also produced by surface-grown cells but not by planktonically grown cells. Glycerol and ferric iron were important for the production of antimicrobial compounds and the red pigment. Release of these secondary metabolites was not due to the onset of sporulation. Cell-free spent medium recovered from beneath the reactor membrane could induce production of antimicrobial compounds and red pigment in shake flask cultures. Neither glycerol nor ferric iron was required for production of these inducer compounds. Spent medium from beneath the membrane of an AMS bioreactor culture of Bacillus subtilis strain DSM10T and Bacillus pumilus strain EI-25-8 could also induce production of antimicrobial compounds and a red pigment in B. licheniformis isolate EI-34-6 grown in shake flask cultures; however, the corresponding spent medium from shake flask cultures of DSM10T and EI-25-8 could not. These results suggest that there is a biofilm-specific cross-species signaling system which can induce planktonically grown cells to behave as if they were in a biofilm by regulating the expression of pigments and antimicrobial compounds.
Yan, Liming; Boyd, Kenneth G.; Adams, David R.; Burgess, J. Grant
The antileprosy effect of rifampin was evaluated by a newly developed rapid in vitro assay wherein 31 human-derived strains and 1 armadillo-derived strain of Mycobacterium leprae were maintained for 2 and 3 weeks, respectively, in murine and human macrophages in the presence of (3H)thymidine. Of these strains, 27 showed significant incorporation of the radiolabel in cultures of live bacilli as compared with control cultures of heat-killed bacilli of the same strain. Consistent and significant inhibition of (3H)thymidine uptake was observed in M. leprae resident cultures with 3 to 200 ng of rifampin per ml as compared with similar cultures without the drug. In general, an increase in percent inhibition was seen from 3 to 20 ng/ml, with marginal increases at 40, 50, and 100 ng/ml. M. leprae strains appear to be remarkably susceptible to this drug in the in vitro assay.
Mittal, A.; Seshadri, P.S.; Prasad, H.K.; Sathish, M.; Nath, I.
Polysaccharides extracted from human tubercle bacilli (specific substance of Maruyama [SSM]) have been clinically applied with satisfactory results. Thymidylate synthetase (TS) and thymidine kinase (TK) are key enzymes in de novo and salvage pathways for pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis. Well- and moderately well differentiated adenocarcinomas induced with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) are widely distributed throughout the colorectal tract with high TK activity, and the poorly differentiated type is mainly restricted in the proximal colon and the cecum with high TS activity in rats. Subcutaneously injecting the rats with SSM reduced TS activity in colonic nontumorous regions, but in the tumorous regions it reduced TK activity compared with that of the DMH-treated rats without SSM treatment. SSM is suggested to reduce the colorectal carcinogenesis induced with DMH by inhibiting DNA synthesis in a de novo pathway, and to suppress the development of the tumors by decreasing DNA synthesis in the salvage pathway in rats. PMID:9307851
Iida, K; Fujita, K; Hirai, H; Goto, H; Miyazaki, S; Arai, Y; Iwaki, H; Otake, M; Sassa, S; Maemura, M; Nakayama, T; Kudo, H; Sakamoto, S
As the war on terrorism in Afghanistan and Iraq continue, future attacks both abroad and in the U.S.A. are expected. In an effort to aid civilian and military personnel, we have been investigating the potential of using a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sampling device to detect Bacillus anthracis spores in nasal swab samples. Such a device would be extremely beneficial to medical responders and management in assessing the extent of a bioterrorist attack and making detect-to-treat decisions. The disposable sample device consists of a glass capillary filled with a silver-doped sol-gel that is capable of extracting dipicolinic acid (DPA), a chemical signature of Bacilli, and generating SERS spectra. The sampling device and preliminary measurements of DPA extracted from spores and nasal mucus will be presented.
Inscore, Frank E.; Gift, Alan D.; Farquharson, Stuart
Introduction: Antibiotic resistance among bacteria in particular those producing Extended Spectrum Beta lactamases (ES- BLs) has a very significant role in hospital acquired infections. Some of the gram negative bacilli including Klebsiella pneu- monia and Escherichia coli are known to be ESBL producers which cause uncontrollable infections because they are also often resistant to other antimicrobial agents. This study was
We sought to determine the frequency of horizontal transmission of antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacilli (ARGNB) in a pediatric intensive care unit during a nonoutbreak period. Among 5,300 admissions over 39 consecutive months, 13 ARGNB clusters involving 35 children were identified by pulsed-filed gel electrophoresis analysis, which suggests that person-to-person transmission was uncommon. PMID:21828974
Zoltanski, Joan; Dul, Michael; O'Riordan, Mary Ann; Blumer, Jeffrey; Toltzis, Philip
Gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli (NFB) are widely spread in the environment. Besides of difficulties for identification, they often have a marked multiresistance to antimicrobial agents, including those active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The objective of this study was to evaluate the 'in vitro' activity of different antimicrobial agents on 177 gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli isolates (excluding Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp.) isolated from clinical specimens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined according to the Mueller Hinton agar dilution method against the following antibacterial agents: ampicillin, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, sulbactam, cefoperazone, cefoperazone-sulbactam, ceftazidime, cefepime, aztreonam, imipenem, meropenem, colistin, gentamicin, amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, rifampin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and minocycline. Seven isolates: Sphingobacterium multivorum (2), Sphingobacteriumspiritivorum (1), Empedobacterbrevis (1), Weeksella virosa (1), Bergeyella zoohelcum (1) and Oligella urethralis (1), were tested for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and ampicillin-sulbactam susceptibility, and susceptibility to cefoperazone or sulbactam was not determined. Multiresistance was generally found in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Burkholderia cepacia, Chryseobacterium spp., Myroides spp., Achromobacter xylosoxidans, and Ochrobactrum anthropi isolates. On the other hand, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Shewanella putrefaciens-algae, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Bergeyella zoohelcum, Weeksella virosa and Oligella urethralis were widely susceptible to the antibacterial agents tested. As a result of the wide variation in antimicrobial susceptibility shown by different species, a test on susceptibility to different antibacterial agents is essential in order to select an adequate therapy. The marked multiresistance evidenced by some species, prompts the need to develop new antimicrobial agents active against this group of bacteria and to search for synergistic combinations. PMID:15991478
Vay, C A; Almuzara, M N; Rodríguez, C H; Pugliese, M L; Lorenzo Barba, F; Mattera, J C; Famiglietti, A M R
Mycobacterial growth in liquid culture can go undetected by automated, nonradiometric growth detection systems. In our laboratory, instrument-negative tubes from the Bactec MGIT 960 system are inspected visually for clumps suggestive of mycobacterial growth, which (if present) are examined by acid-fast smear analysis. A 3-year review demonstrated that ?1% of instrument-negative MGIT cultures contained mycobacterial growth and that 10% of all cultures yielding mycobacteria were instrument negative. Isolates from instrument-negative MGIT cultures included both tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacteria.
Pena, Jeremy A.; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Hoffman, Colleen G.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is assumed to remain in a quiescent state during latent infection, being unable to grow in culture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the detection of viable but non-cultivable bacilli with metabolic activity in human clinical samples using a procedure that is independent of the immunological status of the patient. The study was performed on 66 human clinical samples, from patients subjected to routine diagnosis to rule out a mycobacterial infection. Specimens from pulmonary and extra-pulmonary origins were verified to contain human DNA before testing for M. tuberculosis DNA, rRNA and transient RNA by real-time quantitative PCR. Clinical records of 55 patients were also reviewed. We were able to detect viable but non-cultivable bacilli with a metabolic activity in both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary samples. Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNA was detected in the majority of culture-positive samples whereas it was detected in one-third of culture-negative samples, 20% of them showed metabolic activity. Amplifications of the ftsZ gene and particularly of the main promoter of the ribosomal operon rrnA, namely PCL1, seem to be good targets to detect active bacilli putatively involved in latent infection. Moreover, this last target would provide information on the basal metabolic activity of the bacilli detected. PMID:22360423
Background The objectives of the study were to compare the performance of line probe assay (GenoType MTBDRplus) with solid culture method for an early diagnosis of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), and to study the mutation patterns associated with rpoB, katG and inhA genes at a tertiary care centre in north India. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 269 previously treated sputum-smear acid-fastbacilli (AFB) positive MDR-TB suspects were enrolled from January to September 2012 at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences hospital, New Delhi. Line probe assay (LPA) was performed directly on the sputum specimens and the results were compared with that of conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) on solid media [Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) method]. Results DST results by LPA and LJ methods were compared in 242 MDR-TB suspects. The LPA detected rifampicin (RIF) resistance in 70 of 71 cases, isoniazid (INH) resistance in 86 of 93 cases, and MDR-TB in 66 of 68 cases as compared to the conventional method. Overall (rifampicin, isoniazid and MDR-TB) concordance of the LPA with the conventional DST was 96%. Sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 99% respectively for detection of RIF resistance; 92% and 99% respectively for detection of INH resistance; 97% and 100% respectively for detection of MDR-TB. Frequencies of katG gene, inhA gene and combined katG and inhA gene mutations conferring all INH resistance were 72/87 (83%), 10/87 (11%) and 5/87 (6%) respectively. The turnaround time of the LPA test was 48 hours. Conclusion The LPA test provides an early diagnosis of monoresistance to isoniazid and rifampicin and is highly sensitive and specific for an early diagnosis of MDR-TB. Based on these findings, it is concluded that the LPA test can be useful in early diagnosis of drug resistant TB in high TB burden countries.
The marked increase in the incidence of infections due to antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacilli in recent years is of great concern, as patients infected by those isolates might initially receive antibiotics that are inactive against the responsible pathogens. To evaluate the effect of inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy on survival, a total of 286 patients with antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteremia, 61 patients with
We evaluated the Vitek 2 ID-GNB identification card (bioMérieux, Inc., Durham, N.C.) for its ability to identify members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and other gram-negative bacilli that are isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories. Using 482 enteric stock cultures and 103 strains of oxidase-positive, gram-negative glucose-fermenting and nonfermenting bacilli that were maintained at ?70°C and passaged three times before use, we inoculated cards according to the manufacturer's directions and processed them in a Vitek 2 instrument using version VT2-R02.03 software. All panel identifications were compared to reference identifications previously confirmed by conventional tube biochemical assays. At the end of the initial 3-h incubation period, the Vitek 2 instrument demonstrated an accuracy of 93.0% for the identification of enteric strains; 414 (85.9%) were correctly identified at probability levels ranging from excellent to good, and an additional 34 (7.1%) strains were correctly identified but at a low level of discrimination. Nineteen (3.9%) strains were unidentified, and 15 (3.1%) were misidentified. The 19 unidentified strains were scattered among 10 genera. Three of the 15 misidentified strains were lactose-positive Salmonella spp. and were identified as Escherichia coli; another was a lactose-positive, malonate-negative Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae strain that was identified as E. coli. Of the 103 glucose-fermenting and nonfermenting nonenteric strains, 88 (85.4%) were correctly identified at probability levels ranging from excellent to good, and 10 (9.7%) were correctly identified, but at a low level of discrimination, for a total of 95.1% accuracy with this group. Two strains were unidentified and three were misidentified. The errors occurred for strains in three different genera. With the increased hands-off approach of the Vitek 2 instrument and accuracies of 93% for the identification of enteric organisms and 95.1% for the identification of nonenteric organisms with the ID-GNB card, use of this product presents an acceptable method for the identification of most gram-negative organisms commonly isolated in the clinical laboratory. A comparison of these results to those obtained by testing 454 of the same strains with the Vitek GNI+ card revealed no significant difference in the abilities of the two cards to identify these organisms accurately.
Acidfastbacilli stain; AFB stain; Tuberculosis smear; TB smear ... Abnormal results show that the stain is positive for: Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mycobacterium avium-intracellular Other mycobacteria or acid-fast bacteria
Background The TlyA protein has a controversial function as a virulence factor in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). At present, its dual activity as hemolysin and RNA methyltransferase in M. tuberculosis has been indirectly proposed based on in vitro results. There is no evidence however for TlyA relevance in the survival of tubercle bacilli inside host cells or whether both activities are functionally linked. A thorough analysis of structure prediction for this mycobacterial protein in this study shows the need for reevaluating TlyA's function in virulence. Results Bioinformatics analysis of TlyA identified a ribosomal protein binding domain (S4 domain), located between residues 5 and 68 as well as an FtsJ-like methyltranferase domain encompassing residues 62 and 247, all of which have been previously described in translation machinery-associated proteins. Subcellular localization prediction showed that TlyA lacks a signal peptide and its hydrophobicity profile showed no evidence of transmembrane helices. These findings suggested that it may not be attached to the membrane, which is consistent with a cytoplasmic localization. Three-dimensional modeling of TlyA showed a consensus structure, having a common core formed by a six-stranded ?-sheet between two ?-helix layers, which is consistent with an RNA methyltransferase structure. Phylogenetic analyses showed high conservation of the tlyA gene among Mycobacterium species. Additionally, the nucleotide substitution rates suggested purifying selection during tlyA gene evolution and the absence of a common ancestor between TlyA proteins and bacterial pore-forming proteins. Conclusion Altogether, our manual in silico curation suggested that TlyA is involved in ribosomal biogenesis and that there is a functional annotation error regarding this protein family in several microbial and plant genomes, including the M. tuberculosis genome.
In vitro evaluation of colistin susceptibility is fraught with complications, due in part to the inherent cationic properties of colistin. In addition, no reference method has been defined against which to compare the results of colistin susceptibility testing. This study systematically evaluated the available methods for colistin MIC testing in two phases. In phase I, colistin MICs were determined in 107 fresh clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) by broth microdilution with polysorbate 80 (BMD-T), broth macrodilution (TDS), and the Etest. In phase II, 50 of these isolates, 10 of which were colistin resistant, were tested in parallel using BMD-T, TDS, agar dilution, broth microdilution without polysorbate 80 (BMD), and the TREK Gram-negative extra MIC format (GNXF) Sensititre. The Etest was also performed on these 50 isolates using Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) from three different manufacturers. Colistin MIC results obtained from the five methods were compared to the MIC results obtained using BMD-T, the method that enables the highest nominal concentration of colistin in the test medium. Essential agreement ranged from 34% (BMD) to 83% (TDS), whereas categorical agreement was >90% for all methods except for BMD, which was 88%. Very major errors (VMEs) (i.e., false susceptibility) for the Etest were found in 47 to 53% of the resistant isolates, depending on the manufacturer of the MHA that was used. In contrast, VMEs were found for 10% (n = 1) of the resistant isolates by BMD and 0% of the isolates by the TDS, agar dilution, and Sensititre methods. Based on these data, we urge clinical laboratories to be aware of the variable results that can occur when using different methods for colistin MIC testing and, in particular, to use caution with the Etest. PMID:23486719
Fifty two aerobic and endospore forming Bacilli (AEFB) strains were recovered from rhizospheric soil of Phyllanthus amarus. Morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization by 16S rDNA gene sequencing has shown that these bacterial strains belong to six different genera of AEFB i.e. Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Terribacillus and Jeotgalibacillus. Analysis of their PGP activities has shown that 92.30 % strains produced indole acetic acid hormone, 86.53 % of the strains solubilized Phosphate and 44.23 % strains produced siderophore. Chitinase production activity was shown by 42.30 % of the strains and 21.15 % of the strains produced 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase. 46.15 % of isolates have shown antagonistic activity against common fungal pathogen of the plant i.e. Corynespora cassiicola. Among all of the isolated strains B. Cereus JP44SK22 and JP44SK42 have shown all of the six plant growth promoting traits tested. B. megaterium strains (JP44SK18 and JP44SK35), Lysinibacillus sphaericus strains (JP44SK3 and JP44SK4) and Brevibacillus laterosporus strain JP44SK51 have also shown multiple PGP activities except ACC deaminase production activity. In the present study bacterial strain belonging to genera Jeotgalibacillus sp. JP44SK37 has been reported first time as a member of rhizospheric soil habitat and has also shown PGP activities. It can be concluded that Rhizosphere of P. amarus has harboured a good diversity of AEFB bacterial strains having a lot of biofertilizing and biocontrol abilities. PMID:23526192
Background Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteria (ESBL-PE) emerged at the end of the 1980s, causing nosocomial outbreaks and/or hyperendemic situations in hospitals and long-term care facilities. In recent years, community-acquired infections due to ESBL-PE have spread worldwide, especially across developing countries including Madagascar. Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal carriage of ESBL-PE in the community of Antananarivo. Methods Non-hospitalized patients were recruited in three health centers in different socio economic settings. Fresh stool collected were immediately plated on Drigalski agar containing 3 mg/liter of ceftriaxone. Gram-negative bacilli species were identified and ESBL production was tested by a double disk diffusion (cefotaxime and ceftazidime +/? clavulanate) assay. Characterization of ESBLs were perfomed by PCR and direct sequencing . Molecular epidemiology was analysed by Rep-PCR and ERIC-PCR. Results 484 patients were screened (sex ratio ?=?1.03, median age 28 years). 53 ESBL-PE were isolated from 49 patients (carrier rate 10.1%). The isolates included Escherichia coli (31), Klebsiella pneumoniae (14), Enterobacter cloacae (3), Citrobacter freundii (3), Kluyvera spp. (1) and Pantoae sp.(1). In multivariate analysis, only the socioeconomic status of the head of household was independently associated with ESBL-PE carriage, poverty being the predominant risk factor. Conclusions The prevalence of carriage of ESBL in the community of Antananarivo is one of the highest reported worldwide. This alarming spread of resistance genes should be stopped urgently by improving hygiene and streamlining the distribution and consumption of antibiotics.
In this prospective multicentric study, we assessed the in vitro antimicrobial activity of carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, and doripenem), tigecycline, and colistin against 166 unusual nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NF-GNB) clinical isolates collected from nine French hospitals during a 6-month period (from December 1, 2008, to May 31, 2009). All NF-GNB isolates were included, except those phenotypically identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Acinetobacter baumannii. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimicrobial agents were determined by using the E-test technique. The following microorganisms were identified: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n=72), Pseudomonas spp. (n=30), Achromobacter xylosoxidans (n=25), Acinetobacter spp. (n=18), Burkholderia cepacia complex (n=9), Alcaligenes faecalis (n=7), and Delftia spp. (n=5). All isolates of Acinetobacter spp., A. faecalis, and Delftia spp. were susceptible to the three carbapenems. Imipenem exhibited the lowest MICs against Pseudomonas spp., and meropenem, as compared with imipenem and doripenem, displayed an interesting antimicrobial activity against A. xylosoxidans and B. cepacia complex isolates. Conversely, no carbapenem exhibited any activity against S. maltophilia. Except for S. maltophilia isolates, tigecycline and colistin exhibited higher MICs than carbapenems, but covered most of the microorganisms tested in this study. To our knowledge, no prior study has compared antimicrobial activity of these five antibiotics, often considered as "last-resort" treatment options for resistant Gram-negative infections, against unusual NF-GNB clinical isolates. Further studies should be carried out to assess the potential clinical use of these antibiotics for the treatment of infections due to these microorganisms. PMID:22335615
The identification of nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli isolated from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is usually achieved by using phenotype-based techniques and eventually molecular tools. These techniques remain time-consuming, expensive, and technically demanding. We used a method based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for the identification of these bacteria. A set of reference strains belonging to 58 species of clinically relevant nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli was used. To identify peaks discriminating between these various species, the profile of 10 isolated colonies obtained from 10 different passages was analyzed for each referenced strain. Conserved peaks with a relative intensity greater than 0.1 were retained. The spectra of 559 clinical isolates were then compared to that of each of the 58 reference strains as follows: 400 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 54 Achromobacter xylosoxidans, 32 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, 52 Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), 1 Burkholderia gladioli, 14 Ralstonia mannitolilytica, 2 Ralstonia pickettii, 1 Bordetella hinzii, 1 Inquilinus limosus, 1 Cupriavidus respiraculi, and 1 Burkholderia thailandensis. Using this database, 549 strains were correctly identified. Nine BCC strains and one R. mannnitolilytica strain were identified as belonging to the appropriate genus but not the correct species. We subsequently engineered BCC- and Ralstonia-specific databases using additional reference strains. Using these databases, correct identification for these species increased from 83 to 98% and from 94 to 100% of cases, respectively. Altogether, these data demonstrate that, in CF patients, MALDI-TOF-MS is a powerful tool for rapid identification of nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli.
An unusual case of ileal tuberculosis presenting with only ascites, without evidence of previous or active pulmonary tuberculosis, and absence of caseous necrosis and granulomatous inflammation is discussed. Diagnosis was established on biopsy specimens of ileocaecal region collected at colonscopy: acid-fastbacilli and positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Parenteral nutrition, surgery and antituberculous drug treatment resulted in a complete recovery of the patient. PMID:7761671
Cavallo-Perin, P; Salizzoni, M; Mazzucco, G; Malfi, G; Pagano, G
PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained directly from tissue specimens from eight cats with presumptive feline leprosy. Acid-fastbacilli were observed in sections from all eight specimens, but culture for mycobacteria was successful for one specimen only. Analysis of the V2 variable region of each 16S rRNA PCR product identified a sequence with 100% nucleotide identity to the sequences
M. S. HUGHES; N. W. BALL; L.-A. BECK; G. W. DE LISLE; R. A. SKUCE; S. D. NEILL
. A 44-year old, male, tattooed, leather jacket clad, Harley-Davidson motorcyclist arrived at the emergency room with a tender,\\u000a irreducible mass, presenting at the external inguinal ring. In 1998, lung biopsy was read as miliary granuloma. No herniation\\u000a was found on urgent preperitoneal exploration. Incision of the mass showed acid-fastbacilli. Culture later revealed Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI). A blood count
Background: In many cases, physicians initiate anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment based only on symptoms or radiographic findings without confirmation of pulmonary TB by acid-fastbacilli (AFB) smear. It has not been well known which clinical characteristics could be used as predictors for positive culture or real TB in patients with sputum smear-negative presumptive pulmonary TB. Objective: We tried to elucidate treatment
Chang-Hoon Lee; Woo Jin Kim; Chul-Gyu Yoo; Young Whan Kim; Sung Koo Han; Young-Soo Shim; Jae-Joon Yim
Fifteen-hundred hospital blood cultures were made in duplicate, with and without 0.05% sodium polyanethol sulfonate in the broth medium. A significantly higher rate and speed of recovery of both gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli was accomplished in sodium polyanethol sulfonate broth. The effect was independent of the content of 0.1% agar in the growth medium. In the cases of Neisseria meningitidis septicemia examined, however, a detrimental result on recoveries was observed. The addition of sodium polyanethol sulfonate also resulted in an increased frequency of recoveries of contaminating organisms. PMID:809466
Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli are emerging threats in the intensive care unit setting worldwide. Extended-spectrum ?-lactamases, AmpC ?-lactamases, and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are increasing at an alarming rate, leaving limited therapeutic options. In addition, multidrug resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii has widely disseminated and become a frequent cause of nosocomial infections within many intensive care units. Therefore, resistance is increasing to all currently available antibiotics, including cephalosporins, penicillins, aztreonam, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides. Some multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria remain susceptible to only a few antibiotics such as tigecycline, fosfomycin, and polymyxins. The steady trend of increasing resistance coupled with the lack of novel antibiotics targeting resistant gram-negative bacilli has forced clinicians to increasingly apply more aggressive dosing strategies, such as prolonged and continuous infusion of ?-lactam antibiotics to address the challenges associated with these difficult-to-treat pathogens. Nurses who have a thorough understanding of antibiotic resistance patterns, infection control procedures, and appropriate antibiotic use and dosing regimens, particularly the method of administration, are essential in the battle to preserve the usefulness of antibiotics and prevent further antibiotic resistance. PMID:24002425
The rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of bacteria in clinical blood cultures is crucial to optimise antimicrobial therapy. A previous study involving small sample numbers revealed that the addition of saponin to blood cultures, further referred to as the new method, shortened considerably the turn-around time for the identification and AST of Gram-positive cocci as compared to the current method involving an overnight subculture. Here, we extend previous results and compare the identification and AST of blood cultures containing Gram-negative bacilli by the new and current methods. The identification and AST of 121 Gram-positive and 109 Gram-negative bacteria in clinical monomicrobial blood cultures by the new and current methods and, in the case of Gram-negative bacilli, by direct (no additions) inoculation into an automated system (rapid method) was assessed using the Vitek 2 system. Discrepancies between the results obtained with the different methods were solved by manual methods. The new method correctly identified 88 % of Gram-positive and 98 % of Gram-negative bacteria, and the rapid method correctly identified 94 % of Gram-negative bacteria. The AST for all antimicrobials by the new method were concordant with the current method for 55 % and correct for an additional 9 % of Gram-positive bacteria, and concordant with the current method for 62 % and correct for an additional 21 % of Gram-negative bacilli. The AST by the rapid method was concordant with the current method for 62 % and correct for an additional 12 % of Gram-negative bacilli. Together, saponin-treated monomicrobial blood cultures allow rapid and reliable identification and AST of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:23114724
Lupetti, A; Barnini, S; Morici, P; Ghelardi, E; Nibbering, P H; Campa, M
The literature documents poor concordance between superficial swab and intraoperative tissue cultures in chronic prosthetic joint infections but is less clear in acute postsurgical prosthetic joint infections. We evaluated the relationship between superficial swab and deep intraoperative cultures in 56 patients with acute postsurgical prosthetic joint infections from June 2003 to June 2007; patients receiving antibiotics were excluded. There were 30 hip and 26 knee prostheses. A superficial sample of the wound drainage was taken at admission and three deep samples were obtained during open débridement. Concordance was defined when at least one of the microorganisms isolated in the superficial samples also was found in the deep samples. The analysis also was performed according to the type of microorganism: Staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative bacilli, or other gram-positive microorganisms. Concordance between superficial and deep samples was 80.3% (45 of 56). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of superficial cultures to predict the microorganism isolated in deep cultures varied depending on the type of microorganism: 93.7%, 100%, 100%, and 97.5% for S. aureus; 90%, 91.6%, 85.7%, and 94.3% for gram-negative bacilli; and 50%, 75%, 60%, and 66.7% for other gram-positive microorganisms. We therefore believe the superficial swab culture is useful in identifying the etiologic microorganism of acute prosthetic joint infections, especially when S. aureus or gram-negative bacilli were identified. Level of Evidence: Level II, diagnostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Soriano, Alex; Martinez, Juan C.; Garcia, Sebastian; Mensa, Josep
Administration to inbred mice of the methanol extraction residue fraction of tubercle bacilli by some, but not by all, routes affected markedly the in vitro phagocytic and antibacterial capacities of their peritoneal macrophages harvested several days to weeks after treatment. Phagocytosis of living [3H]thymidine- labeled Staphylococcus albus and Staphylococcus aureus organisms, but not of Listeria monocytogenes, was markedly enhanced. Uptake of the deoxyribonucleic acid precursor thymidine by the phagocytized staphylococci was consistently and significantly inhibited in macrophages taken from methanol extraction residue-treated donors. Such macrophages also displayed a significant facility to reduce the viability of intracellular S. albus and L. monocytogenes, but not of S. aureus, under the present experimental conditions.
