Lai, Pei-Yin; Lee, Shih-Yi; Chou, Yu-Ching; Fu, Yung-Chieh; Wu, Chen-Cheng; Chiueh, Tzong-Shi
The use of a liquid culture system such as MGIT broth has greatly improved the sensitivity of isolating mycobacteria in clinical laboratories. Microscopic visualization of acid fast bacilli (AFB) in the culture positive MGIT broth remains the first routine step for rapidly indicating the presence of mycobacteria. We modified an ultraviolet (UV) light fixation process to increase AFB cells adherence to the slide. The retained haze proportion of a 1-cm circle marked area on the smear slide was quantified after the staining procedure indicating the adherence degree of AFB cells. More AFB cells were preserved on the slide after exposure to UV light of either germicidal lamp or UV crosslinker in a time-dependent manner. We demonstrated both the bovine serum albumin (BSA) in MGIT media and UV light exposure were required for enhancing fixation of AFB cells. While applying to AFB stains for 302 AFB positive MGIT broths in clinics, more AFB cells were retained and observed on smear slides prepared by the modified fixation procedure rather than by the conventional method. The modified fixation procedure was thus recommended for improving the sensitivity of microscopic diagnosis of AFB cells in culture positive MGIT broth. PMID:24586725
Van Deun, A; Portaels, F
Sputum microscopy for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) is considered to be the most appropriate method for case-finding in a tuberculosis (TB) control programme. It is usually carried out by general technicians, often after minimal training. Quality control of their results therefore seems indispensable. The methods advocated for quality control are reviewed. Controls by culture leave too much uncertainty because of big differences in technical characteristics of the methods. Sets of smears sent out by a central laboratory can only be used to assess capability. Rechecking routine smears allows daily performance to be appraised and may be a strong motivation, but feasibility may be a problem. Based on our experience, we describe the technical requirements for cross-checking of routine smears. Counter-checking slides with discordant results is crucial for accurate assessments. A sample size should strike a balance between statistical accuracy and the man-power needed. Indicators for evaluation are proposed that allow discrimination of error gradings, to be used in a phased manner with priority at first being given to false negatives and false positives that pass the threshold for clinical decision-making. Estimates of critical values with suggestions about their interpretation are placed in the context of supervising TB laboratories. PMID:9755931
Farivar, Taghi Naserpour; Johari, Pouran; Moien, Abbas Ali; Shahri, Mohammad Hashemi; Naderi, Mohammad; Oskouie, Hamid
Background: The emergence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria as clinically relevant pathogens has necessitated us for the study of these organisms in the context of their environment. Differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and non-tuberculous mycobacteria is important especially when we have a positive smear slide test result. Aim: In this study, we planned to survey the prevalence of tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria among archival acid-fast bacilli positive smear slides. Materials and Methods: A number of 200 acid-fast bacilli positive smear slides were collected from different parts of Sistan and Baluchestan Province, the biggest province of Iran with the highest incidence of tuberculosis. The presence of mycobacterial IS6110 was evaluated in slides’ scraped material by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Results: The real-time polymerase chain reaction tests of archival acid-fast bacilli positive smear slides showed that 171 slides from 200 examined slides had M. tuberculosis DNA and in the remaining 29 examined slides, M. tuberculosis DNA was not found. Conclusion: Our findings showed that there was no M. tuberculosis DNA in 14.5% of archival AFB positive smear slides, and this finding necessitates us to reviewing our diagnostic and anti- tuberculous protocols. PMID:22655283
...Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. 147...Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. Proper...essential. Each State Inspector involved in eggshell culture activities must receive...
...Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. 147...Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. Proper...essential. Each State Inspector involved in eggshell culture activities must receive...
...Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. 147...Procedure for bacteriological culturing of eggshells for colon bacilli organisms. Proper...essential. Each State Inspector involved in eggshell culture activities must receive...
Raza, Shan-e.-Ahmed; Marjan, M. Q.; Arif, Muhammad; Butt, Farhana; Sultan, Faisal; Rajpoot, Nasir M.
One of the main factors for high workload in pulmonary pathology in developing countries is the relatively large proportion of tuberculosis (TB) cases which can be detected with high throughput using automated approaches. TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which appears as thin, rod-shaped acid-fast bacillus (AFB) in Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stained sputum smear samples. In this paper, we present an algorithm for automatic detection of AFB in digitized images of ZN stained sputum smear samples under a light microscope. A key component of the proposed algorithm is the enhancement of raw input image using a novel anisotropic tubular filter (ATF) which suppresses the background noise while simultaneously enhancing strong anisotropic features of AFBs present in the image. The resulting image is then segmented using color features and candidate AFBs are identified. Finally, a support vector machine classifier using morphological features from candidate AFBs decides whether a given image is AFB positive or not. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ATF method with two different feature sets by showing that the proposed image analysis pipeline results in higher accuracy and F1-score than the same pipeline with standard median filtering for image enhancement.
Vanajakumar; Selvakumar, N; Jawahar, M S; Rajaram, K; Paramasivan, C N
Lymph node biopsy specimens, obtained from 297 paediatric and adult patients with tuberculous lymphadenitis at Madurai, were transported in selective Kirchner's liquid medium (KL-T) to the Tuberculosis Research Centre, Madras and processed for culture. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from 201 (68%) specimens. Of the 192 specimens received within 4 days of resection, 134 (69.8%) yielded M. tuberculosis on culture and of the 105 specimens received after 5 days, 67 (63.8%) were culture positive; the difference was not statistically significant. By incubating KL-T alone further, after removing the gland for processing, it was found that mere contact with the excised node during transportation was enough to retrieve 77 (38.3%) of the total of 201 positive isolates obtained, the delay did not affect the culture positivity rate. Thus, lymph node specimens for culture of tubercle bacilli can be stored in the refrigerator for up to 15 days and transported in KL-T at ambient temperature for 18-20 h without any loss in culture positivity. PMID:9126828
Anandi Martin; Deirdre Bombeeck; Krista Fissette; Pim de Rijk; Ivan Hernández-Neuta; Patricia Del Portillo; Juan Carlos Palomino
The BACTEC MGIT 960 system is increasingly used to culture Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We evaluated the performance of the new immunochromatographic assay BD MGIT TBc Identification Test (TBc ID) for the rapid identification of M. tuberculosis complex in clinical samples when performed directly from BACTEC MGIT 960 culture positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB).Of 92 cultures evaluated, the sensitivity and specificity of
Tadesse, Mulualem; Abebe, Gemeda; Abdissa, Ketema; Bekele, Alemayehu; Bezabih, Mesele; Apers, Ludwig; Colebunders, Robert; Rigouts, Leen
Background Tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN) is the most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The cytomorphological features of lymph node smears have reduced specificity for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The diagnosis of TBLN with direct smear microscopy lacks sensitivity due to the limited number of bacilli in lymph node aspirate. Therefore, we aimed to assess whether the concentration of lymph node aspirate improves the sensitivity of acid fast smear microscopy for the diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis. Methods A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 200 patients clinically suspected for tuberculous lymphadenitis in Jimma, Ethiopia. Lymph node aspirate was collected. The first two drops were used for cytomorphological study and direct acid fast staining. The remaining aspirate was treated with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NALC) and concentrated by centrifugation at 3000 g for 15 minutes. The sediment was used for acid fast staining and culture. Differentiation of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) was done by para-nitrobenzoic acid susceptibility test. Result Complete data were available for 187 study subjects. 68% (127/187) were positive for M. tuberculosis on culture. Four isolates, 2.1% (4/187), were identified as NTM. The detection rate of direct smear microscopy was 25.1% and that of the concentration method 49.7%. Cytomorphologically, 79.7% of cases were classified as TBLN. The sensitivity of direct smear microscopy was 34.6%, for concentrated smear microscopy 66.1%, and for cytomorphology 89.8%. Two AFB positive cases on concentration method were non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM). The concentration method yielded a positive result from seven cases diagnosed as suppurative abscess by cytology. Both for the direct and concentration methods the highest rate of AFB positivity was observed in smears showing caseous necrosis alone. Smear positivity rate decreased with the appearance of epithelioid cell aggregates. Conclusion The concentration of lymph node aspirates for acid fast smear microscopy had significantly higher sensitivity than direct microscopy. PMID:25184279
Hui-Zin Tu; Chiao-Shan Chen; Tsi-Shu Huang; Wen-Kuei Huang; Yao-shen Chen; Yung-ching Liu; Yusen Eason Lin
A point-of-use 0.2-m filter was evaluated for elimination of nontuberculosis mycobacteria in laboratory water to reduce false-positive acid-fast bacillus staining results. Use of the point-of-use filter can signif- icantly reduce the false-positive rate to 1.2% compared to samples treated with tap water (10.7%) and deionized water (8.7%). Microscopic examination of respiratory specimens for acid- fast bacilli (AFB) is the standard
Olaru, Ioana D.; Heyckendorf, Jan; Grossmann, Susanne; Lange, Christoph
Sputum smear microscopy is widely used for tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment monitoring. We evaluated the correlation between smear microscopy and time to liquid culture positivity during early tuberculosis treatment. The study included patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis hospitalized at a tuberculosis reference centre in Germany between 01/2012 and 05/2013. Patient records were reviewed and clinical, radiological and microbiological data were analysed. Sputum samples were collected before treatment initiation and weekly thereafter. A number of 310 sputum samples from 30 patients were analysed. Time to liquid culture positivity inversely correlated with smear grade (Spearman's rho ?0.439, p<0.001). There was a better correlation within the first two months vs. after two months of therapy (?0.519 vs. ?0.416) with a trend to a more rapid increase in time to positivity between baseline and week 2 in patients who culture-converted within the first two months (5.9 days vs. 9.4 days, p?=?0.3). In conclusion, the numbers of acid-fast bacilli in sputum smears of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and time to culture positivity for M. tuberculosis cultures from sputum are correlated before and during tuberculosis treatment. A considerable proportion of patients with culture conversion after two months of therapy continued to have detectable acid-fast bacilli on sputum smears. PMID:25171337
Vilchèze, Catherine; Molle, Virginie; Carrère-Kremer, Séverine; Leiba, Jade; Mourey, Lionel; Shenai, Shubhada; Baronian, Grégory; Tufariello, Joann; Hartman, Travis; Veyron-Churlet, Romain; Trivelli, Xavier; Tiwari, Sangeeta; Weinrick, Brian; Alland, David; Guérardel, Yann; Jacobs, William R; Kremer, Laurent
Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli display two signature features: acid-fast staining and the capacity to induce long-term latent infections in humans. However, the mechanisms governing these two important processes remain largely unknown. Ser/Thr phosphorylation has recently emerged as an important regulatory mechanism allowing mycobacteria to adapt their cell wall structure/composition in response to their environment. Herein, we evaluated whether phosphorylation of KasB, a crucial mycolic acid biosynthetic enzyme, could modulate acid-fast staining and virulence. Tandem mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that phosphorylation of KasB occurred at Thr334 and Thr336 both in vitro and in mycobacteria. Isogenic strains of M. tuberculosis with either a deletion of the kasB gene or a kasB_T334D/T336D allele, mimicking constitutive phosphorylation of KasB, were constructed by specialized linkage transduction. Biochemical and structural analyses comparing these mutants to the parental strain revealed that both mutant strains had mycolic acids that were shortened by 4-6 carbon atoms and lacked trans-cyclopropanation. Together, these results suggested that in M. tuberculosis, phosphorylation profoundly decreases the condensing activity of KasB. Structural/modeling analyses reveal that Thr334 and Thr336 are located in the vicinity of the catalytic triad, which indicates that phosphorylation of these amino acids would result in loss of enzyme activity. Importantly, the kasB_T334D/T336D phosphomimetic and deletion alleles, in contrast to the kasB_T334A/T336A phosphoablative allele, completely lost acid-fast staining. Moreover, assessing the virulence of these strains indicated that the KasB phosphomimetic mutant was attenuated in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice following aerosol infection. This attenuation was characterized by the absence of lung pathology. Overall, these results highlight for the first time the role of Ser/Thr kinase-dependent KasB phosphorylation in regulating the later stages of mycolic acid elongation, with important consequences in terms of acid-fast staining and pathogenicity. PMID:24809459
do Rosário, Tatiana Reis; Dib, Cristina Corsi; Roxo, Eliana; Pinheiro, Sônia Regina; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Benites, Nilson Roberti
The initial growth of mycobacteria from 49 samples of cattle and buffalo organs collected in commercial slaughterhouses was compared between modified Middlebrook 7H11 thin layer microcolony culture and Stonebrink medium used in the isolation of Mycobacterium bovis. Aliquots were decontaminated by Petroff’s method, processed and cultured in both media. The identity of the acid-fast bacilli stained by Ziehl-Neelsen was confirmed by PCR. Optical microscopy showed that results of the early observation of Mycobacterium bovis colonies in thin layer culture were similar to those obtained in macroscopic observation of the colonies in Stonebrink medium. However, early observation of the colonies enabled early confirmation by PCR, given the shorter time to the visualization of colonies when thin layer culture was used (between the 12nd and 25th day of culture). PMID:24948936
do Rosário, Tatiana Reis; Dib, Cristina Corsi; Roxo, Eliana; Pinheiro, Sônia Regina; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Benites, Nilson Roberti
The initial growth of mycobacteria from 49 samples of cattle and buffalo organs collected in commercial slaughterhouses was compared between modified Middlebrook 7H11 thin layer microcolony culture and Stonebrink medium used in the isolation of Mycobacterium bovis. Aliquots were decontaminated by Petroff's method, processed and cultured in both media. The identity of the acid-fast bacilli stained by Ziehl-Neelsen was confirmed by PCR. Optical microscopy showed that results of the early observation of Mycobacterium bovis colonies in thin layer culture were similar to those obtained in macroscopic observation of the colonies in Stonebrink medium. However, early observation of the colonies enabled early confirmation by PCR, given the shorter time to the visualization of colonies when thin layer culture was used (between the 12(nd) and 25(th) day of culture). PMID:24948936
Hedrick, R P; McDowell, T; Groff, J
Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) juveniles raised in an intensive culture system had chronic mortality resulting from infections with Mycobacterium marinum. Approximately one-half of a population of 900 yearlings succumbed to the disease and 80% of those remaining were infected. The bacteria were isolated on Petrignani's medium after 7 days at 25 C and subcultures grew at temperatures from 20 to 37 C. The disease was characterized by systemic nodular lesions in all major organs. Older tubercles contained numerous acid-fast bacilli. Chemotherapy by feeding rifampin (6 mg/100 g of food for 60 days) was not an effective treatment. Subclinical mycobacteriosis in adult striped bass may be the source for vertical transmission to their progeny. PMID:3625895
During the course of some experimental work on hog-cholera, paratyphoid bacilli were isolated from 16 per cent of the pigs. Culturally these organisms are the same as paratyphoid 18 isolated from man, while they show several differences from hog-cholera bacilli. In their slight pathogenic effect on rabbits they also differ from the hog-cholera bacillus. In their agglutination in sera produced by the injection of living cultures, one of the cultures, isolated from a chronic case, corresponds to Bacillus enteritidis, while the other five are apparently in a class by themselves. They resemble paratyphoid ? more closely than hog-cholera bacilli, but the type of clumps formed and absorption experiments show that they are different from either. Whether these differences are enough to make it necessary to put them into a class by themselves is questionable, but the fact that when injected into rabbits they produce an immunity to the hog-cholera bacillus, while paratyphoid ? does not, is additional evidence in favor of such a classification. Complement fixation experiments have been of little value in differentiating the members of this group, but on the contrary show their close relationship. It seems probable that some of the cultures that are described in the literature as hog-cholera bacilli really belong to this group, which would account for much of the confusion that exists in the classification of the interesting, truly pathogenic bacillus that at one time was thought to be the cause of hog-cholera and in the series of animals with which we have worked has not appeared once. Whether the ingestion of pork containing these bacilli would cause disease in man is a question that can only be decided by a more careful bacteriological study of the organisms causing food poisonings and paratyphoid fever. PMID:19868293
Fattorini, Lanfranco; Piccaro, Giovanni; Mustazzolu, Alessandro; Giannoni, Federico
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), which kills about 2 million people annually. Furthermore, 2 billion people worldwide are latently infected with this organism, with 10% of them reactivating to active TB due to re-growth of nonreplicating (dormant) Mtb residing in their tissues. Because of the huge reservoir of latent TB it is important to find novel drugs/drug combinations killing dormant bacilli (microaerophiles, anaerobes and drug-tolerant persisters) surviving for decades in a wide spectrum of granulomatous lesions in the lungs of TB patients. Antibiotic treatment of drug-susceptible TB requires administration of isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol for 2 months, followed by isoniazid and rifampin for 4 months. To avoid reactivation of dormant Mtb to active pulmonary TB, up to 9 months of treatment with isoniazid is required. Therefore, a strategy to eliminate dormant bacilli needs to be developed to shorten therapy of active and latent TB and reduce the reservoir of people with latent TB. Finding drugs with high rate of penetration into the caseous granulomas and understanding the biology of dormant bacilli and in particular of persister cells, phenotypically resistant to antibiotics, will be essential to eradicate Mtb from humans. In recent years unprecedented efforts have been done in TB drug discovery, aimed at identifying novel drugs and drug combinations killing both actively replicating and nonreplicating Mtb in vitro, in animal models and in clinical trials in humans. PMID:24363887
Carol A Francis; Amanda C Lockley; David P Sartory; John Watkins
Aerobic spore-bearing bacilli have been proposed as a surrogate indicator for the removal of Cryptosporidium by drinking water treatment processes. Pasteurisation of samples followed by culture on non-selective media is the method of choice. Using white membranes for filtration of water samples makes colony counting difficult. Vital dyes such as neutral red or trypan blue can help when added to
The envelope of tubercle bacilli and of other mycobacteria is important for the bacterial physiology since inhibition of the production of some of its constituents kills the cells. It consists of a plasma membrane, which is apparently homologous to plasma membranes of other bacteria, surrounded by a complex wall of carbohydrate and lipid, which is in turn surrounded by an outermost layer, called 'capsule' in the case of pathogenic species. The wall possesses a fundamental, covalently linked 'cell-wall skeleton' composed of peptidoglycan covalently linked to arabinogalactan esterified by very long-chain (up to C90) fatty acids (mycolic acids). These fatty acids form the inner leaflet of a typical outer membrane (mycomembrane) whose outer leaflet consists of a great variety of non-covalently linked lipids and glycolipids. The thickness of the mycomembrane is similar to that of the plasma membrane, implying dedicated conformations of mycolic acids. Finally, a periplasmic space also exists in mycobacteria, between the membrane and the peptidoglycan. PMID:25819158
Deiorio-Haggar, Kaila; Anthony, Jon; Meyer, Michelle M.
In Bacilli, there are three experimentally validated ribosomal-protein autogenous regulatory RNAs that are not shared with E. coli. Each of these RNAs forms a unique secondary structure that interacts with a ribosomal protein encoded by a downstream gene, namely S4, S15, and L20. Only one of these RNAs that interacts with L20 is currently found in the RNA Families Database. We created, or modified, existing structural alignments for these three RNAs and used them to perform homology searches. We have determined that each structure exhibits a narrow phylogenetic distribution, mostly relegated to the Firmicute class Bacilli. This work, in conjunction with other similar work, demonstrates that there are most likely many non-homologous RNA regulatory elements regulating ribosomal protein biosynthesis that still await discovery and characterization in other bacterial species. PMID:23611891
Thean Yen Tan; Tse Hsien Koh; Nancy WS Tee; Prabha Krishnan; Roland Jureen
Introduction: Antibiotic resistance in gram-negative bacilli is an area of increasing impor- tance. This prospective study was performed to survey antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. over a 1-year period. Materials and Methods: Non-duplicate isolates of E. coli, Klebsiella spp., P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. were collected from participating Singapore hospitals during
Kenneth V. I. Rolston; David E. Greenberg; Amar Safdar
\\u000a Many cancer treatment centers have documented a decline in the proportion of bacterial infections caused by aerobic Gram-negative\\u000a bacilli in the past 2 decades. Nevertheless, these organisms still cause a wide spectrum of infection (from benign colonization\\u000a to disseminated disease) and are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer, particularly\\u000a during episodes of neutropenia. The most significant
O'Hara, Caroline M.
