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Sample records for acid-fast bacilli culture

  1. Safer staining method for acid fast bacilli.

    PubMed

    Ellis, R C; Zabrowarny, L A

    1993-06-01

    To develop a method for staining acid fast bacilli which excluded highly toxic phenol from the staining solution. A lipophilic agent, a liquid organic detergent, LOC High Studs, distributed by Amway, was substituted. The acid fast bacilli stained red; nuclei, cytoplasm, and cytoplasmic elements stained blue on a clear background. These results compare very favourably with acid fast bacilli stained by the traditional method. Detergents are efficient lipophilic agents and safer to handle than phenol. The method described here stains acid fast bacilli as efficiently as traditional carbol fuchsin methods. LOC High Suds is considerably cheaper than phenol. PMID:7687254

  2. Safer staining method for acid fast bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, R C; Zabrowarny, L A

    1993-01-01

    To develop a method for staining acid fast bacilli which excluded highly toxic phenol from the staining solution. A lipophilic agent, a liquid organic detergent, LOC High Studs, distributed by Amway, was substituted. The acid fast bacilli stained red; nuclei, cytoplasm, and cytoplasmic elements stained blue on a clear background. These results compare very favourably with acid fast bacilli stained by the traditional method. Detergents are efficient lipophilic agents and safer to handle than phenol. The method described here stains acid fast bacilli as efficiently as traditional carbol fuchsin methods. LOC High Suds is considerably cheaper than phenol. Images PMID:7687254

  3. Improved method of direct microscopy for detection of acid-fast bacilli in sputum.

    PubMed

    Aung, W W; Nyein, M M; Ti, T; Maung, W

    2001-06-01

    Microscopy of direct smears for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) is the most commonly used method for diagnosis of tuberculosis. However, direct microscopy of sputum, though rapid, has low sensitivity and there is a need for improved methods. Sputum samples were collected from patients attending the Union Tuberculosis Institute, Yangon. The microscopy of smears made directly from sputum were compared with the microscopy after liquefaction of sputum with household bleach (NaOCl) and concentration of bacteria by centrifugation. Out of 948 samples, 248 samples (26.2%) were positive for acid-fast bacilli by direct microscopy and 293 samples (30.9%) were positive for acid-fast bacilli by the household bleach method. There was a significant increase in the number of acid-fast bacilli positive samples by the house-hold bleach method (p<0.05). The method is simple and cheap. As a disinfectant, household bleach has the advantage of lowering the risk of laboratory infection. PMID:11556593

  4. A cold staining method for acid-fast bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Vasanthakumari, R.; Jagannath, K.; Rajasekaran, S.

    1986-01-01

    The Ziehl-Neelsen method is probably the best known and most frequently used procedure for staining tubercle bacilli. The method requires controlled heating for its success. However, in developing countries, such as India, where most laboratories rely mainly on spirit lamps as a source of heat, the Ziehl-Neelsen method often cannot be carried out because rectified spirit is difficult to obtain. The study describes a cold staining technique that uses the same staining solutions as the conventional Ziehl-Neelsen method. For direct smears, the correlation of results of the cold staining procedure with those of the Ziehl-Neelsen method was 97% and for concentrated smears was 99%. The method described is suitable for use in basically equipped laboratories. PMID:2433067

  5. Inefficiency of 0.3% Carbol Fuchsin in Ziehl-Neelsen Staining for Detecting Acid-Fast Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Selvakumar, N.; Rahman, Fathima; Rajasekaran, S.; Narayanan, P. R.; Frieden, Thomas R.

    2002-01-01

    We compared the sensitivity and specificity of a modified Ziehl-Neelsen (modified-ZN) staining method for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) with that of the standard Ziehl-Neelsen (standard-ZN) staining method, using culture results with Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the “gold standard.” The sensitivity (72%; 101 of 140) of the modified-ZN staining method, which uses 0.3% carbol fuchsin, was significantly lower than that of the standard-ZN staining method (84%; 117 of 140); the modified-ZN method missed 21% of cases detected by the standard-ZN method and 11% more of culture-positive samples than the standard-ZN method. The World Health Organization recommendation of 0.3% carbol fuchsin in the ZN method for staining AFB needs to be reconsidered. PMID:12149374

  6. Modifications in the fluorescence microscopy technique as applied to identification of acid-fast bacilli in tissue and bacteriological material

    PubMed Central

    Silver, H.; Sonnenwirth, A. C.; Alex, N.

    1966-01-01

    The principles and techniques involved in fluorescence microscopy as related to the demonstration of acid-fast bacilli are discussed. The auramine-rhodamine staining method, for both tissue and bacteriological preparations, is described as well as the necessary equipment for both microscopy and photomicroscopy. Fluorescence staining is no more difficult nor time consuming than a Ziehl-Neelsen stain yet it is more effective in demonstrating acid-fast organisms. Images PMID:4162852

  7. Identifying non-tuberculous mycobacterium lung diseases in acid-fast bacilli positive patients.

    PubMed

    Theerawit, Pongdhep; Vongsoasup, Arthit; Kiatboonsri, Sumalee

    2010-11-01

    We conducted a case-control study by comparing the clinical and radiographic features of acid-fast bacilli positive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) to those with non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) lung diseases diagnosed according to American Thoracic Society (ATS) criteria. The occurrence of NTM lung disease was associated with persistence in symptoms after the fifth month of treatment (p=0.018), middle lobe involvement (p<0.01), lower lobe involvement (p=0.004), multiple lobe involvement (p=0.001) and reticulo-nodular infiltration (p=0.041). On logistic regression analysis, persistence of symptoms after 5 months of treatment (p<0.001), middle lobe involvement (p<0.001) and lower lobe involvement (p<0.05) were significant predictors of NTM lung disease.These findings suggest physicians should consider NTM lung disease if there is involvement of the middle lobe or lower lobes on chest radiography or the persistence of symptoms at the fifth month of treatment. PMID:21329320

  8. Comparison of LED and conventional fluorescence microscopy for detection of acid-fast bacilli in an area with high tuberculosis incidence.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Manel; Ferjani, Asma; Dhaou, Mohamed; Ali, Moufida Haj; Hannachi, Naila; Boukadida, Jalel

    2013-07-01

    The objective of the study is to compare the performance of conventional fluorescence microscopy (CFM) and light-emitting diode (LED) fluorescence microscopy (FM) for detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in clinical samples. We included AFB smears, stained using the auramine O method and blindly examined with both CFM and LED-FM. Culture results were used as reference for evaluating the reliability of the FM. We included 180 culture positive specimens and an equal number of culture negative specimens. Sensitivities for the CFM and LED-FM were 79.4% and 82.2%, respectively. Both microscopes had a high specificity (97.2%). The negative-positive (>1 cross) inter-reader agreement of LED-FM and CFM was excellent. Therefore, detection of scanty AFB was higher with LED-FM. Both microscopes were equivalent with respect to time required to read smears. Although it was not faster than CFM, the higher detection of scanty AFB smears combined with ease of use supports the consideration of LED microscopy by all tuberculosis diagnostic laboratories, as a replacement for conventional fluorescence microscopes. PMID:23632250

  9. Improving sensitivity of direct microscopy for detection of acid-fast bacilli in sputum: use of chitin in mucus digestion.

    PubMed

    Farnia, P; Mohammadi, F; Zarifi, Z; Tabatabee, D J; Ganavi, J; Ghazisaeedi, K; Farnia, P K; Gheydi, M; Bahadori, M; Masjedi, M R; Velayati, A A

    2002-02-01

    In order to try to improve the results of direct smear microscopy, we used the mucus-digesting quality of chitin in tuberculosis (TB) laboratories. For this purpose, a total of 430 sputum specimens were processed by the N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) liquefaction, chitin sedimentation, and direct microscopy methods. Then, the smear sensitivity for acid-fast bacillus detection by chitin-treated sputum was compared with the sensitivity of smears prepared by other methods. Our results showed that the chitin solution took less time to completely homogenize the mucoid sputum than did the N-acetyl-L-cysteine and NaOCl methods. The N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration method demonstrated sensitivity and specificity levels of 83 and 97%, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity of chitin sedimentation was 80%, with a specificity of 96.7%. The NaOCl liquefaction method showed a sensitivity of 78%, with a specificity of 96%. Finally, the sensitivity of direct microscopy was lower than those of the other tested methods and was only 46%, with a specificity of 90%. The chitin and NaOCl liquefaction methods are both easy to perform, and they do not require additional equipment (centrifuges). Also, our results demonstrated that the chitin method is less time-consuming than the NaOCl method, since only 30 min of incubation is required to bring complete sedimentation of bacilli in chitin-treated sputum whereas the NaOCl method needs 10 to 12 h to give the same results in the same sputum specimens. Therefore, the chitin liquefaction and sedimentation method may provide better results in TB laboratories of developing countries than the N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration, NaOCl overnight sedimentation, and direct smear microscopy methods. PMID:11825964

  10. Mistaken identity: Legionella micdadei appearing as acid-fast bacilli on lung biopsy of a hematopoietic stem cell transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Waldron, P R; Martin, B A; Ho, D Y

    2015-02-01

    Legionella micdadei is a potential cause of invasive lung infections in immunocompromised hosts. On biopsy specimens, it can appear as an acid-fast bacillus (AFB) and can be mistaken for a member of genus Mycobacterium. As Legionella requires selective media to grow in culture, and the commonly used, commercially available urine antigen test for Legionella only detects Legionella pneumophila serogroup-1, but not L. micdadei, it is important to consider this organism in the differential diagnosis for AFB in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of L. micdadei infection, which was initially treated empirically for non-tuberculous mycobacteria based on AFB staining of biopsy tissue before the final diagnosis was made. PMID:25573597

  11. Decentralization of Acid Fast Bacilli(AFB) External Quality Assurance Using Blind Rechecking for Sputum Smear Microscopy in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Melese, Muluken; Jerene, Degu; Alem, Genetu; Seid, Jemal; Belachew, Feleke; Kassie, Yewulsew; Habte, Dereje; Negash, Solomon; Ayana, Gonfa; Girma, Belaineh; Haile, Yared K.; Hiruy, Nebiyu; Suarez, Pedro G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ethiopia achieved a rapid expansion of TB microscopic centers for acid fast bacilli (AFB). However, external quality assurance (EQA) services were, until recently, limited to few regional and sub-regional laboratories. In this paper, we describe the decentralization experience and the result of EQA using random blinded rechecking. Materials and Methods The routine EQA quarterly report was compiled and analyzed. A positive result by the microscopic center while the EQA center reported negative result is categorized as false positive (FP). A negative result by the microscopic center while the EQA center reported positive is considered false negative (FN). The reading of EQA centers was considered a gold standard to compute the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of the readings of microscopic centers. Results We decentralized sputum smear AFB EQA from 4 Regional Laboratories (RRLs) to 82 EQA centers and enrolled 956 health facilities in EQA schemes. Enrollment of HFs in EQA was gradual because it required training and mentoring laboratory professionals, institutionalizing internal QA measures, equipping all HFs to perform diagnosis, and establishing more EQA centers. From 2012 to 2014 (Phase I), the FP rate declined from 0.6% to 0.2% and FN fell from as high as 7.6% to 1.6% in supported health facilities (HFs). In HFs that joined in Phase II, FN rates ranged from 5.6 to 7.3%. The proportion of HFs without errors has increased from 77.9% to 90.5% in Phase I HFs and from 82.9% to 86.9% in Phase II HFs. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 95.0% and 99.7%, respectively. PPV and NPV were 93.3% and 99.7%, respectively. Conclusion Decentralizing blinded rechecking of sputum smear microscopy is feasible in low-income settings. While a comprehensive laboratory improvement strategy enhanced the quality of microscopy, laboratory professionals’ capacity in slide reading and smear quality requires continued support. PMID:26991651

  12. Pure neuritic leprosy: Resolving diagnostic issues in acid fast bacilli (AFB)-negative nerve biopsies: A single centre experience from South India

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Monalisa; Uppin, Megha S.; Challa, Sundaram; Meena, A. K.; Kaul, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Demonstration of lepra bacilli is essential for definite or unequivocal diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy (PNL) on nerve biopsy. However, nerves always do not show bacilli owing to the changes of previous therapy or due to low bacillary load in tuberculoid forms. In absence of granuloma or lepra bacilli, other morphologic changes in endoneurium and perineurium can be of help in making a probable diagnosis of PNL and treating the patient with multidrug therapy. Materials and Methods: Forty-six biopsies of PNL were retrospectively reviewed and histologic findings were compared with 25 biopsies of non leprosy neuropathies (NLN) including vasculitic neuropathy and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). The distribution of endoneurial infiltrate and fibrosis, perineurial thickening, and myelin abnormalities were compared between PNL and NLN biopsies and analyzed by Chi-square test. Results: Out of 46 PNL casses, 24 (52.17 %) biopsies were negative for acid fast bacilli (AFB). In these cases, the features which favor a diagnosis of AFB-negative PNL were endoneurial infiltrate (51.1%), endoneurial fibrosis (54.2%), perineurial thickening (70.8%), and reduced number of myelinated nerve fibers (75%). Interpretation and Conclusion: Nerve biopsy is an efficient tool to diagnose PNL and differentiate it from other causes of NLN. In absence of AFB, the diagnosis of PNL is challenging. In this article, we have satisfactorily evaluated the various hisopthological features and found that endoneurial inflammation, dense fibrosis, and reduction in the number of myelinated nerve fibers are strong supportive indicators of PNL regardless of AFB positivity. PMID:26425006

  13. Anisotropic tubular filtering for automatic detection of acid-fast bacilli in Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Shan-e.-Ahmed; Marjan, M. Q.; Arif, Muhammad; Butt, Farhana; Sultan, Faisal; Rajpoot, Nasir M.

    2015-03-01

    One of the main factors for high workload in pulmonary pathology in developing countries is the relatively large proportion of tuberculosis (TB) cases which can be detected with high throughput using automated approaches. TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which appears as thin, rod-shaped acid-fast bacillus (AFB) in Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stained sputum smear samples. In this paper, we present an algorithm for automatic detection of AFB in digitized images of ZN stained sputum smear samples under a light microscope. A key component of the proposed algorithm is the enhancement of raw input image using a novel anisotropic tubular filter (ATF) which suppresses the background noise while simultaneously enhancing strong anisotropic features of AFBs present in the image. The resulting image is then segmented using color features and candidate AFBs are identified. Finally, a support vector machine classifier using morphological features from candidate AFBs decides whether a given image is AFB positive or not. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ATF method with two different feature sets by showing that the proposed image analysis pipeline results in higher accuracy and F1-score than the same pipeline with standard median filtering for image enhancement.

  14. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. 147.13 Section 147.13 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. Proper precautions to avoid environmental... conclusion of the presence of colon bacilli organisms. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget...

  15. Comparison of LED and Conventional Fluorescence Microscopy for Detection of Acid Fast Bacilli in a Low-Incidence Setting

    PubMed Central

    Minion, Jessica; Pai, Madhukar; Ramsay, Andrew; Menzies, Dick; Greenaway, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Light emitting diode fluorescence microscopes have many practical advantages over conventional mercury vapour fluorescence microscopes, which would make them the preferred choice for laboratories in both low- and high-resource settings, provided performance is equivalent. Methods In a nested case-control study, we compared diagnostic accuracy and time required to read slides with the Zeiss PrimoStar iLED, LW Scientific Lumin, and a conventional fluorescence microscope (Leica DMLS). Mycobacterial culture was used as the reference standard, and subgroup analysis by specimen source and organism isolated were performed. Results There was no difference in sensitivity or specificity between the three microscopes, and agreement was high for all comparisons and subgroups. The Lumin and the conventional fluorescence microscope were equivalent with respect to time required to read smears, but the Zeiss iLED was significantly time saving compared to both. Conclusions Light emitting diode microscopy should be considered by all tuberculosis diagnostic laboratories, including those in high income countries, as a replacement for conventional fluorescence microscopes. Our findings provide support to the recent World Health Organization policy recommending that conventional fluorescence microscopy be replaced by light emitting diode microscopy using auramine staining in all settings where fluorescence microscopy is currently used. PMID:21811622

  16. The Culture of Tubercle Bacilli from Laryngeal Swabs

    PubMed Central

    Nassau, E.

    1941-01-01

    In a considerable proportion of cases of pulmonary tuberculosis there is no spontaneous expectoration, especially in female patients and patients under collapse treatment. A simple and efficient method is described to obtain suitable material for bacteriological examination in these cases. A laryngeal swab, made up from a piece of wire with cotton-wool wrapped round its end, is passed down the larynx and the patient asked to cough. Two swabs are taken from each patient. The swabs are passed through sterile test tubes containing 10% sulphuric acid and 2% sodium hydroxide solutions for five minutes in each and 2 Petragnani media inoculated with each swab. The cultures are examined after five days for contamination, and after twenty-eight days for macroscopical colonies of tubercle bacilli. The results obtained in two groups of cases of 166 and 107 patients were: 37.95% and 54.20% positive cultures respectively. The highest positive figures were obtained in female patients. Thus tubercle bacilli were demonstrated in a considerable proportion of cases previously regarded as sputum-negative or having no sputum. Apart from diagnosis the method gives valuable help in judging the efficiency of treatment. The finding of bacilli in early infiltrative lesions is of considerable practical as well as theoretical importance. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:19992349

  17. AFB (Acid-Fast Bacillus) Smear and Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bacillus Smear and Culture and Sensitivity; Mycobacteria tuberculosis Nucleic Acid Amplification Test Related tests: TB Screening Tests ; Bacterial Wound Culture ; Bacterial Sputum Culture ; Susceptibility Testing ; Body Fluid Analysis ; Adenosine Deaminase At a Glance Test Sample The ...

  18. Improving acid-fast fluorescent staining for the detection of mycobacteria using a new nucleic acid staining approach.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Gavin J; Shapiro, Howard M; Lenaerts, Anne J

    2014-09-01

    Acid fast staining of sputum smears by microscopy remains the prevalent method for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The sensitivity of microscopy using acid fast stains requires 10(4) bacilli per ml of sputum. Although fluorescent acid fast stains, such as Auramine-O, show improved sensitivity, almost half of culture-positive TB cases are currently estimated to remain smear-negative. These current diagnosis problems provide impetus for improving staining procedures. We evaluated a novel fluorescent acid-fast staining approach using the nucleic acid-binding dye SYBR(®) Gold on mycobacterial in vitro cultures. The SYBR(®) Gold stain detected 99% of MTB in both actively replicating aerobic and non-replicating hypoxic cultures. Transmission light microscopy with Ziehl-Neelsen fuchsin, and fluorescence microscopy with Auramine-O or Auramine-rhodamine detected only 54%-86% of MTB bacilli. SYBR(®) Gold fluoresces more intensely than Auramine-O, and is highly resistant to fading. The signal to noise ratio is exceptionally high due to a >1000-fold enhanced fluorescence after binding to DNA/RNA, thereby reducing most background fluorescence. Although cost and stability of the dye may perhaps limit its clinical use at this time, these results warrant further research into more nucleic acid dye variants. In the meantime, SYBR(®) Gold staining shows great promise for use in numerous research applications. PMID:25130623

  19. Sequential adaptation in latent tuberculosis bacilli: observation by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

    PubMed

    Velayati, Ali Akbar; Farnia, Parissa; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Zhavnerko, Gennady Konstantinovich; Merza, Muayad Aghali; Ghanavi, Jalladein; Tabarsi, Payam; Farnia, Poopak; Poleschuyk, Nikolai Nikolaevich; Ignatyev, George

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) can persist within the human host for years without causing disease, in a syndrome known as latent tuberculosis. The mechanisms by which M. tuberculosis establishes a latent metabolic state is unknown, but it is hypothesized that reduced oxygen tension may trigger the bacillus to enter a state of latency. Therefore, we are studying anaerobic culture of M. tuberculosis (H37RV) as a model of latency. For the first time, the sequential adaptation of latent bacilli (every 90 days for 48 months) viewed under Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Two types of adaptation were observed and are described here. First, cells are undergoing temporary adaptation (from 1 to 18 months of latency) that includes; thickening of cell wall (20.5±1.8 nm versus 15.2±1.8 nm, P<0.05), formation of ovoid cells by "folding phenomena"(65-70%), size reduction (0.8±0.1 μm versus 2.5±0.5 μm), and budding type of cell division (20-25%).A second feature include changes that accompany development of specialized cells i.e., production of spore like cells (0.5±0.2 μm) and their progeny (filterable non -acid fast forms; 150 to 300 μm in size). Although, these cells were not real spore because they fail to form a heat resistant colony forming units, after incubation for 35-40 min at 65°C. The filterable non-acid fast forms of bacilli are metabolically active and increased their number by symmetrical type of cell-division. Therefore, survival strategies that developed by M. tuberculosis under oxygen limited condition are linked to its shape, size and conspicuous loss of acid fastness. PMID:21977232

  20. [Histopathologic findings for the research of acid-fast bacilli in erythema nodosum].

    PubMed

    Pires, M C; Calux, M de J; Valente, N Y

    1996-12-01

    It was possible to prove, by means of retrospective histopathological studies of 51 glass slides of common erythema nodosum (EN) and 39 glass slides of erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL), that the histopathological features of the two groups differed in several ways. It was found that the most prominent divergent findings between these two diseases was the presence of a lepromatous granulomatous infiltrate in the ENL; the predominant location of the inflammatory infiltrate was derma-hypodermal in ENL and hypodermal in common EN; there was a preferential septa attack in common EN and lobular in ENL; foreign giant cells occurred only in common EN; the lymphocyte cell infiltration in common EN and of neutrophils in ENL and the presence of inflammatory infiltrate around nerves in ENL. Our study has proved that the search for M. leprae does not have to be made in all cases of EN as there are histological differences in the routine histopathological exam between common EN and ENL that can alert to the real need for this procedure. This search must be performed when during the routine histopathological exam of sections stained by hematoxilin-eosin the ENL histopathological characteristics delineated herein are observed. PMID:9302823

  1. [Histopathologic findings for the research of acid-fast bacilli in erythema nodosum].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Pires MC; Calux Mde J; Valente NY

    1996-12-01

    It was possible to prove, by means of retrospective histopathological studies of 51 glass slides of common erythema nodosum (EN) and 39 glass slides of erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL), that the histopathological features of the two groups differed in several ways. It was found that the most prominent divergent findings between these two diseases was the presence of a lepromatous granulomatous infiltrate in the ENL; the predominant location of the inflammatory infiltrate was derma-hypodermal in ENL and hypodermal in common EN; there was a preferential septa attack in common EN and lobular in ENL; foreign giant cells occurred only in common EN; the lymphocyte cell infiltration in common EN and of neutrophils in ENL and the presence of inflammatory infiltrate around nerves in ENL. Our study has proved that the search for M. leprae does not have to be made in all cases of EN as there are histological differences in the routine histopathological exam between common EN and ENL that can alert to the real need for this procedure. This search must be performed when during the routine histopathological exam of sections stained by hematoxilin-eosin the ENL histopathological characteristics delineated herein are observed.

  2. Novel multipurpose methodology for detection of mycobacteria in pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens by smear microscopy, culture, and PCR.

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Soumitesh; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

    2005-06-01

    A novel, robust, reproducible, and multipurpose universal sample processing (USP) methodology for highly sensitive smear microscopy, culturing on solid and liquid media, and inhibition-free PCR which is suitable for the laboratory diagnosis of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) has been developed. This method exploits the chaotropic properties of guanidinium hydrochloride for sample processing and involves incubating the specimen with USP solution, concentrating bacilli by centrifugation, and using the processed specimen for smear microscopy, culture, and PCR. The detection limit for acid-fast bacilli in spiked sputum by smear microscopy is approximately 300 bacilli per ml of specimen. USP solution-treated specimens are fully compatible with culturing on solid and liquid media. High-quality, PCR-amplifiable mycobacterial DNA can be isolated from all types of clinical specimens processed with USP solution. The method has been extensively validated with both pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens. Furthermore, the USP method is also compatible with smear microscopy, culture, and PCR of mycobacteria other than tubercle bacilli. In summary, the USP method provides smear microscopy, culture, and nucleic acid amplification technologies with a single sample-processing platform and, to the best of our knowledge, is the only method of its kind described to date. It is expected to be useful for the laboratory diagnosis of TB and other mycobacterial diseases by conventional and modern methods. PMID:15956385

  3. Phosphorylation of KasB Regulates Virulence and Acid-Fastness in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Vilchèze, Catherine; Molle, Virginie; Carrère-Kremer, Séverine; Leiba, Jade; Mourey, Lionel; Shenai, Shubhada; Baronian, Grégory; Tufariello, Joann; Hartman, Travis; Veyron-Churlet, Romain; Trivelli, Xavier; Tiwari, Sangeeta; Weinrick, Brian; Alland, David; Guérardel, Yann; Jacobs, William R.; Kremer, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli display two signature features: acid-fast staining and the capacity to induce long-term latent infections in humans. However, the mechanisms governing these two important processes remain largely unknown. Ser/Thr phosphorylation has recently emerged as an important regulatory mechanism allowing mycobacteria to adapt their cell wall structure/composition in response to their environment. Herein, we evaluated whether phosphorylation of KasB, a crucial mycolic acid biosynthetic enzyme, could modulate acid-fast staining and virulence. Tandem mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that phosphorylation of KasB occurred at Thr334 and Thr336 both in vitro and in mycobacteria. Isogenic strains of M. tuberculosis with either a deletion of the kasB gene or a kasB_T334D/T336D allele, mimicking constitutive phosphorylation of KasB, were constructed by specialized linkage transduction. Biochemical and structural analyses comparing these mutants to the parental strain revealed that both mutant strains had mycolic acids that were shortened by 4–6 carbon atoms and lacked trans-cyclopropanation. Together, these results suggested that in M. tuberculosis, phosphorylation profoundly decreases the condensing activity of KasB. Structural/modeling analyses reveal that Thr334 and Thr336 are located in the vicinity of the catalytic triad, which indicates that phosphorylation of these amino acids would result in loss of enzyme activity. Importantly, the kasB_T334D/T336D phosphomimetic and deletion alleles, in contrast to the kasB_T334A/T336A phosphoablative allele, completely lost acid-fast staining. Moreover, assessing the virulence of these strains indicated that the KasB phosphomimetic mutant was attenuated in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice following aerosol infection. This attenuation was characterized by the absence of lung pathology. Overall, these results highlight for the first time the role of Ser/Thr kinase-dependent KasB phosphorylation in regulating the later stages of mycolic acid elongation, with important consequences in terms of acid-fast staining and pathogenicity. PMID:24809459

  4. Cost-effective and rapid presumptive identification of gram-negative bacilli in routine urine, pus, and stool cultures: evaluation of the use of CHROMagar orientation medium in conjunction with simple biochemical tests.

    PubMed

    Ohkusu, K

    2000-12-01

    The algorithm for a new identification system was designed on the basis of colony color and morphology on CHROMagar Orientation medium in conjunction with simple biochemical tests such as indole (IND), lysine decarboxylase (LDC), and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) utilization tests with gram-negative bacilli isolated from urine samples as well as pus, stool, and other clinical specimens by the following colony characteristics, biochemical reactions, and serological results: pinkish to red, IND positive (IND(+)), Escherichia coli; metallic blue, IND(+), LDC(+), and ODC negative (ODC(-)), Klebsiella oxytoca; IND(+), LDC(-), and ODC(+), Citrobacter diversus; IND(+) or IND(-), LDC(-), and ODC(-), Citrobacter freundii; IND(-), LDC(+), and ODC(+), Enterobacter aerogenes; IND(-), LDC(-), and ODC(+), Enterobacter cloacae; IND(-), LDC(+), and ODC(-), Klebsiella pneumoniae; diffuse brown and IND(+), Morganella morganii; IND(-), Proteus mirabilis; aqua blue, Serratia marcescens; bluish green and IND(+), Proteus vulgaris; transparent yellow-green, serology positive, Pseudomonas aeruginosa; clear and serology positive, Salmonella sp.; other colors and reactions, the organism was identified by the full identification methods. The accuracy and cost-effectiveness of this new system were prospectively evaluated. During an 8-month period, a total of 345 specimens yielded one or more gram-negative bacilli. A total of 472 gram-negative bacillus isolates were detected on CHROMagar Orientation medium. For 466 of the isolates (98.7%), no discrepancies in the results were obtained on the basis of the identification algorithm. The cost of identification of gram-negative bacilli during this period was reduced by about 70%. The results of this trial for the differentiation of the most commonly encountered gram-negative pathogens in clinical specimens with the new algorithm were favourable in that it permitted reliable detection and presumptive identification. In addition, this rapid identification system not only significantly reduced costs but it also improved the daily work flow within the clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID:11101600

  5. Thin layer microcolony culture associated with PCR for early identification of Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    do Rosário, Tatiana Reis; Dib, Cristina Corsi; Roxo, Eliana; Pinheiro, Sônia Regina; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2014-01-01

    The initial growth of mycobacteria from 49 samples of cattle and buffalo organs collected in commercial slaughterhouses was compared between modified Middlebrook 7H11 thin layer microcolony culture and Stonebrink medium used in the isolation of Mycobacterium bovis. Aliquots were decontaminated by Petroff’s method, processed and cultured in both media. The identity of the acid-fast bacilli stained by Ziehl-Neelsen was confirmed by PCR. Optical microscopy showed that results of the early observation of Mycobacterium bovis colonies in thin layer culture were similar to those obtained in macroscopic observation of the colonies in Stonebrink medium. However, early observation of the colonies enabled early confirmation by PCR, given the shorter time to the visualization of colonies when thin layer culture was used (between the 12nd and 25th day of culture). PMID:24948936

  6. Cold active hydrolytic enzymes production by psychrotrophic Bacilli isolated from three sub-glacial lakes of NW Indian Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Verma, Priyanka; Kaushik, Rajeev; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The diversity of culturable, cold-active enzymes producing Bacilli was investigated from three sub-glacial lakes of north western Indian Himalayas. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) using three restriction enzymes Alu I, Msp I, and Hae III led to the clustering of 136 Bacilli into 26, 23, and 22 clusters at 75% similarity index from Chandratal Lake, Dashair Lake, and Pangong Lake, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing led to the identification of 35 Bacilli that could be grouped in seven families viz.: Bacillaceae (48%), Staphylococcaceae (14%), Bacillales incertae sedis (13%), Planococcaceae (12%), Paenibacillaceae (9%), Sporolactobacillaceae (3%), and Carnobacteriaceae (1%), which included twelve different genera Bacillus, Desemzia, Exiguobacterium, Jeotgalicoccus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Planococcus, Pontibacillus, Sinobaca, Sporosarcina, Staphylococcus, and Virgibacillus. Based on their optimal temperature for growth, 35 Bacilli were grouped as psychrophilic (11 strains), psychrotrophic (17 strains), or psychrotolerant (7 strains), respectively. The representative isolates from each cluster were screened for cold-active enzyme activities. Amylase, β-glucosidase, pectinase, and protease activities at 4 °C were detected in more than 80% of the strains while approximately 40, 31, 23, 14, 11, and 9% of strains possessed cellulase, xylanase, β-galactosidase, laccase, chitinase, and lipase activity, respectively. Among 35 Bacilli, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus marisflavi, Exiguobacterium indicum, Paenibacillus terrae, Pontibacillus sp., Sporosarcina globispora, and Sporosarcina psychrophila were efficient producers of different cold-active enzymes. These cold-adapted Bacilli could play an important role in industrial and agricultural processes. PMID:26933936

  7. Tuberculosis diagnostics in Fiji: how reliable is culture?

    PubMed Central

    Gounder, S.; Reid, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Settings: Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy and Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture are the first-line diagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB). The contamination of TB cultures significantly reduces the reliability of TB diagnosis. Objective: To investigate factors associated with TB culture contamination in Fiji, and the relative diagnostic performance of culture compared to microscopy. Design: All tests performed at the Daulakao Mycobacterium Reference Laboratory (DMRL) in Fiji from 2010 to 2012 were reviewed. Study variables included AFB smear and TB culture results, age and type of specimen, referring TB testing centre and patient age. Results: Of 5708 specimens reviewed, 70% had both AFB smear and culture results recorded; 421 specimens were contaminated; 2.7% of specimens were either degraded or had no result recorded. There was moderate agreement (κ = 0.577) between the two tests. Culture was more likely to be positive at higher AFB smear scores. Culture contamination was associated with distance from the DMRL, sample age and operator-associated factors. Conclusion: Increases in the speed of referral from TB testing centres or the addition of preservatives to sputum specimens may results in less culture contamination. The planned introduction of liquid culture techniques in combination with culture on Ogawa media is likely to increase the sensitivity of TB diagnosis in Fiji. PMID:26400808

  8. Early Detection of Mycobacteria Using a Novel Hydrogel Culture Method

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Mi Hee; Kim, Shine Young; Kim, Chang-Ki; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Sung Soo; Lee, Eun Yup

    2014-01-01

    Background Early laboratory detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is crucial for controlling tuberculosis. We developed a hydrogel mycobacterial culture method that retains the advantages of both solid and liquid methods in terms of speed, cost, and efficiency. Methods Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) suspensions and 200 acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive clinical specimens were inoculated in Middlebrook 7H9 liquid media (Becton-Dickinson and Company, USA) and mixed with 75 µL of 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-Phe-Phe-OH hydrogel stock solution in an Eppendorf tube just before culture incubation. The mixtures were cultured at 37℃ for as long as 14 days to monitor culture status. Results The number of M. bovis BCG increased with time. For 200 AFB smear-positive specimens, 155 of 158 conventional culture-positive specimens and 4 culture-negative or contaminated specimens yielded positive cultures within 14 days. For 128 specimens positive with the liquid culture method, the time to positive culture using the hydrogel method (mean, 12.6 days; range, 7 to 14 days) was significantly shorter than that for conventional liquid culture (mean, 16.2 days; range, 6 to 31 days; P<0.0001). Conclusions The hydrogel scaffold culture system is useful for timely, economical, and efficient detection of mycobacteria in clinical specimens. PMID:24422192

  9. Smooth Tubercle Bacilli: Neglected Opportunistic Tropical Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Aboubaker Osman, Djaltou; Bouzid, Feriel; Canaan, Stéphane; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Smooth tubercle bacilli (STB) including “Mycobacterium canettii” are members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), which cause non-contagious tuberculosis in human. This group comprises <100 isolates characterized by smooth colonies and cordless organisms. Most STB isolates have been obtained from patients exposed to the Republic of Djibouti but seven isolates, including the three seminal ones obtained by Georges Canetti between 1968 and 1970, were recovered from patients in France, Madagascar, Sub-Sahara East Africa, and French Polynesia. STB form a genetically heterogeneous group of MTBC organisms with large 4.48 ± 0.05 Mb genomes, which may link Mycobacterium kansasii to MTBC organisms. Lack of inter-human transmission suggested a yet unknown environmental reservoir. Clinical data indicate a respiratory tract route of contamination and the digestive tract as an alternative route of contamination. Further epidemiological and clinical studies are warranted to elucidate areas of uncertainty regarding these unusual mycobacteria and the tuberculosis they cause. PMID:26793699

  10. Reduction of Acid-Fast and Non-Acid-Fast Bacteria by Point of Use Coagulation-Flocculation-Disinfection.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Lisa M; Sobsey, Mark D

    2015-11-01

    Point of use (POU) household water treatment is increasingly being adopted as a solution for access to safe water. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are found in water, but there is little research on whether NTM survive POU treatment. Mycobacteria may be removed by multi-barrier treatment systems that combine processes such as coagulation, settling and disinfection. This work evaluated removal of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (Mycobaterium terrae) and a Gram-negative non-acid-fast environmental bacterium (Aeromonas hydrophila) by combined coagulation-flocculation disinfection POU treatment. Aeromonas hydrophila showed 7.7 log10 reduction in demand free buffer, 6.8 log10 in natural surface water, and 4 log10 reduction in fecally contaminated surface water. Turbidity after treatment was <1 NTU. There was almost no reduction in levels of viable M. terrae by coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant in natural water after 30 minutes. The lack of Mycobacteria reduction was similar for both combined coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant and hypochlorite alone. A POU coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant treatment effectively reduced A. hydrophila from natural surface waters but not Mycobacteria. These results reinforce previous findings that POU coagulation-flocculation-disinfection is effective against gram-negative enteric bacteria. POU treatment and safe storage interventions may need to take into account risks from viable NTM in treated stored water and consider alternative treatment processes to achieve NTM reductions. PMID:26580632

  11. Reduction of Acid-Fast and Non-Acid-Fast Bacteria by Point of Use Coagulation-Flocculation-Disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Lisa M.; Sobsey, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Point of use (POU) household water treatment is increasingly being adopted as a solution for access to safe water. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are found in water, but there is little research on whether NTM survive POU treatment. Mycobacteria may be removed by multi-barrier treatment systems that combine processes such as coagulation, settling and disinfection. This work evaluated removal of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (Mycobaterium terrae) and a Gram-negative non-acid-fast environmental bacterium (Aeromonas hydrophila) by combined coagulation-flocculation disinfection POU treatment. Aeromonas hydrophila showed 7.7 log10 reduction in demand free buffer, 6.8 log10 in natural surface water, and 4 log10 reduction in fecally contaminated surface water. Turbidity after treatment was <1 NTU. There was almost no reduction in levels of viable M. terrae by coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant in natural water after 30 minutes. The lack of Mycobacteria reduction was similar for both combined coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant and hypochlorite alone. A POU coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant treatment effectively reduced A. hydrophila from natural surface waters but not Mycobacteria. These results reinforce previous findings that POU coagulation-flocculation-disinfection is effective against gram-negative enteric bacteria. POU treatment and safe storage interventions may need to take into account risks from viable NTM in treated stored water and consider alternative treatment processes to achieve NTM reductions. PMID:26580632

  12. Growth of acid fast L forms from the blood of patients with sarcoidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Almenoff, P. L.; Johnson, A.; Lesser, M.; Mattman, L. H.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acid fast cell wall deficient forms (CWDF) of bacteria have been grown from blood, bronchial washings, and ocular anterior chamber fluid from patients with sarcoidosis. A monoclonal antibody raised against Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole cell antigen (H37RV) was used to characterise further CWDF grown from the blood of patients with sarcoidosis. METHODS: Blood from 20 patients with active sarcoidosis and from 20 controls was cultured using methods favourable for the growth of CWDF. Isolates were further characterised by indirect fluorescent antibody analysis using a monoclonal antibody highly reactive with M tuberculosis. RESULTS: CWDF were grown from the blood of 19 of 20 subjects with sarcoidosis. All isolates stained positively with the monoclonal antibody and with a modified Kinyoun stain. No organisms were grown from the blood of controls. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that CWDF can be grown from the blood of nearly all patients with active sarcoidosis. The results confirm that the organisms are mycobacterial in origin and are similar, if not identical, to M tuberculosis. Their role in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis is unknown. Images PMID:8711683

  13. [The enzyme activity of bacilli showing promise for incorporation into biopreparations].

    PubMed

    Slabospitskaia, A T; Krymovskaia, S S; Reznik, S R

    1990-01-01

    The enzymic activity (amalyse, protease, lipase, pectolytic and cellulase) has been studied in 5 strains of aerobic spore-forming bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. coagulans, B. pumilis, B. badius) being of interest for creation of medical and prophylactic biopreparations. The above-mentioned enzymes were found in some studied strains. This may provide participation of bacilli in the degradation processes of a number of substrates in the digestive tract of a human being and animals and is an advantage of preparations from the genus Bacillus bacteria as compared with the available biopreparations of other microbial cultures for prophylaxis and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:2377087

  14. STUDIES IN ATYPICAL FORMS OF TUBERCLE BACILLI ISOLATED DIRECTLY FROM THE HUMAN TISSUES IN CASES OF PRIMARY CERVICAL ADENITIS

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Charles W.

    1909-01-01

    The four cultures which form the basis of this communication were recovered from peculiar cases of primary cervical adenitis in man, three of which terminated fatally of disseminated acute miliary tuberculosis in four to six weeks. A careful comparative study shows that Culture II corresponds closely with the "human" and Culture IV with the "bovine" type of tubercle bacilli; while Cultures I and III present variations from the standard types and are to be retarded as "intermediate" or "atypical" forms. Culture I is of unusual interest because of its remarkable variations. The clinical picture of the case, the rapid course of the infection, the enormous number of the bacilli in the tissue, their tendency to occur in "heaps" like the leprosy bacillus, the high degree of virulence alike for rabbits and guinea-pigs, the production of lesions in chickens, the case of cultivation and the prolonged viability under unfavorable conditions, all mark the organism as a decided atypical form of tubercle bacillus in man. The prolonged viability, the production of lesions in the chicken and the great profusion of bacillary growth in the tissues would indicate an avian type. Though for years the reaction curve was atypical it has since changed completely to the "avian" curve. In this connection it is of interest to note that L. Rabinowitsch (3) states that she has isolated avian tubercle bacilli from two cases of tuberculosis in man. Cultures II and III undoubtedly belong to the human type of the tubercle family though they were under cultivation and were repeatedly tested upon glycerine broth over a period of months before their identity was definitely established. Culture IV completely corresponds in growth and reaction in glycerine bouillon to the bovine strain; however, it manifests a low degree of virulence for rabbits which is exceptional for bovine cultures. The old belief that bovine bacilli are more slender and beaded in the tissues and are thicker and shorter in culture than the human type, I have not been able to confirm. The morphological characters of the different cultures here reported were so inconstant that no reliance could be placed on this feature as an aid in differentiation. Outside of the animal body it would seem that the differences in size and character of the individual bacilli depend largely on the kind and reaction of the medium, whilst in the animal body they are influenced by their situation and the resistance of the host. The nature of the growth of these tubercle cultures varies for the same culture even under apparently identical conditions. The character of the growth was never an indication of the type of the culture, It was common to obtain two distinct types of growth on the same flask of bouillon, i. e., a portion of the surface would be covered with a heavy and uniformly granular layer of closely packed wax-like colonies twice the size of an ordinary pin's head, while the other portion would be a dense homogeneous layer with the typical depressed blisters. The rapidity of growth also varied greatly for the same culture. Often in a series of twelve or more bouillon flasks which were prepared alike and inoculated with the same culture, some would cover the surface in eight days to two weeks, others would take four to six weeks, still others two to three months. It was thought in the beginning of the work that this variation might depend on the amount of oxygen within the flask or on the change in reaction in the bouillon, but further tests proved that neither of these influenced the rate of growth in any way. It would occur in loosely corked flasks as well as in those that were sealed, and in flasks where the reaction was neutral, acid or slightly alkaline. It would seem that these changes are by no means specific for any group of the tubercle bacilli but a property possessed by them all. The growth of the cultures on solid medium showed approximately the same variation as that from the surface of the glycerine bouillon. The wax-like colonies described by L. Rabinowitsch (3) as characteristic for avian tubercle bacilli were noted at times for all of the cultures. On the modified egg mixture the growth was always more rapid and profuse than on any other medium. I found this egg medium more certain than any other for the direct recovery of the tubercle bacillus from the tissues. Where it was desired to recover the culture from the animal tissues with certainty and celerity it had no equal. Occasionally in seven days after the inoculation of the tuberculous gland material the growth was sufficiently advanced to transplant to the bouillon flasks. The glycerine bouillon test serves admirably to distinguish between the human, bovine and avian types of tubercle bacilli. It is also of value in the determination of degrees of adaptation in man for bacilli of the lower host-species, and in the recognition of "intermediate" types. The test to be of differential value requires repeated application and careful control over a period of months. Some freshly isolated cultures may produce their specific reaction curve in glycerine bouillon within a few weeks. On the other hand the same culture may fail to give its characteristic reaction or any alteration in the glycerine bouillon for several months though the growth has been luxuriant and complete. The rise in acidity that occurs in glycerine bouillon for the human type of tubercle bacilli is due to a specific action on the glycerine of the products of disintegration of bacilli (autolysis); with the bovine and avian types the products of bacillary disintegration have no action on the glycerine. The fall in acidity which occurs for all three types of the tubercle bacillus is due to the products of metabolic activity. PMID:19867256

  15. Fluorescent acid-fast microscopy for measuring phagocytosis of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum by Tetrahymena pyriformis and their intracellular growth.

    PubMed

    Strahl, E D; Gillaspy, G E; Falkinham, J O

    2001-10-01

    Fluorescent acid-fast microscopy (FAM) was used to enumerate intracellular Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum in the ciliated phagocytic protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis. There was a linear relationship between FAM and colony counts of M. avium cells both from cultures and within protozoa. The Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast stain could not be used to enumerate intracellular mycobacteria because uninfected protozoa contained acid-fast, bacterium-like particles. Starved, 7-day-old cultures of T. pyriformis transferred into fresh medium readily phagocytized M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum. Phagocytosis was rapid and reached a maximum in 30 min. M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum grew within T. pyriformis, increasing by factors of 4- to 40-fold after 5 days at 30 degrees C. Intracellular M. avium numbers remained constant over a 25-day period of growth (by transfer) of T. pyriformis. Intracellular M. avium cells also survived protozoan encystment and germination. The growth and viability of T. pyriformis were not affected by mycobacterial infection. The results suggest that free-living phagocytic protozoa may be natural hosts and reservoirs for M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. scrofulaceum. PMID:11571139

  16. Detection of rapidly growing mycobacteria in routine cultures of samples from patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Esther, Charles R; Hoberman, Steven; Fine, Jason; Allen, Sonia; Culbreath, Karissa; Rodino, Kyle; Kerr, Alan; Gilligan, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are respiratory pathogens in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), but detection generally requires specialized cultures for acid-fast bacilli (AFB; AFB cultures). We determined that RGM could be recovered from routine cultures of samples from patients with CF by extending incubation of the Burkholderia cepacia selective agar (BCSA) from 5 to 14 days. To explore the impact of this modification, we compared results from routine and AFB cultures of samples from CF patients for 2 years before (4,212 samples by routine culture, 1,810 samples by AFB culture, 670 patients) and 2 years after (4,720 samples by routine culture, 2,179 samples by AFB culture, 695 patients) the change. Clinical relevance was assessed with samples from a subgroup of 340 patients followed regularly throughout both periods. Extending incubation of BCSA enhanced RGM recovery from routine cultures (0.7% before, 2.8% after; P < 0.001); recovery from AFB cultures was unchanged (5.5% before, 5.7% after). Estimates of RGM detection sensitivity by culture or patient-based methods ranged from ∼65 to 75% for routine cultures (nonsignificantly lower than the ∼80 to 85% for AFB cultures) and were adversely affected by coculture with mold or nonpseudomonal, nonfermenting Gram-negative rods. In the after period, 16 CF patients met the criteria for RGM infection by routine culture, including 4 who did not meet the criteria for RGM infection by AFB culture. We conclude that a simple methodological change enhanced recovery of RGM from routine cultures. The modified culture method could be utilized to improve screening for RGM in CF patients or as a simpler method to follow patients with known RGM infection. However, this method should be used cautiously in patients with certain coinfections. PMID:21289148

  17. Acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in the kidneys of mallards fed lead shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Bagley, G.E.; Irby, H.D.

    1966-01-01

    Acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies were found in the cells of the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidneys of mallards fed one, two, three or eight number 6 lead shot and maintained on cracked or whole corn and on grain-duck pellet diets. No acid-fast inclusion bodies were found in mallards fed one or three lead shot but maintained on a duck pellet ration. Dietary factors may be responsible for the failure of mallards fed a duck pellet ration to develop lead Inclusion bodies when treated with one or three lead shot. The authors suggest these inclusion bodies can be used as presumptive evidence for lead intoxication in mallards.