A comparative evaluation of the Crystal Enteric/Nonfermenter system (Crystal; Becton Dickinson, Cockeysville, Md.), API 20E (API; bioMérieux Vitek, Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.), and the Vitek GNI card (Vitek; bioMérieux Vitek) was performed with 512 clinical isolates of gram-negative bacilli, including 381 members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and 131 nonenteric bacilli. With supplemental testing, API, Crystal, and Vitek correctly identified to the genus and species level 505 (98.6%), 489 (95.5%), and 494 (96.5%) of the 512 isolates, respectively. Supplemental testing, as specified by the manufacturer, was required to identify 119 (23.2%), 18 (3.5%), and 5 (1.0%) of the isolates with the three systems, respectively. Of the 381 isolates from the family Enterobacteriaceae, API and Crystal correctly identified 90.3 and 91.6% by 18 to 24 h without supplemental testing, respectively, and Vitek identified 92.4 and 96.1% following 10 and 18 h of incubation, respectively. Of the 131 nonenteric organisms, API and Crystal correctly identified 28.2 and 93.9% by 18 to 24 h without supplemental testing, respectively, and Vitek identified 84.0% by 10 h and 93.9% by 18 h. Errors in identification with each system were infrequent and appeared to be randomly distributed among the genera evaluated. The three systems were comparable in accuracy when either a weighted clinical laboratory profile of organisms or a group of selected isolates in a stress test sample was evaluated (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences between the three systems in their ability to identify either the isolates in the weighted group or those in the stress test (P > 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
A total of 80 patients were randomized to receive either aztreonam or tobramycin for the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections caused by gram-negative bacilli; all these patients received clindamycin concomitantly. A total of 53 patients were randomized to receive aztreonam-clindamycin; of these, 46 were clinically evaluable and 39 were bacteriologically evaluable. Of the 46 clinically evaluable patients, 41 were considered cured, 3 failed to be cured, and 2 died during the study period of unrelated causes. Of the 39 bacteriologically evaluable patients, 36 were considered cured, and 3 failed to be cured. There were 26 clinically evaluable patients in the group randomized to receive tobramycin-clindamycin. Of them, 22 patients were considered cured, 3 failed to be cured, and 1 died of unrelated causes during the study period. There were 18 bacteriologically evaluable patients in the tobramycin-clindamycin group; 17 were cured, and 1 failed to be cured. The most common pathogens isolated from the patients were Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All of the isolated organisms were susceptible to both tested antibiotics, except for a strain of Pseudomonas cepacia resistant to both tested antimicrobial agents and a strain of Enterobacter aerogenes and one of P. aeruginosa that were resistant to aztreonam. Very few adverse reactions related to the antibiotics were seen. These effects, when present, were transient and comparable in both studied groups, except for renal-function tests, which were altered in 7.7% of the patients randomized to receive tobramycin-clindamycin and in none of the patients randomized to receive aztreonam-clindamycin. Aztreonam-clindamycin is safe and effective for the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections caused by aerobic gram-negative bacilli when the organisms are susceptible.
Detecting colonization of patients with carbapenemase-producing bacteria can be difficult. This study compared the sensitivity and specificity of a PCR-based method (Xpert MDRO) for detecting blaKPC, blaNDM, and blaVIM carbapenem resistance genes using GeneXpert cartridges to the results of culture with and without a broth enrichment step on 328 rectal, perirectal, and stool samples. The culture method included direct inoculation of a MacConkey agar plate on which a 10-?g meropenem disk was placed and plating on MacConkey agar after overnight enrichment of the sample in MacConkey broth containing 1 ?g/ml of meropenem. Forty-three (13.1%) samples were positive by PCR for blaKPC and 11 (3.4%) were positive for blaVIM; none were positive for blaNDM. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the PCR assay for blaKPC were 100%, 99.0%, 93.0%, and 100%, respectively, compared to broth enrichment culture and sequencing of target genes. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the assay for blaVIM were 100%, 99.4%, 81.8%, and 100%, respectively. Since none of the clinical samples contained organisms with blaNDM, 66 contrived stool samples were prepared at various dilutions using three Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates containing blaNDM. The PCR assay showed 100% positivity at dilutions from 300 to 1,800 CFU/ml and 93.3% at 150 CFU/ml. The Xpert MDRO PCR assay required 2 min of hands-on time and 47 min to complete. Rapid identification of patients colonized with carbapenemase-producing organisms using multiplex PCR may help hospitals to improve infection control activities. PMID:24006011
Tenover, Fred C; Canton, Rafael; Kop, Joann; Chan, Ryan; Ryan, Jamie; Weir, Fred; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia; Labombardi, Vincent; Persing, David H
... culture if the sample involves the mucous membranes . See also: Herpes culture ... There is no preparation needed for a culture. For information on how to prepare for a skin or mucosal sample, see: Skin lesion biopsy Gum biopsy
The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.
The Auto Microbic System (AMS) is an almost completely automated system, capable of identifying Enterobacteriaceae after 8 hours, and some glucose nonfermenters after 13 hours of incubation. The Autobac ID system is a mechanized, computer-assisted system capable of identifying Enterobacteriaceae and many nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli within 3-6 hours. The present report combines the results of two independent studies, both of which evaluated the AMS and the Autobac ID system compared with standard reference tests. Among the 1,510 isolates that were tested, both systems reported equivocal identifications (low confidence values) with 5-6% of the strains. AMS produced fewer erroneous identifications (3.8% vs. 4.9%) but more equivocal test results (5.7% vs. 4.9%). Reproducibility of the two systems was compared by triplicate testing of 88 selected strains in both laboratories. AMS was somewhat more reproducible than the Autobac ID system. The AMS was capable of identifying more species with greater accuracy and reproducibility, but the Autobac ID system was more rapid. Both systems demonstrated excellent accuracy and reproducibility and both could be used efficiently in the clinical laboratory. PMID:6753560
A methanolic extract of Punica granatum (pomegranate) fruit pericarp (PGME) was tested in combination with ciprofloxacin against extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and metallo-?-lactamase (MBL) producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which were screened for their resistance profile against fluoroquinolone antibiotics. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of ciprofloxacin and PGME, alone, were determined, and synergy of ciprofloxacin-PGME combinations evaluated by checkerboard assay and fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC). Nineteen out of forty-nine strains exhibited synergy with ciprofloxacin (FIC of 0.125-0.5 for ciprofloxacin) further verified by agar-well assay. This could be due to the bacterial efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) activity of the polyphenolic constituents of PGME. However, the isolates exhibiting a high level of ciprofloxacin resistance did not respond to ciprofloxacin-PGME combinations, which could be due to target site modification not influenced further by EPI activity of PGME. Again, some strains were sensitive or weakly resistant to ciprofloxacin, which exhibited 'indifference' to the combination, probably due to a lack of over-expressed efflux mechanism. Thus, a synergy of a ciprofloxacin-PGME combination was demonstrated for the first time against ESBL- and MBL-producing Gram-negative bacilli, and the efficacy of an existing drug improved with the help of an inexpensive alternative therapy. PMID:22982804
The comparative in vitro activity of the ketolide HMR 3647 (RU 66647) and those of structurally related macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin compounds (erythromycin, roxithromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, josamycin, lincomycin, pristinamycin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin) as well as those of benzylpenicillin, doxycycline, vancomycin, teicoplanin, levofloxacin, and rifapentine against 247 aerobic and facultative non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli were determined by an agar dilution method. The ketolide was active against most organisms tested except Corynebacterium striatum, coryneform CDC group 12, and Oerskovia spp. The frequency of resistance to erythromycin and other macrolides as well as that to lincomycin was high. Pristinamycin and, to a lesser extent, quinupristin-dalfopristin were very active, but resistance to these agents was present in some strains of Rhodococcus equi, Listeria spp., C. striatum, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and Oerskovia spp. HMR 3647 was very active against all erythromycin-sensitive and many erythromycin-nonsusceptible strains, especially Corynebacterium minutissimum, Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum, Corynebacterium amycolatum, and Corynebacterium jeikeium. In vitro resistance to benzylpenicillin was common, but doxycycline, vancomycin, and teicoplanin were very active against most organisms tested except E. rhusiopathiae, against which glycopeptide antibiotics were not active. The in vitro activity of levofloxacin was remarkable, but resistance to this agent was common for C. amycolatum, Corynebacterium urealyticum, C. jeikeium, and Oerskovia spp. strains. Rifapentine was also very active in vitro against many organisms, but resistance to this agent was always present in E. rhusiopathiae and was very common in C. striatum and C. urealyticum. PMID:9593121
Soriano, F; Fernández-Roblas, R; Calvo, R; García-Calvo, G
The comparative in vitro activity of the ketolide HMR 3647 (RU 66647) and those of structurally related macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin compounds (erythromycin, roxithromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, josamycin, lincomycin, pristinamycin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin) as well as those of benzylpenicillin, doxycycline, vancomycin, teicoplanin, levofloxacin, and rifapentine against 247 aerobic and facultative non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli were determined by an agar dilution method. The ketolide was active against most organisms tested except Corynebacterium striatum, coryneform CDC group I2, and Oerskovia spp. The frequency of resistance to erythromycin and other macrolides as well as that to lincomycin was high. Pristinamycin and, to a lesser extent, quinupristin-dalfopristin were very active, but resistance to these agents was present in some strains of Rhodococcus equi, Listeria spp., C. striatum, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and Oerskovia spp. HMR 3647 was very active against all erythromycin-sensitive and many erythromycin-nonsusceptible strains, especially Corynebacterium minutissimum, Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum, Corynebacterium amycolatum, and Corynebacterium jeikeium. In vitro resistance to benzylpenicillin was common, but doxycycline, vancomycin, and teicoplanin were very active against most organisms tested except E. rhusiopathiae, against which glycopeptide antibiotics were not active. The in vitro activity of levofloxacin was remarkable, but resistance to this agent was common for C. amycolatum, Corynebacterium urealyticum, C. jeikeium, and Oerskovia spp. strains. Rifapentine was also very active in vitro against many organisms, but resistance to this agent was always present in E. rhusiopathiae and was very common in C. striatum and C. urealyticum.
Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially the "ESKAPE" pathogens, continue to increase in frequency and cause significant morbidity and mortality. New antimicrobial agents are greatly needed to treat infections caused by gram-negative bacilli (GNB) resistant to currently available agents. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) continues to propose legislative, regulatory, and funding solutions to this continuing crisis. The current report updates the status of development and approval of systemic antibiotics in the United States as of early 2013. Only 2 new antibiotics have been approved since IDSA's 2009 pipeline status report, and the number of new antibiotics annually approved for marketing in the United States continues to decline. We identified 7 drugs in clinical development for treatment of infections caused by resistant GNB. None of these agents was included in our 2009 list of antibacterial compounds in phase 2 or later development, but unfortunately none addresses the entire spectrum of clinically relevant GNB resistance. Our survey demonstrates some progress in development of new antibacterial drugs that target infections caused by resistant GNB, but progress remains alarmingly elusive. IDSA stresses our conviction that the antibiotic pipeline problem can be solved by the collaboration of global leaders to develop creative incentives that will stimulate new antibacterial research and development. Our aim is the creation of a sustainable global antibacterial drug research and development enterprise with the power in the short term to develop 10 new, safe, and efficacious systemically administered antibiotics by 2020 as called for in IDSA's "10 × '20 Initiative." PMID:23599308
Boucher, Helen W; Talbot, George H; Benjamin, Daniel K; Bradley, John; Guidos, Robert J; Jones, Ronald N; Murray, Barbara E; Bonomo, Robert A; Gilbert, David
During 2008, the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) collected 2370 unique aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli associated with intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) from 32 centres in 11 countries in the Asia–Pacific region and tested their in vitro susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial agents using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution method. Enterobacteriaceae comprised 88.1% of the isolates,
Po-Ren Hsueh; Robert E. Badal; Stephen P. Hawser; Daryl J. Hoban; Samuel K. Bouchillon; Yuxing Ni; David L. Paterson
This article analyses and contextualises a variety of relationships between the cultural industries and cultural policy. A principal aim is to examine policies which are explicitly formulated as cultural (or creative) industries policies. It seeks to address questions such as: what lies behind such policies? How do they relate to other kinds of cultural policy, including those more oriented towards
Culture Machine is a new, refereed, electronic journal encompassing cultural studies and cultural theory. The international editorial board of the interactive journal aims to "generat[e] research in culture and theory" by promoting and publishing "the most provocative of new work." The theme of the inaugural issue is Taking Risks with the Future. Content includes articles such as Life After Death of the Text by Johan Fornas, Cultural Studies in the Clouds: Mourning for Detail by Tadeusz Slawek, and The Future States of Politics by Kenneth Surin. Culture Machine is hosted by the University of Teesside, England.
Cultural neuroscience issues from the apparently incompatible combination of neuroscience and cultural psychology. A brief literature sampling suggests, instead, several preliminary topics that demonstrate proof of possibilities: cultural differences in both lower-level processes (e.g. perception, number representation) and higher-order processes (e.g. inferring others’ emotions, contemplating the self) are beginning to shed new light on both culture and cognition. Candidates for future cultural neuroscience research include cultural variations in the default (resting) network, which may be social; regulation and inhibition of feelings, thoughts, and actions; prejudice and dehumanization; and neural signatures of fundamental warmth and competence judgments.
We studied the relationship between in vitro susceptibility tests (MICs, MBCs) and in vivo activity of tobramycin, pefloxacin, ceftazidime, and imipenem against 15 gram-negative bacilli from five different species in a murine thigh infection model. Complete dose-response curves were determined for each antimicrobial agent against each strain, and three parameters of in vivo activity were defined: maximal attainable antimicrobial effect (i.e., reduction in log10 CFU per thigh compared with untreated controls) at 24 h (Emax), total dose required to reach 50% of maximal effect (P50), and total dose required to achieve a bacteriostatic effect (static dose). Pefloxacin demonstrated the greatest Emax (P less than 0.05). Tobramycin was the most potent antimicrobial agent, as indicated by its having the lowest static dose/MIC ratio (P less than 0.002). Log10 P50s and static doses correlated significantly with log10 MICs or MBCs for the 15 strains of each antibiotic (P less than 0.01) except imipenem (P greater than 0.50). The greater potency of imipenem against the three Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains than against strains of the family Enterobacteriaceae (P less than 0.01) explained this lack of correlation. A longer duration of postantibiotic effect for imipenem against P. aeruginosa (P = 0.02) contributed to its increased potency against these strains. We conclude that in vitro susceptibility tests correlated well with in vivo activity in this animal model and that variations in potency among the four antimicrobial agents could be explained by differences in pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamic activity.
A total of 91 multiply resistant bacterial strains, including Klebsiella pneumoniae (32 strains), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16 strains), and Serratia marcescens (43 strains), were collected during hospital epidemics of nosocomial infection from 1975 to 1979. These strains were resistant to gentamicin, tobramycin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, and ampicillin. Their susceptibility to three new broad-spectrum ?-lactams, LY127935 (a 1-oxa-?-lactam), cefotaxime (HR 756), and cefoperazone (T 1551), was compared with the susceptibility of random strains of nine species of aerobic gram-negative bacilli collected in the same hospital in 1979. Susceptibility to cefamandole and ticarcillin was also determined. Strains of staphylococci and streptococci from that hospital and two nearby city-county hospitals were also compared for the three new cephalosporins and other effective antibiotics. The agar dilution method was used to measure the minimum inhibitory concentration for each antibiotic. The multiply resistant strains (minimum inhibitory concentration for gentamicin ? 8 ?g/ml) usually were as susceptible to the three new broad-spectrum ?-lactams as were non-multiply resistant strains. Both Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcescens, including multiply resistant and non-multiply resistant strains, were most susceptible to the 1-oxa-?-lactam LY127935 and cefotaxime. P. aeruginosa (both multiply resistant and non-multiply resistant strains) were most susceptible to cefoperazone. All three new ?-lactams were active against non-multiply resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp., and Citrobacter spp. Providencia stuartii were most susceptible to cefotaxime and the 1-oxa-?-lactam LY127935. The three new ?-lactams were all less active against staphylococci (especially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) than cephalothin. Streptococcus pyogenes and S. pneumoniae were very susceptible to cefotaxime and cefoperazone, though less susceptible to LY127935. None of the three new ?-lactams was active against S. faecalis. All were very active against both penicillinase-positive and -negative strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Hall, Wendell H.; Opfer, Bonnie J.; Gerding, Dale N.
A molecular assay to quantify Mycobacterium tuberculosis is described. In vitro, 98% (n = 96) of sputum samples with a known number of bacilli (107 to 102 bacilli) could be enumerated within 0.5 log10. In comparison to culture, the molecular bacterial load (MBL) assay is unaffected by other microorganisms present in the sample, results are obtained more quickly (within 24 h) and are seldom inhibited (0.7% samples), and the MBL assay critically shows the same biphasic decline as observed longitudinally during treatment. As a biomarker of treatment response, the MBL assay responds rapidly, with a mean decline in bacterial load for 111 subjects of 0.99 log10 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.81 to 1.17) after 3 days of chemotherapy. There was a significant association between the rate of bacterial decline during the same 3 days and bacilli ml?1 sputum at day 0 (linear regression, P = 0.0003) and a 3.62 increased odds ratio of relapse for every 1 log10 increase in pretreatment bacterial load (95% CI, 1.53 to 8.59).
Honeyborne, Isobella; McHugh, Timothy D.; Phillips, Patrick P. J.; Bannoo, Selina; Bateson, Anna; Carroll, Nora; Perrin, Felicity M.; Ronacher, Katharina; Wright, Laura; van Helden, Paul D.; Walzl, Gerhard; Gillespie, Stephen H.
Postoperative septicaemia with infective endocarditis is a recognized complication of open-heart surgery, in particular homograft or prosthetic replacement of cardiac valves. Several infective organisms, both bacterial and fungal, have been incriminated but infection due to tubercle bacilli has not, to our knowledge, been reported. The clinicopathological features of this condition are discussed. During a five-year period, over 800 homograft replacements in the aortic and/or mitral positions have been performed at Harefield Hospital. Seven cases of miliary tuberculosis following homograft valve replacement are descrbied here. In three, there was a past history suggestive of tuberculosis infections but necropsy failed to reveal any caseous or other tuberculous lesion apart from recent miliary tuberculosis. Vegetations on the homograft valves contained microcolonies of acid-fastbacilli in most cases. Tubercle bacilli of the human type were recovered by culture or guinea-pig inoculation in six of the seven cases, and in three the diagnosis was established during life; two of these survived on antituberculosis chemotherapy. The onset of symptoms varied from a few weeks to 12 months after operation. The main presenting symptom was intermittent pyrexia. In two patients the diagnosis was made on radiological and clinical grounds and in both, tubercle bacilli were grown from drill biopsy specimens of lung tissue. The source of infection was presumed to be the homograft valves contaminated in the postmorten room. The antibiotic mixture used in the sterilization of the homografts was not effective against tubercle bacilli.
Drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis poses a major threat to public health. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Radix Ranunculi Ternati, Radix Sophorae Flavescentis, Prunella Vulgaris L. and Stellera Chamaejasme L. extracts on cell?mediated immunity in a rat model of tuberculosis (TB) induced by multiple drug-resistant bacilli. The bacterium was isolated from patients infected with pulmonary tuberculosis. The immunological response in humans following infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis involves a number of cytokines, including IFN-? and IFN-?, which are important for killing intracellular micro-organisms. T helper type 2 (Th2) cells express numerous cytokines, including IL-4 and IL-10, which mainly participate in humoral immunity and induce the phagocytosis of extracellular bacteria and parasites. In the present study, rats were infected with multiple drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in order to establish an MDR-TB model. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and cultivated, and the serum levels of IFN-?, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-12 were examined by ELISA. The mRNA expression levels of certain cytokines in PBMCs were additionally detected using RT-PCR. The serum levels of IFN-? in the Radix Ranunculi Ternati, Radix Sophorae Flavescentis, Prunella Vulgaris L. and Stellera Chamaejasme L. groups were 2.01±0.73, 1.92±0.56, 1.98±0.67 and 1.94±0.59 pg/ml; IL-4 levels were 6.01±1.46, 6.12±1.35, 6.47±1.46 and 6.15±1.44 pg/ml; IL-10 levels were 12.09±3.07, 12.45±4.01, 12.13±3.43 and 12.54±3.78 pg/ml; and IL-12 levels were 2.99±0.89, 2.75±0.84, 3.02±0.86 and 2.89±0.75 pg/ml, respectively. These differences were significant compared with the model group (P<0.05). RT-PCR analysis revealed a significant increase in the levels of IFN-? and IL-12, and a significant decrease in the mRNA levels of IL-4 and IL-10 (P<0.05). These results indicated that the extracts of Radix Ranunculi Ternati, Radix Sophorae Flavescentis, Prunella Vulgaris L. and Stellera Chamaejasme L. are capable of enhancing cell?mediated immunity in rats by upregulating the levels of genetic transcription. This may explain the observed therapeutic effect of Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of MDR-TB. PMID:23716296
Lu, Jun; Ye, Song; Qin, Rui; Deng, Yun; Li, Chao-Pin
The Phoenix 100 ID/AST system (Becton Dickinson Co., Sparks, Md.) is an automated system for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates. This system with its negative identification (NID) panel was evaluated for its accuracy in the identification of 507 isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 57 other nonenteric gram-negative isolates that are commonly isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories, and 138 isolates of the family Vibrionaceae. All of the isolates had been characterized by using approximately 48 conventional tube biochemicals. Of the 507 isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae, 456 (89.9%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels. The five isolates of Proteus penneri required an off-line indole test, as suggested by the system to differentiate them from Proteus vulgaris. The identifications of 20 (3.9%) isolates were correct to the genus level but incorrect at the species level. Two (0.4%) isolates were reported as “no identification.” Misidentifications to the genus and species levels occurred for 29 (5.7%) isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae. These incorrect identifications were spread over 14 different genera. The most common error was the misidentification of Salmonella species. The shortest time for a correct identification was 2 h 8 min. The longest time was 12 h 27 min, for the identification of a Serratia marcescens isolate. Of the 57 isolates of nonenteric gram-negative bacilli (Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Burkholderia, Plesiomonas, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas spp.), 48 (84.2%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels and 7 (12.3%) were correctly identified to the genus level but not to the species level. The average time for a correct identification was 5 h 11 min. Of the Vibrionaceae spp., 123 (89.1%) were correctly identified at the end of the initial incubation period, which averaged 4 h. Based on the findings of this study, the Phoenix 100 ID/AST system NID panel falls short of being an acceptable new method for the identification of the Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and gram-negative nonenteric isolates that are commonly encountered in many hospital microbiology laboratories.