Identification of gram-negative bacilli, both enteric and nonenteric, by conventional methods is not realistic for clinical microbiology laboratories performing routine cultures in today's world. The use of commercial kits, either manual or automated, to identify these organisms is a common practice. The advent of rapid or “spot” testing has eliminated the need for some commonly isolated organisms to be identified with the systems approach. Commercially available systems provide more in-depth identification to the species level as well as detect new and unusual strains. The answers obtained from these systems may not always be correct and must be interpreted with caution. The patient demographics, laboratory workload and work flow, and technologist's skill levels should dictate the system of choice. Cost considerations introduce another variable into the equation affecting choice. Each system has its own strengths and weaknesses, and each laboratory must decide on the level of sophistication that fulfills its particular needs. PMID:15653824
Ichiyama, S; Ito, Y; Sugiura, F; Iinuma, Y; Yamori, S; Shimojima, M; Hasegawa, Y; Shimokata, K; Nakashima, N
We compared the ability of the semiautomated BDProbeTec-SDA system, which uses the strand displacement amplification (SDA) method, with that of the Roche Amplicor-PCR system and the Septi-Chek AFB culture system to directly detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) and other mycobacteria in sputum samples. A total of 530 sputum samples from 299 patients were examined in this study. Of the 530 samples, 129 were culture positive for acid-fast bacilli with the Septi-Chek AFB system; 95 for MTB, 29 for M. avium-M. intracellulare complex (MAC), and 5 for other mycobacteria. The BDProbeTec-SDA system detected 90 of the 95 samples culture positive for MTB (sensitivity, 94.7%), and the Amplicor-PCR system detected 85 of the 95 samples culture positive for MTB (sensitivity, 89.5%). The specificity of each system, based on the clinical diagnosis, was 99.8% for SDA and 100% for PCR, respectively. Among the 29 samples culture positive for MAC, the BDProbeTec-SDA system detected MAC in 24 samples (sensitivity, 82.8%), whereas the Amplicor-PCR system detected MAC in 23 samples (sensitivity, 79.3%). The specificities of the systems were 98.3 and 100%, respectively. The high degrees of sensitivity and specificity of the BDProbeTec-SDA system suggest that it should be very useful in clinical laboratories for the rapid detection of mycobacteria in sputum samples. PMID:9399498
J. W. BARTHOLOMEW; GEORGE PAIK
BARTHOLOMEW, J.W. (University ofSouthern California, LosAngeles), AND GEORGEPAIK. Isolation andidentification ofobligate thermophilic sporeforming bacilli fromoceanbasin cores.J.Bacteriol. 92:635-638. 1966.-Obligate thermoph- ilic sporeforming aerobic bacilli wereisolated from11 oceanbasin corestakenfrom locations ina 150milelong areaoffofthecoastfromEnsenada, Mexico, toSanta Catalina Island, andranging asfaroutfromshore as160miles. Isolated strains of bacilli wereallidentified asbeing identical, orclosely related, toBacillus stearother- mophilus.
Since the coliform group of organisms is considered to be less resistant to chlorine than some bacterial and viral pathogens, the utility of both yeast and acid-fast oganisms as potntial indicators of disinfection efficiency was evaluated. In most laboratory studies these two gro...
Vilchèze, Catherine; Weinrick, Brian; Wong, Ka-Wing; Chen, Bing; Jacobs, William R.
SUMMARY The human tubercle bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis can synthesize NAD+ using the de novo biosynthesis pathway or the salvage pathway. The salvage pathway of the bovine tubercle bacillus M. bovis was reported defective due to a mutation in the nicotinamidase PncA. This defect prevents nicotinic acid secretion, which is the basis for the niacin test that clinically distinguishes M. bovis from M. tuberculosis. Surprisingly, we found that the NAD+ de novo biosynthesis pathway (nadABC) can be deleted from M. bovis, demonstrating a functioning salvage pathway. M. bovis ?nadABC fails to grow in mice, whereas M. tuberculosis ?nadABC grows normally in mice, suggesting that M. tuberculosis can acquire nicotinamide from its host. The introduction of M. tuberculosis pncA into M. bovis ?nadABC is sufficient to fully restore growth in a mouse, proving that the functional salvage pathway enables nicotinamide acquisition by the tubercle bacilli. This study demonstrates that NAD+ starvation is a cidal event in the tubercle bacilli and confirms that enzymes common to the de novo and salvage pathways may be good drug targets. PMID:20199601
Elston, Harry R.; Baudo, Judith A.; Stanek, Joann P.; Schaab, Mercedes
A multi-biochemical test system consisting of nine tests, entitled Enterotube, was evaluated in parallel with conventional tests to determine its value in the identification of enteric and certain other gram-negative bacilli. The 242 bacterial strains studied were from a variety of pathological specimens and from our culture collection. When the results with individual tests represented in both test systems were compared, no discrepancies were noted in the indole test, and one discrepancy was recorded for dextrose. In 7 of 242 hydrogen sulfide tests, 3 of 242 phenylalanine tests, 22 of 242 urease tests, 15 of 242 dulcitol tests, 12 of 242 lactose tests, 27 of 217 lysine decarboxylase tests, and 5 of 242 citrate tests, the Enterotube results were contrary to those obtained with conventional methods. The lysine decarboxylase test in the Enterotube posed a problem of interpretation and readability and is not an acceptable alternative to the conventional methods. Fifteen of the strains studied were incorrectly identified by the Enterotube system and four could not be differentiated from other closely related strains. Salmonella could be identified as to group, whereas Shigella strains were frequently misidentified as Escherichia. The Enterotube method is simple and convenient, and all media are inoculated at once from a single colony. PMID:4940877
Tenssaie, Z W
A total of 413 clinical specimens (pus, blood, urine, and stool) collected from patients admitted to Jimma Hospital were cultured for isolation and identification of aerobic bacteria and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Out of these, 124 specimens yielded one or more Gram-negative bacilli strains. Frequent Gram negative bacterial isolates were Proteus species 34(27%), Klebsiella species 26(21%), Enterobacter species 24(19%), and E. coli 24(19%). Antimicrobial susceptibility test results showed that all E. coli, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter species were resistant to ampicillin. Ninety-two percent of Enterbacter sp., 85% of Klebisiella and 79% of E. coli were resistant to tetracycline. Almost all the isolates were found to be multi-resistant to the commonly used antimicrobials, ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. Antimicrobial resistant strains of bacteria are increasing and may contribute to spread of serious infectious diseases in Jimma Hospital and elsewhere in the country. Therefore, if we are to prevent and control infections by emerging antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains, measures such as strengthening clinical microbiology laboratory, increased emphasis on effective infection control, emphasis on hygienic practices in hospital, and prudent use of existing antimicrobial agents is recommended. PMID:12380230
Parashar, Deepak; Kabra, Sushil K.; Lodha, Rakesh; Singh, Varinder; Mukherjee, Aparna; Arya, Tina; Grewal, Harleen M. S.
The microbiological confirmation of pulmonary tuberculosis in children relies on cultures of gastric aspirate (GA) specimens. Conventionally, GAs are neutralized to improve culture yields of mycobacteria. However, there are limited data to support this practice. To study the utility of neutralization of GAs with sodium bicarbonate in children with intrathoracic tuberculosis, a total of 116 children of either sex, aged 6 months to 14 years (median age, 120 months; interquartile range [IQR], 7 to 192 months), underwent gastric aspiration on 2 consecutive days. Gastric aspirates were divided into two aliquots, and only one aliquot was neutralized with 1% sodium bicarbonate. Both aliquots were processed for smear and culture examinations. Out of the 232 gastric aspirates, 12 (5.17%) were acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear positive. There were no differences in smear positivity rates from samples with or without neutralization. The yield of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on a Bactec MGIT 960 culture system was significantly lower in the neutralized samples (16.3% [38/232]) than in the nonneutralized samples (21.5% [50/232]) (P = 0.023). There was no significant difference between the neutralized and the nonneutralized samples in time to detection using the MGIT 960 system (average, 24.6 days; IQR, 12 to 37 days) (P = 0.9). The contamination rates were significantly higher in the neutralized samples than in the nonneutralized samples (17.2% [40/232] versus 3.9% [9/232]) (P = 0.001). The agreement for positive mycobacterial culture between the two approaches was 66.5% (P = 0.001). Hence, we recommend that gastric aspirate samples not be neutralized with sodium bicarbonate prior to culture for M. tuberculosis. PMID:23536406
Background Spore-forming Bacilli are Gram-positive bacteria commonly found in a variety of natural habitats, including soil, water and the gastro-intestinal (GI)-tract of animals. Isolates of various Bacillus species produce pigments, mostly carotenoids, with a putative protective role against UV irradiation and oxygen-reactive forms. Results We report the annotation of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) of two pigmented Bacilli isolated from the human GI-tract and belonging to the Bacillus indicus and B. firmus species. A high number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) were found in both isolates. A detailed analysis of CAZyme families, was performed and supported by growth data. Carbohydrates able to support growth as the sole carbon source negatively effected carotenoid formation in rich medium, suggesting that a catabolite repression-like mechanism controls carotenoid biosynthesis in both Bacilli. Experimental results on biofilm formation confirmed genomic data on the potentials of B. indicus HU36 to produce a levan-based biofilm, while mucin-binding and -degradation experiments supported genomic data suggesting the ability of both Bacilli to degrade mammalian glycans. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genomes of the two pigmented Bacilli, compared to other Bacillus species and validated by experimental data on carbohydrate utilization, biofilm formation and mucin degradation, suggests that the two pigmented Bacilli are adapted to the intestinal environment and are suited to grow in and colonize the human gut. PMID:21892951
Soriano, F; Zapardiel, J; Nieto, E
The susceptibilities of 265 strains of Corynebacterium species and other non-spore-forming gram-positive bacilli to 18 antimicrobial agents were tested. Most strains were susceptible to vancomycin, doxycycline, and fusidic acid. Corynebacterium jeikeium and Corynebacterium urealyticum were the most resistant organisms tested. Resistance to beta-lactams, clindamycin, erythromycin, azythromycin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was common among strains of Corynebacterium xerosis and Corynebacterium minutissimum. Ampicillin resistance among Listeria monocytogenes was more prevalent than previously reported. Optochin, fosfomycin, and nitrofurantoin showed very little activity against most organisms tested, but the use of nitrofurantoin as a selective agent in culture medium may prevent the recovery of some isolates. Except for the unvarying activity of vancomycin against Corynebacterium species, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the latter to other antibiotics are usually unpredictable, such that susceptibility tests are necessary for selecting the best antimicrobial treatment. PMID:7695308
: 51927 The late 20th century witnessed a rapidly growing crisis in antimicrobial resistance519 The use of combination antimicrobial therapy for bacteraemia caused by Gram-negative bacilli antimicrobials reduces mortality in patients with Gram-negative bacteraemia. Criteria for inclusion were
Conroy, G; Conroy, D A
There was a spontaneous outbreak of mycobacteriosis in fancy veiltail guppies, Lebistes reticulatus, raised on an ornamental fish farm in Venezuela. The clinical signs included listlessness, emaciation, spinal curvature, sunken eyes and loss of colour. Numerous acid-fast bacteria, identified as Mycobacterium species, were detected in smears from the kidneys, liver, mesentery and spleen of the fish, from fresh faecal material, and from the unborn embryos of infected gravid females. The bacteria were eradicated by the addition of kanamycin sulphate to the water at a concentration of 50 ppm, the dose being repeated on four occasions with 48 hours between each dose. Fifteen days after the treatment, none of the clinical signs described were detected in any of the treated fish. The offspring born to treated females were healthy and normal, and did not harbour acid-fast bacteria. PMID:10097326
Alli, Oyebode A. T.; Ogbolu, Olusoga D.; Alaka, Olubunmi O.
Background: Tuberculosis, a communicable disease with significant morbidity and mortality, is the leading cause of death in the world from bacterial infectious disease. Because of its public health importance, there is need for rapid and definitive method of detecting the causative organism. Several approaches have been attempted, but the molecular methods, especially Polymerase Chain Reaction assays are the most promising for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from clinical samples. Aim: This study was aimed at using Polymerase Chain Reaction for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from clinical samples using universal sample processing methodology. Subjects and Methods: Two hundred clinical samples sent to Tuberculosis laboratories in Ibadan and Osogbo, Nigeria, were enrolled in this study. The samples were processed by universal sample processing methodology for PCR; smear microscopy was carried out on sputum samples by Ziehl Nelseen staining technique; and cultured on Middlebrook agar medium containing oleic acid albumin dextrose complex supplement after decontamination of samples. Results: Ninety six (48%) samples were detected positive for M. tuberculosis complex by polymerase chain reaction using the combination of boiling and vortexing and microscopy detected 72 (36%) samples positive for acid fast bacilli. Using culture method as gold standard, it was found that polymerase chain reaction assay was more sensitive (75.5%) and specific (94.8%) than microscopy (sensitivity of 48.5% and specificity of 85.7%) in detecting M. tuberculosis complex from clinical samples. There was significant difference in detecting M. tuberculosis from clinical samples when compared to microscopy (p<0.05). Conclusion: The study recommends that direct molecular detection of M. tuberculosis complex is sensitive and specific and polymerase chain reaction method should be used as an adjunct to other methods of laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis. PMID:22540099
Natalie J Garton; Simon J Waddell; Anna L Sherratt; Su-Min Lee; Rebecca J Smith; Claire Senner; Jason Hinds; Kumar Rajakumar; Richard A Adegbola; Gurdyal S Besra; Philip D Butcher; Michael R Barer
BackgroundTuberculous sputum provides a sample of bacilli that must be eliminated by chemotherapy and that may go on to transmit infection. A preliminary observation that Mycobacterium tuberculosis cells contain triacylglycerol lipid bodies in sputum, but not when growing in vitro, led us to investigate the extent of this phenomenon and its physiological basis.Methods and FindingsMicroscopy-positive sputum samples from the UK
Matthew A. Crawford; Yinghua Zhu; Candace S. Green; Marie D. Burdick; Patrick Sanz; Farhang Alem; Alison D. O'Brien; Borna Mehrad; Robert M. Strieter; Molly A. Hughes
Based on previous studies showing that host chemokines exert antimicrobial activities against bacteria, we sought to determine whether the interferon-inducible Glu-Leu-Arg-negative CXC chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 exhibit antimicrobial activities against Bacillus anthracis. In vitro analysis demon- strated that all three CXC chemokines exerted direct antimicrobial effects against B. anthracis spores and bacilli including marked reductions in spore and bacillus
Entomopathogenic bacteria provide an alternative to chemical pesticides used in insect control programs. This chapter provides techniques, both classical and modern, that will enable researchers from any laboratory setting to identify and work with novel strains of entomopathogenic bacteria. In ad...