  18. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacilli isolated from the skin of healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Tarale, Prashant; Gawande, Sonali; Jambhulkar, Vinay

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, twelve bacilli were isolated from four different regions of human skin from Bela population of Nagpur district, India. The isolated bacilli were identified by their morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics. Seven isolates were Gram negative rods, out of which five were belong to genus Pseudomonas. Three among the five Gram positive isolates were identified as Dermabactor and the remaining two Bacillus. Their antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The isolates showed resistance to several currently used broad-spectrum antibiotics. The Dermabactor genus was resistant to vancomycin, although it was earlier reported to be susceptible. Imipenem was found to be the most effective antibiotic for Pseudomonas while nalidixic acid, ampicillin and tetracycline were ineffective. Isolates of Bacillus displayed resistance to the extended spectrum antibiotics cephalosporin and ceftazidime. Imipenem, carbenicillin and ticarcillin were found to be the most effective antibiotics as all the investigated isolates were susceptible to them. Antibiotic resistance may be due to the overuse or misuse of antibiotics during the treatment, or following constant exposure to antibiotic-containing cosmetic formulations. PMID:26691469

  19. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacilli isolated from the skin of healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Tarale, Prashant; Gawande, Sonali; Jambhulkar, Vinay

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the present work, twelve bacilli were isolated from four different regions of human skin from Bela population of Nagpur district, India. The isolated bacilli were identified by their morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics. Seven isolates were Gram negative rods, out of which five were belong to genus Pseudomonas. Three among the five Gram positive isolates were identified as Dermabactor and the remaining two Bacillus. Their antimicrobial susceptibility profile was determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. The isolates showed resistance to several currently used broad-spectrum antibiotics. The Dermabactor genus was resistant to vancomycin, although it was earlier reported to be susceptible. Imipenem was found to be the most effective antibiotic for Pseudomonas while nalidixic acid, ampicillin and tetracycline were ineffective. Isolates of Bacillus displayed resistance to the extended spectrum antibiotics cephalosporin and ceftazidime. Imipenem, carbenicillin and ticarcillin were found to be the most effective antibiotics as all the investigated isolates were susceptible to them. Antibiotic resistance may be due to the overuse or misuse of antibiotics during the treatment, or following constant exposure to antibiotic-containing cosmetic formulations. PMID:26691469

  20. Simultaneous staining of sputum smears for acid-fast and lipid-containing Myobacterium tuberculosis can enhance the clinical evaluation of antituberculosis treatments.

    PubMed

    Kayigire, Xavier A; Friedrich, Sven O; van der Merwe, Lize; Donald, Peter R; Diacon, Andreas H

    2015-12-01

    Dormant, slow-growing, antibiotic-tolerant Mycobacterium tuberculosis undermine the shortening of tuberculosis treatment to less than 6 months and are thought to be characterised by intracellular lipid bodies. Antibiotic effects on such persisting bacilli escape evaluation as they cannot be readily cultured. We identified cells containing lipid bodies in sputum smears from 86 newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients and monitored these cells daily in 42 patients over the first 14 days of treatment with rifampicin, the experimental compound SQ-109, or both agents combined. Counts of Nile-Red-positive lipid-body containing cells were correlated with those of Auramine-O-positive cells and colony forming units of viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis on agar plates. Rifampicin but not SQ-109 significantly reduced colony forming units but all treatments distinctively and significantly changed the proportions of lipid body-containing bacilli and viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Monitoring lipid-body containing bacilli in sputum during treatment with experimental antituberculosis regimens may identify putative treatment-shortening regimens. PMID:26318558

  1. Ascites produced in rats without tubercle bacilli or tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Levine, S; Saltzman, A

    1999-01-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of rats with two doses of pertussis vaccine produces a small amount of ascitic fluid. Much larger amounts of fluid are produced when two spaced injections of the vaccine are preceded by a small amount of liquid petrolatum. A similar result is obtained by a single injection of pertussis vaccine emulsified in liquid petrolatum and Arlacel A. Ascites produced without tubercle bacilli or tumor cells may increase the use of rats for antibody production. PMID:10574628

  2. ACID-FAST BACTERIA AND YEASTS AS INDICATORS OF DISINFECTION EFFICIENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the coliform group of organisms is considered to be less resistant to chlorine than some bacterial and viral pathogens, the utility of both yeast and acid-fast oganisms as potntial indicators of disinfection efficiency was evaluated. In most laboratory studies these two gro...

  3. Manual and Automated Instrumentation for Identification of Enterobacteriaceae and Other Aerobic Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Caroline M.

    2005-01-01

    Identification of gram-negative bacilli, both enteric and nonenteric, by conventional methods is not realistic for clinical microbiology laboratories performing routine cultures in today's world. The use of commercial kits, either manual or automated, to identify these organisms is a common practice. The advent of rapid or “spot” testing has eliminated the need for some commonly isolated organisms to be identified with the systems approach. Commercially available systems provide more in-depth identification to the species level as well as detect new and unusual strains. The answers obtained from these systems may not always be correct and must be interpreted with caution. The patient demographics, laboratory workload and work flow, and technologist's skill levels should dictate the system of choice. Cost considerations introduce another variable into the equation affecting choice. Each system has its own strengths and weaknesses, and each laboratory must decide on the level of sophistication that fulfills its particular needs. PMID:15653824

  4. Gram-negative bacilli as nontransient flora on the hands of hospital personnel.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, S H; Hendley, J O; Wenzel, R P

    1987-03-01

    The possibility that gram-negative bacilli (GNB) are part of the nontransient flora on hands was examined by using a broth rinse technique to detect low titers of GNB after a hygienic hand wash with soap and water. A total of 100 nurses who had direct patient contact and 40 controls without patient contact had a similar rate of recovery of GNB (46 and 55%, respectively). GNB persisted on the hands of 10 nurses throughout five successive hand washes with soap and water. Hand cultures were obtained daily from 12 nurses before and after a work shift in a surgical intensive care unit. GNB were recovered from 57% of individuals before patient contact and from only 24% after the work shift. Nontransient GNB on the hands of hospital personnel are a potential reservoir for hospital strains, and patient contact is not an obvious source for the acquisition of nontransient GNB. PMID:3571452

  5. NAD+ Auxotrophy is Bacteriocidal for the Tubercle Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Vilchèze, Catherine; Weinrick, Brian; Wong, Ka-Wing; Chen, Bing; Jacobs, William R.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The human tubercle bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis can synthesize NAD+ using the de novo biosynthesis pathway or the salvage pathway. The salvage pathway of the bovine tubercle bacillus M. bovis was reported defective due to a mutation in the nicotinamidase PncA. This defect prevents nicotinic acid secretion, which is the basis for the niacin test that clinically distinguishes M. bovis from M. tuberculosis. Surprisingly, we found that the NAD+ de novo biosynthesis pathway (nadABC) can be deleted from M. bovis, demonstrating a functioning salvage pathway. M. bovis ΔnadABC fails to grow in mice, whereas M. tuberculosis ΔnadABC grows normally in mice, suggesting that M. tuberculosis can acquire nicotinamide from its host. The introduction of M. tuberculosis pncA into M. bovis ΔnadABC is sufficient to fully restore growth in a mouse, proving that the functional salvage pathway enables nicotinamide acquisition by the tubercle bacilli. This study demonstrates that NAD+ starvation is a cidal event in the tubercle bacilli and confirms that enzymes common to the de novo and salvage pathways may be good drug targets. PMID:20199601

  6. Inhibition of bacilli in industrial starches by nisin.

    PubMed

    Pirttijärvi, T S; Wahlström, G; Rainey, F A; Saris, P E; Salkinoja-Salonen, M S

    2001-03-01

    The properties of Bacillus coagulans and of other bacilli that contaminate paper and paperboard manufacturing processes were investigated under simulated industrial conditions. Nisin (0.05 to 0.125 microg ml(-1) blocked growth of indigenous bacilli that contaminate sizing starches. B. coagulans starch isolates, B. licheniformis, B. amyloliquefaciens, and B. stearothermophilus grew at > or = 50 degrees C in industrial starch and produced alpha-glucosidase and cyclodextrins. The industrial isolates and reference strains of B. amyloliquefaciens, B. cereus, B. coagulans, B. flexus, B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, B. sporothermodurans, B. stearothermophilus and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris were inhibited by < or = 0.125 microg of nisin on agar. B. coagulans and B. stearothermophilus were similarly inhibited by < or = 0.025 microg of nisin ml(-1) and by 3 microg of the biocide DBNPA ml(-1) in industrial starch. B. licheniformis and B. amyloliquefaciens strains were less sensitive. About 40% of nisin added to starch was retained after cooking. Fifty percent of the nisin remained active after 11 h of storage at 60 degrees C. The results show that nisin has potential as a preservative for modified industrial starches. PMID:11420648

  7. Diagnosis of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis by Smear, Culture, and PCR Using Universal Sample Processing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Chakravorty, Soumitesh; Sen, Manas Kamal; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

    2005-01-01

    Definitive and rapid diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis is challenging since conventional techniques have limitations. We have developed a universal sample processing (USP) technology for detecting mycobacteria in clinical specimens. In this study, this technology was evaluated blindly on 99 extrapulmonary specimens collected from 87 patients. USP-processed specimens were submitted to smear microscopy for detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB), culture, and two PCR tests targeting devR (Rv3133c) and IS6110 gene sequences. On the basis of clinical characteristics, histology and cytology, conventional microbiology results, and response to antitubercular therapy, 68 patients were diagnosed with tuberculosis. Although USP smear and culture were significantly superior to conventional microbiology, which was not optimized (P < 0.0001), these approaches fell short of PCR tests (P < 0.0001). The low yields by smear and culture are attributed to the paucibacillary load in the specimens. The highest sensitivity in PCR was achieved when devR and IS6110 test results were combined; the sensitivity and specificity values were 83 and 93.8%, 87.5 and 100%, and 66.7 and 75%, respectively, in pleural fluid, needle-biopsied pleural tissue, and lymph node specimens. In conclusion, the application of USP technology, together with clinicopathological characteristics, promises to improve the accuracy and confidence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis. PMID:16145077

  8. Multi-Probe Real-Time PCR Identification of Common Mycobacterium Species in Blood Culture Broth

    PubMed Central

    Foongladda, Suporn; Pholwat, Suporn; Eampokalap, Boonchuay; Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Sutthent, Ruengpung

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, M. avium, and M. intracellulare are the most common causes of systemic bacterial infection in AIDS patients. To identify these mycobacterial isolates in primary blood culture broths, we developed a multiple hybridization probe-based real-time PCR assay using the LightCycler system. The primers were designed to amplify a 320-bp fragment of Mycobacterium 16S rRNA genes. Reaction specificity was evaluated using PCR amplification curves along with specific melting temperatures of probes on DNA extracted from 13 Mycobacterium species. In this study, results showed 100% accuracy for the selected bacterial panel. Detection limits were 350, 600, and 650 colony-forming unit (CFU)/ml blood culture broths for M. tuberculosis complex, M. avium, and M. intracellulare, respectively (1 to 2 CFU/reaction). To evaluate clinical applicability, 341 acid-fast bacilli in blood culture broths were analyzed. In total, 327 (96%) were positively identified: 54.5% M. tuberculosis complex, 37.5% M. avium, and 3.8% M. intracellulare. Results can be available within 3 hours of receiving a broth sample, which makes this rapid and simple assay an attractive diagnostic tool for clinical use. PMID:19095775

  9. The genotypic diversity and lipase production of some thermophilic bacilli from different genera

    PubMed Central

    Koc, Melih; Cokmus, Cumhur; Cihan, Arzu Coleri

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thermophilic 32 isolates and 20 reference bacilli were subjected to Rep-PCR and ITS-PCR fingerprinting for determination of their genotypic diversity, before screening lipase activities. By these methods, all the isolates and references could easily be differentiated up to subspecies level from each other. In screening assay, 11 isolates and 7 references were found to be lipase producing. Their extracellular lipase activities were measured quantitatively by incubating in both tributyrin and olive oil broths at 60 °C and pH 7.0. During the 24, 48 and 72-h period of incubation, the changes in the lipase activities, culture absorbance, wet weight of biomass and pH were all measured. The activity was determined by using pNPB in 50 mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 at 60 °C. The lipase production of the isolates in olive oil broths varied between 0.008 and 0.052, whereas these values were found to be 0.002-0.019 (U/mL) in the case of tyributyrin. For comparison, an index was established by dividing the lipase activities to cell biomass (U/mg). The maximum thermostable lipase production was achieved by the isolates F84a, F84b, and G. thermodenitrificans DSM 465T (0.009, 0.008 and 0.008 U/mg) within olive oil broth, whereas G. stearothermophilus A113 displayed the highest lipase activity than its type strain in tyributyrin. Therefore, as some of these isolates displayed higher activities in comparison to references, new lipase producing bacilli were determined by presenting their genotypic diversity with DNA fingerprinting techniques. PMID:26691464

  10. The genotypic diversity and lipase production of some thermophilic bacilli from different genera.

    PubMed

    Koc, Melih; Cokmus, Cumhur; Cihan, Arzu Coleri

    2015-12-01

    Thermophilic 32 isolates and 20 reference bacilli were subjected to Rep-PCR and ITS-PCR fingerprinting for determination of their genotypic diversity, before screening lipase activities. By these methods, all the isolates and references could easily be differentiated up to subspecies level from each other. In screening assay, 11 isolates and 7 references were found to be lipase producing. Their extracellular lipase activities were measured quantitatively by incubating in both tributyrin and olive oil broths at 60 °C and pH 7.0. During the 24, 48 and 72-h period of incubation, the changes in the lipase activities, culture absorbance, wet weight of biomass and pH were all measured. The activity was determined by using pNPB in 50 mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 at 60 °C. The lipase production of the isolates in olive oil broths varied between 0.008 and 0.052, whereas these values were found to be 0.002-0.019 (U/mL) in the case of tyributyrin. For comparison, an index was established by dividing the lipase activities to cell biomass (U/mg). The maximum thermostable lipase production was achieved by the isolates F84a, F84b, and G. thermodenitrificans DSM 465T (0.009, 0.008 and 0.008 U/mg) within olive oil broth, whereas G. stearothermophilus A113 displayed the highest lipase activity than its type strain in tyributyrin. Therefore, as some of these isolates displayed higher activities in comparison to references, new lipase producing bacilli were determined by presenting their genotypic diversity with DNA fingerprinting techniques. PMID:26691464

  11. Diagnostic value of the strand displacement amplification method compared to those of Roche Amplicor PCR and culture for detecting mycobacteria in sputum samples.

    PubMed Central

    Ichiyama, S; Ito, Y; Sugiura, F; Iinuma, Y; Yamori, S; Shimojima, M; Hasegawa, Y; Shimokata, K; Nakashima, N

    1997-01-01

    We compared the ability of the semiautomated BDProbeTec-SDA system, which uses the strand displacement amplification (SDA) method, with that of the Roche Amplicor-PCR system and the Septi-Chek AFB culture system to directly detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) and other mycobacteria in sputum samples. A total of 530 sputum samples from 299 patients were examined in this study. Of the 530 samples, 129 were culture positive for acid-fast bacilli with the Septi-Chek AFB system; 95 for MTB, 29 for M. avium-M. intracellulare complex (MAC), and 5 for other mycobacteria. The BDProbeTec-SDA system detected 90 of the 95 samples culture positive for MTB (sensitivity, 94.7%), and the Amplicor-PCR system detected 85 of the 95 samples culture positive for MTB (sensitivity, 89.5%). The specificity of each system, based on the clinical diagnosis, was 99.8% for SDA and 100% for PCR, respectively. Among the 29 samples culture positive for MAC, the BDProbeTec-SDA system detected MAC in 24 samples (sensitivity, 82.8%), whereas the Amplicor-PCR system detected MAC in 23 samples (sensitivity, 79.3%). The specificities of the systems were 98.3 and 100%, respectively. The high degrees of sensitivity and specificity of the BDProbeTec-SDA system suggest that it should be very useful in clinical laboratories for the rapid detection of mycobacteria in sputum samples. PMID:9399498

  12. Multicenter Evaluation of a New Shortened Peptide Nucleic Acid Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Procedure for Species Identification of Select Gram-Negative Bacilli from Blood Cultures▿

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Margie; Marlowe, Elizabeth; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Salimnia, Hossein; Novak-Weekley, Susan; Wu, Fann; Crystal, Benjamin S.

    2010-01-01

    A shortened protocol for two peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) assays for the detection of Gram-negative bacilli from positive blood cultures was evaluated in a multicenter trial. There was 100% concordance between the two protocols for each assay (368 of 368 and 370 of 370 results) and 99.7% (367 of 368 and 369 of 370 results) agreement with routine laboratory techniques. PMID:20357212

  13. Molecular diversity and multifarious plant growth promoting attributes of Bacilli associated with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rhizosphere from six diverse agro-ecological zones of India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Priyanka; Yadav, Ajar Nath; Khannam, Kazy Sufia; Kumar, Sanjay; Saxena, Anil Kumar; Suman, Archna

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of culturable Bacilli was investigated in six wheat cultivating agro-ecological zones of India viz: northern hills, north western plains, north eastern plains, central, peninsular, and southern hills. These agro-ecological regions are based on the climatic conditions such as pH, salinity, drought, and temperature. A total of 395 Bacilli were isolated by heat enrichment and different growth media. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis using three restriction enzymes AluI, MspI, and HaeIII led to the clustering of these isolates into 19-27 clusters in the different zones at >70% similarity index, adding up to 137 groups. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing led to the identification of 55 distinct Bacilli that could be grouped in five families, Bacillaceae (68%), Paenibacillaceae (15%), Planococcaceae (8%), Staphylococcaceae (7%), and Bacillales incertae sedis (2%), which included eight genera namely Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Planococcus, Planomicrobium, Sporosarcina, and Staphylococcus. All 395 isolated Bacilli were screened for their plant growth promoting attributes, which included direct-plant growth promoting (solubilization of phosphorus, potassium, and zinc; production of phytohormones; 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity and nitrogen fixation), and indirect-plant growth promotion (antagonistic, production of lytic enzymes, siderophore, hydrogen cyanide, and ammonia). To our knowledge, this is the first report for the presence of Bacillus endophyticus, Paenibacillus xylanexedens, Planococcus citreus, Planomicrobium okeanokoites, Sporosarcina sp., and Staphylococcus succinus in wheat rhizosphere and exhibit multifunctional PGP attributes. These niche-specific and multifarious PGP Bacilli may serve as inoculants for crops growing in respective climatic conditions. PMID:26567901

  14. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsiella and other facultative bacilli

    SciTech Connect

    Ochuba, G.U.; Von Riesen, V.L.

    1980-05-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebseilla oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carraggeenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and pectobacterium (38%). pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant.

  15. Fermentation of polysaccharides by Klebsielleae and other facultative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Ochuba, G U; von Riesen, V L

    1980-05-01

    Fermentations of 10 polysaccharides by species of the family Enterobacteriaceae were examined. Algin, guar, karaya, xanthan, and xylan were not fermented by any of the strains tested. Most of the activity was found in the tribe Klebsielleae. Klebsiella oxytoca fermented amylopectin (97% of the strains studied), carrageenan (100%), inulin (68%), polypectate (100%), and tragacanth (100%). Klebsiella pneumoniae fermented amylopectin (91%), carrageenan (100%), and tragacanth (86%). Carrageenan was also fermented by Enterobacter aerogenes (100%), Enterobacter agglomerans (63%), Enterobacter cloacae (95%), and Pectobacterium (38%). Pectobacterium shared polypectate fermentation (100%) with K. oxytoca. With one exception, Serratia strains were negative on all polysaccharides. These results, along with other evidence, indicate that (i) the genus Klebsiella is biochemically the most versatile genus of the tribe, (ii) because of its distinct characteristics, K. oxytoca warrants species designation separate from K. pneumoniae, and (iii) some food additives generally considered indigestible can be metabolized by a few species of facultative bacilli, whereas others appear to be resistant. PMID:7396489

  16. Value of examining three acid-fast bacillus sputum smears for removal of patients suspected of having tuberculosis from the "airborne precautions" category.

    PubMed

    Craft, D W; Jones, M C; Blanchet, C N; Hopfer, R L

    2000-11-01

    We examined the potential risk of tuberculosis transmission if we modified our policy for release of patients from the "airborne precautions" category from three negative acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smears to two, or even one. Over a 4-year period, respiratory cultures from 42 patients grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Of these, 36 patients (81%) had a positive AFB smear result on the first submitted specimen. One additional patient (2%) had a first smear-positive finding on the second submitted specimen, and no patients had a first smear-positive result on the third submitted specimen. Respiratory cultures from five patients (12%) grew M. tuberculosis without ever having a positive AFB smear result. These data indicate that in our institution, reducing the number of negative smears required before removal of patients from the airborne precautions category would pose little, if any, increase in the risk of spreading tuberculosis. PMID:11060114

  17. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from pigmented Bacilli: a genomic approach to assess carbohydrate utilization and degradation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Spore-forming Bacilli are Gram-positive bacteria commonly found in a variety of natural habitats, including soil, water and the gastro-intestinal (GI)-tract of animals. Isolates of various Bacillus species produce pigments, mostly carotenoids, with a putative protective role against UV irradiation and oxygen-reactive forms. Results We report the annotation of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) of two pigmented Bacilli isolated from the human GI-tract and belonging to the Bacillus indicus and B. firmus species. A high number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) were found in both isolates. A detailed analysis of CAZyme families, was performed and supported by growth data. Carbohydrates able to support growth as the sole carbon source negatively effected carotenoid formation in rich medium, suggesting that a catabolite repression-like mechanism controls carotenoid biosynthesis in both Bacilli. Experimental results on biofilm formation confirmed genomic data on the potentials of B. indicus HU36 to produce a levan-based biofilm, while mucin-binding and -degradation experiments supported genomic data suggesting the ability of both Bacilli to degrade mammalian glycans. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genomes of the two pigmented Bacilli, compared to other Bacillus species and validated by experimental data on carbohydrate utilization, biofilm formation and mucin degradation, suggests that the two pigmented Bacilli are adapted to the intestinal environment and are suited to grow in and colonize the human gut. PMID:21892951

  18. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Ruppé, Étienne; Woerther, Paul-Louis; Barbier, François

    2015-12-01

    The burden of multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) now represents a daily issue for the management of antimicrobial therapy in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. In Enterobacteriaceae, the dramatic increase in the rates of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins mainly results from the spread of plasmid-borne extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), especially those belonging to the CTX-M family. The efficacy of beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor associations for severe infections due to ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae has not been adequately evaluated in critically ill patients, and carbapenems still stands as the first-line choice in this situation. However, carbapenemase-producing strains have emerged worldwide over the past decade. VIM- and NDM-type metallo-beta-lactamases, OXA-48 and KPC appear as the most successful enzymes and may threaten the efficacy of carbapenems in the near future. ESBL- and carbapenemase-encoding plasmids frequently bear resistance determinants for other antimicrobial classes, including aminoglycosides (aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes or 16S rRNA methylases) and fluoroquinolones (Qnr, AAC(6')-Ib-cr or efflux pumps), a key feature that fosters the spread of multidrug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. In non-fermenting GNB such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, multidrug resistance may emerge following the sole occurrence of sequential chromosomal mutations, which may lead to the overproduction of intrinsic beta-lactamases, hyper-expression of efflux pumps, target modifications and permeability alterations. P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii also have the ability to acquire mobile genetic elements encoding resistance determinants, including carbapenemases. Available options for the treatment of ICU-acquired infections due to carbapenem-resistant GNB are currently scarce, and recent reports emphasizing the spread of colistin resistance in environments with high volume of polymyxins use elicit major concern. PMID:26261001

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Corynebacterium species and other non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli to 18 antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Soriano, F; Zapardiel, J; Nieto, E

    1995-01-01

    The susceptibilities of 265 strains of Corynebacterium species and other non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli to 18 antimicrobial agents were tested. Most strains were susceptible to vancomycin, doxycycline, and fusidic acid. Corynebacterium jeikeium and Corynebacterium urealyticum were the most resistant organisms tested. Resistance to beta-lactams, clindamycin, erythromycin, azythromycin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was common among strains of Corynebacterium xerosis and Corynebacterium minutissimum. Ampicillin resistance among Listeria monocytogenes was more prevalent than previously reported. Optochin, fosfomycin, and nitrofurantoin showed very little activity against most organisms tested, but the use of nitrofurantoin as a selective agent in culture medium may prevent the recovery of some isolates. Except for the unvarying activity of vancomycin against Corynebacterium species, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the latter to other antibiotics are usually unpredictable, such that susceptibility tests are necessary for selecting the best antimicrobial treatment. PMID:7695308

  20. Mercury resistance transposons in Bacilli strains from different geographical regions.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Yoshinami, Satoshi; Narita, Masaru; Chien, Mei-Fang; Phung, Le T; Silver, Simon; Endo, Ginro

    2016-03-01

    A total of 65 spore-forming mercury-resistant bacteria were isolated from natural environments worldwide in order to understand the acquisition of additional genes by and dissemination of mercury resistance transposons across related Bacilli genera by horizontal gene movement. PCR amplification using a single primer complementary to the inverted repeat sequence of TnMERI1-like transposons showed that 12 of 65 isolates had a transposon-like structure. There were four types of amplified fragments: Tn5084, Tn5085, Tn(d)MER3 (a newly identified deleted transposon-like fragment) and Tn6294 (a newly identified transposon). Tn(d)MER3 is a 3.5-kb sequence that carries a merRETPA operon with no merB or transposase genes. It is related to the mer operon of Bacillus licheniformis strain FA6-12 from Russia. DNA homology analysis shows that Tn6294 is an 8.5-kb sequence that is possibly derived from Tn(d)MER3 by integration of a TnMERI1-type transposase and resolvase genes and in addition the merR2 and merB1 genes. Bacteria harboring Tn6294 exhibited broad-spectrum mercury resistance to organomercurial compounds, although Tn6294 had only merB1 and did not have the merB2 and merB3 sequences for organomercurial lyases found in Tn5084 of B. cereus strain RC607. Strains with Tn6294 encode mercuric reductase (MerA) of less than 600 amino acids in length with a single N-terminal mercury-binding domain, whereas MerA encoded by strains MB1 and RC607 has two tandem domains. Thus, Tn(d)MER3 and Tn6294 are shorter prototypes for TnMERI1-like transposons. Identification of Tn6294 in Bacillus sp. from Taiwan and in Paenibacillus sp. from Antarctica indicates the wide horizontal dissemination of TnMERI1-like transposons across bacterial species and geographical barriers. PMID:26802071

  1. Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare directly from primary BACTEC cultures by using acridinium-ester-labeled DNA probes.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, K D; Nakasone, A S; Sutherland, P A; de la Maza, L M; Peterson, E M

    1992-01-01

    Identification of members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and the M. avium-M. intracellulare complex (MAC) directly from primary BACTEC cultures was evaluated by using acridinium-ester-labeled DNA probes (AccuProbe; GenProbe, Inc., San Diego, Calif.). In preliminary experiments, blood present in samples was found to interfere with the assay because of nonspecific chemiluminescence, which was measured in relative light units (RLUs). There was a direct relationship between the age of the culture and the number of nonspecific RLUs. A protocol using 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate-5 mM EDTA to treat BACTEC broth cultures which, with specimens containing blood, gave on the average a ninefold reduction in nonspecific chemiluminescence was developed. By using this treatment protocol, 120 specimens were tested directly from BACTEC broth cultures with an AccuProbe for the M. tuberculosis complex and/or the MAC. In order to establish the background of the specimen, the patient sample was assayed without probe. The criteria for the inclusion of BACTEC cultures in the evaluation were a growth index of greater than or equal to 100 and a positive smear for acid-fast bacilli directly from the BACTEC broth. For the 120 cultures tested, if a hybridization result of greater than or equal to 30,000 RLUs was considered positive, the sensitivities for detecting the M. tuberculosis complex and the MAC were 47 and 90%, respectively, with a specificity of 100% for both. However, if a ratio of the RLUs obtained with the MAC or the M. tuberculosis complex probe to those obtained with the specimen background of >/= 20 was considered positive, this gave 77% sensitivity and 100% specificity for BACTEC cultures containing M. tuberculosis complex isolates and 96% sensitivity and 100% specificity for those growing MAC isolates. PMID:1401010

  2. Lot quality assurance sampling of sputum acid-fast bacillus smears for assessing sputum smear microscopy centers.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, N; Murthy, B N; Prabhakaran, E; Sivagamasundari, S; Vasanthan, Samuel; Perumal, M; Govindaraju, R; Chauhan, L S; Wares, Fraser; Santha, T; Narayanan, P R

    2005-02-01

    Assessment of 12 microscopy centers in a tuberculosis unit by blinded checking of eight sputum smears selected by using a lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method and by unblinded checking of all positive and five negative slides, among the slides examined in a month in a microscopy centre, revealed that the LQAS method can be implemented in the field to monitor the performance of acid-fast bacillus microscopy centers in national tuberculosis control programs. PMID:15695704

  3. Lot Quality Assurance Sampling of Sputum Acid-Fast Bacillus Smears for Assessing Sputum Smear Microscopy Centers

    PubMed Central

    Selvakumar, N.; Murthy, B. N.; Prabhakaran, E.; Sivagamasundari, S.; Vasanthan, Samuel; Perumal, M.; Govindaraju, R.; Chauhan, L. S.; Wares, Fraser; Santha, T.; Narayanan, P. R.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of 12 microscopy centers in a tuberculosis unit by blinded checking of eight sputum smears selected by using a lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method and by unblinded checking of all positive and five negative slides, among the slides examined in a month in a microscopy centre, revealed that the LQAS method can be implemented in the field to monitor the performance of acid-fast bacillus microscopy centers in national tuberculosis control programs. PMID:15695704

  4. Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli colonization risk factors among trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Laura J; Li, Ping; Murray, Clinton K; Yun, Heather C; Aggarwal, Deepak; Weintrob, Amy C; Tribble, David R

    2016-04-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated high rates of colonization and infection with multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) in injured military personnel. Our analysis shows that injuries inflicted during peak combat periods, massive blood transfusion requirement, and posttrauma cefazolin prophylaxis (additive effect with fluoroquinolones) were risk factors for MDR-GNB colonization. PMID:26867965

  5. Common Enterobacterial Antigen II. Effect of Immunization on Challenge with Heterologous Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, William R.; Greely, Anna

    1973-01-01

    Studies were carried out evaluating the protective activity of immunization with common enterobacterial antigen (CA) against challenge with heterologous gram-negative bacilli. Active immunization of mice with Escherichia coli 0:14 elicited titers of antibody to CA of 1:640 or greater but completely failed to enhance resistance to challenge by mouse virulent strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae or E. coli. Similarly, two lots, 324 and 422, of rabbit antisera to CA failed to afford passive protection to mice challenged with K. pneumoniae or E. coli. A third lot, 166, of rabbit antisera to CA did passively protect mice. The protective activity of antisera 166 was demonstrated to reflect its content of antibody to another cross-reactive antigen, Re determinant, of gram-negative bacilli which has previously been shown to protect against infections with heterologous bacilli rather than any protective effect of antibody to CA. These studies failed to demonstrate any protective activity of antibody to CA against challenge with heterologous CA containing gram-negative bacilli. PMID:4576679

  6. Antifouling activity of sessile bacilli derived from marine surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Morales, Benjamín Otto; Chan-Bacab, Manuel Jesús; Miranda-Tello, Elizabeth; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Carrero, Julio César; Stein, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    Marine biofilms are a virtually untapped source of bioactive molecules that may find application as novel antifoulants in the marine paint industry. This study aimed at determining the potential of marine biofilm bacteria to produce novel biomolecules with potential application as natural antifoulants. Nine representative strains were isolated from a range of surfaces and were grown in YEB medium and harvested during the late exponential growth phase. Bacterial biomass and spent culture medium were extracted with ethanol and ethyl acetate, respectively. Extracts were assayed for their antifouling activity using two tests: (1) antimicrobial well diffusion test against a common fouling bacterium, Halomonas marina, and (2) anti-crustacean activity test using Artemia salina. Our results showed that none of the ethanolic extracts (bacterial biomass) were active in either test. In contrast, most of the organic extracts had antimicrobial activity (88%) and were toxic towards A. salina (67%). Sequencing of full 16 S ribosomal DNA analysis showed that the isolates were related to Bacillus mojavensis and Bacillus firmus. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) profiling of ethyl acetate extracts of culture supernatants showed that these species produce the bioactive lipopeptides surfactin A, mycosubtilin and bacillomycin D. PMID:17909869

  7. Evidence for a Structural Role for Acid-Fast Lipids in Oocyst Walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria

    PubMed Central

    Bushkin, G. Guy; Motari, Edwin; Carpentieri, Andrea; Dubey, Jitender P.; Costello, Catherine E.; Robbins, Phillips W.; Samuelson, John

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Coccidia are protozoan parasites that cause significant human disease and are of major agricultural importance. Cryptosporidium spp. cause diarrhea in humans and animals, while Toxoplasma causes disseminated infections in fetuses and untreated AIDS patients. Eimeria is a major pathogen of commercial chickens. Oocysts, which are the infectious form of Cryptosporidium and Eimeria and one of two infectious forms of Toxoplasma (the other is tissue cysts in undercooked meat), have a multilayered wall. Recently we showed that the inner layer of the oocyst walls of Toxoplasma and Eimeria is a porous scaffold of fibers of β-1,3-glucan, which are also present in fungal walls but are absent from Cryptosporidium oocyst walls. Here we present evidence for a structural role for lipids in the oocyst walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria. Briefly, oocyst walls of each organism label with acid-fast stains that bind to lipids in the walls of mycobacteria. Polyketide synthases similar to those that make mycobacterial wall lipids are abundant in oocysts of Toxoplasma and Eimeria and are predicted in Cryptosporidium. The outer layer of oocyst wall of Eimeria and the entire oocyst wall of Cryptosporidium are dissolved by organic solvents. Oocyst wall lipids are complex mixtures of triglycerides, some of which contain polyhydroxy fatty acyl chains like those present in plant cutin or elongated fatty acyl chains like mycolic acids. We propose a two-layered model of the oocyst wall (glucan and acid-fast lipids) that resembles the two-layered walls of mycobacteria (peptidoglycan and acid-fast lipids) and plants (cellulose and cutin). PMID:24003177

  8. Identification of Aerobic Gram-Positive Bacilli by Use of Vitek MS

    PubMed Central

    Navas, Maria; Pincus, David H.; Wilkey, Kathy; Sercia, Linda; LaSalvia, Margaret; Wilson, Deborah; Procop, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of Vitek MS mass spectrometric identifications was assessed for 206 clinically significant isolates of aerobic Gram-positive bacilli representing 20 genera and 38 species. The Vitek MS identifications were correct for 85% of the isolates (56.3% to the species level, 28.6% limited to the genus level), with misidentifications occurring for 7.3% of the isolates. PMID:24501030

  9. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the eggs will be rubbed with a sterile swab previously moistened with sterile lactose broth, or other... tube containing four swabs and lactose broth or other suitable media, 1 ml. will be transferred to 10 ml. lactose in a fermentation tube. (2) Incubate at 37 °C for 48 hours. The presence of acid, and...

  10. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the eggs will be rubbed with a sterile swab previously moistened with sterile lactose broth, or other... tube containing four swabs and lactose broth or other suitable media, 1 ml. will be transferred to 10 ml. lactose in a fermentation tube. (2) Incubate at 37 °C for 48 hours. The presence of acid, and...

  11. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the eggs will be rubbed with a sterile swab previously moistened with sterile lactose broth, or other... tube containing four swabs and lactose broth or other suitable media, 1 ml. will be transferred to 10 ml. lactose in a fermentation tube. (2) Incubate at 37 °C for 48 hours. The presence of acid, and...

  12. 9 CFR 147.13 - Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the eggs will be rubbed with a sterile swab previously moistened with sterile lactose broth, or other... tube containing four swabs and lactose broth or other suitable media, 1 ml. will be transferred to 10 ml. lactose in a fermentation tube. (2) Incubate at 37 °C for 48 hours. The presence of acid, and...

  13. Isolation, culture, preservation, and identification of entomopathogenic bacteria of the bacilli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic bacteria provide an alternative to chemical pesticides used in insect control programs. This chapter provides techniques, both classical and modern, that will enable researchers from any laboratory setting to identify and work with novel strains of entomopathogenic bacteria. In ad...

  14. Direct identification and susceptibility testing by the AutoMicrobic system of gram-negative bacilli from urine specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Wellstood, S A

    1986-01-01

    A total of 1,800 urine specimens were screened by Gram stain to detect bacteriuria. Pellets of bacteria were obtained by centrifuging specimens containing greater than or equal to 1 gram-negative bacillus of a single morphological type per oil immersion field. Direct susceptibility tests and identifications were performed from pellets by using the AutoMicrobic system (AMS). Results were compared with culture results by routine AMS methods. Of the 145 specimens showing only gram-negative bacilli on Gram stain, 113 grew greater than or equal to 10(5) CFU of a single species per ml. Compared with routine AMS identifications, the direct method correctly identified 105 (92.9%) of the isolates. Identifications were available within 8 h for 77% of the isolates. When compared by MICs, 93.2% of the direct susceptibility test results agreed with routine AMS results within one twofold dilution. Comparisons by category call indicated that overall complete and essential agreements were 89.9 and 97.8%, respectively, with 1.0% very major, 1.0% major, and 8.1% minor errors. Cefamandole and cephalothin had the lowest correlations by both comparisons. Within 8 h, susceptibility results were available for 94.3% of the isolates. This method offers the advantage of rapid detection, prompt processing, and earlier reporting of complete results for positive urine specimens. PMID:3086375

  15. Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamase Detection in Gram-negative Bacilli of Nosocomial Origin

    PubMed Central

    Tsering, Dechen C; Das, Shyamasree; Adhiakari, Luna; Pal, Ranabir; Singh, Takhellambam SK

    2009-01-01

    Background: Resistance to third generation cephalosporins by acquisition and expression of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) enzymes among gram-negative bacilli is on a rise. The presence of ESBL producing organisms significantly affects the course and outcome of an infection and poses a challenge to infection management worldwide. Materials and Methods: In the period from June 2007 to 2008, we collected 1489 samples from patients suspected of nosocomial infection. The isolates were identified based on colony morphology and biochemical reaction. Gram negative bacilli resistant to third generation cephalosporins were tested for ESBL by double disc synergy test (DDST- a screening test)and then phenotypic confirmatory test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: From the sample of 238 gram-negative bacilli, we isolated Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii and Enterobacter cloacae. Following both methods, 34% isolates were ESBL-positive. The ESBL producing isolates were significantly resistant (p < 0.01) to ampicillin, piperacillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin as compared to non-ESBL producers. Multidrug resistance was significantly (p < 0.01) higher (69.14%) in ESBL positive isolates than non-ESBL isolates (21.66%). Conclusion: High prevalence of ESBL in our hospital cannot be ignored. ESBL producers can be detected by DDST and phenotypic confirmatory test with equal efficacy. The sensitivity of screening test improved with the use of more than one antibiotic and addition of one or two antibiotics would not increase cost and labor. We recommend DDST using multiple antibiotics in all microbiology units as a routine screening test. PMID:20300397

  16. Characterization of the coliform and enteric bacilli in the environment of calves with colibacillosis.

    PubMed Central

    Plews, P I; Bromel, M C; Schipper, I A

    1985-01-01

    In the first part of the present study the coliform and enteric bacilli in the environment of calves with colibacillosis were examined. The occurrence, number, and pathogenic properties of Escherichia coli in barnyard soils were obtained from six cattle ranches. The O and K serogroups of E. coli isolates obtained from the feces of calves with colibacillosis born at these cattle ranches were determined, and their serotypes were compared with the E. coli O and K serotypes found in soils. The results showed a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli in barnyard soils contaminated with bovine feces. For the second part of this study, 6 healthy calves and 51 calves with colibacillosis were studied. The numbers of total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, total streptococci, fecal streptococci, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms in the feces of calves were determined. In addition, coliform and enteric bacilli from the feces of both healthy and diseased calves were identified, and their indole, methyl red, Voges-Proskauer, citrate (IMViC) types were described. In parallel, the IMViC types of coliform and enteric bacilli isolated from barnyard soils previously contaminated with bovine feces were compared with those isolated from uncontaminated soils. All fecal specimens were also examined for the presence of rotavirus. No significant effect on the numbers of the bacterial types was found. The results suggest that the predominant IMViC types found in the feces of calves with colibacillosis originate from the soil. From this study it is apparent that the occurrence, number, and survival of E. coli in barnyard soils is related to ranch husbandry and sanitary practices. PMID:3890744

  17. Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the USA" (Alisa Woodring);…

  18. Targeting dormant tuberculosis bacilli: results for molecules with a novel pyrimidone scaffold.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rohit R; Barchha, Avinash; Khedkar, Vijay M; Pissurlenkar, Raghuvir R S; Sarkar, Sampa; Sarkar, Dhiman; Joshi, Rohini R; Joshi, Ramesh A; Shah, Anamik K; Coutinho, Evans C

    2015-02-01

    Our inability to completely control TB has been due in part to the presence of dormant mycobacteria. This also renders drug regimens ineffective and is the prime cause of the appearance of drug-resistant strains. In continuation of our efforts to develop novel antitubercular agents that especially target dormant mycobacteria, a set of 55 new compounds belonging to the pyrimidone class were designed on the basis of CoMFA and CoMSIA studies, and these were synthesized and subsequently tested against both the dormant and virulent BCG strain of M. tuberculosis. Some novel compounds have been identified which selectively inhibit the dormant tuberculosis bacilli with significantly low IC50 values. This study reports the second molecule after TMC-207, having the ability to inhibit tuberculosis bacilli exclusively in its dormant phase. The synthesis was accomplished by a modified multicomponent Biginelli reaction. A classification model was generated using the binary QSAR approach--recursive partitioning (RP) to identify structural characteristics related to the activity. Physicochemical, structural, topological, connectivity indices, and E-state key descriptors were used for generation of the decision tree. The decision tree could provide insights into structure-activity relationships that will guide the design of more potent inhibitors. PMID:24917467

  19. Bioprospecting of plant growth promoting psychrotrophic Bacilli from the cold desert of north western Indian Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Verma, Priyanka; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The plant growth promoting psychrotrophic Bacilli were investigated from different sites in north western Indian Himalayas. A total of 247 morphotypes were obtained from different soil and water samples and were grouped into 43 clusters based on 16S rDNA-RFLP analysis with three restriction endonucleases. Sequencing of representative isolates has revealed that these 43 Bacilli belonged to different species of 11 genera viz., Desemzia, Exiguobacterium, Jeotgalicoccus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Planococcus, Pontibacillus, Sinobaca, Sporosarcina, Staphylococcus and Virgibacillus. With an aim to develop microbial inoculants that can perform efficiently at low temperatures, all representative isolates were screened for different plant growth promoting traits at low temperatures (5-15 degrees C). Among the strains, variations were observed for production (%) of indole-3-acetic acid (20), ammonia (19), siderophores (11), gibberellic acid (4) and hydrogen cyanide (2); solubilisation (%) of zinc (14), phosphate (13) and potassium (7); 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity (6%) and biocontrol activity (4%) against Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Among all the strains, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus muralis, Desemzia incerta, Paenibacillus tylopili and Sporosarcina globispora were found to be potent candidates to be developed as inoculants as they exhibited multiple PGP traits at low temperature. PMID:26934782

  20. Neuro-Sweet disease with positive modified acid-fast staining of the cerebrospinal fluid: A case report

    PubMed Central

    LIU, JUAN-FANG; LI, YUAN; LI, KAI; ZHANG, XIAO; YANG, YI-NING; ZHAO, GANG; LIU, ZHI-RONG

    2016-01-01

    Neuro-Sweet disease (NSD) is Sweet disease with central nervous system (CNS) involvement. To the best of our knowledge, the present case report is the first to describe NSD complicated by endogenous infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The present case report describes a male patient who developed NSD-induced meningitis, which initially manifested as a fever, headache and neck stiffness. Painful erythematous plaques subsequently developed on his face, neck and upper trunk. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed and the results were normal, whereas modified acid-fast stain analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provided a positive result. The patient was thus diagnosed with viral meningitis and tuberculosis. However, subsequent skin biopsy results demonstrated neutrophilic infiltration into the dermis without vasculitis, and subsequent human leukocyte antigen typing was positive for Cw1 and negative for B51 and the patient was diagnosed with NSD. Following treatment with corticosteroids, and antiviral and anti-tuberculotic agents, the clinical symptoms were reduced and the previously abnormal findings in the CSF examinations and associated laboratory data were improved. The present case indicates that the diagnosis of NSD is not easily achieved, and early skin biopsy is vital to ensure a fast and effective diagnosis. In addition to systemic corticosteroids, comprehensive treatment is also recommended for patients with NSD complicated by additional complex medical problems. PMID:27073429

  1. Interaction of protoplasts, L forms, and bacilli of Bacillus subtilis with 12 strains of bacteriophage.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, E D; Landman, O E

    1975-01-01

    The interaction of 12 phage strains with bacilli, protoplasts, and L forms of Bacillus subtilis 168 and with eight of its mutants and two of its lysogens is described qualitatively and quantitatively. After removal of the cell wall from B. subtilis 168, 11 of the 12 phage strains can still adsorb to the protoplasts, nine kill their wall-less host cells, and five multiply in the naked bacteria, forming plaques on L form lawns. Individual gene mutations can have similarly pleiotropic effects, strongly dependent upon the plating medium. Thus, the gta A mutation, which causes loss of glucosylation of the wall teichoic acid, results in loss of wall adsorption sites for phi (but not membrane sites) and for phi105. Phages phi25, SP82G and phie can still adsorb to gta A bacilli and plaque in unstabilized and sorbitol-stabilized lawns of this mutant, but they can not plaque in sucrose-stabilized lawns. The lysogenized wild type, B. subtilis 168 (SPO2), also exhibits a pleiotropic pattern, showing different levels of resistance to phages SPO2, phi1, phie, and phi25. Its resistance pattern is very similar to that of wild-type protoplasts. On the basis of such patterns, the bacterial mutants and strain B. subtilis 168 (SPO2) could be ordered into four classes and the phage strains classified into four to six groups. Together, they form four to six interaction complexes, based partly on adsorption sites and perhaps partly on metabolic blocks in phage development. Images PMID:809420

  2. What renders Bacilli genetically competent? A gaze beyond the model organism.

    PubMed

    Jakobs, Mareike; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2015-02-01

    Natural genetic competence enables bacteria to take in and establish exogenously supplied DNA and thus constitutes a valuable tool for strain improvement. Extensively studied in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis genetic competence has indeed proven successful for genetic manipulation aiming at enhancement of handling, yield, and biosafety. The majority of Bacilli, particularly those relevant for industrial application, do not or only poorly develop genetic competence, although rather homologous DNA-uptake machineries are routinely encoded. Establishing the competent state solely due to high cell densities (quorum sensing dependency) appears to be restricted to the model organism, in which the small signalling peptide ComS initiates the regulatory pathway that ultimately leads to the expression of all genes necessary for reaching the competent state. Agreeing with the lack of a functional ComS peptide, competence-mediated transformation of other Bacilli depends on nutrient exhaustion rather than cell density. Genetically, competent strains of the model organism B. subtilis, cultivated for a long time and selected for laboratory purposes, display probably not least to such selection a point mutation in the promoter of a regulatory gene that favors competence development whereas the wild-type progenitor only poorly displays genetic competence. Consistent with competence being a matter of deregulation, all strains of Bacillus licheniformis displaying efficient DNA uptake were found to carry mutations in regulator genes, which are responsible for their genetic competence. Thus, strain-specific genetic equipment and regulation as well as the proven role of domestication for the well-established laboratory strains ought to be considered when attempting to broaden the applicability of competence as a genetic tool for strains other than the model organism. PMID:25547840

  3. Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Other Gram-Negative Bacilli in Pneumonia-Prone Age Groups in Semarang, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Severin, Juliëtte A.; Gasem, M. Hussein; Keuter, Monique; van den Broek, Peterhans; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Wahyono, Hendro; Verbrugh, Henri A.

    2013-01-01

    Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) cause many cases of pneumonia in Indonesia. We investigated nasopharyngeal carriage of GNB in Semarang, Indonesia. Klebsiella pneumoniae carriage in adults (15%) was higher than in children (7%) (P = 0.004), while that of other GNB was comparable. Poor food and water hygiene are determinants of carriage of these bacteria. PMID:23486716

  4. Acid-fast stain

    MedlinePlus

    Fitzgerald DW, Sterling TR, Haas DW. Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: ...