AIMS--To compare the sensitivity and specificity of two semiautomated systems against a conventional (MIC 2000) test system for the identification and antibiotic susceptibility of Gram negative bacteria. METHODS--Clinical isolates of Gram negative bacilli (188 urinary and 229 non-urinary strains) were identified and tested for antibiotic susceptibility in the Cobas Micro and MIC 2000 systems. Of these, 359 strains were then tested in the Vitek and MIC 2000 systems. Two hundred and forty three strains were tested in all three systems immediately after isolation. Forty three were also tested only in the Vitek and MIC 2000 systems immediately after isolation. The remaining 174 strains were tested after storage at -20 degrees C for several months. RESULTS--The Cobas Micro and MIC 2000 systems agreed on the identification of 310 of the 417 (74.3%) strains; the Vitek and MIC 2000 systems agreed on 338 of the 359 (94.2%) strains. The Cobas Micro system correctly identified 86.8% of strains tested after storage and 65.4% of those immediately after isolation. Organism-antibiotic combinations (non-urinary isolates) were tested in the Cobas Micro and MIC 2000 systems (n = 2335), in the Vitek and MIC 2000 systems (n = 999). Essential correlation (complete agreement plus minor errors) was observed in 98% (with 90% complete agreement) in the former and in 97% (with 86% complete agreement) in the latter. For the urinary isolates, 1949 organism-antibiotic combinations were analysed in the Cobas Micro and MIC 2000 systems where complete agreement was observed in 92% (with 3% very major discrepancies), for 1382 urinary organism-antibiotic combinations tested in the Vitek and MIC 2000 systems, the figures were 95% and 2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS--The Vitek system is highly accurate in the identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of Gram negative bacteria. The Cobas Micro system has many shortcomings in its identification of Gram negative rods, especially freshly isolated strains, but it is comparable with the Vitek system in antibiotic susceptibility testing.
Culture pervades human lives and has allowed our species to create niches all around the world and its oceans, in ways quite unlike any other primate. Indeed, our cultural nature appears so distinctive that it is often thought to separate humanity from the rest of nature and the Darwinian forces that shape it. A contrary view arises through the recent discoveries of a diverse range of disciplines, here brought together to illustrate the scope of a burgeoning field of cultural evolution and to facilitate cross-disciplinary fertilization. Each approach emphasizes important linkages between culture and evolutionary biology rather than quarantining one from the other. Recent studies reveal that processes important in cultural transmission are more widespread and significant across the animal kingdom than earlier recognized, with important implications for evolutionary theory. Recent archaeological discoveries have pushed back the origins of human culture to much more ancient times than traditionally thought. These developments suggest previously unidentified continuities between animal and human culture. A third new array of discoveries concerns the later diversification of human cultures, where the operations of Darwinian-like processes are identified, in part, through scientific methods borrowed from biology. Finally, surprising discoveries have been made about the imprint of cultural evolution in the predispositions of human minds for cultural transmission.
Whiten, Andrew; Hinde, Robert A.; Laland, Kevin N.; Stringer, Christopher B.
The Demos organization in London is a think-tank that produces compelling reports on everything from public space to government spending. This report from October 2010 is by Samuel Jones, and he explores the relationship between the British government and culture and sport. His basic question is: "Why should the state get involved in culture, and if it should, how?" The 154-page report is divided into sections such as "Society and the cultural realm", "Taking the cultural pulse of a nation", and "Evidence of Potential". It's an interesting read, and the paper argues that "cultural policy must focus on the equitable distribution of individuals' cultural capabilities, indicating that this will require thinking anew about what form the structures take, and how they are run."
Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a structurally heterogeneous amphipathic lipoglycan present in Mycobacterium spp. and other actinomycetes, which constitutes a major component of the cell wall and exhibits a wide spectrum of immunomodulatory effects. Analysis of Mycobacterium smegmatis subcellular fractions and spheroplasts showed that LAM and lipomannan (LM) were primarily found in a cell wall-enriched subcellular fraction and correlated with the presence (or absence) of the mycolic acids in spheroplast preparations, suggesting that LAM and LM are primarily associated with the putative outer membrane of mycobacteria. During the course of these studies significant changes in the LAM/LM content of the cell wall were noted relative to the age of the culture. The LAM content of the M. smegmatis cell wall was dramatically reduced as the bacilli approached stationary phase, whereas LM, mycolic acid, and arabinogalactan content appeared to be unchanged. In addition, cell morphology and acid-fast staining characteristics showed variations with growth phase of the bacteria. In the logarithmic phase, the bacteria were found to be classic rod-shaped acid-fastbacilli, while in the stationary phase M. smegmatis lost the characteristic rod shape and developed a punctate acid-fast staining pattern with carbolfuchsin. The number of viable bacteria was independent of LAM content and phenotype. Taken together, the results presented here suggest that LAM is primarily localized with the mycolic acids in the cell wall and that the cellular concentration of LAM in M. smegmatis is selectively modulated with the growth phase.
Dhiman, Rakesh K.; Dinadayala, Premkumar; Ryan, Gavin J.; Lenaerts, Anne J.; Schenkel, Alan R.; Crick, Dean C.
By moving away from metaphors such as transparent-translation channels or omniscient agents, will it be possible to create communicating cultures with simple conversational agents, which might make errors but recognize (and fulfill) their expected role? By accomplishing this objective, intercultural experiences will be a lot more enjoyable, and many may feel that we'll be preserving the various unique cultures existing
|Creating a culture of inquiry rather than continuing to work in a culture of isolation represents a significant change within schools that must be supported. In this article, the author presents and discusses a well-constructed agenda template which shows topic, purpose, guiding questions, and background or process. He states that an agenda…
Popular culture studies have until recently been treated as more or less un- worthy of serious scholarly attention. But developments in anthropology, history, communication, American studies, and literary criticism have given the study of popular culture new analytic tools and legitimacy. This article reviews some of the more noteworthy contributions to this body of scholarship. Interpretive anthropology by Clifford Geertz,
Undergraduate education has not kept pace with knowledge about the role of culture in shaping human and social behavior. The deficiencies can and should be repaired, but some real innovations are essential to the process. Despite the challenge, there is a real opportunity to parlay research advances emerging out of the recent "cultural turn" in a…
|It is too often taken for granted that the communication process with culturally different children takes place as readily as it might with children from Anglo cultures. Most teachers receive training in verbal and formal communication skills; children come to school with nonverbal and informal communication skills. This initially can create…
The BDProbeTec MTB assay for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was evaluated in comparison with the AMTD-II assay on 94 samples from different patients with clinical suspicion of tuberculosis. Using a combination of culture on Lowenstein-Jensen medium (with or without preculture in BACTEC 9000) and clinical diagnosis as the standard, BDProbeTec MTB showed high sensitivity and specificity (96.1% and 100%, respectively), similar to AMTD-II (96.1% and 97.1%, respectively), with significantly higher sensitivity than the Ziehl-Neelsen stain for acid-fastbacilli (73%, p < 0.05). PMID:15059123
Visca, P; De Mori, P; Festa, A; Montrone, M L; Amicosante, M; Pucillo, L P
The best-known acetone-butanol (solvent) -producing bacterium is the Weizmann organism, Clostridium acetobutylicum, which was used for starch-based industrial fermentation. In the past two decades, cultures of \\
J. L. JOHNSON; J. TOTH; S. SANTIWATANAKUL; J.-S. CHEN; Anaerobic Microbiology
... a laboratory exam to check a piece of tissue or fluid from the lungs for infection-causing organisms. ... Culture - bronchoscopic ... on preparing for the procedure to take the tissue sample, see: Bronchoscopy
... the bacteria that cause tuberculosis and similar infections. See also: Sputum stain for mycobacteria ... sample is placed in a special laboratory dish (culture media) and watched to see if the bacteria that causes TB grows.
Barone and Britzman, each in a short essay, discuss the books, poetry, performances, music, and other cultural media that influence them. Cites the publications of each and lists the works discussed. (MLF)
... gastric culture, Mycobacterium tuberculosis is diagnosed. Because these bacteria are slow growing, it may take up to 6 weeks to confirm the diagnosis. This test can also be used to detect other forms of bacteria that do not cause tuberculosis.
A newly developed immunochromatographic assay (MPB64-ICA) for identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was evaluated with 20 reference strains of mycobacterial species and 111 clinical isolates. MPB64-ICA displayed a very strong reaction band with organisms belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex but not with mycobacteria other than M. tuberculosis (MOTT bacilli), except for one of four M. marinum strains tested and one M. flavescens strain, both of which gave very weak signals. The effectiveness of MPB64-ICA in combination with two liquid culture systems (MB-REDOX and MGIT) was tested. A total of 108 of 362 sputum specimens processed were positive for acid-fastbacilli. Samples taken from the cultures on the same days when either of the two culture systems became positive for mycobacteria were assayed with MPB64-ICA. Of 108 cultures with mycobacteria, 51 showed a positive signal with the test, in which the presence of the M. tuberculosis complex was demonstrated later by the Accuprobe for M. tuberculosis complex. In addition, MPB64-ICA could correctly detect the M. tuberculosis complex in mixed cultures of the M. tuberculosis complex and MOTT bacilli. These results indicate that MPB64-ICA can be easily used for rapid identification of the M. tuberculosis complex in combination with culture systems based on liquid media without any technical complexity in clinical laboratories.
A newly developed immunochromatographic assay (MPB64-ICA) for identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was evaluated with 20 reference strains of mycobacterial species and 111 clinical isolates. MPB64-ICA displayed a very strong reaction band with organisms belonging to the M. tuberculosis complex but not with mycobacteria other than M. tuberculosis (MOTT bacilli), except for one of four M. marinum strains tested and one M. flavescens strain, both of which gave very weak signals. The effectiveness of MPB64-ICA in combination with two liquid culture systems (MB-REDOX and MGIT) was tested. A total of 108 of 362 sputum specimens processed were positive for acid-fastbacilli. Samples taken from the cultures on the same days when either of the two culture systems became positive for mycobacteria were assayed with MPB64-ICA. Of 108 cultures with mycobacteria, 51 showed a positive signal with the test, in which the presence of the M. tuberculosis complex was demonstrated later by the Accuprobe for M. tuberculosis complex. In addition, MPB64-ICA could correctly detect the M. tuberculosis complex in mixed cultures of the M. tuberculosis complex and MOTT bacilli. These results indicate that MPB64-ICA can be easily used for rapid identification of the M. tuberculosis complex in combination with culture systems based on liquid media without any technical complexity in clinical laboratories. PMID:10523576
Somehow it is not surprising that a journal titled Postmodern Culture would find a home on the Internet, which itself is a bricoleur of many different forms and styles, akin to the very notion of postmodernism. Located online since 1990, Postmodern Culture "has become the leading electronic journal of interdisciplinary thought on contemporary cultures." The journal itself is published by The Johns Hopkins University Press, with assistance by the University of Virginia and Vassar College. Visitors to the site can browse the entire contents of the current volume, and may browse through the text-only archive, which is also made available here. The current edition contains pieces by Chris Bongie titled "Exiles on Main Stream: Valuing the Popularity of Postcolonial Literature" and a trenchant exchange by Leonard Wilcox and Brad Butterfield on "Baudrillard, September 11, and the Haunting Abyss of Reversal."
In the early 1970s, Paul Buhle and Dave Wagner began to think about creating a new and unique journal. They were both veterans of the journal Radical America, and they were both interested in popular culture. As August 1975 came around, they published the first issue of "Cultural Correspondence", a journal intended to serve as a critical review of popular culture. As the journal was published in Providence, it's not surprising to learn that the Brown University Library Center for Digital Initiatives (CDL) has created this most engaging archive of this publication. Visitors to the site can read the entire contents of each issue, browse around as they see fit, and also check out their virtual "Magazine Stand". First-time visitors may wish to start out by reading the Spring 1977 issue titled "Television".
These proceedings comprise the 23 US and USSR papers presented at a joint US/USSR conference on genetics of actinomycetes and bacilli, held in Yerevan, Armenia, USSR, September 12 and 13, 1977. The conference was part of the continuing activities of Proje...
The following four new species of anaerobic gram-negative bacilli isolated from the human gingival crevice are described: Oribuculum catoniue, with ATCC 51270 as the type strain; Cutonella morbi, with ATCC 51271 as the type strain; Hullella seregens, with ATCC 51272 as the type strain; and Johnsonella ignuvu, with ATCC 51276 as the type strain. C. morbi is associated with periodontitis.
|Part of a larger report on the Four Directions Project, an American Indian technology innovation project, this section includes 10 "pathfinders" to locating information on Native American cultural themes. The pathfinders were designed by students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Texas at Austin in…
Federal policy helps answer many questions about our national cultural identity: how the arts are supported, who decides what is broadcast, what will be built, what pastimes will be encouraged, when certain languages can be spoken or customs practiced, how we educate our children and treat our elders, how we relate to our diversity as a nation and to the
|Describes a hydroponic culture technique suitable for student exercises in biology. This technique of growing plants in nutrient solutions enhances plant growth, and is an excellent way to obtain intact plants with root systems free of soil or other particulate matter. (JR)|
Recent cross-cultural studies of child development reveal that child rearing, while strikingly culturally variable, is everywhere designed to make the child's experience of important lessons constant, to link those lessons to emotional arousal, and to connect them to evaluations of the child's goodness and badness. These claims are illustrated from research on Americans, Chinese, Germans, Gusii (Kenya), Ifaluk (Micronesia), and Inuit (Baffin Island). These three universal features of child rearing accomplish what is a highly specialized task. Constancy of experience alters synaptic connections to grant the pattern of their firing especially high-resolution, so that the lessons to be learned are unmistakable ones. Accompanied by emotional arousal, these lessons are especially motivating and unforgettable. Brought home with evaluations of the learner's goodness and badness, these lessons are even more motivating and unforgettable. Children get the point of the lesson, enact it once they get it, and remember to enact it on subsequent occasions. Cultural models of child rearing, thus, exploit the neural capacities of the children so reared, to achieve a result, human adulthood, that could not be accomplished by the human brain alone. From exposure to these practices result distinctive cultural selves. These selves are partly implicit, based on the largely unmarked practices designed to make children's experience of important lessons constant and these lessons arousing, and partly explicit, based on the labeling and other marking that connects these lessons to evaluations of children's goodness and badness. The conscious, self-reflective self that emerges from such explicit evaluation lays the basis for identity-everywhere profoundly culturally shaped, infused with powerful evaluative meanings, and itself highly motivating. PMID:14625360
Pure cultures of an acid-fast bacillus were cultivated upon special media from the human tissues in four cases of leprosy. The nature of the growth, morphological characters and tinctorial properties do not differ for any of the cultures and correspond closely to the bacilli in the human leprous tubercles. That the bacillus of leprosy will multiply and continue to do so indefinitely outside of the animal body was first demonstrated by Clegg who cultivated an acid-fast organism from leprosy tissue in the presence of ameba and their symbiotics. Not only have I been able to confirm Clegg's work, but in addition I have succeeded in growing the bacillus in pure culture and in reproducing the disease in the Japanese dancing mouse, thereby establishing its identity. This species of animal acquires the infection in four to six weeks after intraperitoneal or subcutaneous inoculation with either emulsions of fresh leprous tissue or the pure cultures of B. leprae. Comparatively few bacilli are necessary to infect the mouse; and the mode of inoculation does not seem to make any appreciable difference in respect to the nature and time of development of the lesion. The experimental lesions are proliferative in character and identical with those in the human subject. Macroscopically they appear as glistening, white nodules which, in the early stages of development, resemble miliary tubercles. In my experience neither the cultures nor the bacilli directly from the human tissues have shown any evidence of multiplication or given rise to lesions when injected into the ordinary laboratory animals such as guinea pigs, rabbits, gray and white mice and rats, although repeated attempts have been made to infect these animals. B. leprae will not only multiply but it will colonize on a plain agar medium seeded with a pure culture of encysted ameba (Plate LVIII, Fig. 5), and upon an agar or banana medium prepared with a I per cent. solution of cystein and tryptophane. Colonization occurs in the form of glistening, white colonies, one to two millimeters in diameter, in from one to two months incubation. The bacilli in cultures are at all times acid-fast and differ only in morphology from those of the tissues in that they exhibit a greater variation in the distribution of the chromatin and are longer and more distinctly curved. To prove that the cultures obtained from the human tissues of these four cases are leprosy bacilli and not some other acid-fast species, the following facts are offered: (1) the growth features are distinctive and multiplication takes place only under special conditions of temperature and medium; (2) the complete correspondence in tinctorial properties and similarity in morphology to those in the tissues; (3) the failure to multiply or produce lesions in the common laboratory animals; and (4) the growth of the bacilli and the production of typical leprous lesions in the Japanese dancing mouse. The successful cultivation of B. leprae and the fact that the cultures retain pathogenic properties are of commanding importance in respect to a possible production of an artificial immune serum for combating the infection in man. Work along this interesting line is already in progress in our laboratories. PMID:19867351
The Demos group in Britain describes itself as "the think tank for everyday democracy", and they have published a number of intelligent research reports and briefs as of late. One of their recent reports, released in February 2007, deals with the world of cultural diplomacy. Authored by Kirsten Bound, Rachel Briggs, John Holden, and Samuel Jones, the paper's central premise is that "the huge global reach and potential of Britain's world class artistic and cultural assets should be at the heart of government relationship building abroad." It's an interesting concept, and one that is developed over the course of this work through citing specific examples and also by pointing a way to forward efforts in this particular niche of public policy and international relations.
This essay critically addresses the issues of culture, cultural politics, social power, and the television audience in cultural studies. Although this approach has become a dominant one in media studies, its theoretical assumptions have not been sufficiently scrutinized. Our criticism focuses on two major themes. First, we argue that cultural studies tends to analyze all cultural interpretation in terms of
This chapter invites the reader to enter the outerspaces of extraterrestrial culture, as a realm of social inquiry. Where\\u000a this journey leads is perhaps unexpected, especially for the discourse of aliens and Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs). For\\u000a while we might expect to engage fields of exotic Otherness — of technomarvels and bizarre entities, epic enterprises, and\\u000a terrors unrecognizable in their
A relationship between central venous catheter (CVC) tip colonisation and catheter-related blood-stream infection (CRBSI) has been suggested. We examined culture positivity of CVC tips (colonised and infected CVCs) in a total parenteral nutrition (TPN) population. Our aims were to define the relationship between culture positivity and CRBSI, and to compare causative organisms between culture positive and CRBSI CVCS, and between ward and ICU CVCs. All patients receiving TPN via non-tunnelled CVCs during the study (1997–2009) were included. All CVC tips were analysed. Data were collated contemporaneously. A TPN audit committee determined whether CVC tip culture positivity reflected colonisation/CRBSI using CDC criteria. 1,392 patients received TPN via 2,565 CVCs over 15,397 CVC days. 25.4% of CVCs tips were culture positive, of these 32% developed CRBSI. There was a nonsignificant trend of higher Gram negative Bacilli isolation in ICU CVCs (P = 0.1), ward CVCs were associated with higher rates of staphylococcal isolation (P = 0.01). A similar pattern of organisms were cultured from CRBSI and culture positive CVCs. The consistent relationship between CRBSI and culture positive CVCs, and similar pattern of causative organisms further supports an aetiological relationship between culture positive CVC tips and CRBSI, supporting the contention that CVC culture-positivity may be a useful surrogate marker for CRBSI rates.
Walshe, Criona; Bourke, J.; Lynch, M.; McGovern, M.; Delaney, L.; Phelan, D.
Cultural policy?makers and analysts have recently focussed upon the particularly fruitful connections between ‘culture’ and sports. Yet for a long time the Olympic Games have involved an attempted articulation of the cultural–artistic and sportive aspects of human existence. This paper analyses the various attempts to conjoin the separate realms of ‘culture’ and sports that have characterised the Modern Olympics, as
A total of 72 isolates of root-associated/endophytic (RAE) bacteria were isolated from peanut plants grown in the main producing areas of 6 provinces in China. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of these isolates were determined and phylogenetic analyses revealed that 72 isolates belonged to the classes Bacilli (49 isolates) and Gammaproteobacteria (23 isolates). The majority of RAE bacteria in Bacilli belonged to 2 genera, Bacillus and Lysinibacillus (48 and 1) while those in Gammaproteobacteria belonged to the genera Enterobacter, Serratia, Stenotrophomonas, and Pseudomonas (7, 11, 3 and 2 isolates, respectively). This is the first report of Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus isolate as biocontrol agent against AFs. All of the selected RAE bacteria showed inhibitory activities against Aspergillus parasiticus (A. parasiticus) growth and/or aflatoxins (AFs) production by visual agar plate assay and tip culture method. Most of the RAE bacteria strains (96 % strains) were determined to have decreased mycelia growth or AFs production levels by >50 % (p < 0.05). Bacterial isolates were further characterized for chitinolytic activity and 22 strains (30 % strains) of identified RAE bacteria degraded colloidal chitin on the chitin medium plate. Ten selected chitinolytic RAE bacteria were tested for antifungal activity on peanuts and most of them significantly decreased mycelial growth and AFs production levels by >90 %. These results showed a wide distribution of biological control bacteria against AFs in Chinese peanut main producing areas and the selected RAE bacteria could potentially be utilized for the biocontrol of toxicogenic fungi. PMID:23108663
A multicenter evaluation was undertaken to evaluate the performance of a new three-color peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization assay that identifies isolates directly from blood cultures positive for Gram-negative bacilli (GNB). The assay correctly identified 100% (186/186) of the Escherichia coli isolates, 99.1% (109/110) of the Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, and 95.8% (46/48) of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in this study. Negative assay results were correctly obtained for 162 of 165 other GNB (specificity, 98.2%). PMID:21490185
Della-Latta, Phyllis; Salimnia, Hossein; Painter, Theresa; Wu, Fann; Procop, Gary W; Wilson, Deborah A; Gillespie, Wendy; Mender, Alayna; Crystal, Benjamin S
This book presents papers on advances in cell culture. Topics covered include: Genetic changes in the influenza viruses during growth in cultured cells; The biochemistry and genetics of mosquito cells in culture; and Tree tissue culture applications.
Maramorosch, K. (Dept. of Entomology, Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (US))
From October 17, 2000 to October 19, 2000, the San Francisco Chronicle ran a three-part series exploring the clash between the economic boom led by New Economy start-ups and the artists, musicians, and writers that have historically been part of the city's make-up. According to a survey by Grubb & Ellis Realtors, the only cities with higher rent than San Francisco are London and Hong Kong. The series mainly focuses on the plight of the arts, with articles on city's lack of affordable studio spaces and apartments, the artists's backlash against regentrification, and profiles of art communities that have been successful and unsuccessful in staying in San Francisco. Finally, the series examines the routes that other large cities, such as Chicago and Seattle, have taken in order to ensure affordable live/ work spaces for artists. Culture Crash offers insight and hope for about this ongoing battle in a city where the US's economic boom is driving out the cultural and artistic communities that have always thrived there.