Yvonne R. Shea; J. Lucian Davis; Laurence Huang; Joseph A. Kovacs; Henry Masur; Francis Mulindwa; Sally Opus; Yuenwah Chow; Patrick R. Murray
Received 16 February 2009\\/Returned for modification 2 March 2009\\/Accepted 5 March 2009 Laboratories in low-income countries report that acid-fast microscopy is insensitive and nonspecific. We demonstrate that for a Ugandan population with high prevalences of tuberculosis and human immunodefi- ciency virus infection, acid-fast microscopy is highly sensitive (93.1%) and specific (100%) when performed by trained technologists in a carefully controlled
Bushkin, G. Guy; Motari, Edwin; Carpentieri, Andrea; Dubey, Jitender P.; Costello, Catherine E.; Robbins, Phillips W.; Samuelson, John
ABSTRACT Coccidia are protozoan parasites that cause significant human disease and are of major agricultural importance. Cryptosporidium spp. cause diarrhea in humans and animals, while Toxoplasma causes disseminated infections in fetuses and untreated AIDS patients. Eimeria is a major pathogen of commercial chickens. Oocysts, which are the infectious form of Cryptosporidium and Eimeria and one of two infectious forms of Toxoplasma (the other is tissue cysts in undercooked meat), have a multilayered wall. Recently we showed that the inner layer of the oocyst walls of Toxoplasma and Eimeria is a porous scaffold of fibers of ?-1,3-glucan, which are also present in fungal walls but are absent from Cryptosporidium oocyst walls. Here we present evidence for a structural role for lipids in the oocyst walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria. Briefly, oocyst walls of each organism label with acid-fast stains that bind to lipids in the walls of mycobacteria. Polyketide synthases similar to those that make mycobacterial wall lipids are abundant in oocysts of Toxoplasma and Eimeria and are predicted in Cryptosporidium. The outer layer of oocyst wall of Eimeria and the entire oocyst wall of Cryptosporidium are dissolved by organic solvents. Oocyst wall lipids are complex mixtures of triglycerides, some of which contain polyhydroxy fatty acyl chains like those present in plant cutin or elongated fatty acyl chains like mycolic acids. We propose a two-layered model of the oocyst wall (glucan and acid-fast lipids) that resembles the two-layered walls of mycobacteria (peptidoglycan and acid-fast lipids) and plants (cellulose and cutin). PMID:24003177
Tsering, Dechen C; Das, Shyamasree; Adhiakari, Luna; Pal, Ranabir; Singh, Takhellambam SK
Background: Resistance to third generation cephalosporins by acquisition and expression of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) enzymes among gram-negative bacilli is on a rise. The presence of ESBL producing organisms significantly affects the course and outcome of an infection and poses a challenge to infection management worldwide. Materials and Methods: In the period from June 2007 to 2008, we collected 1489 samples from patients suspected of nosocomial infection. The isolates were identified based on colony morphology and biochemical reaction. Gram negative bacilli resistant to third generation cephalosporins were tested for ESBL by double disc synergy test (DDST- a screening test)and then phenotypic confirmatory test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: From the sample of 238 gram-negative bacilli, we isolated Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii and Enterobacter cloacae. Following both methods, 34% isolates were ESBL-positive. The ESBL producing isolates were significantly resistant (p < 0.01) to ampicillin, piperacillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin as compared to non-ESBL producers. Multidrug resistance was significantly (p < 0.01) higher (69.14%) in ESBL positive isolates than non-ESBL isolates (21.66%). Conclusion: High prevalence of ESBL in our hospital cannot be ignored. ESBL producers can be detected by DDST and phenotypic confirmatory test with equal efficacy. The sensitivity of screening test improved with the use of more than one antibiotic and addition of one or two antibiotics would not increase cost and labor. We recommend DDST using multiple antibiotics in all microbiology units as a routine screening test. PMID:20300397
Peckham, Adelaide Ward
Assuming the typical colon bacillus and the typical typhoid bacillus to represent the types of this group that present the greatest divergences in biological peculiarities, we conclude, as others also have done, that there is a series of closely related forms that may be regarded as intermediate or transitional and which serve to establish a biological relationship, either near or remote, between these two typical members. From our own studies we are inclined to regard the typical colon bacillus as the type of this group, for the reason that its functional equilibrium, as observed in the intestine, is so permanent a quality that it may readily be perpetuated under what is ordinarily regarded as favorable artificial circumstances, and that with the continuance of such conditions there is no conspicuous tendency on the part of this organism to deviate from what we regard as its norm; whereas, on the other hand, with all the other members of this group with which we have worked, there is not only a lack of uniformity in the adjustment of the functions, but such as exists is readily disturbed under artificial environment; though it must be borne in mind that even with the typical colon bacillus we have also shown functional modifications to be possible under particular conditions. When the members of the colon group are cultivated under circumstances favorable to the development of both the function of fermentation and that of proteolysis, fermentation invariably takes precedence and no evidence of proteolysis is manifested until after fermentation has ceased. The cultivation of all the members of the colon group under circumstances that favor the development of one function, viz. that of proteolysis, at the expense of another, viz. that of fermentation, results first in an apparent increase of vigor; but this is of temporary duration and is quickly followed by the decline and death of the cell. The result of this increased activity of the proteolytic function is the formation of much larger amounts of indol by typical colon cultures than has ever been obtained by us by any other method. By the method of experimentation through which we were enabled to accentuate the proteolytic activity of the typical colon bacillus, as caused by an increase of indol formation, we have also induced the function of indol formation not only in atypical colon bacilli that had been devoid of it, but in every specimen of typical typhoid bacilli to which we had access as well. We feel justified in regarding one of the differential tests between the typhoid and colon bacillus, namely that of indol formation on the part of the latter and the absence of this function from the former, as of questionable value, for the reason, as shown above, that by particular methods of cultivation indol production has been shown to accompany the development of a number of specimens that we have every reason to regard as genuine typhoid bacilli. As a result of our own experiments, together with the observations of others, there can be no doubt that the bacillus coli communis at times possesses pathogenic properties, and that by artificial methods of treatment it may often be brought from a condition of benignity to one of virulence. The spleen of a typhoid patient has always been regarded as the only trustworthy source from which to obtain the typical typhoid bacillus. While we believe this to be true, still our investigations show that other members of the colon group may also be present in this viscus; in fact, from such spleens we have isolated practically all of the varieties of this group with which we are acquainted. From our experience, the value of the serum test for the differentiation of typhoid and colon bacilli would seem to be questionable. We are inclined, however, to attribute the irregularities recorded above as due more to the method of application than to defects of the principles involved; for, as stated, by the use of dried blood, as in our experiments, it is not possible to make the test with constant and accurate, or even approximately accurate
de Los Milagros Orberá Ratón, Teresa; Yano, Ricardo; Rodríguez Gámez, Odalys; Floh, Eny Iochevet Segal; de Jesús Serrat Díaz, Manuel; Barbosa, Heloíza Ramos
Eighteen aerobic endospore forming strains were isolated from sugarcane rhizosphere in N-free medium. A phenotypic description and analysis of the 5' end hypervariable region sequences of 16S rRNA revealed a high diversity of Bacillus and related genera. Isolates were identified, and four genera were obtained: seven strains belonged to Bacillus (Bacillaceae family), four belonged to Paenibacillus, six belonged to Brevibacillus and one strain was identified as Cohnella (Paenibacillaceae family). Four Brevibacillus strains showed in vitro inhibitory activity against plant pathogens fungi Curvularia and Fusarium. Seventy-four percent of the isolated bacteria grew on pectin as the only carbon source, showing polygalacturonase activity. Pectate lyase activity was detected for the first time in a Brevibacillus genus strain. All isolates showed endoglucanase activity. Calcium phosphate solubilisation was positive in 83.3% of the isolates, with higher values than those reported for Bacillus inorganic phosphate solubilising strains. High ethylene plant hormone secretion in the culture medium was detected in 22% of the bacteria. This is the first report of ethylene secretion in Paenibacillaceae isolates. Indole-3-acetic acid production was found in a Brevibacillus genus isolate. It was reported for the first time the presence of Cohnella genus strain on sugarcane rhizosphere bearing plant growth promoting traits. The sugarcane isolate Brevibacillus B65 was identified as a plant growth inoculant because it showed wider spectra of plant stimulation capabilities, including an antifungal effect, extracellular hydrolases secretion, inorganic phosphate solubilisation and plant hormone liberation. In this work, sugarcane was shown to be a suitable niche for finding aerobic endospore forming 'Bacilli' with agriculture biotechnological purposes. PMID:22805941
Yan, Jing; Yuan, Ying; Mu, Runqing; Shang, Hong; Guan, Yifu
Oligonucleotide microarray has been one of the most powerful tools in the 'Post-Genome Era' for its high sensitivity, high throughput and parallel processing capability. To achieve high detection specificity, we fabricated an isothermal microarray using locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified oligonucleotide probes, since LNA has demonstrated the advanced ability to enhance the binding affinity toward their complementary nucleotides. After designing the nucleotide sequences of these oligonucleotide probes for gram-positive bacilli of similar origin (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus circulans), we unified the melting temperatures of these oligonucleotide probes by modifying some nucleotides using LNA. Furthermore, we optimized the experimental procedures of hydrating microarray slides, blocking side surface as well as labelling the PCR products. Experimental results revealed that KOD Dash DNA polymerase could efficiently incorporate Cy3-dCTP into the PCR products, and the LNA-isothermal oligonucleotide microarray were able to distinguish the bacilli of similar origin with a high degree of accuracy and specificity under the optimized experimental condition. PMID:25431409
Shelton, S; Nelson, J D; McCracken, G H
Moxalactam, Ro 13-9904, cefotaxime, cefoperazone, older cephalosporins, and four aminoglycosides were tested in vitro against 432 strains of gram-negative bacteria isolated from pediatric patients. The new drugs were uniformly active against coliform bacilli obtained from patients with meningitis and against aminoglycoside-resistant coliform bacilli. PMID:6252837
Pantel, A; Marchandin, H; Prère, M-F; Boutet-Dubois, A; Brieu-Roche, N; Gaschet, A; Davin-Regli, A; Sotto, A; Lavigne, J-P
The emergence of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli is a worldwide problem. To date, no study has evaluated the prevalence of faecal carriage of carbapenemase-producing and carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (CR GNB) in France. From 1 February to 30 April 2012, we conducted a prospective, multicentre study in three University Hospitals and four General Hospitals in the south of France. The carriage of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and other CR GNB was screened by both cultivation on chromID® CARBA and chromID® OXA-48 media (bioMérieux) and molecular tools [multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and NucliSENS EasyQ® KPC (bioMérieux)]. The genetic relationship between isolates was assessed by rep-PCR (DiversiLab, bioMérieux) or multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The prevalences of CR GNB and carbapenemase-producing bacteria were 2.4 % (27/1,135) and 0.4 % (n?=?5), respectively. Two strains corresponded to OXA-23-producing Acinetobacter baumannii and belonged to the widespread sequence type (ST) 2/international clone II, whereas one strain was an ST15 OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. Two OXA-48-producers were detected exclusively by PCR. This first French study revealed the very low dissemination of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in patients attending hospitals in southern France during a non-outbreak situation. However, the increasing description of epidemic cases in this area must reinforce the use of hygiene procedures to prevent diffusion of these multidrug-resistant microorganisms. PMID:25532506
Jacobson, E D; Landman, O E
The interaction of 12 phage strains with bacilli, protoplasts, and L forms of Bacillus subtilis 168 and with eight of its mutants and two of its lysogens is described qualitatively and quantitatively. After removal of the cell wall from B. subtilis 168, 11 of the 12 phage strains can still adsorb to the protoplasts, nine kill their wall-less host cells, and five multiply in the naked bacteria, forming plaques on L form lawns. Individual gene mutations can have similarly pleiotropic effects, strongly dependent upon the plating medium. Thus, the gta A mutation, which causes loss of glucosylation of the wall teichoic acid, results in loss of wall adsorption sites for phi (but not membrane sites) and for phi105. Phages phi25, SP82G and phie can still adsorb to gta A bacilli and plaque in unstabilized and sorbitol-stabilized lawns of this mutant, but they can not plaque in sucrose-stabilized lawns. The lysogenized wild type, B. subtilis 168 (SPO2), also exhibits a pleiotropic pattern, showing different levels of resistance to phages SPO2, phi1, phie, and phi25. Its resistance pattern is very similar to that of wild-type protoplasts. On the basis of such patterns, the bacterial mutants and strain B. subtilis 168 (SPO2) could be ordered into four classes and the phage strains classified into four to six groups. Together, they form four to six interaction complexes, based partly on adsorption sites and perhaps partly on metabolic blocks in phage development. Images PMID:809420
Evolution of Smooth Tubercle Bacilli PE and PE_PGRS Genes: Evidence for a Prominent Role´miologie, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France Abstract Background: PE and PE_PGRS are two mycobateria attribute to PE and PE_PGRS genes critical roles in mycobacterial pathogenicity. To get more insight
Pathogenic mycobacteria, including those that cause tuberculosis and paratuberculosis, cross mucosal barriers by endocytosis within mucosal lymphoepithelial sites. These entry sites commonly include oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal tonsils and Peyer’s patches. Bacilli discharged at the basolateral surfaces of engulfing epithelial M cells are taken up by professional antigen-presenting cells associated with T lymphocytes of the parafollicular area. Dendritic cells and macrophages
McMullen, Allison R; Mattar, Caline; Kirmani, Nigar; Burnham, Carey-Ann D
Mycobacterium spp. are a rare cause of endocarditis. Herein, we describe a case of Mycobacterium mageritense prosthetic valve endocarditis. This organism produced an unusual brown pigment on solid media. Cultures of valve tissue for acid-fast bacilli might be considered in some cases of apparently culture-negative prosthetic valve endocarditis. PMID:26063854
Candeli, A; Mastrandrea, V; Cenci, G; De Bartolomeo, A
The authors studied the possible relationship between a genetic characteristic, like DNA base composition, and certain phenotypic characteristics, i.e., sensitivity to lytic agents, morphology of colonies, and biochemical reactions in 34 strains of spore-bearing bacilli. From the results obtained two groups of bacilli have been identified. The first group includes the species B. subtilis, B. pumilus, B. licheniformis, and B. firmus and one strain of B. megaterium. The mean value of the GC% of the DNA is 44.22 +/- 1.76. All the strains examined are highly sensitive to lysozyme and resistant to sodium lauryl sulphate (S.L.S.); the surface colonies have a "rhizoid" appearance and the microcolonies on slide microculture are star-shaped. The second group includes the species B. cereus, B. cereus var. mycoides, B. anthracis, and B. thuringiensis. The mean value of the GC% of the DNA is 33.65 +/- 0.59. All the strains belonging to this group are resistant to both lysozyme and S.L.S., and the surface macro-colonies and the microcolonies have a "medusae head" appearance. The two groups also have certain different biochemical reactions; e.g., anaerobic growth and the egg yolk reaction, with few exception, are negative for the first group and positive for the second; furthermore, the strains in the first group (with rare exceptions) cause fermentation in the three carbohydrates, glucose, arabinose, and xylose, while glucose only is fermented by all strains with one exception in the second group. The position of B. megaterium is not yet clear, although one strain may certainly be included in the first group. Lysis by lipase is extremely variable and does not correlate with any of the other characteristics studied. The other species studied in relation to the characteristics, considered in our research (B. coagulans, B. macerans, B. polymyxa, B. laterosporus, B. alvei, B. circulans, B. stearothermophilus, and B. brevis), are not susceptible to grouping, either in the first, or in the second or even in a separate group. PMID:696046
Salina, Elena G; Waddell, Simon J; Hoffmann, Nadine; Rosenkrands, Ida; Butcher, Philip D; Kaprelyants, Arseny S
Dormancy in non-sporulating bacteria is an interesting and underexplored phenomenon with significant medical implications. In particular, latent tuberculosis may result from the maintenance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli in non-replicating states in infected individuals. Uniquely, growth of M. tuberculosis in aerobic conditions in potassium-deficient media resulted in the generation of bacilli that were non-culturable (NC) on solid media but detectable in liquid media. These bacilli were morphologically distinct and tolerant to cell-wall-targeting antimicrobials. Bacterial counts on solid media quickly recovered after washing and incubating bacilli in fresh resuscitation media containing potassium. This resuscitation of growth occurred too quickly to be attributed to M. tuberculosis replication. Transcriptomic and proteomic profiling through adaptation to, and resuscitation from, this NC state revealed a switch to anaerobic respiration and a shift to lipid and amino acid metabolism. High concordance with mRNA signatures derived from M. tuberculosis infection models suggests that analogous NC mycobacterial phenotypes may exist during disease and may represent unrecognized populations in vivo. Resuscitation of NC bacilli in potassium-sufficient media was characterized by time-dependent activation of metabolic pathways in a programmed series of processes that probably transit bacilli through challenging microenvironments during infection. PMID:25320096
Salina, Elena G.; Waddell, Simon J.; Hoffmann, Nadine; Rosenkrands, Ida; Butcher, Philip D.; Kaprelyants, Arseny S.
Dormancy in non-sporulating bacteria is an interesting and underexplored phenomenon with significant medical implications. In particular, latent tuberculosis may result from the maintenance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli in non-replicating states in infected individuals. Uniquely, growth of M. tuberculosis in aerobic conditions in potassium-deficient media resulted in the generation of bacilli that were non-culturable (NC) on solid media but detectable in liquid media. These bacilli were morphologically distinct and tolerant to cell-wall-targeting antimicrobials. Bacterial counts on solid media quickly recovered after washing and incubating bacilli in fresh resuscitation media containing potassium. This resuscitation of growth occurred too quickly to be attributed to M. tuberculosis replication. Transcriptomic and proteomic profiling through adaptation to, and resuscitation from, this NC state revealed a switch to anaerobic respiration and a shift to lipid and amino acid metabolism. High concordance with mRNA signatures derived from M. tuberculosis infection models suggests that analogous NC mycobacterial phenotypes may exist during disease and may represent unrecognized populations in vivo. Resuscitation of NC bacilli in potassium-sufficient media was characterized by time-dependent activation of metabolic pathways in a programmed series of processes that probably transit bacilli through challenging microenvironments during infection. PMID:25320096
Harris, Patrick; Paterson, David; Rogers, Benjamin
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacilli (GNB) are now globally widespread and present a major challenge to modern medical practice. Resistance to common antibiotics such as ceftriaxone is becoming more frequent in Australia, primarily mediated by extended-spectrum ?-lactamase enzymes in common organisms such as Escherichia coli, and may occur in both hospital- and community-acquired infections. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae have emerged rapidly in recent years and are well established in many countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Although rare at present in Australia, they have caused significant nosocomial outbreaks. GNB have numerous mechanisms by which they can develop antibiotic resistance. Genes that encode extended-spectrum ?-lactamases or carbapenemases are frequently co-located with multiple other resistance determinants on highly transmissible genetic structures such as plasmids. A key risk factor for infection with MDR GNB is travel to countries with high rates of resistance, especially with health care exposure. With limited prospects for new antibiotics in late-stage development that are active against MDR GNB, our national response to these challenges will require a multifaceted approach, including widespread implementation of antimicrobial stewardship, enhanced surveillance, targeted screening of at-risk patients and improved infection control practices. In the longer term, restriction of agricultural use of antibiotic classes critical to human medicine, removal of barriers to new drug development, and technological advances in rapid microbiological diagnostics will be required. PMID:25758692
Singh, Pushpendra; Benjak, Andrej; Schuenemann, Verena J; Herbig, Alexander; Avanzi, Charlotte; Busso, Philippe; Nieselt, Kay; Krause, Johannes; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Cole, Stewart T
Mycobacterium lepromatosis is an uncultured human pathogen associated with diffuse lepromatous leprosy and a reactional state known as Lucio's phenomenon. By using deep sequencing with and without DNA enrichment, we obtained the near-complete genome sequence of M. lepromatosis present in a skin biopsy from a Mexican patient, and compared it with that of Mycobacterium leprae, which has undergone extensive reductive evolution. The genomes display extensive synteny and are similar in size (?3.27 Mb). Protein-coding genes share 93% nucleotide sequence identity, whereas pseudogenes are only 82% identical. The events that led to pseudogenization of 50% of the genome likely occurred before divergence from their most recent common ancestor (MRCA), and both M. lepromatosis and M. leprae have since accumulated new pseudogenes or acquired specific deletions. Functional comparisons suggest that M. lepromatosis has lost several enzymes required for amino acid synthesis whereas M. leprae has a defective heme pathway. M. lepromatosis has retained all functions required to infect the Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system and therefore may also be neuropathogenic. A phylogeographic survey of 227 leprosy biopsies by differential PCR revealed that 221 contained M. leprae whereas only six, all from Mexico, harbored M. lepromatosis. Phylogenetic comparisons indicate that M. lepromatosis is closer than M. leprae to the MRCA, and a Bayesian dating analysis suggests that they diverged from their MRCA approximately 13.9 Mya. Thus, despite their ancient separation, the two leprosy bacilli are remarkably conserved and still cause similar pathologic conditions. PMID:25831531
Porter, A G; Davidson, E W; Liu, J W
The identification, cloning, and characterization of protein toxins from various species of bacilli have demonstrated the existence of mosquitocidal toxins with different structures, mechanisms of action, and host ranges. A start has been made in understanding the polypeptide determinants of toxicity and insecticidal activity, and the purification of toxins from recombinant organisms may lead to the elucidation of their X-ray crystal structures and the cloning of brush border membrane receptors. The results of cloning mosquitocidal toxins in heterologous microorganisms show the potential of expanding the range of susceptible mosquito species by combining several toxins of different host specificity in one cell. Toxins have been expressed in new microorganisms with the potential for increasing potency by persisting at the larval feeding zone. The powerful tools of bacterial genetics are being applied to engineer genetically stable, persistent toxin expression and expand the insecticidal host ranges of Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis strains. These techniques, together with modern formulation technology, should eventually lead to the construction of mosquitocidal microorganisms which are effective enough to have a real impact on mosquito-borne diseases. Images PMID:7905597
Pancer, Katarzyna W; Laudy, Agnieszka E; Mikulak, Ewa; Gliniewicz, Aleksandra; Staniszewska, Monika; Stypu?kowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna
In our study the susceptibility (MIC) of chosen 21 strains of Gram-negative bacilli isolated in hospitals to disinfectant agents (glucoprotamine, sodium dichloroisocyanurate, potassium persulfate), the effectiveness of these disinfectants against selected bacteria and their effectiveness to biofilm forming bacteria was determined. It was found that glucoprotamine showed the highest activity to Gram-negative bacteria. Obtained MIC values for glucoprotamine (except 1 strain of S. marcescens) were 16-64 times lower that MICs for sodium dichloroisocyanurate and 4-32 times lower that MICs for potassium persulfate. The effectiveness of disinfectants containing potassium persulfate or sodium dichloroisocyanurate was 100% tested by carrier method. Glucoprotamine was ineffective against 2 out of 9 strains (18%): E. cloacae and S. marcescens. It was found that disinfectants were more effective against Gram-negative bacteria in carrier methods than for biofilm forming bacteria. 86% of bacteria growing 5 days on a catheter were resistant to working solution of disinfectant containing glucoprotamine (5200 mg/L) or potassium persulfate (4300 mg/L); 66.6% of tested bacteria were resistant to working solution of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (1795.2 mg/L). In our study the highest effectiveness to biofilm forming bacteria showed disinfectant with sodium dichloroisocyanurate, the lowest--with glucoprotamine. PMID:15810507
Lee, Yangsoon; Kim, Chang-Ki; Chung, Hae-Sun; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Lee, Kyungwon; Chong, Yunsop
The trends and types of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli were analyzed from clinical specimens collected between 2005 and 2012 at a Korean teaching hospital. The proportions of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. increased markedly to 66%. Metallo-?-lactamase producers significantly decreased and the majority shifted from the blaVIM-2 type to the blaIMP-1 type. PMID:25684011
Methee Chayakulkeeree; Pichai Junsriwong; Anuwat Keerasuntonpong; Chanwit Tribuddharat; Visanu Thamlikitkul
A cross-sectional study was conducted from August to September, 2003 to determine the prevalence and risk factors in acquiring extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing gram-negative bacilli (GNB) in patients admitted to Siriraj Hospital and the outcomes of these in- fections. Of 346 isolates of gram-negative bacteria in 249 patients, 102 isolates from 87 patients were colonization only, but 244 isolates from
Galperin, Michael Y; Mekhedov, Sergei L; Puigbo, Pere; Smirnov, Sergey; Wolf, Yuri I; Rigden, Daniel J
Three classes of low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (Firmicutes), Bacilli, Clostridia and Negativicutes, include numerous members that are capable of producing heat-resistant endospores. Spore-forming firmicutes include many environmentally important organisms, such as insect pathogens and cellulose-degrading industrial strains, as well as human pathogens responsible for such diseases as anthrax, botulism, gas gangrene and tetanus. In the best-studied model organism Bacillus subtilis, sporulation involves over 500 genes, many of which are conserved among other bacilli and clostridia. This work aimed to define the genomic requirements for sporulation through an analysis of the presence of sporulation genes in various firmicutes, including those with smaller genomes than B. subtilis. Cultivable spore-formers were found to have genomes larger than 2300 kb and encompass over 2150 protein-coding genes of which 60 are orthologues of genes that are apparently essential for sporulation in B. subtilis. Clostridial spore-formers lack, among others, spoIIB, sda, spoVID and safA genes and have non-orthologous displacements of spoIIQ and spoIVFA, suggesting substantial differences between bacilli and clostridia in the engulfment and spore coat formation steps. Many B. subtilis sporulation genes, particularly those encoding small acid-soluble spore proteins and spore coat proteins, were found only in the family Bacillaceae, or even in a subset of Bacillus spp. Phylogenetic profiles of sporulation genes, compiled in this work, confirm the presence of a common sporulation gene core, but also illuminate the diversity of the sporulation processes within various lineages. These profiles should help further experimental studies of uncharacterized widespread sporulation genes, which would ultimately allow delineation of the minimal set(s) of sporulation-specific genes in Bacilli and Clostridia. PMID:22882546
Chawla, Kiran; Vishwanath, Shashidhar; Munim, Frenil C
Background: Nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli have emerged as important healthcare-associated pathogens. It is important to correctly identify all clinically significant nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli considering the intrinsic multidrug resistance exhibited by these bacteria. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was undertaken to identify the various nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli other than Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. isolated from respiratory samples (n = 9363), to understand their clinical relevance and to analyze their antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Results: Nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli were isolated from 830 (16.4%) samples showing significant growth. Thirty-three (4%) isolates constituted nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli other than P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (15, 45.5%) was the most common isolate followed by Burkholderia cepacia (4, 12.1%), Sphingomonas paucimobilis (3, 9.1%), and Achromobacter xylosoxidans (3, 9.1%). On the basis of clinicomicrobiological correlation, pathogenicity was observed in 69.7% (n = 23) isolates. Timely and correct treatment resulted in clinical improvement in 87.9% cases. Conclusion: Any nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli isolated from respiratory tract infection should not be ignored as mere contaminant, but correlated clinically for its pathogenic potential and identified using standard methods so as to institute appropriate and timely antibiotic coverage. PMID:24672175
Claudia Jafari; Martin Ernst; Roland Diel; Ulf Greinert; Barbara Scheuerer; Detlef Kirsten; Kathleen Marienfeld; Ajit Lalvani; Christoph Lange
Rationale: In a large proportion of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis (pTB), acid-fast bacilli smear results for sputum and bronchial secretions are negative. Detectable growth of Mycobacte- rium tuberculosis (MTB) in cultures takes several weeks and MTB- specific DNA amplification results on sputum and bronchial secre- tions are variable in these patients. Objective: We investigated whether a rapid diagnosis of
Ammar A. Abu-mostafa; Abubaker S. Altoboli
The aim of this study is to evaluate PCR for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) comparing with culture and direct smear. This study was carried out between January and October 2006. The sputum specimens were collected at the laboratory of Microbiology from the patient population attending the Alkwafia Hospital and the Center of Endemic and
Salas, Elisa N; Royal, Debra; Kurz, Lance; Loy, J Dustin
We report the first detection of Nocardiopsis composta in association with osteomyelitis in a young male miniature Australian shepherd dog. Findings included suppurative osteomyelitis containing intralesional Fite's acid fast bacilli, aerobic culture of branching Gram-positive rods, and positive identification via phenotypic analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing. PMID:25969577
Ellen C. Ebert; Malca Kierson; Klaus D. Hagspiel
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease characterized by noncaseating granulomas in the affected organs, including skin, heart, nervous system, and joints. Diagnosis of sarcoidosis is generally based upon a compatible history, demonstration of granulomas in at least two different organs, negative staining and culture for acid fast bacilli, absence of occupational or domestic exposure to toxins, and lack of drug-induced disease.