  5. Insight into the evolution and origin of leprosy bacilli from the genome sequence of Mycobacterium lepromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pushpendra; Benjak, Andrej; Schuenemann, Verena J.; Herbig, Alexander; Avanzi, Charlotte; Busso, Philippe; Nieselt, Kay; Krause, Johannes; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Cole, Stewart T.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium lepromatosis is an uncultured human pathogen associated with diffuse lepromatous leprosy and a reactional state known as Lucio's phenomenon. By using deep sequencing with and without DNA enrichment, we obtained the near-complete genome sequence of M. lepromatosis present in a skin biopsy from a Mexican patient, and compared it with that of Mycobacterium leprae, which has undergone extensive reductive evolution. The genomes display extensive synteny and are similar in size (∼3.27 Mb). Protein-coding genes share 93% nucleotide sequence identity, whereas pseudogenes are only 82% identical. The events that led to pseudogenization of 50% of the genome likely occurred before divergence from their most recent common ancestor (MRCA), and both M. lepromatosis and M. leprae have since accumulated new pseudogenes or acquired specific deletions. Functional comparisons suggest that M. lepromatosis has lost several enzymes required for amino acid synthesis whereas M. leprae has a defective heme pathway. M. lepromatosis has retained all functions required to infect the Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system and therefore may also be neuropathogenic. A phylogeographic survey of 227 leprosy biopsies by differential PCR revealed that 221 contained M. leprae whereas only six, all from Mexico, harbored M. lepromatosis. Phylogenetic comparisons indicate that M. lepromatosis is closer than M. leprae to the MRCA, and a Bayesian dating analysis suggests that they diverged from their MRCA approximately 13.9 Mya. Thus, despite their ancient separation, the two leprosy bacilli are remarkably conserved and still cause similar pathologic conditions. PMID:25831531

  6. Diversity and phylogeny of plant growth-promoting bacilli from moderately acidic soil.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Subhash; Kaushik, Rajeev; Saxena, Anil K; Arora, Dilip K

    2011-02-01

    The molecular diversity of aerobic endospore-forming bacteria, typically Bacillus and its derived genera, has been investigated in various environments. However, there have been few investigations concerning Bacillus in acidic soils. In this study, the genotypic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacilli isolated from the rice rhizosphere growing in acidic soils of Kerala (pH varying from 6.3 to 6.8) were investigated. For assessing their biocontrol potential and PGP attributes, 115 isolates were randomly selected and 49 isolates that were positive for multiple traits were selected. Metabolic characterization of representative strains, using the Biolog GP2 (Gram Positive) MicroPlate(TM) , revealed a large versatility with respect to carbohydrate utilization. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis revealed 13 clusters at 65% similarity level, which consisted of 1-21 strains. 16S rDNA partial sequencing assigned all the isolates, except for one, to the Bacillus genus, with close relatedness to Bacillus humi, B. megaterium, B. drentensis, B. pocheonensis, B. aestuarii, B. arbutinivorans, B. niacini, and Brevibacterium casei. The Bacillus species with different metabolic capabilities, PGP abilities, and genetic diversity found in this study are likely to have ecological relevance. PMID:21077114

  7. Enteric Gram-negative bacilli suppress Candida biofilms on Foley urinary catheters.

    PubMed

    Samaranayake, Y H; Bandara, H M H N; Cheung, B P K; Yau, J Y Y; Yeung, S K W; Samaranayake, L P

    2014-01-01

    Mixed Candida-bacterial biofilms in urinary catheters are common in hospitalized patients. (i) The aims of this study were to evaluate, quantitatively and qualitatively, the in vitro development of mono- and dual-species biofilms (MSBs and DSBs) of Candida albicans and two enteric gram-negative bacilli (EGNB; Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli) on Foley catheter (FC) discs, (ii) to determine the biofilm growth in tryptic soy broth or glucose supplemented artificial urine (AU) and (iii) to assess the inhibitory effects of EGNB and their lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on Candida biofilm growth. The growth of MSBs and DSBs on FC discs was monitored by cell counts and SEM. The metabolic activity of LPS-treated Candida biofilms was determined by the XTT reduction assay. Candida albicans and EGNB demonstrated significant inter- and intra-species differences in biofilm growth on FC discs (p < 0.01). Pseudomonas aeruginosa suppressed Candida albicans significantly (p < 0.001) in DSBs. Compared with MSBs, DSB of EGNB in glucose supplemented AU demonstrated robust growth. Escherichia coli and its LPS, significantly suppressed Candida biofilm growth, compared with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its LPS (p < 0.001). Candida albicans and EGNB colonization in FC is significantly increased in AU with glucose, and variably modified by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and their corresponding LPS. PMID:23656511

  8. Facing the challenge of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli in Australia.

    PubMed

    Harris, Patrick; Paterson, David; Rogers, Benjamin

    2015-03-16

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacilli (GNB) are now globally widespread and present a major challenge to modern medical practice. Resistance to common antibiotics such as ceftriaxone is becoming more frequent in Australia, primarily mediated by extended-spectrum β-lactamase enzymes in common organisms such as Escherichia coli, and may occur in both hospital- and community-acquired infections. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae have emerged rapidly in recent years and are well established in many countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Although rare at present in Australia, they have caused significant nosocomial outbreaks. GNB have numerous mechanisms by which they can develop antibiotic resistance. Genes that encode extended-spectrum β-lactamases or carbapenemases are frequently co-located with multiple other resistance determinants on highly transmissible genetic structures such as plasmids. A key risk factor for infection with MDR GNB is travel to countries with high rates of resistance, especially with health care exposure. With limited prospects for new antibiotics in late-stage development that are active against MDR GNB, our national response to these challenges will require a multifaceted approach, including widespread implementation of antimicrobial stewardship, enhanced surveillance, targeted screening of at-risk patients and improved infection control practices. In the longer term, restriction of agricultural use of antibiotic classes critical to human medicine, removal of barriers to new drug development, and technological advances in rapid microbiological diagnostics will be required. PMID:25758692

  9. Plant polysaccharides initiate underground crosstalk with bacilli by inducing synthesis of the immunogenic lipopeptide surfactin.

    PubMed

    Debois, Delphine; Fernandez, Olivier; Franzil, Laurent; Jourdan, Emmanuel; de Brogniez, Alix; Willems, Luc; Clment, Christophe; Dorey, Stephan; De Pauw, Edwin; Ongena, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Some plant-associated bacteria such as Bacillus sp. can protect their host from pathogen ingress and this biocontrol activity correlates with their potential to form multiple antibiotics upon in vitro growth. However, our knowledge on antibiotic production by soil bacilli evolving on roots in natural conditions is still limited. In this work, antibiome imaging first revealed that the lipopeptide surfactin is the main bacterial ingredient produced in planta within the first hours of interaction with root tissues. We further demonstrated that surfactin synthesis is specifically stimulated upon perception of plant cell wall polymers such as xylan or arabinogalactan, leading to fast accumulation of micromolar amounts in the root environment. At such concentrations, the lipopeptide may not only favour the ecological fitness of the producing strain in term of root colonization, but also triggers systemic resistance in the host plant. This surfactin-induced immunity primes the plant to better resist further pathogen ingress, and involves only limited expression of defence-related molecular events and does not provoke seedling growth inhibition. By contrast with the strong response mounted upon perception of pathogens, this strongly attenuated defensive reaction induced by surfactin in plant tissues should help Bacillus to be tolerated as saprophytic partner by its host. PMID:25731631

  10. Epidermotropism of lepra bacilli in a patient with histoid Hansen's disease.

    PubMed

    Vora, Rita V; Pilani, Abhishek

    2014-10-01

    Histoid leprosy is a rare form of multibacillary leprosy with distinct clinical and histopathological features. It is a variant of lepromatous leprosy with a very high bacillary load. It appears in patients as relapse after dapsone monotherapy and resistance or rarely, "de novo." Although leprosy is slowly declining the exact mode of transmission is unclear. At least until recently, the most widely held belief was that the disease was transmitted by contact between cases of leprosy and healthy persons. Transmission by the respiratory route is also gaining ground. There are other possibilities such as transmission through insects, which cannot be completely ruled out. However, the present case report possibly suggests the role of skin as a portal of both exit and entry for the bacillus in histoid leprosy transmission. De novo form of histoid leprosy has numerous solid staining bacteria inside the epidermis. The reports show that these bacilli can be eliminated from the intact epidermis, which indicate an unusual role of the skin in the transmission of leprosy. PMID:25396142

  11. Epidermotropism of lepra bacilli in a patient with histoid Hansen's disease

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Rita V.; Pilani, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Histoid leprosy is a rare form of multibacillary leprosy with distinct clinical and histopathological features. It is a variant of lepromatous leprosy with a very high bacillary load. It appears in patients as relapse after dapsone monotherapy and resistance or rarely, “de novo.” Although leprosy is slowly declining the exact mode of transmission is unclear. At least until recently, the most widely held belief was that the disease was transmitted by contact between cases of leprosy and healthy persons. Transmission by the respiratory route is also gaining ground. There are other possibilities such as transmission through insects, which cannot be completely ruled out. However, the present case report possibly suggests the role of skin as a portal of both exit and entry for the bacillus in histoid leprosy transmission. De novo form of histoid leprosy has numerous solid staining bacteria inside the epidermis. The reports show that these bacilli can be eliminated from the intact epidermis, which indicate an unusual role of the skin in the transmission of leprosy. PMID:25396142

  12. Insight into the evolution and origin of leprosy bacilli from the genome sequence of Mycobacterium lepromatosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pushpendra; Benjak, Andrej; Schuenemann, Verena J; Herbig, Alexander; Avanzi, Charlotte; Busso, Philippe; Nieselt, Kay; Krause, Johannes; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Cole, Stewart T

    2015-04-01

    Mycobacterium lepromatosis is an uncultured human pathogen associated with diffuse lepromatous leprosy and a reactional state known as Lucio's phenomenon. By using deep sequencing with and without DNA enrichment, we obtained the near-complete genome sequence of M. lepromatosis present in a skin biopsy from a Mexican patient, and compared it with that of Mycobacterium leprae, which has undergone extensive reductive evolution. The genomes display extensive synteny and are similar in size (∼3.27 Mb). Protein-coding genes share 93% nucleotide sequence identity, whereas pseudogenes are only 82% identical. The events that led to pseudogenization of 50% of the genome likely occurred before divergence from their most recent common ancestor (MRCA), and both M. lepromatosis and M. leprae have since accumulated new pseudogenes or acquired specific deletions. Functional comparisons suggest that M. lepromatosis has lost several enzymes required for amino acid synthesis whereas M. leprae has a defective heme pathway. M. lepromatosis has retained all functions required to infect the Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system and therefore may also be neuropathogenic. A phylogeographic survey of 227 leprosy biopsies by differential PCR revealed that 221 contained M. leprae whereas only six, all from Mexico, harbored M. lepromatosis. Phylogenetic comparisons indicate that M. lepromatosis is closer than M. leprae to the MRCA, and a Bayesian dating analysis suggests that they diverged from their MRCA approximately 13.9 Mya. Thus, despite their ancient separation, the two leprosy bacilli are remarkably conserved and still cause similar pathologic conditions. PMID:25831531

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Spore-Forming Bacilli (SFB) from Shepherd's Purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris).

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Jun; Kim, Hye-Bin; Kim, Keun-Sung

    2016-03-01

    Shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris), native to Europe, is commonly consumed fresh and sometimes inadequately washed before consumption in Korea. The objective of this study was to characterize isolates of spore-forming bacilli (SFB) in samples of fresh Shepherd's purse. Three genera were identified: Bacillus (9 species), Paenibacillus (3 species), and Brevibacillus (1 species). None of the genes of the hemolysin BL (HBL) and nonhemolytic enterotoxin (NHE) complexes, or of the emetic toxin, was detected in the 25 SFB isolates, except for 2 Bacillus pseudomycoides isolates, where all 3 genes of the HBL enterotoxin complex were detected. There were significant sequence variations between the 2 species (Bacillus cereus and B. pseudomycoides) in the 3 genes of the HBL enterotoxin complex. These findings may provide insights into the diverse characteristics of the B. pseudomycoides HBL enterotoxin complex. Antibiotic resistance was assessed using 8 antibiotics. Among the 25 SFB isolates, 11 showed resistance to antibiotics, of which 5 were multiresistant. Assessment of the spoilage potential showed that all 25 SFB isolates could produce enzymes that can cause spoilage of foods. In conclusion, our findings may serve as integrative information for food research and industrial sectors. PMID:26822957

  14. Mosquitocidal toxins of bacilli and their genetic manipulation for effective biological control of mosquitoes.

    PubMed Central

    Porter, A G; Davidson, E W; Liu, J W

    1993-01-01

    The identification, cloning, and characterization of protein toxins from various species of bacilli have demonstrated the existence of mosquitocidal toxins with different structures, mechanisms of action, and host ranges. A start has been made in understanding the polypeptide determinants of toxicity and insecticidal activity, and the purification of toxins from recombinant organisms may lead to the elucidation of their X-ray crystal structures and the cloning of brush border membrane receptors. The results of cloning mosquitocidal toxins in heterologous microorganisms show the potential of expanding the range of susceptible mosquito species by combining several toxins of different host specificity in one cell. Toxins have been expressed in new microorganisms with the potential for increasing potency by persisting at the larval feeding zone. The powerful tools of bacterial genetics are being applied to engineer genetically stable, persistent toxin expression and expand the insecticidal host ranges of Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis strains. These techniques, together with modern formulation technology, should eventually lead to the construction of mosquitocidal microorganisms which are effective enough to have a real impact on mosquito-borne diseases. Images PMID:7905597

  15. Potassium availability triggers Mycobacterium tuberculosis transition to, and resuscitation from, non-culturable (dormant) states

    PubMed Central

    Salina, Elena G.; Waddell, Simon J.; Hoffmann, Nadine; Rosenkrands, Ida; Butcher, Philip D.; Kaprelyants, Arseny S.

    2014-01-01

    Dormancy in non-sporulating bacteria is an interesting and underexplored phenomenon with significant medical implications. In particular, latent tuberculosis may result from the maintenance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli in non-replicating states in infected individuals. Uniquely, growth of M. tuberculosis in aerobic conditions in potassium-deficient media resulted in the generation of bacilli that were non-culturable (NC) on solid media but detectable in liquid media. These bacilli were morphologically distinct and tolerant to cell-wall-targeting antimicrobials. Bacterial counts on solid media quickly recovered after washing and incubating bacilli in fresh resuscitation media containing potassium. This resuscitation of growth occurred too quickly to be attributed to M. tuberculosis replication. Transcriptomic and proteomic profiling through adaptation to, and resuscitation from, this NC state revealed a switch to anaerobic respiration and a shift to lipid and amino acid metabolism. High concordance with mRNA signatures derived from M. tuberculosis infection models suggests that analogous NC mycobacterial phenotypes may exist during disease and may represent unrecognized populations in vivo. Resuscitation of NC bacilli in potassium-sufficient media was characterized by time-dependent activation of metabolic pathways in a programmed series of processes that probably transit bacilli through challenging microenvironments during infection. PMID:25320096

  16. Potassium availability triggers Mycobacterium tuberculosis transition to, and resuscitation from, non-culturable (dormant) states.

    PubMed

    Salina, Elena G; Waddell, Simon J; Hoffmann, Nadine; Rosenkrands, Ida; Butcher, Philip D; Kaprelyants, Arseny S

    2014-10-01

    Dormancy in non-sporulating bacteria is an interesting and underexplored phenomenon with significant medical implications. In particular, latent tuberculosis may result from the maintenance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli in non-replicating states in infected individuals. Uniquely, growth of M. tuberculosis in aerobic conditions in potassium-deficient media resulted in the generation of bacilli that were non-culturable (NC) on solid media but detectable in liquid media. These bacilli were morphologically distinct and tolerant to cell-wall-targeting antimicrobials. Bacterial counts on solid media quickly recovered after washing and incubating bacilli in fresh resuscitation media containing potassium. This resuscitation of growth occurred too quickly to be attributed to M. tuberculosis replication. Transcriptomic and proteomic profiling through adaptation to, and resuscitation from, this NC state revealed a switch to anaerobic respiration and a shift to lipid and amino acid metabolism. High concordance with mRNA signatures derived from M. tuberculosis infection models suggests that analogous NC mycobacterial phenotypes may exist during disease and may represent unrecognized populations in vivo. Resuscitation of NC bacilli in potassium-sufficient media was characterized by time-dependent activation of metabolic pathways in a programmed series of processes that probably transit bacilli through challenging microenvironments during infection. PMID:25320096

  17. Immunogenomics for identification of disease resistance genes in pigs: a review focusing on Gram-negative bacilli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Over the past years, infectious disease has caused enormous economic loss in pig industry. Among the pathogens, gram negative bacteria not only cause inflammation, but also cause different diseases and make the pigs more susceptible to virus infection. Vaccination, medication and elimination of sick pigs are major strategies of controlling disease. Genetic methods, such as selection of disease resistance in the pig, have not been widely used. Recently, the completion of the porcine whole genome sequencing has provided powerful tools to identify the genome regions that harboring genes controlling disease or immunity. Immunogenomics, which combines DNA variations, transcriptome, immune response, and QTL mapping data to illustrate the interactions between pathogen and host immune system, will be an effective genomics tool for identification of disease resistance genes in pigs. These genes will be potential targets for disease resistance in breeding programs. This paper reviewed the progress of disease resistance study in the pig focusing on Gram-negative bacilli. Major porcine Gram-negative bacilli and diseases, suggested candidate genes/pathways against porcine Gram-negative bacilli, and distributions of QTLs for immune capacity on pig chromosomes were summarized. Some tools for immunogenomics research were described. We conclude that integration of sequencing, whole genome associations, functional genomics studies, and immune response information is necessary to illustrate molecular mechanisms and key genes in disease resistance. PMID:23137309

  18. Lack of intracellular replication of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG caused by delivering bacilli to lysosomes in murine brain microvascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Sakamoto, Kaori; Quinn, Frederick D.; Chen, Huanchun; Fu, Zhenfang

    2015-01-01

    Invasion and traversal of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) by Mycobacterium tuberculosis cause meningeal tuberculosis (TB) in the central nervous system (CNS). Meningeal TB is a serious, often fatal disease that disproportionately affects young children. The mechanisms involved in CNS invasion by M. tuberculosis bacilli are poorly understood. In this study, we microscopically examined endosomal trafficking and measured survival of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) bacilli in murine brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs). The results show that both species internalize but do not replicate in BMECs in the absence of a cytotoxic response. Confocal microscopy indicates that bacilli-containing vacuoles are associated with the early endosomal marker, Rab5, late endosomal marker, Rab7, and lysosomal marker, LAMP2, suggesting that bacilli-containing endosomes mature into endolysosomes in BMECs. Our data also show that a subset of intracellular M. tuberculosis, but not BCG bacilli, escape into the cytoplasm to avoid rapid lysosomal killing. However, the intracellular mycobacteria examined cannot spread cell-to-cell in BMECs. Taken together, these data show that with the exception of the small terminal cytoplasmic population of bacilli, M. tuberculosis does not modulate intracellular trafficking in BMECs as occurs in macrophages and lung epithelial and endothelial cells. PMID:26440149

  19. Efficacy of enterocin AS-48 against bacilli in ready-to-eat vegetable soups and purees.

    PubMed

    Grande, Maria J; Abriouel, Hikmate; Lucas López, Rosario; Valdivia, Eva; Ben Omar, Nabil; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Gálvez, Antonio

    2007-10-01

    The broad-spectrum bacteriocin enterocin AS-48 was tested for biopreservation of ready-to-eat vegetable foods (soups and purees) against aerobic mesophilic endospore-forming bacteria. By adding AS-48 (10 microg/ml), Bacillus cereus LWL1 was completely inhibited in all six vegetable products tested (natural vegetable cream, asparagus cream, traditional soup, homemade-style traditional soup, vegetable soup, and vichyssoise) for up to 30 days at 6, 15, and 22 degrees C. A collection of strains isolated from spoiled purees showed slightly higher resistance to AS-48 in the order Paenibacillus sp. > Bacillus macroides > B. cereus, although they were also completely inhibited in natural vegetable cream by AS-48 at 10 microg/ml. However, cocktails of five or eight strains composed of B. cereus (three strains), B. macroides (two strains), and Paenibacillus sp., Paenibacillus polymyxa, and Paenibacillus amylolyticus showed higher bacteriocin resistance with AS-48 of up to 50 microg/ml required for complete inactivation in natural vegetable cream stored at 22 degrees C. Repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-based PCR (REP-PCR) analysis showed that paenibacilli (along with some B. cereus) was the predominant survivor in the cocktails after bacteriocin treatment. To increase the effectiveness of enterocin AS-48, the bacteriocin was tested (at 20 microg/ml) against the eight-strain cocktail in natural vegetable cream in combination with other antimicrobials. The combination of AS-48 and nisin had a slight but significant additive effect. Bactericidal activity was greatly enhanced by phenolic compounds (carvacrol, eugenol, geraniol, and hydrocinnamic acid), achieving a rapid and complete inactivation of bacilli in the tested puree at 22 degrees C. PMID:17969616

  20. Enhancing effect of serum ultrafiltrate on the activity of cephalosporins against gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, J E; Craig, W A

    1989-01-01

    A few studies have suggested that the inhibitory effect of serum on activity of broad-spectrum cephalosporins is less than that predicted by the degree of protein binding. Microdilution MICs of ceftriaxone, cefoperazone, moxalactam, and ceftizoxime were therefore determined against ATCC and clinical strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus in Mueller-Hinton broth containing either human albumin (as 0, 2.5, or 5% solution) or heat-inactivated human serum (as 0, 25, 50, or 95% solution). Arithmetic linear dilutions were used to improve accuracy. For standard bacterial strains, MICs in the presence of 5% albumin were higher than in broth alone by multiples of 10.9 to 21 for ceftriaxone, 5.5 to 16.4 for cefoperazone, 1.9 to 3.7 for moxalactam, and 1.1 to 1.4 for ceftizoxime, as expected by their protein binding. MICs in the presence of 95% serum were similar to those in 5% albumin for all four drugs against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa but were 2.2- to 4.8-fold lower (P less than 0.001) against E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Similar findings were observed at lower protein concentrations and with clinical isolates, except that for some strains of P. aeruginosa MICs were lower in serum than in albumin. Individual sera from five subjects gave comparable results. The addition of serum ultrafiltrate to albumin-containing solutions reduced MICs of ceftriaxone and cefoperazone 1.6- to 7.4-fold against E. coli and K. pneumoniae (P less than 0.01) but did not alter the MICs for S. aureus. Serum may contain an ultrafiltrable component(s) that enhances the activity of third-generation cephalosporins against many gram-negative bacilli. PMID:2496656

  1. The Relationship between Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiang-nan; Zhang, Xian-xin; He, Xiao-chun; Yang, Guo-ru; Zhang, Xiao-qi; Li, Huai-chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective The relationship between extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) and multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) is unclear. Identification of the relationship between XDR-TB and MDR-GNB would have important implications for patient care. Methods We conducted a retrospective study reviewing the records of patients admitted with a confirmed pulmonary TB from 2011 to 2014. To identify the relationship between XDR-TB and MDR-GNB, univariable comparison and multivariable logistic regression were performed. Results Among 2962 pulmonary TB patients, 45(1.5%) patients had a diagnosis of XDR-TB. A total of 165 MDR-GNB strains were detected in 143 (4.8%) pulmonary TB patients. XDR-TB patients had a significantly higher occurrence of MDR-GNB than non-XDR-TB patients (24.4% vs. 4.5%; P<0.001). Age (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01–1.03), hypoalbuminemia (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.18–1.85), chronic renal failure (OR 6.67, 95% CI 1.42–31.47), chronic hepatic insufficiency (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.15–3.43), presence of XDR-TB (OR 6.56, 95% CI 1.61–26.69), and duration of TB diagnostic delay (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00–1.02) were the independent risk factors for MDR-GNB infection. Conclusions Patients with XDR-TB have a significantly higher risk of being affected by MDR-GNB pathogen. The underlying mechanism association warrant further studies. PMID:26230499

  2. Oral Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli as a reservoir of β-lactam resistance genes facilitating infections with multiresistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dupin, Clarisse; Tamanai-Shacoori, Zohreh; Ehrmann, Elodie; Dupont, Anais; Barloy-Hubler, Frédérique; Bousarghin, Latifa; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Many β-lactamases have been described in various Gram-negative bacilli (Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, etc.) of the oral cavity, belonging to class A of the Ambler classification (CepA, CblA, CfxA, CSP-1 and TEM), class B (CfiA) or class D in Fusobacterium nucleatum (FUS-1). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of β-lactams are variable and this variation is often related to the presence of plasmids or other mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that modulate the expression of resistance genes. DNA persistence and bacterial promiscuity in oral biofilms also contribute to genetic transformation and conjugation in this particular microcosm. Overexpression of efflux pumps is facilitated because the encoding genes are located on MGEs, in some multidrug-resistant clinical isolates, similar to conjugative transposons harbouring genes encoding β-lactamases. All these facts lead us to consider the oral cavity as an important reservoir of β-lactam resistance genes and a privileged place for genetic exchange, especially in commensal strictly anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli. PMID:25465519

  3. Response of patients infected with isoniazid-resistant tubercle bacilli to treatment with isoniazid plus PAS or isoniazid alone*

    PubMed Central

    Devadatta, S.; Bhatia, A. L.; Andrews, R. H.; Fox, Wallace; Mitchison, D. A.; Radhakrishna, S.; Ramakrishnan, C. V.; Selkon, J. B.; Velu, S.

    1961-01-01

    This study from the Tuberculosis Chemotherapy Centre, Madras, compares patients infected with isoniazid-resistant tubercle bacilli (”R” patients) with those infected with isoniazid-sensitive tubercle bacilli (”S” patients) as regards, first, their pretreatment status and, secondly, their response to a year's chemotherapy, either with isoniazid plus p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) or with isoniazid alone. With regard to the first comparison, there was, on admission to treatment, little difference between the R and S patients in terms of the extent of the radiographic lesion, the extent of cavitation or the bacterial content of the sputum, but there were major differences in the age and sex distributions, the R patients showing a greater preponderance of young males than the S patients. As to the second comparison, statistically significant differences in the bacteriological response to treatment of the S and the R patients were observed in both the isoniazid-plus-PAS and the isoniazid-alone series, the response of the S patients being much better than that of the R patients. When the response to treatment was assessed in terms of radiographic progress and weight changes, however, hardly any difference was observed between the progress of the S and the R patients. The reasons for the response in the R patients are discussed. PMID:13885865

  4. Osteomyelitis associated with Nocardiopsis composta in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Elisa N.; Royal, Debra; Kurz, Lance; Loy, J. Dustin

    2015-01-01

    We report the first detection of Nocardiopsis composta in association with osteomyelitis in a young male miniature Australian shepherd dog. Findings included suppurative osteomyelitis containing intralesional Fite’s acid fast bacilli, aerobic culture of branching Gram-positive rods, and positive identification via phenotypic analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing. PMID:25969577

  5. Osteomyelitis associated with Nocardiopsis composta in a dog.

    PubMed

    Salas, Elisa N; Royal, Debra; Kurz, Lance; Loy, J Dustin

    2015-05-01

    We report the first detection of Nocardiopsis composta in association with osteomyelitis in a young male miniature Australian shepherd dog. Findings included suppurative osteomyelitis containing intralesional Fite's acid fast bacilli, aerobic culture of branching Gram-positive rods, and positive identification via phenotypic analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing. PMID:25969577

  6. Isolation and screening of thermophilic bacilli from compost for electrotransformation and fermentation: characterization of Bacillus smithii ET 138 as a new biocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Bosma, Elleke F; van de Weijer, Antonius H P; Daas, Martinus J A; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M; van Kranenburg, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Thermophilic bacteria are regarded as attractive production organisms for cost-efficient conversion of renewable resources to green chemicals, but their genetic accessibility is a major bottleneck in developing them into versatile platform organisms. In this study, we aimed to isolate thermophilic, facultatively anaerobic bacilli that are genetically accessible and have potential as platform organisms. From compost, we isolated 267 strains that produced acids from C5 and C6 sugars at temperatures of 55°C or 65°C. Subsequently, 44 strains that showed the highest production of acids were screened for genetic accessibility by electroporation. Two Geobacillus thermodenitrificans isolates and one Bacillus smithii isolate were found to be transformable with plasmid pNW33n. Of these, B. smithii ET 138 was the best-performing strain in laboratory-scale fermentations and was capable of producing organic acids from glucose as well as from xylose. It is an acidotolerant strain able to produce organic acids until a lower limit of approximately pH 4.5. As genetic accessibility of B. smithii had not been described previously, six other B. smithii strains from the DSMZ culture collection were tested for electroporation efficiencies, and we found the type strain DSM 4216(T) and strain DSM 460 to be transformable. The transformation protocol for B. smithii isolate ET 138 was optimized to obtain approximately 5 × 10(3) colonies per μg plasmid pNW33n. Genetic accessibility combined with robust acid production capacities on C5 and C6 sugars at a relatively broad pH range make B. smithii ET 138 an attractive biocatalyst for the production of lactic acid and potentially other green chemicals. PMID:25556192

  7. Prevalence and Genotypic Characterization of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Produced by Gram Negative Bacilli at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Rural South Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Acaku; Bwanga, Freddie; Boum, Yap; Bazira, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence and genotypic characterisation of extended spectrum beta-lactamases produced by gram negative bacilli isolated at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH). Samples Gram negative clinical isolates. Study Design Laboratory-based descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of the Study MRRH, June and August 2012. Methods Gram negative clinical isolates were sub cultured, and identified using biochemical tests. They were screened for ESBL by using oxyimino-cephalosporins and confirmed by double disc synergy Genotyping was performed using the PCR for TEM, SHV and CTX-M. Susceptibility pattern for the extended spectrum beta-lactamases, (ESBL) - positive isolates to other antibiotic classes was performed by the Kirby Bauer Technique. Results A total of 484 isolates were included in the study. The commonest ESBL producers were Escherichia coli (34%), followed by unidentified coliforms (19.3%) and Klebsiella spp. (12.7%). Phenotypically, 88/484 were ESBL producers while genotypically 213/ 484 possessed ESBL genes. The ESBL genes were blaCTX-M (146; 70%), blaSHV (72; 34%) and blaTEM (100; 47%). 87of 213 isolates expressed more than one ESBL gene. Of these 36 (7.4%) produced blaCTX-M/blaSHV, 28 (5.8%) blaCTX-M /blaTEM, 4 (0.8%) blaSHV/ blaTEM and 19 (3.9%) blaCTX-M/blaSHV/blaTEM. Sixty two (16%) were phenotypically and genotypically positive, 12 (3%) of the isolates were phenotypically positive but genotypically negative and 140 (37%) isolates were phenotypically negative but genotypically positive. The ESBL producers were highly susceptible to imipenem (95%), nitrofurantoin (66%) but less susceptible to ampicillin (4%) and ticarcillin (7%). Conclusion ESBL production among the Gram-negative clinical isolates at MRRH is very high with several isolates possessing multiple genes. The ESBL producers are highly susceptible to imipenem, but very resistant to ciprofloxacin. PMID:26120573

  8. Isolation and Screening of Thermophilic Bacilli from Compost for Electrotransformation and Fermentation: Characterization of Bacillus smithii ET 138 as a New Biocatalyst

    PubMed Central

    Bosma, Elleke F.; van de Weijer, Antonius H. P.; Daas, Martinus J. A.; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M.

    2015-01-01

    Thermophilic bacteria are regarded as attractive production organisms for cost-efficient conversion of renewable resources to green chemicals, but their genetic accessibility is a major bottleneck in developing them into versatile platform organisms. In this study, we aimed to isolate thermophilic, facultatively anaerobic bacilli that are genetically accessible and have potential as platform organisms. From compost, we isolated 267 strains that produced acids from C5 and C6 sugars at temperatures of 55°C or 65°C. Subsequently, 44 strains that showed the highest production of acids were screened for genetic accessibility by electroporation. Two Geobacillus thermodenitrificans isolates and one Bacillus smithii isolate were found to be transformable with plasmid pNW33n. Of these, B. smithii ET 138 was the best-performing strain in laboratory-scale fermentations and was capable of producing organic acids from glucose as well as from xylose. It is an acidotolerant strain able to produce organic acids until a lower limit of approximately pH 4.5. As genetic accessibility of B. smithii had not been described previously, six other B. smithii strains from the DSMZ culture collection were tested for electroporation efficiencies, and we found the type strain DSM 4216T and strain DSM 460 to be transformable. The transformation protocol for B. smithii isolate ET 138 was optimized to obtain approximately 5 × 103 colonies per μg plasmid pNW33n. Genetic accessibility combined with robust acid production capacities on C5 and C6 sugars at a relatively broad pH range make B. smithii ET 138 an attractive biocatalyst for the production of lactic acid and potentially other green chemicals. PMID:25556192

  9. Cutaneous tuberculosis due to multidrug-resistant tubercle bacilli and difficulties in clinical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, V; Sen, Manas K; Sethuraman, G; D'Souza, Paschal

    2015-01-01

    This report describes 6 HIV-negative patients including 5 children with scrofuloderma and an adult with lupus vulgaris, out of a total of 303 cases of cutaneous tuberculosis seen during a 4½-year period, who showed a positive tuberculin test and granulomatous histopathology, but failed to respond to first-line antitubercular therapy. They were suspected to have multidrug-resistant infection as no other cause could be ascertained. Tissue aspirate or biopsy was sent for histopathology and culture. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from the aspirate in three patients and sputum in one with associated pulmonary tuberculosis. Drug susceptibility tests showed that all isolates were resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid, and one each additionally to streptomycin and ethambutol, respectively. In two, culture was unsuccessful. All were administered second-line antitubercular drugs. Clinical improvement was appreciable within 2 months as weight gain, and regression of ulcers, swellings and plaques. Two completed the recommended 24 months of therapy. Multidrug-resistant cutaneous tuberculosis should be suspected in patients with no response to first-line drugs, with clinical deterioration, and where other causes of treatment failure are not forthcoming. Owing to poor isolation rates on culture and low sensitivity of molecular tests, in such cases, a trial of second-line anti-tubercular drugs may be justified for a reasonable period of 2 months. Where facilities permit, culture and drug sensitivity tests should be done before starting treatment. Culture positivity is better from aspirated material. PMID:25994882

  10. [Amphibacillus fermentum sp. nov., Amphibacillus tropicus sp. nov.--new alkaliphilic, facultatively anaerobic, saccharolytic Bacilli from Lake Magadi].

    PubMed

    Zhilina, T N; Garnova, E S; Turova, T P; Kostrikina, N A; Zavarzin, G A

    2001-01-01

    New alkaliphilic, saccharolytic, rod-shaped, gram-positive bacteria resistant to heating and drying and phylogenetically affiliated to the Bacillus lineage were isolated under strictly anaerobic conditions from sediments of the alkaline and highly mineralized Lake Magadi. Strain Z-7792 forms endospores; in strain Z-7984, endospore formation was not revealed. The strains are capable of both anaerobic growth (at the expense of fermentation of glucose and certain mono- and disaccharides with the formation of formate, ethanol, and acetate) and aerobic growth. Among polysaccharides, the strains hydrolyze starch, glycogen, and xylan. Yeast extract or methionine are required for growth. The strains are strict alkaliphiles exhibiting obligate requirement for Na+ and carbonate ions but not for Cl- ion. Growth occurs at a total mineralization as high as 3.3-3.6 M Na+, with an optimum at 1-1.7 M Na+. Strain Z-7792 is an obligate alkaliphile with a pH growth range of 8.5-11.5 and an optimum of 9.5-9.7. Strain Z-7984 grows in a pH range of 7.0-10.5 with an optimum at 8.0-9.5. Both strains are mesophiles having a growth optimum at 37-38 degrees C. They belong to bacilli with a low G + C content. The G + C contents of the DNA of strains Z-7792 and Z-7984 are 39.2 and 41.5 mol%, respectively. These isolates of facultatively anaerobic, strictly alkaliphilic, Na(+)-dependent bacilli can be considered representatives of the ecological group adapted to the life at drying-up shoars of soda lakes. Because of their independence of NaCl and lack of obligate dependence on sodium carbonates, the isolates are to be assigned to athalassophilic organisms. According to their physiological and phylogenetic characteristics, they taxonomically belong to group 1 of the species of bacilli, occupying a position intermediate between the genera Amphibacillus and Gracilibacillus. The isolates are described as new species of Amphibacillus: A. fermentum (type strain, Z-7984T) and A. tropicus (type strain, Z-7792T). PMID:11785140

  11. The clinical impact of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli in the management of septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Pop-Vicas, Aurora; Opal, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Multi-antibiotic drug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacilli are becoming a major threat to the standard care of septic patients. Empiric antimicrobial drug regimens to cover likely bacterial pathogens have to be altered in keeping with the spread of MDR pathogens in the health care setting and in the community. Reliable antibiotics for broad spectrum coverage for sepsis such as extended spectrum β-lactam antibiotics, carbapenems, and fluoroquinolones can no longer be counted upon to provide activity against a range of common, virulent pathogens that cause sepsis. In some regions of Asia, South America, and Eastern Europe in particular, MDR pathogens have become a major concern, necessitating the use of potentially toxic and costly antibiotic combinations as initial antibiotic therapy for septic shock. In this brief review, we will focus on the emergence of MDR gram-negative pathogens, resistance mechanisms, and suggest some management and prevention strategies against MDR pathogens. PMID:24200870

  12. Detect-to-treat: development of analysis of bacilli spores in nasal mucus by surfaced-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inscore, Frank E.; Gift, Alan D.; Farquharson, Stuart

    2004-12-01

    As the war on terrorism in Afghanistan and Iraq continue, future attacks both abroad and in the U.S.A. are expected. In an effort to aid civilian and military personnel, we have been investigating the potential of using a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sampling device to detect Bacillus anthracis spores in nasal swab samples. Such a device would be extremely beneficial to medical responders and management in assessing the extent of a bioterrorist attack and making detect-to-treat decisions. The disposable sample device consists of a glass capillary filled with a silver-doped sol-gel that is capable of extracting dipicolinic acid (DPA), a chemical signature of Bacilli, and generating SERS spectra. The sampling device and preliminary measurements of DPA extracted from spores and nasal mucus will be presented.

  13. Comparison of the autoSCAN-W/A rapid bacterial identification system and the Vitek AutoMicrobic system for identification of gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Pfaller, M A; Sahm, D; O'Hara, C; Ciaglia, C; Yu, M; Yamane, N; Scharnweber, G; Rhoden, D

    1991-01-01

    The autoSCAN-W/A (W/A; Baxter MicroScan, West Sacramento, Calif.) with the new fluorometric Rapid Neg Combo 1 (RNC) panel is a fully automated fluorometric system for identification of both enteric and nonenteric gram-negative bacilli within 2 h. We compared the W/A with the Vitek AutoMicrobic System (Vitek AMS; Vitek Systems, Inc., Hazelwood, Mo.) for identification of 383 clinical isolates of gram-negative bacilli. The API 20E (Analytab Products, Plainview, N.Y.) and conventional biochemical testing were used as the reference systems. The W/A correctly identified 336 isolates (87.7%) to the species level and classified an additional 29 isolates (7.6%) as correct with low probability (overall identification = 95.3%); the Vitek AMS correctly identified 355 isolates (92.7%) to the species level and classified an additional 8 isolates (2.1%) as correct with low probability (overall identification = 94.8%). A common set of 134 isolates of gram-negative bacilli was tested in both participating laboratories as a means of assessing interlaboratory agreement with both the W/A and the Vitek AMS. The overall agreements between the two laboratories were 86% with the W/A and 92% with the Vitek AMS. The W/A performed comparably to the Vitek AMS for identification of most gram-negative bacilli, actually exceeding the Vitek AMS for identification of nonenteric bacilli. Rapid time to identification and a high level of automation make the W/A an attractive system for clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:1885737

  14. Some biological features of Proteus bacilli. 1. Comparison of Proteus mirabilis strains provided from various sources.

    PubMed

    Kotelko, K; Rozalski, A; Deka, M; Kaca, W; Sidorczyk, Z; Gromska, W; Zych, K

    1983-01-01

    Some properties which may contribute to the pathogenicity of Proteus mirabilis were compared in urinary isolates and in strains provided from soil and from culture collection. Clinical isolates revealed the higher expression of all the features examined in this report: swarming growth, haemagglutination, adherence to human uroepithelial cells, urease activity and haemolytic activity. Noteworthy is the higher mean value of adherence to the uroepithelial cells in clinical strains. Three P. mirabilis urinary isolates were detected which produce an as yet unreported filterable haemolysin. However, the loss of this ability within a few months seems to suggest the temporary presence of a plasmid rapidly eliminated by the Proteus strains. PMID:6202101

  15. Radiometric macrophage culture assay for rapid evaluation of antileprosy activity of rifampin

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, A.; Seshadri, P.S.; Prasad, H.K.; Sathish, M.; Nath, I.

    1983-10-01

    The antileprosy effect of rifampin was evaluated by a newly developed rapid in vitro assay wherein 31 human-derived strains and 1 armadillo-derived strain of Mycobacterium leprae were maintained for 2 and 3 weeks, respectively, in murine and human macrophages in the presence of (3H)thymidine. Of these strains, 27 showed significant incorporation of the radiolabel in cultures of live bacilli as compared with control cultures of heat-killed bacilli of the same strain. Consistent and significant inhibition of (3H)thymidine uptake was observed in M. leprae resident cultures with 3 to 200 ng of rifampin per ml as compared with similar cultures without the drug. In general, an increase in percent inhibition was seen from 3 to 20 ng/ml, with marginal increases at 40, 50, and 100 ng/ml. M. leprae strains appear to be remarkably susceptible to this drug in the in vitro assay.

  16. The Increasing Challenge of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli: Results of a 5-Year Active Surveillance Program in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Giuffrè, Mario; Geraci, Daniela M; Bonura, Celestino; Saporito, Laura; Graziano, Giorgio; Insinga, Vincenzo; Aleo, Aurora; Vecchio, Davide; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    Colonization and infection by multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR GNB) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are increasingly reported.We conducted a 5-year prospective cohort surveillance study in a tertiary NICU of the hospital "Paolo Giaccone," Palermo, Italy. Our objectives were to describe incidence and trends of MDR GNB colonization and the characteristics of the most prevalent organisms and to identify the risk factors for colonization. Demographic, clinical, and microbiological data were prospectively collected. Active surveillance cultures (ASCs) were obtained weekly. Clusters of colonization by extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were analyzed by conventional and molecular epidemiological tools.During the study period, 1152 infants were enrolled in the study. Prevalences of colonization by MDR GNB, ESBL-producing GNB and multiple species/genera averaged, respectively, 28.8%, 11.7%, and 3.7%. Prevalence and incidence density of colonization by MDR GNB and ESBL-producing GNB showed an upward trend through the surveillance period. Rates of ESBL-producing E coli and K pneumoniae colonization showed wide fluctuations peaking over the last 2 years. The only independent variables associated with colonization by MDR GNB and ESBL-producing organisms and multiple colonization were, respectively, the days of NICU stay (odds ratio [OR] 1.041), the days of exposure to ampicillin-sulbactam (OR 1.040), and the days of formula feeding (OR 1.031). Most clusters of E coli and K pneumoniae colonization were associated with different lineages. Ten out of 12 clusters had an outborn infant as their index case.Our study confirms that MDR GNB are an increasing challenge to NICUs. The universal once-a-week approach allowed us to understand the epidemiology of MDR GNB, to timely detect new clones and institute contact precautions, and to assess risk factors. Collection of these data can be an important tool to optimize antimicrobials use and control the emergence and dissemination of resistances in NICU. PMID:26962817

  17. Growth of Clostridium perfringens in food proteins previously exposed to proteolytic bacilli.

    PubMed

    Schroder, D J; Busta, F F

    1973-11-01

    Proteolytic sporeforming bacteria capable of surviving processing heat treatments in synthetic or fabricated protein foods exhibited no antagonistic effects on growth of Clostridium perfringens, but instead shortened the lag of subsequent growth of C. perfringens in sodium caseinate and isolated soy protein. Bacillus subtilis A cells were cultured in 3% sodium caseinate or isolated soy protein solutions. The subsequent effect on the lag time and growth of C. perfringens type A (strain S40) at 45 C was measured by colony count or absorbance at 650 nm, or both. B. subtilis incubation for 12 h or more in sodium caseinate reduced the C. perfringens lag by 3 h. Incubation of 8 h or more in isolated soy protein reduced the lag time by 1.5 h. Molecular sieving of the B. subtilis-treated sodium caseinate revealed that all molecular sizes yielded a similar reduced lag time. Diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex ion exchange fractionation and subsequent amino acid analysis indicated that the lag time reduction caused by B. subtilis incubation was not related to charge of the peptides nor to their amino acid composition. Apparently the shortened C. perfringens lag in these B. subtilis-hydrolyzed food proteins was a result of the protein being more readily available for utilization by C. perfringens. PMID:4357650

  18. Studies on fractions of methanol extracts of tubercle bacilli. II. Toxic and allergenic properties of fractions employed as antituberculous vaccine.

    PubMed

    WILLIAMS, C A

    1960-03-01

    Fractions of methanol extract which had been previously demonstrated to increase the resistance of mice to experimental tuberculosis have been subjected to an examination of their toxic and allergenic properties. The criteria for toxicity were: (a) production of inflammatory skin reactions in guinea pigs; (b) induction of weight loss in mice by intraperitoneal injection; and (c) depression of resistance to staphylococcus infections in mice. Allergenicity of a preparation was investigated by (a) its ability to evoke a hypersensitive skin response in guinea pigs previously sensitized with whole tubercle bacilli; and (b) its capacity to induce hypersensitivity to one or more of its components when injected under appropriate conditions into guinea pigs. Fraction F I, a preparation precipitated from methanol extract by slow concentration at 45 degrees C., was found to possess some toxicity and some allergenicity by all of the criteria employed. Subfraction F I-P, precipitated from aqueous suspensions of F I by 33 per cent ethanol and 0.5 per cent NaCl, was apparently the F I component responsible for these activities. The saline-ethanol-soluble subfraction, F I-S, was neither toxic nor allergenic by the tests performed. These findings were considered of particular interest inasmuch as F I-S, despite its small yield, had been shown earlier to be the most active single substance used as vaccine to increase resistance to experimental tuberculosis in mice. PMID:13785399

  19. Neutrophils rapidly migrate via lymphatics after Mycobacterium bovis BCG intradermal vaccination and shuttle live bacilli to the draining lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Abadie, Valérie; Badell, Edgar; Douillard, Patrice; Ensergueix, Danielle; Leenen, Pieter J M; Tanguy, Myriam; Fiette, Laurence; Saeland, Sem; Gicquel, Brigitte; Winter, Nathalie

    2005-09-01

    The early innate response after Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination is poorly characterized but probably decisive for subsequent protective immunity against tuberculosis. Therefore, we vaccinated mice with fluorescent BCG strains in the ear dorsum, as a surrogate of intradermal vaccination in humans. During the first 3 days, we tracked BCG host cells migrating out of the dermis to the auricular draining lymph nodes (ADLNs). Resident skin dendritic cells (DCs) or macrophages did not play a predominant role in early BCG capture and transport to ADLNs. The main BCG host cells rapidly recruited both in the dermis and ADLNs were neutrophils. Fluorescent green or red BCG strains injected into nonoverlapping sites were essentially sheltered by distinct neutrophils in the ADLN capsule, indicating that neutrophils had captured bacilli in peripheral tissue and transported them to the lymphoid organ. Strikingly, we observed BCG-infected neutrophils in the lumen of lymphatic vessels by confocal microscopy on ear dermis. Fluorescence-labeled neutrophils injected into the ears accumulated exclusively into the ipsilateral ADLN capsule after BCG vaccination. Thus, we provide in vivo evidence that neutrophils, like DCs or inflammatory monocytes, migrate via afferent lymphatics to lymphoid tissue and can shuttle live microorganisms. PMID:15886329

  20. Construction and evaluation of luciferase reporter phages for the detection of active and non-replicating tubercle bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Dusthackeer, Azger; Kumar, Vanaja; Subbian, Selvakumar; Sivaramakrishnan, Gomathi; Zhu, Guofang; Subramanyam, Balaji; Hassan, Sameer; Nagamaiah, Selvakumar; Chan, John; Rama, Narayanan Paranji

    2008-01-01

    The luciferase reporter phages (LRP) show great promise for diagnostic mycobacteriology. Though conventional constructs developed from lytic phages such as D29 and TM4 are highly specific, they lack sensitivity. We have isolated and characterized Che12, the first true temperate phage infecting M. tuberculosis. Since the tuberculosis (TB) cases among HIV infected population result from the reactivation of latent bacilli, it would be useful to develop LRP that can detect dormant bacteria. During dormancy, pathogenic mycobacteria switch their metabolism involving divergent genes than during normal, active growth phase. Since the promoters of these genes can potentially function during dormancy, they were exploited for the construction of novel mycobacterial luciferase reporter phages. The promoters of hsp60, isocitrate lyase (icl), and alpha-crystallin (acr) genes from M. tuberculosis were used for expressing firefly luciferase gene (FFlux) in both Che12 and TM4 phages and their efficiency was evaluated in detecting dormant bacteria from clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis. These LRP constructs exhibited detectable luciferase activity in dormant as well as in actively growing M. tuberculosis. The TM4 ts mutant based constructs showed about one log increase in light output in three of the five tested clinical isolates and in M. tuberculosis H37Rv compared to conventional lytic reporter phage, phAE129. By refining the LRP assay format further, an ideal rapid assay can be designed not only to diagnose active and dormant TB but also to differentiate the species and to find their drug susceptibility pattern. PMID:18272245

  1. Characterization of Bacilli Isolated from the Confined Environments of the Antarctic Concordia Station and the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmery, Sophie; Hu, Xiaomin; Mahillon, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    Bacillus and related genera comprise opportunist and pathogen species that can threaten the health of a crew in confined stations required for long-term missions. In this study, 43 Bacilli from confined environments, that is, the Antarctic Concordia station and the International Space Station, were characterized in terms of virulence and plasmid exchange potentials. No specific virulence feature, such as the production of toxins or unusual antibiotic resistance, was detected. Most of the strains exhibited small or large plasmids, or both, some of which were related to the replicons of the Bacillus anthracis pXO1 and pXO2 virulence elements. One conjugative element, the capacity to mobilize and retromobilize small plasmids, was detected in a Bacillus cereus sensu lato isolate. Six out of 25 tested strains acquired foreign DNA by conjugation. Extremophilic bacteria were identified and exhibited the ability to grow at high pH and salt concentrations or at low temperatures. Finally, the clonal dispersion of an opportunist isolate was demonstrated in the Concordia station. Taken together, these results suggest that the virulence potential of the Bacillus isolates in confined environments tends to be low but genetic transfers could contribute to its capacity to spread.