Traditional personality theories do not consider the impact of culture on personality development. Yet, to provide culturally relevant services to the increasing Hispanic population in the U.S., more culturally relevant theories must be identified. This paper presents Relational Cultural Theory (RCT) as an alternative model to understanding…
????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????“???”?“????”????????“????????”??????????“????????”?????????????????????????????“????????”????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Advanced Chinese culture today has three interconnected requirements: a) it is an organic component of today's advanced world culture; b) it critically absorbs all the best elements of foreign cultures in an organic combination with the best elements of traditional Chinese culture; and c) it transcends the argument over “modernism” and “post?modernism.” From a world?historical perspective, all other necessary features
Post?war immigration has produced new ethnic and cultural diversity in European societies. The issues of multiculturalism and interculturalism have also gradually entered the agendas of local and national cultural policy makers. In this article, we explore the development of the relationships between cultural diversity, immigration policy, and cultural policy in Finland. Special attention is given to the capital city of
With its radiant colors and well-thought-out design, the Plant Cultures website's primary goal is "to convey the richness and complexity of links between Britain and South Asia, through the story of plants and people". The project covers both the historical and contemporary aspects of Britain and South Asia through a wide range of resources, including historic images, recipes, and other items. Through a series of tabs at the top of the homepage (such as "Themes" and "Stories"), visitors can begin to explore the diverse content offered here. The "Plants" area is a good place to start, as visitors can learn about garlic, henna, holy basil, sugar cane, and 21 other plants. One rather fun area of the site is the Story Library, where visitors can place their own stories regarding the use of different plants, and read those from previous guests.
Inoculation of an automated system for rapid identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) directly from positive blood culture bottles will reduce the turnaround time of laboratory diagnosis of septicemic patients, which benefits clinical outcome and decreases patient costs. Direct test results, however, must always be confirmed by testing a pure overnight culture, which is the “gold standard.” We studied the accuracy of direct testing versus repeat testing in order to investigate the possibility of refraining from repeat testing. We also assessed the clinical risk of reporting results based on direct testing only. We inoculated Vitek 2 (bioMérieux) directly from 410 positive BACTEC 9240 (BD) blood culture bottles containing gram-negative rods and studied the ID and AST results. In a comparison of direct inoculation with the standard method, a total of 344 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were tested, and 93.0% were correctly identified. Of the 39 (10.2%) samples that contained bacilli not identifiable by Vitek 2, only 1 gave a conclusive, correct result. The overall MIC agreement among 312 isolates was 99.2%, with 0.8% very major and 0.02% major error rates. Of only three (polymicrobial) samples, the direct susceptibility pattern would be reported to the clinician as too sensitive. Vitek 2 results obtained from direct inoculation of blood culture bottles containing gram-negative bacilli are safe enough for immediate reporting, provided that ID and AST are consistent. Repeat testing is not necessary, unless Gram stain or overnight subculture results raise doubt about the purity of the culture.
Bruins, Marjan J.; Bloembergen, Peter; Ruijs, Gijs J. H. M.; Wolfhagen, Maurice J. H. M.
A direct fluorescent monoclonal antibody test (DFA; Genetic Systems Corp., Seattle, Wash.) was evaluated for the detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 178 blood culture broths obtained from 128 patients. The DFA identified 44 (98%) of 45 blood cultures positive for P. aeruginosa and was negative in 131 (98%) of 133 blood cultures which grew gram-negative rods other than P. aeruginosa. Upon further investigation, saline suspensions of the organism from the false-negative blood culture were strongly (4+) DFA positive. The false-positive reactions were not due to cross-reactivity, as shown by lack of DFA staining of the non-P. aeruginosa isolates following subculture to agar media. The specificity of the reagent was further demonstrated by directly staining culture isolates including 10 serotypes of P. aeruginosa (all positive) and 57 selected gram-negative bacilli including eight species of Pseudomonas that were not P. aeruginosa (all negative). DFA staining of blood culture broths was easy to perform and read with minimal background fluorescence. The DFA method can be performed in 50 min and appears promising as a rapid method for the identification of P. aeruginosa bacteremia.
Pfaller, M A; Barrett, M; Koontz, F P; Wenzel, R P; Cunningham, M D; Rollins, N; Darveau, R P
Various studies find that marketing communications reflect specific cultures. Most of these studies conceptualize culture in terms of one cultural framework, use a two-country sample, focus on print or television advertising, and do not statistically validate the measures used. This study addresses these issues by testing the applicability of the cultural frameworks of Hofstede [Hofstede G. Culture's consequences: international differences
|Many teachers have only a cursory understanding of culturally relevant pedagogy, and their efforts to bridge the cultural gap often fall short. Culturally relevant pedagogy is a term that describes effective teaching in culturally diverse classrooms. It can be a daunting idea to understand and implement. Yet people tend to appreciate culturally…
Although there is general recognition that leadership is important for organizational cultures, the issue of how leadership affects culture has received only scattered attention. Existing analyses have tended to focus on how leaders create or change cultures, ignoring the role that leadership plays in maintaining cultures. This paper focuses on how cultural leadership that innovates, by either creating or changing
|Explores the origins and elements of popular culture--noting that English instruction and popular culture need not be mutually exclusive, and that selected materials from popular culture may serve goals of the English curriculum without compromising them. (NKA)|
This thesis contends that Culture Workshops are beneficial in preventing and/or reducing aviation mishaps. Organizational culture impacts a unit's performance -- for better or for worse. This research defines organizational culture and describes the dynam...
This project explores the impact of culture on goal-oriented behaviour within a gaming environment. Culture consists of values, rituals, heroes, symbols, and behavioural practices and can be differentiated using five cultural dimensions (Hofstede, 1991; c...
Pathogenic Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) cause two types of foodborne diseases: the diarrhoeal type and, after production of a heat stable toxin called cereulide, an emetic type. The identification of B. cereus in official food monitoring has been traditionally performed using the cultural procedure as described in method 00.00-25 according to section 64 of the German Food and Feed Law (LFGB). Strains isolated by this method are called "presumptive B. cereus" a collective name for B. cereus sensu strictu, B. thuringiensis and closely related Bacilli. Some potentially pathogenic thermotolerant isolates ("B. cytotoxicus") are not covered by this method. In this work Fourier-Transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) in combination with artificial neural network based data analysis was tested and verified for the further differentiation of "presumptive B. cereus" isolates and closely related Bacilli. For this purpose 122 Bacillus strains were, in addition to the section 64 LFGB method, assayed for formation of parasporal crystals, thermotolerant growth, PCR and LC-MS/MS. Based on this data a further FT-IR-method was developed for the differentiation of emetic B. cereus. Exemplarily, these methods were applied in a B. cereus related foodborne outbreak. In addition, the obtained FT-IR-spectra visualize the chain of infection. PMID:19226933
The present day rapid development of media science and digital technology is offering the modern generation more opportunities as well as challenges as the new fundamental literacy. Therefore, to reach the modern generation on issues such as an appreciation of cultures, we have to find common grounds based on digital media technology. In an increasingly hybrid cultural environment, interaction and fusion of cultural factors with the computer technology will be an investigation into the possibilities of providing an experience into the cultures of the world, operating in the environments the modern generation inhabits. Research has created novel merging of traditional cultures and literature with recent media literacy. Three cultural computing systems, Media Me, BlogWall and Confucius Computer, are presented in this chapter. Studies showed that users gave positive feedback to their experience of interacting with cultural computing systems.
The cultural literacy perspective in education suggests that all cultural systems have a set of core ideas that form the basis of communication in that culture. Because of that the perspective holds that it is essential for the educational system to teach those ideas to successive generations of students to facilitate communication and to perpetuate the “shared” quality of culture.
To provide effective psychotherapy for culturally different patients, therapists need to attain cultural competence, which can be divided broadly into the 2 intersecting dimensions of generic and specific cul- tural competencies. Generic cultural competence includes the knowledge and skill set necessary to work effectively in any cross-cultural therapeutic encounter. For each phase of psychotherapy— preengagement, engagement, assessment and feedback, treatment,
Purpose – Improving hospital patient safety means an open and stimulating culture is needed. This article aims to describe a patient safety culture improvement approach in five Belgian hospitals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Patient safety culture was measured using a validated Belgian adaptation of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC) questionnaire. Studies before (autumn 2005) and after (spring 2007) the
Johan Hellings; Ward Schrooten; Niek S. Klazinga; Arthur Vleugels
New Zealand has an increasingly di- verse community containing many cultures, each with a unique worldview that shapes the collective identity and individual behaviours. This worldview may differ signifi- cantly from that of the prevailing Pakeha culture. The New Zealand health care system is grounded in the prevailing Western culture. The lack of cultural understanding between the prevailing* health care
Extract: Today's tensions should lead to tomorrow's aspirations. What we need now is a culture of peace that would help broaden cross-cultural understanding between Islam and the West. With proper knowledge of the culture of the Arab and Muslim worlds, this understanding would help foster tolerance and resolve conflict. We need to sustain a diversity of cultures, not a diversity
This guide, which is intended for workplace education providers, defines organizational culture, reviews selected techniques for reading a company's culture, and presents examples of ways in which organizations' culture can affect workplace education programs. An organization's culture is determined by: recognizing the company's philosophy…
This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing
This paper deals with the relevance of cultural factors to the application of psychotherapy. It is divided into two parts: cultural psychotherapy and crosscultural psychotherapy. Cultural psychotherapy. Despite certain universal features, marked differences as regards intensity, quality and depth, exist in the forms of psychotherapy practised. Preferences in their choice crossculturally depend on differences in etiological views and on cultural
The Drake Equation for the number of radio communicative technological civilizations in the Galaxy encompasses three components of cosmic evolution: astronomical, biological and cultural. Of these three, cultural evolution totally dominates in terms of the rapidity of its effects. Yet, SETI scientists do not take cultural evolution into account, perhaps for understandable reasons, since cultural evolution is not well-understood even
|Discusses how cultural vitality drives successful community development. Links cultural, community, and environmental values. Examines successes and failures of programs attempting to link culture and development in Panama, Ecuador, and Colombia. Examines role of cultural self-examination for creating new development paradigm. Examines prospects…
|The seven essays in this publication, including four read at the fall 1969 American Studies Association meeting, attempt to present both the nature of popular culture study and a guide for teachers of popular culture courses. Papers are (1) "Popular Culture: Notes toward a Definition" by Ray B. Browne; (2) "Can Popular Culture Save American…
|Psychologists interested in culture have focused primarily on East-West differences in individualism-collectivism, or independent-interdependent self-construal. As important as this dimension is, there are many other forms of culture with many dimensions of cultural variability. Selecting from among the many understudied cultures in psychology,…
Native American and other cultural stories provide students with a broader perspective on the world. In addition, cultural stories connect science content and knowledge about the world to cultural interpretations and people's life ways. By implementing the ideas suggested in this article, you can select books that both enrich your science library and help students begin to appreciate the science contributions and connections from various cultures while enhancing cultural literacy among students.
SYNOPSIS This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing to social policy implications as well as future directions prompted by a cultural approach to parenting.
Background Active tuberculosis (TB) is common among HIV-infected persons living in tuberculosis endemic countries, and screening for tuberculosis (TB) is recommended routinely. We sought to determine the role of chest x-ray and sputum culture in the decision to treat for presumptive TB using active case finding in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients. Methods Ambulatory HIV-positive subjects with CD4 counts ? 200/mm3 entering a Phase III TB vaccine study in Tanzania were screened for TB with a physical examination, standard interview, CD4 count, chest x-ray (CXR), blood culture for TB, and three sputum samples for acidfast bacillus (AFB) smear and culture. Results Among 1176 subjects 136 (12%) were treated for presumptive TB. These patients were more frequently male than those without treatment (34% vs. 25%, respectively; p = 0.049) and had lower median CD4 counts (319/?L vs. 425/?L, respectively; p < .0001). Among the 136 patients treated for TB, 38 (28%) had microbiologic confirmation, including 13 (10%) who had a normal CXR and no symptoms. There were 58 (43%) treated patients in whom the only positive finding was an abnormal CXR. Blood cultures were negative in all patients. Conclusion Many ambulatory HIV-infected patients with CD4 counts ? 200/mm3 are treated for presumptive TB. Our data suggest that optimal detection requires comprehensive evaluation, including CXR and sputum culture on both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects.
Bakari, Muhammad; Arbeit, Robert D; Mtei, Lillian; Lyimo, Johnson; Waddell, Richard; Matee, Mecky; Cole, Bernard F; Tvaroha, Susan; Horsburgh, C Robert; Soini, Hanna; Pallangyo, Kisali; von Reyn, C Fordham
|A Brazilian nurse educator working in the United States describes the difficulty of achieving cultural awareness and the importance of daily experiences of other cultures. She stresses the need to prepare faculty to work with diverse nursing students and to recruit more minority faculty. (SK)|
One of the factors that can influence a person's perception of the pain experience is culture. With the large increase in the immigrant population in the United States, particularly immigrants coming from nontraditional regions such as Southeast Asia and Latin America, clinicians need to develop increased sensitivity to the influence of culture on health care beliefs and practices. To more
Discusses four schools of thought in cultural psychology: (1) the "mind and culture" school, which treated culture and cognition as separate; (2) the "mind in culture" school, which sees cognition and culture as interacting in practices; (3) the "culture in mind" school, which sees cultural categories as intrinsic to mind; and (4) person-based…
Of 92 drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from sputum specimens, 86 showed growth in two types of 7H12 broth, one with egg yolk and the other without egg yolk. In addition, two strains grew only in plain 7H12 broth without yolk, and four others were recovered only in the medium supplemented with egg yolk. The radiometrically detected growth was higher in the presence of egg yolk, corresponding to a higher number of CFU per milliliter in these cultures. The improvement of growth in 7H12 broth supplemented with egg yolk was most noticeable in cultures isolated from sputum specimens having a low number of acid-fastbacilli in the smear and producing only a few colonies on solid media.
Tuberculosis of cervix is a rare disease. Tuberculosis usually affects women of childbearing age, indicating hormone dependence of infection. The patient presents with menstrual irregularities, infertility or vaginal discharge. Cervical lesions presents as papillary/vegetative growth or ulceration mimicking cervical cancer. Cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) smear plays an important role in diagnosing the disease by non-invasive technique in which the presence of epithelioid cells and Langhan's type of giant cells is diagnostic. However, other causes of granulomatous cervicitis should be considered and ruled out. Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain for acidfastbacilli, fluorescent technique, biopsy and culture help in confirming the disease. We present the case of a 45-year-old female, who presented with vaginal discharge, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, first degree uterine descent with grade II cystocele and rectocele and cervical ulcer. Pap smear revealed epithelioid cells and Langhan's type of giant cells, confirmed by ZN stain of cervical smear, fluorescent technique and culture.
Direct-drug-susceptibility tests were performed on clinical specimens positive for acid-fastbacilli by either Ziehl-Neelsen or fluorochrome staining. The results of conventional agar dilution and a modified radiometric (BACTEC) method were compared. A total of 580 smear-positive specimens were tested by the BACTEC method at three separate sites. Three hundred and seventy-seven of these were culture positive for M. tuberculosis, and 343 (91%) yielded acceptable direct-susceptibility-test results. We used the conventional method to determine that 343 of 519 smear-positive specimens were culture positive for M. tuberculosis, and 212 (62%) produced acceptable results within 3 wks. Conventional results were reported in 3-4 wks, while the time required to obtain results with the BACTEC method ranged from 5 to 21 days (average 11.5 days). Results indicate that the radiometric method provides reportable results more frequently with time savings as compared to the conventional method.
Tuberculosis (TB) is declared global emergency. Miliary TB is a treatable, potentially lethal form of TB resulting from massive lympho-hematogenous dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Impaired cell-mediated immunity underlies the disease's development. We present a case of specific synovitis in a 21-year-old Caucasian HIV-seronegative woman. She presented with high fever and swelling of the right knee. Chest radiograph revealed bilateral nodular opacities in upper pulmonary lobes and signs of pleural effusions. Sputum samples were negative for AcidFastBacilli (AFB) and Löwenstein-Jensen (L-J) culture negative. Diagnosis was confirmed histologically by pleural biopsy and positive L-J cultures of knee puncture, also documented by MRI. Treatment outcome was successful with anti-tuberculous drugs following standardized treatment regimen. PMID:18998328
Presents four experiential excercises based on Native American culture for use in education, communication training, and counseling. These excercises are intended as vehicles for personal growth and aids to learning about Native American culture. (RC)
Chile has not yet developed a shrimp aquaculture industry. A variety of factors suggest that the country has a limited potential to culture shrimp. Indigenous species are untried in pond culture. Climatic factors, especially low seasurface temperatures, a...
Recent research indicates that asthma is more complicated than already recognized, requiring a multilateral approach of study in order to better understand its many facets. Apart from being a health problem, asthma is seen as a knowledge problem, and as we argue here, a cultural problem. Employing cultural analysis we outline ways to challenge conventional ideas and practices about asthma by considering how culture shapes asthma experience, diagnosis, management, research, and politics. Finally, we discuss the value of viewing asthma through multiple lenses, and how such "explanatory pluralism" advances transdisciplinary approaches to asthma. PMID:24162918
Schools of social work must educate students to perform as sensitive and knowledgeable professionals in multiethnic settings. The Inclusionary Cultural Model combines teaching traditional sociocultural theories with an experiential classroom component that enables students to move from an emic (Lum, 1986) process of cultural self-definition to an etic (Lum, 1986) perspective of acceptance and respect for the cultural systems of
|Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…
|In this article the author discusses the role university culture can play on a campus and how it can impact policy and practice. The article explores how a university's history, values, and vision form its culture and how this culture in turn affects its stability and continuity. The article discusses how newcomers within the university are…
|Increasing diversity in the United States means that all students must understand multiple cultural perspectives and identities. Educators need to facilitate learning engagements that highlight the complexities of culture and cultural identity, going beyond surface characteristics such as foods, holidays, and clothing that are often the focus in…
The transition in East European countries generated many theoretical problems, especially regarding political culture. It is as difficult to establish where the east European political culture is rooted as to describe where those societies are heading to. The article is focused on Romanian case, examining Romanian political culture's late parting from Communism, its 'alleged' rural character, the problems of corruption
In the ongoing debate over whether or what sort of multiculturalism should be provided by schools, the origin, evolution, and rhetorical function of the basic term "culture" have been unwisely neglected. The 19th century notion of "culture" implied a process of growth and development, of culturing an organism, or of the human organism becoming…
The need for inclusion of cultural competence material in Social Work curriculums is well established. There is a dramatic increase in cultural and ethnic diversity in American society. Commensurate with that increase is an alarming rise of racism on college campuses. Social Work programs are required to include cultural competence material and Social Work educators need down-to-earth and practical ideas
Complementary therapies are becoming increasingly popular in cultures dominated by biomedicine. Modalities are often extracted from various healing systems and cultural contexts and integrated into health care, expanding the focus from treatment of disease to the promotion of health. The cultural aspects of biomedicine are presented and compared and contrasted with other healing systems. Three healing systems; traditional Chinese medicine,
Traditional literary canons, represented by E. D. Hirsch's list in "Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs To Know" of works which every literate American "needs to know," deemphasize the cultural significance of women and minorities. An alternative and expanded model of cultural literacy, GODDESS (Gender or Diversity Designed to Show…
Today, safeguards culture can be a useful tool for measuring nonproliferation postures, but so far its impact on the international safeguards regime has been underappreciated. There is no agreed upon definition for safeguards culture nor agreement on how it should be measured. This paper argues that safeguards culture as an indicator of a country’s nonproliferation posture can be a useful tool.
This booklet about the cultural background of Laos is one of three booklets that serve as a foundation for understanding the cultural diversity and values of Cambodian, Laotian, and Vietnamese students. Laos is a country of great cultural and ethnic diversity. The following political and economic factors have influenced the development of modern…
Addresses the work of British writer, C. P. Snow, and examines the differences in scientific and literary cultures. Discusses post-World War II professionalization of science and the rebellious literary culture; the scientific revolution; the lack of communication between the two cultures; the generalization of science through sociology; the need…
... where it is placed in a special dish (culture) and watched to see if bacteria or any other germs grow. ... negative culture, or no growth appearing in the culture, is ... to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.
This chapter begins by noting that culture as an element in economic development in the Third World has been largely neglected in traditional development economics, most writers either seeing culture as an obstacle to development or ignoring it altogether. Recently a shift in thinking has occurred whereby culture is now more widely seen as being more central to the development
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to argue that culture is our primeval management that has its roots the same desire for control that management does. The paper explores the fundamental cognitive systems that allow us to create culture. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper applies basic systems concepts to the notion of culture and draws parallels with other cybernetic
Cultural allegiances whether inherited, imposed or chosen, affect economic activity. Many of these cultural layers - ethnic background, religion, language, ideological orientation, and artistic interests - spill over national boundaries. Cultural ideas travel the world along many routes from the Silk Road to modern electronic networks. Historically, peripatetic artists, composers and writers have responded to shifting patronage and market opportunities.
The continuation of accounting research utilising Hofstede's cultural indices suggests an absence of sufficient consideration for the reasons behind the rejection of such a universalist approach in anthropology and sociology. These reasons include the assumption of equating nation with culture and the difficulty, and limitations on an understanding of culture by means of numeric indices and matrices. Alternative approaches for
|A new movement has appeared recommending, in part, that the field of art education should lessen its traditional ties to drawing, painting, and the study of masterpieces to become the study of visual culture. Visual cultural study refers to an all-encompassing category of cultural practice that includes the fine arts but also deals with the study…
|Does the person become the name or does the name become the person? This question was asked by a participant of my culture jam entitled, "What's my name?" In this culture jam, I asked people to discern the name of a person based solely on their appearance and a list of possible names below their picture. This article aims to show how culture jams…
Corporations operating across national borders and diversified into different types of business are bound to host considerable cultural diversity within their ranks. For an effective coordination of their various activities, cultural considerations should enter into the design of their corporate structure. This demands a cultural awareness on their management's side which does not belong to the classic selection criteria for
Objective: To investigate the dimensions of culture that may underlie difficulties in cross cultural conflict resolution. Method: 43 Australian and 40 Chinese creative artists completed an 82-item scale measuring the four dimensions of cultural values identified by Hofstede. They then responded to two conflict scenarios by answering a series of questions based on the Littlefield, Love, Peck, and Wertheim model
Different cultures have different conceptions of what it means to be gifted. But in identifying children as gifted, we often use only our own conception, ignoring the cultural context in which the children grew up. Such identification is inadequate and fails to do justice to the richness of the world's cultures. It also misses children who are gifted and may
Many publications have been produced recently from centres across the world dealing with the prevalence of eating disorders in their cultures. This type of research suggests that eating disorders are no longer limited to the western culture and have now assumed a worldwide dimension. A number of global cultural forces have been implicated in this spread including the power of
|Principals have a strong role to play in forming school cultures that encourage change. Changing a school's culture requires shared or distributed leadership and instructional leadership. A multiyear study found that three elements are necessary for a school culture that stimulates teachers to improve their instruction: 1) Teachers and…
The handbook presents activities to aid elementary school classroom teachers as they develop and implement cultural arts lessons. A cultural arts program is interpreted as a way to help students develop perceptual awareness, build a basic vocabulary in some art cultural form, evaluate their own works of art, appreciate creative expressions, and…
Created by Dennis O'Neil of Palomar College, these Cultural Anthropology Tutorials help students to learn and test their understanding of basic principles in cultural anthropology. Topics include ethnicity and race (which includes the subtopic, "What are you?"), political organization, kinship, culture change, and many others. In addition to the illustrated tutorials, each topic also features flashcard quizzes and links to resources for further information. OÃ¯Â¿Â½Neil has also included a Glossary of Terms common in cultural anthropology. This site is useful for anthropology students, as well as for educators to use in the classroom to teach basic materials and evaluate student understanding of cultural anthropology topics.