Allen, B W; Mitchison, D A; Darbyshire, J; Chew, W W; Gabriel, M
Operation specimens from 52 Hong Kong patients considered to have tuberculosis of the spine were sent at -78 degrees C to London where they were cultured on two Löwenstein-Jensen medium slopes, a slope of 7H11 medium made selective with antibiotics and in two bottles of selective liquid Kirchner medium. Cultures of M tuberculosis, usually with only scanty colonies, were obtained from 37 of the patients. Pus and caseous matter yielded more positive cultures and more numerous colonies than other specimens, but eight of the 37 patients yielded positive cultures only from tissues lining abscess walls or from bone or intervertebral disc specimens. Cultures in Kirchner medium were never contaminated and twice as many were positive as cultures on the slopes; nine patients had cultures positive only on Kirchner medium. It is recommended that (i) a variety of operation specimens, always including pus or caseous material in volumes of at least 1 ml, should be sent for bacteriology; (ii) specimens should be cultured in selective Kirchner medium, with or without Löwenstein-Jensen slopes; (iii) cultures should be incubated for a minimum of 8-9 wk. PMID:6406560
Moses, Acaku; Bwanga, Freddie; Boum, Yap; Bazira, Joel
Aim To determine the prevalence and genotypic characterisation of extended spectrum beta-lactamases produced by gram negative bacilli isolated at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital (MRRH). Samples Gram negative clinical isolates. Study Design Laboratory-based descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of the Study MRRH, June and August 2012. Methods Gram negative clinical isolates were sub cultured, and identified using biochemical tests. They were screened for ESBL by using oxyimino-cephalosporins and confirmed by double disc synergy Genotyping was performed using the PCR for TEM, SHV and CTX-M. Susceptibility pattern for the extended spectrum beta-lactamases, (ESBL) - positive isolates to other antibiotic classes was performed by the Kirby Bauer Technique. Results A total of 484 isolates were included in the study. The commonest ESBL producers were Escherichia coli (34%), followed by unidentified coliforms (19.3%) and Klebsiella spp. (12.7%). Phenotypically, 88/484 were ESBL producers while genotypically 213/ 484 possessed ESBL genes. The ESBL genes were blaCTX-M (146; 70%), blaSHV (72; 34%) and blaTEM (100; 47%). 87of 213 isolates expressed more than one ESBL gene. Of these 36 (7.4%) produced blaCTX-M/blaSHV, 28 (5.8%) blaCTX-M /blaTEM, 4 (0.8%) blaSHV/ blaTEM and 19 (3.9%) blaCTX-M/blaSHV/blaTEM. Sixty two (16%) were phenotypically and genotypically positive, 12 (3%) of the isolates were phenotypically positive but genotypically negative and 140 (37%) isolates were phenotypically negative but genotypically positive. The ESBL producers were highly susceptible to imipenem (95%), nitrofurantoin (66%) but less susceptible to ampicillin (4%) and ticarcillin (7%). Conclusion ESBL production among the Gram-negative clinical isolates at MRRH is very high with several isolates possessing multiple genes. The ESBL producers are highly susceptible to imipenem, but very resistant to ciprofloxacin.
Sloat, Brian R; Cui, Zhengrong
Anthrax-vaccine-adsorbed (AVA), the only anthrax vaccine licensed in the U.S., suffers from many major drawbacks. Therefore, there is a need to develop new generation anthrax vaccines that can be easily administered and induce strong immune responses not only against the anthrax toxins, but also against the toxin-producing vegetative anthrax bacilli. In the present study, we evaluated the feasibility of inducing strong mucosal and systemic immune responses against both anthrax toxins and bacilli after nasal immunization using a synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly(I:C) or pI:C), as the adjuvant. We have shown that the capsular poly-gamma-D-glutamic acid (PGA) from bacillus was immunogenic when conjugated to a carrier protein and dosed intranasally to mice. We further demonstrated that nasal immunization with the PGA-carrier protein conjugate in combination with the anthrax protective antigen (PA) protein induced both anti-PGA and anti-PA immune responses in mouse sera and lung mucosal secretions. The anti-PA antibody (Ab) response was shown to have anthrax lethal toxin neutralization activity; and the anti-PGA Abs induced were able to activate complement and kill PGA-producing bacteria. These findings demonstrated that it is feasible to develop a novel dual-action nasal anthrax vaccine. PMID:16828937
Supply, Philip; Marceau, Michael; Mangenot, Sophie; Roche, David; Rouanet, Carine; Khanna, Varun; Majlessi, Laleh; Criscuolo, Alexis; Tap, Julien; Pawlik, Alexandre; Fiette, Laurence; Orgeur, Mickael; Fabre, Michel; Parmentier, Cécile; Frigui, Wafa; Simeone, Roxane; Boritsch, Eva C.; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Willery, Eve; Walker, Danielle; Quail, Michael A.; Ma, Laurence; Bouchier, Christiane; Salvignol, Grégory; Sayes, Fadel; Cascioferro, Alessandro; Seemann, Torsten; Barbe, Valérie; Locht, Camille; Gutierrez, Maria-Cristina; Leclerc, Claude; Bentley, Stephen; Stinear, Timothy P.; Brisse, Sylvain; Médigue, Claudine; Parkhill, Julian; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Brosch, Roland
Global spread and genetic monomorphism are hallmarks of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the agent of human tuberculosis. In contrast, Mycobacterium canettii, and related tubercle bacilli that also cause human tuberculosis and exhibit unusual smooth colony morphology, are restricted to East-Africa. Here, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of five representative strains of smooth tubercle bacilli (STB) using Sanger (4-5x coverage), 454/Roche (13-18x coverage) and/or Illumina DNA sequencing (45-105x coverage). We show that STB are highly recombinogenic and evolutionary early-branching, with larger genome sizes, 25-fold more SNPs, fewer molecular scars and distinct CRISPR-Cas systems relative to M. tuberculosis. Despite the differences, all tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria share a highly conserved core genome. Mouse-infection experiments revealed that STB are less persistent and virulent than M. tuberculosis. We conclude that M. tuberculosis emerged from an ancestral, STB-like pool of mycobacteria by gain of persistence and virulence mechanisms and we provide genome-wide insights into the molecular events involved. PMID:23291586
Dupin, Clarisse; Tamanai-Shacoori, Zohreh; Ehrmann, Elodie; Dupont, Anais; Barloy-Hubler, Frédérique; Bousarghin, Latifa; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne
Many ?-lactamases have been described in various Gram-negative bacilli (Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, etc.) of the oral cavity, belonging to class A of the Ambler classification (CepA, CblA, CfxA, CSP-1 and TEM), class B (CfiA) or class D in Fusobacterium nucleatum (FUS-1). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ?-lactams are variable and this variation is often related to the presence of plasmids or other mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that modulate the expression of resistance genes. DNA persistence and bacterial promiscuity in oral biofilms also contribute to genetic transformation and conjugation in this particular microcosm. Overexpression of efflux pumps is facilitated because the encoding genes are located on MGEs, in some multidrug-resistant clinical isolates, similar to conjugative transposons harbouring genes encoding ?-lactamases. All these facts lead us to consider the oral cavity as an important reservoir of ?-lactam resistance genes and a privileged place for genetic exchange, especially in commensal strictly anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli. PMID:25465519
Duval, Charles W.
In the cultivation of Bacillus lepræ the initial multiplication outside the body cannot be obtained unless amino-acids are present in the medium. The amino-acids are believed to be essential nutritives for the initial growth of the organisms. It has been demonstrated that the primary growth of the leprosy bacilli occurs only in the presence of the products of tryptic digestion. Hence, putrefactive and other bacteria which are capable of splitting nucleo-proteids into their end acid products are, in consequence, of value in the isolation and cultivation of the leprosy bacilli. Amebæ are not necessary for securing the primary multiplication of the leprosy bacilli upon artificial media and are detrimental since they feed with avidity upon the bacilli themselves. Two methods may be employed for recovering in culture Bacillus lepræ from the tissues. In one (the direct), tryptophane or a mixture of albumen and trypsin are employed with a culture medium; in the other (indirect), bacterial species capable of digesting the albumen constituent of the culture medium are introduced into the medium. In both, the end result is identical, since they both provide for the presence of the amino-acids in the medium, without which the primary multiplication of the leprosy bacilli cannot be secured. PMID:19867417
Inscore, Frank E.; Gift, Alan D.; Farquharson, Stuart
As the war on terrorism in Afghanistan and Iraq continue, future attacks both abroad and in the U.S.A. are expected. In an effort to aid civilian and military personnel, we have been investigating the potential of using a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sampling device to detect Bacillus anthracis spores in nasal swab samples. Such a device would be extremely beneficial to medical responders and management in assessing the extent of a bioterrorist attack and making detect-to-treat decisions. The disposable sample device consists of a glass capillary filled with a silver-doped sol-gel that is capable of extracting dipicolinic acid (DPA), a chemical signature of Bacilli, and generating SERS spectra. The sampling device and preliminary measurements of DPA extracted from spores and nasal mucus will be presented.
Pantel, A; Boutet-Dubois, A; Jean-Pierre, H; Marchandin, H; Sotto, A; Lavigne, J-P
In February 2011, the CARB-LR group was created as a sentinel laboratory-based surveillance network to control the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (CR GNB) in a French Southern Region. We report the epidemiological results of a 2-year study. All the Gram-negative bacilli isolates detected in the different labs (hospital and community settings) of a French Southern Region and with reduced susceptibility to ertapenem and/or imipenem were characterised with regard to antibiotic resistance, bla genes content, repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) profiles and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 221 strains were analysed. Acinetobacter baumannii was the most prevalent carbapenemase-producing bacteria, with a majority of OXA-23 producers (n = 37). One isolate co-produced OXA-23 and OXA-58 enzymes. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most frequent carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) (OXA-48 producer: n = 29, KPC producer: n = 1), followed by Escherichia coli (OXA-48 producer: n = 8, KPC producer: n = 1) and Enterobacter cloacae (OXA-48 producer, n = 1). One isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced a VIM-1 carbapenemase. A clonal diversity of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae and E. coli was noted with different MLSTs. On the other hand, almost all OXA-23-producing A. baumannii strains belonged to the widespread ST2/international clone II. The link between the detection of CR GNB and a foreign country was less obvious, suggesting the beginning of a local cross-transmission. The number of CR GNB cases in our French Southern Region has sharply increased very recently due to the diffusion of OXA-48 producers. PMID:25037867
J. VAN ALLEN BICKFORD
The experiments presented in this paper involve the study of menin- gitis produced in rabbits by the introduction of living and killed tuber- cle bacilli into the subarachnoid space, as compared with the effects of the injection of various extracts from the tubercle bacillus. Every extract tested has produced some symptomatic or pathological change. The tests have been made in
Mittal, A.; Seshadri, P.S.; Prasad, H.K.; Sathish, M.; Nath, I.
The antileprosy effect of rifampin was evaluated by a newly developed rapid in vitro assay wherein 31 human-derived strains and 1 armadillo-derived strain of Mycobacterium leprae were maintained for 2 and 3 weeks, respectively, in murine and human macrophages in the presence of (3H)thymidine. Of these strains, 27 showed significant incorporation of the radiolabel in cultures of live bacilli as compared with control cultures of heat-killed bacilli of the same strain. Consistent and significant inhibition of (3H)thymidine uptake was observed in M. leprae resident cultures with 3 to 200 ng of rifampin per ml as compared with similar cultures without the drug. In general, an increase in percent inhibition was seen from 3 to 20 ng/ml, with marginal increases at 40, 50, and 100 ng/ml. M. leprae strains appear to be remarkably susceptible to this drug in the in vitro assay.
Comparison of Multiplex PCR and Acid Fast and Auramine Rhodamine Staining for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Non tuberculosis Mycobacteria in Paraffin Embedded Pleural and Bronchial Tissues with Granulomatous Inflammation and Caseous Necrosis
Amir Hossein Jafarian; Abbasali Omidi; Javad Ghenaat; Kiarash Ghazvini; Hossein Ayatollahi; Minoo Erfanian; Mohammadd Taghi Shakeri; Mahmoud Bagheri; Hooman Tavassolian
Objective The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of Acid fast and Auramine-Rhodamine staining and Multiplex PCR for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and non tuberculosis Mycobacteria on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues (FFPE) Materials and Methods Forty cases of FFPE pleural and bronchial tissue with chronic granulomatous inflammation and caseous necrosis and 10
Peña, Jeremy A.; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Hoffman, Colleen G.
Mycobacterial growth in liquid culture can go undetected by automated, nonradiometric growth detection systems. In our laboratory, instrument-negative tubes from the Bactec MGIT 960 system are inspected visually for clumps suggestive of mycobacterial growth, which (if present) are examined by acid-fast smear analysis. A 3-year review demonstrated that ?1% of instrument-negative MGIT cultures contained mycobacterial growth and that 10% of all cultures yielding mycobacteria were instrument negative. Isolates from instrument-negative MGIT cultures included both tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacteria. PMID:22493332
Cubero, N; Esteban, J; Palenque, E; Rosell, A; Garcia, M J
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is assumed to remain in a quiescent state during latent infection, being unable to grow in culture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the detection of viable but non-cultivable bacilli with metabolic activity in human clinical samples using a procedure that is independent of the immunological status of the patient. The study was performed on 66 human clinical samples, from patients subjected to routine diagnosis to rule out a mycobacterial infection. Specimens from pulmonary and extra-pulmonary origins were verified to contain human DNA before testing for M. tuberculosis DNA, rRNA and transient RNA by real-time quantitative PCR. Clinical records of 55 patients were also reviewed. We were able to detect viable but non-cultivable bacilli with a metabolic activity in both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary samples. Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNA was detected in the majority of culture-positive samples whereas it was detected in one-third of culture-negative samples, 20% of them showed metabolic activity. Amplifications of the ftsZ gene and particularly of the main promoter of the ribosomal operon rrnA, namely PCL1, seem to be good targets to detect active bacilli putatively involved in latent infection. Moreover, this last target would provide information on the basal metabolic activity of the bacilli detected. PMID:22360423
Timmery, Sophie; Hu, Xiaomin; Mahillon, Jacques
Bacillus and related genera comprise opportunist and pathogen species that can threaten the health of a crew in confined stations required for long-term missions. In this study, 43 Bacilli from confined environments, that is, the Antarctic Concordia station and the International Space Station, were characterized in terms of virulence and plasmid exchange potentials. No specific virulence feature, such as the production of toxins or unusual antibiotic resistance, was detected. Most of the strains exhibited small or large plasmids, or both, some of which were related to the replicons of the Bacillus anthracis pXO1 and pXO2 virulence elements. One conjugative element, the capacity to mobilize and retromobilize small plasmids, was detected in a Bacillus cereus sensu lato isolate. Six out of 25 tested strains acquired foreign DNA by conjugation. Extremophilic bacteria were identified and exhibited the ability to grow at high pH and salt concentrations or at low temperatures. Finally, the clonal dispersion of an opportunist isolate was demonstrated in the Concordia station. Taken together, these results suggest that the virulence potential of the Bacillus isolates in confined environments tends to be low but genetic transfers could contribute to its capacity to spread. PMID:21563959
Timmery, Sophie; Hu, Xiaomin; Mahillon, Jacques
Bacillus and related genera comprise opportunist and pathogen species that can threaten the health of a crew in confined stations required for long-term missions. In this study, 43 Bacilli from confined environments, that is, the Antarctic Concordia station and the International Space Station, were characterized in terms of virulence and plasmid exchange potentials. No specific virulence feature, such as the production of toxins or unusual antibiotic resistance, was detected. Most of the strains exhibited small or large plasmids, or both, some of which were related to the replicons of the Bacillus anthracis pXO1 and pXO2 virulence elements. One conjugative element, the capacity to mobilize and retromobilize small plasmids, was detected in a Bacillus cereus sensu lato isolate. Six out of 25 tested strains acquired foreign DNA by conjugation. Extremophilic bacteria were identified and exhibited the ability to grow at high pH and salt concentrations or at low temperatures. Finally, the clonal dispersion of an opportunist isolate was demonstrated in the Concordia station. Taken together, these results suggest that the virulence potential of the Bacillus isolates in confined environments tends to be low but genetic transfers could contribute to its capacity to spread.