  2. Susceptibility of current clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and enteric gram-negative bacilli to amikacin and other aminoglycoside antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Dámaso, D; Moreno-López, M; Martínez-Beltrán, J; García-Iglesias, M C

    1976-11-01

    The susceptibility of current clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae to amikacin and other aminoglycosides was tested by a standardized disk sensitivity method. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for all 200 isolates tested, and mean MICs were calculated for each of 10 bacterial species. Amikacin proved to be the most effective of six aminoglycosides against nine bacterial species; isolates of Proteus morganii were slightly more sensitive to gentamicin than to amikacin. Whereas 50% of the 200 isolates could be considered resistant to gentamicin (MIC, greater than 16 mug/ml), 94.4% of the 126 enteric gram-negative bacilli and all 74 isolates of P. aeruginosa were sensitive to amikacin. At a concentration of 8 mug/ml, gentamicin inhibited 50% and tobramycin inhibited 67% of the 200 isolates. At 16 mug/ml, amikacin inhibited 96.5% of the 200 isolates; the respective figures for kanamycin, aminosidine, and streptomycin were 28.5%, 26.5%, and 24%. The virtual absence of cross-resistance between amikacin and gentamicin and between amikacin and the other four aminoglycosides was confirmed. PMID:825591

  3. FURTHER OBSERVATIONS ON THE GROWTH OF BACTERIA ON MEDIA CONTAINING VARIOUS ANILIN DYES, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO AN ENRICHMENT METHOD FOR TYPHOID AND PARATYPHOID BACILLI.

    PubMed

    Krumwiede, C; Pratt, J S

    1914-05-01

    Several green dyes show a marked selective action for members of the typhoid-paratyphoid-colon group. This can be used for the enrichment of typhoid and paratyphoid bacilli present in feces. Forty dyes were tested with thirty strains covering all types of pathogenic bacteria. In general the dyes restrained the growth of the Gram-positive bacteria but had no effect on the growth of the Gram-negative group. PMID:19867788

  4. Evaluation of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for species identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed

    Almuzara, Marisa; Barberis, Claudia; Traglia, Germán; Famiglietti, Angela; Ramirez, Maria Soledad; Vay, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify 396 Nonfermenting Gram-Negative Bacilli clinical isolates was evaluated in comparison with conventional phenotypic tests and/or molecular methods. MALDI-TOF MS identified to species level 256 isolates and to genus or complex level 112 isolates. It identified 29 genera including uncommon species. PMID:25765149

  5. Phylogenetic interrelationships of round-spore-forming bacilli containing cell walls based on lysine and the non-spore-forming genera Caryophanon, Exiguobacterium, Kurthia, and Planococcus.

    PubMed

    Farrow, J A; Wallbanks, S; Collins, M D

    1994-01-01

    The 16S rRNA gene sequences of "Bacillus aminovorans" and several species considered to be phylogenetically related to the group 2 bacilli of Ash et al. (C. Ash, J. A. E. Farrow, S. Wallbanks, and M. D. Collins, Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 13:202-206, 1991) were determined. A comparative analysis of the sequence data revealed that the round-spore-forming group 2 bacilli, together with some asporogenous taxa (the genera Caryophanon, Exiguobacterium, Kurthia, Planococcus), form a phylogenetically distinct cluster that is only remotely related to Bacillus subtilis, the type species of the genus Bacillus. Within this cluster, planococci, kurthiae, Caryophanon spp., and two lines defined by Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus fusiformis and by Sporosarcina ureae, Bacillus pasteurii, Bacillus globisporus, and Bacillus psychrophilus were found to be distinct genera. Exiguobacterium aurantiacum and Brevibacterium acetylicum were found to form a distinct clade, which was peripherally related to this cluster. "B. aminovorans" exhibited no specific relationship with the group 2 bacilli or with any of the other reference species examined. PMID:8123563

  6. Comparative 16S rRNA oligonucleotide analyses and murein types of round-spore-forming bacilli and non-spore-forming relatives.

    PubMed

    Stackebrandt, E; Ludwig, W; Weizenegger, M; Dorn, S; McGill, T J; Fox, G E; Woese, C R; Schubert, W; Schleifer, K H

    1987-09-01

    The phylogenetic incoherency of the genus Bacillus as presently described is demonstrated by analysis of both published and new data from comparative 16S rRNA cataloguing of nine Bacillus species and a number of related non-Bacillus taxa, i.e. Caryophanon latum, Filibacter limicola and Planococcus citreus. While the ellipsoidal-spore-forming bacilli, e.g. B. subtilis and allied species, formed a coherent cluster, the round-spore-forming bacilli showed a higher degree of relationship to the non-spore-forming organisms than these bacilli show among each other. Thus B. sphaericus clustered with C. latum, B. globisporus grouped with F. limicola, B. pasteurii with Sporosarcina ureae, and 'B. aminovorans' with P. citreus, respectively. These organisms formed two related subclusters which, in their phylogenetic depth, are comparable to that of the B. subtilis subline. With the exception of 'B. aminovorans', the 16S rRNA phylogeny was entirely consistent with the distribution of murein types. Even more distantly related to and grouping outside the main Bacillus cluster was B. stearothermophilus, which displayed a moderate relationship to Thermoactinomyces vulgaris. Taxonomic problems arising from the new insights into the intrageneric relationships of Bacillus are discussed. PMID:2452227

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Gram-Positive Biosurfactant-Producing Halothermophilic Bacilli From Iranian Petroleum Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Zargari, Saeed; Ramezani, Amin; Ostvar, Sassan; Rezaei, Rasool; Niazi, Ali; Ayatollahi, Shahab

    2014-01-01

    Background: Petroleum reservoirs have long been known as the hosts of extremophilic microorganisms. Some of these microorganisms are known for their potential biotechnological applications, particularly production of extra and intracellular polymers and enzymes. Objectives: Here, 14 petroleum liquid samples from southern Iranian oil reservoirs were screened for presence of biosurfactant‐producing halothermophiles. Materials and Methods: Mixture of the reservoir fluid samples with a minimal growth medium was incubated under an N2 atmosphere in 40°C; 0.5 mL samples were transferred from the aqueous phase to agar plates after 72 hours of incubation; 100 mL cell cultures were prepared using the MSS-1 (mineral salt solution 1) liquid medium with 5% (w/v) NaCl. The time-course samples were analyzed by recording the absorbance at 600 nm using a spectrophotometer. Incubation was carried out in 40°C with mild shaking in aerobic conditions. Thermotolerance was evaluated by growing the isolates at 40, 50, 60 and 70°C with varying NaCl concentrations of 5% and 10% (w/v). Halotolerance was evaluated using NaCl concentrations of 5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% (w/v) and incubating them at 40°C under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Different phenotypic characteristics were evaluated, as outlined in Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology. Comparing 16S rDNA sequences is one of the most powerful tools for classification of microorganisms. Results: Among 34 isolates, 10 demonstrated biosurfactant production and growth at temperatures between 40°C and 70°C in saline media containing 5%‐15% w/v NaCl. Using partial 16S rDNA sequencing (and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis [ARDRA]) and biochemical tests (API tests 20E and 50 CHB), all the 10 isolates proved to be facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive moderate thermohalophiles of the genus Bacillus (B. thermoglucosidasius, B. thermodenitrificans, B. thermoleovorans, B. stearothermophilus and B. licheniformis), exhibiting surface-active behaviors. Conclusions: General patterns include decreasing the thermotolerance with increasing the salt concentrations and also more halotolerance in the aerobic environment compared with anaerobic conditions. The results demonstrated that Iranian petroleum reservoirs enjoy a source of indigenous extremophilic microorganisms with potential applications in microbial enhanced oil recovery and commercial enzyme production. PMID:25485045

  8. Multiple M. tuberculosis phenotypes in mouse and guinea pig lung tissue revealed by a dual-staining approach.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Gavin J; Hoff, Donald R; Driver, Emily R; Voskuil, Martin I; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Basaraba, Randall J; Crick, Dean C; Spencer, John S; Lenaerts, Anne J

    2010-01-01

    A unique hallmark of tuberculosis is the granulomatous lesions formed in the lung. Granulomas can be heterogeneous in nature and can develop a necrotic, hypoxic core which is surrounded by an acellular, fibrotic rim. Studying bacilli in this in vivo microenvironment is problematic as Mycobacterium tuberculosis can change its phenotype and also become acid-fast negative. Under in vitro models of differing environments, M. tuberculosis alters its metabolism, transcriptional profile and rate of replication. In this study, we investigated whether these phenotypic adaptations of M. tuberculosis are unique for certain environmental conditions and if they could therefore be used as differential markers. Bacilli were studied using fluorescent acid-fast auramine-rhodamine targeting the mycolic acid containing cell wall, and immunofluorescence targeting bacterial proteins using an anti-M. tuberculosis whole cell lysate polyclonal antibody. These techniques were combined and simultaneously applied to M. tuberculosis in vitro culture samples and to lung sections of M. tuberculosis infected mice and guinea pigs. Two phenotypically different subpopulations of M. tuberculosis were found in stationary culture whilst three subpopulations were found in hypoxic culture and in lung sections. Bacilli were either exclusively acid-fast positive, exclusively immunofluorescent positive or acid-fast and immunofluorescent positive. These results suggest that M. tuberculosis exists as multiple populations in most conditions, even within seemingly a single microenvironment. This is relevant information for approaches that study bacillary characteristics in pooled samples (using lipidomics and proteomics) as well as in M. tuberculosis drug development. PMID:20559431

  9. Mass culture strategy for bacterial yeast co-culture for degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine environment.

    PubMed

    Priya, Anchal; Mandal, Ajoy K; Ball, Andrew S; Manefield, Mike; Lal, Banwari; Sarma, Priyangshu M

    2015-11-15

    In the present study a metabolically versatile co-culture with two Bacilli and one yeast strain was developed using enrichment culture techniques. The developed co-culture had affinity to degrade both aliphatic and aromatic fractions of petroleum crude oil. Degradation kinetics was established for designing the fermentation protocol of the co-culture. The developed mass culture strategy led to achieve the reduction in surface tension (26dynescm(-1) from 69 dynescm(-1)) and degradation of 67% in bench scale experiments. The total crude oil degradation of 96% was achieved in 4000l of natural seawater after 28days without adding any nutrients. The survival of the augmented co-culture was maintained (10(9)cellsml(-1)) in contaminated marine environment. The mass culture protocol devised for the bioaugmentation was a key breakthrough that was subsequently used for pilot scale studies with 100l and 4000l of natural seawater for potential application in marine oil spills. PMID:26384865

  10. Colistin MIC Variability by Method for Contemporary Clinical Isolates of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Hindler, Janet A.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro evaluation of colistin susceptibility is fraught with complications, due in part to the inherent cationic properties of colistin. In addition, no reference method has been defined against which to compare the results of colistin susceptibility testing. This study systematically evaluated the available methods for colistin MIC testing in two phases. In phase I, colistin MICs were determined in 107 fresh clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) by broth microdilution with polysorbate 80 (BMD-T), broth macrodilution (TDS), and the Etest. In phase II, 50 of these isolates, 10 of which were colistin resistant, were tested in parallel using BMD-T, TDS, agar dilution, broth microdilution without polysorbate 80 (BMD), and the TREK Gram-negative extra MIC format (GNXF) Sensititre. The Etest was also performed on these 50 isolates using Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) from three different manufacturers. Colistin MIC results obtained from the five methods were compared to the MIC results obtained using BMD-T, the method that enables the highest nominal concentration of colistin in the test medium. Essential agreement ranged from 34% (BMD) to 83% (TDS), whereas categorical agreement was >90% for all methods except for BMD, which was 88%. Very major errors (VMEs) (i.e., false susceptibility) for the Etest were found in 47 to 53% of the resistant isolates, depending on the manufacturer of the MHA that was used. In contrast, VMEs were found for 10% (n = 1) of the resistant isolates by BMD and 0% of the isolates by the TDS, agar dilution, and Sensititre methods. Based on these data, we urge clinical laboratories to be aware of the variable results that can occur when using different methods for colistin MIC testing and, in particular, to use caution with the Etest. PMID:23486719

  11. Major variation in MICs of tigecycline in Gram-negative bacilli as a function of testing method.

    PubMed

    Marchaim, Dror; Pogue, Jason M; Tzuman, Oran; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Lephart, Paul R; Salimnia, Hossein; Painter, Theresa; Zervos, Marcus J; Johnson, Laura E; Perri, Mary Beth; Hartman, Pamela; Thyagarajan, Rama V; Major, Sharon; Goodell, Melanie; Fakih, Mohamad G; Washer, Laraine L; Newton, Duane W; Malani, Anurag N; Wholehan, Jason M; Mody, Lona; Kaye, Keith S

    2014-05-01

    Tigecycline is one of the few remaining therapeutic options for extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB). MICs of tigecycline to Acinetobacter baumannii have been reported to be elevated when determined by the Etest compared to determinations by the broth microdilution (BMD) method. The study aim was to compare the susceptibility of GNB to tigecycline by four different testing methods. GNB were collected from six health care systems (25 hospitals) in southeast Michigan from January 2010 to September 2011. Tigecycline MICs among A. baumannii, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, and susceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates were determined by Etest, BMD, Vitek-2, and MicroScan. Nonsusceptibility was categorized as a tigecycline MIC of ≥4 μg/ml for both A. baumannii and Enterobacteriaceae. The study included 4,427 isolates: 2,065 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, 1,105 A. baumannii, 888 susceptible Enterobacteriaceae, and 369 CRE isolates. Tigecycline nonsusceptibility among A. baumannii isolates was significantly more common as determined by Etest compared to that determined by BMD (odds ratio [OR], 10.3; P<0.001), MicroScan (OR, 12.4; P<0.001), or Vitek-2 (OR, 9.4; P<0.001). These differences were not evident with the other pathogens. Tigecycline MICs varied greatly according to the in vitro testing methods among A. baumannii isolates. Etest should probably not be used by laboratories for tigecycline MIC testing of A. baumannii isolates, since MICs are significantly elevated with Etest compared to those determined by the three other methods. PMID:24599978

  12. Clinicians’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Infections with Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli in Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Juyan Julia; Patel, Sameer J.; Jia, Haomiao; Weisenberg, Scott A.; Furuya, E. Yoko; Kubin, Christine J.; Alba, Luis; Rhee, Kyu; Saiman, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess how healthcare professionals caring for patients in intensive care units (ICUs) understand and use antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) for multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB). Design A knowledge, attitude and practice survey assessed ICU clinicians knowledge of antimicrobial resistance, confidence interpreting susceptibility testing, and beliefs regarding the impact of susceptibility testing on patient outcomes. Setting 16 ICUs affiliated with New York-Presbyterian Hospital. Participants Attending physicians and subspecialty residents with primary clinical responsibilities in adult or pediatric ICUs and infectious diseases (ID) subspecialists and clinical pharmacists. Methods Participants completed an anonymous electronic survey. Responses included 4-level Likert scales dichotomized for analysis. Multivariate analyses were performed using Generalized Estimating Equations logistic regression to account for correlation of respondents from the same ICU. Results The response rate was 51% (178/349 eligible participants) of whom 120 (67%) were ICU physicians. Those caring for adult patients were more knowledgeable about antimicrobial activity and more familiar with MDR-GNB infections. Only 33% and 12% of ICU physicians were familiar with standardized and specialized AST methods, respectively, but >95% believed AST improved patient outcomes. When adjusted for demographic and healthcare provider characteristics, those familiar with treatment of MDR-GNB bloodstream infections, those aware of resistance mechanisms, and those aware of AST methods were more confident they could interpret AST and/or request additional in vitro testing. Conclusions Our study uncovered knowledge gaps and educational needs that could serve as the foundation for future interventions. Familiarity with MDR-GNB increased overall knowledge and familiarity with AST increased confidence interpreting these results. PMID:23388362

  13. Rectal Carriage of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacilli in Community Settings in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Ratovoson, Rila; Ratsima Hariniana, Elisoa; Buisson, Yves; Genel, Nathalie; Decré, Dominique; Arlet, Guillaume; Talarmin, Antoine; Richard, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Background Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteria (ESBL-PE) emerged at the end of the 1980s, causing nosocomial outbreaks and/or hyperendemic situations in hospitals and long-term care facilities. In recent years, community-acquired infections due to ESBL-PE have spread worldwide, especially across developing countries including Madagascar. Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal carriage of ESBL-PE in the community of Antananarivo. Methods Non-hospitalized patients were recruited in three health centers in different socio economic settings. Fresh stool collected were immediately plated on Drigalski agar containing 3 mg/liter of ceftriaxone. Gram-negative bacilli species were identified and ESBL production was tested by a double disk diffusion (cefotaxime and ceftazidime +/− clavulanate) assay. Characterization of ESBLs were perfomed by PCR and direct sequencing . Molecular epidemiology was analysed by Rep-PCR and ERIC-PCR. Results 484 patients were screened (sex ratio  = 1.03, median age 28 years). 53 ESBL-PE were isolated from 49 patients (carrier rate 10.1%). The isolates included Escherichia coli (31), Klebsiella pneumoniae (14), Enterobacter cloacae (3), Citrobacter freundii (3), Kluyvera spp. (1) and Pantoae sp.(1). In multivariate analysis, only the socioeconomic status of the head of household was independently associated with ESBL-PE carriage, poverty being the predominant risk factor. Conclusions The prevalence of carriage of ESBL in the community of Antananarivo is one of the highest reported worldwide. This alarming spread of resistance genes should be stopped urgently by improving hygiene and streamlining the distribution and consumption of antibiotics. PMID:21829498

  14. In vitro antimicrobial activity of "last-resort" antibiotics against unusual nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Jacquier, Herve; Le Monnier, Alban; Carbonnelle, Etienne; Corvec, Stephane; Illiaquer, Marina; Bille, Emmanuelle; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Jauréguy, Françoise; Fihman, Vincent; Tankovic, Jacques; Cattoir, Vincent

    2012-08-01

    In this prospective multicentric study, we assessed the in vitro antimicrobial activity of carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, and doripenem), tigecycline, and colistin against 166 unusual nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NF-GNB) clinical isolates collected from nine French hospitals during a 6-month period (from December 1, 2008, to May 31, 2009). All NF-GNB isolates were included, except those phenotypically identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Acinetobacter baumannii. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimicrobial agents were determined by using the E-test technique. The following microorganisms were identified: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n=72), Pseudomonas spp. (n=30), Achromobacter xylosoxidans (n=25), Acinetobacter spp. (n=18), Burkholderia cepacia complex (n=9), Alcaligenes faecalis (n=7), and Delftia spp. (n=5). All isolates of Acinetobacter spp., A. faecalis, and Delftia spp. were susceptible to the three carbapenems. Imipenem exhibited the lowest MICs against Pseudomonas spp., and meropenem, as compared with imipenem and doripenem, displayed an interesting antimicrobial activity against A. xylosoxidans and B. cepacia complex isolates. Conversely, no carbapenem exhibited any activity against S. maltophilia. Except for S. maltophilia isolates, tigecycline and colistin exhibited higher MICs than carbapenems, but covered most of the microorganisms tested in this study. To our knowledge, no prior study has compared antimicrobial activity of these five antibiotics, often considered as "last-resort" treatment options for resistant Gram-negative infections, against unusual NF-GNB clinical isolates. Further studies should be carried out to assess the potential clinical use of these antibiotics for the treatment of infections due to these microorganisms. PMID:22335615

  15. Major Variation in MICs of Tigecycline in Gram-Negative Bacilli as a Function of Testing Method

    PubMed Central

    Pogue, Jason M.; Tzuman, Oran; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Lephart, Paul R.; Salimnia, Hossein; Painter, Theresa; Zervos, Marcus J.; Johnson, Laura E.; Perri, Mary Beth; Hartman, Pamela; Thyagarajan, Rama V.; Major, Sharon; Goodell, Melanie; Fakih, Mohamad G.; Washer, Laraine L.; Newton, Duane W.; Malani, Anurag N.; Wholehan, Jason M.; Mody, Lona; Kaye, Keith S.

    2014-01-01

    Tigecycline is one of the few remaining therapeutic options for extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB). MICs of tigecycline to Acinetobacter baumannii have been reported to be elevated when determined by the Etest compared to determinations by the broth microdilution (BMD) method. The study aim was to compare the susceptibility of GNB to tigecycline by four different testing methods. GNB were collected from six health care systems (25 hospitals) in southeast Michigan from January 2010 to September 2011. Tigecycline MICs among A. baumannii, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, and susceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates were determined by Etest, BMD, Vitek-2, and MicroScan. Nonsusceptibility was categorized as a tigecycline MIC of ≥4 μg/ml for both A. baumannii and Enterobacteriaceae. The study included 4,427 isolates: 2,065 ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, 1,105 A. baumannii, 888 susceptible Enterobacteriaceae, and 369 CRE isolates. Tigecycline nonsusceptibility among A. baumannii isolates was significantly more common as determined by Etest compared to that determined by BMD (odds ratio [OR], 10.3; P < 0.001), MicroScan (OR, 12.4; P < 0.001), or Vitek-2 (OR, 9.4; P < 0.001). These differences were not evident with the other pathogens. Tigecycline MICs varied greatly according to the in vitro testing methods among A. baumannii isolates. Etest should probably not be used by laboratories for tigecycline MIC testing of A. baumannii isolates, since MICs are significantly elevated with Etest compared to those determined by the three other methods. PMID:24599978

  16. Spread of TEM, VIM, SHV, and CTX-M β-Lactamases in Imipenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli Isolated from Egyptian Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hamdy Mohammed, El sayed; Elsadek Fakhr, Ahmed; Mohammed El sayed, Hanan; Al Johery, Said abd Elmohsen; Abdel Ghani Hassanein, Wesam

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli resulting from β-lactamases have been reported to be an important cause of nosocomial infections and are a critical therapeutic problem worldwide. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of imipenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli isolates and detection of blaVIM, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M-1, and blaCTX-M-9 genes in these clinical isolates in Egyptian hospitals. The isolates were collected from various clinical samples, identified by conventional methods and confirmed by API 20E. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was determined by Kirby-Bauer technique and interpreted according to CLSI. Production of blaVIM, blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M genes was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Direct sequencing from PCR products was subsequently carried out to identify and confirm these β-lactamases genes. Out of 65 isolates, (46.1%) Escherichia coli, (26.2%) Klebsiella pneumoniae, and (10.7%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa were identified as the commonest Gram-negative bacilli. 33(50.8%) were imipenem-resistant isolates. 22 isolates (66.7%) carried blaVIM, 24(72.7%) had blaTEM, and 5(15%) showed blaSHV, while 12(36%), 6(18.2%), and 0(0.00%) harbored blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-9, and blaCTX-M-8/25, respectively. There is a high occurrence of β-lactamase genes in clinical isolates and sequence analysis of amplified genes showed differences between multiple SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) sites in the same gene among local isolates in relation to published sequences. PMID:27123005

  17. Glycolytic and Non-glycolytic Functions of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate Aldolase, an Essential Enzyme Produced by Replicating and Non-replicating Bacilli*

    PubMed Central

    de la Paz Santangelo, Maria; Gest, Petra M.; Guerin, Marcelo E.; Coinçon, Mathieu; Pham, Ha; Ryan, Gavin; Puckett, Susan E.; Spencer, John S.; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Daher, Racha; Lenaerts, Anne J.; Schnappinger, Dirk; Therisod, Michel; Ehrt, Sabine; Sygusch, Jurgen; Jackson, Mary

    2011-01-01

    The search for antituberculosis drugs active against persistent bacilli has led to our interest in metallodependent class II fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA-tb), a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis absent from mammalian cells. Knock-out experiments at the fba-tb locus indicated that this gene is required for the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on gluconeogenetic substrates and in glucose-containing medium. Surface labeling and enzymatic activity measurements revealed that this enzyme was exported to the cell surface of M. tuberculosis and produced under various axenic growth conditions including oxygen depletion and hence by non-replicating bacilli. Importantly, FBA-tb was also produced in vivo in the lungs of infected guinea pigs and mice. FBA-tb bound human plasmin(ogen) and protected FBA-tb-bound plasmin from regulation by α2-antiplasmin, suggestive of an involvement of this enzyme in host/pathogen interactions. The crystal structures of FBA-tb in the native form and in complex with a hydroxamate substrate analog were determined to 2.35- and 1.9-Å resolution, respectively. Whereas inhibitor attachment had no effect on the plasminogen binding activity of FBA-tb, it competed with the natural substrate of the enzyme, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, and substantiated a previously unknown reaction mechanism associated with metallodependent aldolases involving recruitment of the catalytic zinc ion by the substrate upon active site binding. Altogether, our results highlight the potential of FBA-tb as a novel therapeutic target against both replicating and non-replicating bacilli. PMID:21949126

  18. In Vitro Activities of Ceftazidime-Avibactam, Aztreonam-Avibactam, and a Panel of Older and Contemporary Antimicrobial Agents against Carbapenemase-Producing Gram-Negative Bacilli.

    PubMed

    Vasoo, Shawn; Cunningham, Scott A; Cole, Nicolynn C; Kohner, Peggy C; Menon, Sanjay R; Krause, Kevin M; Harris, Kelly A; De, Partha P; Koh, Tse Hsien; Patel, Robin

    2015-12-01

    Among 177 carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli (108 KPC, 32 NDM, 11 IMP, 8 OXA-48, 4 OXA-181, 2 OXA-232, 5 IMI, 4 VIM, and 3 SME producers), aztreonam-avibactam was active against all isolates except two NDM producers with elevated MICs of 8/4 and 16/4 mg/liter; ceftazidime-avibactam was active against all KPC-, IMI-, SME-, and most OXA-48 group-producing isolates (93%) but not metallo-β-lactamase producers. Among older and contemporary antimicrobials, the most active were colistin, tigecycline, and fosfomycin, with overall susceptibilities of 88%, 79%, and 78%, respectively. PMID:26392487

  19. Effect of sodium polyanethol sulfonate in blood cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Eng, J

    1975-01-01

    Fifteen-hundred hospital blood cultures were made in duplicate, with and without 0.05% sodium polyanethol sulfonate in the broth medium. A significantly higher rate and speed of recovery of both gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli was accomplished in sodium polyanethol sulfonate broth. The effect was independent of the content of 0.1% agar in the growth medium. In the cases of Neisseria meningitidis septicemia examined, however, a detrimental result on recoveries was observed. The addition of sodium polyanethol sulfonate also resulted in an increased frequency of recoveries of contaminating organisms. PMID:809466

  20. Evaluation of Five Chromogenic Agar Media and the Rosco Rapid Carb Screen Kit for Detection and Confirmation of Carbapenemase Production in Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Matthew W.; DeGagne, Pat; Nichol, Kim; Karlowsky, James A.

    2014-01-01

    An efficient workflow to screen for and confirm the presence of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli was developed by evaluating five chromogenic screening agar media and two confirmatory assays, the Rapid Carb screen test (Rosco Diagnostica A/S, Taastrup, Denmark) and the modified Hodge test. A panel of 150 isolates was used, including 49 carbapenemase-producing isolates representing a variety of β-lactamase enzyme classes. An evaluation of analytical performance, assay cost, and turnaround time indicated that the preferred workflow (screening test followed by confirmatory testing) was the chromID Carba agar medium (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Étoile, France), followed by the Rapid Carb screen test, yielding a combined sensitivity of 89.8% and a specificity of 100%. As an optional component of the workflow, a determination of carbapenemase gene class via molecular means could be performed subsequent to confirmatory testing. PMID:25355764

  1. Rapid Identification of Bacteria Directly from Positive Blood Cultures by Use of a Serum Separator Tube, Smudge Plate Preparation, and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Porter, Vanessa; Mubareka, Samira; Kotowich, Leona

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of smudge plate growth for bacterial identification from 400 blood cultures. Ninety-seven percent of Gram-negative bacilli and 85% of Gram-positive organisms were correctly identified within 4 h; only eight isolates (2.0%) were misidentified. This method provided rapid and accurate microbial identification from positive blood cultures. PMID:26202115

  2. A comparison of the growth of selected mycobacteria in HeLa, monkey kidney, and human amnion cells in tissue culture.

    PubMed

    SHEPARD, C C

    1958-02-01

    HeLa, monkey kidney, and human amnion cells in tissue cultures were compared as sites for the multiplication of strains of tubercle bacilli or original and reduced pathogenicity, and for several other species of mycobacteria capable of causing disease in humans. The arrangement of the pathogenic species inorder of their growth rates in HeLa cells was Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium balnei, and the "yellow bacillus," followed closely by the tubercle bacillus. This order was also correct for these species in monkey kidney and human amnion cells, and is the same as that seen in bacteriological media. The arrangement of the strains of tubercle bacilli in order of their growth rates in all three types of cells was: H37Rv, then R1Rv, and lastly H37Ra, which multiplied about as slowly as BCG. An INH-resistant strain grew about as rapidly as H37Rv. Growth of the pathogenic species occurred at about the same rates in HeLa and monkey kidney cells, but was distinctly slower in human amnion cells, which are less active metabolically. Irradiation of the cells in doses up to 5000 r did not affect the subsequent growth of mycobacteria in them. Preliminary experiments with human leprosy bacilli indicate that they can be introduced into these cells in high numbers and that the bacilli then persist for the life of the cells. PMID:13491759

  3. Performance of the Verigene Gram-Negative Blood Culture Assay for Rapid Detection of Bacteria and Resistance Determinants

    PubMed Central

    De Mendonça, Ricardo; Nonhoff, Claire; Roisin, Sandrine; Denis, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Nonduplicate blood cultures that were positive for Gram-negative bacilli (n = 125) were tested by the Verigene Gram-negative blood culture (BC-GN) assay; 117 (90.7%) isolates were members of the panel. For identification and resistance markers, the agreements with routine methods were 97.4% (114/117) and 92.3% (12/13). The BC-GN assay is a rapid and accurate tool for the detection of pathogens from blood cultures and could be integrated alongside conventional systems to enable faster patient management, but the clinical benefits should be further evaluated. PMID:24899026

  4. Studies on the interaction between phagocytes and tubercle bacilli. I. Observations on the metabolism of guinea pig leucocytes and the influence of phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    STAHELIN, H; SUTER, E; KARNOVSKY, M L

    1956-07-01

    As a basis for studies on the interaction of phagocytes and tubercle bacilli experiments were carried out to obtain information on some biochemical characteristics of exudate leucocytes from guinea pigs. It was found that total cellular phosphorus was the most suitable measure of protoplasm. Cell counts were less reliable because of unavoidable clumping in the suspension, and dry weight measurements were less specific when contamination with erythrocytes occurred. The utility of phosphorus measurements in this connection depends upon the fact that an erythrocyte contains only 4 per cent of the phosphorus present in a leucocyte. From measurements on mixed suspensions consisting of varying known proportions of polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leucocytes as determined by differential counting, it was possible to compute true values for these two cell types with respect to oxygen consumption and lactic acid production. Thus it was found that monocytes consumed considerably more oxygen and produced more lactate than polymorphonuclear leucocytes. From the data obtained it is suggested that differences in metabolic activity found when comparing cell suspensions obtained by the use of different irritants are due to different proportions of the two cell types. In particular, the effects of oxygen tension and pH on the activities of the cells were studied. It was found that decreasing the proportion of oxygen in the atmosphere from that of air to 1 per cent reduced oxygen consumption by about 80 per cent, whereas lactic acid production was increased by about 45 per cent. It was also found that decreasing the pH of the medium below pH 7.5 caused a considerable reduction in the respiration, lactate production, and viability of polymorphonuclear leucocytes. The monocytes proved less sensitive to similar changes in pH, especially with regard to lactic acid production and viability. Observations were made of oxygen consumption and lactate production during phagocytosis. During the hour following the addition of heat-killed tubercle bacilli to the phagocytes, the oxygen consumption of suspensions rich in polymorphonuclear leucocytes rose by 60 per cent, and that of suspensions rich in monocytes rose by nearly 100 per cent. Lactic acid production was unchanged during phagocytosis. PMID:13332184

  5. Comparison of recovery of organisms from blood cultures diluted 10% (volume/volume) and 20% (volume/volume).

    PubMed Central

    Auckenthaler, R; Ilstrup, D M; Washington, J A

    1982-01-01

    We compared blood cultures that were diluted 1:5 (20%, vol/vol) and 1:10 (10%, vol/vol) and contained specimens from patients with suspected septicemia. Streptococcus pneumoniae was recovered significantly more frequently from blood cultures diluted 20%, whereas gram-negative bacilli, group D streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida spp. were recovered significantly sooner and more frequently from blood cultures diluted 10%. Statistically significant differences in isolation rates, however, represented only a small number of patients for whom the positive cultures affected therapy. We conclude that as long as at least two separate sets of blood cultures are obtained per septic episode from each patient, a 1:5 to 1:10 blood/vented (aerobic) medium ratio provides acceptable results. Nevertheless, the results also demonstrate that blood cultures diluted 10% provided greater and faster yields than those provided by blood cultures diluted 20%. PMID:6808015

  6. Mycobacterial granulomatous inflammation in the ulcerated caecum of indomethacin-treated rats.

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, A.; Dhillon, A. P.; Fidler, H.; McFadden, J.; Billington, O.; Nygard, G.; Pounder, R. E.; Wakefield, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    We report mycobacterial granulomatous inflammation in the ulcerated caecum of rats that received indomethacin. Two groups of male rats were treated with dietary indomethacin 3 mg/kg/day or untreated diet for 3 weeks. Six out of 8 indomethacin treated rats showed both ulceration and inflammation of the caecal mucosa. Two of the rats showing caecal ulceration also showed distinct granulomatous inflammation of the caecal mucosa and acid-fast bacilli were identified within granulomata. None of the other indomethacin treated or control rats contained acid-fast bacilli within caecal tissue sections but they were present, in the same sections, within the lumen of most rats in both groups. Polymerase chain reaction analysis identified the mycobacterial 65 kDa GroEL gene within control and granulomatous caecal tissue. In a repeat of indomethacin administration to a third group of rats, culture of both non-granulomatous caecal tissue (containing histologically identified luminal acid-fast bacilli) and faecal samples for mycobacteria was negative. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7786765

  7. Laboratory diagnosis, clinical management and infection control of the infections caused by extensively drug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli: a Chinese consensus statement.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) are defined as bacterial isolates susceptible to two or fewer antimicrobial categories. XDR-GNB mainly occur in Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The prevalence of XDR-GNB is on the rise in China and in other countries, and it poses a major public health threat as a result of the lack of adequate therapeutic options. A group of Chinese clinical experts, microbiologists and pharmacologists came together to discuss and draft a consensus on the laboratory diagnosis, clinical management and infection control of XDR-GNB infections. Lists of antimicrobial categories proposed for antimicrobial susceptibility testing were created according to documents from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Multiple risk factors of XDR-GNB infections are analyzed, with long-term exposure to extended-spectrum antimicrobials being the most important one. Combination therapeutic regimens are summarized for treatment of XDR-GNB infections caused by different bacteria based on limited clinical studies and/or laboratory data. Most frequently used antimicrobials used for the combination therapies include aminoglycosides, carbapenems, colistin, fosfomycin and tigecycline. Strict infection control measures including hand hygiene, contact isolation, active screening, environmental surface disinfections, decolonization and restrictive antibiotic stewardship are recommended to curb the XDR-GNB spread. PMID:26627340

  8. In vitro susceptibilities of aerobic and facultative non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli to HMR 3647 (RU 66647) and 14 other antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Soriano, F; Fernández-Roblas, R; Calvo, R; García-Calvo, G

    1998-05-01

    The comparative in vitro activity of the ketolide HMR 3647 (RU 66647) and those of structurally related macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin compounds (erythromycin, roxithromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, josamycin, lincomycin, pristinamycin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin) as well as those of benzylpenicillin, doxycycline, vancomycin, teicoplanin, levofloxacin, and rifapentine against 247 aerobic and facultative non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli were determined by an agar dilution method. The ketolide was active against most organisms tested except Corynebacterium striatum, coryneform CDC group 12, and Oerskovia spp. The frequency of resistance to erythromycin and other macrolides as well as that to lincomycin was high. Pristinamycin and, to a lesser extent, quinupristin-dalfopristin were very active, but resistance to these agents was present in some strains of Rhodococcus equi, Listeria spp., C. striatum, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and Oerskovia spp. HMR 3647 was very active against all erythromycin-sensitive and many erythromycin-nonsusceptible strains, especially Corynebacterium minutissimum, Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum, Corynebacterium amycolatum, and Corynebacterium jeikeium. In vitro resistance to benzylpenicillin was common, but doxycycline, vancomycin, and teicoplanin were very active against most organisms tested except E. rhusiopathiae, against which glycopeptide antibiotics were not active. The in vitro activity of levofloxacin was remarkable, but resistance to this agent was common for C. amycolatum, Corynebacterium urealyticum, C. jeikeium, and Oerskovia spp. strains. Rifapentine was also very active in vitro against many organisms, but resistance to this agent was always present in E. rhusiopathiae and was very common in C. striatum and C. urealyticum. PMID:9593121

  9. In Vitro Susceptibilities of Aerobic and Facultative Non-Spore-Forming Gram-Positive Bacilli to HMR 3647 (RU 66647) and 14 Other Antimicrobials

    PubMed Central

    Soriano, Francisco; Fernández-Roblas, Ricardo; Calvo, Raquel; García-Calvo, Gloria

    1998-01-01

    The comparative in vitro activity of the ketolide HMR 3647 (RU 66647) and those of structurally related macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin compounds (erythromycin, roxithromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, josamycin, lincomycin, pristinamycin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin) as well as those of benzylpenicillin, doxycycline, vancomycin, teicoplanin, levofloxacin, and rifapentine against 247 aerobic and facultative non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli were determined by an agar dilution method. The ketolide was active against most organisms tested except Corynebacterium striatum, coryneform CDC group I2, and Oerskovia spp. The frequency of resistance to erythromycin and other macrolides as well as that to lincomycin was high. Pristinamycin and, to a lesser extent, quinupristin-dalfopristin were very active, but resistance to these agents was present in some strains of Rhodococcus equi, Listeria spp., C. striatum, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and Oerskovia spp. HMR 3647 was very active against all erythromycin-sensitive and many erythromycin-nonsusceptible strains, especially Corynebacterium minutissimum, Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum, Corynebacterium amycolatum, and Corynebacterium jeikeium. In vitro resistance to benzylpenicillin was common, but doxycycline, vancomycin, and teicoplanin were very active against most organisms tested except E. rhusiopathiae, against which glycopeptide antibiotics were not active. The in vitro activity of levofloxacin was remarkable, but resistance to this agent was common for C. amycolatum, Corynebacterium urealyticum, C. jeikeium, and Oerskovia spp. strains. Rifapentine was also very active in vitro against many organisms, but resistance to this agent was always present in E. rhusiopathiae and was very common in C. striatum and C. urealyticum. PMID:9593121

  10. Comparison of the Minitek system with conventional methods for identification of nonfermentative and oxidase-positive fermentative gram-negative bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Wellstood-Nuesse, S

    1979-01-01

    The Minitek system was compared with conventional test methods for identifying a wide range of nonfermentative and oxidase-positive fermentative gram-negative bacilli. A total of 230 isolates representing 33 species and biotypes were tested against 12 Minitek substrates and the corresponding conventional tube media. In addition, supplementary tests were included for 141 (61.3%) of the isolates. Overall, 88% of the positive reactions agreed, and negative reactions agreed 95.5%. Anaerobic dextrose, maltose, lactose, and citrate were responsible for 62.4% of the 93 discrepant positive reactions, and 51.8% of the 83 discrepant negative reactions involved the aerobic dextrose, nitrate, and citrate disks. Some discrepancies were related to specific organisms. The system and supplementary tests correctly identified 88.3% of the isolates to species level and 92.6% to correct genus. No particular organism or substrate was responsible for misidentification errors. In a test challenge with 19 selected organisms, 3 were incorrectly identified to species and 4 were misidentified to genus level. Most of the errors responsible for these incorect identifications were due to factors other than the Minitek disks and pointed out the importance of using appropriate supplemental data, and the need for a coding manual and a more enriched broth for certain types of isolates. PMID:379041

  11. Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Aerobic and Facultative Gram-Negative Bacilli from Intra-abdominal Infections in Patients from Seven Regions in China in 2012 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Yang, Qiwen; Liao, Kang; Ni, Yuxing; Yu, Yunsong; Hu, Bijie; Sun, Ziyong; Huang, Wenxiang; Wang, Yong; Wu, Anhua; Feng, Xianju; Luo, Yanping; Hu, Zhidong; Chu, Yunzhuo; Chen, Shulan; Cao, Bin; Su, Jianrong; Gui, Bingdong; Duan, Qiong; Zhang, Shufang; Shao, Haifeng; Kong, Haishen; Badal, Robert E; Xu, Yingchun

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative bacilli that caused hospital-acquired and community-acquired intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in China between 2012 and 2013, we determined the susceptibilities to 12 antimicrobials and the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) statuses of 3,540 IAI isolates from seven geographic areas in China in a central laboratory using CLSI broth microdilution and interpretive standards. Most infections were caused by Escherichia coli (46.3%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (19.7%). Rates of ESBL-producing E. coli (P = 0.031), K. pneumoniae (P = 0.017), and Proteus mirabilis (P = 0.004) were higher in hospital-acquired IAIs than in community-acquired IAIs. Susceptibilities of enterobacteriaceae to ertapenem, amikacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and imipenem were 71.3% to 100%, 81.3% to 100%, 64.7% to 100%, and 83.1% to 100%, respectively, but imipenem was ineffective against P. mirabilis (<20%). Although most ESBL-positive hospital-acquired isolates were resistant to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, the majority were susceptible to cefoxitin (47.9% to 83.9%). Susceptibilities of ESBL-positive isolates to ampicillin-sulbactam (<10%) were low, whereas susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin (0% to 54.6%) and levofloxacin (0% to 63.6%) varied substantially. The prevalences of cephalosporin-susceptible E. coli and K. pneumoniae were higher in the northeastern and southern regions than in the central and eastern regions, reflecting the ESBL-positive rates in these areas, and were lowest in the Jiangsu-Zhejiang (Jiang-Zhe) area where the rates of carbapenem resistance were also highest. Ertapenem, amikacin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and imipenem are the most efficacious antibiotics for treating IAIs in China, especially those caused by E. coli or K. pneumoniae. Resistance to cephalosporins and carbapenems is more common in the Jiang-Zhe area than in other regions in China. PMID:26482308

  12. 10 × '20 Progress—Development of New Drugs Active Against Gram-Negative Bacilli: An Update From the Infectious Diseases Society of America

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Helen W.; Talbot, George H.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Bradley, John; Guidos, Robert J.; Jones, Ronald N.; Murray, Barbara E.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Gilbert, David

    2013-01-01

    Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially the “ESKAPE” pathogens, continue to increase in frequency and cause significant morbidity and mortality. New antimicrobial agents are greatly needed to treat infections caused by gram-negative bacilli (GNB) resistant to currently available agents. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) continues to propose legislative, regulatory, and funding solutions to this continuing crisis. The current report updates the status of development and approval of systemic antibiotics in the United States as of early 2013. Only 2 new antibiotics have been approved since IDSA's 2009 pipeline status report, and the number of new antibiotics annually approved for marketing in the United States continues to decline. We identified 7 drugs in clinical development for treatment of infections caused by resistant GNB. None of these agents was included in our 2009 list of antibacterial compounds in phase 2 or later development, but unfortunately none addresses the entire spectrum of clinically relevant GNB resistance. Our survey demonstrates some progress in development of new antibacterial drugs that target infections caused by resistant GNB, but progress remains alarmingly elusive. IDSA stresses our conviction that the antibiotic pipeline problem can be solved by the collaboration of global leaders to develop creative incentives that will stimulate new antibacterial research and development. Our aim is the creation of a sustainable global antibacterial drug research and development enterprise with the power in the short term to develop 10 new, safe, and efficacious systemically administered antibiotics by 2020 as called for in IDSA's “10 × '20 Initiative.” PMID:23599308

  13. Risk factors and Outcomes of Infections Caused by Extremely Drug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli in Patients Hospitalized in Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sameer J.; Oliveira, André P.; Zhou, Juyan Julia; Alba, Luis; Furuya, E. Yoko; Weisenberg, Scott A.; Jia, Haomiao; Clock, Sarah A.; Kubin, Christine J.; Jenkins, Stephen G.; Schuetz, Audrey N.; Behta, Maryam; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Whittier, Susan; Rhee, Kyu; Saiman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Background Extremely drug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (XDR-GNB) increasingly cause healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in intensive care units (ICUs). Methods A matched case-control (1:2) study was conducted from February 2007 to January 2010 in 16 ICUs. Case and control subjects had HAIs caused by GNB susceptible to ≤1 antibiotic versus ≥2 antibiotics, respectively. Logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression assessed risk factors for HAIs and predictors of mortality, respectively. Results Overall, 103 case and 195 control subjects were enrolled. An immunocompromised state (OR=1.55, p=0.047) and exposure to amikacin (OR=13.81, p<0.001), levofloxacin (OR=2.05, p=0.005), or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (OR=3.42, p=0.009) were factors associated with XDR-GNB HAIs. Multiple factors in both case and control subjects significantly predicted increased mortality at different time intervals after HAI diagnosis. At 7 days, liver disease (Hazard Ratio [HZ]=5.52), immunocompromised state (HR=3.41), and bloodstream infection (HR=2.55) predicted mortality; at 15 days, age (HR=1.02 per year increase), liver disease (HR=3.34), and immunocompromised state (HR 2.03) predicted mortality; and at 30 days, age (HR=1.02 per one year increase), liver disease (HR=3.34), immunocompromised state (HR=2.03), and hospitalization in a medical ICU (HR=1.85) predicted mortality. Conclusions HAIs caused by XDR-GNB were associated with potentially modifiable factors. Age, liver disease, and immunocompromised state, but not XDR-GNB HAIs, were associated with mortality. PMID:24725516

  14. Urine culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  15. Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  16. Comparison of Vitek and Cobas Micro systems with a semiautomated conventional microsystem for identification and susceptibility testing of gram negative bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Simoons-Smit, A M; Maclaren, D M

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To compare the sensitivity and specificity of two semiautomated systems against a conventional (MIC 2000) test system for the identification and antibiotic susceptibility of Gram negative bacteria. METHODS--Clinical isolates of Gram negative bacilli (188 urinary and 229 non-urinary strains) were identified and tested for antibiotic susceptibility in the Cobas Micro and MIC 2000 systems. Of these, 359 strains were then tested in the Vitek and MIC 2000 systems. Two hundred and forty three strains were tested in all three systems immediately after isolation. Forty three were also tested only in the Vitek and MIC 2000 systems immediately after isolation. The remaining 174 strains were tested after storage at -20 degrees C for several months. RESULTS--The Cobas Micro and MIC 2000 systems agreed on the identification of 310 of the 417 (74.3%) strains; the Vitek and MIC 2000 systems agreed on 338 of the 359 (94.2%) strains. The Cobas Micro system correctly identified 86.8% of strains tested after storage and 65.4% of those immediately after isolation. Organism-antibiotic combinations (non-urinary isolates) were tested in the Cobas Micro and MIC 2000 systems (n = 2335), in the Vitek and MIC 2000 systems (n = 999). Essential correlation (complete agreement plus minor errors) was observed in 98% (with 90% complete agreement) in the former and in 97% (with 86% complete agreement) in the latter. For the urinary isolates, 1949 organism-antibiotic combinations were analysed in the Cobas Micro and MIC 2000 systems where complete agreement was observed in 92% (with 3% very major discrepancies), for 1382 urinary organism-antibiotic combinations tested in the Vitek and MIC 2000 systems, the figures were 95% and 2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS--The Vitek system is highly accurate in the identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of Gram negative bacteria. The Cobas Micro system has many shortcomings in its identification of Gram negative rods, especially freshly isolated strains, but it is comparable with the Vitek system in antibiotic susceptibility testing. PMID:8132814

  17. Evaluation of the Phoenix 100 ID/AST System and NID Panel for Identification of Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and Commonly Isolated Nonenteric Gram-Negative Bacilli

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Caroline M.