Although Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Italy) is one of the most important Mytilus galloprovincialis farming areas, data concerning the natural bacterial microbiota of these mussels and their surrounding environment are still scant. This study was carried out seasonally, throughout a year, to determine culturable heterotrophic bacteria both in the water and mussels samples collected at three sampling sites in the Northern Ionian Sea: S. Vito, Lido Gandoli and Lido Silvana. Culturable heterotrophic bacteria abundance was determined by spread plate on Marine Agar. Heterotrophic bacteria were identified by several morphological, culture and biochemical methods. Bacterial concentrations were higher in the mussel samples compared to the corresponding seawater throughout the year. Among Gram negative heterotrophic bacteria, Aeromonas prevailed both in the water (18%) and mussel samples (40%). Other genera such as Moraxella, Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, Chromobacterium, Photobacterium and Flexibacter were present with different percentages of isolation. Bacilli were predominant among Gram positive bacteria. Some genera (Lucibacterium and Vibrio) were present only in mussel samples. The results obtained contribute to improve the knowledge on both the bacterial abundance and diversity in mussels and the surrounding seawater in the Northern Ionian Sea. PMID:18301997
The artificially manufactured probiotics having beneficial bacteria, Bacillus spp. was applied regularly in a modified extensive shrimp (Penaeus monodon) culture pond, located on the bank of Vellar estuary, Parangipettai. The populations of total heterotrophic bacteria (THB), beneficial bacteria (Bacillus spp.) and pathogenic bacteria (vibrios) were monitored in water and sediment of the pond. The results were compared with a control pond, situated in the same location having same water spread area, stocking density, species managed with same technologies and optimum environmental parameters in which no probiotic was applied. The populations of THB and Bacillus spp. in the experimental pond increased and the vibrios decreased after each application of probiotics. But the result of the control pond showed an increasing trend of the populations of THB, Bacillus spp. and vibrios towards days of culture. The control pond had lower levels of THB and Bacillus spp. and higher levels of vibrios than the probiotic applied (experimental) pond. Also the probiotics maintained optimum transparency and low organic load in the experimental pond as compared to control. In general, water and sediment had almost equal number of Bacillus spp. and vibrios, but sediment had higher THB load than water. The applications of probiotics lesser pathogenic vibrios and enhance beneficial bacilli in the culture leading to improved water quality, promoted growth and survival rates and increased the health status of the shrimp without stress and disease outbreaks. Thus the application of probiotics could lead to disease-free and profitable shrimp culture operations which will be helpful for shrimp farmers as most of them are now-a-days severely affected by microbial diseases. PMID:11831382
|This paper seeks to improve approaches to the learning and teaching of culture using new technologies by relating the key qualities and dimensions of the culture concept to elements within a pedagogical framework. In Part One, five facets of the culture concept are developed: culture as elemental; culture as relative; culture as group membership;…
Purpose – To develop a more thorough understanding of culture in a rapidly changing global environment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The recent literature dealing with ways in which cultural dynamics are influencing the nature and meaning of culture are examined. Different perspectives of culture related to three key components of culture, intangibles, material culture and communication, are explored. Based on this, directions
Purpose: Many people moving into a new culture for work or study do so without prior cross-cultural training, yet successful cultural adaptation has important ramifications. The purpose of this paper is to focus on cross-cultural impression management as an element of cultural adaptation. Does cultural adaptation begin by paying strong attention…
Thirteen supervisees' of color and 13 European American supervisees' experiences of culturally responsive and unresponsive cross-cultural supervision were studied using consensual qualitative research. In culturally responsive supervision, all supervisees felt supported for exploring cultural issues, which positively affected the supervisee, the supervision relationship, and client outcomes. In culturally unresponsive supervision, cultural issues were ignored, actively discounted, or dismissed by supervisors,
Alan W. Burkard; Adanna J. Johnson; Michael B. Madson; Nathan T. Pruitt; Deborah A. Contreras-Tadych; JoEllen M. Kozlowski; Shirley A. Hess; Sarah Knox
|Purpose: Many people moving into a new culture for work or study do so without prior cross-cultural training, yet successful cultural adaptation has important ramifications. The purpose of this paper is to focus on cross-cultural impression management as an element of cultural adaptation. Does cultural adaptation begin by paying strong attention…
To compare the yield of two aerobic and an anaerobic BACTEC blood culture media in detecting bacteremia in ambulatory and hospitalized care settings at a children’s hospital, a prospective cohort study was completed. Over an 18-month period, equal blood volumes (minimum of 1 mL/bottle) were inoculated into a three-bottle culture set including aerobic BACTEC NR 6A, aerobic BACTEC PEDS Plus and anaerobic NR 7A broths. Chart reviews were completed on all children with bacteremia to determine whether the isolate was clinically significant based on predefined criteria. Among 5328 evaluable blood culture sets, 323 clinically significant organisms (110 from ambulatory and 213 from hospitalized children) were isolated. Most Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus species, and Neisseria or Moraxella species were recovered from children attending the emergency department or out-patient clinics. Important isolates in hospitalized children included most of the staphylococci and Enterobacteriaceae, and all group D enterococci, Gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli and all Candida species. Overall, significantly more isolates were detected only in the anaerobic bottle from ambulatory children (P<0.0001), including 13 of 54 (24%) patients with S pneumoniae bacteremias presenting to the emergency department. This study indicated that different BACTEC blood culture media combinations are needed in ambulatory and hospitalized pediatric care settings to ensure the optimal recovery of all types of isolates. Whereas aerobic blood culture bottles are adequate for detection of bacteremia in hospitalized children, the common occurrence of fastidious organisms mandates the need for a combined aerobic/anaerobic culture set in ambulatory pediatric care settings.
Church, Deirdre L; Davies, H Dele; Cadrain, G; Trevenen, Cynthia L
Mycobacteria are able to enter into a state of non-replication or dormancy, which may result in their chronic persistence in soil, aquatic environments, and permissive hosts. Stresses such as nutrient deprivation and hypoxia provide environmental cues to enter a persistent state; however, a clear definition of the mechanism that mycobacteria employ to achieve this remains elusive. While the concept of sporulation in mycobacteria is not novel, it continues to spark controversy and challenges our perceptions of a non-replication. We investigated the potential role of sporulation in one-year old broth cultures of Mycobacterium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). We show that dormant cultures of MAP contain a mix of vegetative cells and a previously unknown morphotype resembling a spore. These spore-like structures can be enriched for using sporulating media. Furthermore, purified MAP spore forms survive exposure to heat, lysozyme and proteinase K. Heat-treated spores are positive for MAP 16SrRNA and IS900. MAP spores display enhanced infectivity as well as maintain acid-fast characteristics upon germination in a well-established bovine macrophage model. This is the first study to demonstrate a new MAP morphotype possessing spore-like qualities. Data suggest that sporulation may be a viable mechanism by which MAP accomplishes persistence in the host and/or environment. Thus, our current understanding of mycobacterial persistence, pathogenesis, epidemiology and rational drug and vaccine design may need to be reevaluated.
Lamont, Elise A.; Bannantine, John P.; Armien, Anibal; Ariyakumar, Don Sanjiv; Sreevatsan, Srinand
Mycobacteria are able to enter into a state of non-replication or dormancy, which may result in their chronic persistence in soil, aquatic environments, and permissive hosts. Stresses such as nutrient deprivation and hypoxia provide environmental cues to enter a persistent state; however, a clear definition of the mechanism that mycobacteria employ to achieve this remains elusive. While the concept of sporulation in mycobacteria is not novel, it continues to spark controversy and challenges our perceptions of a non-replication. We investigated the potential role of sporulation in one-year old broth cultures of Mycobacterium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). We show that dormant cultures of MAP contain a mix of vegetative cells and a previously unknown morphotype resembling a spore. These spore-like structures can be enriched for using sporulating media. Furthermore, purified MAP spore forms survive exposure to heat, lysozyme and proteinase K. Heat-treated spores are positive for MAP 16SrRNA and IS900. MAP spores display enhanced infectivity as well as maintain acid-fast characteristics upon germination in a well-established bovine macrophage model. This is the first study to demonstrate a new MAP morphotype possessing spore-like qualities. Data suggest that sporulation may be a viable mechanism by which MAP accomplishes persistence in the host and/or environment. Thus, our current understanding of mycobacterial persistence, pathogenesis, epidemiology and rational drug and vaccine design may need to be reevaluated. PMID:22292005
Lamont, Elise A; Bannantine, John P; Armién, Aníbal; Ariyakumar, Don Sanjiv; Sreevatsan, Srinand
Cultural relativism is one of the most important concepts related to intercultural communication. This paper mainly examines cultural ethnocentrism and the basic tenets of cultural relativism, lists actual challenges to cultural relativism and reinterprets the implied meanings of cultural relativism for intercultural communication in this complex and shrinking planet. Since most of our cultural knowledge is acquired unconsciously, and most
Case studies on three diverse cultural groups are used to investigate how culture norms and practices moderate the way entrepreneurs utilize social networking. Moving away from a universalist mono-dimensional position, prior research calls for studies on how culture moderates entrepreneurial networking. Understandably, the concept of a national culture inevitably refers to the mainstream culture which fails to address the sub-culture
This article examines four defining characteristics of city cultural policy: (1) the concentration of cultural resources in downtowns and cultural districts; (2) a policy infrastructure focused on nonprofit organizations, cultural industries and tourism; (3) the narrow policy scope and political influence of city-level cultural agencies; and (4) the decentralized and under-institutionalized authority and oversight in the public cultural sector. The
A 62-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis presented with fever (T-103.9°F). Vital signs and physical examination were normal. She was taking adalimumab, methotrexate, and prednisone for the past 9 months. Blood and urine cultures, human immunodeficiency virus, rapid plasma reagin, purified protein derivative, and cerebrospinal fluid test findings were negative. Computed tomography showed scattered 0.2-cm nodules in the lungs and innumerable subcentimeter lesions in the liver and spleen. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were started empirically. Liver biopsy findings revealed necrotizing granulomas and were negative for acidfastbacilli and fungi on staining. As the patient was persistently febrile despite antibiotics, the antibiotics were discontinued, and an antituberculous regimen including INH, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide was initiated empirically on day 40 of hospitalization. Fourteen days after liver biopsy, acid-fastbacilli grew in the tissue culture. Disseminated tuberculosis (TB) was diagnosed. Fever subsided after 1 week of anti-TB treatment. Antitumor necrosis factor alpha therapy in rheumatoid arthritis increases the risk of TB 5-fold. This is mostly as a result of reactivation of latent TB and commonly presents as disseminated TB. It usually occurs in the early stage of treatment. In our patient, the screening test results for TB before initiation of Adalimumab could have been falsely negative due to immunosuppression secondary to steroids. Our case emphasizes that current screening tests can miss latent TB especially in immunosuppressed patients. As it is difficult to diagnose TB with polymerase chain reaction and culture, histopathology should be sought early. Patients on antitumor necrosis factor alpha therapy presenting with fever of unknown origin should be considered for empirical anti-TB treatment regardless of microbiological and tissue diagnosis. PMID:20838203
Pednekar, Manali; Chandra, Abhinav B; Chandra, Preeti A
Purpose Diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in children is more challenging than in adults. This study aimed to describe demographical, clinical and laboratory findings of children diagnosed with tuberculosis in Turkey, including the issues of contact tracing, culture positivity and forms of the disease. Materials and Methods Clinical and laboratory data of 51 children with a mean age of 8.0±4.6 years who were diagnosed with TB were retrospectively reviewed. Main diagnostic tools included tuberculin skin test, chest X-ray, sputum/gastric aspirate culture with sensitivity testing, and direct microscopy for acid-fastbacilli on available samples. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of the patients were examined. Results Thirty-six (70.6%) children were diagnosed with intra-thoracic and 15 (29.4%) with extra-thoracic tuberculosis. Twenty-eight of the patients had a positive Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine scar (28/51, 54.9%) and 23/51 (45.1%) had a positive tuberculin skin test. An adult TB contact was identified in 27 (52.9%) of the cases. On direct microscopy, acid-fastbacilli were found in nine (17.6%) patients and positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis was found in 19 (37.3%). Drug resistance to isoniazid was detected in four (7.8%). One patient with nephrotic syndrome and miliary tuberculosis died during follow-up. All other patients responded well to the treatment. Conclusion Focusing on active contact tracing among all household contacts of tuberculous cases may be helpful in early identification and controlling childhood disease, even in regions with low disease prevalence. Adopting a suspicious and proactive approach in this particular age group is warranted.
This research provides experimental evidence for cultural influence on one of the most basic elements of emotional processing: attention to positive versus negative stimuli. To this end, we focused on Russian culture, which is characterized by brooding and melancholy. In Study 1, Russians spent significantly more time looking at negative than positive pictures, whereas Americans did not show this tendency. In Study 2, Russian Latvians were randomly primed with symbols of each culture, after which we measured the speed of recognition for positive versus negative trait words. Biculturals were significantly faster in recognizing negative words (as compared with baseline) when primed with Russian versus Latvian cultural symbols. Greater identification with Russian culture facilitated this effect. We provide a theoretical discussion of mental processes underlying cultural differences in emotion research. PMID:21639670
\\u000a In this chapter we will contextualize the investigation of optimal experience across culture within the theoretical framework\\u000a of cultural studies. In the last few decades, psychological studies evolved from an ethnocentric western perspective to a\\u000a broader view that takes into account the role of culture in shaping human behavior and experience. This allowed for the development\\u000a of different approaches, such
Antonella Delle Fave; Fausto Massimini; Marta Bassi
OverviewCulturally competent healthcare systems—those that provide culturally and linguistically appropriate services—have the potential to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities. When clients do not understand what their healthcare providers are telling them, and providers either do not speak the client’s language or are insensitive to cultural differences, the quality of health care can be compromised. We reviewed five interventions to
Laurie M Anderson; Susan C Scrimshaw; Mindy T Fullilove; Jonathan E Fielding; Jacques Normand
Evolutionary models of cultural change have acquired an important role in attempts to explain the course of human evolution, especially our specialization in knowledge-gathering and intelligent control of environments. In both biological and cultural change, different patterns of explanation become relevant at different 'grains' of analysis and in contexts associated with different explanatory targets. Existing treatments of the evolutionary approach to culture, both positive and negative, underestimate the importance of these distinctions. Close attention to grain of analysis motivates distinctions between three possible modes of cultural evolution, each associated with different empirical assumptions and explanatory roles. PMID:22734059
This new online directory from UNESCO is devoted to "policy making in the field of culture." Though the page is relatively new, there are already more than 400 annotated links here in ten categories including Ministries of Culture, Networks and Culturenets, Research Institutes, International Organizations, and so on. Part of the larger Culture and UNESCO site, Windows to Culture is a good demonstration of "value-added"; clicking on the detailed view for a resource brings up the title, address, URL, email address, country, region, themes, and a nice description of the resource/ organization.
|Presents an activity that addresses cultural differences and diversity through ethnobotany. Offers a multicultural framework designed to develop concepts about plant characteristics and taxonomy. (ASK)|
Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies. PMID:16155688
When a major change initiative runs aground, leaders often blame their company's culture for pushing it off course. They try to forge ahead by overhauling the culture--a tactic that tends to fizzle, fail, or backfire. Most cultures are too well entrenched to be jettisoned. The secret is to stop fighting your culture--and to work with and within it, until it evolves in the right direction. Today's best-performing companies, such as Southwest Airlines, Apple, and the Four Seasons, understand this, say the authors, three consultants from Booz & Company. These organizations follow five principles for making the most of their cultures: 1. Match strategy to culture. Culture trumps strategy every time, no matter how brilliant the plan, so the two need to be in alignment. 2. Focus on a few critical shifts in behavior. Wholesale change is hard; choose your battles wisely. 3. Honor the strengths of the existing culture. Every culture is the product of good intentions and has strengths; put them to use. 4. Integrate formal and informal interventions. Don't just implement new rules and processes; identify "influencers" who can bring other employees along. 5. Measure and monitor cultural evolution. Otherwise you can't identify backsliding or correct course. When the leaders of Aetna applied these rules while implementing a new strategy in the early 2000s, they reinvigorated the company's ailing culture and restored employee pride. That shift was reflected in the business results, as Aetna went from a $300 million loss to a $1.7 billion gain. PMID:22852451
Katzenbach, Jon R; Steffen, Ilona; Kronley, Caroline
Radio, television, film, and the other products of media culture provide materials out of which we forge our very identities; our sense of selfhood; our notion of what it means to be male or female; our sense of class, of ethnicity and race, of nationality, of sexuality; and of \\
Despite the vulnerability of cultural property throughout history, the United States has been conscious of it during times of war. From the Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives teams that set out to protect and recover art during World War II to U.S. refusa...
Mycobacterium sherrisii was first described as a novel species in 2004 but recently has begun to be more formally recognized with the use of new sequencing techniques. There have only been about 10 cases reported internationally, and we report the first case of M sherrisii in the United States. The mycobacterium was isolated from acid-fastbacillicultures of a specimen obtained from a bronchoalveolar lavage and blood in a newly diagnosed HIV-infected, US-born patient presenting with sepsis. The patient was started on streptomycin, ethambutol, azithromycin, and rifampin with an improved clinical course. This report indicates the clinical presentation along with the varying drug susceptibilities to the emerging M sherrisii. PMID:23695226
Lee, Spencer M; Myers, Robert A; Singh, Karnail; Kansal, Seema
Breast tuberculosis is an uncommon form of entity especially in the infra-mammary area. A 25- year-old female, presented with a lump in the breast and infra-mammary area. She was having off and on fever without any other complaints. There was no positive family history. Primary breast tuberculosis was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology wherein ZN stain for acidfastbacilli was positive. The patient received antitubercular drugs and at 3 month follow up the swelling had resolved and the patient was asymptomatic. Breast tuberculosis is a rare disease with non-specific clinical, radiological, and histological findings. Misdiagnosis is common as biopsy specimens are pauci-bacillary and investigations such as microscopy and culture are frequently negative. PMID:23634343
Breast tuberculosis is an uncommon form of entity especially in the infra-mammary area. A 25- year-old female, presented with a lump in the breast and infra-mammary area. She was having off and on fever without any other complaints. There was no positive family history. Primary breast tuberculosis was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology wherein ZN stain for acidfastbacilli was positive. The patient received antitubercular drugs and at 3 month follow up the swelling had resolved and the patient was asymptomatic. Breast tuberculosis is a rare disease with non-specific clinical, radiological, and histological findings. Misdiagnosis is common as biopsy specimens are pauci-bacillary and investigations such as microscopy and culture are frequently negative.
Scrofuloderma is a common type of cutaneous tuberculosis usually manifests over an infected lymphnode, bone or joint that breaks down to form an undermined ulcer leading to discharging sinuses. We present a case of a 22 year old woman with diffuse swelling of right arm with overlying nodulo ulcerative skin lesions associated with seropurulent discharge. Routine investigations were normal and X-Ray of the right humerus showed the features of chronic osteomyelitis. Smears of the discharge for bacteria, fungi and acidfastbacilli were negative, but culture of skin biopsy showed Mycobacterium tuberculosis which was confirmed by PCR. Histopathology of skin biopsy showed epithelioid granulomatous inflammation suggestive of tuberculosis. After treating the patient with antitubercular therapy complete regression of the lesions occurred.
A 54 year old Asian woman developed fulminant hepatic failure followed by renal failure. Because of a past history of possible tuberculosis, she was given antituberculous drugs. The chest x ray was normal. A transjugular liver biopsy showed caseating necrosis, granulomas, and acidfastbacilli indicative of miliary tuberculosis. Despite full supportive therapy, her condition deteriorated and she died. Postmortem examination showed widespread miliary tuberculosis; culture confirmed the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis causes fulminant hepatic failure rarely and only three cases have been described. In this, as with the other cases, hyponatraemia and hepatomegaly were features at presentation. This is the first report of treatment being given before death. Images p793-a
A 7-year-old dairy sheep suffering from chronic loss of weight without diarrhea or anorexia was euthanized after failing to respond to any treatment (antibiotic and antiparasitic). The main findings at the necropsy of this animal were multifocal miliary nodules in several organs, mainly in the Peyer's patches of the small intestine, and a segmental thickening of the jejunal wall. Histologic examination of the samples taken at the necropsy showed a multifocal chronic granulomatous inflammation, with mineralization and caseous necrosis at the core of the larger granulomas and scarce intrahistiocytic acid-fastbacilli consistent with a disseminated digestive tuberculosis. Polymerase chain reaction and bacteriological culture from these samples confirmed Mycobacterium avium subsp avium to be the etiologic agent of this infection. Histologically, the cause of the segmental thickening of the jejunal wall was found to be a small intestine adenocarcinoma, which in some areas coexisted with the granulomatous lesion. PMID:23456963
Benavides, J; Garcia-Pariente, C; Garrido, J M; Sevilla, I A; García-Marín, J F; Pérez, V; Ferreras, M C
Scrofuloderma is a common type of cutaneous tuberculosis usually manifests over an infected lymphnode, bone or joint that breaks down to form an undermined ulcer leading to discharging sinuses. We present a case of a 22 year old woman with diffuse swelling of right arm with overlying nodulo ulcerative skin lesions associated with seropurulent discharge. Routine investigations were normal and X-Ray of the right humerus showed the features of chronic osteomyelitis. Smears of the discharge for bacteria, fungi and acidfastbacilli were negative, but culture of skin biopsy showed Mycobacterium tuberculosis which was confirmed by PCR. Histopathology of skin biopsy showed epithelioid granulomatous inflammation suggestive of tuberculosis. After treating the patient with antitubercular therapy complete regression of the lesions occurred. PMID:24082212
Mycobacterium marinum is a non-tuberculous photochromogenic mycobacterium, commonly responsible for fish and amphibious infections world-wide. Contagion in humans typically follows minor hand trauma from aquarium keeping and manifests as a granulomatous infection of the skin. Dissemination is rare and almost exclusive to immunosuppressed hosts. 15 cases of M. marinum fish tank related infection are hereby reported. The site of infection was the upper limbs in all cases. 3 patients presented a single papulo-verrucous lesion, while the remaining 12 showed a sporotrichoid clinical pattern. Diagnosis was reached by history and clinical examination and further supported by one or more of the following criteria: histology, culture, acidfastbacilli identification from histologic specimen and PCR. 2 to 3 months minocycline treatment showed efficacy in 13 individuals, another case was treated with rifampicin-isoniazid association, yet another showed spontaneous regression over a 3 month period. PMID:24002023
Bonamonte, Domenico; De Vito, Daniela; Vestita, Michelangelo; Delvecchio, Susanna; Ranieri, Luigi Davide; Santantonio, Marilina; Angelini, Gianni
A 16-yr-old male clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) was presented for lethargy and anorexia. A cutaneous abdominal mass extending from the pubis to just caudal to the xiphoid process was present. A biopsy revealed histologic lesions consistent with an atypical mycobacterial infection consisting of diffuse, severe, pyogranulomatous dermatitis and panniculitis, with clear vacuoles and 3-5 microm, intravacuolar, faintly eosinophilic, filamentous bacilli that stained positively with FiteFaraco modified acid-fast stain. The clouded leopard had biochemical findings suggestive of chronic renal failure and euthanasia was elected. Histological evaluation of tissues collected at postmortem examination revealed multicentric B-cell lymphoma involving the oral cavity, liver, spleen, and multiple lymph nodes, bilateral testicular seminomas, thyroid follicular cell adenoma, thyroid C cell adenoma, and biliary cystadenomas. Bacterial culture and molecular sequencing identified the causative agent of the cutaneous abdominal mass as belonging to the Mycobacterium fortuitum group. PMID:24063108
Cerveny, Shannon N S; Thompson, Michelle E; Corner, Sarah M; Swinford, Amy K; Coke, Rob L
A 31-year-old homosexual man, who was human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive was admitted for fever and cough. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed the presence of diffuse interstitial reticular nodulation, and brain nuclear magnetic resonance imaging showed the presence of nodular frontal lesions. Microscopic examination of sputum and other body fluids showed the presence of acid-fastbacilli and culture-only growth Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Serology for respiratory tract pathogens was negative except for Chlamydia. An antibody titer in the immunoglobulin G (IgG) class of 1:64 for Chlamydia pneumoniae and, unexpectedly, an antibody titer of 1:1024 for C. trachomatis were found. The patient was successfully treated with antituberculosis agents, and clarithromycin, for presumptive chlamydial infection. PMID:11788074
The internationally recognized Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Culture Collection will be described to include the microorganisms maintained by the collection, preservation methods and worldwide distribution of cultures. The impact of the germplasm will be described to include discovery of the f...
A mixed culture system of the newly discovered microorganism thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus atcc31550 and the microorganism clostridium thermocellum atcc31549 is described. In a mixed nutrient culture medium that contains cellulose, these microorganisms have been coupled and cultivated to efficiently ferment cellulose to produce recoverable quantities of ethanol under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions.