M. J. DiNubile; I. Friedland; C. Y. Chan; M. R. Motyl; H. Giezek; M. Shivaprakash; R. A. Weinstein; J. P. Quinn
The selection of resistant gram-negative bacilli by broad-spectrum antibiotic use is a major issue in infection control. The aim of this comparative study was to assess the impact of different antimicrobial regimens commonly used to treat intra-abdominal infections on the susceptibility patterns of gram-negative bowel flora after completion of therapy. In two international randomized open-label trials with laboratory blinding, adults
We report the complete genome sequence of Bacilli bacterium strain VT-13-104 isolated from the intestine of a patient with duodenal cancer. The genome is composed of 3,573,421 bp, with a G+C content of 35.7%. It possesses 3,254 predicted protein-coding genes encoding multidrug resistance transporters, resistance to antibiotics, and virulence factors. PMID:26139715
Nicolas Degand; Etienne Carbonnelle; Brunhilde Dauphin; Jean-Luc Beretti; Muriel Le Bourgeois; Isabelle Sermet-Gaudelus; Christine Segonds; Patrick Berche; Xavier Nassif; Agnes Ferroni; UniversiteParis Descartes; Service de Pediatrie Generale
The identification of nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli isolated from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is usually achieved by using phenotype-based techniques and eventually molecular tools. These techniques remain time-consuming, expensive, and technically demanding. We used a method based on matrix- assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for the identi- fication of these bacteria. A set of reference strains belonging
Jacquier, Herve; Le Monnier, Alban; Carbonnelle, Etienne; Corvec, Stephane; Illiaquer, Marina; Bille, Emmanuelle; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Jauréguy, Françoise; Fihman, Vincent; Tankovic, Jacques; Cattoir, Vincent
In this prospective multicentric study, we assessed the in vitro antimicrobial activity of carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, and doripenem), tigecycline, and colistin against 166 unusual nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NF-GNB) clinical isolates collected from nine French hospitals during a 6-month period (from December 1, 2008, to May 31, 2009). All NF-GNB isolates were included, except those phenotypically identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Acinetobacter baumannii. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimicrobial agents were determined by using the E-test technique. The following microorganisms were identified: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n=72), Pseudomonas spp. (n=30), Achromobacter xylosoxidans (n=25), Acinetobacter spp. (n=18), Burkholderia cepacia complex (n=9), Alcaligenes faecalis (n=7), and Delftia spp. (n=5). All isolates of Acinetobacter spp., A. faecalis, and Delftia spp. were susceptible to the three carbapenems. Imipenem exhibited the lowest MICs against Pseudomonas spp., and meropenem, as compared with imipenem and doripenem, displayed an interesting antimicrobial activity against A. xylosoxidans and B. cepacia complex isolates. Conversely, no carbapenem exhibited any activity against S. maltophilia. Except for S. maltophilia isolates, tigecycline and colistin exhibited higher MICs than carbapenems, but covered most of the microorganisms tested in this study. To our knowledge, no prior study has compared antimicrobial activity of these five antibiotics, often considered as "last-resort" treatment options for resistant Gram-negative infections, against unusual NF-GNB clinical isolates. Further studies should be carried out to assess the potential clinical use of these antibiotics for the treatment of infections due to these microorganisms. PMID:22335615
Zhou, Juyan Julia; Patel, Sameer J.; Jia, Haomiao; Weisenberg, Scott A.; Furuya, E. Yoko; Kubin, Christine J.; Alba, Luis; Rhee, Kyu; Saiman, Lisa
Objective To assess how healthcare professionals caring for patients in intensive care units (ICUs) understand and use antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) for multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB). Design A knowledge, attitude and practice survey assessed ICU clinicians knowledge of antimicrobial resistance, confidence interpreting susceptibility testing, and beliefs regarding the impact of susceptibility testing on patient outcomes. Setting 16 ICUs affiliated with New York-Presbyterian Hospital. Participants Attending physicians and subspecialty residents with primary clinical responsibilities in adult or pediatric ICUs and infectious diseases (ID) subspecialists and clinical pharmacists. Methods Participants completed an anonymous electronic survey. Responses included 4-level Likert scales dichotomized for analysis. Multivariate analyses were performed using Generalized Estimating Equations logistic regression to account for correlation of respondents from the same ICU. Results The response rate was 51% (178/349 eligible participants) of whom 120 (67%) were ICU physicians. Those caring for adult patients were more knowledgeable about antimicrobial activity and more familiar with MDR-GNB infections. Only 33% and 12% of ICU physicians were familiar with standardized and specialized AST methods, respectively, but >95% believed AST improved patient outcomes. When adjusted for demographic and healthcare provider characteristics, those familiar with treatment of MDR-GNB bloodstream infections, those aware of resistance mechanisms, and those aware of AST methods were more confident they could interpret AST and/or request additional in vitro testing. Conclusions Our study uncovered knowledge gaps and educational needs that could serve as the foundation for future interventions. Familiarity with MDR-GNB increased overall knowledge and familiarity with AST increased confidence interpreting these results. PMID:23388362
Background The TlyA protein has a controversial function as a virulence factor in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). At present, its dual activity as hemolysin and RNA methyltransferase in M. tuberculosis has been indirectly proposed based on in vitro results. There is no evidence however for TlyA relevance in the survival of tubercle bacilli inside host cells or whether both activities are functionally linked. A thorough analysis of structure prediction for this mycobacterial protein in this study shows the need for reevaluating TlyA's function in virulence. Results Bioinformatics analysis of TlyA identified a ribosomal protein binding domain (S4 domain), located between residues 5 and 68 as well as an FtsJ-like methyltranferase domain encompassing residues 62 and 247, all of which have been previously described in translation machinery-associated proteins. Subcellular localization prediction showed that TlyA lacks a signal peptide and its hydrophobicity profile showed no evidence of transmembrane helices. These findings suggested that it may not be attached to the membrane, which is consistent with a cytoplasmic localization. Three-dimensional modeling of TlyA showed a consensus structure, having a common core formed by a six-stranded ?-sheet between two ?-helix layers, which is consistent with an RNA methyltransferase structure. Phylogenetic analyses showed high conservation of the tlyA gene among Mycobacterium species. Additionally, the nucleotide substitution rates suggested purifying selection during tlyA gene evolution and the absence of a common ancestor between TlyA proteins and bacterial pore-forming proteins. Conclusion Altogether, our manual in silico curation suggested that TlyA is involved in ribosomal biogenesis and that there is a functional annotation error regarding this protein family in several microbial and plant genomes, including the M. tuberculosis genome. PMID:21443791
HENRIK STENDER; KAARE LUND; KENNETH H. PETERSEN; OLE F. RASMUSSEN; POONPILAS HONGMANEE; HÅKAN MIORNER; SVEN E. GODTFREDSEN
TB PNA FISH is a new fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method using peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes for differentiation between species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and nontubercu- lous mycobacteria (NTM) in acid-fast bacillus-positive (AFB1) cultures is described. The test is based on fluorescein-labelled PNA probes that target the rRNA of MTC or NTM species applied to smears
that successfully recognizes Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stained acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in digital images. Automated, multi calibration. Superimposed AFB clusters, extreme stain var- iation and low depth of field were challenges. Our of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) could hasten diagnosis, en- hance quantitative classification and reduce errors
Evaluation of a Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay for Differentiation between Tuberculous and Nontuberculous Mycobacterium Species in Smears of Lowenstein-Jensen and Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube Cultures Using Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes
POONPILAS HONGMANEE; HENRIK STENDER; OLE F. RASMUSSEN
A new fluorescence in situ hybridization assay based on peptide nucleic acid probes (MTB and NTM probes targeting tuberculous and nontuberculous species, respectively) for the identification of Mycobacterium tuber- culosis complex and differentiation between tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) was evalu- ated using Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) solid cultures from 100 consecutive sputum samples and 50 acid-fast bacillus (AFB)-positive sputum samples as
Boucher, Helen W; Talbot, George H; Benjamin, Daniel K; Bradley, John; Guidos, Robert J; Jones, Ronald N; Murray, Barbara E; Bonomo, Robert A; Gilbert, David
Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially the "ESKAPE" pathogens, continue to increase in frequency and cause significant morbidity and mortality. New antimicrobial agents are greatly needed to treat infections caused by gram-negative bacilli (GNB) resistant to currently available agents. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) continues to propose legislative, regulatory, and funding solutions to this continuing crisis. The current report updates the status of development and approval of systemic antibiotics in the United States as of early 2013. Only 2 new antibiotics have been approved since IDSA's 2009 pipeline status report, and the number of new antibiotics annually approved for marketing in the United States continues to decline. We identified 7 drugs in clinical development for treatment of infections caused by resistant GNB. None of these agents was included in our 2009 list of antibacterial compounds in phase 2 or later development, but unfortunately none addresses the entire spectrum of clinically relevant GNB resistance. Our survey demonstrates some progress in development of new antibacterial drugs that target infections caused by resistant GNB, but progress remains alarmingly elusive. IDSA stresses our conviction that the antibiotic pipeline problem can be solved by the collaboration of global leaders to develop creative incentives that will stimulate new antibacterial research and development. Our aim is the creation of a sustainable global antibacterial drug research and development enterprise with the power in the short term to develop 10 new, safe, and efficacious systemically administered antibiotics by 2020 as called for in IDSA's "10 × '20 Initiative." PMID:23599308
Boucher, Helen W.; Talbot, George H.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Bradley, John; Guidos, Robert J.; Jones, Ronald N.; Murray, Barbara E.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Gilbert, David
Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially the “ESKAPE” pathogens, continue to increase in frequency and cause significant morbidity and mortality. New antimicrobial agents are greatly needed to treat infections caused by gram-negative bacilli (GNB) resistant to currently available agents. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) continues to propose legislative, regulatory, and funding solutions to this continuing crisis. The current report updates the status of development and approval of systemic antibiotics in the United States as of early 2013. Only 2 new antibiotics have been approved since IDSA's 2009 pipeline status report, and the number of new antibiotics annually approved for marketing in the United States continues to decline. We identified 7 drugs in clinical development for treatment of infections caused by resistant GNB. None of these agents was included in our 2009 list of antibacterial compounds in phase 2 or later development, but unfortunately none addresses the entire spectrum of clinically relevant GNB resistance. Our survey demonstrates some progress in development of new antibacterial drugs that target infections caused by resistant GNB, but progress remains alarmingly elusive. IDSA stresses our conviction that the antibiotic pipeline problem can be solved by the collaboration of global leaders to develop creative incentives that will stimulate new antibacterial research and development. Our aim is the creation of a sustainable global antibacterial drug research and development enterprise with the power in the short term to develop 10 new, safe, and efficacious systemically administered antibiotics by 2020 as called for in IDSA's “10 × '20 Initiative.” PMID:23599308
Ayuthaya, Satja Issaranggoon Na; Leelaporn, Amornrut; Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Oberdorfer, Peninnah
Pseudoclavibacter has rarely been documented as an etiologic agent of infection in humans. We presented the first case report of Pseudoclavibacter otitis media in a boy with pulmonary and spinal tuberculosis.A 3-year-old boy was referred to our hospital due to prolonged fever and progressive paraplegia for 3 months. He had yellowish discharge from both ear canals. The pleural fluid culture was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The discharge from both ears culture yielded yellow colonies of gram-positive bacilli with branching. This organism was positive for modified acid-fast bacilli stain but negative for acid-fast bacilli stain. Biochemical characteristics of this isolate were positive for catalase test but negative for oxidase, nitrate, esculin, and sugar utilization tests. The organism was further subjected to be identified by 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid gene sequencing. The result yielded Pseudoclavibacter species (99.4% identical), which could be most likely a potential pathogen in immunocompromised host like this patient. He responded well with intravenous trimetroprim-sulfamethoxazole for 6 weeks.This is the first case report of Pseudoclavibacter otitis media in children, and this case could emphasize Pseudoclavibacter species as a potential pathogen in immunocompromised host. PMID:25929901
Ames, Daniel L.; Fiske, Susan T.
Cultural neuroscience issues from the apparently incompatible combination of neuroscience and cultural psychology. A brief literature sampling suggests, instead, several preliminary topics that demonstrate proof of possibilities: cultural differences in both lower-level processes (e.g. perception, number representation) and higher-order processes (e.g. inferring others’ emotions, contemplating the self) are beginning to shed new light on both culture and cognition. Candidates for future cultural neuroscience research include cultural variations in the default (resting) network, which may be social; regulation and inhibition of feelings, thoughts, and actions; prejudice and dehumanization; and neural signatures of fundamental warmth and competence judgments. PMID:23874143
Guerra, Patricia L.; Nelson, Sarah W.
Cultural proficiency is defined as "the policies and practices of an organization or the values and behaviors of an individual that enable the agency or person to interact effectively in a culturally diverse environment." The diverse composition of today's classrooms demands that schools and educators be culturally proficient, yet few of them are.…
Lee, Yeon Joo; Shin, Sue; Roh, Eun Youn; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Chung, Hee Soon; Lee, Chang-Hoon
The evaluation of the quality of a sputum specimen prior to bacterial culture has been an accepted practice. However, optimal sputum criteria for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are not well established. We investigated indicators for sputum acceptability in tuberculosis cultures and acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear. A post-hoc analysis of a randomized trial with 228 sputum specimens from 77 patients was conducted. In the trial, pulmonary TB suspects were requested for collecting three sputum specimens. We performed both TB study (AFB smear and M. tuberculosis culture) and Gram staining in each specimen. By using generalized estimating equations, the association between sputum characteristics and positive TB testings were analyzed. Although acceptable specimens for bacterial pneumonia showed higher TB-culture positive rates than unacceptable specimens (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.11-2.49), a specimen with ?25 white blood cells/low-power field was the better predictor for positive M. tuberculosis cultures (aOR=2.30; 95% CI=1.48-3.58) and acid-fast bacilli smears (aOR=1.85; 95% CI=1.05-3.25). Sputum leukocytosis could be an indicator of sputum acceptability for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:26028925
Ohtaki, Hirofumi; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Nakayama, Asami; Yonetamari, Jun; Ando, Kohei; Miyazaki, Takashi; Ohta, Hirotoshi; Furuta, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Tamayo; Ito, Hiroyasu; Murakami, Nobuo; Seishima, Mitsuru
Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is an infectious disease requiring special attention. It is a common cause of nosocomial infections; catheter insertion into the central veins particularly increases the risk of infection (CLA-BSI: central line-associated bloodstream infection). We examined the relationship between the number of bacterial colonies cultured from shredded central venous catheter (CVC) tips and from blood cultures in our hospital from 2011 to 2012. Coagulase-negative staphylococci topped the list of microbe isolated from the CVC tip culture, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida spp. S. aureus and Candida spp., with growth of over 15 colony-forming units in the CVC tip culture, were also detected at high rates in the blood culture. However, gramnegative bacilli (Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa) did not show a similar increase in colony number in the CVC tip culture. Because microbes adhering to shredded catheter tips are readily detected by culture, this method is useful as a routine diagnostic test. In addition, prompt clinical reporting of the bacterial number of serious CLA-BSI-causing S. aureus and Candida spp. isolated from CVC tips could contribute to earlier CLA-BSI diagnosis. PMID:24694240
Gonzalez-Santiago, Tania M; Drage, Lisa A
Skin and soft tissue infections caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria are increasing in incidence. The nontuberculous mycobacteria are environmental, acid-fast bacilli that cause cutaneous infections primarily after trauma, surgery and cosmetic procedures. Skin findings include abscesses, sporotrichoid nodules or ulcers, but also less distinctive signs. Important species include Mycobacterium marinum and the rapidly growing mycobacterium: M. fortuitum, M. abscessus and M. chelonae. Obtaining tissue for mycobacterial culture and histopathology aids diagnosis. Optimal therapy is not well-established, but is species-dependent and generally dictated by susceptibility studies. Management often includes use of multiple antibiotics for several months and potential use of adjunctive surgery. PMID:26143432
It is too often taken for granted that the communication process with culturally different children takes place as readily as it might with children from Anglo cultures. Most teachers receive training in verbal and formal communication skills; children come to school with nonverbal and informal communication skills. This initially can create…
Successful relations between the United States and United Kingdom may require more attention to their internal ethnic and cultural diversity. This political-linguistic culture is subdivided into two contradictory yet complementary streams. The political approach for those favoring an English-speaking union may be greater ecumenism within the…
Irwin, Rita L.; Rogers, Tony; Wan, Yuh-Yao
Addresses the need for making connections between cultures, especially among Aboriginal and dominant cultures. Focuses on these themes: cultural memory, cultural performance, and cultural translation. Highlights three Aboriginal cultures on three continents (South Australia, Canada, and Taiwan) to encourage art educators and students to engage in…
Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed. The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...
Gibson, James William
Identifies the movie, "Rambo," and "Soldier of Fortune" magazine as artifacts of "paramilitary culture." Contends that they are a social phenomenon which helps legitimate the United States government's rapid escalation of military forces. (MS)
... cultures when someone has had a previous pathogenic bacterial infection of the gastrointestinal tract and has either been ... there anything else I should know? Severe pathogenic bacterial infections of the gastrointestinal tract and those causing complications ...
Krylov, Anna I.
EAST ASIAN LANGUAGESEAST ASIAN LANGUAGESEAST ASIAN LANGUAGES & CULTURES& CULTURES& CULTURES typically concentrate on one East Asian language and culture while also taking broader survey courses: This program allows exceptional students to complete both a BA and MA in East Asian Languages and Cultures
In the early 1970s, Paul Buhle and Dave Wagner began to think about creating a new and unique journal. They were both veterans of the journal Radical America, and they were both interested in popular culture. As August 1975 came around, they published the first issue of "Cultural Correspondence", a journal intended to serve as a critical review of popular culture. As the journal was published in Providence, it's not surprising to learn that the Brown University Library Center for Digital Initiatives (CDL) has created this most engaging archive of this publication. Visitors to the site can read the entire contents of each issue, browse around as they see fit, and also check out their virtual "Magazine Stand". First-time visitors may wish to start out by reading the Spring 1977 issue titled "Television".