    2006-01-01

    The Phoenix 100 ID/AST system (Becton Dickinson Co., Sparks, Md.) is an automated system for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates. This system with its negative identification (NID) panel was evaluated for its accuracy in the identification of 507 isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 57 other nonenteric gram-negative isolates that are commonly isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories, and 138 isolates of the family Vibrionaceae. All of the isolates had been characterized by using approximately 48 conventional tube biochemicals. Of the 507 isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae, 456 (89.9%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels. The five isolates of Proteus penneri required an off-line indole test, as suggested by the system to differentiate them from Proteus vulgaris. The identifications of 20 (3.9%) isolates were correct to the genus level but incorrect at the species level. Two (0.4%) isolates were reported as “no identification.” Misidentifications to the genus and species levels occurred for 29 (5.7%) isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae. These incorrect identifications were spread over 14 different genera. The most common error was the misidentification of Salmonella species. The shortest time for a correct identification was 2 h 8 min. The longest time was 12 h 27 min, for the identification of a Serratia marcescens isolate. Of the 57 isolates of nonenteric gram-negative bacilli (Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Burkholderia, Plesiomonas, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas spp.), 48 (84.2%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels and 7 (12.3%) were correctly identified to the genus level but not to the species level. The average time for a correct identification was 5 h 11 min. Of the Vibrionaceae spp., 123 (89.1%) were correctly identified at the end of the initial incubation period, which averaged 4 h. Based on the findings of this study, the Phoenix 100 ID/AST system NID panel falls short of being an acceptable new method for the identification of the Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and gram-negative nonenteric isolates that are commonly encountered in many hospital microbiology laboratories. PMID:16517878

  18. Culture matters.

    PubMed

    Arif, Zeba

    Zebaa Arif reflects on changes during her career as a mental health nurse in relation to cultural care issues: Cultural awareness is becoming embedded in patient care. All aspects of care are influenced by cultural beliefs and should form part of assessment. Leadership is essential in influencing cultural care, as is organisational commitment. PMID:16262169

  19. Learning Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David

    Adult and continuing education in the arts can and does play a role in the development of cultural identity. Dimensions of culture include ethnicity, location, age, social class, and time. This definition of culture leads to the conclusion that cultures are generally small and are dynamic rather than static. Research shows that individuals in what…

  20. Severe Mycobacterium tuberculosis-related immune reconstitution syndrome in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Rajagopala, Srinivas; Chandrasekharan, Sujatha

    2015-01-01

    We present a young immunocompetent male with diagnosed sputum culture-positive tuberculosis on intensive phase with observed daily four-drug antituberculosis therapy. He presented at 1-month of treatment with sequential bilateral pneumothoraces, increase in cavitation and consolidation and respiratory failure. Repeat smears for acid-fast bacilli had downgraded, and cultures were negative. Quantiferon-GOLD (initially negative) was now strongly positive. A diagnosis of possible immune reconstitution syndrome was considered and 0.25 mg/kg/day oral steroids administered. We also discuss an approach to differential diagnosis of a patient worsening on treatment for microbiologically confirmed tuberculosis in this manuscript. PMID:25624652

  1. Severe Mycobacterium tuberculosis-related immune reconstitution syndrome in an immunocompetent patient

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopala, Srinivas; Chandrasekharan, Sujatha

    2015-01-01

    We present a young immunocompetent male with diagnosed sputum culture-positive tuberculosis on intensive phase with observed daily four-drug antituberculosis therapy. He presented at 1-month of treatment with sequential bilateral pneumothoraces, increase in cavitation and consolidation and respiratory failure. Repeat smears for acid-fast bacilli had downgraded, and cultures were negative. Quantiferon-GOLD (initially negative) was now strongly positive. A diagnosis of possible immune reconstitution syndrome was considered and 0.25 mg/kg/day oral steroids administered. We also discuss an approach to differential diagnosis of a patient worsening on treatment for microbiologically confirmed tuberculosis in this manuscript. PMID:25624652

  2. [Influence of vermiculite particles on antioxidant properties of cultural medium of Bacillus subtilis IMV V-7023].

    PubMed

    Skorokhod, I A; Kudrish, I K

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that in the process of cultivation of Bacillus subtilis IMV V-7023 in the medium with vermiculite (1.5-5.0 g/l) one can observe the oppressing of some indexes of antioxidant properties of cultural medium of bacteria. In particular, a decline of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity in the Fenton reaction by 2.8-11.6%, ability to inhibit formation of malondialdehyde - by 4.4-13.1% and inactivation of 2,2'-Diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radical - by 3.1-8.5% were observed. Thus oxidant activity increased substantially. Besides oppressing influence of particles of vermiculite on protector properties of the cultural medium of bacilli it is found out that with the increase of the content of dispersible material in the nutrient medium the reducing power of cultural medium of these bacteria increased. PMID:25509184

  3. Pseudoclavibacter otitis media in a 3-year-old boy with pulmonary and spinal tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ayuthaya, Satja Issaranggoon na; Leelaporn, Amornrut; Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Oberdorfer, Peninnah

    2015-05-01

    Pseudoclavibacter has rarely been documented as an etiologic agent of infection in humans. We presented the first case report of Pseudoclavibacter otitis media in a boy with pulmonary and spinal tuberculosis.A 3-year-old boy was referred to our hospital due to prolonged fever and progressive paraplegia for 3 months. He had yellowish discharge from both ear canals. The pleural fluid culture was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The discharge from both ears culture yielded yellow colonies of gram-positive bacilli with branching. This organism was positive for modified acid-fast bacilli stain but negative for acid-fast bacilli stain. Biochemical characteristics of this isolate were positive for catalase test but negative for oxidase, nitrate, esculin, and sugar utilization tests. The organism was further subjected to be identified by 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid gene sequencing. The result yielded Pseudoclavibacter species (99.4% identical), which could be most likely a potential pathogen in immunocompromised host like this patient. He responded well with intravenous trimetroprim-sulfamethoxazole for 6 weeks.This is the first case report of Pseudoclavibacter otitis media in children, and this case could emphasize Pseudoclavibacter species as a potential pathogen in immunocompromised host. PMID:25929901

  4. Culture Learning/Culture Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trifonovitch, Gregory J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes some barriers to cross-cultural communication and learning and presents four stages of cultural adjustment for the benefit of teachers who must teach and develop cultural understanding in students while learning about different cultural characteristics exhibited by those students. (Editor/RK)

  5. Cultural Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Daniel L.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience issues from the apparently incompatible combination of neuroscience and cultural psychology. A brief literature sampling suggests, instead, several preliminary topics that demonstrate proof of possibilities: cultural differences in both lower-level processes (e.g. perception, number representation) and higher-order processes (e.g. inferring others’ emotions, contemplating the self) are beginning to shed new light on both culture and cognition. Candidates for future cultural neuroscience research include cultural variations in the default (resting) network, which may be social; regulation and inhibition of feelings, thoughts, and actions; prejudice and dehumanization; and neural signatures of fundamental warmth and competence judgments. PMID:23874143

  6. Editorial: Current status and perspective on drug targets in tubercle bacilli and drug design of antituberculous agents based on structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Tomioka, Haruaki

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) remains the most frequent and important infectious disease causing morbidity and death. However, the development of new drugs for the treatment and prophylaxis of TB, particularly those truly active against dormant and persistent types of tubercle bacilli, has been slow, although some promising drugs, such as diarylquinoline TMC207, nitroimidazopyran PA-824, nitroimidazo-oxazole Delamanid (OPC-67683), oxazolidinone PNU-100480, ethylene diamine SQ-109, and pyrrole derivative LL3858, are currently under phase 1 to 3 clinical trials. Therefore, novel types of antituberculous drug, which act on unique drug targets in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) pathogens, particularly drug targets related to the establishment of mycobacterial dormancy in the host's macrophages, are urgently needed. In this context, it should be noted that current anti-TB drugs mostly target the metabolic reactions and proteins which are essential for the growth of MTB in extracellular milieus. It may also be promising to develop another type of drug that exerts an inhibitory action against bacterial virulence factors which cross-talk and interfere with signaling pathways of MTB-infected immunocompetent host cells, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and NK cells, thereby changing the intracellular milieus that are favorable to intramacrophage survival and the growth of infected bacilli. This special issue contains ten review articles, dealing with recent approaches to identify and establish novel drug targets in MTB for the development of new and unique antitubercular drugs, including those related to mycobacterial dormancy and crosstalk with cellular signaling pathways. In addition, this special issue contains some review papers with special reference to the drug design based on quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis, especially three-dimensional (3D)-QSAR. New, critical information on the entire genome of MTB and mycobacterial virulence genes is promoting the elucidation of the molecular structures of drug targets in MTB, and are consequently markedly useful for the design of new, promising antituberculous drugs using QSAR techniques. In this issue, we review the following areas. Firstly, Dr. Li M. Fu reviews the perspective that combines machine learning and genomics for drug discovery in tuberculosis, in relation to the problem that the exhaustive search for useful drug targets over the entire MTB genome would not be as productive as expected in practice [1]. Secondly, the review article by Drs. R. S. Chauhan. S. K. Chanumolu, C. Rout, and R. Shrivastava focuses on analysis of the current state of MTB genomic resources, host-pathogen interaction studies in the context of mycobacterial persistence, and drug target discovery based on the utilization of computational tools and metabolic network analyses [2]. Thirdly, Drs. Daria Bottai, Agnese Serafini, Alessandro Cascioferro, Roland Brosch, and Riccardo Manganelli review the current knowledge on MTB T7SS/ESX secretion systems and their impact on MTB physiology and virulence, and the possible approaches to develop T7SS/ESX inhibitors [3]. Fourthly, Drs. E. Jeffrey North, Mary Jackson, and Richard E. Lee review and analyze new and emerging inhibitors of the mycolic acid biosynthetic pathway, including mycobacterial enzymes for fatty acid synthesis, mycolic acid-modifying enzymes, fatty acid-activating and -condensing enzymes, transporters, and transferases, that have been discovered in the post-genomic era of tuberculosis drug discovery [4]. Fifthly, Drs. Katarina Mikusova, Vadim Makarov, and Joao Neres review the mycobacterial enzyme DprE1, which catalyzes a unique epimerization reaction in the biosynthesis of decaprenylphosphoryl arabinose, a single donor of the arabinosyl residue for the build-up of arabinans, one of the mycobacterial cell wall components, as an important drug target especially for the development of benzothiazinones [5]. Sixthly, I review the present status of global research on novel drug targets related to the Toll-like receptor in the MTB pathogen, with special reference to mycobacterial virulence factors that cross-talk and interfere with signaling pathways of host macrophages [6]. The following four review articles deal with drug design of novel anti-TB agents employing QSAR techniques. Firstly, Drs. Nidhi and Mohammad Imran Siddiqi review 2D and 3D QSAR approaches and the recent trends of these methods integrated with virtual screening using the 3D pharmacophore and molecular docking approaches for the identification and design of novel antituberculous agents, by presenting a comprehensive overview of QSAR studies reported for newer antituberculous agents [7]. Secondly, Drs. Filomena Martins, Cristina Ventura, Susana Santos, and Miguel Viveiros review the current status of different QSAR-based strategies for the design of novel anti-TB drugs based upon the most active anti-TB agent, isoniazid, from the viewpoint of the development of promising derivatives that are active against isoniazid- resistant strains with katG mutations [8]. Thirdly, Drs. Sanchaita Rajkhowa and Ramesh C. Deka review current studies concerning 2D and 3D QSAR models that contain density-functional theory (DFT)-based descriptors as their parameters [9]. Notably, DFT-based descriptors such as atomic charges, molecular orbital energies, frontier orbital densities, and atom-atom polarizabilities are very useful in predicting the reactivity of atoms in molecules. Fourthly, Drs. Renata V. Bueno, Rodolpho C. Braga, Natanael D. Segretti, Elizabeth I. Ferreira, Gustavo H. G. Trossini, and Carolina H. Andrade review the current progress and applications of QSAR analysis for the discovery of innovative tuberculostatic agents as inhibitors of ribonucleotide reductase, DNA gyrase, ATP synthase, and thymidylate kinase enzymes, highlighting present challenges and new opportunities in TB drug design [10]. The aim of this issue is to address the future prospects for the development of new antituberculous drugs. There are a number of difficulties in computational drug-design for the development of new drug formulations with potential antimycobacterial effects, especially therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy against infection due to dormant-type MTB pathogens. In addition, it should be emphasized that the most urgent goal of TB chemotherapy is develop highly active, low-cost drugs which can be used not only in industrialized but also in developing countries, because most global TB incidence occurs in the latter. I am sincerely grateful to the individuals who contributed to this work. All authors are experts in their fields and they made earnest efforts to perform these in-depth reviews. I thank them all. PMID:24245755

  7. Culturing Protozoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  8. Gastric culture

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric culture is a test to check a child's stomach contents for the bacteria that cause tuberculosis (TB). ... is placed in a special dish called a culture medium and watched for the growth of bacteria.

  9. Throat Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Throat Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Collecting | ... treatment | Getting results | see BLOOD SAMPLE Collecting A culture is a test that is often used to ...

  10. Beyond Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Daniel D.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the lack of literature relating to cultural differences and school library media programs and reviews the book "Beyond Culture" by Edward T. Hall. Highlights include the population/environment crisis, cultural literacy, the use of technology, and Marshall McLuhan's idea of the global village. (LRW)

  11. Teaching Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrath, Douglas R.

    The study of a foreign language is the study of another culture. Cultural involvement begins as learners progress from grammar to the actual use of language. Culture includes the ideas, customs, skills, arts, and tools of a people and influences both cognitive and affective behavior. It should be introduced as part of the total language…

  12. Lipoarabinomannan Localization and Abundance during Growth of Mycobacterium smegmatis ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Rakesh K.; Dinadayala, Premkumar; Ryan, Gavin J.; Lenaerts, Anne J.; Schenkel, Alan R.; Crick, Dean C.

    2011-01-01

    Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a structurally heterogeneous amphipathic lipoglycan present in Mycobacterium spp. and other actinomycetes, which constitutes a major component of the cell wall and exhibits a wide spectrum of immunomodulatory effects. Analysis of Mycobacterium smegmatis subcellular fractions and spheroplasts showed that LAM and lipomannan (LM) were primarily found in a cell wall-enriched subcellular fraction and correlated with the presence (or absence) of the mycolic acids in spheroplast preparations, suggesting that LAM and LM are primarily associated with the putative outer membrane of mycobacteria. During the course of these studies significant changes in the LAM/LM content of the cell wall were noted relative to the age of the culture. The LAM content of the M. smegmatis cell wall was dramatically reduced as the bacilli approached stationary phase, whereas LM, mycolic acid, and arabinogalactan content appeared to be unchanged. In addition, cell morphology and acid-fast staining characteristics showed variations with growth phase of the bacteria. In the logarithmic phase, the bacteria were found to be classic rod-shaped acid-fast bacilli, while in the stationary phase M. smegmatis lost the characteristic rod shape and developed a punctate acid-fast staining pattern with carbolfuchsin. The number of viable bacteria was independent of LAM content and phenotype. Taken together, the results presented here suggest that LAM is primarily localized with the mycolic acids in the cell wall and that the cellular concentration of LAM in M. smegmatis is selectively modulated with the growth phase. PMID:21840972

  13. Tuberculosis in commercial emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae).

    PubMed

    Shane, S M; Camus, A; Strain, M G; Thoen, C O; Tully, T N

    1993-01-01

    Extensive granuloma formation typical of tuberculosis was observed in a mature female emu. The diagnosis was confirmed by demonstration of acid-fast bacilli in lesions and culture of a Mycobacterium with growth characteristics resembling M. avium from liver tissue. Individual emus on the affected farm and an epidemiologically related unit gave a positive skin reaction to intradermal M. avium tuberculin. The implication of tuberculosis in commercial emus is noted in relation to the growth of the industry in North America and to management and commercial practices that encourage dissemination of infection within the species and to other exotic and domestic animals. PMID:8141752

  14. Evaluation of the Phenol Ammonium Sulfate Sedimentation Smear Microscopy Method for Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Selvakumar, N.; Rahman, Fathima; Garg, Renu; Rajasekaran, S.; Mohan, Nalini Sunder; Thyagarajan, K.; Sundaram, V.; Santha, T.; Frieden, Thomas R.; Narayanan, P. R.

    2002-01-01

    We compared the sensitivity and specificity of the phenol ammonium sulfate (PhAS) sediment smear microscopy method for detection of acid-fast bacilli with those of direct smear microscopy, using culture results for Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the “gold standard.” The sensitivities of the PhAS and direct smear methods were 85% (465 of 547) and 83% (454 of 547), respectively, and the specificity of each method was 97%. The PhAS method was better accepted by the laboratory technicians and safer but necessitates an overnight sedimentation, which delays reporting of results until 1 day after sputum collection. PMID:12149368

  15. Tuberculous Pyomyositis of Forearm Muscles

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculous pyomyositis is a rare entity reported in literature. The presented case reports the occurrence of such a lesion in forearm muscles, without any bony involvement. The ambiguity in its diagnosis led to inadequate management by the primary care physician. Clinical suspicion, positive tuberculin test, culture of acid-fast bacilli, ‘effective drainage’, and timely anti-tubercular chemotherapy ultimately resulted in a good clinical recovery. This case has been presented to increase the awareness about the existence of such an entity in clinical practice, thereby influencing its workup and the possible modes of management. PMID:18780002

  16. Giant retropharyngeal abscess secondary to tubercular spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ajay; Wadhera, Raman; Gulati, S P; Kishore, Deep; Singh, Jagjit

    2009-10-01

    Chronic retropharyngeal abscess secondary to tubercular spondilitis is a rare phenomenon. Anatomical location of this abscess makes it a life threatening condition requiring prompt diagnosis and treatment thus preventing morbidity and mortality. Authors are documenting a case of tubercular spondylitis of cervical region in a 12-year old male child with huge retropharyngeal abscess extending to superior mediastinum. Clinically, patient had respiratory distress but no neurological deficit. USG (Ultrasonography) guided aspirate of abscess sent for microscopy and culture showed acid fast bacilli. Multiple USG guided aspirations under antibiotic and antitubercular cover (Category I) were done. Patient is doing well at three month follow-up. PMID:20469736

  17. Nontuberculous Mycobacteria: Skin and Soft Tissue Infections.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Santiago, Tania M; Drage, Lisa A

    2015-07-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria are increasing in incidence. The nontuberculous mycobacteria are environmental, acid-fast bacilli that cause cutaneous infections primarily after trauma, surgery and cosmetic procedures. Skin findings include abscesses, sporotrichoid nodules or ulcers, but also less distinctive signs. Important species include Mycobacterium marinum and the rapidly growing mycobacterium: M. fortuitum, M. abscessus and M. chelonae. Obtaining tissue for mycobacterial culture and histopathology aids diagnosis. Optimal therapy is not well-established, but is species-dependent and generally dictated by susceptibility studies. Management often includes use of multiple antibiotics for several months and potential use of adjunctive surgery. PMID:26143432

  18. Skin or nail culture

    MedlinePlus

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  19. Clinical and Radiographic Factors Do Not Accurately Diagnose Smear-Negative Tuberculosis in HIV-infected Inpatients in Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J. Lucian; Worodria, William; Kisembo, Harriet; Metcalfe, John Z.; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Kawooya, Michael; Kyeyune, Rachel; den Boon, Saskia; Powell, Krista; Okello, Richard; Yoo, Samuel; Huang, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Background Although World Health Organization guidelines recommend clinical judgment and chest radiography for diagnosing tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults with unexplained cough and negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli, the diagnostic performance of this approach is unknown. Therefore, we sought to assess the accuracy of symptoms, physical signs, and radiographic findings for diagnosing tuberculosis in this population in a low-income country with a high incidence of tuberculosis. Methodology We performed a cross-sectional study enrolling consecutive HIV-infected inpatients with unexplained cough and negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Trained medical officers prospectively collected data on standard symptoms and signs of systemic respiratory illness, and two radiologists interpreted chest radiographs in a standardized fashion. We calculated positive- and negative-likelihood ratios of these factors for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (defined when mycobacterial cultures of sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were positive). We used both conventional and novel regression techniques to develop multivariable prediction models for pulmonary tuberculosis. Principal Findings Among 202 enrolled HIV-infected adults with negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli, 72 (36%) had culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. No single factor, including respiratory symptoms, physical findings, CD4+ T-cell count, or chest radiographic abnormalities, substantially increased or decreased the likelihood of pulmonary tuberculosis. After exhaustive testing, we were also unable to identify any combination of factors which reliably predicted bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis. Conclusions and Significance Clinical and radiographic criteria did not help diagnose smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis among HIV-infected patients with unexplained cough in a low-income setting. Enhanced diagnostic methods for smear-negative tuberculosis are urgently needed. PMID:20361038

  20. Bronchoscopic culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... a laboratory exam to check a piece of tissue or fluid from the lungs for infection-causing organisms. ... Culture - bronchoscopic ... used to get a sample ( biopsy ) of lung tissue or fluid. The sample ... a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ...

  1. Ryukyuan Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trafton, Terry

    The Ryukyu Islands of Japan, of which Okinawa is the best known, possess a lengthy history and a sophisticated cultural background, an exploration of which helps to shed light on this area and on mainland Japan. This document is an exposition of Ryukuan culture. Divided into eight sections, the areas covered include: (1) Historical perspective;…

  2. Primary Cutaneous Actinomycosis:A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Ranadeep; Mukherjee, Kheya; Ghoshal, Loknath

    2014-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a subacute or chronic suppurative bacterial infection caused by filamentous gram positive, anaerobic to microaerophilic non acid fast bacilli primarily of the genus Actinomyces that normally colonize the mouth, colon and vagina. Primary cutaneous actinomycosis is a rare entity and is generally associated with trauma. We report a case of primary cutaneous actinomycosis of the back and left axilla in a 32-year-old female patient with no suggestive history of trauma.The diagnosis was suggested by the characteristic lesions with multiple discharging sinuses draining sero-sanguinous fluid scattered all over the lesions. Gram positive bacilli with plenty of pus cells were demonstrated in the direct examination of the discharging pus. Diagnosis was confirmed by isolation of the organisms by anaerobic culture giving typical molar tooth colonies. Final confirmation was done by histopathological examination. PMID:25177623

  3. Making Connections through Cultural Memory, Cultural Performance, and Cultural Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Rita L.; Rogers, Tony; Wan, Yuh-Yao

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the need for making connections between cultures, especially among Aboriginal and dominant cultures. Focuses on these themes: cultural memory, cultural performance, and cultural translation. Highlights three Aboriginal cultures on three continents (South Australia, Canada, and Taiwan) to encourage art educators and students to engage in…

  4. Esophageal culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... for infection-causing germs in a sample of tissue from the esophagus. ... Culture - esophageal ... A sample of tissue from your esophagus is needed. The sample is ... or viruses. Other tests may be done to determine what medicine ...

  5. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  6. Etiological diagnosis of granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis in the tropics

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Vinita; Kaul, Anupama; Prasad, Narayan; Sharma, Kusum; Agarwal, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Background Granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis (GIN) is common due to infections, drugs or sarcoidosis. However, the cause is often difficult to establish and the studies are limited. We studied the etiology of GIN and compared the clinical and histological features and outcome in different etiologies at a tertiary care center in North India. Methods Renaö biopsies from GIN cases diagnosed from January 2004 to April 2014 were retrieved. Stain for acid fast bacilli was performed in all biopsies. Etiological diagnosis was based on clinical features, extra-renal manifestations, radiology, history of drug intake and demonstration of infective agent. Tissue PCR for tubercular DNA was performed in seven biopsies. Results Seventeen GIN patients [mean age 35 ± 15 years; males 11] were identified. Tuberculosis was the commonest etiology followed by idiopathic, sarcoidosis and fungal. Both tuberculosis and sarcoidosis patients presented with subnephrotic proteinuria and raised serum creatinine. Acid fast bacilli were demonstrated in 1/9 and necrosis was demonstrated in 3/9 granulomas in tuberculosis. Tissue PCR for tubercular DNA was positive in six TB patients and negative in one sarcoidosis patient. Patients responded well to appropriate therapy. Conclusion Etiological diagnosis of GIN is essential for timely and appropriate therapy. Tuberculosis is the commonest etiology (53%) in the tropics. Necrosis in granuloma, demonstration of acid fast bacilli, blood interferon gamma release assay and urine culture is not sensitive for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in GIN. Our findings suggest that tissue PCR for tuberculosis performed in an appropriate clinical setting is useful in the diagnostic evaluation of GIN. PMID:26413276

  7. Culturally Responsive Teaching: Understanding Disability Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2013-01-01

    To be culturally responsive teachers, we must first have an understanding of other cultures and how students from these cultures differ from one another. As we consider the many cultures represented in our classrooms, we might also consider students with disabilities as a cultural group. Within any main culture are subgroups differentiated by…

  8. Cultural Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on cultural concerns in human resource development (HRD). "Race, Gender, and Mentoring Patterns" (Linda M. Hite) examines mentoring patterns and opportunities among black female professionals and reports results reinforcing the need for increased availability of same-sex, same-race mentors in

  9. Hydroponic Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steucek, G. L.; Yurkiewicz, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a hydroponic culture technique suitable for student exercises in biology. This technique of growing plants in nutrient solutions enhances plant growth, and is an excellent way to obtain intact plants with root systems free of soil or other particulate matter. (JR)

  10. Pop Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Arthur Asa

    Popular culture in America is comprehensively reviewed in this book. The book is designed for either high school or college level social studies or English courses and includes a variety of graphic illustrations that provide a thread of continuity throughout. Basically the author has developed a method of analysis that reveals how popular culture…

  11. Cultural Themes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Loriene, Comp.

    Part of a larger report on the Four Directions Project, an American Indian technology innovation project, this section includes 10 "pathfinders" to locating information on Native American cultural themes. The pathfinders were designed by students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Texas at Austin in…

  12. Cultural Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on cultural concerns in human resource development (HRD). "Race, Gender, and Mentoring Patterns" (Linda M. Hite) examines mentoring patterns and opportunities among black female professionals and reports results reinforcing the need for increased availability of same-sex, same-race mentors in…

  13. Clinical comparison of the isolator and BacT/Alert aerobic blood culture systems.

    PubMed Central

    Hellinger, W C; Cawley, J J; Alvarez, S; Hogan, S F; Harmsen, W S; Ilstrup, D M; Cockerill, F R

    1995-01-01

    The performance characteristics of the Isolator (Wampole Laboratories, Cranbury, N.J.) and the BacT/Alert (Organon Teknika Corporation, Durham, N.C.) aerobic blood culture systems were compared for 6,009 blood culture sets obtained from patients with suspected bloodstream infections. The BacT/Alert aerobic bottle [BTA(O2)] was continuously agitated while it was incubated in 5% CO2 at 36 degrees C; culture plates prepared from the Isolator tube [I(O2)] were incubated in 5% CO2 at 37 degrees C. From 394 blood cultures, 416 clinically significant isolates of bacteria and yeasts were recovered. The overall yields for BTA(O2) and I(O2) were not significantly different (319 versus 336; P = 0.20). I(O2) recovered significantly more staphylococcus (P < 0.05) and yeast isolates (P < 0.01). BTA(O2) recovered significantly more aerobic and facultatively anaerobic gram-negative bacilli (P < 0.05). In blood culture sets which produced growth of the same organisms in both the BTA(O2) and I(O2) systems, the BTA(O2) system detected growth sooner, but more rapid identification was possible with the I(O2) system by virtue of earlier isolation of colonies on solid media. PMID:7665647

  14. Notes from the Field: Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Meningoencephalitis from a Household Rodent Infestation - Minnesota, 2015.

    PubMed

    Talley, Pamela; Holzbauer, Stacy; Smith, Kirk; Pomputius, William

    2016-01-01

    On April 20, 2015, a female aged 15 years sought care at her pediatrician's office after 5 days of fever, myalgia, left parietal headache, and photophobia. A rapid influenza assay was negative, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate and total white blood cell count were normal. She improved with symptomatic care at home, but returned to her pediatrician's office on April 28, reporting recurrence of her headache and photophobia and new onset of a stiff neck. She was admitted to the hospital, where she was febrile to 102.9°F (39.4°C) and had meningismus. Computed tomography scan of her head was normal, and a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed a markedly elevated white blood cell count with 68% lymphocytes, low glucose, and a negative Gram stain. She was treated empirically for both bacterial and herpes simplex virus meningitis. The patient's hospital course was notable for hypotension (blood pressure 81/50), irritability, and pancreatitis with a peak lipase of 8,627 U/L. CSF cultures yielded no growth, and CSF polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for herpes simplex virus was negative. Nucleic acid amplification testing, acid-fast bacilli stain, and acid-fast bacilli cultures of CSF were negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Results of investigations for human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, Lyme disease, human herpesvirus 6 and 7, and species of Babesia, Toxoplasma, Histoplasma, Cryptococcus, Blastomyces, and Brucella were negative. She recovered and was discharged on hospital day 11 with no apparent sequelae. PMID:26963688

  15. Cultural neurolinguistics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui; Mei, Leilei; Chen, Chunhui; Dong, Qi

    2010-01-01

    As the only species that evolved to possess a language faculty, humans have been surprisingly generative in creating a diverse array of language systems. These systems vary in phonology, morphology, syntax, and written forms. Before the advent of modern brain-imaging techniques, little was known about how differences across languages are reflected in the brain. This chapter aims to provide an overview of an emerging area of research — cultural neurolinguistics — that examines systematic cross-cultural/crosslinguistic variations in the neural networks of languages. We first briefly describe general brain networks for written and spoken languages. We then discuss language-specific brain regions by highlighting differences in neural bases of different scripts (logographic vs. alphabetic scripts), orthographies (transparent vs. nontransparent orthographies), and tonality (tonal vs. atonal languages). We also discuss neural basis of second language and the role of native language experience in second-language acquisition. In the last section, we outline a general model that integrates culture and neural bases of language and discuss future directions of research in this area. PMID:19874968

  16. Identification and Susceptibility Testing of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Direct Inoculation from Positive BACTEC Blood Culture Bottles into Vitek 2

    PubMed Central

    Bruins, Marjan J.; Bloembergen, Peter; Ruijs, Gijs J. H. M.; Wolfhagen, Maurice J. H. M.

    2004-01-01

    Inoculation of an automated system for rapid identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) directly from positive blood culture bottles will reduce the turnaround time of laboratory diagnosis of septicemic patients, which benefits clinical outcome and decreases patient costs. Direct test results, however, must always be confirmed by testing a pure overnight culture, which is the “gold standard.” We studied the accuracy of direct testing versus repeat testing in order to investigate the possibility of refraining from repeat testing. We also assessed the clinical risk of reporting results based on direct testing only. We inoculated Vitek 2 (bioMérieux) directly from 410 positive BACTEC 9240 (BD) blood culture bottles containing gram-negative rods and studied the ID and AST results. In a comparison of direct inoculation with the standard method, a total of 344 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were tested, and 93.0% were correctly identified. Of the 39 (10.2%) samples that contained bacilli not identifiable by Vitek 2, only 1 gave a conclusive, correct result. The overall MIC agreement among 312 isolates was 99.2%, with 0.8% very major and 0.02% major error rates. Of only three (polymicrobial) samples, the direct susceptibility pattern would be reported to the clinician as too sensitive. Vitek 2 results obtained from direct inoculation of blood culture bottles containing gram-negative bacilli are safe enough for immediate reporting, provided that ID and AST are consistent. Repeat testing is not necessary, unless Gram stain or overnight subculture results raise doubt about the purity of the culture. PMID:14715724

  17. Surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility of aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections in China: the 2002-2009 Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART).

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiwen; Wang, Hui; Chen, Minjun; Ni, Yuxing; Yu, Yunsong; Hu, Bijie; Sun, Ziyong; Huang, Wenxiang; Hu, Yunjian; Ye, Huifen; Badal, Robert E; Xu, Yingchun

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution and susceptibility of aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in China. From 2002 to 2009, minimum inhibitory concentrations of 14 antibiotics for 3420 aerobic and facultative GNB from up to eight hospitals in six cities were determined by the broth microdilution method. Enterobacteriaceae comprised 82.9% (2834/3420) of the total isolates, with Escherichia coli (49.2%) being the most commonly isolated species followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.0%), Enterobacter cloacae (5.8%) and Citrobacter freundii (2.3%). Amongst the antimicrobial agents tested, the three carbapenems (ertapenem, imipenem and meropenem) were the most active agents against Enterobacteriaceae, with susceptibility rates of 96.1-99.6% (2002-2009), 98.2-100% (2002-2009) and 99.6-100% (2002-2004), respectively, followed by amikacin (86.8-95.1%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (84.5-94.3%). Susceptibility rates of all tested third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins against Enterobacteriaceae declined by nearly 30%, with susceptibility rates of 40.2%, 39.1%, 56.3% and 51.8% in 2009 for ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and cefepime, respectively. The occurrence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases increased rapidly, especially for E. coli (from 20.8% in 2002 to 64.9% in 2009). Susceptibility of E. coli to ciprofloxacin decreased from 57.6% in 2002 to 24.2% in 2009. The least active agent against Enterobacteriaceae was ampicillin/sulbactam (SAM) (25.3-44.3%). In conclusion, Enterobacteriaceae were the major pathogens causing IAIs, and carbapenems retained the highest susceptibility rates over the 8-year study period. Third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and SAM may not be ideal choices for empirical therapy of IAIs in China. PMID:21036547

  18. Advances in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. )

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on advances in cell culture. Topics covered include: Genetic changes in the influenza viruses during growth in cultured cells; The biochemistry and genetics of mosquito cells in culture; and Tree tissue culture applications.

  19. Bacterial Wound Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Bacterial Wound Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Aerobic Wound Culture; Anaerobic Wound Culture Formal name: Culture, wound Related ...

  20. Co-occurrence of Methanosarcina mazei and Geobacteraceae in an iron (III)-reducing enrichment culture

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shiling; Zhang, Hongxia; Li, Ying; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Oumei; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Fanghua

    2015-01-01

    Methanosaeta harundinacea and Methanosarcina barkeri, known as classic acetoclastic methanogens, are capable of directly accepting electrons from Geobacter metallireducens for the reduction of carbon dioxide to methane, having been revealed as direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) in the laboratory co-cultures. However, whether their co-occurrences are ubiquitous in the iron (III)-reducing environments and the other species of acetoclastic methanogens such as Methanosarcina mazei are capable of DIET are still unknown. Instead of initiating the co-cultures with pure cultures, two-step cultivation was employed to selectively enrich iron (III)-reducing microorganisms in a coastal gold mining river, Jiehe River, with rich iron content in the sediments. First, iron (III) reducers including Geobacteraceae were successfully enriched by 3-months successive culture on amorphous Fe(III) oxides as electron acceptor and acetate as electron donor. High-throughput Illumina sequencing, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis based on 16S rRNA genes revealed that the enrichment cultures actively contained the bacteria belong to Geobacteraceae and Bacilli, exclusively dominated by the archaea belong to Methanosarcinaceae. Second, the enrichment cultures including methanogens and Geobacteraceae were transferred with ethanol as alternative electron donor. Remarkably, aggregates were successively formed in the enrichments after three transfers. The results revealed by RNA-based analysis demonstrate that the co-occurrence of Methanosarcina mazei and Geobacteraceae in an iron (III)-reducing enrichment culture. Furthermore, the aggregates, as close physical contact, formed in the enrichment culture, indicate that DIET could be a possible option for interspecies electron transfer in the aggregates. PMID:26441876

  1. Hispanic Culture and Relational Cultural Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Traditional personality theories do not consider the impact of culture on personality development. Yet, to provide culturally relevant services to the increasing Hispanic population in the U.S., more culturally relevant theories must be identified. This paper presents Relational Cultural Theory (RCT) as an alternative model to understanding…

  2. Academic Culture and Campus Culture of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Xi; Tian, Xianghong

    2012-01-01

    Academic culture of universities mainly consists of academic outlooks, academic spirits, academic ethics and academic environments. Campus culture in a university is characterized by individuality, academic feature, opening, leading, variety and creativity. The academic culture enhances the construction of campus culture. The campus culture…

  3. Marketing across Cultures: Tools for Cultural Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffield, Barney T., III

    The concept of cultural universals, the basic needs shared by people around the world, is a critical concept in assessing the impact of culture on decisions about the international marketing of goods and services. In most cases, international marketers have little need to understand all the ways in which their culture differs from the culture of…

  4. Bacterial culture of perfusion blood after open-heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Freeman, R; Hjersing, N

    1980-10-01

    The results of routine culture of 595 consecutive specimens of perfusion blood are presented. Ten per cent of the specimens yielded bacteria overall, but it was found that the isolation rate was increased to 17.7% when the prophylactic antibodies being given during the bypass were specifically neutralised. Coagulase-negative staphylococci and diphtheroids formed the majority of organisms isolated, but Gram negative bacilli or "coliform" type were also occasionally found. A comparison of the relative findings in patients receiving prophylactic flucloxacillin or cephradine showed that the isolation rates of coagulase-negative staphylococci and diphtheroids were lower in the group receiving flucloxacillin. The origin of the bacteria isolated from perfusion blood remains uncertain but speciation of coagulase-negative staphylococci from perfusion blood and similar organisms isolated subsequently from catheter tips in the same patients revealed no evidence that the two sources of organisms were linked. Although organisms are easily and commonly found in perfusion blood, the relevance of this phenomenon to post-operative endocarditis is not clear. PMID:7008242

  5. Mixed metazoan and bacterial infection of the gas bladder of the lined seahorse-a case report.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Paul A; Petty, Barbara D

    2013-03-01

    Five wild-caught Lined Seahorses Hippocampus erectus from an aquarium system presented with altered buoyancy and distended upper trunks. Radiography of one specimen revealed a reduced air volume in the gas bladder. Pneumocystocentesis revealed a brown exudate of numerous leukocytes, parasite ova, and Gram- and acid-fast-positive bacilli under wet mounts and stains. Necropsies revealed enlarged, friable kidneys and distended gas bladders containing copious purulent exudate, necrotic tissue, and adult digeneans Dictysarca virens. Bacterial isolates from exudate cultures grown on Lowenstein-Jensen medium were identified as Gordonia sp. and Mycobacterium poriferae by high-performance liquid chromatography and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. Histopathology demonstrated a histiocytic response in kidney and gas bladder exudate, inflammation of the gas bladder wall, and infection of the gas bladder lumen with parasite ova and acid-fast-positive and Gomori's methenamine silver-positive bacilli. Praziquantel is prescribed for digenean infections but dissolves incompletely in seawater and is toxic to this host. Eradication of intermediate host vectors is a management option. Treatment of Gordonia infection has not been addressed in nonhuman animals, and there is no known effective treatment for Mycobacterium spp. infection in fishes. This is the first case report of digenean infection of the gas bladder in a syngnathid, Gordonia sp. infection in a nonhuman animal, and M. poriferae infection in a fish. PMID:23343385

  6. Mycobacterium marinum infection in Japanese forest green tree frogs (Rhacophorus arboreus).

    PubMed

    Haridy, M; Tachikawa, Y; Yoshida, S; Tsuyuguchi, K; Tomita, M; Maeda, S; Wada, T; Ibi, K; Sakai, H; Yanai, T

    2014-01-01

    Four Japanese forest green tree frogs (Rhacophorus arboreus) were presented with emaciation, abdominal distention and ulcerative and nodular cutaneous lesions affecting the brisket, limbs, digits and ventral abdomen. Another three frogs had been found dead in the same tank 1 year previously. Necropsy examination of these seven frogs revealed splenomegaly and hepatomegaly, with multiple tan-yellow nodular foci present in the liver, spleen, heart, lungs, ovaries and kidneys. Microscopically, five frogs had necrosis and surrounding granulomatous inflammation in the liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs, intestine and ovaries, with numerous acid-fast bacilli in the areas of necrosis. Two frogs had granulomatous lesions in the lungs, liver, spleen, heart, coelomic membrane, stomach and intestinal wall. These lesions had no or minimal necrosis and few acid-fast bacilli. Mycobacterium spp. was cultured from three frogs and identified as Mycobacterium marinum by colony growth rate and photochromogenicity and DNA sequencing. This is the first report of M. marinum infection in Japanese forest green tree frogs. PMID:25047922

  7. Potential virulence factors of Proteus bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Rózalski, A; Sidorczyk, Z; Kotełko, K

    1997-01-01

    The object of this review is the genus Proteus, which contains bacteria considered now to belong to the opportunistic pathogens. Widely distributed in nature (in soil, water, and sewage), Proteus species play a significant ecological role. When present in the niches of higher macroorganisms, these species are able to evoke pathological events in different regions of the human body. The invaders (Proteus mirabilis, P. vulgaris, and P. penneri) have numerous factors including fimbriae, flagella, outer membrane proteins, lipopolysaccharide, capsule antigen, urease, immunoglobulin A proteases, hemolysins, amino acid deaminases, and, finally, the most characteristic attribute of Proteus, swarming growth, enabling them to colonize and survive in higher organisms. All these features and factors are described and commented on in detail. The questions important for future investigation of these facultatively pathogenic microorganisms are also discussed. PMID:9106365

  8. Potential virulence factors of Proteus bacilli.

    PubMed

    Rózalski, A; Sidorczyk, Z; Kotełko, K

    1997-03-01

    The object of this review is the genus Proteus, which contains bacteria considered now to belong to the opportunistic pathogens. Widely distributed in nature (in soil, water, and sewage), Proteus species play a significant ecological role. When present in the niches of higher macroorganisms, these species are able to evoke pathological events in different regions of the human body. The invaders (Proteus mirabilis, P. vulgaris, and P. penneri) have numerous factors including fimbriae, flagella, outer membrane proteins, lipopolysaccharide, capsule antigen, urease, immunoglobulin A proteases, hemolysins, amino acid deaminases, and, finally, the most characteristic attribute of Proteus, swarming growth, enabling them to colonize and survive in higher organisms. All these features and factors are described and commented on in detail. The questions important for future investigation of these facultatively pathogenic microorganisms are also discussed. PMID:9106365

  9. High Mortality among Patients with Positive Blood Cultures at a Children's Hospital in Tbilisi, Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Schaffner, Jami; Chochua, Sopio; Kourbatova, Ekaterina V.; Barragan, Maribel; Wang, Yun F; Blumberg, Henry M; Rio, Carlos del; Walker, H. Kenneth; Leonard, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Background The etiology and outcomes of blood stream infections (BSI) among pediatric patients is not well described in resource-limited countries including Georgia. Methods Patients with positive blood cultures at the largest pediatric hospital in the country of Georgia were identified by review of medical and laboratory records for patients who had blood cultures obtained between 01/2004-06/2006. Results Of 1,693 blood cultures obtained during the study period, 338 (20%) were positive; 299 were included in our analysis. The median age was 14 days (range 2 days -14 years) and 178 (60%) were male; 53% of patients with a positive culture were admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) were representing 165 (55%) of 299 cultures. Further speciation of 135 (82%) of 165 GNR was not possible because of lack of laboratory capacity. Overall mortality was 30% (90 of 299). Among the 90 children who died, 80 (89%) were neonates and 68 (76%) had BSI caused by Gram-negative organism. In multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality included age <30 days (OR=4.00, 95% CI 1.89-8.46) and having a positive blood culture for a Gram-negative BSI (OR=2.38, 95% CI 1.32-4.29). Conclusions A high mortality was seen among children, particularly neonates, with positive blood cultures at the largest pediatric hospital in Georgia. Because of limited laboratory capacity microbiological identification of common organisms known to cause BSI in children was not possible and susceptibility testing was not performed. Improving the infrastructure of diagnostic microbiology laboratories in resource limited countries is critical in order to improve patient care and clinical outcomes and from a public health standpoint to improve surveillance activities. PMID:19759489

  10. Point-Counterpoint: Reflex Cultures Reduce Laboratory Workload and Improve Antimicrobial Stewardship in Patients Suspected of Having Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Romney M; Dien Bard, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent and lead to a large number of clinical encounters. A common management strategy for patients suspected of having a urinary tract infection is to test for pyuria and bacteria by urine analysis (UA) of midstream urine, with initiation of antibiotic therapy and urine culture if one or both tests are positive. Although this practice was first used in an outpatient setting with midstream urine samples, some institutions allow its use in the management of catheterized patients. The ideas behind the reflex urine culture are to limit laboratory workload by not performing culture on negative specimens and to improve antimicrobial stewardship by not giving antimicrobials to patients with negative UA results. The questions are, first, whether reflex urine culture reduces workloads significantly and, second, whether it improves antimicrobial stewardship in the era of increasing numbers of urinary tract infections due to extensively drug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. Romney Humphries from UCLA supports the idea that reflex urine cultures are of value and describes what reflex parameters are most useful, while Jennifer Dien Bard of Children's Hospital Los Angeles discusses their limitations. PMID:26659213

  11. Bactericidal Action of Gatifloxacin, Rifampin, and Isoniazid on Logarithmic- and Stationary-Phase Cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Paramasivan, C. N.; Sulochana, S.; Kubendiran, G.; Venkatesan, P.; Mitchison, D. A.

    2005-01-01

    The bactericidal activity of gatifloxacin, alone and in combination with isoniazid and rifampin, was studied on both exponential- and stationary-phase cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv. On log-phase cultures, the bactericidal activity of gatifloxacin at 4 μg/ml was rapid and was very similar to that of isoniazid. At concentrations of 0.25 and 4 μg/ml, gatifloxacin enhanced the activity of isoniazid. Killing of the stationary-phase culture was biphasic. During the first 2 days, gatifloxacin at 4 μg/ml slightly increased the limited bactericidal activities of isoniazid and rifampin. However, no further additional bactericidal activity was found during further incubation with isoniazid alone or when gatifloxacin was added to either isoniazid or rifampin. This suggested that the stationary-phase culture contained a mixture of occasionally dividing bacilli that were killed during the first 2 days and true static persisters in the residual population that mimicked those in human lesions. In view of the failure of gatifloxacin to add to the sterilizing activity of isoniazid or rifampin during days 2 to 6 of exposure in the stationary-phase culture, it is unlikely to be a sterilizing drug that can be used to shorten the duration of treatment appreciably when it is added to present treatment regimens. PMID:15673743

  12. Evidence that vesicles containing living, virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium avium in cultured human macrophages are not acidic.