We draw on Helen Schwartzman's seminal work on meetings to make the case for studying meetings and studying them from a cultural perspective. In a global context marked by the increasing interdependence of social groups of all sizes, scholars need ways to study and interpret local phenomena; a cultural approach to meetings provides a means for discovering local practices and
|This issue examines the implications of culture on gender and development work. The power of culture is of profound importance in understanding ourselves, others, gender relations and development. The twelve essays address some aspects of gender relations and the power structure of society. Chapters include: (1) "Editorial" (Caroline Sweetman);…
We address empirically the question of why international economic sanctions are, or are not, chosen as instruments of foreign policy and the question of what determines their success. We hypothesize that cultural linkages between nations are an important factor in explaining both instrument choice and conflict outcomes. Countries that share significant cultural attributes are found to be less likely to
Donna Driscoll; Dennis Halcoussis; Anton D. Lowenberg
We address empirically the question of why international economic sanctions are, or are not, chosen as instruments of foreign policy and the question of what determines their success. We hypothesize that cultural linkages between nations are an important factor in explaining both instrument choice and conflict outcomes. Countries that share significant cultural attributes are found to be less likely to
Donna Driscoll; Dennis Halcoussis; Anton D. Lowenberg
|The nature of today's popular culture, its place in American life, and its merit or lack of it are the themes of these essays from "The New York Times Magazine." Introductory essays discuss the use of leisure time, paying the cost of the arts, and whether American society can be considered "cultured." Subsequent essays discuss the nature of radio…
Experiential education techniques have a sound theoretical basis, are compatible with social work education, and are valued teaching tools for cultural competence. Although some educators still rely on didactic techniques and many of the helping professions still struggle with the best ways in which to implement their commitment to educating students for culturally competent practice, it seems a natural and
|Compared to 120 controls, 80 nursing students participating in international clinical-immersion experiences showed a significant increase in cultural self-efficacy and awareness, ability to overcome ethnocentrism, and ability to integrate patients' cultural beliefs into health-care practices. (SK)|
|In this article, the author discusses youth culture and raises concerns about the tricky social terrain modernity offers for youth identity. He discusses familiar "topoi" or thematics that seem to drive most work on youth culture, suggests that justice and fairness are moral imperatives, and that acknowledging the worthiness of difference is one…
|This issue serves as a package of information for foreigners about Finnish science and culture and about international cooperation in these fields. It contains a speech on security and cooperation in Europe and articles on the university in an international world, the Academy of Finland, information activity in cultural studies, and activities of…
|Despite their diverse national backgrounds, 28 interviewees speak similarly about the complexity of the cultural realities with which they live, and refuse to be pinned down to specific cultural types. While nation is of great importance, unless personally inspiring, it tends to be an external force which is in conflict with a wide variety of…
This booklet about the cultural background of Vietnam is one of three booklets that serve as a foundation for understanding the cultural diversity and values of Cambodian, Laotian, and Vietnamese students. Vietnam is located on the eastern coast of the Indochinese peninsula and has a population of 56 million. Its history is divided into the…
This booklet about the cultural background of Cambodia is one of three booklets that serve as a foundation for understanding the cultural diversity and values of Cambodian, Laotian, and Vietnamese students. Cambodia, or Kampuchea, has a population of about 7,000,000 and is located in mainland Southeast Asia. Its history is divided into the…
Demands for cultural citizenship within western democracies identify the shifting needs that arise from culturally diverse and multicultural societies. These demands are increasing while simultaneously, many western societies are re-evaluating their commitments to official policies and discourses of multiculturalism. In the Canadian context, where official multiculturalism has been celebrated since the 1970s, the challenge to the continuity of multiculturalism has
In this article, the author describes a cultural collage painting project. Three things served as the impetus for this project: (1) a desire for students to explore the theme of "culture"; (2) an appreciation for the photo-montaged, layered images one sees in print media; and (3) noticing that projects from core subject areas hanging on the walls…
A substantial amount of literature suggests that illness behavior in the United States is a product of a patient's core culture; equally credible findings do not support this contention. Most students and graduates in the health care professions believe that illness and disability behavior are affected by a patient's culture, but they are hard put to find convincing examples of that relationship. In experience with medical students studying the social and cultural bases of illness behavior, with patients who are disabled and with persons who claim disability in the absence of physical disease or disabling psychopathology, I observed no deviant disability behavior that was typical for the members of any cultural group, and no behavior was displayed by the members of one cultural group that was not seen in members of other cultural groups. No cultural stereotypes were upheld. I did find evidence that disability behavior is influenced by personality factors, social situations and the gains derived from the disability status. Evolving concepts of “entitlement,” which are closely related to socioeconomic status, also have a significant influence. The impact of feedback from others in a person's many social and medical subcultures is a more crucial determinant of illness and disability behavior, except in those for whom illness and disability behavior is determined by the limitations imposed by the disease or by a personality structure resistant to cultural expectations and social feedback.
The invention encompasses isolation, culture and characterization of goblet cells in vitro form mammalian conjuctiva. Goblet cells can be cultured from conjunctiva of such mammals as, e.g., humans, rats, mice, rabbits and the like. In another aspect of th...
The design and performance characteristics of a small volume (20ml) continuous culture device for the cultivation of luminous bacteria are described. This simply constructed device can be used to supply luminescent bacteria with constant properties for either laboratory use or the assay of environmental pollutants. Furthermore, bacteria can be deployed to make sensitive (<1nM) oxygen measurements. The culture device may
David T. Pooley; Judith Larsson; Graham Jones; Michael H. Rayner-Brandes; David Lloyd; Colin Gibson; William R. Stewart
|Outlines steps to generate cell samples for observation and experimentation. The procedures (which use ordinary laboratory equipment) will establish a short-term primary culture of normal mammalian cells. Information on culture vessels and cell division and a list of questions to generate student interest and involvement in the topics are…
Venezuela's shrimp industry is dominated by its trawler fleet, which caught more than 8,600 metric tons of shrimp in 1989. In comparison, the shrimp culture industry harvests only small quantities. Various groups have been attempting to culture shrimp in ...
|Discusses the design of a traditional Japanese house to clarify the importance of the "uchi"--the inside of the house--equation. Deals with key cultural concepts tied closely with "uchi/soto" (outside of the house), then shows that the use of the spatial notion in Japanese grammar reflects how culture and language are part of an integrated…
How, what, when and where we learn is frequently discussed, as are content versus process, or right brain versus left brain learning. What is usually missing is the cultural dimension. This is not an easy concept to define, but various aspects can be identified. The World Decade for Cultural Development emphasizes the need for a counterbalance to a quantitative, economic
|Intelligence cannot be fully or even meaningfully understood outside its cultural context. Work that seeks to study intelligence acontextually risks the imposition of an investigator's view of the world on the rest of the world. Moreover, work on intelligence within a single culture may fail to do justice to the range of skills and knowledge that…
|In 2001, the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) adopted 10 discrete standards of culturally competent practice which undergird our commitment to diversity and social justice. The concept of intersectionality is newly emerging in social work, though, causing us to reflect on our current conceptualizations of cultural competence.…
Latin America is a leading world producer of cultured shrimp. Growers in the region reported major pond harvest increases during the 1980s. The 1990 regional cultured shrimp harvest was more than 100,000 metric tons, a 1,000 percent increase over the less...
The article formulates some of the harder questions facing the post-modern Humanities project. Using cultural studies as a context, and a cultural tourism junket to Vietnam as an impressionistic case study, the authors probe some of the conceptual, logical and political terrors that have evolved since the events of 11 September 2001. It is argued that global terror is –
Teaching ability, over and above reading programs, is the major contributor to students' literacy success. Culturally and linguistically diverse students are not receiving "a free and appropriate education" when teachers are not implementing instructional strategies that optimize student achievement or positively reinforcing their cultural…
Developing from histories of arts administration and arts management, “cultural leadership” has recently become a focus within the cultural sector and the creative industries of the UK. This article interrogates a basic question—what is cultural leadership? Beginning with secondary sources (historical summaries, policy documents, arts\\/cultural grant applications), we contextualize the developments and practice of cultural leadership as an outgrowth of
The study of culture is rooted in sociology, social psychology, and anthropology. In particular, cultural anthropology seeks to understand the similarities and differences among groups of people in the contemporary world. Within the last 20 years, the practical relevance of researching cultural issues, and especially comparing phenomena across cultures, was questioned (Ferraro, 1990). However, the importance of cultural issues is
Proteins secreted by Mycobacterium species have been suggested as major immune targets in the early phase of infection. In this study, we sought to identify specific antigens in culture filtrates and in soluble cell extracts of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. The release of antigens into the culture medium during growth of the bacilli and the distribution of specific epitopes within the Mycobacterium species were investigated by immunoblot analysis with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised against M. paratuberculosis antigens. MAb B6A interacted with a cellular antigen with an apparent molecular mass of 34.5 kDa in lysates of M. paratuberculosis. MAb B6A did not interact with lysates from any other mycobacterial species, suggesting recognition of an M. paratuberculosis species-specific epitope. MAb FL1-A1 reacted with an antigen of 44.3 kDa in M. paratuberculosis and a 9-kDa antigen in Mycobacterium kansasii. MAb PII-B1 reacted with concanavalin A (ConA)-binding cellular and filtrate molecules of M. paratuberculosis and with lysates of Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium avium 18. The affinity-purified glycosylated antigens migrated as a diffuse band of between 35 and 45.6 kDa and reacted strongly with ovine and bovine paratuberculosis serum and polyclonal serum against M. tuberculosis lipoarabinomannan antigens. These glycoconjugates were the earliest antigens detected in culture filtrates of M. paratuberculosis. Deglycosylation of the ConA-binding molecules with alpha-mannosidase enzyme abolished the reaction with MAb PII-B1 and with bovine but not ovine paratuberculosis serum, suggesting selective immunogenicity in the different animal species. PMID:9009287
Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities. PMID:20679109
Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian
Plant cell suspension cultures are widely used in plant biology as a convenient tool for the investigation of a wide range of phenomena, bypassing the structural complexity of the plant organism in toto. The homogeneity of an in vitro cell population, the large availability of material, the high rate of cell growth and the good reproducibility of conditions make suspension-cultured cells suitable for the analysis of complex physiological processes at the cellular and molecular levels. Moreover, plant cell cultures provide a valuable platform for the production of high-value secondary metabolites and other substances of commercial interest. Here we describe how to initiate and maintain plant cell cultures starting from explants obtained from in vitro germinated seedlings. Isolation of protoplasts from plant cell suspension cultures and regeneration of plants via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis are also presented. PMID:23073877
Tributyl phosphate (TBP) is an organophosphorous compound, used extensively (3000-5000 tonnes/annum) as a solvent for nuclear fuel processing and as a base stock in the formulation of fire-resistant aircraft hydraulic fluids and other applications. Because of its wide applications and relative stability in the natural environment TBP poses the problem of pollution and health hazards. In the present study, fifteen potent bacterial strains capable of using tributyl phosphate (TBP) as sole carbon and phosphorus source were isolated from enrichment cultures. These isolates were identified on the basis of biochemical and morphological characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that two isolates belonged to class Bacilli and thirteen to ? and ?-Proteobacteria. All these isolates were found to be members of genera Alcaligenes, Providencia, Delftia, Ralstonia, and Bacillus. These isolates were able to tolerate and degrade up to 5 mM TBP, the highest concentration reported to date. The GC-MS method was developed to monitor TBP degradation. Two strains, Providencia sp. BGW4 and Delftia sp. BGW1 showed respectively, 61.0 ± 2.8% and 57.0 ± 2.0% TBP degradation within 4 days. The degradation rate constants, calculated by first order kinetic model were between 0.0024 and 0.0099 h(-1). These bacterial strains are novel for TBP degradation and could be used as an important bioresource for efficient decontamination of TBP polluted waste streams. PMID:21755325
Children and families constitute an ever-increasing culturally diverse group in this country. Together with incentives in multicultural education and the evidence of the impact of different cultural values in the media, these groups have become more visible, more complex, and harder to study. Culture is defined as dynamic and expressive of shared values and behaviors. Cultural patterns may be situation specific and change according to contextual demands (rural versus urban youth) or may be population specific (the culture of gay youth versus heterosexual youth). Some people also ascribe to cultural beliefs, but these do not necessarily translate to behaviors. Families and their children vary in their level of acculturation and developmentally vary in their level of ethnic identification. Child-rearing patterns and parenting approaches are constantly in flux, as are gender roles and, increasingly, religious affiliations. Clinicians are challenged to treat these families and often find the cultural dissonance with their own native culture and theoretical approaches as obstacles for the appropriate assessment and treatment interventions. As the field of family therapy has developed, so have culturally sensitive and competent approaches in the field of mental health. These approaches must be integrated into the multiplicity of other factors that define normality and psychopathology and be studied further in the context of their relevance and efficacy for special groups of children and families who suffer with specific disorders. In the meantime, cultural awareness and competence will continue to help clinicians understand better the impact of values and patterns in family cycles, family organization, child-rearing practices, and the expression of symptoms in family systems. PMID:11449814
|Teaching world cultures in the middle-level geography classroom presents challenges both because of the complexity of culture and because of the characteristics of students of this age. One effective way to teach about a culture is through the use of cultural artifacts. This article discusses how to collect and use cultural artifacts in the…
Examines special issues in cross-cultural psychopathology, including culture-bound syndromes, variable distribution of psychopathology across cultures, and cultural distinctions between belief and delusion and between trance and hallucination. Offers suggestions for educating clinicians about cross-cultural conceptual issues and teaching the…
|This article introduces the culture-infused career counselling (CICC) model. Six principles are foundational to a tripartite model emphasizing cultural self-awareness, awareness of client cultural identities, and development of a culturally sensitive working alliance. The core competencies ensure the cultural validity and relevance of career…
Culture changes landscapes and culture is embodied by landscapes. Both aspects of this dynamic are encompassed by landscape ecology, but neither has been examined sufficiently to produce cultural theory within the field. This paper describes four broad cultural principles for landscape ecology, under which more precise principles might be organized. A central underlying premise is that culture and landscape interact
Infectious granulomatous prostatitis is uncommon, and most cases of granulomatous prostatitis are classified as nonspecific granulomatous prostatitis. From 2007 to 2009, 5 patients experienced poor wound healing after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer at a specialist cancer center. Mycobacterium abscessus was cultured from the debridement specimens, and acid-fast-positive bacilli were identified histologically within the prostates. All 180 radical prostatectomy specimens from May 2007 to June 2009 were reviewed, and 7 additional cases with morphologies suspicious of M. abscessus granulomatous prostatitis (MAGP) were identified. The characteristic morphologic feature of MAGP was suppurative necrotizing granulomatous inflammation extensively (10% to 80% of the gland; mean, 39%) involving the prostate. The centers of MAGP were large areas of neutrophilic abscess and necrotic debris, which were surrounded by histiocytes, lymphocytes, plasma cells, scattered multinucleated giant cells, and eosinophils. In the adjacent areas, there was a lobular extension of mixed inflammatory infiltrates into dilated and ruptured ducts. Involvement of extraprostatic soft tissue and seminal vesicles/vas deferens was found in 9 and 4 cases, respectively. Acid-fast-positive bacilli were identified in 5 radical prostatectomies. Eleven patients had fresh tissue specimens stored at -150°C, and M. abscessus was cultured from 8 prostates. Random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction showed the same clone for all isolates. After prostatectomy, 8 patients experienced prolonged wound healing, with urethrorectal fistula formation in 1 patient and a pelvic abscess in another. It is critical for pathologists to recognize MAGP and to distinguish it from the more common nonspecific granulomatous prostatitis and other granulomatous lesions within the prostate. PMID:22261705
Stem cells always balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Hence, stem cell culture parameters are critical and need to be continuously refined according to progress in our stem cell biology understanding and the latest technological developments. This led to the progressive replacement of ill-defined additives such as serum or feeder cell layers by recombinant cytokines or growth factors. Another example is the control of the oxygen pressure. For many years cell cultures have been done under atmospheric oxygen pressure which is much higher than the one experienced by stem cells in vivo. A consequence of cell metabolism is that cell culture conditions are constantly changing. Therefore, the development of high sensitive monitoring processes and control algorithms is required for ensuring cell culture medium homeostasis. Stem cells also sense the physical constraints of their microenvironment. Rigidity, stiffness and geometry of the culture substrate influence stem cell fate. Hence, nanotopography is probably as important as medium formulation in the optimization of stem cell culture conditions. Recent advances include the development of synthetic bioinformative substrates designed at the micro- and nanoscale level. On going research in many different fields including stem cell biology, nanotechnology, and bioengineering suggest that our current way to culture cells in Petri dish or flasks will soon be outdated as flying across the Atlantic Ocean in the Lindbergh’s plane.
Van Der Sanden, Boudewijn; Dhobb, Mehdi; Berger, Francois; Wion, Didier
The Drake Equation for the number of radio communicative technological civilizations in the Galaxy encompasses three components of cosmic evolution: astronomical, biological and cultural. Of these three, cultural evolution totally dominates in terms of the rapidity of its effects. Yet, SETI scientists do not take cultural evolution into account, perhaps for understandable reasons, since cultural evolution is not well-understood even on Earth and is unpredictable in its outcome. But the one certainty for technical civilizations billions, millions, or even thousands of years older than ours is that they will have undergone cultural evolution. Cultural evolution potentially takes place in many directions, but this paper argues that its central driving force is the maintenance, improvement and perpetuation of knowledge and intelligence, and that to the extent intelligence can be improved, it will be improved. Applying this principle to life in the universe, extraterrestrials will have sought the best way to improve their intelligence. One possibility is that they may have long ago advanced beyond flesh-and-blood to artificial intelligence, constituting a postbiological universe. Although this subject has been broached, it has not been given the attention it is due from its foundation in cultural evolution. Nor has the idea of a postbiological universe been carried to its logical conclusion, including a careful analysis of the implications for SETI. SETI scientists, social scientists, and experts in AI should consider the strengths and weaknesses of this new paradigm.
\\u000a Teaching across cultures, whether as an expatriate teaching in a different culture, or as a local teaching international students,\\u000a is an experience that many university teachers see as problematic. The following comment from the United Kingdom on teaching\\u000a international students is typical:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a many overseas students now originate in Pacific Rim countries, whose educational cultures characteristically value a highly\\u000a deferential approach
Social interactions and personal tastes shape our consumption behavior of cultural products. In this study, we present a computational model of a cultural market and we aim to analyze the behavior of the consumer population as an emergent phenomena. Our results suggest that the final market shares of cultural products dramatically depend on consumer heterogeneity and social interaction pressure. Furthermore, the relation between the resulting market shares and social interaction is robust with respect to a wide range of variation in the parameter values and the type of topology.
The concept of a ‘children's culture’ emerged both in the sociology of childhood and some national cultural policies in the 1970s, and has persisted since, although with changing definitions. This article traces the discourses that have shaped and influenced the notion of children's culture in sociology, public policy and specifically in cultural policies. It examines case studies of cultural policy
|This chapter examines popular culture as a site of cultural resistance. Specifically, it explores how "culture jamming," a cultural-resistance activity, can be a form of adult education. It examines adult education and learning as it intersects with both consumerism and popular culture. Focus is placed on a growing social movement of individuals…
Presents topics for parents to use when discussing cultural diversity with their children (basic needs, cultural attitudes, body language, the arts, and language). Activities for exploring cultural diversity are suggested, and a list of multicultural resources is included. (SM)
This project reviews key concepts of organizational culture and examines how our military culture may change as a result of various social and environmental influences. Military culture has always had a significant impact on operational effectiveness. But...
Various policy analysts, politicians, and other persons have become increasingly intrigued by the potential that various cultural programs and initiatives may have in terms of economic development in their respective regions. This report, authored by John Holden on behalf of the Demos Group in London, examines the way in which government views the potential benefits of various cultural programs. In this 62-page report, Holden argues that arts and other such programs should be funded because of their cultural contribution to society, rather than for the increasingly popular reason given by many units of governance, which is that they can effectively deliver government policy. The report goes on to argue that government should move from a target-oriented, top-down approach to one that is more cognizant of the full range of values created by culture.
The recent focus on cultural knowledge in counterinsurgency operations and tactics is a welcome development insofar as it has allowed field commanders in Iraq and Afghanistan to radically reassess the failed operations and tactics in counterinsurgency in ...
... and sent to the labarotory for testing. The sample pleural fluid is placed on culture plates containing growth media. When colonies of microorganisms have reached sufficient size, a series of biochemical tests can be performed ...
|Describes films about American ethnic groups: the Eskimos, Cree Indians, the Shinnecock, Italian-Americans, and the Amish. Additional films about foreign and American culture are also annotated. (KS)|
... infection is contagious, unless it is meningococcal meningitis. See also: Aseptic meningitis Cryptococcosis ... A laboratory culture poses no risk to you. For risks from the procedure done to get a CSF sample, see spinal tap .
Ethical issues with regard to cultural competence in practice is an area that seems to be most discussed in the world of health professionals, especially as our nation becomes more and more diverse. \\
Healthcare providers from all backgrounds are taught the Western medicine approach with little consideration given to cultural-specific care. Yet, today it is difficult to ignore that approximately 33 percent of Americans originate from ethnically diverse groups. As our population continues to become more diversified, it is imperative that healthcare professionals become more sensitive to cultural differences. Effectively managing cultural diversity in the workplace requires a complex set of skills as well as an understanding of the concept. Communication skills will be challenged in a complex and diverse work environment. Managers must learn to listen. Embracing cultural diversity is a two-step process. The first step begins with personal self-interest and self-examination. The second step in the process is the "awakening." Tomorrow's successful managers will take an active role today in creating an environment that views diversity as an asset to the work force. PMID:11302066
France is promoting a shrimp culture industry in its Western Hemisphere Overseas Department, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique. They have focused almost exclusively on freshwater shrimp. The French have made considerable technical progress, althou...
The notion that there is a connection between a society and its strategic culture has a long and distinguished pedigree. In his history of the Peloponnesian War, Thucydides records that the Spartan king Archidamus and the Athenian strategos Pericles each ...