García-Elorriaga, Guadalupe; Martínez-Elizondo, Olga; del Rey-Pineda, Guillermo; González-Bonilla, César
Objective To assess the role of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in serum samples, in the diagnosis of osteoarticular tuberculosis (OTB) in a setting where only clinical and imaging diagnoses determine the treatment. Methods A total of 44 consecutive serum specimens were collected from clinically suspected OTB patients, based on clinical and radiological [X-ray or magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography] features. They were screened by in-house nested PCR. In addition, a few specimens were examined by Gram stain, acid-fast bacilli stain, histopathology and routine bacterial culture. A total of 39 specimens were collected from patients suffering from other bone diseases of nontuberculous origin and included as negative controls. Results Of the 44 clinically suspected OTB patients, in-house nested PCR was positive in 40 (91%) cases; PCR was negative in 38 (97%) negative controls. Sensitivity and specificity of our in-house nested PCR was 90.9% and 97.4%, respectively. The PCR report was available within 48 h. It was possible to standardize serum PCR technique and in positive cases, a good correlation was observed in terms of an adequate treatment response. Conclusions Nested PCR in serum samples is a rapid, highly sensitive and specific modality for OTB detection. PCR should be performed in addition to clinical evaluation, imaging studies, acid-fast bacilli staining, culture and histopathology diagnosis, if possible. PMID:25183281
Chamanrokh, Parastoo; Shahhosseiny, Mohammad Hassan; Mazaheri Assadi, Mahnaz; Nejadsattari, Taher; Esmaili, Davood
Background: Helicobacter pylori, causing the most common chronic bacterial infection, exist in two forms; bacilli and coccoid. The coccoid form is identified as viable but non-culturable bacteria. Objectives: The current study aimed to conduct culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) tests to identify coccoid forms of H. pylori. Materials and Methods: The PCR and LAMP tests were optimized using specific primers for glmM gene. The sensitivity and specificity of the tests were determined. The current experimental study was conducted on 10 different strains isolated from clinical cases (H1-H10). The isolates were added to tap water and incubated at three different temperatures for one and two months intervals. After pure-culturing of the bacteria, DNAs were extracted and PCR and LAMP were performed. Results: Ten copies of targeted DNA were required for PCR detection whereas only five copies gave a positive reaction by LAMP assay, with 100% specificity. Of the 10 isolates inoculated in water for one and two months at three different temperatures 4, 22, and 37°C, only three cases (5%) were found positive in the first month; 13 (21.6%) and 29 cases (48.3%) were also positive by PCR and LAMP tests in the first and second months. Conclusions: Results of the current study confirmed that molecular methods such as PCR and LAMP were much more sensitive, rapid, and specific than culturing to identify non-culturable coccoid forms of H. pylori in water.
Schlossberg, D; Morad, Y; Krouse, T B; Wear, D J; English, C K; Littman, M
A male homosexual (positive for the human immunodeficiency virus) with a recent cat scratch developed fever, epitrochlear and axillary lymphadenopathy, and retinitis. Subsequently, he developed skin (epitheloid hemangioma) and mucosal lesions (Kaposi's sarcoma), multiple liver abscesses, and pleural effusion. Warthin-Starry stains and/or electron micrographs of lymph nodes and skin lesions demonstrated bacilli characteristic of those associated with cat-scratch disease. Cultures of lymph node, pleural fluid, and liver abscess specimens yielded organisms believed to be the causative agent of cat-scratch disease. We believe that disseminated cat-scratch disease may become an indicator of opportunistic infection signaling acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a patient who is positive for the human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:2730265
This paper is divided into four parts. The first section (I.) consists of definitions which center on the concept of complexity. As a minimum, the terms, system, complexity, and adaptation as used in this paper need an explanation. The second section (II.) is a sketch of cultural complexity in the real world. I will use Pueblo tribal laws and other
Steucek, G. L.; Yurkiewicz, W. J.
Describes a hydroponic culture technique suitable for student exercises in biology. This technique of growing plants in nutrient solutions enhances plant growth, and is an excellent way to obtain intact plants with root systems free of soil or other particulate matter. (JR)
Identification of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Blood Cultures: a Multicenter Performance Evaluation of a Three-Color Peptide Nucleic Acid Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay?
Della-Latta, Phyllis; Salimnia, Hossein; Painter, Theresa; Wu, Fann; Procop, Gary W.; Wilson, Deborah A.; Gillespie, Wendy; Mender, Alayna; Crystal, Benjamin S.
A multicenter evaluation was undertaken to evaluate the performance of a new three-color peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization assay that identifies isolates directly from blood cultures positive for Gram-negative bacilli (GNB). The assay correctly identified 100% (186/186) of the Escherichia coli isolates, 99.1% (109/110) of the Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, and 95.8% (46/48) of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in this study. Negative assay results were correctly obtained for 162 of 165 other GNB (specificity, 98.2%). PMID:21490185
This paper, first presented at a symposium on the 'past, present and future of cultural studies,' traces disciplinary changes in the study of culture from the perspective of 'cultural science,' a term that was used by some of the earliest practitioners of cultural studies, including Raymond Williams. The paper goes on to describe some problems with cultural studies as it
This activity combines cultural exploration with number patterns and systems. Choose a culture or historical period and have learners make a calendar for a month in that time. For more challenge, pick a country that uses different numerals, such as India or China or go back in time and make calendars for a month in ancient Mayan times, using the Mayan number system. Ask learners to compare: How are the calendars they’ve made different from the calendars we use? How are they the same? What patterns do you notice? Available as a web page and downloadable PDF. Blank calendar template is also available as a downloadable PDF. Students should be able to write numerals to 30 and have some familiarity with calendars.
This chapter invites the reader to enter the outerspaces of extraterrestrial culture, as a realm of social inquiry. Where\\u000a this journey leads is perhaps unexpected, especially for the discourse of aliens and Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs). For\\u000a while we might expect to engage fields of exotic Otherness — of technomarvels and bizarre entities, epic enterprises, and\\u000a terrors unrecognizable in their
Surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility of aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections in China: the 2002-2009 Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART).
Yang, Qiwen; Wang, Hui; Chen, Minjun; Ni, Yuxing; Yu, Yunsong; Hu, Bijie; Sun, Ziyong; Huang, Wenxiang; Hu, Yunjian; Ye, Huifen; Badal, Robert E; Xu, Yingchun
The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution and susceptibility of aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in China. From 2002 to 2009, minimum inhibitory concentrations of 14 antibiotics for 3420 aerobic and facultative GNB from up to eight hospitals in six cities were determined by the broth microdilution method. Enterobacteriaceae comprised 82.9% (2834/3420) of the total isolates, with Escherichia coli (49.2%) being the most commonly isolated species followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.0%), Enterobacter cloacae (5.8%) and Citrobacter freundii (2.3%). Amongst the antimicrobial agents tested, the three carbapenems (ertapenem, imipenem and meropenem) were the most active agents against Enterobacteriaceae, with susceptibility rates of 96.1-99.6% (2002-2009), 98.2-100% (2002-2009) and 99.6-100% (2002-2004), respectively, followed by amikacin (86.8-95.1%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (84.5-94.3%). Susceptibility rates of all tested third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins against Enterobacteriaceae declined by nearly 30%, with susceptibility rates of 40.2%, 39.1%, 56.3% and 51.8% in 2009 for ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and cefepime, respectively. The occurrence of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases increased rapidly, especially for E. coli (from 20.8% in 2002 to 64.9% in 2009). Susceptibility of E. coli to ciprofloxacin decreased from 57.6% in 2002 to 24.2% in 2009. The least active agent against Enterobacteriaceae was ampicillin/sulbactam (SAM) (25.3-44.3%). In conclusion, Enterobacteriaceae were the major pathogens causing IAIs, and carbapenems retained the highest susceptibility rates over the 8-year study period. Third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and SAM may not be ideal choices for empirical therapy of IAIs in China. PMID:21036547
Patil, Naveen; Marco, Asween; Montales, Maria Theresa; Bhaskar, Nutan; Mittadodla, Penchala; Mukasa, Leonard N.
Context: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection is rarely seen in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Case Report: We report a 24-year-old CF patient with fever, cough, hemoptysis, and weight loss of 1week duration prior to admission. Past sputum cultures grew methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The patient was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics based on previous culture data, but failed to improve. Chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT) chest revealed chronic collapse of the anterior subsegment of right upper lobe and multiple bilateral cavitary lesions which were worse compared to prior films. MTB was suspected and was confirmed by positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smears and cultures. After receiving first-line antituberculous drugs, the patient's condition markedly improved. Conclusion: MTB is an infrequent finding, but considered a potential pathogen in CF patients, and may lead to serious pulmonary complications if there is a delay in diagnosis and treatment.
Gori, Andrea; Bandera, Alessandra; Marchetti, Giulia; Degli Esposti, Anna; Catozzi, Lidia; Nardi, Gian Piero; Gazzola, Lidia; Ferrario, Giulio; van Embden, Jan D A; van Soolingen, Dick; Moroni, Mauro; Franzetti, Fabio
We evaluated the clinical usefulness of spoligotyping, a polymerase chain reaction-based method for simultaneous detection and typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, with acid-fast bacilli-positive slides from clinical specimens or mycobacterial cultures. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 97% and 95% for the detection of M. tuberculosis and 98% and 96% when used with clinical specimens. Laboratory turnaround time of spoligotyping was less than that for culture identification by a median of 20 days. In comparison with IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism typing, spoligotyping overestimated the number of isolates with identical DNA fingerprints by approximately 50%, but showed a 100% negative predictive value. Spoligotyping resulted in the modification of ongoing antimycobacterial treatment in 40 cases and appropriate therapy in the absence of cultures in 11 cases. The rapidity of this method in detection and typing could make it useful in the management of tuberculosis in a clinical setting. PMID:16102314
Projects that even the most battle-hardened project manager will acknowledge that manager’s mental models, their attitudes, the competences they rate, etc., all have major implications. Looks at in-house cultures, external cultures, dysfunctional cultures and international cultures. Uses 2 Figures to emphasize both the iceberg model of inter-cultural business analysis and cultural dimensions. Weighs up some of the differences between cultures
Daniel W. Baack; Nitish Singh
Various studies find that marketing communications reflect specific cultures. Most of these studies conceptualize culture in terms of one cultural framework, use a two-country sample, focus on print or television advertising, and do not statistically validate the measures used. This study addresses these issues by testing the applicability of the cultural frameworks of Hofstede [Hofstede G. Culture's consequences: international differences
While planet Earth endeavors to transmit information instantaneously, cultural misunderstanding interferes with communication more than any language barrier. The article urges teachers of French to be cognizant of their role as cultural mediators. (Author/CK)
Contends that a mismanaged, over-centralized electronic communication system is imposing standardized, mass-produced and cheapened cultures, and offers a rationale for establishing a global policy of cultural equity to halt such cultural pollution. (MH)
Garcia, Raquel Ramos; Bhanot, Nitin; Min, Zaw
A 77-year-old man with myasthenia gravis receiving prednisone and plasmapheresis was found to have right upper lobe cavitary pneumonia on radiological imaging studies after thymectomy. He had a remote history of treated pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) at the age of 19. On the basis of history of TB and current prednisone therapy, reactivation of pulmonary TB was highly suspected. Branching Gram-positive bacilli were identified on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). BAL Ziehl-Neelsen Acid-fast bacilli stain was negative, but a modified Kinyoun stain revealed branching, beaded, filamentous bacilli, suggestive of Nocardia spp. Nocardia cyriacigeorgica grew from the BAL culture. Cerebral MRI demonstrated a right frontal lobe lesion, clinically correlated to be nocardial brain abscess. The patient was treated with three-drug antimicrobial therapy (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, meropenem, linezolid) for 2?months, followed by an additional 10?months of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Amikacin would have been included in the initial three-drug regimen, but its use was contraindicated in our myasthenic patient because aminoglycoside would trigger fatal myasthenic crisis by neuromuscular blockage. Follow-up imaging studies revealed resolution of the lung and brain lesions. PMID:26150643
Farooqui, M; Alsaad, K; Aloudah, N; Alhamdan, H
We report a case of idiopathic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) recurring 2 years after a living-unrelated kidney transplantation. The disease was refractory to intravenous immunoglobulin and plasmapheresis. Treatment with 2 doses of rituximab resulted in remission of the disease. The disease relapsed 18 months later after an episode of cytomegalovirus pneumonitis. After treatment of the pneumonitis, a lung biopsy was performed owing to persistent chest symptoms, which revealed bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia. Bone marrow examination and culture revealed presence of acid-fast bacilli, and culture grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A repeated course of rituximab was withheld because of infection with tuberculosis, the patient's chest symptoms, and rare reports of noninfectious lung disease after the use of rituximab. The patient continues to have proteinuria with impaired kidney function. PMID:25891740
Kleymeyer, Charles D.
Discusses how cultural vitality drives successful community development. Links cultural, community, and environmental values. Examines successes and failures of programs attempting to link culture and development in Panama, Ecuador, and Colombia. Examines role of cultural self-examination for creating new development paradigm. Examines prospects…
Swiderski, Richard M.
A discussion of language focuses on the relationship between language learning and culture learning. The first four chapters look at the cultural context of language learning, particularly in the language classroom. The second part examines culture learning through language teaching. The first chapter discusses lexical culture, or the vocabulary…
, and the community and cultural con- texts of art, health, science, and technology. In their service, and cultural identity in the theory and practice of science, technology, and health care. · Analyze debates fulfill this area requirement. · Art, Culture, and Community (3 credits). · Science, Culture, and Society
This paper argues that cross-cultural management research is dominated by a restricted structural-functionalist orthodoxy, which is a consequence of Western culture. Such research is trapped by favoured ways of thinking, metaphorically shackled within 'Plato's cave' to the wall of a realist rationalism by the webs of its own imagination. Plato's cave and other metaphors are employed to explore the limits
Special Research Group Historical Cultural Sciences of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz FSP Historical Cultural Sciences FSP Historical Cultural Sciences FSP Historical Cultural Sciences Contact Research Group (FSP) Historical Cultural Sciences at the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz is an inter
Marcus Free; John Hughson
This article examines the implications of Paul Willis’s conceptualizations of ‘common culture’ and the cultural commodity for understanding sport as a popular cultural form. It argues that Willis's Ethnographic Imagination(2000) successfully addresses accusations of ‘cultural populism’ against his earlier Common Culture(1990) by acknowledging the tensions between creative cultural consumption and the political economy of cultural production. Hence his conceptualization of
Stacciarini, Jeanne-Marie R.
A Brazilian nurse educator working in the United States describes the difficulty of achieving cultural awareness and the importance of daily experiences of other cultures. She stresses the need to prepare faculty to work with diverse nursing students and to recruit more minority faculty. (SK)
Provides descriptions and definitions of diverse pearl varieties. Explains pearl formation, pearl grading and pearl jewelry care. Outlines the history and uses of pearls in different cultures, the technology of pearl culture and industry.
Irina Kondratova; Ilia Goldfarb
In our paper a research study that focuses on the identification, harvesting and analysis of the culture-specific visual web interface design elements is discussed. A new approach to user interface development that utilises a cultural \\
Efland, Arthur D.
A new movement has appeared recommending, in part, that the field of art education should lessen its traditional ties to drawing, painting, and the study of masterpieces to become the study of visual culture. Visual cultural study refers to an all-encompassing category of cultural practice that includes the fine arts but also deals with the study…
Visual culture is a hot topic in art education right now as some teachers are dedicated to teaching it and others are adamant that it has no place in a traditional art class. Visual culture, the author asserts, can include just about anything that is visually represented. Although people often think of visual culture as contemporary visuals such…
Stock, Janet C.
Some of the literature on the role of teaching culture in second language instruction is reviewed, with some emphasis on the work of Ortunio and the Kluckholn model of French culture. One instructor's use of French print and television advertising to teach French culture is described. Values such as intellectuality, traditionalism, and patriotism…
Cheung, Fanny M.
Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…
Louis, Karen Seashore; Wahlstrom, Kyla
Principals have a strong role to play in forming school cultures that encourage change. Changing a school's culture requires shared or distributed leadership and instructional leadership. A multiyear study found that three elements are necessary for a school culture that stimulates teachers to improve their instruction: 1) Teachers and…
Bloom, Lynn Z.
Traditional literary canons, represented by E. D. Hirsch's list in "Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs To Know" of works which every literate American "needs to know," deemphasize the cultural significance of women and minorities. An alternative and expanded model of cultural literacy, GODDESS (Gender or Diversity Designed to Show…
Describes a study exploring the influence of cultural knowledge on the translation performance of German students of English. Found that the students often lacked sufficient knowledge about British culture to deal with widely-used cultural concepts. Findings suggest that factual reference sources have an important role to play in translation…
Slider, J.E. (Slider Associates, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)); Patterson, M. (SCIENTECH, Rockville, MD (United States))
Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of [open quotes]safety culture.[close quotes] This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to [open quotes]do the right thing[close quotes] even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants.
Oers van M. M; D. E. Lynn
Insect cell cultures are widely used in studies on insect cell physiology, developmental biology and microbial pathology. In particular, insect cell culture is an indispensable tool for the study of insect viruses. The first continuously growing insect cell cultures were established from lepidopteran insects around 1960. Since then, more than 600 insect cell lines have been described from over 100
Sternberg, Robert J.
Instruction and assessment need to be understood and thought about within the cultural context in which they occur. Educators and educational researchers may make assumptions that apply in their home culture but not elsewhere. And even different subcultures within an overall mainstream culture may have different views on instruction and…
Pistone, Kathleen A.