    PubMed Central

    Crowle, A J; Dahl, R; Ross, E; May, M H

    1991-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium multiply in cultured human macrophages (MP) within membrane-enclosed vesicles. These vesicles are generally assumed to be acidic. The evidence most frequently cited for this assumption is that pyrazinamide, which requires an acid pH to be effective, is effective and streptomycin, which loses most of its activity at a low pH, is poorly effective against tubercle bacilli. This assumption was tested by using the two weak bases chloroquine and NH4Cl to raise the pH of acidic vesicles in MP experimentally infected with M. tuberculosis or M. avium. An immunocytochemical locator of acidic regions in the MP was used to monitor the association of intracellular bacilli with acidity. MP were infected with M. tuberculosis or M. avium and incubated with various combinations of the drugs and the weak bases. Replication of the bacteria in the MP was measured by culture counts. Intracellular associations of the mycobacteria with acidity were assessed by electron micrographs and by using the weak base 3-(2,4-dinitroanilino)-3'-amino-N-methyl dipropylamine, which was detected with colloidal gold-labeled antibodies. It was confirmed by immunocytochemistry that both chloroquine and NH4Cl raise the pH of acidic vesicles in the infected MP. However, neither caused any pH-related change in the antimycobacterial activities of pyrazinamide or streptomycin or of the pH-independent drug isoniazid. Immunochemical analyses showed acidity to be associated with killed but not living mycobacteria in the MP. These findings suggest that living M. tuberculosis and M. avium are located in human MP in vesicles which are not acidic. Images PMID:1902198

  13. Dehistoricized Cultural Identity and Cultural Othering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiguo, Qu

    2013-01-01

    The assumption that each culture has its own distinctive identity has been generally accepted in the discussion of cultural identities. Quite often identity formation is not perceived as a dynamic and interactive ongoing process that engages other cultures and involves change in its responses to different challenges at different times. I will

  14. Dehistoricized Cultural Identity and Cultural Othering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiguo, Qu

    2013-01-01

    The assumption that each culture has its own distinctive identity has been generally accepted in the discussion of cultural identities. Quite often identity formation is not perceived as a dynamic and interactive ongoing process that engages other cultures and involves change in its responses to different challenges at different times. I will…

  15. Routine sputum culture

    MedlinePlus

    Sputum culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Culture, routine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, ... . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:409- ...

  16. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Your Child All About Food Allergies Blood Culture KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Culture Print A A ... adjust the treatment choice. Why Do a Blood Culture? During some illnesses, certain infection-causing bacteria and ...

  17. Lymph node culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - lymph node ... or viruses grow. This process is called a culture. Sometimes, special stains are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration does not ...

  18. Culture - joint fluid

    MedlinePlus

    Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...

  19. Peritoneal fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... based on more than just the peritoneal fluid culture (which may be negative even if you have ...

  20. Popular Culture and English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Hilary Taylor

    1987-01-01

    Explores the origins and elements of popular culture--noting that English instruction and popular culture need not be mutually exclusive, and that selected materials from popular culture may serve goals of the English curriculum without compromising them. (NKA)

  1. Culture Computing: Interactive Technology to Explore Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheok, Adrian David

    The present day rapid development of media science and digital technology is offering the modern generation more opportunities as well as challenges as the new fundamental literacy. Therefore, to reach the modern generation on issues such as an appreciation of cultures, we have to find common grounds based on digital media technology. In an increasingly hybrid cultural environment, interaction and fusion of cultural factors with the computer technology will be an investigation into the possibilities of providing an experience into the cultures of the world, operating in the environments the modern generation inhabits. Research has created novel merging of traditional cultures and literature with recent media literacy. Three cultural computing systems, Media Me, BlogWall and Confucius Computer, are presented in this chapter. Studies showed that users gave positive feedback to their experience of interacting with cultural computing systems.

  2. A mimic's imitator: a cavitary pneumonia in a myasthenic patient with history of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Raquel Ramos; Bhanot, Nitin; Min, Zaw

    2015-01-01

    A 77-year-old man with myasthenia gravis receiving prednisone and plasmapheresis was found to have right upper lobe cavitary pneumonia on radiological imaging studies after thymectomy. He had a remote history of treated pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) at the age of 19. On the basis of history of TB and current prednisone therapy, reactivation of pulmonary TB was highly suspected. Branching Gram-positive bacilli were identified on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). BAL Ziehl-Neelsen Acid-fast bacilli stain was negative, but a modified Kinyoun stain revealed branching, beaded, filamentous bacilli, suggestive of Nocardia spp. Nocardia cyriacigeorgica grew from the BAL culture. Cerebral MRI demonstrated a right frontal lobe lesion, clinically correlated to be nocardial brain abscess. The patient was treated with three-drug antimicrobial therapy (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, meropenem, linezolid) for 2 months, followed by an additional 10 months of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Amikacin would have been included in the initial three-drug regimen, but its use was contraindicated in our myasthenic patient because aminoglycoside would trigger fatal myasthenic crisis by neuromuscular blockage. Follow-up imaging studies revealed resolution of the lung and brain lesions. PMID:26150643

  3. Migration, cultural bereavement and cultural identity

    PubMed Central

    BHUGRA, DINESH; BECKER, MATTHEW A

    2005-01-01

    Migration has contributed to the richness in diversity of cultures, ethnicities and races in developed countries. Individuals who migrate experience multiple stresses that can impact their mental well being, including the loss of cultural norms, religious customs, and social support systems, adjustment to a new culture and changes in identity and concept of self. Indeed, the rates of mental illness are increased in some migrant groups. Mental health practitioners need to be attuned to the unique stresses and cultural aspects that affect immigrants and refugees in order to best address the needs of this increasing and vulnerable population. This paper will review the concepts of migration, cultural bereavement and cultural identity, and explore the interrelationship between these three aspects of the migrant's experience and cultural congruity. The complex interplay of the migration process, cultural bereavement, cultural identity, and cultural congruity, along with biological, psychological and social factors, is hypothesized as playing a major role in the increased rates of mental illness in affected migrant groups. PMID:16633496

  4. Indian Culture and Industrialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigart, Robert J.

    Since factories were developed by and for Western culture, those on American Indian reservations need to be adjusted to a nonwestern social and cultural milieu. Among Indian cultural traits which differ from Western culture are independence, nature of authority, attitude toward property and nature, competition, rewards system, and sense of time.…

  5. Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Jacqueline Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Many teachers have only a cursory understanding of culturally relevant pedagogy, and their efforts to bridge the cultural gap often fall short. Culturally relevant pedagogy is a term that describes effective teaching in culturally diverse classrooms. It can be a daunting idea to understand and implement. Yet people tend to appreciate culturally…

  6. Cultural Energy & Grassroots Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleymeyer, Charles D.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses how cultural vitality drives successful community development. Links cultural, community, and environmental values. Examines successes and failures of programs attempting to link culture and development in Panama, Ecuador, and Colombia. Examines role of cultural self-examination for creating new development paradigm. Examines prospects…

  7. The Concept of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, John

    1987-01-01

    National identity and schooling are predicated on a particular yet ill-defined view of culture. To counter "popular" and "high" culture polarizations and arguments for cultural pluralism, this paper proposes that curricula be designed for student access to forms and symbols defining Australian culture through discourse and artistic…

  8. Does Culture Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, David E.

    2002-01-01

    Objects to current preoccupations with culture (particularly race) in psychology and education, suggesting that it is unethical to let culture influence decision making. Notes the paucity of empirical evidence of statistical interactions between treatment and culture in psychotherapy or teaching and culture in education. Concludes that without…

  9. Teaching Language, Learning Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiderski, Richard M.

    A discussion of language focuses on the relationship between language learning and culture learning. The first four chapters look at the cultural context of language learning, particularly in the language classroom. The second part examines culture learning through language teaching. The first chapter discusses lexical culture, or the vocabulary…

  10. Many Forms of Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Adam B.

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists interested in culture have focused primarily on East-West differences in individualism-collectivism, or independent-interdependent self-construal. As important as this dimension is, there are many other forms of culture with many dimensions of cultural variability. Selecting from among the many understudied cultures in psychology,…

  11. Culture before Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Betsy E.

    Cultural traits related to experiences of specific ethnic, religious, or racial heritages have received much attention in recent years. There are several broader cultural influences, however, which apply to children of several cultural groups and to teachers. These broader cultural influences color teachers' interpretations of students' behaviors…

  12. Popular Culture and Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Ray B., Ed.; Ambrosetti, Ronald J., Ed.

    The seven essays in this publication, including four read at the fall 1969 American Studies Association meeting, attempt to present both the nature of popular culture study and a guide for teachers of popular culture courses. Papers are (1) "Popular Culture: Notes toward a Definition" by Ray B. Browne; (2) "Can Popular Culture Save American…

  13. Microfluidic perfusion culture.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Koji; Sugiura, Shinji; Kanamori, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic perfusion culture is a novel technique to culture animal cells in a small-scale microchamber with medium perfusion. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is the most popular material to fabricate a microfluidic perfusion culture chip. Photolithography and replica molding techniques are generally used for fabrication of a microfluidic perfusion culture chip. Pressure-driven perfusion culture system is convenient technique to carry out the perfusion culture of animal cells in a microfluidic device. Here, we describe a general theory on microfluid network design, microfabrication technique, and experimental technique for pressure-driven perfusion culture in an 8 × 8 microchamber array on a glass slide-sized microchip made out of PDMS. PMID:24297421

  14. Microbial pollution indicators and culturable heterotrophic bacteria in a Mediterranean area (Southern Adriatic Sea Italian coasts)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabili, L.; Cavallo, R. A.

    2011-05-01

    In the present study we evaluated the degree of microbial water pollution along the coast line between Brindisi and Santa Maria di Leuca (Southern Adriatic Sea) as well as the culturable heterotrophic bacteria abundances and biodiversity in relation to the microbiological quality of the water. A total of 3773 colonies were isolated, subcultured and identified by several morphological, cultural and biochemical methods including the standardized API 20 E and API 20 NE tests. Along the examined coastal tract the microbial pollution indicators were always below the tolerance limits for bathing waters defined by the CEE directive, suggesting a good sanitary quality. Concerning culturable heterotrophic bacteria, different temporal density trends were observed in the four sites in relation to their geographical position. A positive relationship between the bacterial abundances and the temperature was observed in S. Cataldo and Otranto. The culturable bacterial community was mainly composed of the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Photobacterium and Flavobacterium. The Enterobacteriaceae family represented a conspicuous component of the bacterial community too. Bacilli were predominant among the Gram-positive bacteria. Of interest is the isolation of yeasts (2% at the surface and 1% at the bottom) taking into account their capability of biodegradation of various materials. Because of the low level of microbial pollution recorded, our results are indicative of the natural variation and diversity of the culturable bacterial community in such an oligotrophic ecosystem and could represent a good point of comparison with other ecosystems as well as a baseline for long term studies aimed to evaluate the effects of environmental fluctuations and human impacts on this aspect of biodiversity in coastal areas.

  15. Three Tests Used to Identify Non-Culturable Form of Helicobacter pylori in Water Samples

    PubMed Central

    Chamanrokh, Parastoo; Shahhosseiny, Mohammad Hassan; Mazaheri Assadi, Mahnaz; Nejadsattari, Taher; Esmaili, Davood

    2015-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori, causing the most common chronic bacterial infection, exist in two forms; bacilli and coccoid. The coccoid form is identified as viable but non-culturable bacteria. Objectives: The current study aimed to conduct culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) tests to identify coccoid forms of H. pylori. Materials and Methods: The PCR and LAMP tests were optimized using specific primers for glmM gene. The sensitivity and specificity of the tests were determined. The current experimental study was conducted on 10 different strains isolated from clinical cases (H1-H10). The isolates were added to tap water and incubated at three different temperatures for one and two months intervals. After pure-culturing of the bacteria, DNAs were extracted and PCR and LAMP were performed. Results: Ten copies of targeted DNA were required for PCR detection whereas only five copies gave a positive reaction by LAMP assay, with 100% specificity. Of the 10 isolates inoculated in water for one and two months at three different temperatures 4, 22, and 37°C, only three cases (5%) were found positive in the first month; 13 (21.6%) and 29 cases (48.3%) were also positive by PCR and LAMP tests in the first and second months. Conclusions: Results of the current study confirmed that molecular methods such as PCR and LAMP were much more sensitive, rapid, and specific than culturing to identify non-culturable coccoid forms of H. pylori in water. PMID:26034541

  16. Evaluation of an Image Analysis Device (APAS) for Screening Urine Cultures.

    PubMed

    Glasson, John; Hill, Rhys; Summerford, Michael; Giglio, Steven

    2016-02-01

    While advancements have been made in some areas of pathology with diagnostic materials being screened using image analysis technologies, the reporting of cultures from agar plates remains a manual process. We compared the results for 2,163 urine cultures read by a reference panel of microbiologists, by the routine laboratory process, and by an automated plate reading system, APAS (LBT Innovations Ltd., South Australia). APAS detected colonies with a sensitivity of 99.1% and a specificity of 99.3% on blood agar, while on MacConkey agar, the colony detection sensitivity was 99.4% with a specificity of 99.3%. The device's ability to enumerate growth had an accuracy of 89.2%, and the morphological identification of colonies showed a high level of performance for the colony types typical of Escherichia coli and other enteric bacilli. On blood agar, lactose-fermenting colonies were morphologically identified with a sensitivity of 98.9%, while on MacConkey agar they were identified with a sensitivity of 99.2%. In this first clinical evaluation, APAS demonstrated high performance in the detection, enumeration, and colony classification of isolates compared with that for conventional plate-reading methods. The device found all cases reported by the laboratory and detected the most commonly encountered organisms found in urinary tract infections. PMID:26582838

  17. Cultural and biochemical characterization of Actinobacillus and Actinobacillus-like species from ram lambs with epididymitis.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, C M; Healey, M C; Torres, A R; Johnston, A V

    1989-10-01

    Cellular, colonial, cultural, and biochemical characteristics of 25 field strains of gram-negative pleomorphic bacilli from rams with epididymitis were compared with Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strain 29522 and Actinobacillus seminis ATCC strain 15768. Three field strains were identified as A. actinomycetemcomitans, 15 as A. seminis, and 2 as Haemophilus agni; however, 5 strains (3 in group A and 2 in group B) were not identified as species in the genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, or Pasteurella based on the taxonomic criteria in Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. The 5 Actinobacillus-like organisms in groups A and B were predominantly gram-negative coccobacilli and exhibited less pleomorphism than the 2 Actinobacillus species. The colonial morphologies of groups A and B were similar to the 2 Actinobacillus species but were smaller in diameter and had a pale yellow color. Groups A and B, like the actinobacilli, were facultative anaerobic and capnophilic, did not grow on MacConkey agar, and were catalase-positive and oxidase-positive. Group A reduced nitrate but group B did not. The A. seminis strains utilized ornithine, and group A utilized arginine; but group B did not utilize either ornithine or arginine. All strains failed to utilize lysine or tryptophane. All strains produced acid but no gas from glucose, and the utilization of other carbohydrates varied markedly both between and within the 5 groups of bacteria.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2488712

  18. Short-term dynamics of culturable bacteria in a soil amended with biotransformed dry olive residue.

    PubMed

    Siles, J A; Pascual, J; Gonzlez-Menndez, V; Sampedro, I; Garca-Romera, I; Bills, G F

    2014-03-01

    Dry olive residue (DOR) transformation by wood decomposing basidiomycetes (e.g. Coriolopsis floccosa) is a possible strategy for eliminating the liabilities related to the use of olive oil industry waste as an organic soil amendment. The effects of organic fertilization with DOR on the culturable soil microbiota are largely unknown. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to measure the short-term effects of DOR and C. floccosa-transformed DOR on the culturable bacterial soil community, while at the same time documenting the bacterial diversity of an agronomic soil in the southeastern Iberian Peninsula. The control soil was compared with the same soil treated with DOR and with C. floccosa-transformed DOR for 0, 30 and 60 days. Impact was measured from total viable cells and CFU counts, as well as the isolation and characterization of 900 strains by fatty acid methyl ester profiles and 16S rRNA partial sequencing. The bacterial diversity was distributed between Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Sphingobacteria and Cytophagia. Analysis of the treatments and controls demonstrated that soil amendment with untransformed DOR produced important changes in bacterial density and diversity. However, when C. floccosa-transformed DOR was applied, bacterial proliferation was observed but bacterial diversity was less affected, and the distribution of microorganisms was more similar to the unamended soil. PMID:24268790

  19. Evaluation of an Image Analysis Device (APAS) for Screening Urine Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Rhys; Summerford, Michael; Giglio, Steven

    2015-01-01

    While advancements have been made in some areas of pathology with diagnostic materials being screened using image analysis technologies, the reporting of cultures from agar plates remains a manual process. We compared the results for 2,163 urine cultures read by a reference panel of microbiologists, by the routine laboratory process, and by an automated plate reading system, APAS (LBT Innovations Ltd., South Australia). APAS detected colonies with a sensitivity of 99.1% and a specificity of 99.3% on blood agar, while on MacConkey agar, the colony detection sensitivity was 99.4% with a specificity of 99.3%. The device's ability to enumerate growth had an accuracy of 89.2%, and the morphological identification of colonies showed a high level of performance for the colony types typical of Escherichia coli and other enteric bacilli. On blood agar, lactose-fermenting colonies were morphologically identified with a sensitivity of 98.9%, while on MacConkey agar they were identified with a sensitivity of 99.2%. In this first clinical evaluation, APAS demonstrated high performance in the detection, enumeration, and colony classification of isolates compared with that for conventional plate-reading methods. The device found all cases reported by the laboratory and detected the most commonly encountered organisms found in urinary tract infections. PMID:26582838

  20. Optimising Mycobacterium tuberculosis detection in resource limited settings

    PubMed Central

    Alfred, Nwofor; Lovette, Lawson; Aliyu, Gambo; Olusegun, Obasanya; Meshak, Panwal; Jilang, Tunkat; Iwakun, Mosunmola; Nnamdi, Emenyonu; Olubunmi, Onuoha; Dakum, Patrick; Abimiku, Alash'le

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The light-emitting diode (LED) fluorescence microscopy has made acid-fast bacilli (AFB) detection faster and efficient although its optimal performance in resource-limited settings is still being studied. We assessed the optimal performances of light and fluorescence microscopy in routine conditions of a resource-limited setting and evaluated the digestion time for sputum samples for maximum yield of positive cultures. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Facility-based involving samples of routine patients receiving tuberculosis treatment and care from the main tuberculosis case referral centre in northern Nigeria. Participants The study included 450 sputum samples from 150 new patients with clinical diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods The 450 samples were pooled into 150 specimens, examined independently with mercury vapour lamp (FM), LED CysCope (CY) and Primo Star iLED (PiLED) fluorescence microscopies, and with the Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) microscopy to assess the performance of each technique compared with liquid culture. The cultured specimens were decontaminated with BD Mycoprep (4% NaOH–1% NLAC and 2.9% sodium citrate) for 10, 15 and 20 min before incubation in Mycobacterium growth incubator tube (MGIT) system and growth examined for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). Results Of the 150 specimens examined by direct microscopy: 44 (29%), 60 (40%), 49 (33%) and 64 (43%) were AFB positive by ZN, FM, CY and iLED microscopy, respectively. Digestion of sputum samples for 10, 15 and 20 min yielded mycobacterial growth in 72 (48%), 81 (54%) and 68 (45%) of the digested samples, respectively, after incubation in the MGIT system. Conclusions In routine laboratory conditions of a resource-limited setting, our study has demonstrated the superiority of fluorescence microscopy over the conventional ZN technique. Digestion of sputum samples for 15 min yielded more positive cultures. PMID:24589822

  1. Cultural Molding: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassebaum, Peter

    Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course, this learning module introduces the student to cultural molding, the idea that most human behavior can be traced to enculturation and exposure rather than to a socio-biological explanation of human behavior. Following a brief description of socialization,…

  2. Une maison de culture (A Culture Center).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mourlevat, Alain

    1980-01-01

    Describes the "Culture Center" designed by Le Corbusier and located in Firminy, France. The role of the center in arousing intellectual curiosity in people living in a technological age is discussed. The audience of this culture center, young people, and the types of activities directed toward them are described. (AMH)

  3. Sensitivity of EIA in the diagnosis of tuberculosis using 38-kDa antigen.

    PubMed

    Chander, J; Subrahmanyan, S; Gupta, R

    1996-10-01

    Patients, who reported to Government Medical College Hospital, Chandigarh with suspected signs and symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis, were examined. Their sputum was investigated for the presence of acid-fast bacilli, using the routine Ziehl-Neelsen staining, for 3 consecutive days. The positive cases were referred for treatment and the rest were referred for supplementary tests like x-ray, Mantoux test, FNAC and the presence of IgG antibodies in their serum against recombinant 38-kDa antigen derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, using micro-ELISA plates. It was found that 37.8% of the cases who were negative for acid-fast bacilli found to be positive for the presence of antimycobacterial IgG antibodies with an antibody titre greater than the cut off value in addition to one of the above mentioned positive supplementary finding. Hence, EIA for tuberculosis is more sensitive as compared to the routine acid-fast bacilli staining. PMID:9141876

  4. Experiencing Native American Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darou, Wes G.

    1980-01-01

    Presents four experiential excercises based on Native American culture for use in education, communication training, and counseling. These excercises are intended as vehicles for personal growth and aids to learning about Native American culture. (RC)

  5. Armenian Cultural Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Cultural Astronomy is the reflection of sky events in various fields of nations' culture. In foreign literature this field is also called "Astronomy in Culture" or "Astronomy and Culture". Cultural astronomy is the set of interdisciplinary fields studying the astronomical systems of current or ancient societies and cultures. It is manifested in Religion, Mythology, Folklore, Poetry, Art, Linguistics and other fields. In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to this sphere, particularly international organizations were established, conferences are held and journals are published. Armenia is also rich in cultural astronomy. The present paper focuses on Armenian archaeoastronomy and cultural astronomy, including many creations related to astronomical knowledge; calendars, rock art, mythology, etc. On the other hand, this subject is rather poorly developed in Armenia; there are only individual studies on various related issues (especially many studies related to Anania Shirakatsi) but not coordinated actions to manage this important field of investigation.

  6. Rectal culture (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A rectal culture test is performed by inserting a cotton swab in the rectum. The swab is rotated gently, and withdrawn. A smear of the swab is placed in culture media to encourage the growth of microorganisms. The ...

  7. Culture in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medin, Douglas L.; Bang, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Culture plays a large but often unnoticeable role in what we teach and how we teach children. We are a country of immense diversity, but in classrooms the dominant European-American culture has become the language of learning.

  8. Science, Magic, and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangler, David G.

    1974-01-01

    The differences which appear when a heavily scientific culture comes in contact with a culture whose basic orientation toward nature and man is of a religious, magical character are briefly investigated. (NQ)

  9. Cultural changes in aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobl, Bill

    1991-01-01

    Cultural changes; people and jobs; examples of cultural changes required; advanced launch system (ALS) philosophy; ALS operability capabilities; and ALS operability in design are outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  10. Teaching Culture: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessard-Clouston, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Discusses seven books on cultural awareness: (1) "Culture Learning" (Damen); (2) "Beyond the Language Classroom" (Fantini and others); (3) "Culturally Speaking" (Genzel and Cummings); (4) "Across Cultures" (Lim and Smalzer); (5) "Teaching Culture" (Seelye); (6) "Cultural Awareness" (Tomalin and Stempleski); and (7) "Culture Connection" (Wegmann…

  11. Culture Differences and English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Language is a part of culture, and plays a very important role in the development of the culture. Some sociologists consider it as the keystone of culture. They believe, without language, culture would not be available. At the same time, language is influenced and shaped by culture, it reflects culture. Therefore, culture plays a very important…

  12. Europeana: Think Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kail, Candice

    2011-01-01

    Europeana: Think Culture (http://www.europeana.eu) is a wonderful cultural repository. It includes more than 15 million items (images, text, audio, and video) from 1,500 European institutions. Europeana provides access to an abundance of cultural and heritage information and knowledge. Because Europeana has partnered with and brought together so…

  13. Creating the Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Harold, III

    2003-01-01

    For organizations to succeed and endure, trust, collaboration, and performance cultures must coexist. A culture of trust starts with a school board that is independent and fully accountable and that holds all only its employees accountable. In a culture of collaboration, the board becomes a partner in setting goals but allows the experts to do…

  14. Teaching Language, Teaching Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Crozet, Chantal, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    Essays and research reports on the relationship between teaching second languages and teaching culture include: "Teaching Culture as an Integrated Part of Language Teaching: An Introduction" (Chantal Crozet, Anthony J. Liddicoat); "Primary Socialization and Cultural Factors in Second Language Learning: Wending Our Way through Semi-Charted

  15. Cultural Arts Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistone, Kathleen A.

    The handbook presents activities to aid elementary school classroom teachers as they develop and implement cultural arts lessons. A cultural arts program is interpreted as a way to help students develop perceptual awareness, build a basic vocabulary in some art cultural form, evaluate their own works of art, appreciate creative expressions, and…

  16. Cultural Knowledge in Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olk, Harald

    2003-01-01

    Describes a study exploring the influence of cultural knowledge on the translation performance of German students of English. Found that the students often lacked sufficient knowledge about British culture to deal with widely-used cultural concepts. Findings suggest that factual reference sources have an important role to play in translation…

  17. How Culture Misdirects Multiculturalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wax, Murray L.

    In the ongoing debate over whether or what sort of multiculturalism should be provided by schools, the origin, evolution, and rhetorical function of the basic term "culture" have been unwisely neglected. The 19th century notion of "culture" implied a process of growth and development, of culturing an organism, or of the human organism becoming…

  18. The Two Cultures Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultberg, John

    1997-01-01

    Addresses the work of British writer, C. P. Snow, and examines the differences in scientific and literary cultures. Discusses post-World War II professionalization of science and the rebellious literary culture; the scientific revolution; the lack of communication between the two cultures; the generalization of science through sociology; the need

  19. Valuing Cultural Heritages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Denise; Phelps, Lydia; Smola, Maggie

    2006-01-01

    Images of objects produced by Native-American cultures are frequently found as curriculum resources in classrooms across the United States. It is important that objects from various cultures be introduced into mainstream classrooms. However, it is equally important that the introduction be handled in a way that is not demeaning to the culture that…

  20. Europeana: Think Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kail, Candice

    2011-01-01

    Europeana: Think Culture (http://www.europeana.eu) is a wonderful cultural repository. It includes more than 15 million items (images, text, audio, and video) from 1,500 European institutions. Europeana provides access to an abundance of cultural and heritage information and knowledge. Because Europeana has partnered with and brought together so

  1. A Cultural Classroom Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Native American and other cultural stories provide students with a broader perspective on the world. In addition, cultural stories connect science content and knowledge about the world to cultural interpretations and people's life ways. By implementing the ideas suggested in this article, you can select books that both enrich your science library…

  2. Cultur(ally) Jammed: Culture Jams as a Form of Culturally Responsive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Ulyssa

    2012-01-01

    Does the person become the name or does the name become the person? This question was asked by a participant of my culture jam entitled, "What's my name?" In this culture jam, I asked people to discern the name of a person based solely on their appearance and a list of possible names below their picture. This article aims to show how culture jams…

  3. Why Teach Visual Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passmore, Kaye

    2007-01-01

    Visual culture is a hot topic in art education right now as some teachers are dedicated to teaching it and others are adamant that it has no place in a traditional art class. Visual culture, the author asserts, can include just about anything that is visually represented. Although people often think of visual culture as contemporary visuals such…

  4. Transcending Cultural Borders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Robert; Murphy, Kris; Jaworski, Joy

    2007-01-01

    Cultural diversity presents many challenges to the art educator. Teaching children to be tolerant and to appreciate differences is particularly important in a world that is characterized by polarization, embittered cultural divisions, and prejudice. Students' knowledge and attitudes are mediated by popular culture, which often reduces cultural…

  5. Resolving conflicting safety cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Slider, J.E. ); Patterson, M. )

    1993-01-01

    Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of [open quotes]safety culture.[close quotes] This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to [open quotes]do the right thing[close quotes] even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants.

  6. Cultur(ally) Jammed: Culture Jams as a Form of Culturally Responsive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Ulyssa

    2012-01-01

    Does the person become the name or does the name become the person? This question was asked by a participant of my culture jam entitled, "What's my name?" In this culture jam, I asked people to discern the name of a person based solely on their appearance and a list of possible names below their picture. This article aims to show how culture jams

  7. Cultural Exploration through Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schall, Janine M.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing diversity in the United States means that all students must understand multiple cultural perspectives and identities. Educators need to facilitate learning engagements that highlight the complexities of culture and cultural identity, going beyond surface characteristics such as foods, holidays, and clothing that are often the focus in…

  8. Teaching Culture through Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Janet C.

    Some of the literature on the role of teaching culture in second language instruction is reviewed, with some emphasis on the work of Ortunio and the Kluckholn model of French culture. One instructor's use of French print and television advertising to teach French culture is described. Values such as intellectuality, traditionalism, and patriotism…

  9. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural

  10. Safeguards Culture: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2010-06-01

    Today, safeguards culture can be a useful tool for measuring nonproliferation postures, but so far its impact on the international safeguards regime has been underappreciated. There is no agreed upon definition for safeguards culture nor agreement on how it should be measured. This paper argues that safeguards culture as an indicator of a country’s nonproliferation posture can be a useful tool.

  11. Problems Confronting Visual Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efland, Arthur D.

    2005-01-01

    A new movement has appeared recommending, in part, that the field of art education should lessen its traditional ties to drawing, painting, and the study of masterpieces to become the study of visual culture. Visual cultural study refers to an all-encompassing category of cultural practice that includes the fine arts but also deals with the study…

  12. Cultural Proficiency. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Cultural proficiency and diversity are often used interchangeably, yet there are some distinct differences between them. Cultural proficiency is the umbrella under which diversity falls. According to one source, "Cultural proficiency is a way of being that allows individuals and organizations to interact effectively with people who differ from…

  13. Laos Culturally Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luangpraseut, Khamchong

    This booklet about the cultural background of Laos is one of three booklets that serve as a foundation for understanding the cultural diversity and values of Cambodian, Laotian, and Vietnamese students. Laos is a country of great cultural and ethnic diversity. The following political and economic factors have influenced the development of modern…

  14. Principals as Cultural Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Karen Seashore; Wahlstrom, Kyla

    2011-01-01

    Principals have a strong role to play in forming school cultures that encourage change. Changing a school's culture requires shared or distributed leadership and instructional leadership. A multiyear study found that three elements are necessary for a school culture that stimulates teachers to improve their instruction: 1) Teachers and…

  15. Anaerobic thermophilic culture

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Wiegel, Jurgen K. W.

    1981-01-01

    A newly discovered thermophilic anaerobe is described that was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC 3/550. T. Ethanolicus is cultured in aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions and is used in a novel process for producing ethanol by subjecting carbohydrates, particularly the saccharides, to fermentation action of the new microorganism in a biologically pure culture.

  16. The University Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simplicio, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the role university culture can play on a campus and how it can impact policy and practice. The article explores how a university's history, values, and vision form its culture and how this culture in turn affects its stability and continuity. The article discusses how newcomers within the university are…

  17. What Kind of Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, Samson B.

    The question of what should be taught as the cultural component of language instruction is discussed, with special reference to German. A present-directed humanism is urged, with emphasis on the relevance and immediacy of cultural materials. Mistaken and irrelevant directions in the teaching of German culture are discussed in some detail; similar…

  18. Growth of plant culture.

    PubMed

    Napier, Richard

    2003-12-01

    A series of articles by Nick Battey published throughout 2003 has been challenging plant scientists to embrace plant culture. Fine art, literature, mythology, plant lore, religion, philosophy and plant science all contribute to plant culture and Battey believes that it is up to us, the scientists, to stimulate greater appreciation of our work by striving for a richer culture. PMID:14659704

  19. The Two Cultures Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultberg, John

    1997-01-01

    Addresses the work of British writer, C. P. Snow, and examines the differences in scientific and literary cultures. Discusses post-World War II professionalization of science and the rebellious literary culture; the scientific revolution; the lack of communication between the two cultures; the generalization of science through sociology; the need…

  20. Cultural Arts Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistone, Kathleen A.

    The handbook presents activities to aid elementary school classroom teachers as they develop and implement cultural arts lessons. A cultural arts program is interpreted as a way to help students develop perceptual awareness, build a basic vocabulary in some art cultural form, evaluate their own works of art, appreciate creative expressions, and

  1. Problems Confronting Visual Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efland, Arthur D.

    2005-01-01

    A new movement has appeared recommending, in part, that the field of art education should lessen its traditional ties to drawing, painting, and the study of masterpieces to become the study of visual culture. Visual cultural study refers to an all-encompassing category of cultural practice that includes the fine arts but also deals with the study

  2. Bridges: Literature across Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Gilbert H., Comp.; Williams, John A., Comp.

    This anthology of literature from the many American cultures as well as cultures around the world is intended for use in today's college composition and introductory literature courses. Offering a blend of classic favorites and selections from other cultures, the anthology contains some 300 stories, poems, and plays from the six habitable…

  3. Determination of the etiology of presumptive feline leprosy by 16S rRNA gene analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, M S; Ball, N W; Beck, L A; de Lisle, G W; Skuce, R A; Neill, S D

    1997-01-01

    PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained directly from tissue specimens from eight cats with presumptive feline leprosy. Acid-fast bacilli were observed in sections from all eight specimens, but culture for mycobacteria was successful for one specimen only. Analysis of the V2 variable region of each 16S rRNA PCR product identified a sequence with 100% nucleotide identity to the sequences of Mycobacterium lepraemurium, Mycobacterium avium, and Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in four of the specimens from cats with feline leprosy. Separate M. paratuberculosis- and M. avium-specific PCR amplifications of the four specimens were negative, thus substantiating the identification of M. lepraemurium in these specimens from cats with feline leprosy. Further sequence analysis of the V3 variable region of one of the four specimens provided conclusive evidence of the presence of M. lepraemurium. This is the first report of the definitive identification of M. lepraemurium in cats with feline leprosy by molecular biology-based analyses. M. avium, which is rarely reported in cats, and Mycobacterium chitae, a reported nonpathogenic, rapidly growing mycobacterial species found in the environment, were identified in the specimen from which acid-fast bacilli were cultured. Two of the specimens from cats were infected with a potentially novel species of mycobacteria which had a 16S rRNA gene sequence sharing the closest nucleotide sequence identity with that of Mycobacterium malmoense. Molecular biology-based analyses provided for the accurate and rapid diagnosis of mycobacterial infections in cats and circumvented the problems of culture and misdiagnosis of feline leprosy associated with traditional methods. PMID:9316890

  4. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria: baseline data from three sites in Papua New Guinea, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Serej; Carter, Robyn; Millan, Korai; Phuanukoonnon, Suparat; Pandey, Sushil; Coulter, Christopher; Siba, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the proportion of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in samples of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) cases from Papua New Guinea who were diagnosed using acid-fast microscopy. Methods As part of a case detection study for TB, conducted in three provincial hospitals in Papua New Guinea, sputum samples of suspected tuberculous cases aged 15 years or older were collected from November 2010 to July 2012. Mycobacterial species isolated from sputum and grown in culture were examined to distinguish between NTM and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Results NTM were detected in 4% (9/225) of sputum samples grown in culture. Five (2.2%) of them were identified as NTM only and four (1.8%) were identified as mixed cultures containing both MTBC and NTM. Four different NTM species were identified; M. fortuitum, M. intracellulare, M. terrae and M. avium. Discussion This is the first report from Papua New Guinea identifying NTM in three different locations. As NTM cannot be distinguished from M. tuberculosis through smear microscopy, the presence of NTM can lead to a false-positive diagnosis of tuberculosis. The prevalence of NTM should be determined and a diagnostic algorithm developed to confirm acid-fast bacilli in a smear as M. tuberculosis. PMID:26798558

  5. Expanding Cultural Awareness: Wigginton on Cultural Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmstead, Kathryn J.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses Eliot Wigginton, high school English teacher and founder of Foxfire magazine. Presents excerpts from an interview with Wigginton, in which he discusses his educational philosophy, including cultural journalism. (ARH)

  6. Cultural aspects of dementia.

    PubMed

    Herbert, C P

    2001-02-01

    This paper critically reviews current knowledge regarding culture and dementia in order to identify unanswered questions in the field. Medline was searched from 1993-2000. One hundred nine articles were identified, of which 59 were critically reviewed, augmented by additional references from experts and by books. Limited research evidence was identified in four areas: 1) the recognition of dementia across cultures 2) cultural specificity of screening tools 3) identification of differences in risk factors, incidence, onset and prevalence across culture 4) culturally related issues in decision making about management. Implications for research and practice are described. PMID:11237315

  7. Cultural effects on mindreading.

    PubMed

    Perez-Zapata, Daniel; Slaughter, Virginia; Henry, Julie D

    2016-01-01

    People from other cultural backgrounds sometimes seem inscrutable. We identified a potential cause of this phenomenon in two experiments demonstrating that adults' mental state inferences are influenced by the cultural identity of the target. We adapted White, Hill, Happé, and Frith's (2009) Strange Stories to create matched intra-cultural and cross-cultural mindreading and control conditions. Experiment 1 showed that Australian participants were faster to respond and received higher scores in the intra-cultural mindreading condition relative to the cross-cultural mindreading condition, but performance in the control conditions was equivalent. Experiment 2 replicated this pattern in independent samples of Australian and Chilean participants. These findings have important implications for cross-cultural communication and understanding. PMID:26529195

  8. Indian culture and psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Shiv; Jain, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    ‘Culture’ is an abstraction, reflecting the total way of life of a society. Culture uniquely influences mental health of people living in a given society. Similarity in thinking and understanding of mental health across the ancient cultures has been observed. Studies which relate to the demographic factors, cultural factors influencing presentation of illness, diagnosis of the illness-culture bound syndromes and influence of the cultural factors and the belief system on psychopathology, stigma and discrimination towards the patient have been reviewed. An attempt has been made to critically look at the research on culture and psychiatry in different areas. There is a need for culturally oriented modules of non-pharmacological management. PMID:21836701

  9. Safeguards Culture: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2009-05-27

    Abstract: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper builds on that theoretical discussion to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Paper: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop on “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges,” in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper, coauthored by Karyn R. Durbin and Andrew Van Duzer, described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper updates that theoretical discussion, and seeks to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Implicit in this discussion is an understanding that improving a culture is not an end in itself, but is one method of improving the underlying discipline, that is safety, security, or safeguards. Culture can be defined as a way of life, or general customs and beliefs of a particular group of people at a particular time. There are internationally accepted definitions of safety culture and nuclear security culture. As yet, there is no official agreed upon definition of safeguards culture. At the end of the paper I will propose my definition. At the Santa Fe Workshop the summary by the Co-Chairs of Working Group 1, “The Further Evolution of Safeguards,” noted: “It is clear that ‘safeguards culture’ needs to be addressed if the efficiency and effectiveness are to continue to be improved. This will require commitment and change at all levels, from States to facility operators. Cultural change has to come from good leadership, doing the right thing and ‘beliefs’ are not sufficient – behavior is what counts. We are optimistic that with sufficient effort and the right incentives, change can be accomplished quickly.”

  10. Cross-Cultural Impression Management: A Cultural Knowledge Audit Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spong, Abigail; Kamau, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many people moving into a new culture for work or study do so without prior cross-cultural training, yet successful cultural adaptation has important ramifications. The purpose of this paper is to focus on cross-cultural impression management as an element of cultural adaptation. Does cultural adaptation begin by paying strong attention

  11. Cross-Cultural Impression Management: A Cultural Knowledge Audit Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spong, Abigail; Kamau, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many people moving into a new culture for work or study do so without prior cross-cultural training, yet successful cultural adaptation has important ramifications. The purpose of this paper is to focus on cross-cultural impression management as an element of cultural adaptation. Does cultural adaptation begin by paying strong attention…

  12. Culture, Culture Learning and New Technologies: Towards a Pedagogical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Mike

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to improve approaches to the learning and teaching of culture using new technologies by relating the key qualities and dimensions of the culture concept to elements within a pedagogical framework. In Part One, five facets of the culture concept are developed: culture as elemental; culture as relative; culture as group membership;…

  13. Identification and Characterization of a Spore-Like Morphotype in Chronically Starved Mycobacterium avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, Elise A.; Bannantine, John P.; Armién, Aníbal; Ariyakumar, Don Sanjiv; Sreevatsan, Srinand

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacteria are able to enter into a state of non-replication or dormancy, which may result in their chronic persistence in soil, aquatic environments, and permissive hosts. Stresses such as nutrient deprivation and hypoxia provide environmental cues to enter a persistent state; however, a clear definition of the mechanism that mycobacteria employ to achieve this remains elusive. While the concept of sporulation in mycobacteria is not novel, it continues to spark controversy and challenges our perceptions of a non-replication. We investigated the potential role of sporulation in one-year old broth cultures of Mycobacterium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). We show that dormant cultures of MAP contain a mix of vegetative cells and a previously unknown morphotype resembling a spore. These spore-like structures can be enriched for using sporulating media. Furthermore, purified MAP spore forms survive exposure to heat, lysozyme and proteinase K. Heat-treated spores are positive for MAP 16SrRNA and IS900. MAP spores display enhanced infectivity as well as maintain acid-fast characteristics upon germination in a well-established bovine macrophage model. This is the first study to demonstrate a new MAP morphotype possessing spore-like qualities. Data suggest that sporulation may be a viable mechanism by which MAP accomplishes persistence in the host and/or environment. Thus, our current understanding of mycobacterial persistence, pathogenesis, epidemiology and rational drug and vaccine design may need to be reevaluated. PMID:22292005

  14. Culture and psychiatric diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning. PMID:23816860

  15. Astronomy in Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, M.

    2010-07-01

    Which is more appropriate? “Astronomy in culture,” or “Astronomy and culture,” or “Culture without astronomy?” These are only few variants, each with its own sense. I guess the last question is the most pertinent. Does culture really exist without astronomy? The existence and evolution of the human civilization answer NO! But what “culture” means? When we are thinking of a culture (the Hellenistic one, for instance), we mean a set of customs, artistic, religious, intellectual manifestations that differentiate one group or society from another. On the other hand, we often use the notion of culture in a different sense: shared beliefs, ways of regarding and doing, which orient more or less consciously the behavior of an individual or a group. An example would be the laic culture. Moreover, the set of knowledge acquired in one or several domains also constitutes a culture, for instance the scientific culture of an individual or a group. Finally, the set of cultures is nothing else but the civilization. Now, if we come back in time into the history of civilization, we find a permanent component, which was never missing and often played a decisive part in its evolution: the Astronomy.

  16. Culture and Psychiatric Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, a number of components related to psychiatric diagnosis have come under criticism for their inaccuracies and inadequacies. Neurobiologists and anthropologists have particularly criticized the rigidity of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis –composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress—as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning. PMID:23816860

  17. Tuberculous paraspinal abscess: a case of mistaken identity.

    PubMed

    Crooks, Michael G; Hill, Adam T

    2011-02-01

    We present the case of a 35-year-old man of Pakistani origin presenting with a history suggestive of tuberculosis. Chest x-ray revealed left upper zone consolidation and mediastinal widening felt to be consistent with mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Bronchoalveolar lavage failed to yield acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and therefore CT thorax was requested with a view to surgical referral for mediastinal node biopsy. CT thorax revealed a large paravertebral abscess to be the cause of apparent mediastinal widening. CT guided biopsy confirmed Mycobacterium tuberculosis on culture. On reflection, there was preservation of the right paratracheal stripe on chest x-ray indicating that this was not mediastinal lymphadenopathy but a paravertebral mass as illustrated on CT. PMID:21515538

  18. Assessment of the BD MGIT TBc Identification Test for the Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in a Network of Mycobacteriology Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Jorge; Couto, Isabel; Narciso, Inácio; Coelho, Elizabeth; Viegas, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the performance of the TBcID assay in a panel of 100 acid-fast bacilli cultures. Sixty-four isolates were TBcID positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), whereas 36 gave negative results. These included 28 nontuberculous mycobacteria, one nonmycobacterial isolate, one M. tuberculosis, and six M. bovis BCG strains. This corresponds to a sensitivity of 90.14%, specificity of 100%, and positive and negative predictive values of 100% and 80.55%, respectively. The test is rapid, easy to perform and interpret, and does not require sample preparation or instrumentation. However, a negative result does not exclude the presence of a strain belonging to MTBC, especially when mutations in mpb64 gene are present or some M. bovis BCG strains are isolated. The TBcID showed potential to assist in the identification of MTBC when the implementation and usage of molecular methods are often not possible, principally in resource-limited countries. PMID:24587985

  19. Disseminated mycobacteriosis manifesting as paraplegia in two Parma wallabies (Macropus parma) naturally exposed to Mycobacterium avium.

    PubMed

    Robveille, Cynthia; Albaric, Olivier; Gaide, Nicolas; Abadie, Jérome

    2015-11-01

    Two captive female Parma wallabies (Macropus parma) died after a history of flaccid paraplegia. On postmortem examination, granulomatous and suppurative osteomyelitis involving the left ischium and the lumbosacral region, with meningeal extension at the cauda equina, and caseonecrotic mastitis were the most significant changes. Multiple small nodules in the liver and spleen, and an enlargement of some lymph nodes with central caseous necrosis were also observed. Microscopically, a disseminated granulomatous inflammation with numerous multinucleate giant cells was seen. Numerous acid-fast bacilli were detected in macrophages, in multinucleated giant cells, and free in the central necrosis and suppurative exudate. After culture, polymerase chain reaction assays were carried out to detect the 65-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp65) and insertion sequences (IS)1245 and IS900. The causative agent was identified as Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. PMID:26450834

  20. An outbreak of Mycobacterium chelonae infections in tattoos.

    PubMed

    Drage, Lisa A; Ecker, Phillip M; Orenstein, Robert; Phillips, P Kim; Edson, Randall S

    2010-03-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria infections may occur after cutaneous procedures. Review of the medical records of patients who developed a rash within a tattoo revealed 6 patients with skin infections caused by Mycobacterium chelonae after receiving tattoos by one artist at a single tattoo establishment. The interval between tattoo placement and the skin findings was 1 to 2 weeks. All patients received alternate diagnoses before mycobacterial infection was identified. Skin findings included pink, red, or purple papules; papules with scale; pustules; granulomatous papules; and lichenoid papules and plaques. Histopathologic examination revealed granuloma, lymphohistiocytic infiltrate, or mixed inflammation; acid-fast bacilli stains produced negative results. Diagnosis was made by culture in 3 patients, histopathology in two patients, and clinical/epidemiologic association in one patient. The M chelonae isolates were clarithromycin susceptible, and the infections responded to macrolide antibiotics. Physicians should consider mycobacterial infections in patients with skin findings within a new tattoo. PMID:19733936

  1. Coexistence of granulomatous enteric inflammation and neoplasia in an adult sheep.

    PubMed

    Benavides, J; Garcia-Pariente, C; Garrido, J M; Sevilla, I A; García-Marín, J F; Pérez, V; Ferreras, M C

    2013-11-01

    A 7-year-old dairy sheep suffering from chronic loss of weight without diarrhea or anorexia was euthanized after failing to respond to any treatment (antibiotic and antiparasitic). The main findings at the necropsy of this animal were multifocal miliary nodules in several organs, mainly in the Peyer's patches of the small intestine, and a segmental thickening of the jejunal wall. Histologic examination of the samples taken at the necropsy showed a multifocal chronic granulomatous inflammation, with mineralization and caseous necrosis at the core of the larger granulomas and scarce intrahistiocytic acid-fast bacilli consistent with a disseminated digestive tuberculosis. Polymerase chain reaction and bacteriological culture from these samples confirmed Mycobacterium avium subsp avium to be the etiologic agent of this infection. Histologically, the cause of the segmental thickening of the jejunal wall was found to be a small intestine adenocarcinoma, which in some areas coexisted with the granulomatous lesion. PMID:23456963

  2. Tuberculous liver abscess in an immunocompetent adult male--a rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suruchi; Mahajan Rakesh, Kumar; Gupta, Harish Kumar; Chaskar, Priyanka; Hans, Charoo

    2012-09-01

    A 20 year old young male was admitted to our hospital with complaints of pain in upper abdomen right side, anorexia and loss of weight. Ultrasonography of the upper abdomen revealed a hypoechoic area in the left lobe of liver. Entertaining the possibility of pyogenic or amoebic lesion, the patient was started on ofloxacin and metronidazole. Failing to get any response to the therapeutic intervention, ultrasound guided aspiration was undertaken. The aspirated pus did not grow any organism in pyogenic or fungal culture but showed acid fast bacilli in Z.N. stain. The treatment was shifted to four drugs ATT and there was dramatic improvement in the clinical condition. This case is being reported to emphasize that ruling out tuberculosis may avoid unnecessary delays in the initiation of specific anti-tubercular treatment. Also a greater awareness of this rare clinical condition may prevent unwarranted surgical intervention. PMID:25145067

  3. Clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis by specialists and non-specialists.

    PubMed

    Lam, P K; Lobue, P A; Catanzaro, A

    2009-05-01

    In resource-limited settings, tuberculosis (TB) is often diagnosed by non-physicians using the acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear only. This study examines the diagnostic accuracy of various clinicians using patient-risk history, radiography and AFB smear. A total of 321 physicians, nurses and medical students evaluated 22 profiles of TB suspects and quantified their clinical suspicion (1-99%). Culture results determined diagnostic accuracy. Overall, high-level physician training may not be required; nurses working on TB, given radiograph readings, were as accurate as TB physicians and more accurate than other physicians and clinicians. By considering clinical findings with smear results, TB specialists were significantly more accurate than smear results alone. PMID:19383202

  4. Tuberculous Panophthalmitis with Lymphadenitis and Central Nervous System Tuberculoma

    PubMed Central

    Srichatrapimuk, Sirawat; Wattanatranon, Duangkamon

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infectious disease that spreads globally. The ocular manifestations of TB are uncommon and diverse. TB panophthalmitis has been rarely reported. Here, we described a 38-year-old Thai man presenting with panophthalmitis of the right eye. Further investigation showed that he had concurrent TB lymphadenitis and central nervous system (CNS) tuberculoma, as well as HIV infection, with a CD4 cell count of 153 cells/mm3. Despite the initial response to antituberculous agents, the disease had subsequently progressed and enucleation was required. The pathological examination revealed acute suppurative granulomatous panophthalmitis with retinal detachment. Further staining demonstrated acid-fast bacilli in the tissue. Colonies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were obtained from tissue culture. He was treated with antiretroviral agents for HIV infection and 12 months of antituberculous agents. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of TB in the differential diagnosis of endophthalmitis and panophthalmitis, especially in regions where TB is endemic. PMID:27051539

  5. Non-tuberculous mycobacterium skin infections after tattooing in healthy individuals: A systematic review of case reports.