Conventional Western-model psychotherapy is based on a number of premises regarding its rationale and technique. The increasing experience in psychotherapy globally is questioning the universality of these premises, suggesting that these could be to a large extent culture-specific, having developed in a particular culture at a particular time. Hence, the need to move from a dogmatic approach to psychotherapy to a flexible approach taking into account the socio-cultural reality. The paper identifies a number of cultural variables involving the intrapsychic mechanisms (e.g. cognitive and expressive), social relatedness (e.g. autonomy, social distance) and religious-philosophical belief systems (concept of sin, and belief in fatalism and after-life/reincarnation) and discusses their role in the approach to and process of psychotherapy, illustrating it with the situation in the Indian setting. PMID:3410660
The meanings and implications of cultural relativism have been debated for decades. Reprising this debate, Roger Sandall offers\\u000a a pointed critique of the anthropological concept of culture and identifies relativism as the internal and corrosive enemy\\u000a of the open society. I challenge his reading of our predicament. Considering the work of Franz Boas and his debts to the philosopher\\u000a Johann
The emergence of a safety culture in shipping has been promoted, especially by the Secretary General of the International\\u000a Maritime Organization. However, what is really meant by a safety culture? The adoption of the International Safety Management\\u000a Code and of the amended International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, STCW\\u000a 95, together with the introduction of
Although the relationship between trade and culture has been described as one of those new issues that pose “serious practical\\u000a and theoretical challenges ... to present understanding of the trade regime,”1 trade conflicts concerning cultural goods and services are not in fact a new phenomenon. Such conflicts go back to the 1920’s\\u000a when European countries, following the First World War,
This chapter describes the isolation, culture and staining of primary osteoblasts from the calvaria and long bones of neonatal rats. The key advantages of this assay are that it allows direct measurement of bone matrix deposition and mineralisation, as well as yielding good quantities of osteoblasts at defined stages of differentiation for molecular and histological analysis. A special focus of this chapter is on the role of ?-glycerophosphate in cell-mediated mineralisation in these cultures. PMID:22130920
Orriss, Isabel R; Taylor, Sarah E B; Arnett, Timothy R
In the current practice of fish culture the use of hormones is mainly limited to the field of reproduction, and more precisely\\u000a to induce or synchronize ovulation and stimulate spermiation. The practice of pituitary homogenates injection (called hypophysation)\\u000a which started in the early 1930's has allowed spectacular developments in the culture of some cyprinid species, especially\\u000a in China, India and
Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks. PMID:23163473
What is a cultural landscape? This website answers that question, and gives hundreds of wonderful examples for visitors to consider. The link "What are Cultural Landscapes?" explains to visitors that there are four types of cultural landscapes, and they also offer a brief definition of each one. They include "designed" which is intentionally laid according to design principles; "vernacular", where people have shaped the land by cultural patterns or activities; "ethnographic" which contain natural and cultural resources that the "associated people define as heritage resources" and the "historic site", which is self-evident. In order to view examples of cultural landscapes, visitors should click on the "What's Out There?" link to go to the database of the same name. There is a basic search function, as well as an "advanced search" that allow visitors to search by design type, such as "Plaza", "Parkway" or "Contemporary Earthwork" or by landscape style, such as "Italianate", "Mission Revival" or "Prairie Style". Most entries have photos, and some have more than one. Visitors should also check out "Abbott Park" for some glorious photos.
|An online cross-cultural health course for nurses sought to provide access to cultural experiences by culturally congruent use of a minority visiting scholar and required participation in cultural enrichment activities. Course and faculty evaluations were designed to be appropriate for the asynchronous environment. (Contains 25 references.) (SK)|
This article applies aspects of Jürgen Habermas, Manuel Castells and Lawrence Lessig’s theories to demonstrate how digital communication and new media platforms enhance cultural participation as well as how cultural policy affects the cultural behaviour of users who produce and are consumers in a digital convergence culture. The digital platforms and new media used in the analysis include an open
cul·ture (klchr) n. 1. a. The totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought; b. These patterns, traits, and products considered as the expression of a particular period, class, community, or population: Edwardian culture; Japanese culture; the culture of poverty; c. These patterns, traits, and products considered with respect to
What is video game culture, however? What does it mean to have a culture defined by the consumption of a particular medium? Moreover, what are the implications of defining this culture in a particular way? While there has been a great deal of ink split on video game culture, the actual definition of the term is often treated as common
The purpose of this paper is to define the presence of the clinician's cultural countertransference in the cross-cultural therapeutic dyad, and describe its impact on the delivery of culturally competent services. The recognition of the contributing role of the therapist's own subjectivity in psychodynamically oriented practice cannot be more vital than in the treatment of patients whose culture, race, or
|Cultural awareness (CA) has emerged over the last few decades as a significant part of conceptualizing the cultural dimension to language teaching. That is, L2 users need to understand L2 communication as a cultural process and to be aware of their own culturally based communicative behaviour and that of others. However, while CA has provided a…
This article examines cultural sensitivity as a basis for culturally relevant teaching. It argues that classroom teachers are overwhelmed by the responsibility to educate an increasingly culturally diverse population. And because extant teaching strategies have failed to produce desired outcomes in these students, a culturally relevant curriculum…
|Discussion of cultural tension in the social work literature is piecemeal. As part of a grounded theory study, this article reports some major findings on cultural tensions experienced by 30 frontline social workers. Cultural tensions caused by cultural similarities and differences among social workers, clients, organizations, and society are…
Advances in communication technologies have made great progress in bridging time and distance, but social and cultural differences are still formidable obstacles to effective communication. Communication processes occur in specific cultural contexts, with unique normative beliefs, assumptions, and shared symbols. Culture influences what people communicate, to whom they communicate, and how they communicate. There has been little systematic cross-cultural research
Karen Moustafa Leonard; James R. Van Scotter; Fatma Pakdil
Describes cultural therapy as a process of bringing one's own culture to a level of awareness that permits one to perceive it as a potential bias in social interaction and in the acquisition or transmission of skills and knowledge. Discusses knowledge categories necessary for cultural therapy and the role of cultural therapy in teacher training.…
Thirteen supervisees' of color and 13 European American supervisees' experiences of culturally responsive and unresponsive cross-cultural supervision were studied using consensual qualitative research. In culturally responsive supervision, all supervisees felt supported for exploring cultural issues, which positively affected the supervisee, the…
Burkard, Alan W.; Johnson, Adanna J.; Madson, Michael B.; Pruitt, Nathan T.; Contreras-Tadych, Deborah A.; Kozlowski, JoEllen M.; Hess, Shirley A.; Knox, Sarah
This study focuses on culturally endorsed implicit theories of leadership (CLTs). Although cross-cultural research emphasizes that different cultural groups likely have different conceptions of what leadership should entail, a controversial position is argued here: namely that attributes associated with charismatic\\/transformational leadership will be universally endorsed as contributing to outstanding leadership. This hypothesis was tested in 62 cultures as part of
Deanne N Den Hartog; Robert J House; Paul J Hanges; S. Antonio Ruiz-Quintanilla; Peter W Dorfman
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease of major public health concern worldwide, especially in developing countries. In addition, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has increased the incidence of infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Rapid, accurate, and simple methods for differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates from NTM is greatly needed for successful control of the TB epidemic. This study was done to evaluate the clinical performance of the BD MGIT TBc identification test (TBc ID) for rapid identification of MTBC in samples from broth cultures. A total of 229 Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain-positive MGIT cultures were tested using the TBc ID test, and the results were compared with those of the AccuProbe MTBC identification test (GenProbe, San Diego, CA). The agreement between the TBc ID test and the AccuProbe assay was 96% (kappa = 0.92; confidence interval [CI] = 0.869 to 0.971). The sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values of the TBc ID test compared to the AccuProbe assay were 100%, 92.4%, 100%, and 92.2%, respectively. After additional molecular testing, the agreement between the two methods increased to 97.8% (kappa = 0.96; CI = 0.917 to 0.994), and the specificity and positive predictive value increased to 95.6% and 95.7%, respectively. The TBc ID test is a simple, sensitive, and specific test for identification of MTBC in samples from acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smear-positive cultures. The TBc ID test could be a good alternative to the AccuProbe test in TB diagnostic laboratories.
Said, Halima M.; Ismail, Nazir; Osman, Ayman; Velsman, Chrisna; Hoosen, A. A.
This study aimed to assess the influence of water treatment and distribution on the bacterial communities with particular emphasis on tap water. Samples from the water treatment plant, the bulk supply distribution system and household taps, supplied by the same drinking water treatment plant, were analyzed using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Water treatment imposed alterations in the composition of the bacterial community, although this effect was more evident in the cultivable bacteria rather than among the total community assessed by 16S rRNA gene-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiling. Water disinfection, mainly chlorination, promoted a reduction on bacterial diversity and cultivability, with a shift in the pattern of cultivable bacteria from predominantly Gram-negative to predominately Gram-positive and acid-fast. Downstream of the chlorination stages, tap water, in comparison with raw water, presented higher diversity indices and cultivability percentages. From the source to the tap, members of the Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were the predominant lineages identified using 16S rRNA gene-DGGE analysis. Although with a lower coverage, the DGGE-based lineage identifications were in agreement with those found using 454-pyrosequencing analysis. Despite the effectiveness of water treatment to eliminate or inactivate most of the bacteria, Proteobacteria such as Acinetobacter, Bosea and Sphingomonadaceae may successfully colonize tap water. PMID:22938591
Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Egas, Conceição; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M
The essence of meristem-tip culture is the excision of the organized apex of the shoot from a selected donor plant for subsequent in vitro culture. The conditions of culture are regulated to allow only for organized outgrowth of the apex directly into a shoot, without the intervention of any adventitious organs (1-3). The excised meristem-tip is typically small (often less than 1 mm in length) and removed by sterile dissection under the microscope (Fig. 1). It comprises the apical dome and a limited number of the youngest leaf primordia, and excludes any differentiated provascular or vascular tissues. A major advantage of working with such a small explant is the potential that this holds for excluding pathogenic organisms present in the donor plant from the in vitro culture (see below). A second advantage is the genetic stability inherent in the technique, since plantlet production from adventitious organs can be avoided (3-7). However, if there is no requirement for such benefits, then the related technique of shoot-tip culture (see Chapter 8 , this vol.) may be more expedient for plant propagation. In this procedure, the explant is still a dissected shoot apex, but a much larger one, containing a relatively large number of developing leaf primordia. Typically, the explant is between 3-4 mm and 2 cm in length, and development in vitro is still regulated so as to be confined to outgrowth of an organized shoot, without adventitious propagation. PMID:21390596
This is a theoretical study of adolescent maturation within a cultural context. Personality development and disintegration due to the pressure of a dominant culture on a minority culture is considered. An attempt is made to understand how teachers might assist students to work out their psychological growth by story telling. The need for cultural…
The advent of comprehensive education implies a search for a common culture, or a common treatment of culture, across the whole school population. This article reviews the present stage in this search, attempting to define a suitable treatment of culture by secondary schools. The history of schools’ treatment of cultural sources is briefly invoked, particularly the differences in treatment found
|Promotes the improvement of school success for ethnically diverse students via culturally responsive teachers and the preparation of preservice teachers with necessary knowledge, attitudes, and skills to do this, highlighting: development of a cultural diversity knowledge base; design of culturally relevant curricula; demonstration of cultural…
Recent trends in the understanding of culture contact, with concepts such as hybridization, cosmopolitanism, and cultural innovation, open up the possibility of a new understanding of human interaction. While the social imaginary is rich with images of conflict resulting from culture contact, images of creativity are far rarer. We propose the creation of an extensive research project to document cultural
|This paper examines the nature of learning cultures in English Further Education (FE), as revealed in the Transforming Learning Cultures in FE (TLC) research project. In it, we describe four characteristics of a generic FE learning culture: the significance of learning cultures in every site; the significance of the tutor in influencing site…
Since UNESCO launched its 'The Power of Culture - Our Creative Diversity' culture has become an important ingredient in development policy. UNESCO conceptualises culture as an integrative mechanism within which people act. According to this view, development becomes possible if certain aspects of a culture can be changed, whereupon the whole of society will follow suit. Post-modern critics disagree, as
Through the application of Bourdieu's ideas of culture and cultural capital to a specific city located in Southeastern Turkey, this article identifies the forms of cultural capital, including education and consumption, that became important in class formation since the end of the nineteenth century. The article identifies changes in the historical forms which symbolic and cultural capital have taken. In
Do people from different cultures tag digital images differently? The current study compared the content of tags for digital images created by two cultural groups: European Americans and Chinese. In line with previous findings on cultural differences in attentional patterns, we found similar cultural differences in the order of the image parts (e.g., foreground or background objects) that people tag.
This paper examines the nature of learning cultures in English Further Education (FE), as revealed in the Transforming Learning Cultures in FE (TLC) research project. In it, we describe four characteristics of a generic FE learning culture: the significance of learning cultures in every site; the significance of the tutor in influencing site…
There is wide belief that organisational culture shapes many aspects of performance, including safety. Yet proof of this relationship in a medical context is hard to find. In contrast to human factors, whose contributions are many and notable, culture’s impact remains a commonsense, rather than a scientific, concept. The objectives of this paper are to show that organisational culture bears
Although cultural content is unavoidable as a backdrop for good language testing, cultural bias in testing English as a second language presents many dangers. A picture cue calling for a correct grammatical response may evoke an incorrect answer if the pictorial content is culturally coded. The cultural background behind a test must be accurately…
Objectives To define cultural competence. To understand the need for cultural competence. To understand the changing child demographics of the United States. To understand the process of becoming a more culturally competent clinician. To learn tools and techniques that help achieve cultural competence.
Technoscience is deeply linked to national cultures across terrains as diverse as medicine, agricultural biotechnologies, ICTs, energy technologies, etc. Understanding the cultural dimension of technoscience is vital for the project of socialisation. This project should be embedded in technological and political cultures, taking variation in cultural approaches to technoscience, national identity and political decision-making seriously. Socialisation of science and technology
The University of Oregon's arts and administration program is highly regarded, and they also happen to put out a visually compelling broadside for arts and culture workers called "CultureWork." As its mission statement notes, the primary goal of the publication is "to provide timely workplace-oriented information on culture, the arts, education, policy, and community." The first issue appeared back in May 1997, and visitors are invited to view all of the back issues (along with the current one) here at this site. Some of the recent broadsides have included "Canaries in the Coal Mine: Art, Freedom, and Community," "Boomers, XY's and the Making of a Generational Shift in Arts Management," and "Recognizing Artists as Public Intellectuals: A Pedagogical Imperative."
These manuals are used in the Stem Cell Culture Course at City College of San Francisco. This course is about general mammalian cell culture techniques but includes a laboratory exercise using stem cells (takes 3 weeks to complete). The course is taught to high school students but the materials are also used for college students. Laboratory exercises provide instruction in basic techniques of routine cell culture using common cell lines before progressing to differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. Photographs and explanations of common equipment (laminar flow hood, inverted microscope, etc.) and reagents are provided. Laboratory exercises include the following: Basic Aseptic Technique; Media Preparation; Plating cells from frozen stock; Cell counting and plating; Survival assay (UV); Live Cell Identification; Transfection; Freezing cells; Stem cell differentiation. A student lab manual and an instructor manual are provided.
There is a congruence of hermeneutic method between cultural history and psychoanalysis which includes a recognition of the subjectivity and self-reflexivity of interpretation and of the centrality of emotions in the structuring of historical motivation and action. Psychoanalysis is a humanistic discipline that offers tentative multi-causal conclusions, combining in its method both self-reflection and empiricism, but basing itself on a unique process of inquiry different from either the natural or the cultural sciences. Distinguished shapers of the historian's craft, including Dilthey, Collingwood, and Bloch, used the self as an instrument of research and insight. Freud was a cultural pessimist, as was Burckhardt whom he admired. Leading contemporary American historians, such as Williamson, foreground self-reflection as an acknowledged tool of historical discovery and cognition. The "Bauhaus," 1919-1939, is presented as a case study of creative group process utilizing Winnicott's concepts of transitional space. PMID:19780235
Development of therapeutic approaches that slow or ablate the adverse physiological and pathological changes associated with aging has been considered as an important goal for gerontological research. As cellular senescence is characterized as the basis for aging in organisms, culturing and subculturing of normal human diploid fibroblasts to mimic the in vivo aging processes have been developed as major methods to investigate molecular events involved in aging. It has been established that normal human diploid fibroblasts can proliferate in culture for only finite periods of time. There are many ways to study aging in vitro. In this chapter, we will discuss some of the basic laboratory procedures for cell senescence culturing methods. PMID:23929093
\\u000a Performing cell culture in miniaturized perfusion chambers gives possibilities to experiment with cells under near in vivo like conditions. In contrast to traditional batch cultures, miniaturized perfusion systems provide precise control of medium\\u000a composition, long term unattended cultures and tissue like structuring of the cultures. However, as this chapter illustrates,\\u000a many issues remain to be identified regarding perfusion cell culture
Performing cell culture in miniaturized perfusion chambers gives possibilities to experiment with cells under near in vivo like conditions. In contrast to traditional batch cultures, miniaturized perfusion systems provide precise control of medium composition, long term unattended cultures and tissue like structuring of the cultures. However, as this chapter illustrates, many issues remain to be identified regarding perfusion cell culture such as design, material choice and how to use these systems before they will be widespread amongst biomedical researchers.
This article describes how story was used to teach cultural assessment to baccalaureate nursing students enrolled in clinicals in long-term care facilities. Class sessions focused on learning to elicit and listen to patients' stories and use story as an assessment tool in clinical practice. With their peers, students learned to listen in a nonjudgmental, contextual way to the values and beliefs of the storyteller. They learned that all people, even those from the dominant mainstream culture, have stories to tell, and that stories build bridges between nurses and clients. PMID:16379264
The laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) on extrapulmonary specimens is particularly challenging. A number of commercial nucleic acid amplification tests able to detect and identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex directly from respiratory secretions have been developed, but their use on extrapulmonary samples still calls for validation. The BDProbeTec ET Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Direct Detection Assay (DTB) was applied to 918 consecutive extrapulmonary specimens (collected from 863 patients), including 84 gastric aspirates, 145 urine, 136 sterile body fluids, 83 cerebrospinal (CSF) fluids, 237 fine-needle aspirates, 175 pus, 56 biopsies, and two stool specimens. The results were compared with those of acid-fast staining and culture (solid plus liquid media), setting the combination of culture and clinical diagnosis as the gold standard. Ninety-two specimens yielded culture positive for MTB and 24 (smear- and culture-negative) were from patients with TB clinical diagnosis. Of these, 96 were DTB-positive, including all of those from culture-negative TB cases. From 26 specimens, nontuberculous mycobacteria were grown. Two of these specimens were positive by the DTB assay. Finally, of the 776 samples that were smear- and culture-negative for acid-fastbacilli (AFB), collected from patients for whom the diagnosis of TB was excluded, six were DTB-positive. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively) of extrapulmonary samples were 82.7, 99.0, 92.3, and 97.8%, respectively. Although, at present, amplification assays cannot replace culture techniques, DTB proved to be rapid and specific for the detection of MTB in extrapulmonary samples. PMID:21701905
Background: The incidence of Mycobacterium marinum infection has been increasing. First-line antituberculous drugs and other common antibiotics are effective for most cutaneous M. marinum infections; however, treatment failure still occurs in some rare cases. We report a case of a 70-year-old man with refractory cutaneous infection caused by M. marinum. Reasons for delayed diagnosis and related factors of the refractory infection are also discussed. Methods: Samples of lesional skin were inoculated on Löwenstein–Jensen medium for acid-fastbacilli. Species of mycobacterium were identified by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. We then carried out genotyping by using mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units and sequencing of heat shock protein 65 (hsp65) and 16S rDNA genes. Results: Tissue cultures for acid-fastbacilli were positive. PCR-RFLP analysis and sequencing of hsp65 and 16S rDNA genes confirmed the isolated organisms to be M. marinum. Systemic therapy with rifampicin, clarithromycin, and amikacin empirically over 6 months led to complete resolution of skin lesions leaving only some residual scars. Conclusion: Key diagnostic elements for M. marinum infections include a high index of suspicion raised by chronic lesions, poor response to conventional treatments, and a history of fish-related exposure. Strong clinical suggestion of M. marinum infection warrants initial empirical treatment. The duration of therapy is usually several months or even longer, especially for elderly patients. Amikacin can be considered in multidrug therapy for treatment of some refractory M. marinum infections.
The author's intellectual movement over the past two decades, from cross-cultural experimental psychology to the cultural psychology of mediation of human activities and cognitive processes, is described in this paper. Productive use of the concept of culture in psychology entails conceptualization of the future and the past in the present, and taking a process-based look at human activities. Cultural mediation
Cultural sensitivity and cultural competence in the selection of culturally sensitive treatments is a requisite for effective counseling practice in working with diverse clients and their families, particularly when clients present with health issues or medical problems. Described here is a strategy for selecting culturally sensitive treatments…
A cellular automata model is used to study aspects of cultural change in spatial environments. Cultures are represented as bit strings in individual cells. Cultures may change because they become more similar to prevailing nearby cultures, are subject to intrinsic random changes, or expand to previously empty cells. Extending Axelrod's (1997) results, the authors show that assimilation does not lead
Domenico Parisi; Federico Cecconi; Francesco Natale
This cult of westernization, this flight from African traditions together defines contemporary Africa's cultural disease .... And worse: there is a senseless refusal even to examine the African reality before we damage it further with thoughtless importations from the West. We flee our reality and our traditions and knock at western doors, batter at western walls, seeking a place, however
|This article first reviews claims for the knowledge economy in terms of excludability, rivalry, and transparency indicating the way that digital goods behave differently from other commodities. In the second section it discusses the theory of "public knowledge cultures" starting from the primacy of practice based on Marx, Wittgenstein and…
Designed to be used as complementary instructional material for American students as well as second-generation Iranians in America, this work presents a collection of material for teaching Persian language and culture. Research and analysis of some relevant linguistic issues, interactive methodology of language teaching and acquisition, and models…
|Developed as part of a multicultural research project in the San Diego Community College District, this booklet presents the findings of a 10-member research team about various elements of Mexican-American culture. The areas covered are: (1) historical background on the Mexican heritage of the United States from pre-colonial times to the present…
|Developed as part of a multicultural research project conducted in the San Diego Community College District, this booklet presents the findings of an eight-member research team about various elements of Black American culture and history. The booklet begins with a brief history of Black Americans from the time of the arrival of the first slaves…
|This booklet, developed as part of a multicultural research project conducted in the San Diego Community College District, presents the findings of a nine-member research team on various aspects of the history and culture of Vietnamese Americans. The areas covered are: (1) the Vietnamese as immigrant, which includes a discussion of the trauma and…
This document consists of three papers presented at a symposium on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD) moderated by Connie Fletcher at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Intercultural Adjustment of U.S. Expatriates in the People's Republic of China" (Hallett G. Hullinger, Robert E. Nolan) presents…
This dictionary is an encyclopedic survey of the cultural background and development of the black American, covering the basic issues, events, contributions and biographies germane to the subject. The author-compiler is Chairman of Classical Languages Department at Southeastern State College, Durant, Oklahoma. Richard Runes is practicing law as a…
These five papers are from a symposium that was facilitated by David C. Bjorkquist on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD) at the 1995 Academy of Human Resource Development conference. "Developing Managers for Overseas Assignments in the Pacific Rim: A Study of International HRD Issues in Singapore" (A. Ahad M. Osman-Gani, Thian-Ser…
|This book provides theoretically informed guidance to practicing the key research methods for investigating society and culture. It is a text in both methods and methodology, in which the importance of understanding the historical, theoretical and institutional context in which particular methods have developed is stressed. The contributors of…
Both art and the kinds of life styles which predispose one to disease reflect the culture of an era. Might the history of art give some insight into the origins of behaviors which are conducive to particular diseases? An attempt is made to answer this question by looking at the perception of time and space in modern and contemporary art
|Thirteen experts in the visual arts, literature, music, dance, and theater responded to the arguments of E. D. Hirsch's "Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know", focusing particularily on his alarm at the serious slippage that has occurred in the background knowledge and information prerequisite for effective communication. These…
Although the Japanese are still encountering many problems in optimizing the culture of the several species of marine algae, they are able to produce nearly as much as they need. Their real problems of the future appear to lie in the fields of (1) undesir...
|These five papers are from a symposium that was facilitated by David C. Bjorkquist on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD) at the 1995 Academy of Human Resource Development conference. "Developing Managers for Overseas Assignments in the Pacific Rim: A Study of International HRD Issues in Singapore" (A. Ahad M. Osman-Gani, Thian-Ser…
|Representing a refereed selection of papers from the 1994 JALT Kansai Conference, this collection of 25 papers contains formal presentations, teaching experiences, research projects, and ideas for effective teaching. The papers and their authors are, as follows: (1) "Culturally Influenced Communication Patterns: Overview, Implications and…
Reviewing a book from the Pink Triangle Press of Hong Kong, and drawing upon other professional and personal resources, the authors of this review essay, both psychiatrists and graduates of the University of Hong Kong, present a digest and synopsis of material relating to homosexuality in Chinese culture. With illustrations from the royal palaces, upper class households, entertainment companies, scholars'
Current discussions regarding the notion of visual culture in art educational practice center the actions of the viewer as participant within the networks of visuality common in many contemporary societies. Surveillance technologies and techniques shift this notion of participation from active to passive, from seeing to being seen. This article…
|The author reviews three books that provide complementary and thought-provoking insights. The three books under review are: (1) "Reproducing class: education, neoliberalism, and the rise of the new middle class in Istanbul," by Henry J. Rutz and Erol M. Balkan; (2) "Technology, culture, family: influences on home life," by Elizabeth B. Silva; and…
Summarizes research on competition as a part of normal development that is disproportionately reinforced within American culture. Concludes that the negative effects of competition are widespread and damaging and that the members of the helping professions have a responsibility to create and protect cooperative environments. (LLL)
A discussion of certain methodological issues in linguistics as they bear on the debate over cultural deprivation. Whether or not the non-standard English (NNE) of a minority group can be considered a distinct language with its own grammar is arbitrary and therefore not a useful question. However, one can compare standard and NNE forms for…
|A tissue culture experiment that does not require elaborate equipment and that can be used to teach sterile technique, the principles of animal cell line maintenance, and the concept of cell growth curves is described. The differences between cancerous and normal cells can be highlighted. The procedure is included. (KR)|
Music, dance, sports, painting, architecture and, of course, literature are forms of communication, which on one side allow connecting with the past, and, on the other hand, the past can help us to distinguish contemporary needs and develop future perspectives. The cultural significance of literature lies in its contribution to the system of symbols by means of which larger communities
What is television doing to our society and our culture. What has it done to education. Television has had a great impact on human behavior but rather than communicating, it dictates a philosophy of life, moral judgments and a lifestyle. Television presen...
|Ideally, education provides mutual enrichment for professor and students. In this article, the author often fears that he is learning far more than his students are in a course on intercultural communication. Its real subject sometimes seems to be the iron grip of American culture upon his students. What is most fascinating is that the power of…
Stem cells have the capacity for self renewal and undergo multilineage differentiation. Stem cells isolated from both blastocysts and adult tissues represent valuable sources of cells for applications in cell therapy, drug screening and tissue engineering. While expanding stem cells in culture, it is critical to maintain their self?renewal and differentiation capacity. In generating particular cell types for specific applications,
|This commentary on Roth, Lee, and Hwang's paper aims at analysing their theoretical approach in terms of its object of study, and the aspects that are brought to the fore, like the cultural activity of conversation, and those that are overshadowed, like the role of the material world and its perception on learning. This analysis, developed on the…
Reviews Mary Brown Bullock's 1980 book,"An American Transplant: The Rockefeller Foundation and Peking Union Medical College." Far more than a narrow, scholarly history, this book is a case study of the far-reaching cultural impact of international educational exchange efforts. (JDH)
Extract: ‘Economic Globalisation and Pluralistic Development of National Cultures’ was the theme of an international academic conference held in China in August 2001. Convened by the China Confucius Society and the Yunnan Institute for Nationalities, the conference was held in Kunming, the capital of China's ethnically diverse Yunnan Province in the southwest.