The handbook presents activities to aid elementary school classroom teachers as they develop and implement cultural arts lessons. A cultural arts program is interpreted as a way to help students develop perceptual awareness, build a basic vocabulary in some art cultural form, evaluate their own works of art, appreciate creative expressions, and…
Corporations operating across national borders and diversified into different types of business are bound to host considerable cultural diversity within their ranks. For an effective coordination of their various activities, cultural considerations should enter into the design of their corporate structure. This demands a cultural awareness on their management's side which does not belong to the classic selection criteria for
Lamont, Elise A.; Bannantine, John P.; Armién, Aníbal; Ariyakumar, Don Sanjiv; Sreevatsan, Srinand
Mycobacteria are able to enter into a state of non-replication or dormancy, which may result in their chronic persistence in soil, aquatic environments, and permissive hosts. Stresses such as nutrient deprivation and hypoxia provide environmental cues to enter a persistent state; however, a clear definition of the mechanism that mycobacteria employ to achieve this remains elusive. While the concept of sporulation in mycobacteria is not novel, it continues to spark controversy and challenges our perceptions of a non-replication. We investigated the potential role of sporulation in one-year old broth cultures of Mycobacterium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). We show that dormant cultures of MAP contain a mix of vegetative cells and a previously unknown morphotype resembling a spore. These spore-like structures can be enriched for using sporulating media. Furthermore, purified MAP spore forms survive exposure to heat, lysozyme and proteinase K. Heat-treated spores are positive for MAP 16SrRNA and IS900. MAP spores display enhanced infectivity as well as maintain acid-fast characteristics upon germination in a well-established bovine macrophage model. This is the first study to demonstrate a new MAP morphotype possessing spore-like qualities. Data suggest that sporulation may be a viable mechanism by which MAP accomplishes persistence in the host and/or environment. Thus, our current understanding of mycobacterial persistence, pathogenesis, epidemiology and rational drug and vaccine design may need to be reevaluated. PMID:22292005
Stewart, L; Leggat, P A
As travel has become easier and more affordable, the number of people traveling has risen sharply. People travel for many and varied reasons, from the business person on an overseas assignment to backpackers seeking new and exotic destinations. Others may take up residence in different regions, states or countries for family, business or political reasons. Other people are fleeing religious or political persecution. Wherever they go and for whatever reason they go, people take their culture with them. Culture, like language, is acquired innately in early childhood and is then reinforced through formal and complex informal social education into adulthood. Culture provides a framework for interpersonal and social interactions. Therefore, the contact with a new culture is often not the exciting or pleasurable experience anticipated. When immersed in a different culture, people no longer know how to act when faced with disparate value systems. Contact with the unfamiliar culture can lead to anxiety, stress, mental illness and, in extreme cases, physical illness and suicide. "Culture shock" is a term coined by the anthropologist Oberg. It is the shock of the new. It implies that the experience of the new culture is an unpleasant surprise or shock, partly because it is unexpected and partly because it can lead to a negative evaluation of one's own culture. It is also known as cross-cultural adjustment, being that period of anxiety and confusion experienced when entering a new culture. It affects people intellectually, emotionally, behaviorally and physically and is characterized by symptoms of psychological distress. Culture shock affects both adults and children. In travelers or workers who have prolonged sojourns in foreign countries, culture shock may occur not only as they enter the new culture, but also may occur on their return to their original culture. Children may also experience readjustment problems after returning from leading sheltered lives in expatriate compounds. This readjustment back to their own culture after a period of time abroad has been termed "reverse culture shock, a condition which has been studied in both corporate managers and Peace Corps volunteers. With culture shock and many other processes of psychological adjustment, people tend to suffer alone, thinking that they are the only ones not coping well with their new circumstance. The objective of this paper was to bring the phenomenon of culture shock to the awareness of travel health advisors, who can in turn advise travelers, especially longer term travelers, about having realistic expectations of their travel and life in new cultures. PMID:9772322
Spong, Abigail; Kamau, Caroline
Purpose: Many people moving into a new culture for work or study do so without prior cross-cultural training, yet successful cultural adaptation has important ramifications. The purpose of this paper is to focus on cross-cultural impression management as an element of cultural adaptation. Does cultural adaptation begin by paying strong attention…
Spini, Roxana Gabriela; Bordino, Lucas; Cohen, Daniela; Martins, Andrea; Ramírez, Zaida; González, Norma E
Pharyngeal tuberculosis is a rare extrapulmonary manifestation. In Argentina, the number of cases of tuberculosis reported in children under 19 years in 2012 was 1752. Only 12.15% had extrapulmonary manifestation. A case of a 17 year old girl with pharyngeal tuberculosis is reported. The patient presented intermittent fever and swallowing pain for 6 months, without response to conventional antibiotic treatment. Chest X-ray showedbilateral micronodular infiltrate, so hospitalization was decided to study and treat. The sputum examination for acid-fast resistant bacilli was positive and treatment with four antituberculous drugs was started, with good evolution and disappearance of symptoms. Diagnostic confirmation with the isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum culture was obtained. The main symptoms of pharyngeal tuberculosis are sore throat and difficulty in swallowing of long evolution. It is important to consider tuberculosis as differential diagnosis in patients with chronic pharyngitis unresponsive to conventional treatment. PMID:26172025
Chiang, L W; Jacobsen, A S; Ong, C L; Huang, W S
Genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) is exceptionally uncommon among the local paediatric population. A 10-year-old Chinese girl with no risk factors for tuberculosis presented with recurrent sterile pyuria. Despite extensive renal investigations, no apparent cause could be ascertained for her obstructed left drainage system. The diagnosis was eventually confirmed with urine acid-fast bacilli culture, after a computed tomography scan suggested possible renal tuberculosis. Left nephroureterectomy had to be performed owing to deteriorating left kidney function. This report discusses the importance of considering tuberculosis when assessing a local paediatric patient with an atypical urinary tract infection. Early diagnosis of renal tuberculosis can prevent the sequelae of GUTB, including renal impairment. PMID:20428732
Brar, Tripti; Mrig, Sumit; Passey, J C; Agarwal, A K; Jain, Shayma
We report an unusual case in which a 28-year-old woman presented with a long-standing history of ear discharge, hearing loss, facial weakness with ipsilateral facial swelling and cellulitis, a postauricular fistula, and an abscess of the temporozygomatic, infratemporal, and parotid areas. The pus stained positive for bacteria and acid-fast bacilli, and culture was positive for Proteus vulgaris and mycobacteria. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of tuberculous otitis media with complications was made. Computed tomography showed extensive destruction of the tympanic and mastoid part of the temporal bone, as well as lytic lesions in the skull. The patient was placed on antituberculosis drug therapy. Although her facial nerve palsy and hearing loss persisted, she otherwise responded well and did not require surgery. PMID:23354894
Phanzu, Mavinga D.; Bafende, Aombe E.; Imposo, Bofunga B. D.; Meyers, Wayne M.; Portaels, Françoise
We report a case of under treated necrotizing fasciitis (NF) in a 65-year-old woman with diabetes misdiagnosed as Mycobacterium ulcerans infection. She came to the Institut Médical Evangélique (IME) with an extensive painful edematous ulcerated lesion on the dorsum of the right foot and ankle. The diagnosis of Buruli ulcer (BU) was based initially on clinical findings and place of residence (Songololo Territory, the largest known focus of BU in Bas-Congo province). Tissue specimens gave negative results for acid-fast bacilli (AFB), culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for M. ulcerans. Histopathologic analysis revealed marked necrosis of the lower dermis and subcutaneous tissue. No AFB was found. Later, scattered foci of intracellular gram-positive cocci typical of streptococci were seen. Clinicopathologic correlation of these findings strongly supported the diagnosis of NF. This patient shows the difficulties that may be encountered even in known endemic areas in recognizing BU cases purely on clinical findings. PMID:20207877
Mudedla, Sreenuvasu; Avendano, Esther E; Raman, Gowri
In recent years, several case reports and outbreaks reported occurrence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections within 6 months after receiving a tattoo in healthy individuals. NTM species (e.g., Chelonae, Fortuitum, Hemophillum, and Abscessus) are widespread in the environment and it is often suspected that contamination may occur through unsterile instrumentation or unsterile water used for diluting tattoo ink to dilute color. In reported cases, lesions were mainly restricted to a single color 'gray' part of the tattoo. Mycobacterium Chelonae was the most common cause of tattoo associated NTM infections. Less than 50% of the case reports tested tattoo ink for acid fast bacilli stains and cultures. Subjects required treatment with either clarithromycin alone or in combination with quinolones for 6 to 9 months. An increase in NTM skin infections in healthy individuals after tattooing indicates the need for sterile standards during tattooing and improved local and regional regulatory oversight. PMID:26158355
Maybrook, R J; Campsen, J; Wachs, M E; Levi, M E
Bacterial, viral, and fungal infections can be devastating in a postoperative liver transplant recipient on multidrug immunosuppressive therapy. Various atypical (nontuberculous mycobacteria [NTM]) mycobacterial infections have been reported in the solid organ transplant population, but to our knowledge, no cases of Mycobacterium mucogenicum infections have been reported. Here, we report a case of a patient with end-stage liver disease secondary to primary biliary cirrhosis, model for end-stage liver disease score of 29, who underwent deceased-donor orthotopic liver transplantation, with her postoperative course complicated by multiple pleural effusions and peritonitis. Despite numerous courses of antibiotics, her condition did not improve. Acid-fast bacilli cultures grew M. mucogenicum, which was then treated with appropriate antimicrobical therapy. M. mucogenicum, a rapidly growing NTM that can be present in water contamination, should be recognized as a potential source of infection, especially in the immunocompromised population. PMID:24131754
Machado, Diana; Ramos, Jorge; Couto, Isabel; Cadir, Nureisha; Narciso, Inácio; Coelho, Elizabeth; Viegas, Sofia; Viveiros, Miguel
We evaluate the performance of the TBcID assay in a panel of 100 acid-fast bacilli cultures. Sixty-four isolates were TBcID positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), whereas 36 gave negative results. These included 28 nontuberculous mycobacteria, one nonmycobacterial isolate, one M. tuberculosis, and six M. bovis BCG strains. This corresponds to a sensitivity of 90.14%, specificity of 100%, and positive and negative predictive values of 100% and 80.55%, respectively. The test is rapid, easy to perform and interpret, and does not require sample preparation or instrumentation. However, a negative result does not exclude the presence of a strain belonging to MTBC, especially when mutations in mpb64 gene are present or some M. bovis BCG strains are isolated. The TBcID showed potential to assist in the identification of MTBC when the implementation and usage of molecular methods are often not possible, principally in resource-limited countries. PMID:24587985
Teo, L L S; Venkatesh, S K; Ho, K Y
A 76-year-old woman presented with a five-day history of fever and abdominal pain. Her urine culture grew Candida albicans. She was treated with intravenous antibiotics, as having a urinary tract infection, but her fever persisted. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed a cystic mass at the pancreatic head and uncinate process with peripancreatic lymph nodes. Given the patientos high operative risk and her clinical picture favouring sepsis, endoscopic ultrasonographical fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) which was performed, revealed pus with acid-fast bacilli seen in the cell block material. The patient was started on antituberculous medication with rapid improvement of symptoms. Pancreatic tuberculosis (TB) is rare and can mimic pancreatic carcinoma both clinically and radiologically. Histological diagnosis is crucial before administration of appropriate therapy. The usefulness of EUS-FNA and its pitfalls, as well as the other radiological modalities for the evaluation and assessment of pancreatic TB are discussed. PMID:17609835
Taxonomic study of aerobic thermophilic bacilli: descriptions of Geobacillus subterraneus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Geobacillus uzenensis sp. nov. from petroleum reservoirs and transfer of Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus thermocatenulatus, Bacillus thermoleovorans, Bacillus kaustophilus, Bacillus thermodenitrificans to Geobacillus as the new combinations G. stearothermophilus, G. th.
Nazina, T N; Tourova, T P; Poltaraus, A B; Novikova, E V; Grigoryan, A A; Ivanova, A E; Lysenko, A M; Petrunyaka, V V; Osipov, G A; Belyaev, S S; Ivanov, M V
Five hydrocarbon-oxidizing strains were isolated from formation waters of oilfields in Russia, Kazakhstan and China. These strains were moderately thermophilic, neutrophilic, motile, spore-forming rods, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic. The G+C content of their DNA ranged from 49.7 to 52.3 mol%. The major isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-7; cellular fatty acid profiles consisted of significant amounts of iso-15:0, iso-16:0 and iso-17:0 fatty acids (61.7-86.8% of the total). Based on data from 16S rDNA analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization, the subsurface isolates could be divided into two groups, one of which consisted of strains UT and X and the other of which consisted of strains K, Sam and 34T. The new strains exhibited a close phylogenetic relationship to thermophilic bacilli of 'Group 5' of Ash et al. [Ash, C., Farrow, J. A. E., Wallbanks, S. & Collins, M. D. (1991). Lett Appl Microbiol 13, 202-206] and a set of corresponding signature positions of 16S rRNA. Comparative analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences and fatty acid compositions of the novel isolates and established species of thermophilic bacilli indicated that the subsurface strains represent two new species within a new genus, for which the names Geobacillus subterraneus gen. nov., sp. nov., and Geobacillus uzenensis sp. nov. are proposed. It is also proposed that Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus thermoleovorans, Bacillus thermocatenulatus, Bacillus kaustophilus, Bacillus thermoglucosidasius and Bacillus thermodenitrificans be transferred to this new genus, with Geobacillus stearothermophilus (formerly Bacillus stearothermophilus) as the type species. PMID:11321089
Berg, Stefan; Firdessa, Rebuma; Habtamu, Meseret; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Mengistu, Araya; Yamuah, Lawrence; Ameni, Gobena; Vordermeier, Martin; Robertson, Brian D.; Smith, Noel H.; Engers, Howard; Young, Douglas; Hewinson, R. Glyn; Aseffa, Abraham; Gordon, Stephen V.
Background Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a debilitating disease of cattle. Ethiopia has one of the largest cattle populations in the world, with an economy highly dependent on its livestock. Furthermore, Ethiopia has one of the highest incidence rates of human extrapulmonary TB in the world, a clinical presentation that is often associated with transmission of M. bovis from cattle to humans. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present a comprehensive investigation of the prevalence of bTB in Ethiopia based on cases identified at slaughterhouses. Out of approximately 32,800 inspected cattle, ?4.7% showed suspect tuberculous lesions. Culture of suspect lesions yielded acid-fast bacilli in ?11% of cases, with M. bovis accounting for 58 of 171 acid-fast cultures, while 53 isolates were non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Strikingly, M. tuberculosis was isolated from eight cattle, an unusual finding that suggests human to animal transmission. Conclusions/Significance Our analysis has revealed that bTB is widely spread throughout Ethiopia, albeit at a low prevalence, and provides underpinning evidence for public health policy formulation. PMID:19352493
Mesoudi, Alex; Danielson, Peter
Recent work in the fields of evolutionary ethics and moral psychology appears to be converging on a single empirically- and evolutionary-based science of morality or ethics. To date, however, these fields have failed to provide an adequate conceptualisation of how culture affects the content and distribution of moral norms. This is particularly important for a large class of moral norms relating to rapidly changing technological or social environments, such as norms regarding the acceptability of genetically modified organisms. Here we suggest that a science of morality/ethics can benefit from adopting a cultural evolution or gene-culture coevolution approach, which treats culture as a second, separate evolutionary system that acts in parallel to biological/genetic evolution. This cultural evolution approach brings with it a set of established theoretical concepts (e.g. different cultural transmission mechanisms) and empirical methods (e.g. evolutionary game theory) that can significantly improve our understanding of human morality. PMID:18357481
Laurie M Anderson; Susan C Scrimshaw; Mindy T Fullilove; Jonathan E Fielding; Jacques Normand
OverviewCulturally competent healthcare systems—those that provide culturally and linguistically appropriate services—have the potential to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities. When clients do not understand what their healthcare providers are telling them, and providers either do not speak the client’s language or are insensitive to cultural differences, the quality of health care can be compromised. We reviewed five interventions to
Culture has become a legitimate concern and part of the basic conceptual toolkit in much of contemporary organization theory. This article historically traces the contested place of culture in organization theory—from acultural rationalist theorizing at the turn of the twentieth century; to the accidental “discovery” of shop floor culture by human relations scholars in the 1920s; to mid-twentieth-century explorations of
Defining “evolution” simply as the fate of transmissible information allows comparisons to be drawn between the domains of\\u000a biological and material cultural evolution. “Genes” are real corporeal information-bearing entities, whereas “memes” are particles\\u000a of information known only from specifiable bits of cultural phenomena—including material culture.\\u000a \\u000a Genetically based information transfer is vertical in all but bacterial and certain plant clades; in
Paul Rogers; Paul Meehan
Purpose – The article seeks to show that companies should and can build winning cultures. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 365 companies in Europe, Asia and North America were surveyed for links between financial out-performance and winning culture. Three dozen high performers were analyzed in in-depth case studies; one from each region that has transformed its culture is presented. Findings
Esprivalo, Pamela Sue; Forney, Scott
Presents an activity that addresses cultural differences and diversity through ethnobotany. Offers a multicultural framework designed to develop concepts about plant characteristics and taxonomy. (ASK)
Blanchet, Simon; Mery, Frédérick; Wagner, Richard H
A recent paper in Current Biology1 showed for the first time that female invertebrates (Drosophila melanogaster) can perform mate choice copying. Here, we discuss how female mating preferences in this species may be transmitted culturally. If culture occurs in invertebrates, it may be a relatively ancient evolutionary process that may have contributed to the evolution of many different taxa. This would considerably broaden the taxonomic range of cultural processes and suggest the need to include cultural inheritance in all animals into the general theory of evolution.2–4 PMID:20798812
Caulkins, Charles Daniel
-D also appeared to enhance artier survival, as well as, high levels of sucrose (1G-12, v). Giber addenda such as pyridoxine. HC1, nicotinic acid, qlycine, yeast extract, coconut milk, seed extract, activated char oal, seri nc and g'l utami ne did... culture. The effect of 2, 6, 10 and 12K sucrose levels on sorghum anthers in culture. The effect of yeast extract on sorghum anthers in culture . 22 23 Comparison of kinetin and coconut milk as cyto- kinin sources for sorghum anther culture...