    PubMed

    Mudedla, Sreenuvasu; Avendano, Esther E; Raman, Gowri

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, several case reports and outbreaks reported occurrence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections within 6 months after receiving a tattoo in healthy individuals. NTM species (e.g., Chelonae, Fortuitum, Hemophillum, and Abscessus) are widespread in the environment and it is often suspected that contamination may occur through unsterile instrumentation or unsterile water used for diluting tattoo ink to dilute color. In reported cases, lesions were mainly restricted to a single color 'gray' part of the tattoo. Mycobacterium Chelonae was the most common cause of tattoo associated NTM infections. Less than 50% of the case reports tested tattoo ink for acid fast bacilli stains and cultures. Subjects required treatment with either clarithromycin alone or in combination with quinolones for 6 to 9 months. An increase in NTM skin infections in healthy individuals after tattooing indicates the need for sterile standards during tattooing and improved local and regional regulatory oversight. PMID:26158355

  6. Making a timely diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Long, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Making a timely diagnosis of adult-type pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is critical to interrupting transmission and optimizing treatment outcomes. A hypothesis based on clinical experience is that a timely diagnosis may be made by addressing seven clinical rubrics: six related to history, one to the laboratory. Responses may be considered to be part of a clinical heuristic for making a timely diagnosis of pulmonary TB. The larger the number of affirmative responses, the more likely the diagnosis, although it is probable some questions carry more weight than others. The radiograph is key and may almost be considered to be confirmatory of the history. Collectively, the responses should prompt suspicion of pulmonary TB – submission of sputum for acid-fast bacilli smear and culture, and respiratory isolation. PMID:26469154

  7. [Pharyngeal tuberculosis: Case report].

    PubMed

    Spini, Roxana Gabriela; Bordino, Lucas; Cohen, Daniela; Martins, Andrea; Ramírez, Zaida; González, Norma E

    2015-08-01

    Pharyngeal tuberculosis is a rare extrapulmonary manifestation. In Argentina, the number of cases of tuberculosis reported in children under 19 years in 2012 was 1752. Only 12.15% had extrapulmonary manifestation. A case of a 17 year old girl with pharyngeal tuberculosis is reported. The patient presented intermittent fever and swallowing pain for 6 months, without response to conventional antibiotic treatment. Chest X-ray showedbilateral micronodular infiltrate, so hospitalization was decided to study and treat. The sputum examination for acid-fast resistant bacilli was positive and treatment with four antituberculous drugs was started, with good evolution and disappearance of symptoms. Diagnostic confirmation with the isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum culture was obtained. The main symptoms of pharyngeal tuberculosis are sore throat and difficulty in swallowing of long evolution. It is important to consider tuberculosis as differential diagnosis in patients with chronic pharyngitis unresponsive to conventional treatment. PMID:26172025

  8. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in three Siamese cats.

    PubMed

    Jordan, H L; Cohn, L A; Armstrong, P J

    1994-01-01

    Disseminated infection with Mycobacterium avium complex is described in 3 adult Siamese cats. All cats were the result of father-daughter matings. Clinical signs included anorexia, weight loss, and lethargy. Physical examination revealed pale mucous membranes, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and pyrexia. Nonregenerative anemia was detected in all 3 cats, and macrocytosis was observed in 2. An antemortem diagnosis of mycobacterial infection was made on the basis of identification of acid-fast bacilli in tissue aspirates. The cats died or were euthanatized owing to clinical deterioration, despite antibiotic treatment. Necropsy findings included granulomatous lymphadenitis, enterocolitis, pneumonia, cellulitis, myelitis, and hepatitis. Organisms from the Mycobacterium avium complex were identified in bacteriologic cultures of tissue samples. PMID:8125827

  9. Nature/culture/seawater.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Seawater has occupied an ambiguous place in anthropological categories of "nature" and "culture." Seawater as nature appears as potentiality of form and uncontainable flux; it moves faster than culture - with culture frequently figured through land-based metaphors - even as culture seeks to channel water's (nature's) flow. Seawater as culture manifests as a medium of pleasure, sustenance, travel, disaster. I argue that, although seawater's qualities in early anthropology were portrayed impressionistically, today technical, scientific descriptions of water's form prevail. For example, processes of globalization - which may also be called "oceanization" - are often described as "currents," "flows," and "circulations." Examining sea-set ethnography, maritime anthropologies, and contemporary social theory, I propose that seawater has operated as a “theory machine” for generating insights about human cultural organization. I develop this argument with ethnography from the Sargasso Sea and in the Sea Islands. I conclude with a critique of appeals to water's form in social theory. PMID:21560270

  10. Culture and math.

    PubMed

    Tcheang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Cultural differences have been shown across a number of different cognitive domains from vision, language, and music. Mathematical cognition is another domain that is an integral part of modern society and because there are a fixed number of ways in which many math operations can be performed, it is also an apposite tool for cultural comparisons. This discussion examines the literature on mathematical processing in accordance with culture, summarizing the brain regions involved across various mathematical tasks. In doing so, we provide a clear picture of the anatomical similarities and differences between cultures when performing different math tasks. This information is useful to explore the possibility of enhancement of mathematical skills, where different strategies may be applicable in accordance with culture. It also contributes to the evolutionary development of different math skills and the growing theory that anatomical and behavioral studies must account for the cultural identity of their sample. PMID:24090438

  11. Culture and complementary therapies.

    PubMed

    Engebretson, Joan

    2002-11-01

    Complementary therapies are becoming increasingly popular in cultures dominated by biomedicine. Modalities are often extracted from various healing systems and cultural contexts and integrated into health care, expanding the focus from treatment of disease to the promotion of health. The cultural aspects of biomedicine are presented and compared and contrasted with other healing systems. Three healing systems; traditional Chinese medicine, Yoga, with roots in Ayurvedic medicine and Shamanic healing illustrate these fundamental differences in approaches to healing. A reverse example of isolating one healing intervention from biomedicine and interpreting it through other cultural lenses is presented. Implications are drawn for practice and research. PMID:12463606

  12. Darwinism and cultural change.

    PubMed

    Godfrey-Smith, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Evolutionary models of cultural change have acquired an important role in attempts to explain the course of human evolution, especially our specialization in knowledge-gathering and intelligent control of environments. In both biological and cultural change, different patterns of explanation become relevant at different 'grains' of analysis and in contexts associated with different explanatory targets. Existing treatments of the evolutionary approach to culture, both positive and negative, underestimate the importance of these distinctions. Close attention to grain of analysis motivates distinctions between three possible modes of cultural evolution, each associated with different empirical assumptions and explanatory roles. PMID:22734059

  13. Cultivating Cultural Appreciation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esprivalo, Pamela Sue; Forney, Scott

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity that addresses cultural differences and diversity through ethnobotany. Offers a multicultural framework designed to develop concepts about plant characteristics and taxonomy. (ASK)

  14. Darwinism and cultural change

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey-Smith, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary models of cultural change have acquired an important role in attempts to explain the course of human evolution, especially our specialization in knowledge-gathering and intelligent control of environments. In both biological and cultural change, different patterns of explanation become relevant at different ‘grains’ of analysis and in contexts associated with different explanatory targets. Existing treatments of the evolutionary approach to culture, both positive and negative, underestimate the importance of these distinctions. Close attention to grain of analysis motivates distinctions between three possible modes of cultural evolution, each associated with different empirical assumptions and explanatory roles. PMID:22734059

  15. Evidence for colonization and destruction of hinge ligaments in cultured juvenile Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) by cytophaga-like bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Dungan, C F; Elston, R A; Schiewe, M H

    1989-01-01

    Several strains of cytophaga-like gliding bacteria (CLB) were isolated as numerically dominant or codominant components of bacterial populations associated with proteinaceous hinge ligaments of cultured juvenile Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas. These bacteria were morphologically similar to long, flexible bacilli occurring within degenerative lesions in oyster hinge ligaments. Among bacteria isolated from hinge ligaments, only CLB strains were capable of sustained growth with hinge ligament matrix as the sole source of organic carbon and nitrogen. In vitro incubation of cuboidal portions of ligament resilium with ligament CLB resulted in bacterial proliferation on the surfaces and penetration deep into ligament matrices. Bacterial proliferation was accompanied by loss of resilium structural and mechanical integrity, including complete liquefaction, at incubation temperatures between 10 and 20 degrees C. The morphological, distributional, and degradative characteristics of CLB isolated from oyster hinge ligaments provide compelling, albeit indirect, evidence that CLB are the agents of a degenerative disease affecting juvenile cultured oysters. The motility, metabolic, and hydrolytic characteristics of hinge ligament CLB and the low moles percent G + C values (32.4 to 32.9) determined for three representative strains indicate that they are marine Cytophaga spp. Images PMID:2757377

  16. Effect of different heterotrophic plate count methods on the estimation of the composition of the culturable microbial community

    PubMed Central

    Gössl, Eva-Maria; Antonielli, Livio; Sessitsch, Angela; Kostić, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) are routinely determined within the scope of water quality assessment. However, variable HPC methods with different cultivation parameters (i.e., temperature and media type) are applied, which could lead to significant effects in the outcome of the analysis. Therefore the effect of different HPC methods, according to DIN EN ISO 6222 and EPA, on the culturable microbial community composition was investigated by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and statistical evaluation was performed. The culturable community composition revealed significant effects assigned to temperature (p < 0.01), while for media type no statistical significance was observed. However, the abundance of certain detected bacteria was affected. Lower temperature (22 °C) showed the abundance of naturally occurring Pseudomonadaceae and Aeromonadaceae, whereas at high temperature (37 °C) numerous Enterobacteriaceae, Citrobacter spp. and Bacilli were identified. The highest biodiversity was detected at lower temperature, especially on R2A medium. These results indicate that different temperatures (low and high) should be included into HPC measurement and selection of media should, ideally, be adjusted to the monitored water source. Accordingly, it can be inferred that the HPC method is more suitable for continuous monitoring of the same water source than for single assessments of a water sample. PMID:25861554

  17. Detection of carboxylesterase and esterase activity in culturable gut bacterial flora isolated from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), from India and its possible role in indoxacarb degradation.

    PubMed

    Ramya, Shanivarsanthe Leelesh; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Srinivasa Murthy, Kottilingam; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Verghese, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), is a notorious pest of brassica crops worldwide and is resistant to all groups of insecticides. The insect system harbors diverse groups of microbiota, which in turn helps in enzymatic degradation of xenobiotic-like insecticides. The present study aimed to determine the diversity of gut microflora in DBM, quantify esterase activity and elucidate their possible role in degradation of indoxacarb. We screened 11 geographic populations of DBM in India and analyzed them for bacterial diversity. The culturable gut bacterial flora underwent molecular characterization with 16S rRNA. We obtained 25 bacterial isolates from larvae (n=13) and adults (n=12) of DBM. In larval gut isolates, gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant (76%), followed by bacilli (15.4%). Molecular characterization placed adult gut bacterial strains into three major classes based on abundance: gammaproteobacteria (66%), bacilli (16.7%) and flavobacteria (16.7%). Esterase activity from 19 gut bacterial isolates ranged from 0.072 to 2.32μmol/min/mg protein. Esterase bands were observed in 15 bacterial strains and the banding pattern differed in Bacillus cereus - KC985225 and Pantoea agglomerans - KC985229. The bands were characterized as carboxylesterase with profenofos used as an inhibitor. Minimal media study showed that B. cereus degraded indoxacarb up to 20%, so it could use indoxacarb for metabolism and growth. Furthermore, esterase activity was greater with minimal media than control media: 1.87 versus 0.26μmol/min/mg protein. Apart from the insect esterases, bacterial carboxylesterase may aid in the degradation of insecticides in DBM. PMID:26991291

  18. Cultural change that sticks.

    PubMed

    Katzenbach, Jon R; Steffen, Ilona; Kronley, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    When a major change initiative runs aground, leaders often blame their company's culture for pushing it off course. They try to forge ahead by overhauling the culture--a tactic that tends to fizzle, fail, or backfire. Most cultures are too well entrenched to be jettisoned. The secret is to stop fighting your culture--and to work with and within it, until it evolves in the right direction. Today's best-performing companies, such as Southwest Airlines, Apple, and the Four Seasons, understand this, say the authors, three consultants from Booz & Company. These organizations follow five principles for making the most of their cultures: 1. Match strategy to culture. Culture trumps strategy every time, no matter how brilliant the plan, so the two need to be in alignment. 2. Focus on a few critical shifts in behavior. Wholesale change is hard; choose your battles wisely. 3. Honor the strengths of the existing culture. Every culture is the product of good intentions and has strengths; put them to use. 4. Integrate formal and informal interventions. Don't just implement new rules and processes; identify "influencers" who can bring other employees along. 5. Measure and monitor cultural evolution. Otherwise you can't identify backsliding or correct course. When the leaders of Aetna applied these rules while implementing a new strategy in the early 2000s, they reinvigorated the company's ailing culture and restored employee pride. That shift was reflected in the business results, as Aetna went from a $300 million loss to a $1.7 billion gain. PMID:22852451

  19. Cultural Legacies: Operationalizing Chicano Cultural Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordaz, Maricela; Anda, Diane de

    1996-01-01

    Survey of 41 Chicanos and 39 whites ages 18-80 found that despite effects of acculturation, Chicanos held educational and developmental values and beliefs consistent with ancient Nahuatl (Aztec) society, an indigenous Mexican culture. Suggests a need to examine social service delivery systems to determine whether assumptions and procedures are…

  20. Co-infection of Scedosporium apiospermum and Mycobacterium chelonae in an immunocompetent host.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Seok; Choi, Misoo; Nam, Chan Hee; Kim, Jee Young; Hong, Seung Phil; Kim, Myung Hwa; Park, Byung Cheol

    2014-10-01

    A 75-year-old man presented with multiple, scaly, erythematous, grouped papules, nodules and plaques with tenderness ranging from the right forearm to hand dorsum and the right lower leg for 2-3 months. Five months prior to presentation, the patient had received an antibiotic skin test on his right forearm. Lesions appeared approximately 2-3 months after the antibiotic skin test, slowly progressing without clinical improvement. Culture for fungus on the right forearm revealed growth of Scedosporium apiospermum. The tissue acid-fast bacilli (AFB) culture for the right forearm and right leg revealed growth of non-tuberculous mycobacteria which was Mycobacterium chelonae, and subsequent tissue polymerase chain reaction of both sites reported positive signs of M. chelonae. On diastase periodic acid-Schiff stain of the biopsy specimen of the right forearm, fungal hyphae were found while rod-shaped bacilli could be seen in AFB stain for the biopsy specimen of the right leg. The patient was treated with oral clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin along with an oral antifungal agent for 13 weeks. After the treatment, the lesions subsided and left a scar. We report a rare case of co-infection of S. apiospermum and M. chelonae in an immunocompetent host. PMID:25228156

  1. Teaching Languages, Teaching Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Crozet, Chantal, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines what it means to teach culture as an integrated part of language from both the language learner's and the language teacher's perspectives. The 11 papers include the following: "Teaching Cultures as an Integrated Part of Language: Implications for the Aims, Approaches and Pedagogies of Language Teaching" (Chantal

  2. Culture and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Gayle; And Others

    Developed by the Texas Department of Human Resources' Child Development Division, this guide supports and encourages the integration of cultural diversity into children's programs; furnishes basic information related to race, ethnicity, and culture; and briefly considers some issues associated with the concepts. While not dealing in depth with all…

  3. Developing Culturally Competent Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focal Point, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This special issue examines multicultural aspects of services provided by agencies concerned with children's mental health. The lead article is titled "Developing Culturally Competent Organizations" by James L. Mason. This article uses the cultural competence model to discuss an organization's self-evaluation and its planning in the areas of…

  4. Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triandis, Harry C.; Brislin, Richard W.

    Cross-Cultural psychology refers to the collective efforts of researchers who work among people who live in different societies, with different languages and different forms of government. There are a number of benefits to the study of human behavior which can be accrued by carrying out research in various cultures, largely concerned with better…

  5. Counseling Third Culture Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barringer, Carolyn Fox

    Third Culture Kids (TCKs) represent a group of youth who have lived overseas with their families for business, service, or missionary work. The implications of living in multiple cultures, especially during the developmental and formative years of youth, warrant investigation. This study informs the US counseling community about the…

  6. Cultural Competence Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garran, Ann Marie; Werkmeister Rozas, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) adopted 10 discrete standards of culturally competent practice which undergird our commitment to diversity and social justice. The concept of intersectionality is newly emerging in social work, though, causing us to reflect on our current conceptualizations of cultural competence.…

  7. Introduction: transnational lesbian cultures.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Heike; Mahn, Churnjeet

    2014-01-01

    This special issue examines the transnational shape and shaping of lesbian lives and cultures in and across China, India, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It uses the expression "transnational lesbian cultures" to suggest that despite sometimes radically different sociopolitical and cultural contexts, the lived experiences of same-sex desire and their emotional attachments create particular affinities between women who love women, affinities that reach across the distinct cultural and social contexts that shape them. The articles brought together explore lesbian subcultures, film, graphic novels, music, and online intimacies. They show that as a cultural and political signifier and as an analytical tool, lesbian troubles and complicates contemporary sexual politics, not least by revealing some of the gendered structures that shape debates about sexuality in a range of critical, cultural and political contexts. While the individual pieces cover a wide range of issues and concerns-which are often highly specific to the historical, cultural, and political contexts they discuss-together they tell a story about contemporary transnational lesbian culture: one that is marked by intricate links between norms and their effects and shaped by the efforts to resist denial, discrimination, and sometimes even active persecution. PMID:24972280

  8. Culture and cognition.

    PubMed

    Muggleton, Neil G; Banissy, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the nature and both environmental and cognitive origins of culturally associated differences in a range of behaviors. This special issue of Cognitive Neuroscience presents six empirical papers investigating diverse categories of potential culturally related effects as well as a review article, all of which provide timely updates of the current state of knowledge in this area. PMID:24499407

  9. Literature and Cultural Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Rafael

    References and scenes from literature that portray objectively the social elements and patterns of a culture are recommended to teach readers about typical situations and modes of behavior. This is a way of introducing the reader not only to common sociocultural patterns, but also to the cultural traits peculiar to situations that are…

  10. Pop Culture in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, David Manning, Ed.

    The nature of today's popular culture, its place in American life, and its merit or lack of it are the themes of these essays from "The New York Times Magazine." Introductory essays discuss the use of leisure time, paying the cost of the arts, and whether American society can be considered "cultured." Subsequent essays discuss the nature of radio…

  11. Managing Organizational Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malinconico, S. Michael

    1984-01-01

    Explains concept of organizational culture (includes systems of values and attitudes shared by organization's members, ways they have developed for handling problems, forms of acceptable solutions), and discusses OCLC, AT&T, and the University of California at Berkeley as examples of managing cultures and organizational change. Twenty-six…

  12. Culture and Disability Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brodsky, Carroll M.

    1983-01-01

    A substantial amount of literature suggests that illness behavior in the United States is a product of a patient's core culture; equally credible findings do not support this contention. Most students and graduates in the health care professions believe that illness and disability behavior are affected by a patient's culture, but they are hard put to find convincing examples of that relationship. In experience with medical students studying the social and cultural bases of illness behavior, with patients who are disabled and with persons who claim disability in the absence of physical disease or disabling psychopathology, I observed no deviant disability behavior that was typical for the members of any cultural group, and no behavior was displayed by the members of one cultural group that was not seen in members of other cultural groups. No cultural stereotypes were upheld. I did find evidence that disability behavior is influenced by personality factors, social situations and the gains derived from the disability status. Evolving concepts of “entitlement,” which are closely related to socioeconomic status, also have a significant influence. The impact of feedback from others in a person's many social and medical subcultures is a more crucial determinant of illness and disability behavior, except in those for whom illness and disability behavior is determined by the limitations imposed by the disease or by a personality structure resistant to cultural expectations and social feedback. PMID:6666106

  13. Cultural Policies in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opondo, Patricia A.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the challenges that arise when government policies are implemented with the goal of promoting culture, tradition, heritage, and identity in society. Focuses specifically on music education. Examines the impact and effects of the post-independence cultural policies in Kenya. Provides recommendations for restructuring present cultural…

  14. Complexity in Cultural Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Despite their diverse national backgrounds, 28 interviewees speak similarly about the complexity of the cultural realities with which they live, and refuse to be pinned down to specific cultural types. While nation is of great importance, unless personally inspiring, it tends to be an external force which is in conflict with a wide variety of…

  15. Cultural Pluralism on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Harold E.; And Others

    This book is addressed primarily to higher education personnel responsible for campus programming that promotes a culturally plural environment. These chapters are included: (1) "Affirming Affirmative Action" (Harold E. Cheatham); (2) "Identity Development in a Pluralistic Society" (Harold E. Cheatham); (3) "The Minority Cultural Center on a

  16. Introduction to Vietnamese Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Te, Huynh Dinh

    This booklet about the cultural background of Vietnam is one of three booklets that serve as a foundation for understanding the cultural diversity and values of Cambodian, Laotian, and Vietnamese students. Vietnam is located on the eastern coast of the Indochinese peninsula and has a population of 56 million. Its history is divided into the

  17. Cultural Collage Paintings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a cultural collage painting project. Three things served as the impetus for this project: (1) a desire for students to explore the theme of "culture"; (2) an appreciation for the photo-montaged, layered images one sees in print media; and (3) noticing that projects from core subject areas hanging on the walls…

  18. Cultural Diplomacy in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigh, Anthony

    The evolution of European government activities in the sphere of international cultural relations is examined. Section 1 describes the period between World War I and World War II when European governments tried to enhance their prestige and policies by means of cultural propaganda. Section 2 analyzes the period during World War II when the…

  19. Cell Culture Made Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Frank J.

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps to generate cell samples for observation and experimentation. The procedures (which use ordinary laboratory equipment) will establish a short-term primary culture of normal mammalian cells. Information on culture vessels and cell division and a list of questions to generate student interest and involvement in the topics are

  20. Understanding Corporate Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluff, Gary A.

    1988-01-01

    Considers concept of corporate culture and discusses several values which can be considered when assessing corporate culture, and the "compatibility scales" used to measure them. Included are discussions of employee attitudes, work atmosphere, internal communications, management style, employment opportunity, stability, business ethics, corporate…

  1. Assessing Knowledge of Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Robert

    The procedures used in a study to determine how well a group of American Indian college students understood their traditional and modern cultures and a college Caucasian culture were explained in this paper. The sample consisted of 111 Indian students enrolled in the University of New Mexico. The students were tested in the areas of knowledge of…

  2. A School Culture Audit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald; Blackburn, Barbara R.

    2009-01-01

    Educators know that something needs to change; they analyze data, build a plan, and provide professional development, yet little changes. Often that is because they fail to take into account the culture of their schools. Culture reflects the complex set of values, traditions, assumptions, and patterns of behavior that are present in a school.…

  3. Our People, Our Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    With Liverpool approaching the end of its year as the 2008 European Capital of Culture, many of the residents in the city involved in promoting arts events have been so busy doing just that, that they have scarcely had time to stop and ask themselves what this thing called "culture" has meant in this special year. Have their efforts over the past…

  4. Introduction to Cambodian Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chhim, Sun-Him

    This booklet about the cultural background of Cambodia is one of three booklets that serve as a foundation for understanding the cultural diversity and values of Cambodian, Laotian, and Vietnamese students. Cambodia, or Kampuchea, has a population of about 7,000,000 and is located in mainland Southeast Asia. Its history is divided into the…

  5. Delinquency in Three Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenquist, Carl M.; Megargee, Edwin I.

    The problem of delinquency is examined through a study of 300 boys in the three culture groups of lower-class Anglo-American residents of the Southwest United States (non Spanish or Indian culture), lower-class Mexican-Americans (residents of the United States of Mexican extraction), and lower-class Mexicans (residents of Mexico). The methodology…

  6. Cell Culture Made Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Frank J.

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps to generate cell samples for observation and experimentation. The procedures (which use ordinary laboratory equipment) will establish a short-term primary culture of normal mammalian cells. Information on culture vessels and cell division and a list of questions to generate student interest and involvement in the topics are…

  7. Anaerobic thermophilic culture system

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Wiegel, Jurgen K. W.

    1981-01-01

    A mixed culture system of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC31550 and the microorganism Clostridium thermocellum ATCC31549 is described. In a mixed nutrient culture medium that contains cellulose, these microorganisms have been coupled and cultivated to efficiently ferment cellulose to produce recoverable quantities of ethanol under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions.

  8. ARS Culture Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The internationally recognized Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Culture Collection will be described to include the microorganisms maintained by the collection, preservation methods and worldwide distribution of cultures. The impact of the germplasm will be described to include discovery of the f...

  9. Teaching Cultural Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    It is impossible to teach students all characteristics of the myriad cultures present in the United States. Providing students with a framework to assess the cultural traits of any client and to understand how those traits may influence the helping relationship gives them a tool to use in any clinical setting. This article presents a systematic

  10. The Popular Culture Explosion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Ray B.; Madden, David

    Popular culture is defined here as anything produced by and/or dissembled by the mass media or mass production or transportation, either directly or indirectly, and that reaches the majority of the people. This sampler from mass magazines, intended for use in the study of popular culture, includes fiction from "Playboy"; articles on cars, Johnny…

  11. Cultural Policies in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depaigne, Jacques

    The booklet presents a synopsis of reports on national cultural policies by government officials of nations belonging to the Council of Europe. The main purpose of the document is to provide an overview of institutional facilities, financial resources, and goals of cultural policy. The document is presented in five major sections. Section I…

  12. Culture and Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    Intelligence cannot be fully or even meaningfully understood outside its cultural context. Work that seeks to study intelligence acontextually risks the imposition of an investigator's view of the world on the rest of the world. Moreover, work on intelligence within a single culture may fail to do justice to the range of skills and knowledge that…

  13. Women and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweetman, Caroline, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This issue examines the implications of culture on gender and development work. The power of culture is of profound importance in understanding ourselves, others, gender relations and development. The twelve essays address some aspects of gender relations and the power structure of society. Chapters include: (1) "Editorial" (Caroline Sweetman);…

  14. Research: A Cultural Bridge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallance, Roger J.; Tchacos, E.

    An ongoing qualitative cross-cultural research project, using ethnographic methods of immersion and reference to the lived experience, is addressing the high rates of Indigenous youth suicide in remote Kimberley (Western Australia) communities. To ensure that cultural sensitivities are observed and work toward valid data collection and analysis,…

  15. One School, Many Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    This report grows out of a symposium focusing on Education and Cultural and Linguistic Pluralism (ECALP), a project of enquiry of the international Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI). The report aims to clarify trends in multicultural education, and to examine the effects of cultural and linguistic development on educational…

  16. A Culturally Diverse World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Paul; And Others

    This first chapter in "Elementary School Counseling in a Changing World" offers elementary school counselors help in understanding cultural bias and provides practical strategies to promote child development in a multicultural society. Four journal articles are included in this chapter. "Ten Frequent Assumptions of Cultural Bias in Counseling" by…

  17. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  18. Building Culturally Responsive Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polleck, Jody; Shabdin, Shirin

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a variety of culturally responsive approaches and activities so as to better know and understand our students' diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. These methods will not only help to make more equitable classrooms where we make meaningful connections with our students--but also yield useful data so as to inform our…

  19. [Disease, tradition and culture].

    PubMed

    Ritarossi, P

    1989-01-01

    The observation of the present technological society nullifies thesis of the scientific rationalism, that is the equation between magic, popular or primitive culture and underdevelopment. The pathological experience invests every plane of the cultural pattern, so the different levels of technical knowledge, rationality, symbols and magic imagination are mobilized to give a reason to pain; the illness, in addition to representing an indisposition really existing, has a specific cultural meaning too. In fact every culture, following certain parameters, has built ideologic frames; the concept of illness is connected to the classification of the reality. Biology and culture are inseparable. For this, lately, the gnosiological horizons of the science are becoming larger and less dogmatic. The knowledge (in the medicine, too) is a process in fieri, without absolute and final limits. PMID:11640095

  20. Culture and cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities. PMID:20679109

  1. Cultural dimensions of learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyford, Glen A.

    1990-06-01

    How, what, when and where we learn is frequently discussed, as are content versus process, or right brain versus left brain learning. What is usually missing is the cultural dimension. This is not an easy concept to define, but various aspects can be identified. The World Decade for Cultural Development emphasizes the need for a counterbalance to a quantitative, economic approach. In the last century poets also warned against brutalizing materialism, and Sorokin and others have described culture more recently in terms of cohesive basic values expressed through aesthetics and institutions. Bloom's taxonomy incorporates the category of affective learning, which internalizes values. If cultural learning goes beyond knowledge acquisition, perhaps the surest way of understanding the cultural dimension of learning is to examine the aesthetic experience. This can use myths, metaphors and symbols, and to teach and learn by using these can help to unlock the human potential for vision and creativity.

  2. Teaching World Cultures through Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauf, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching world cultures in the middle-level geography classroom presents challenges both because of the complexity of culture and because of the characteristics of students of this age. One effective way to teach about a culture is through the use of cultural artifacts. This article discusses how to collect and use cultural artifacts in the…

  3. Infusing Culture in Career Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Nancy; Collins, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the culture-infused career counselling (CICC) model. Six principles are foundational to a tripartite model emphasizing cultural self-awareness, awareness of client cultural identities, and development of a culturally sensitive working alliance. The core competencies ensure the cultural validity and relevance of career…

  4. Culturally-Sensitive Learning Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2010-01-01

    In today's global world, to provide meaningful education, teacher-librarians and their students need to become culturally competent: open to learning about other cultures and sharing one's own culture, able to change personal perspectives, and able to communicate effectively across cultures. Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions provides a…

  5. Cultural Factors in Clinical Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    Examines special issues in cross-cultural psychopathology, including culture-bound syndromes, variable distribution of psychopathology across cultures, and cultural distinctions between belief and delusion and between trance and hallucination. Offers suggestions for educating clinicians about cross-cultural conceptual issues and teaching the…

  6. Optimizing stem cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Van Der Sanden, Boudewijn; Dhobb, Mehdi; Berger, François; Wion, Didier

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells always balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Hence, stem cell culture parameters are critical and need to be continuously refined according to progress in our stem cell biology understanding and the latest technological developments. This led to the progressive replacement of ill-defined additives such as serum or feeder cell layers by recombinant cytokines or growth factors. Another example is the control of the oxygen pressure. For many years cell cultures have been done under atmospheric oxygen pressure which is much higher than the one experienced by stem cells in vivo. A consequence of cell metabolism is that cell culture conditions are constantly changing. Therefore, the development of high sensitive monitoring processes and control algorithms is required for ensuring cell culture medium homeostasis. Stem cells also sense the physical constraints of their microenvironment. Rigidity, stiffness and geometry of the culture substrate influence stem cell fate. Hence, nanotopography is probably as important as medium formulation in the optimization of stem cell culture conditions. Recent advances include the development of synthetic bioinformative substrates designed at the micro- and nanoscale level. On going research in many different fields including stem cell biology, nanotechnology, and bioengineering suggest that our current way to culture cells in Petri dish or flasks will soon be outdated as flying across the Atlantic Ocean in the Lindbergh’s plane. PMID:20803548

  7. Cultural Evolution and SETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Drake Equation for the number of radio communicative technological civilizations in the Galaxy encompasses three components of cosmic evolution: astronomical, biological and cultural. Of these three, cultural evolution totally dominates in terms of the rapidity of its effects. Yet, SETI scientists do not take cultural evolution into account, perhaps for understandable reasons, since cultural evolution is not well-understood even on Earth and is unpredictable in its outcome. But the one certainty for technical civilizations billions, millions, or even thousands of years older than ours is that they will have undergone cultural evolution. Cultural evolution potentially takes place in many directions, but this paper argues that its central driving force is the maintenance, improvement and perpetuation of knowledge and intelligence, and that to the extent intelligence can be improved, it will be improved. Applying this principle to life in the universe, extraterrestrials will have sought the best way to improve their intelligence. One possibility is that they may have long ago advanced beyond flesh-and-blood to artificial intelligence, constituting a postbiological universe. Although this subject has been broached, it has not been given the attention it is due from its foundation in cultural evolution. Nor has the idea of a postbiological universe been carried to its logical conclusion, including a careful analysis of the implications for SETI. SETI scientists, social scientists, and experts in AI should consider the strengths and weaknesses of this new paradigm.

  8. a Cultural Market Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HerdaǦDELEN, Amaç; Bingol, Haluk

    Social interactions and personal tastes shape our consumption behavior of cultural products. In this study, we present a computational model of a cultural market and we aim to analyze the behavior of the consumer population as an emergent phenomena. Our results suggest that the final market shares of cultural products dramatically depend on consumer heterogeneity and social interaction pressure. Furthermore, the relation between the resulting market shares and social interaction is robust with respect to a wide range of variation in the parameter values and the type of topology.

  9. Culture of safety.

    PubMed

    Hershey, Kristen

    2015-03-01

    In this article, the principles behind high-reliability organizations and a culture of safety are explored. Three areas in which health care has the greatest potential for improvement in safety culture are also discussed: a nonpunitive response to error; handoffs and transitions; and safe staffing. Tools for frontline nurses to help improve their organization's culture of safety in these areas are reviewed. Information is also given for nurses responding to error, including participating in root-cause analysis and supporting health care workers involved in adverse events. PMID:25680493

  10. Popular Culture, Cultural Resistance, and Anticonsumption Activism: An Exploration of Culture Jamming as Critical Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlin, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter examines popular culture as a site of cultural resistance. Specifically, it explores how "culture jamming," a cultural-resistance activity, can be a form of adult education. It examines adult education and learning as it intersects with both consumerism and popular culture. Focus is placed on a growing social movement of individuals

  11. Popular Culture, Cultural Resistance, and Anticonsumption Activism: An Exploration of Culture Jamming as Critical Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlin, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter examines popular culture as a site of cultural resistance. Specifically, it explores how "culture jamming," a cultural-resistance activity, can be a form of adult education. It examines adult education and learning as it intersects with both consumerism and popular culture. Focus is placed on a growing social movement of individuals…

  12. Culturable Psychrotrophic Bacterial Communities in Raw Milk and Their Proteolytic and Lipolytic Traits▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hantsis-Zacharov, Elionora; Halpern, Malka

    2007-01-01

    During cold storage after milk collection, psychrotrophic bacterial populations dominate the microflora, and their extracellular enzymes, mainly proteases and lipases, contribute to the spoilage of dairy products. The diversity, dynamics, and enzymatic traits of culturable psychrotrophs in raw milk from four farms were investigated over a 10-month period. About 20% of the isolates were found to be novel species, indicating that there is still much to be learned about culturable psychrotrophs in raw milk. The psychrotrophic isolates were identified and classified in seven classes. Three classes were predominant, with high species richness (18 to 21 species per class) in different seasons of the year: Gammaproteobacteria in spring and winter, Bacilli in summer, and Actinobacteria in autumn. The four minor classes were Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. The dominant classes were found in all four dairies, although every dairy had its own unique “bacterial profile.” Most but not all bacterial isolates had either lipolytic or both lipolytic and proteolytic activities. Only a few isolates showed proteolytic activity alone. The dominant genera, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter (Gammaproteobacteria), showed mainly lipolytic activity, Microbacterium (Actinobacteria) was highly lipolytic and proteolytic, and the lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus and Leuconostoc) displayed very minor enzymatic ability. Hence, the composition of psychrotrophic bacterial flora in raw milk has an important role in the determination of milk quality. Monitoring the dominant psychrotrophic species responsible for the production of heat-stable proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes offers a sensitive and efficient tool for maintaining better milk quality in the milk industry. PMID:17890340

  13. Gender differentials in tuberculosis: the role of socio-economic and cultural factors.

    PubMed

    Hudelson, P

    1996-10-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge about the role that socio-economic and cultural factors play in determining gender differentials in tuberculosis (TB) and tuberculosis control. The studies reviewed suggest that socio-economic and cultural factors may be important in two ways: first, they may play a role in determining overall gender differences in rates of infection and progression to disease, and second, they may lead to gender differentials in barriers to detection and successful treatment of TB. Both have implications for successful TB control programmes. The literature reviewed in this paper suggests the following: Gender differentials in social and economic roles and activities may lead to differential exposure to tuberculosis bacilli; The general health/nutritional status of TB-infected persons affects their rate of progression to disease. In areas where women's health is worse than men's (especially in terms of nutrition and human immunodeficiency virus status), women's risk of disease may be increased; A number of studies suggest that responses to illness differ in women and men, and that barriers to early detection and treatment of TB vary (and are probably greater) for women than for men. Gender differences also exist in rates of compliance with treatment; The fear and stigma associated with TB seems to have a greater impact on women than on men, often placing them in an economically or socially precarious position. Because the health and welfare of children is closely linked to that of their mothers, TB in women can have serious repercussions for families and households. The review points to the many gaps that exist in our knowledge and understanding of gender differentials in TB and TB control, and argues for increased efforts to identify and address gender differentials in the control of TB. PMID:8959141

  14. Culture, personality and psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Varma, V K

    1988-01-01

    Conventional Western-model psychotherapy is based on a number of premises regarding its rationale and technique. The increasing experience in psychotherapy globally is questioning the universality of these premises, suggesting that these could be to a large extent culture-specific, having developed in a particular culture at a particular time. Hence, the need to move from a dogmatic approach to psychotherapy to a flexible approach taking into account the socio-cultural reality. The paper identifies a number of cultural variables involving the intrapsychic mechanisms (e.g. cognitive and expressive), social relatedness (e.g. autonomy, social distance) and religious-philosophical belief systems (concept of sin, and belief in fatalism and after-life/reincarnation) and discusses their role in the approach to and process of psychotherapy, illustrating it with the situation in the Indian setting. PMID:3410660

  15. Speech Culture and Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasic, Smiljka

    1991-01-01

    Psychological and pedagogical benefits of studying and promoting speech culture are discussed, particularly as they affect the formation of personality in young people. Ethical and moral implications are mentioned. (15 references) (LB)

  16. Are Canadians Cultural Cuckoos?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickleburgh, Brita

    1977-01-01

    The author believes that teachers have been remiss in transmitting Canadian culture to their students. They have also neglected the development of self-realization and identity in the majority of students. (Author)

  17. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  18. Envisioning cultural practices

    PubMed Central

    Mattaini, Mark A.

    1996-01-01

    Graphic visualization has demonstrated its value for organizing transactional data and modeling complex phenomena in a wide variety of fields, from theoretical physics to medicine. Behavior analysts have historically used a variety of graphic tools not only for presentation but also for analysis and teaching. As they turn increasingly to the analysis and design of cultural practices, the phenomena behavior analysts study are becoming increasingly complicated. Many cultural practices of interest are embedded in extensive webs of interlocking practices and contingencies that can be difficult to grasp comprehensively. Building on contingency diagrams, which have proven to be useful for the analysis of operant behavior, and graphic tools developed for object-oriented systems analysis, this paper suggests graphic tools for capturing the interlocking contingencies that constitute cultures. These diagrams offer a broad-bandwidth technology for analyzing and designing cultural practices. ImagesFigure 3 PMID:22478262

  19. Keys to cultural understanding.

    PubMed

    FORCE, R W; FORCE, M

    1961-04-21

    Figures of speech are tangible manifestations of deeply rooted modes of perception and conceptualization. They represent categories or models for interpreting the universe-natural and supernatural, and material and non-material phenomena. These categories or models are reflected in all aspects of culture and are fundamentally determined by culture. They should not be considered universal but, rather, extremely relative and highly variable. Some students of language and culture, such as Whorf, would consider figures of speech not to be the most important organizing categories and would give precedence to grammatical constructions-that is, subject-predicate division or verb tenses. The use of figures of speech, however, is in some ways more easily investigated than grammatical categories, and their analysis can provide both unique and corroborative insights into various aspects of a culture, as has been demonstrated here with Palauan social organization. PMID:13700706

  20. [Thermophilic eukaryotic cell cultures].

    PubMed

    Bakhutashvili, V I; Dzhavakhishvili, N A; Kupradze, S A; Chkhotua, R N; Bobokhidze, N G

    1991-01-01

    Thermophilic clones of lymphoblastoid cell cultures Namalwa were generated and found to be capable of life and reproduction at a temperature of 60 degrees C. The reproductive dynamics, cytology, and ultrastructure of these clones were studied. PMID:1803780

  1. Hyperactivity: A Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Gerald H.

    1977-01-01

    The author postulates that cultural factors related to technological innovations and an overstimulating environment may be as responsible for the incidence of hyperactivity as the organic and emotional causes usually studied. (GW)

  2. Culture-negative endocarditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... endocarditis-causing germs can be found on a blood culture . This is because certain germs do not grow ... growing. Endocarditis is usually a result of a blood infection. ... to the heart, where they can settle on damaged heart valves.

  3. Rethinking cultural sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Swendson, C; Windsor, C

    1996-03-01

    The concept of cultural sensitivity is located within the tradition of anthropology and the history of colonisation and immigration in Australian society. This history provides a basis for examining the largely uncritical introduction of cultural considerations to the discipline of nursing. This paper argues that contemporary understandings of multiculturalism in nursing and health care policy tend to obscure, ignore and thus perpetuate notions of racial superiority. Recent works in transcultural nursing are used to illustrate the way in which ahistorical and therefore quite arbitrary traits are attributed to particular cultural groups. This perspective, given legitimacy in terms of cultural sensitivity, encourages political neutrality and thereby avoids questioning the discriminatory practices embedded in fundamental social relations. PMID:8705617

  4. Cultural Astronomy in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renshaw, Steven L.

    While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

  5. Viral lesion culture (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A viral lesion culture is performed to confirm herpes simplex virus present in a skin lesion. The specimen is collected by scraping the suspected skin lesion or aspirating fluid from the lesion. Results are ...

  6. Blood Culture Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to detect the presence of bacteria or fungi in the blood, to identify the type present, ... blood cultures to detect and identify bacteria and fungi. Other related tests that may be performed include: ...

  7. Astronomy in Aboriginal culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhathal, Ragbir

    2006-10-01

    In all probability, long before other civilizations had named the celestial objects in the night sky, the indigenous people of Australia had not only given them names but had also built an astronomical knowledge system which they incorporated into their social, cultural and religious life. Their socio-cultural astronomical knowledge system both assists and clashes with Australia's legal system, which is based on English law.

  8. Astronomy and Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, M.

    2006-08-01

    Astronomy is, by definition, the sum of the material and spiritual values created by mankind and of the institutions necessary to communicate these values. Consequently, astronomy belongs to the culture of each society and its scientific progress does nothing but underline its role in culture. It is interesting that there is even a European society which bears this name "Astronomy for Culture" (SEAC). Its main goal is "the study of calendric and astronomical aspects of culture". Owning ancient evidence of astronomical knowledge, dating from the dawn of the first millennium, Romania is interested in this topic. But Astronomy has a much deeper role in culture and civilization. There are many aspects that deserve to be discussed. Examples? The progress of astronomy in a certain society, in connection with its evolution; the place held by the astronomy in literature and, generally, in art; the role of the SF in the epoch of super-mediatization; astronomy and belief; astronomy and astrology in the modern society, and so forth. These are problems that can be of interest for IAU, but the most important one could be her educational role, in the formation of the culture of the new generation, in the education of the population for the protection of our planet, in the ensuring of a high level of spiritual development of the society in the present epoch.