The author examines the impact of strategic culture on 21st century China. He contends that the People's Republic of China's security policies and its tendency to use military force are influenced not only by elite understandings of China's own strategic ...
Opinions vary regarding the impact of computers on children and value of using computers in the education of children. This article discusses the impact of technology on culture, attitudes about technological change, the nature of literacy in a technological society, and frameworks for thinking about teaching and learning with technology.…
This booklet, developed for school counselors, explores basic considerations for effective counseling of Lau students, defined as those from distinct language and cultural backgrounds, whose home language is other than English and who are not performing conceptually and linguistically at a level equal to district standards. Following a brief…
This article is about gun culture in Kumasi today. Gun use in Asante, and elsewhere in Ghana, has increased significantly in the last decade. In practice and in the public imagination this is associated with the rise of youth gangs and the criminalization of urban space. Much has been written about youths and violence elsewhere in Africa, but this article
The development of a culture of safety and NASA since the Challenger accident is reviewed. The technical elements of the strengthened NASA safety program are described, including problem reporting, risk/assessment/risk management, operational safety, and safety assurance are addressed. Future directions in the development of safety are considered.
Introduces a special journal issue on intracultural patterns of communication. Reviews research on intercultural communication from 1980-89. Argues that culture and intercultural communication are the most important global communication issues in the 1990s. Presents an intracultural communication research agenda for the 1990s. (SR)
This naturalistic study explores the physical, social, emotional, and spiritual adaptation of Asian Indian elderly immigrants to American culture. The individuals interviewed suggested that while they physically adapted to American life, many of them encountered social, emotional, and spiritual obstacles that often impeded successful adaptation. Factors such as family proximity, reasons for immigration, and conflicting values helped predict the adaptation
TISSUE culture of monocotyledonous plants has rarely been successful1,2 and to our knowledge Avena sativa has not previously been grown as a callus on completely synthetic media. The Avena coleoptile and straight growth tests have been used widely as biological assays for plant auxins, and the effect of growth substances on various parts of oat seedlings has been the subject
|We can identify black culture in terms of certain institutions and values which they share as members of an ethnic group, while recognizing that individual families and communities identify in important respects with other groups. The ascription of a humanistic character--defined as those values and institutions which black Americans have in…
|Plant tissue culture has developed into a valid botanical discipline and is considered a key area of biotechnology, but it has not been a key component of the science curriculum because of the expensive and technical nature of research in this area. This manual presents a number of activities that are relatively easy to prepare and perform. The…
|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a holistic understanding of quality in higher education which reveals the current debates about accreditation or quality process standards as insufficient, and to propose an enhanced model for quality culture in educational organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The conceptual framework is…
TEACHING PRACTICES USED SUCCESSFULLY AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL WITH CULTURALLY DEPRIVED CHILDREN ARE PRESENTED. STUDENTS SHOULD BE PROVIDED WITH OPPORTUNITIES THAT ALLOW FOR PARTICIPATION, ACHIEVEMENT, AND SUCCESS. THIS CAN BE DONE BY DIVERSIFYING LEARNING EXPERIENCES SO THAT STUDENTS OF ALL INTERESTS CAN DO THINGS THEY LIKE AND CAN DO WELL, BY…
|It might sound like a no-brainer that being bilingual or multilingual helps students planning engineering and just about any other career. But it is certainly true and is becoming more important as the economies of nations become more intertwined. What's more, being able to go beyond mere language ability and understand cultural distinctions are…
Based at the University of California, Berkeley, the Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative (ECAI) is a "global consortium of people who share the vision of creating a distributed virtual library of cultural information with a time and place interface." While visitors can elect to read about the technical aspects of working on such ambitious efforts, many will want to look at the "Cultural Atlas Portal" to get a start on things. Visitors will find that the Portal contains an interactive map of the world which can be used to look for materials from Australia to North America. These cultural atlases include projects like "The Salem Witch Trials Documentary Archive and Transcription Project" and "Mapping St. Petersburg". After looking over a few of these projects, visitors may wish to click on the "Community" area. Here they can learn how to contribute their own projects to ECAI or how to work with partner institutions to create a new piece of work, visitors can also find out about ongoing projects around the globe.
|Asserts that schools tend to reject pupil's culture, and seek to replace it with values, both middle class and egalitarian, which are not effectively conveyed, and advocates that the subject matter and techniques of education should be revalued, with the revalued material being made accessible to all pupils. (Author/JM)|
|This paper sets out an explanation about the nature of learning cultures and how they work. In so doing, it directly addresses some key weaknesses in current situated learning theoretical writing, by working to overcome unhelpful dualisms, such as the individual and the social, and structure and agency. It does this through extensive use of some…
In this paper, I consider the problematic of assembling culture from the standpoint of media. Specifically I take the example of mobile media – emergent digital networked technologies that centre on cellular mobile networks, but also intersect with other technologies such as the Internet and portable music and video devices. My particular interest is in these new assemblages of media
Anthropology can make a holistic contribution to the study of the complex societies of today's nations by identifying key issues, relevant to both the individual and the social system, on which these nations differ in empirically verifiable ways. This is labelled the ‘national cultures approach’ and can be considered an extension, with a broader purpose and more effective research methods,
This paper sets out an explanation about the nature of learning cultures and how they work. In so doing, it directly addresses some key weaknesses in current situated learning theoretical writing, by working to overcome unhelpful dualisms, such as the individual and the social, and structure and agency. It does this through extensive use of some…
This paper reviews the experience of evaluating a cultural competence workshop series for social workers practicing in a mental health care setting. The study used a pretest-posttest nonequivalent comparison group design, and evaluation was based on both quantitative and qualitative data collections. Between subjects analyses suggested that there were no differences between the intervention and comparison group after the intervention
First and second graders can understand that the African continent is made up of many countries and cultures, especially when teachers have maps, picture books, photographs, and artifacts on hand for them to explore. It is important for young students to develop an understanding of maps and how to use them. This article offers suggestions for…
To sum up our findings regarding race: Potential function is as important as actual accomplishment and can not be left out of the reckoning. Though races differ in accomplishment this difference is not constant through the centuries. It fluctuates as the culture life of neighbors changes, and independently of changes in the physical type of the group in question. If
This book provides theoretically informed guidance to practicing the key research methods for investigating society and culture. It is a text in both methods and methodology, in which the importance of understanding the historical, theoretical and institutional context in which particular methods have developed is stressed. The contributors of the…
Developed as part of a multicultural research project in the San Diego Community College District, this booklet presents the findings of a 10-member research team about various elements of Mexican-American culture. The areas covered are: (1) historical background on the Mexican heritage of the United States from pre-colonial times to the present…
An overview of application of chemometrics for the characterization and conservation of cultural heritage is provided. The principal component analysis (PCA) of painted plasters acid soluble components and aggregate granulometric distributions and multivariate characterization of the mass spectral and of the amino acid `fingerprints' of proteinaceous binding media in mural paintings of the Cupola of Florence Cathedral points out the
|Arguing for complicating the study of visual culture, as advocated by James Elkins, this article explicates and explores Lacanian psychoanalytic theory and pedagogy in view of its implications for art education practice. Subjectivity, a concept of import for addressing student identity and the visual, steers the discussion informed by pedagogical…
Daiello, Vicki; Hathaway, Kevin; Rhoades, Mindi; Walker, Sydney
|In this paper, the author begins by saying how privileged he feels to be included in the celebration of the American Indian Culture and Research Journal (AICRJ) and to toast forty years of American Indian studies at UCLA. He looks back over the field of Native American literature and criticism, then peeks at the present, and last, makes some…
The cultivation of the body ideal and promotion of thinness values in fashion, media and the diet industry have been repeatedly shown to account for the increased prevalence of eating disorders. It is evident in women in certain sub-cultures where the demand for thinness for career advancement is endemic. There is also a correlation between eating disorders and the level
In the 1980s, New Historicism was a strikingly innovative way of examining literary history, as well as practicing literary theory. Greatly influenced by the work of Louis Althusser and Michel Foucault, New Historicists in America and their British counterparts, Cultural Materialists, set to rewrite the history of Western literature in such a way as to challenge what they considered the
|Growing out of a series of lectures given at universities in the United States, Canada, and England, this book reopens the dialogue between literature and the life of its time. It draws dramatic connections between the imperial endeavor and the culture that both reflected and reinforced it, describing a general pattern of relationships between…
Paratuberculosis is mainly an infectious disease of ruminants with worldwide distribution. Infection occurs in early stages of life. Other animal species beyond ruminants are rarely affected, however, experimental and natural infections are possible. A case of paratuberculosis in a miniature donkey (Equus asinus f. asinus) with typical clinical and pathomorphological changes is reported here. Lesions were mainly observed in the intestine. Causative for the profuse diarrhoea with emaciation was massive diffuse granulomatous enteritis involving large quantities of acid-fast organism mainly in macrophages. Granulomatous inflammation with acid-fastbacilli again in macrophages to a lesser degree could be detected in the liver. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was isolated from intestinal contents after an incubation period of four weeks. MAP-specific DNA (IS900 and f57) was detected by polymerase chain reaction in culture material. Additionally MAP-isolates were characterized by multi-target genotyping (MIRU-VNTR- and MLSSR-typing). Isolates belonged to the Type II group and exhibited a unique genotype different from other MAP strains in Germany. The donkey originated from a donkey breeding farm in France with intensive free ranging cattle in the neighbourhood and could have been infected there. Donkeys should be considered as paratuberculosis-susceptible animals in exceptional cases and as possible reservoirs or disseminators of infection. PMID:22372323
Background Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious, granulomatous disease caused by acid-fastbacilli of the genus Mycobacterium. The disease affects practically all species of vertebrates. Although mammalian tuberculosis has been nearly controlled in many developed countries, it is still a serious problem in humans and domestic animals including pigs in developing countries. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of TB in pigs is not known. Therefore, this study was designed to estimate the prevalence of TB in pigs in central Ethiopia and to characterize the causative agents using molecular techniques. Results The estimated prevalence of TB was 5.8% (49/841). Age and origin of pigs were significantly associated (P<0.001) with the prevalence. In contrast, an association of sex, floor type and water source with the prevalence could not be shown. Culture positivity was confirmed in 30.6% (15/49) of the tuberculous-like lesions. Of the 15 isolates, 12 were acidfast positive while five of the latter were confirmed by multiplex PCR as members of the M. tuberculosis complex. Speciation of the five isolates further confirmed that they were M. tuberculosis, belonging to SIT1088 (two isolates) and SIT1195 (one isolate). The remaining two isolates belong to an identical spoligotype, the pattern of which was not found in the spoligotype database (SpolDB4). Conclusions The isolation of M. tuberculosis from pigs suggests a possible risk of transmission between humans and pigs. Hence, establishing feasible control methods is required.
Sputum smears for acid-fastbacilli (AFB) are the primary methods for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in many countries. The tuberculin skin test (TST) is the primary method for diagnosis of latent TB infection (LTBI) worldwide. The poor sensitivity of the former and the poor specificity of the latter warrant the development of new tests and strategies to enhance diagnostic capabilities.
Simon J. Tsiouris; David Coetzee; Patricia L. Toro; Judy Austin; Zena Stein; Wafaa El-Sadr
Fennec foxes (Fennecus zerda) in 2 zoos were found on necropsy to have lesions typical of those found in canine tuberculosis. Histologic examination revealed numerous acid-fastbacilli in lesions of liver, portal lymph node, spleen, kidney, and lung. Mycobacterium bovis isolated from tissues was identified by biochemical methods and by pathogenicity tests in guinea pigs and rabbits. PMID:7005205
Himes, E M; Luchsinger, D W; Jarnagin, J L; Thoen, C O; Hood, H B; Ferrin, D A
Many patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) do not produce sputum spontaneously or are smear-negative for acid-fastbacilli (AFB). We prospectively compared the yield of sputum in- duction (SI) and fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar la- vage (BAL) for the diagnosis of PTB in a region with a high preva- lence of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Fifty seven
MARCUS B. CONDE; SERGIO L. M. SOARES; FERNANDA C. Q. MELLO; VALERIA M. REZENDE; LUCIANA L. ALMEIDA; ARTHUR L. REINGOLD; CHARLES L. DALEY; AFRANIO L. KRITSKI
We report a case of primary cutaneous infection by Mycobacterium haemophilum after the bite of an aquarium fish in a severely immunodepressed AIDS patient. Clinical features consisted in nodular and ulcerative lesions that followed a sporotrichoid pattern. Histological study of nodular lesions showed a granulomatous dermatitis with numerous acid-fastbacilli. The mycobacterium was identified 3 months later by genetic hybridization
D. Cameselle; J. Hernández; A. Francès; T. Montenegro; F. Cañas; L. Borrego
We report a case of primary cutaneous infection by Mycobacterium haemophilum after the bite of an aquarium fish in a severely immunodepressed AIDS patient. Clinical features consisted in nodular and ulcerative lesions that followed a sporotrichoid pattern. Histological study of nodular lesions showed a granulomatous dermatitis with numerous acid-fastbacilli. The mycobacterium was identified 3 months later by genetic hybridization
D. Cameselle; J. Hernández; A. Francès; T. Montenegro; F. Cañas; L. Borrego
Twenty-five of 32 patients with leprosy and high concentrations of acid-fastbacilli (AFB) in the skin had bacteremia of a magnitude that permitted identification of Mycobacterium leprae in smears of peripheral blood. In patients with untreated lepromatou...
In 21 experimental groups of hamsters human leprosy material was inoculated into the ears and testes. Using nerve invasion by acid-fastbacilli as a criterion of growth, positive results were obtained in 20 groups and in 93 (30.3%) of 301 hamsters inocula...
Although the rabbit is used extensively in developmental toxicity testing, relatively little is known about the fundamental developmental biology of this species let alone mechanisms underlying developmental toxicity. This paucity of information about the rabbit is partly due to the historic lack of whole embryo culture (WEC) methods for the rabbit, which have only been made available fairly recently. In rabbit WEC, early somite stage embryos (gestation day 9) enclosed within an intact amnion and attached to the visceral yolk sac are dissected from maternal tissues and placed in culture for up to 48 h at approximately 37°C and are continuously exposed to an humidified gas atmosphere mixture in a rotating culture system. During this 48 h culture period, major phases of organogenesis can be studied including cardiac looping and segmentation, neural tube closure, and development of anlagen of the otic system, eyes and craniofacial structures, somites and early phases of limb development (up to bud stage), as well as expansion and closure of the visceral yolk sac around the embryo. Following completion of the culture period, embryos are evaluated based on several growth and development parameters and also are assessed for morphological abnormalities. The ability to sustain embryo development independent of the maternal system allows for exposure at precise development stages providing the opportunity study the direct action of a teratogen or one of its metabolites on the developing embryo. Rabbit WEC is perhaps most useful when used in conjunction with rodent WEC methods to investigate species-specific mechanisms of developmental toxicity. PMID:22669668
Background: Wound infections continue to be problematic in clinical practice where empiric treatment of infections is routine. Objectives: A retrospective cross-sectional study to determine the current causative organisms of wound infections and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns in the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital (NDUTH), Okolobiri, Bayelsa State of Nigeria. Methods: Records of wound swabs collected from 101 patients with high suspicion of wound infection were analysed. Smears from the wound swabs were inoculated on appropriate media and cultured. Bacterial colonies were Gram stained and microscopically examined. Biochemical tests were done to identify pathogen species. The Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic testing. Results: Prevalence of wound infection was 86.13% (CI: 79.41–92.85). Most bacteria were Gram negative bacilli with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most prevalent pathogen isolated. The bacterial isolates exhibited a high degree of resistance to the antibiotics tested (42.8% to 100% resistance). All isolates were resistant to cloxacillin. Age group and sex did not exert any effect on prevalence, aetiological agent or antimicrobial resistance pattern. Conclusion: We suggest a multidisciplinary approach to wound management, routine microbiological surveillance of wounds, rational drug use and the institution of strong infection control policies.
We evaluated the role of mycobacteria in chronic skin manifestations. The etiologies of chronic skin disorders in 90 patients were analyzed by culture, histopathologic examination, and skin testing for mycobacteria. There were 20 clinical diagnoses; prurigo nodularis was the most common diagnosis (43 patients). Cultures were incubated at 32 degrees C and 36 degrees C for 6 months. Fourteen cultures (16%) yielded the following mycobacteria: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (5), Mycobacterium avium/Mycobacterium intracellulare complex (3), Mycobacterium malmoense (2), and other mycobacteria (4). Acid-fastbacilli were detected in 24 (28%) of the 86 histopathologic specimens examined, including nine of the 14 culture-positive specimens. Granulomatous infection was present in three specimens (3%); cultures of two of these specimens yielded M. tuberculosis, and culture of one was negative. Skin reactivity to 12 mycobacterial antigens was tested. The patients for whom staining and/or culture was positive for mycobacteria had significantly larger skin reactions to M. malmoense antigen (P < .001) than did the patients with bacteriologically negative skin disorders. There was no correlation between the species isolated and the skin reactivity to the species-specific antigen. PMID:8922800
Successful growth of Mycobacterium lepraemurium has been achieved by use of a specialized diffusion chamber technique. The cell-impermeable porous chambers were maintained in animals for periods up to 50 days with and without macrophages and LM cells. A generation time of 6 to 8 days was found for the acid-fastbacilli in chambers containing macrophages when maintained in the mouse. Also, cell-free chambers maintained in the mouse gave a generation time of 11 days for M. lepraemurium. There was no doubt that chambers maintained in a susceptible host provided greater yields of bacilli than chambers maintained in a nonsusceptible host such as the guinea pig. In fact, better yields were obtained when the chambers were maintained in monolayer petri plate cultures of mouse peritoneal macrophages than when held in the guinea pig. The most pertinent observation was that living cells are not essential for growth of M. lepraemurium, and the results suggest that multiplication can occur in a cell-free environment within a susceptible host. These studies give evidence that the use of porous chambers has promising possibilities for further investigations on the cultivation of other fastidious mycobacteria.
Primary inoculation tuberculosis results from the direct inoculation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis into the skin of a person who has no natural or artificially acquired immunity to the organism. The pathogenesis requires a break in the skin from an abrasion or injury that allows entry of the tubercle bacilli. We report 3 cases of primary inoculation tuberculosis resulting from illegal acupuncture. Three patients over 70 years old presented with erythematous, ulcerative, indurated plaques on the back. Skin lesions had developed at the acupuncture sites 1 or 2 weeks after a session of acupuncture, which was intended to relieve back pain. An unlicensed, non-medically trained person conducted each session. The patients' past medical and family histories were unremarkable. Granulomatous inflammatory infiltration and acid-fastbacilli were observed histologically. M. tuberculosis was identified by mycobacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction. Nine months after the initiation of antituberculosis medication, skin lesions improved, and no evidence of recurrence or other organ involvement was observed at the 1-year follow-up visit.
This article examines debates about public culture from the late 1980s to the present and identifies thirteen arguments that have been used to justify an investment in public culture: public interest, national security, merit, moral worth, the good life, economic development, politics, education, democracy, American identity, shared symbols, diversity, and innovation. The article then asserts four positions: (1) public culture
Objective: The objective of this article is to comment on current issues in the relationship between culture and child maltreatment.Method: A review of the literature on culture and child maltreatment is the basis of the article.Results and Conclusion: While attention has been directed to the relationship between culture and maltreatment for more than 20 years, there is a need for
|Culture-specific non-verbal communication is regarded here as an essential "language" that has been neglected in modern language teaching pedagogy, though the substance of culture is often referred to in the curriculum. A distinction is drawn between the public aspects of culture commonly experienced by the second language learner and the private…
|Cultural therapy is defined as the process of bringing one's own culture, in its manifold forms and communicative modes, to a level of awareness that enables one to perceive it as a potential bias in social interaction and in the acquisition or transmission of skills and knowledge. Cultural therapy can be used to increase the awareness of…
Avatars are increasingly used to express our emotions in our online communications. Such avatars are used based on the assumption that avatar expressions are interpreted universally among all cultures. This paper investigated cross-cultural evaluations of avatar expres- sions designed by Japanese and Western designers. The goals of the study were: (1) to investigate cultural differ- ences in avatar expression evaluation
Tomoko Koda; Toru Ishida; Matthias Rehm; Elisabeth André
Cultural training can be a difficult topic to address during the internship year and can be defined or approached in many different ways. This article describes a program designed to provide cultural training focused on increasing cultural awareness for psychology interns. The training program outlined is based in part on anthropological research methods and teaches interns a method for learning
Brittany E. Canady; Michelle Rivera; John Gerdes; Amy Ford; Kenia Johnson; Nisha Nayak
Cultural therapy is defined as the process of bringing one's own culture, in its manifold forms and communicative modes, to a level of awareness that enables one to perceive it as a potential bias in social interaction and in the acquisition or transmission of skills and knowledge. Cultural therapy can be used to increase the awareness of teachers…
|A survey of cultural policy in Poland, prepared for UNESCO, is one of a series showing how cultural policies are planned and implemented in member states. The dual traditions of the ready assimilation of European elements into Polish culture and Poland's determination to maintain a national identity throughout 123 years of partition are presented…
Some practices in alternative spiritualities - for example, New Age and neopaganism - have been criticized by social commentators and some indigenous people for their appropriation of indigenous cultures, such as those of Australian Aborigines and North American Indians. This article argues that appropriation is not limited to indigenous cultures but is part of a larger phenomenon, that of cultural
|Discusses an investigation into the process of intercultural learning in an international school. Reports that cultural dissonance among students, between students and teachers, and in relation to the school culture, seemed to be the catalyst by which intercultural learning took place. Describes Hofstede's study of national cultural dimensions in…
A new blood culture instrument, the BACTEC (Johnston Laboratories, Inc., Towson, Md.) NR-660, which utilizes infrared detection of carbon dioxide from microbial metabolism, was compared with the radiometric BACTEC 460 system. There were 1,554 isolates from 18,785 paired aerobic blood cultures. Of these isolates, 1,303 were isolated from the radiometric 6B medium, and 1,259 were isolated from the NR6A medium (P = 0.06). Analysis of the data indicated no significant differences in recovery when any individual species was considered. When organisms were considered as groups, there were no significant detection differences for gram-negative bacilli, yeasts, or anaerobes. For gram-positive cocci in aerobic medium, the BACTEC 460 detected 84.3% of the total isolates, and the BACTEC NR-660 detected 79.7% (P = 0.04). There were 891 isolates from 13,983 paired anaerobic blood cultures. Of these isolates, 725 were recovered from the radiometric 7D BACTEC medium, and 723 were recovered from the NR7A BACTEC medium (P greater than 0.9). In the anaerobic media there was no significant difference in detection of any organism group, including the gram-positive cocci. When the results of the aerobic and anaerobic media were combined, there was equivalence between the two systems for the detection of gram-positive cocci (P greater than 0.2) and other organism groups. When the ability to detect septic episodes was compared, there was no significant difference for any organism group (P = 0.12). For aerobic media, the mean times for detection were 30.5 and 29.5 h for the BACTEC 460 and NR-660, respectively. For anaerobic media, the mean times for detection were 39.8 and 41.6 h for the BACTEC 460 NR-660, respectively. Compared with the BACTEC 460, the BACTEC NR-660 system had a greater ease of operation, faster test cycle, computerized data base, and equally rapid detection of positive cultures.
Jungkind, D; Millan, J; Allen, S; Dyke, J; Hill, E