  9. Cell isolation and culture.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sihui; Kuhn, Jeffrey R

    2013-01-01

    Cell isolation and culture are essential tools for the study of cell function. Isolated cells grown under controlled conditions can be manipulated and imaged at a level of resolution that is not possible in whole animals or even tissue explants. Recent advances have allowed for large-scale isolation and culture of primary C. elegans cells from both embryos and all four larval stages. Isolated cells can be used for single-cell profiling, electrophysiology, and high-resolution microscopy to assay cell autonomous development and behavior. This chapter describes protocols for the isolation and culture of C. elegans embryonic and larval stage cells. Our protocols describe isolation of embryonic and L1 stage cells from nematodes grown on high-density NA22 bacterial plates and isolation of L2 through L4 stage cells from nematodes grown in axenic liquid culture. Both embryonic and larval cells can be isolated from nematode populations within 3 hours and can be cultured for several days. A primer on sterile cell culture techniques is given in the appendices. PMID:23430760

  10. Changing our culture.

    PubMed

    Benzil, Deborah L

    2014-05-01

    Today, a great challenge of our profession is to envision how we will deliver exemplary neurosurgical care in the future. To accomplish this requires anticipating how economic, political, and societal influences will affect our ability to provide the highest quality of patient care in an arena that will look increasingly different from today's world of medicine. Already, our profession is battling a relentless assault as numerous sectors implement change that impacts us and our community every day. Surviving this requires an effective strategy that will involve significant cultural change. To accomplish this, neurosurgery must take an honest look inward and then commit to being the agents of positive cultural change. Such a path will not be easy but should reap important benefits for all of neurosurgery and our patients. Several practical and proven strategies can help us to realize the rewards of changing our culture. Vital to this process is understanding that effecting behavioral change will increase the likelihood of achieving sustainable cultural change. Innovation and diversity are crucial to encourage and reward when trying to effect meaningful cultural change, while appreciating the power of a "Tipping Point" strategy will also reap significant benefits. As a profession, if we adopt these strategies and tactics we can lead our profession to proceed in improvement, and as individuals we can use the spirit that drove us into neurosurgery to become the agents of an enduring and meaningful cultural change that will benefit our patients and us. PMID:24559225

  11. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of captive exotic birds using polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Gyimesi, Z S; Stalis, I H; Miller, J M; Thoen, C O

    1999-09-01

    A presumptive diagnosis of avian tuberculosis can be made when characteristic histologic lesions and acid-fast bacilli are observed in avian tissue samples. However, a definitive diagnosis requires isolation and identification of the causative organism, a process that can take several weeks to complete. The purpose of the study was to determine whether formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival avian tissues could be tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to reliably and rapidly diagnose avian tuberculosis. Tissues were examined from both presumptive and definitive cases of avian tuberculosis from captive exotic birds obtained over a 14-yr period (1983-1997). The cases chosen consisted of birds that had characteristic histologic lesions with acid-fast bacilli. The primers used for PCR amplified a 180-base-pair fragment of 16S ribosomal RNA, a sequence specific for both Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. If a sequence was detected in a sample, it was presumed that M. a. avium was the organism being detected. This M. avium fragment sequence was detected in 26 of the 97 samples (27%). Some of the negative PCR results may be explained by any of several factors that adversely affect nucleic acid integrity, particularly prolonged fixation in formalin. Of the 17 samples that were culture positive for M. avium and were known to have been fixed in formalin for < or = 4 wk, 11 tested positive by PCR (65%). The findings of this study show that PCR can be a rapid indicator of the presence of M. a. avium in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. However, the relatively low detection rate the test demonstrated in this sample set may limit its practical use as a diagnostic tool. PMID:10572856

  12. The Effect of Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus rhamnosusCulture Supernatants on Expression of Autophagy Genes and HPV E6 and E7 Oncogenes in The HeLa Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Motevaseli, Elahe; Azam, Rosa; Akrami, Seyed Mohammad; Mazlomy, Mohammadali; Saffari, Mojtaba; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein; Daneshvar, Maryam; Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism by which lactobacilli exert their cytotoxic effects on cervical cancer cells. In addition, we aimed to evalu- ate the effect of lactobacilli on the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV) onco- genes. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, using quantitative real-time polymer- ase chain reaction (PCR), we analyzed the expression of CASP3 and three autophagy genes [ATG14, BECN1 and alpha 2 catalytic subunit of AMPK (PRKAA2)] along with HPV18 E6 and E7 genes in HeLa cells before and after treatment with Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus culture supernatants. Results The expression of CASP3 and autophagy genes in HeLa cells was de- creased after treatment with lactobacilli culture supernatants. However, this de- crease was not significant for PRKAA2 when compared with controls. In addition, expression of HPV E6 was significantly decreased after treatment with lactobacilli culture supernatants. Conclusion Lactobacilli culture supernatants can decrease expression of ATG14 and BECN1 as well as the HPV E6 oncogene. It has been demonstrated that the main changes occurring during cervical carcinogenesis in cell machinery can be reversed by suppression of HPV oncogenes. Therefore, downregulation of HPV E6 by lacto- bacilli may have therapeutic potential for cervical cancer. As the role of autophagy in cancer is complicated, further work is required to clarify the link between downregula- tion of autophagy genes and antiproliferative effects exerted by lactobacilli. PMID:26862519

  13. Bridging Culture On-Line: Strategies for Teaching Cultural Sensitivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendler, M. Cecilia; Struthers, Roxanne

    2002-01-01

    An online cross-cultural health course for nurses sought to provide access to cultural experiences by culturally congruent use of a minority visiting scholar and required participation in cultural enrichment activities. Course and faculty evaluations were designed to be appropriate for the asynchronous environment. (Contains 25 references.) (SK)

  14. The Cultural Conundrum: Cultural Literacy in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the potential pitfalls of exposing students from a non-Western culture, such as Thailand, to literature in English with its accompanying baggage of cultural references. Referencing Ed Hirsch, Jr.s, "Cultural Literacy--What Every American Needs to Know," the importance of cultural literacy as opposed to mere lexical literacy is…

  15. Creating Cultural Consumers: The Dynamics of Cultural Capital Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisida, Brian; Greene, Jay P.; Bowen, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    The theories of cultural reproduction and cultural mobility have largely shaped the study of the effects of cultural capital on academic outcomes. Missing in this debate has been a rigorous examination of how children actually acquire cultural capital when it is not provided by their families. Drawing on data from a large-scale experimental study…

  16. The Culture Based Model: Constructing a Model of Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent trends reveal that models of culture aid in mapping the design and analysis of information and communication technologies. Therefore, models of culture are powerful tools to guide the building of instructional products and services. This research examines the construction of the culture based model (CBM), a model of culture that evolved…

  17. Culture Training: Validation Evidence for the Culture Assimilator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Terence R.; And Others

    The culture assimilator, a programed self-instructional approach to culture training, is described and a series of laboratory experiments and field studies validating the culture assimilator are reviewed. These studies show that the culture assimilator is an effective method of decreasing some of the stress experienced when one works with people…

  18. Cultural Sensitivity: The Basis for Culturally Relevant Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plata, Maximino

    2008-01-01

    This article examines cultural sensitivity as a basis for culturally relevant teaching. It argues that classroom teachers are overwhelmed by the responsibility to educate an increasingly culturally diverse population. And because extant teaching strategies have failed to produce desired outcomes in these students, a culturally relevant curriculum…

  19. Examining Cultural Intelligence and Cross-Cultural Negotiation Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Kevin S.; Feyerherm, Ann; Gu, Minhua

    2015-01-01

    International negotiation failures are often linked to deficiencies in negotiator cross-cultural capabilities, including limited understanding of the cultures engaged in the transaction, an inability to communicate with persons from different cultural backgrounds, and limited behavioral flexibility to adapt to culturally unfamiliar contexts.…

  20. Supervisor Cultural Responsiveness and Unresponsiveness in Cross-Cultural Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkard, Alan W.; Johnson, Adanna J.; Madson, Michael B.; Pruitt, Nathan T.; Contreras-Tadych, Deborah A.; Kozlowski, JoEllen M.; Hess, Shirley A.; Knox, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen supervisees' of color and 13 European American supervisees' experiences of culturally responsive and unresponsive cross-cultural supervision were studied using consensual qualitative research. In culturally responsive supervision, all supervisees felt supported for exploring cultural issues, which positively affected the supervisee, the

  1. Family Counseling: Cultural Sensitivity, Relativism, and the Cultural Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Kathleen M.

    1998-01-01

    Cultural sensitivity, cultural relativism, and the cultural defense are defined and described. Each concept is addressed in terms of its relationship to couple and family counseling. The role of counselor must be broadened and deepened to include the role of cultural broker. (Author/EMK)

  2. Liver abscess caused by tuberculosis and melioidosis.

    PubMed

    Azali, Hafiz Yafee Amar; Norly, Salleh; Wong, Leh Meng; Tan, Kia Sin; Safian, Naim Muhammad

    2007-04-01

    We report an unusual co-existence of Burkholderia pseudomallei and acid fast bacilli in a young Malay gentleman with liver abscess. He was treated with antibiotics and surgical drainage. This phenomenon has not been reported in previous literature and the dilemma of its management is discussed. PMID:17475585

  3. Culture, cultural factors and psychiatric diagnosis: review and projections

    PubMed Central

    ALARCÓN, RENATO D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to provide conceptual justifications for the inclusion of culture and cultural factors in psychiatric diagnosis, and logistic suggestions as to the content and use of this approach. A discussion of the scope and limitations of current diagnostic practice, criticisms from different quarters, and the role and relevance of culture in the diagnostic encounter, precede the examination of advantages and disadvantages of the approach. The cultural content of psychiatric diagnosis should include the main, well-recognized cultural variables, adequate family data, explanatory models, and strengths and weaknesses of every individual patient. The practical aspects include the acceptance of “cultural discordances” as a component of an updated definition of mental disorder, and the use of a refurbished cultural formulation. Clinical “telescoping” strategies to obtain relevant cultural data during the diagnostic interview, and areas of future research (including field trials on the cultural formulation and on “culture bound syndromes”), are outlined. PMID:19812742

  4. Sputum analysis and culture.

    PubMed

    Joyce, S M

    1986-03-01

    Sputum analysis and culture is the most common method of specific diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections. Culture of a properly screened, expectorated sputum sample will identify the pathogen in most cases of bacterial pneumonia. Expectorated sputa, as well as those obtained by aspiration from the upper airway, are subject to oropharyngeal bacterial contamination. Other techniques, such as transtracheal aspiration, are more "sterile," but have a much higher incidence of morbidity. Microscopic screening of expectorated or aspirated sputum samples will reduce the number and increase the diagnostic accuracy of cultures, resulting in considerable cost savings. Mucopurulent material is selected by gross inspection, and microscopic examination of a wet mount and Gram stain yields information about cell type and predominant organism. More important, however, the presence of fewer than 25 squamous epithelial cells per low-power field indicates that true lower respiratory tract secretions have been collected. Culture results must be correlated carefully with semiquantitative grading, initial microscopic screening, clinical presentation, and response to initial therapy. When properly performed and interpreted, sputum analysis and culture are valuable tools in the diagnosis and treatment of lower respiratory tract infection. PMID:3946881

  5. How Culture Shock Affects Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barna, LaRay M.

    The paper defines the term "culture shock" and discusses the changes that this state can make in a person's behavior. Culture shock refers to the emotional and physiological reaction of high activation that is brought about by sudden immersion in a new culture. Because one's own culture shields one from the unknown and reduces the need to make…

  6. Cultural Attitude Scale Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry Alan; Greene, John F.

    The Cultural Attitude Scales represent a modular approach to the measurement of cultural attitudes and knowledge with respect to the Puerto Rican, Anglo-American, and Black-American cultures. They are applicable to programs which propose to enhance ethnic identity or cross-cultural understanding among any one or more of these three ethnic groups.…

  7. Cultural Perspectives Toward Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Li

    2008-01-01

    Cultural conflicts may be derived from using inappropriate language. Appropriate linguistic-pragmatic competence may also be produced by providing various and multicultural backgrounds. Culture and language are linked together naturally, unconsciously, and closely in daily social lives. Culture affects language and language affects culture through…

  8. Learning Cultures in Further Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodkinson, Phil; Anderson, Graham; Colley, Helen; Davies, Jenny; Diment, Kim; Scaife, Tony; Tedder, Mike; Wahlberg, Madeleine; Wheeler, Eunice

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of learning cultures in English Further Education (FE), as revealed in the Transforming Learning Cultures in FE (TLC) research project. In it, we describe four characteristics of a generic FE learning culture: the significance of learning cultures in every site; the significance of the tutor in influencing site

  9. Cultural Bias in Testing ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargill-Power, C.

    Although cultural content is unavoidable as a backdrop for good language testing, cultural bias in testing English as a second language presents many dangers. A picture cue calling for a correct grammatical response may evoke an incorrect answer if the pictorial content is culturally coded. The cultural background behind a test must be accurately…

  10. Learning Cultures in Further Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodkinson, Phil; Anderson, Graham; Colley, Helen; Davies, Jenny; Diment, Kim; Scaife, Tony; Tedder, Mike; Wahlberg, Madeleine; Wheeler, Eunice

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of learning cultures in English Further Education (FE), as revealed in the Transforming Learning Cultures in FE (TLC) research project. In it, we describe four characteristics of a generic FE learning culture: the significance of learning cultures in every site; the significance of the tutor in influencing site…

  11. Communication Media in Ancient Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabusch, David M.

    Interest in early means of communication and in the uses and kinds of media that existed in ancient cultures is starting to grow among communication scholars. Conversation analysis of these cultures is obviously impossible, so that the emphasis must rest with material cultural artifacts. Many ancient cultures used non-verbal codes for dyadic…

  12. The Invisible Doors between Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Clair, Robert N.

    This paper discusses cultural awareness within the context of 20th-century social changes in the United States and suggests that cultural awareness can be a protective factor in the maintenance of indigenous cultures and languages. Three business-related cultural changes have taken place in America during this century: the creation of the consumer…

  13. Popular Culture and Democratic Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolby, Nadine

    2003-01-01

    A literature review explores how scholars have approached the study of popular culture--as text or lived experience. Examines the concepts of youth culture, individual agency, and cultural citizenship. Argues that the importance of popular culture lies in its role as a site for democratic practice. (Contains 88 reference notes.) (SK)

  14. Culture from the Bottom Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dwight; Sohn, Jija

    2013-01-01

    The culture concept has been severely criticized for its top-down nature in TESOL, leading arguably to its falling out of favor in the field. But what of the fact that people do "live culturally" (Ingold, 1994)? This article describes a case study of culture from the bottom up--culture as understood and enacted by its individual users.…

  15. Accelerating the culture change!

    PubMed

    Klunk, S W; Panetta, J; Wooten, J

    1996-11-01

    Exide Electronics, a major supplier of uninterruptible power system equipment, embarked on a journey of changing a culture to improve quality, enhance customer responsiveness, and reduce costs. This case study examines the evolution of change over a period of seven years, with particular emphasis on the most recent years, 1992 through 1995. The article focuses on the Raleigh plant operations and describes how each succeeding year built on the successes and fixed the shortcomings of the prior years to accelerate the culture change, including corrective action and continuous improvement processes, organizational structures, expectations, goals, achievements, and pitfalls. The real challenge to changing the culture was structuring a dynamic approach to accelerate change! The presentation also examines how the evolutionary process itself can be created and accelerated through ongoing communication, regular feedback of progress and goals, constant evaluation and direction of the process, and measuring and paying for performance. PMID:10162360

  16. Maintaining prophetic cultures.

    PubMed

    Arbuckle, Gerald A

    2005-01-01

    The Catholic health ministry was founded by "prophetic people," people who shared some of the qualities shown by biblical prophets. If it is to endure and prosper, Catholic health care must foster prophetic cultures-cultures that positively encourage the development of new leaders possessing prophetic qualities. The Scriptures, particularly the Hebrew Scriptures, eloquently describe the characteristics these new leaders will require. The chief qualities that will be needed are memory (of the Hebrew and Christian tradition), creative imagination, orientation toward the community, steadfastness in commitment, patience in adversity, humility, a sense of humor, and an ability to express lamentation. To foster prophetic cultures, sponsors and board members must perform certain actions. They must act hopefully, set high standards, and clarify four leadership functions: conserve the organization's mission, manage resources efficiently, empower associates, and encourage everyone involved to respond to problems creatively. PMID:16250605

  17. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    PubMed

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies. PMID:25343628

  18. Organizational Culture and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Catherine A.

    2003-01-01

    '..only a fool perseveres in error.' Cicero. Humans will break the most advanced technological devices and override safety and security systems if they are given the latitude. Within the workplace, the operator may be just one of several factors in causing accidents or making risky decisions. Other variables considered for their involvement in the negative and often catastrophic outcomes include the organizational context and culture. Many organizations have constructed and implemented safety programs to be assimilated into their culture to assure employee commitment and understanding of the importance of everyday safety. The purpose of this paper is to examine literature on organizational safety cultures and programs that attempt to combat vulnerability, risk taking behavior and decisions and identify the role of training in attempting to mitigate unsafe acts.

  19. Digital Microfluidic Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Ng, Alphonsus H C; Li, Bingyu Betty; Chamberlain, M Dean; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2015-01-01

    Digital microfluidics (DMF) is a droplet-based liquid-handling technology that has recently become popular for cell culture and analysis. In DMF, picoliter- to microliter-sized droplets are manipulated on a planar surface using electric fields, thus enabling software-reconfigurable operations on individual droplets, such as move, merge, split, and dispense from reservoirs. Using this technique, multistep cell-based processes can be carried out using simple and compact instrumentation, making DMF an attractive platform for eventual integration into routine biology workflows. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art in DMF cell culture, and describe design considerations, types of DMF cell culture, and cell-based applications of DMF. PMID:26643019

  20. Current Microbial Isolates from Wound Swabs, Their Culture and Sensitivity Pattern at the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Pondei, Kemebradikumo; Fente, Beleudanyo G.; Oladapo, Oluwatoyosi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Wound infections continue to be problematic in clinical practice where empiric treatment of infections is routine. Objectives: A retrospective cross-sectional study to determine the current causative organisms of wound infections and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns in the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital (NDUTH), Okolobiri, Bayelsa State of Nigeria. Methods: Records of wound swabs collected from 101 patients with high suspicion of wound infection were analysed. Smears from the wound swabs were inoculated on appropriate media and cultured. Bacterial colonies were Gram stained and microscopically examined. Biochemical tests were done to identify pathogen species. The Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic testing. Results: Prevalence of wound infection was 86.13% (CI: 79.41–92.85). Most bacteria were Gram negative bacilli with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most prevalent pathogen isolated. The bacterial isolates exhibited a high degree of resistance to the antibiotics tested (42.8% to 100% resistance). All isolates were resistant to cloxacillin. Age group and sex did not exert any effect on prevalence, aetiological agent or antimicrobial resistance pattern. Conclusion: We suggest a multidisciplinary approach to wound management, routine microbiological surveillance of wounds, rational drug use and the institution of strong infection control policies. PMID:23874138

  1. Culture and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Burton-Bradley, B G

    1993-03-01

    The painstaking and always tentative effort to discover the universal characteristics of the human species differs in motive and attitude according to the arrogant anxiety-abating need for each of us to impose our own cultural categories upon others. When stemming from Europe this is seen by some as a form of psychiatric imperialism, by others as the fallacy of universalism and the primary of culture. Evidence from Papua New Guinea and other groups elsewhere show quite clearly that the noetic domains of those groups with different languages are so organized that the notion of a universal consensual science cannot be sustained. PMID:8266731

  2. Hydroponics or soilless culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, H. D.

    1963-01-01

    Historically, hydroponics is not a new field; plant physiologists have known and used it for some 100 years. Inevitably, some enthusiasts got carried away.Claims were made of enormous potential yields; skyscraper tops were said to be capable of producing enough food for all of their occupants; and closets, basements, garages, etc. were wishfully converted into fields for hydroponic culture. Numerous publications on the subject appeared during this period. Basic requirements for hydropinc techniques are given along with examples of where soilless culture has been used commercially.

  3. Mass algal culture system

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Lawrence P.

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus and process for the culture of algae in a liquid medium is disclosed. The medium circulates through an open trough and is exposed to an atmosphere which is temperature regulated. The nutrient content of the liquid medium is regulated to control the chemical composition growth and reproduction characteristics of the cultured algae. Before it is allowed to strike the medium, sunlight is passed through a filter to remove wavelengths which are not photosynthetically active. Heat energy can be recovered from the filter.

  4. Mass algal culture system

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Lawrence P.

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus and process for the culture of algae in a liquid medium is disclosed. The medium circulates through an open trough and is exposed to an atmosphere which is temperature regulated. The nutrient content of the liquid medium is regulated to control the chemical composition growth and reproduction characteristics of the cultured algae. Before it is allowed to strike the medium, sunlight is passed through a filter to remove wavelengths which are not photosynthetically active. Heat energy can be recovered from the filter.

  5. Seasonal abundance and diversity of culturable heterotrophic bacteria in relation to environmental factors in the Gulf of Antalya, Eastern Mediterranean, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Çardak, Mine; Özgür Özbek, Elif; Kebapçioğlu, Turhan

    2015-04-01

    The abundance of culturable heterotropic bacteria studied on and according to depth levels and seasons in the Gulf of Antalya. Environmental factors were compared regarding culturable heterotrophic bacteria abundance and diversities of bacteria. During the study period (between August 2009 and April 2010, seasonally in the Gulf of Antalya, at six stations and six depth levels (0-20 cm, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200 m). The bacterial isolates were identified in the automated micro identification system VITEK 2 Compact 30 (Biomereux, France). The mean abundance was higher in Sts. D, E and F than Sts. A, B and C, located in the eastern part of the gulf. The mean abundance decreased as the depth level increased. The mean abundance of CHB ranged between 8.15 × 10(6) and 2.54 × 10(8) CFU ml(-1) throughout the year. Abundance of CHB differed according to the variations of biotic and abiotic factors. A total of 27 taxa of bacteria including six bacterial classes were reported in this study as the first records for the Gulf of Antalya. Six bacterial classes: Gamma Proteobacteria (46.81 %), Bacilli (27.66 %), Beta Proteobacteria (12.77 %), Alfa Proteobacteria (6.38 %), Actinobacteria (4.26 %) and Flavobacteria (2.13 %) were determined. The study resulted in increased knowledge on the composition and biochemical response of bacteria isolated from eutrophic and oligotrophic areas. 23 bacteria species belonging to 16 families were reported. PMID:25663240

  6. The ethics of cultural competence.

    PubMed

    Paasche-Orlow, Michael

    2004-04-01

    Cultural competence curricula have proliferated throughout medical education. Awareness of the moral underpinnings of this movement can clarify the purpose of such curricula for educators and trainees and serve as a way to evaluate the relationship between the ethics of cultural competence and normative Western medical ethics. Though rarely stated explicitly, the essential principles of cultural competence are (1) acknowledgement of the importance of culture in people's lives, (2) respect for cultural differences, and (3) minimization of any negative consequences of cultural differences. Culturally competent clinicians promote these principles by learning about culture, embracing pluralism, and proactive accommodation. Generally, culturally competent care will advance patient autonomy and justice. In this sense, cultural competence and Western medical ethics are mutually supportive movements. However, Western bioethics and the personal ethical commitments of many medical trainees will place limits on the extent to which they will endorse pluralism and accommodation. Specifically, if the values of cultural competence are thought to embrace ethical relativity, inexorable conflicts will be created. The author presents his view of the ethics of cultural competence and places the concepts of cultural competence in the context of Western moral theory. Clarity about the ethics of cultural competence can help educators promote and evaluate trainees' integration of their own moral intuitions, Western medical ethics, and the ethics of cultural competence. PMID:15044168

  7. Culture, Personality, Health, and Family Dynamics: Cultural Competence in the Selection of Culturally Sensitive Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Len

    2010-01-01

    Cultural sensitivity and cultural competence in the selection of culturally sensitive treatments is a requisite for effective counseling practice in working with diverse clients and their families, particularly when clients present with health issues or medical problems. Described here is a strategy for selecting culturally sensitive treatments…

  8. Evaluation of Propidium Monoazide Real-Time PCR for Early Detection of Viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Clinical Respiratory Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Sun Min; Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Sung Soo; Yi, Jongyoun; Kim, Hyung Hoi; Lee, Eun Yup

    2014-01-01

    Background Conventional acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining cannot differentiate viable from dead cells. Propidium monoazide (PMA) is a photoreactive DNA-binding dye that inhibits PCR amplification by DNA modification. We evaluated whether PMA real-time PCR is suitable for the early detection of viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in clinical respiratory specimens. Methods A total of 15 diluted suspensions from 5 clinical MTB isolates were quadruplicated and subjected to PMA treatment and/or heat inactivation. Eighty-three AFB-positive sputum samples were also tested to compare the ΔCT values (CT value in PMA-treated sputum samples-CT value in non-PMA-treated sputum samples) between culture-positive and culture-negative specimens. Real-time PCR was performed using Anyplex MTB/NTM Real-Time Detection (Seegene, Korea), and the CT value changes after PMA treatment were compared between culture-positive and culture-negative groups. Results In MTB suspensions, the increase in the CT value after PMA treatment was significant in dead cells (P=0.0001) but not in live cells (P=0.1070). In 14 culture-negative sputum samples, the median ΔCT value was 5.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1-8.2; P<0.0001), whereas that in 69 culture-positive sputum samples was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.7-2.0). In the ROC curve analysis, the cutoff ΔCT value for maximum sensitivity (89.9%) and specificity (85.7%) for differentiating dead from live cells was 3.4. Conclusions PMA real-time PCR is a useful approach for differentiating dead from live bacilli in AFB smear-positive sputum samples. PMID:24790907

  9. Action Learning: Cultural Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Gillian; de Vera, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the experience of forming a set in a higher education institution and offers some observations and insights gained from the perspectives of the role of the set adviser, cultural differences and the challenges of attempting to align theory, practice and experience.

  10. Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chee, Donna Ah; Maidment, Debra; Hayes-Hampton, Margie

    The Institute for Aboriginal Development (IAD) is an Aboriginal-controlled language resource center and adult education center serving the Aboriginal communities of central Australia. Its activities include education programs, which range from literacy and numeracy to vocational and tertiary-level courses; an Aboriginal language and culture center…

  11. Culture and Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Beverley; Betts, Paul

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we concern ourselves with the ways in which schools in general and special education procedures in particular tend to not be successful for those of our students who are from a different culture. (While we focus on Canadian Aboriginals, we also extend our thinking to those children who come from different races, ethnicities,…

  12. Culturally Responsive Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callins, Tandria

    2006-01-01

    Teaching ability, over and above reading programs, is the major contributor to students' literacy success. Culturally and linguistically diverse students are not receiving "a free and appropriate education" when teachers are not implementing instructional strategies that optimize student achievement or positively reinforcing their cultural…

  13. Writing 302: Writing Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Farnham, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    WRT 302: Writing Culture is an upper-level elective in the Department of Writing and Rhetoric at the University of Rhode Island (URI). As part of a group of four 300-level courses, Writing 302 draws many junior and senior majors in Writing and Rhetoric, English, and other majors who are looking to add creativity and experience with design to their

  14. School Culture in Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Scott

    1991-01-01

    The principal of Samuel Gompers Fine Arts Option School in Chicago (Illinois) has transformed the culture and atmosphere through emphasizing strong leadership, cracking down on safety issues, developing programs of which the whole school could be proud, emphasizing excellence, and encouraging community involvement. (JB)

  15. Third-Culture Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Useem, Ruth Hill; Downie, Richard D.

    1976-01-01

    Children who live abroad with their parents are exposed to a wide diversity of cultural and educational influences, are internationally oriented, and have high career aspirations; when they return to schools in the United States they are often misunderstood by their peers and not sufficiently challenged academically by their teachers. (JD)

  16. Cultural Styles of Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, E. S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Offers an alternative methodology for studying persuasive strategies by examining the persuasive strategies selected by professional persuaders representing those cultures being studied. Analyzes the persuasive styles of United States, Soviet Union and Arab diplomats involved in international negotiations in the Security Council of the United…

  17. Cross-Cultural Broadcasting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, Eduardo; And Others

    New broadcasting technologies have extended the possibility of distributing radio and television programs over extensive areas encompassing different countries and peoples of different cultures and languages. This raises problems of program content and format as well as legal and political questions relating to trans-national information flow.

  18. Public Knowledge Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    This article first reviews claims for the knowledge economy in terms of excludability, rivalry, and transparency indicating the way that digital goods behave differently from other commodities. In the second section it discusses the theory of "public knowledge cultures" starting from the primacy of practice based on Marx, Wittgenstein and…

  19. Leadership and School Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Richard

    Present attempts to transform the meaning and purposes of schooling through a radically reformed notion of leadership are examined in this paper. The first part presents a framework that explains the mechanisms through which school cultures are produced, reproduced, and transformed: pedagogy, curriculum, assessment, and discipline. The first…

  20. Cross-Cultural HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    These five papers are from a symposium that was facilitated by David C. Bjorkquist on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD) at the 1995 Academy of Human Resource Development conference. "Developing Managers for Overseas Assignments in the Pacific Rim: A Study of International HRD Issues in Singapore" (A. Ahad M. Osman-Gani, Thian-Ser

  1. Liver Cell Culture Devices

    PubMed Central

    Andria, B.; Bracco, A.; Cirino, G.; Chamuleau, R. A. F. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the last 15 years many different liver cell culture devices, consisting of functional liver cells and artificial materials, have been developed. They have been devised for numerous different applications, such as temporary organ replacement (a bridge to liver transplantation or native liver regeneration) and as in vitro screening systems in the early stages of the drug development process, like assessing hepatotoxicity, hepatic drug metabolism, and induction/inhibition studies. Relevant literature is summarized about artificial human liver cell culture systems by scrutinizing PubMed from 2003 to 2009. Existing devices are divided in 2D configurations (e.g., static monolayer, sandwich, perfused cells, and flat plate) and 3D configurations (e.g., liver slices, spheroids, and different types of bioreactors). The essential features of an ideal liver cell culture system are discussed: different types of scaffolds, oxygenation systems, extracellular matrixes (natural and artificial), cocultures with nonparenchymal cells, and the role of shear stress problems. Finally, miniaturization and high-throughput systems are discussed. All these factors contribute in their own way to the viability and functionality of liver cells in culture. Depending on the aim for which they are designed, several good systems are available for predicting hepatotoxicity and hepatic metabolism within the general population. To predict hepatotoxicity in individual cases genomic analysis might be essential as well. PMID:26998397

  2. Quality, Culture and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strydom, J. F.; Zulu, N.; Murray, L.

    2004-01-01

    Higher education in South Africa has been grappling with the issue of quality assurance since the early 1990s. This paper investigates the relationships or tensions between quality, culture and change as a result of the introduction of quality assurance systems in higher education institutions in South Africa. The imperatives for the introduction…

  3. Respectful Youth Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Erik K.

    2014-01-01

    Children are social beings who rely on interactions with others to survive and thrive. Since the human brain is wired to connect, cultures in schools and youth organizations must be designed so youth can bond to supportive peers and adults. Children learn through observation, modeling, and responding to people in their environments. Bronfenbrenner…

  4. Combining Divergent Organizational Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenhart, Myra W.

    A study examined the creation of a new division within an organization, where members of management were primarily from an "immigrant" or regulatory culture, to determine the effects on management and professional satisfaction. Data were elicited through both a survey instrument and in-depth interviews with 26 current employees and 12 former…

  5. Cultural and Linguistic Ambidexterity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galuszka, Peter

    2007-01-01

    It might sound like a no-brainer that being bilingual or multilingual helps students planning engineering and just about any other career. But it is certainly true and is becoming more important as the economies of nations become more intertwined. What's more, being able to go beyond mere language ability and understand cultural distinctions are…

  6. Researching Society and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, Clive, Ed.

    This book provides theoretically informed guidance to practicing the key research methods for investigating society and culture. It is a text in both methods and methodology, in which the importance of understanding the historical, theoretical and institutional context in which particular methods have developed is stressed. The contributors of the…

  7. Cultural Issues in Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on cultural issues in organizations. "Emotion Management and Organizational Functions: A Study of Action in a Not-for-Profit Organization" (Jamie Callahan Fabian) uses Hochschild's emotion systems theory and Parsons' social systems theory to explain why members of an organization managed their

  8. Kaleidoscope of Parenting Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thirumurthy, Vidya

    2004-01-01

    In this brief article, the author shares observations of parents and children from over 27 countries who participated in a university preschool program, and also provides examples that illustrate cultural variations in parenting behavior. It is shown that the patterns of parental attitudes and behaviors exhibited in the preschool differed greatly…

  9. Persian Language & Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mir-Djalali, Elahe

    Designed to be used as complementary instructional material for American students as well as second-generation Iranians in America, this work presents a collection of material for teaching Persian language and culture. Research and analysis of some relevant linguistic issues, interactive methodology of language teaching and acquisition, and models…

  10. Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc., has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc., is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

  11. Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc. has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc. is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

  12. Television in American Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Hermene D.

    What is television doing to our society and our culture? What has it done to education? Television has had a great impact on human behavior but rather than communicating, it dictates a philosophy of life, moral judgments and a lifestyle. Television presents a violent image of society where fantasy and reality are often confused. It is a system

  13. Counseling and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtado, Juan; And Others

    This booklet, developed for school counselors, explores basic considerations for effective counseling of Lau students, defined as those from distinct language and cultural backgrounds, whose home language is other than English and who are not performing conceptually and linguistically at a level equal to district standards. Following a brief…

  14. Transitions: Third Culture Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbeck, Marjory; Reus, Valerie

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale research study conducted in Singapore, where some 16,000 children are enrolled in "foreign schools". Such children, often termed Third Culture Children, are neither raised entirely in their parents' home country nor as a member of the country where they now live. Pollock and Van Reken (2001) state that the…

  15. It Takes a Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckner, Martha; Mausbach, Ann

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, the graduation rate for the Council Bluffs Community School District was, at 68 percent, the lowest in Iowa. District leaders knew that to improve, they needed to create a cultural change throughout the community. They began by getting community members involved in creating a strategic plan and mission statement that included a guarantee…

  16. Psychiatry and Chinese Culture

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tsung-Yi

    1983-01-01

    When we examine the cultural characteristics that influence mental disorders and related behavior among the Chinese, no major differences are found between Chinese and other groups in the range of disorders or in overall prevalence. Several cultural factors influence the recognition and treatment of mental illness, among which are attitudes toward emotional display, somatic as opposed to psychogenic disorders and features of the traditional medical belief system in Chinese culture. The Chinese have a relatively favorable prognosis of schizophrenia, low rates of depressive illness, a strong tendency towards somatization and the presence of several unique culture-bound syndromes. From studying Chinese in Vancouver, it was found that they have a characteristic way of dealing with mental illness in the family, in that there is first a protracted period of intrafamilial coping with serious psychiatric illness, followed by recourse to friends, elders and neighbors in the community; third, consultation with traditional specialists, religious healers or general physicians; fourth, outpatient or inpatient treatment from specialists, and, finally, a process of rejection and scapegoating of the patient. The efficacy of Western psychiatric treatment of Chinese patients has yet to be objectively assessed. PMID:6364576

  17. Cultural practices updates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultural practice updates from 2013 included the effects of shredding in spring, residue management, periodic flooding, no-till fertilizer applications, and billet planting on cane tonnage and sugar yield. Shredding, whether high or low, had little impacts in 2013. However, burning following shreddi...

  18. Supervision as Cultural Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinders, David J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a framework for "culturally responsive supervision." An understanding of analogic or iconic metaphors reveals the power of language to shape what are regarded as matters of fact. Kinesics, proxemics, and prosody bring into focus channels of nonverbal communication. The concept of "framing" calls attention to the metamessages of verbal…

  19. Mammalian Cell Culture Simplified.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Robert; Solomon, Sondra

    1991-01-01

    A tissue culture experiment that does not require elaborate equipment and that can be used to teach sterile technique, the principles of animal cell line maintenance, and the concept of cell growth curves is described. The differences between cancerous and normal cells can be highlighted. The procedure is included. (KR)

  20. Ontology, Language, and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Richard Bruce

    The purpose of this essay is to consider some of the practical implications of Martin Heideger's view that "Language is the house of Being," for the academic study of cultural transformation and intercultural communication. The paper describes the ontological basis of Heidegger's work, and the inquiry into Being, and contains sections on "Speaking…

  1. The Culture of Migrancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGilvra, Bridget

    Approximately 360,000 people in Florida are migrant and seasonal farmworkers. Although this group includes a wide array of ethnicities with their own cultural characteristics, the shared experience of migrancy lends some common threads to an otherwise diverse population. This publication explores these commonalities, as they relate to educators'…

  2. Culture and Imperialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Said, Edward W.

    Growing out of a series of lectures given at universities in the United States, Canada, and England, this book reopens the dialogue between literature and the life of its time. It draws dramatic connections between the imperial endeavor and the culture that both reflected and reinforced it, describing a general pattern of relationships between the…

  3. Culturing Uveal Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Angi, Martina; Versluis, Mieke; Kalirai, Helen

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in cancer research is the use of appropriate models with which to study a specific biological question. Cell lines have long been used to study cellular processes and the effects of individual molecules because they are easy to use, grow rapidly, produce reproducible results and have a strong track record in research. In uveal melanoma in particular, the absence of animal models that faithfully replicate the behavior of the human disease has propagated the generation and use of numerous cell lines by individual research groups. This in itself, however, can be viewed as a problem due to the lack of standardization when characterizing these entities to determine how closely they reflect the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of this disease. The alternative is to use in vitro primary cultures of cells obtained directly from uveal melanoma patient samples, but this too has its difficulties. Primary cell cultures are difficult to use, hard to obtain and can show considerable heterogeneity. In this article, we review the following: (1) the uveal melanoma cell lines that are currently available, discussing the importance of establishing a bank of those that represent the molecular heterogeneity of uveal melanoma; (2) the methods used to isolate and perform short-term cultures of primary uveal melanoma cells, and (3) the establishment of 3D tissue culture models that bridge the gap between 2D in vitro systems and in vivo models with which to dissect cancer biology and perform therapeutic screens. PMID:27171555

  4. Native American Cultural Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Loriene, Comp.

    Part of a larger report on the Four Directions Project, an American Indian technology innovation project, this section includes 13 "pathfinders" to locating information on Native American and other indigenous cultural groups. The pathfinders were designed by students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of…

  5. Cultural Learning Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasello, Michael

    2016-01-01

    M. Tomasello, A. Kruger, and H. Ratner (1993) proposed a theory of cultural learning comprising imitative learning, instructed learning, and collaborative learning. Empirical and theoretical advances in the past 20 years suggest modifications to the theory; for example, children do not just imitate but overimitate in order to identify and…

  6. Cultural Dominance and EFL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alptekin, Cem

    1982-01-01

    A type of acculturation occurs in developing countries that hinders English language learning because English is the linguistic vehicle of technological and sociological influences, and culture conflicts increase when the learners arrive in English-speaking environments different from their expectations. Suggestions are given for alleviating these…

  7. Hispanic Cultures through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Valerie

    A method for planning multicultural lessons for both regular and gifted and talented students, and sample lessons, are presented. The approach was developed in order to introduce Hispanic culture through literature in a bilingual classroom. All materials are constructed based on Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. The lessons were

  8. Culture Clash. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bache, Ellyn

    This monograph provides a first-hand account of the experience of a U.S. family who sponsored a Vietnamese refugee family from 1975-1979. The book, which is comprised of journal entries, proposes to show what it is like to deal with people from an entirely difference culture and to suggest an approach to handling the problems before the…

  9. Creating a Collaborative Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonson, Stacey; Fisher, Alice; Brown, Genevieve; Irby, Beverly; Lunenburg, Fred; Creighton, Ted; Czaja, Marion; Merchant, Jimmy; Christianson, Judy

    More and more research is focusing on the importance of a healthy work environment and its impact on workers' well-being and productivity. A culture of collaboration has been shown to have an important impact on school-reform efforts and is recognized by several authors as an effective platform for progress within an organization. A collaborative…

  10. It Takes a Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckner, Martha; Mausbach, Ann

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, the graduation rate for the Council Bluffs Community School District was, at 68 percent, the lowest in Iowa. District leaders knew that to improve, they needed to create a cultural change throughout the community. They began by getting community members involved in creating a strategic plan and mission statement that included a guarantee

  11. Connecting Community and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corine Meredith; White, Meg

    2014-01-01

    In order to be effective educators in the 21st century, it is essential for teacher candidates to develop a deep understanding of the culture and contextual factors surrounding their students' lives, and the ability to apply this understanding to classroom instruction. This action research study discusses how the implementation of teaching…

  12. The Cultural Twilight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treuer, David

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author begins by saying how privileged he feels to be included in the celebration of the American Indian Culture and Research Journal (AICRJ) and to toast forty years of American Indian studies at UCLA. He looks back over the field of Native American literature and criticism, then peeks at the present, and last, makes some…

  13. Cultural Vignette: Mexican Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Mary Ellen; And Others

    Developed as part of a multicultural research project in the San Diego Community College District, this booklet presents the findings of a 10-member research team about various elements of Mexican-American culture. The areas covered are: (1) historical background on the Mexican heritage of the United States from pre-colonial times to the present…

  14. Cross-Cultural HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document consists of three papers presented at a symposium on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD) moderated by Connie Fletcher at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Intercultural Adjustment of U.S. Expatriates in the People's Republic of China" (Hallett G. Hullinger, Robert E. Nolan) presents…

  15. Cross-Cultural HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    These five papers are from a symposium that was facilitated by David C. Bjorkquist on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD) at the 1995 Academy of Human Resource Development conference. "Developing Managers for Overseas Assignments in the Pacific Rim: A Study of International HRD Issues in Singapore" (A. Ahad M. Osman-Gani, Thian-Ser…

  16. Children Teaching Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Margy Burns

    1988-01-01

    Junior high school pupils from Cambodia drew pictures to teach Americans about Cambodia. The efforts were organized into a project in which many types of media were used to present cultural shows. This helped the immigrants share information about their native country as they improved their English skills. Photographs are included. (VM)

  17. Understanding Quality Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehlers, Ulf Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a holistic understanding of quality in higher education which reveals the current debates about accreditation or quality process standards as insufficient, and to propose an enhanced model for quality culture in educational organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The conceptual framework is…

  18. Becoming Culturally Proficient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian

    2007-01-01

    Ernest Everett Just Middle School, located in Mitchellville, Maryland, has a student population that is almost homogenous. In fact, 98% of the students are Black. As a veteran principal, the author's greatest fear has been not being able to provide students with a broad spectrum of ethnic, cultural, and religious experiences--experiences that they…

  19. Plant Tissue Culture Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert Alan

    Plant tissue culture has developed into a valid botanical discipline and is considered a key area of biotechnology, but it has not been a key component of the science curriculum because of the expensive and technical nature of research in this area. This manual presents a number of activities that are relatively easy to prepare and perform. The…

  20. Cultural Vignette: Vietnamese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Mary Ellen; And Others

    This booklet, developed as part of a multicultural research project conducted in the San Diego Community College District, presents the findings of a nine-member research team on various aspects of the history and culture of Vietnamese Americans. The areas covered are: (1) the Vietnamese as immigrant, which includes a discussion of the trauma and…

  1. Language and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramsch, Claire

    2014-01-01

    This paper surveys the research methods and approaches used in the multidisciplinary field of applied language studies or language education over the last fourty years. Drawing on insights gained in psycho- and sociolinguistics, educational linguistics and linguistic anthropology with regard to language and culture, it is organized around five…

  2. Cultural and Linguistic Ambidexterity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galuszka, Peter

    2007-01-01

    It might sound like a no-brainer that being bilingual or multilingual helps students planning engineering and just about any other career. But it is certainly true and is becoming more important as the economies of nations become more intertwined. What's more, being able to go beyond mere language ability and understand cultural distinctions are

  3. A Culture of Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joch, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Community colleges are pulling back the covers of student performance in favor of a new "culture of evidence." One hundred two community colleges in 22 states have joined Achieving the Dream: Community Colleges Count. Backed by a partnership of foundations and research organizations, the effort provides funding, coaching, and data-driven best…

  4. Rebuilding a safety culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodney, George A.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a culture of safety and NASA since the Challenger accident is reviewed. The technical elements of the strengthened NASA safety program are described, including problem reporting, risk/assessment/risk management, operational safety, and safety assurance are addressed. Future directions in the development of safety are considered.

  5. Respectful Youth Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Erik K.

    2014-01-01

    Children are social beings who rely on interactions with others to survive and thrive. Since the human brain is wired to connect, cultures in schools and youth organizations must be designed so youth can bond to supportive peers and adults. Children learn through observation, modeling, and responding to people in their environments. Bronfenbrenner

  6. Dictionary of Black Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskin, Wade; Runes, Richard N.

    This dictionary is an encyclopedic survey of the cultural background and development of the black American, covering the basic issues, events, contributions and biographies germane to the subject. The author-compiler is Chairman of Classical Languages Department at Southeastern State College, Durant, Oklahoma. Richard Runes is practicing law as a

  7. Rebuilding a safety culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodney, George A.

    1991-11-01

    The development of a culture of safety and NASA since the Challenger accident is reviewed. The technical elements of the strengthened NASA safety program are described, including problem reporting, risk/assessment/risk management, operational safety, and safety assurance are addressed. Future directions in the development of safety are considered.

  8. California Cultural Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Patricia M.; Francisco, Grace; Keller, Shelly G.

    2007-01-01

    This document is designed for readers who have an interest in developing cultural community partnerships but who may not have an in-depth understanding of the concept or process. It provides a focus for partnership and joint venture discussions within agencies, community organizations or communities at large. Seven public library community…

  9. Making Mathematics Culturally Relevant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Examines three strands of elementary mathematics--numerals and counting, recording and calculating, and mathematics exploration and play--and provides ways to integrate culture and mathematics experiences in each area. Specific topics include Egyptian methods for multiplication, the abacus, and the words for the numbers 1-10 in seven different…

  10. Pop Culture Peeps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruszewski, Julie; Fontes, Kris

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a classroom activity called Pop Culture Peep. In this particular activity, students are required to first research famous artists and/or famous artworks to have an image to use as a reference. Students then plan out how they would decorate the Peep, deciding what materials they would use to create the Peep in…

  11. Cultural Issues in Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on cultural issues in organizations. "Emotion Management and Organizational Functions: A Study of Action in a Not-for-Profit Organization" (Jamie Callahan Fabian) uses Hochschild's emotion systems theory and Parsons' social systems theory to explain why members of an organization managed their…

  12. Requiem for Cultural Internationalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ninkovich, Frank

    1986-01-01

    Reviews Mary Brown Bullock's 1980 book,"An American Transplant: The Rockefeller Foundation and Peking Union Medical College." Far more than a narrow, scholarly history, this book is a case study of the far-reaching cultural impact of international educational exchange efforts. (JDH)

  13. Culture and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji, Ed.; And Others

    Representing a refereed selection of papers from the 1994 JALT Kansai Conference, this collection of 25 papers contains formal presentations, teaching experiences, research projects, and ideas for effective teaching. The papers and their authors are, as follows: (1) "Culturally Influenced Communication Patterns: Overview, Implications and

  14. Rethinking Culture and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambach, Amy

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews three books that provide complementary and thought-provoking insights. The three books under review are: (1) "Reproducing class: education, neoliberalism, and the rise of the new middle class in Istanbul," by Henry J. Rutz and Erol M. Balkan; (2) "Technology, culture, family: influences on home life," by Elizabeth B. Silva; and…

  15. Literacy across Cultures, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dycus, David, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This collection of articles includes: "Implementing Discourse Analysis for Intermediate and Advanced Language Learners" (Maria Palmira Massi); "A Comparison of Front-Page News in Japanese and British Quality Press Newspapers: Cultural Differences Reflected in the Press" (Christopher Bond); "Have You Ever Heard of Ogino Ginko? Japanese Women in…

  16. Cultural Literacy & Arts Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph A., Ed.

    Thirteen experts in the visual arts, literature, music, dance, and theater responded to the arguments of E. D. Hirsch's "Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know", focusing particularily on his alarm at the serious slippage that has occurred in the background knowledge and information prerequisite for effective communication. These…

  17. Rabbit whole embryo culture.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Valerie A; Carney, Edward W

    2012-01-01

    Although the rabbit is used extensively in developmental toxicity testing, relatively little is known about the fundamental developmental biology of this species let alone mechanisms underlying developmental toxicity. This paucity of information about the rabbit is partly due to the historic lack of whole embryo culture (WEC) methods for the rabbit, which have only been made available fairly recently. In rabbit WEC, early somite stage embryos (gestation day 9) enclosed within an intact amnion and attached to the visceral yolk sac are dissected from maternal tissues and placed in culture for up to 48 h at approximately 37C and are continuously exposed to an humidified gas atmosphere mixture in a rotating culture system. During this 48 h culture period, major phases of organogenesis can be studied including cardiac looping and segmentation, neural tube closure, and development of anlagen of the otic system, eyes and craniofacial structures, somites and early phases of limb development (up to bud stage), as well as expansion and closure of the visceral yolk sac around the embryo. Following completion of the culture period, embryos are evaluated based on several growth and development parameters and also are assessed for morphological abnormalities. The ability to sustain embryo development independent of the maternal system allows for exposure at precise development stages providing the opportunity study the direct action of a teratogen or one of its metabolites on the developing embryo. Rabbit WEC is perhaps most useful when used in conjunction with rodent WEC methods to investigate species-specific mechanisms of developmental toxicity. PMID:22669668

  18. Quality Culture Survey Report.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pritesh; Baker, Denyse; Burdick, Rick; Chen, Cylia; Hill, Jonathon; Holland, Morgan; Sawant, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The Parenteral Drug Association conducted an anonymous global survey of quality culture in the pharmaceutical industry to determine whether there is a relationship between certain quality behaviors and certain quality attributes, and whether these quality attributes could be used as surrogates (or proxy variables) to assess quality culture. Other studies have shown that an unhealthy quality culture is a root cause of many quality or compliance issues seen by sites and organizations. Statistical analysis of survey data suggests that certain attributes are driving good behaviors, and the demographic data suggests that this relationship holds irrespective of the geographic location of the site. Executive survey respondents had a more optimistic view of the current state of quality culture than survey respondents at large, with cross-functional vision showing the biggest gap (P-value = 0.07, F-Test). The top five quality attributes that can serve as surrogates for quality culture were (1) Management communication that quality is everyone's responsibility, (2) Site has formal quality improvement objectives and targets, (3) Clear performance criteria for feedback and coaching, (4) Quality topics included in at least half of all-hands meetings, and (5) Collecting error prevention metrics. These identified mature quality attributes are related to management responsibility, and continual improvement of the pharmaceutical quality system sections of ICH Q10, and therefore may be amenable to be incorporated in audit programs or in regulatory inspections. Additional research and discussion is required to build a coherent approach, which the pharmaceutical industry and regulators can adopt. PMID:26429110

  19. The Culture Game: A Simulation of Culture Shock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noesjirwan, Jennifer; Freestone, Colin

    1979-01-01

    Presents a simulation game used to verify the theory that culture shock in the form of confusion, hostility, and anxiety occurs when interpersonal communication between interactors from different cultures breaks down. (CMV)

  20. Confirmation of the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacteria in mycobacterial growth indicator tubes (MGIT) by multiplex strand displacement amplification.

    PubMed Central

    Badak, F Z; Kiska, D L; O'Connell, M; Nycz, C M; Hartley, C; Setterquist, S; Hopfer, R L

    1997-01-01

    Multiplex strand displacement amplification (mSDA) is capable of amplifying three distinct DNA sequences simultaneously. These include sequences present in most genera of mycobacteria, a sequence specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and an internal control. mSDA was used to detect the presence of these target sequences in 154 (72 positive, 76 negative, and 6 failed) clinical specimens cultured in the mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) system. A wide variety of specimen types were processed and cultured. Once these cultures were deemed positive by MGIT fluorescence or were deemed negative after 8 weeks of incubation, MGIT culture aliquots were processed for mSDA analyses. A chemiluminescent microwell assay was used to detect the amplified products. The procedure was relatively simple and took less than 6 h to complete. The sensitivity of mSDA for detecting acid-fast bacilli was 96.4% compared to that of MGIT culture. Sensitivity and specificity were 97.2 and 96.1%, respectively, when all clinical criteria were considered. mSDA was shown to be a rapid and effective method for confirming the presence of M. tuberculosis and other mycobacteria in positive MGIT cultures. PMID:9114414