Complementary therapies are becoming increasingly popular in cultures dominated by biomedicine. Modalities are often extracted from various healing systems and cultural contexts and integrated into health care, expanding the focus from treatment of disease to the promotion of health. The cultural aspects of biomedicine are presented and compared and contrasted with other healing systems. Three healing systems; traditional Chinese medicine, Yoga, with roots in Ayurvedic medicine and Shamanic healing illustrate these fundamental differences in approaches to healing. A reverse example of isolating one healing intervention from biomedicine and interpreting it through other cultural lenses is presented. Implications are drawn for practice and research. PMID:12463606
Evolutionary models of cultural change have acquired an important role in attempts to explain the course of human evolution, especially our specialization in knowledge-gathering and intelligent control of environments. In both biological and cultural change, different patterns of explanation become relevant at different ‘grains’ of analysis and in contexts associated with different explanatory targets. Existing treatments of the evolutionary approach to culture, both positive and negative, underestimate the importance of these distinctions. Close attention to grain of analysis motivates distinctions between three possible modes of cultural evolution, each associated with different empirical assumptions and explanatory roles. PMID:22734059
Maurya, Vineet K; Singh, Kavita; Sinha, Sudhir
A major impediment in chemotherapy of Tuberculosis (TB) is the persistence of M. tuberculosis in a latent or dormant state, possibly perpetuated by paucity of oxygen within the lung granuloma. Proteome analysis of the anaerobically persisting microbe could therefore provide novel targets for drugs against latent TB infection (LTBI). An Indian clinical isolate of M. tuberculosis was cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions following Wayne's hypoxia model and its cytosolic proteins were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). Peptide mass fingerprinting of 32 differentially expressed spots using MALDI TOF-TOF MS-MS resulted in identification of 23 proteins. Under the anaerobic culture conditions, expression of 12 of these proteins was highly suppressed (>2 fold reduction in spot volumes), with 4 of them (GrpE, CanB, MoxR1 and Eis) appearing as completely suppressed since corresponding spots were not detectable in the anaerobic sample. On the other hand, 4 proteins were highly expressed, with two of them (Wag31 and GroES) being uniquely expressed under anaerobic conditions. Suppression of Eis could make the anaerobically persisting bacilli susceptible to the aminoglycoside antibiotics which are known to be acetylated and inactivated by Eis. Although all 4 overexpressed proteins can be considered as putative drug targets for LTBI, Wag31 appears particularly interesting in view of its role in the cell wall biogenesis. PMID:25141539
Gössl, Eva-Maria; Antonielli, Livio; Sessitsch, Angela; Kosti?, Tanja
Heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) are routinely determined within the scope of water quality assessment. However, variable HPC methods with different cultivation parameters (i.e., temperature and media type) are applied, which could lead to significant effects in the outcome of the analysis. Therefore the effect of different HPC methods, according to DIN EN ISO 6222 and EPA, on the culturable microbial community composition was investigated by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and statistical evaluation was performed. The culturable community composition revealed significant effects assigned to temperature (p < 0.01), while for media type no statistical significance was observed. However, the abundance of certain detected bacteria was affected. Lower temperature (22 °C) showed the abundance of naturally occurring Pseudomonadaceae and Aeromonadaceae, whereas at high temperature (37 °C) numerous Enterobacteriaceae, Citrobacter spp. and Bacilli were identified. The highest biodiversity was detected at lower temperature, especially on R2A medium. These results indicate that different temperatures (low and high) should be included into HPC measurement and selection of media should, ideally, be adjusted to the monitored water source. Accordingly, it can be inferred that the HPC method is more suitable for continuous monitoring of the same water source than for single assessments of a water sample. PMID:25861554
Kim, Ji Seok; Choi, Misoo; Nam, Chan Hee; Kim, Jee Young; Hong, Seung Phil; Kim, Myung Hwa; Park, Byung Cheol
A 75-year-old man presented with multiple, scaly, erythematous, grouped papules, nodules and plaques with tenderness ranging from the right forearm to hand dorsum and the right lower leg for 2-3 months. Five months prior to presentation, the patient had received an antibiotic skin test on his right forearm. Lesions appeared approximately 2-3 months after the antibiotic skin test, slowly progressing without clinical improvement. Culture for fungus on the right forearm revealed growth of Scedosporium apiospermum. The tissue acid-fast bacilli (AFB) culture for the right forearm and right leg revealed growth of non-tuberculous mycobacteria which was Mycobacterium chelonae, and subsequent tissue polymerase chain reaction of both sites reported positive signs of M. chelonae. On diastase periodic acid-Schiff stain of the biopsy specimen of the right forearm, fungal hyphae were found while rod-shaped bacilli could be seen in AFB stain for the biopsy specimen of the right leg. The patient was treated with oral clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin along with an oral antifungal agent for 13 weeks. After the treatment, the lesions subsided and left a scar. We report a rare case of co-infection of S. apiospermum and M. chelonae in an immunocompetent host. PMID:25228156
Thornton, Charles G.; MacLellan, Kerry M.; Brink, Thomas L.; Lockwood, Denise E.; Romagnoli, Mark; Turner, June; Merz, William G.; Schwalbe, Richard S.; Moody, Marcia; Lue, Yvonne; Passen, Selvin
A novel method for processing respiratory specimens to improve culture and acid-fast staining of mycobacteria is introduced. This new method utilized N,N-dimethyl-N-(n-octadecyl)-N-(3-carboxypropyl)ammonium inner salt (Chemical Abstract Service no. 78195-27-4), also known as C18-carboxypropylbetaine (CB-18). In a blinded, five-center study, CB-18-based processing was compared to the standard method combining NALC and NaOH (NALC/NaOH). A total of 573 respiratory specimens were tested. Individual specimens were split approximately equally; the host institutions processed half of each specimen by the NALC/NaOH method, while the other half was processed with CB-18 at Quest Diagnostics—Baltimore. A total of 106 specimens were culture positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). Replacement of the primary decontamination agent with CB-18 caused changes in all diagnostic parameters. Aggregate culture sensitivity improved by approximately 43% (P < 0.01), and smear sensitivity improved by approximately 58% (P < 0.01). The sensitivity of smear relative to that of M. tuberculosis isolates exceeded 93% (P < 0.01) when specimens were processed with CB-18. The average times to a positive result were reduced by 7.3 days in liquid culture (P < 0.01) and 5.3 days on solid media (P < 0.05); however, the CB-18 method had a 20.8% contamination rate in liquid culture versus a rate of approximately 7.5% with NALC/NaOH processing. There were also unusual reductions in liquid culture sensitivity and smear specificity among CB-18-processed specimens. The characteristics of the latter parameters suggested that refinement of the CB-18 processing method should allow further improvements in culture sensitivity. This study showed that the CB-18 method has the potential to improve both smear and culture detection for these important human pathogens. PMID:9650951
‘Culture’ used to be thought of as a whole, internally consistent system of symbols and values held in common by members of bounded social groups, including whole societies. That view is changing among anthropologists currently. This article traces the intellectual history of those changes, across the earlier perspectives of functionalism and conflict theory, through recent perspectives on culture as residing
The procedures used in a study to determine how well a group of American Indian college students understood their traditional and modern cultures and a college Caucasian culture were explained in this paper. The sample consisted of 111 Indian students enrolled in the University of New Mexico. The students were tested in the areas of knowledge of…
Le, Thuong Van; Le, Nancylee
New methods are proposed for teachers to increase the cultural knowledge of their students. Rather than emphasizing food, festivals, and famous faces from other lands, there should be an attempt to use culture in the classroom as content in the regular instruction of speaking, listening, writing, mathematics, reading, and science. Teaching…
Allen, Judy; And Others
This book documents a portion of The Learning Tree program, which develops cultural awareness. It provides activities, written from practical experience, that are designed to give children their first contact with the customs of other cultures. These activities are for teachers to share with preschool-, kindergarten-, and primary-school-age…
Contends that the greater the cultural distance or dissimilarity between two companies in a cross-border merger and acquisition (M&A), the greater the risk of cultural clash. Highlights Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) — the Swiss-Swedish company that is effective in acquisitions in Eastern Europe, and Daewoo — the South Korean car manufacturer that has also had success in Eastern Europe. Believes
St. Clair, Anita; McKenry, Leda
Compared to 120 controls, 80 nursing students participating in international clinical-immersion experiences showed a significant increase in cultural self-efficacy and awareness, ability to overcome ethnocentrism, and ability to integrate patients' cultural beliefs into health-care practices. (SK)
Lauren W. McCall
How should behavioral scientists interpret apparently progressive stages of cultural history? Adaptive progress in biology is thought to only occur locally, relative to local conditions. Just as evolutionary theory offers physical anthropologists an appreciation of global human diversity through local adaptation, so the metaphor of adaptation offers behavioral scientists an appreciation of cultural diversity through analogous mechanisms. Analyses reported here
Brodsky, Carroll M.
A substantial amount of literature suggests that illness behavior in the United States is a product of a patient's core culture; equally credible findings do not support this contention. Most students and graduates in the health care professions believe that illness and disability behavior are affected by a patient's culture, but they are hard put to find convincing examples of that relationship. In experience with medical students studying the social and cultural bases of illness behavior, with patients who are disabled and with persons who claim disability in the absence of physical disease or disabling psychopathology, I observed no deviant disability behavior that was typical for the members of any cultural group, and no behavior was displayed by the members of one cultural group that was not seen in members of other cultural groups. No cultural stereotypes were upheld. I did find evidence that disability behavior is influenced by personality factors, social situations and the gains derived from the disability status. Evolving concepts of “entitlement,” which are closely related to socioeconomic status, also have a significant influence. The impact of feedback from others in a person's many social and medical subcultures is a more crucial determinant of illness and disability behavior, except in those for whom illness and disability behavior is determined by the limitations imposed by the disease or by a personality structure resistant to cultural expectations and social feedback. PMID:6666106
This course explores the relationship between humans and space. In particular, the course addresses the mental organization of spatial knowledge and highlights universal patterns that generate cultural and individual realizations of that knowledge. We will also examine how culture shapes ways of organizing and using space in daily and ritual behavior. Special emphasis will be devoted to linguistic diversity and
Barringer, Carolyn Fox
Third Culture Kids (TCKs) represent a group of youth who have lived overseas with their families for business, service, or missionary work. The implications of living in multiple cultures, especially during the developmental and formative years of youth, warrant investigation. This study informs the US counseling community about the…
Describes the author's work in his fifth-grade class as he helps his students understand the importance that culture plays in their representations of meaning. Shows how opportunities to transcend language by using other sign systems allow multiculturalism to flourish. Describes a schoolwide celebration of cultures through various arts and sign…
It is impossible to teach students all characteristics of the myriad cultures present in the United States. Providing students with a framework to assess the cultural traits of any client and to understand how those traits may influence the helping relationship gives them a tool to use in any clinical setting. This article presents a systematic…
References and scenes from literature that portray objectively the social elements and patterns of a culture are recommended to teach readers about typical situations and modes of behavior. This is a way of introducing the reader not only to common sociocultural patterns, but also to the cultural traits peculiar to situations that are…
Garran, Ann Marie; Werkmeister Rozas, Lisa
In 2001, the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) adopted 10 discrete standards of culturally competent practice which undergird our commitment to diversity and social justice. The concept of intersectionality is newly emerging in social work, though, causing us to reflect on our current conceptualizations of cultural competence.…
Discusses the design of a traditional Japanese house to clarify the importance of the "uchi"--the inside of the house--equation. Deals with key cultural concepts tied closely with "uchi/soto" (outside of the house), then shows that the use of the spatial notion in Japanese grammar reflects how culture and language are part of an integrated system.…
EVOC (for EVOlution of Culture) is a computer model of culture that enables us to investigate how various factors such as barriers to cultural diffusion, the presence and choice of leaders, or changes in the ratio of innovation to imitation affect the diversity and effectiveness of ideas. It consists of neural network based agents that invent ideas for actions, and imitate neighbors' actions. The model is based on a theory of culture according to which what evolves through culture is not memes or artifacts, but the internal models of the world that give rise to them, and they evolve not through a Darwinian process of competitive exclusion but a Lamarckian process involving exchange of innovation protocols. EVOC shows an increase in mean fitness of actions over time, and an increase and then decrease in the diversity of actions. Diversity of actions is positively correlated with population size and density, and with barriers between populations. Slowly eroding borders increase fitness without sacrificing diver...
Farmer, Lesley S. J.
In today's global world, to provide meaningful education, teacher-librarians and their students need to become culturally competent: open to learning about other cultures and sharing one's own culture, able to change personal perspectives, and able to communicate effectively across cultures. Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions provides a…
In this article, the principles behind high-reliability organizations and a culture of safety are explored. Three areas in which health care has the greatest potential for improvement in safety culture are also discussed: a nonpunitive response to error; handoffs and transitions; and safe staffing. Tools for frontline nurses to help improve their organization's culture of safety in these areas are reviewed. Information is also given for nurses responding to error, including participating in root-cause analysis and supporting health care workers involved in adverse events. PMID:25680493
Herda?DELEN, Amaç; Bingol, Haluk
Social interactions and personal tastes shape our consumption behavior of cultural products. In this study, we present a computational model of a cultural market and we aim to analyze the behavior of the consumer population as an emergent phenomena. Our results suggest that the final market shares of cultural products dramatically depend on consumer heterogeneity and social interaction pressure. Furthermore, the relation between the resulting market shares and social interaction is robust with respect to a wide range of variation in the parameter values and the type of topology.
... endocarditis-causing germs can be found on a blood culture . This is because certain germs do not grow ... growing. Endocarditis is usually a result of a blood infection. ... to the heart, where they can settle on damaged heart valves.
Culture - pericardial fluid ... the heart (the pericardium). A small amount of fluid is removed. You may have an ECG and ... x-ray after the test. Sometimes the pericardial fluid is taken during open heart surgery. The sample ...
Pamela Sue Esprivalo and Scott Forney
The interdisciplinary activities described in this article require students to study various ethnic groups and cultures within a context of ethnobotany, which is the study of how people use plants. Students engage in perspective taking, learn to appreciat
This essay considers seawater as a substance and symbol in anthropological and social theory. Seawater has occupied an ambiguous place with respect to anthropological categories of nature and culture. Seawater as nature ...
Background Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious, granulomatous disease caused by acid-fast bacilli of the genus Mycobacterium. The disease affects practically all species of vertebrates. Although mammalian tuberculosis has been nearly controlled in many developed countries, it is still a serious problem in humans and domestic animals including pigs in developing countries. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of TB in pigs is not known. Therefore, this study was designed to estimate the prevalence of TB in pigs in central Ethiopia and to characterize the causative agents using molecular techniques. Results The estimated prevalence of TB was 5.8% (49/841). Age and origin of pigs were significantly associated (P<0.001) with the prevalence. In contrast, an association of sex, floor type and water source with the prevalence could not be shown. Culture positivity was confirmed in 30.6% (15/49) of the tuberculous-like lesions. Of the 15 isolates, 12 were acid fast positive while five of the latter were confirmed by multiplex PCR as members of the M. tuberculosis complex. Speciation of the five isolates further confirmed that they were M. tuberculosis, belonging to SIT1088 (two isolates) and SIT1195 (one isolate). The remaining two isolates belong to an identical spoligotype, the pattern of which was not found in the spoligotype database (SpolDB4). Conclusions The isolation of M. tuberculosis from pigs suggests a possible risk of transmission between humans and pigs. Hence, establishing feasible control methods is required. PMID:23647845
Although the relationship between trade and culture has been described as one of those new issues that pose “serious practical\\u000a and theoretical challenges ... to present understanding of the trade regime,”1 trade conflicts concerning cultural goods and services are not in fact a new phenomenon. Such conflicts go back to the 1920’s\\u000a when European countries, following the First World War,
Like people all over the world, Africans have a long history of observing and trying to understand the workings of the heavens. Though many African cultures did not have writing systems, their understandings of the night sky have been preserved and passed on through stories, art, dance, and artifacts, sometimes in unexpected and complex ways. Focusing on specific ethnic groups, this talk is a survey of some of the ways that Africans have woven their knowledge of the night sky into their cultures.
What is a cultural landscape? This website answers that question, and gives hundreds of wonderful examples for visitors to consider. The link "What are Cultural Landscapes?" explains to visitors that there are four types of cultural landscapes, and they also offer a brief definition of each one. They include "designed" which is intentionally laid according to design principles; "vernacular", where people have shaped the land by cultural patterns or activities; "ethnographic" which contain natural and cultural resources that the "associated people define as heritage resources" and the "historic site", which is self-evident. In order to view examples of cultural landscapes, visitors should click on the "What's Out There?" link to go to the database of the same name. There is a basic search function, as well as an "advanced search" that allow visitors to search by design type, such as "Plaza", "Parkway" or "Contemporary Earthwork" or by landscape style, such as "Italianate", "Mission Revival" or "Prairie Style". Most entries have photos, and some have more than one. Visitors should also check out "Abbott Park" for some glorious photos.
Cheung, Fanny M
Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks. PMID:23163473
Oliver, Douglas L.
) for acid fast bacilli (AFB) from patients on Airborne Respiratory Precaution Isolation. POLICY: 1. Three sputum specimens/gastric aspirates (obtained on separate days), smear negative for AFB, must be obtained times. 2. Sputum for AFB can be obtained in one of three ways: a. Expectoration of coughed up specimen
Lund, J E; Abernethy, C S
Lesions of tuberculosis in mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) were present in all visceral organs. The tubercles were composed of large rounded macrophages which contained numerous intracytoplasmic acid-fast bacilli. The lesions were not encapsulated and mineralization was not observed. PMID:650789
S. Honore-Bouakline; J. P. Vincensini; V. Giacuzzo; P. H. Lagrange; J. L. Herrmann
In cases of suspected extrapulmonary tuberculosis, rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis is of prime importance, since traditional techniques of detecting acid-fast bacilli have limitations. The major difficulty with mycobacteria is achieving optimal cell lysis. Buffers used in commercial kits do not allow this complete lysis in a number of clinical specimens. A comparison of two sample preparation methods, pretreatment with
Groves, Kevin S.; Feyerherm, Ann; Gu, Minhua
International negotiation failures are often linked to deficiencies in negotiator cross-cultural capabilities, including limited understanding of the cultures engaged in the transaction, an inability to communicate with persons from different cultural backgrounds, and limited behavioral flexibility to adapt to culturally unfamiliar contexts.…
Personalization in Cultural Heritage 1 Personalization in Cultural Heritage: The Road Travelled to exploit cultural heritage material before, during and after the visit, having different goals and requirements in each phase. However, cultural heritage sites have a huge amount of information to present
Cultural awareness (CA) has emerged over the last few decades as a significant part of conceptualizing the cultural dimension to language teaching. That is, L2 users need to understand L2 communication as a cultural process and to be aware of their own culturally based communicative behaviour and that of others. However, while CA has provided a…
Mulroy, Kevin; Palacios, Anna; Reid, Robert E.
This is a theoretical study of adolescent maturation within a cultural context. Personality development and disintegration due to the pressure of a dominant culture on a minority culture is considered. An attempt is made to understand how teachers might assist students to work out their psychological growth by story telling. The need for cultural…
Alfonso Montuori; Hillary Stephenson
Recent trends in the understanding of culture contact, with concepts such as hybridization, cosmopolitanism, and cultural innovation, open up the possibility of a new understanding of human interaction. While the social imaginary is rich with images of conflict resulting from culture contact, images of creativity are far rarer. We propose the creation of an extensive research project to document cultural
St. Clair, Robert N.
This paper discusses cultural awareness within the context of 20th-century social changes in the United States and suggests that cultural awareness can be a protective factor in the maintenance of indigenous cultures and languages. Three business-related cultural changes have taken place in America during this century: the creation of the consumer…
Cultural conflicts may be derived from using inappropriate language. Appropriate linguistic-pragmatic competence may also be produced by providing various and multicultural backgrounds. Culture and language are linked together naturally, unconsciously, and closely in daily social lives. Culture affects language and language affects culture through…
and trout culture. In spite of this the science of the entire pond industry, inclusive of artificial fish-cultureTEXTBOOK OF POND CULTURE fishery leaflet 311 Ifish and wildlife service UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR #12;#12;TEXTBOOK OF POND CULTURE REARING AND KEEPING OF CARP , TROUT AND ALLIED FISHES by Vr
Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Sun Min; Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Sung Soo; Yi, Jongyoun; Kim, Hyung Hoi; Lee, Eun Yup
Background Conventional acid-fast bacilli (AFB) staining cannot differentiate viable from dead cells. Propidium monoazide (PMA) is a photoreactive DNA-binding dye that inhibits PCR amplification by DNA modification. We evaluated whether PMA real-time PCR is suitable for the early detection of viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in clinical respiratory specimens. Methods A total of 15 diluted suspensions from 5 clinical MTB isolates were quadruplicated and subjected to PMA treatment and/or heat inactivation. Eighty-three AFB-positive sputum samples were also tested to compare the ?CT values (CT value in PMA-treated sputum samples-CT value in non-PMA-treated sputum samples) between culture-positive and culture-negative specimens. Real-time PCR was performed using Anyplex MTB/NTM Real-Time Detection (Seegene, Korea), and the CT value changes after PMA treatment were compared between culture-positive and culture-negative groups. Results In MTB suspensions, the increase in the CT value after PMA treatment was significant in dead cells (P=0.0001) but not in live cells (P=0.1070). In 14 culture-negative sputum samples, the median ?CT value was 5.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1-8.2; P<0.0001), whereas that in 69 culture-positive sputum samples was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.7-2.0). In the ROC curve analysis, the cutoff ?CT value for maximum sensitivity (89.9%) and specificity (85.7%) for differentiating dead from live cells was 3.4. Conclusions PMA real-time PCR is a useful approach for differentiating dead from live bacilli in AFB smear-positive sputum samples. PMID:24790907
A. Heiskanen; J. Emnéus; M. Dufva
\\u000a Performing cell culture in miniaturized perfusion chambers gives possibilities to experiment with cells under near in vivo like conditions. In contrast to traditional batch cultures, miniaturized perfusion systems provide precise control of medium\\u000a composition, long term unattended cultures and tissue like structuring of the cultures. However, as this chapter illustrates,\\u000a many issues remain to be identified regarding perfusion cell culture
Robert D. Gulbro; Paul Herbig
In this age of the global economy, negotiating across cultures is an inevitable part of doing business for firms desiring\\u000a to compete internationally. What problems could cultural differences cause? Can firms from some countries or cultures do better\\u000a than firms from other countries or cultures? To study this possibility, cross-cultural negotiating behavior was examined using\\u000a Hofstede's criteria, to see if
The author's intellectual movement over the past two decades, from cross-cultural experimental psychology to the cultural psychology of mediation of human activities and cognitive processes, is described in this paper. Productive use of the concept of culture in psychology entails conceptualization of the future and the past in the present, and taking a process-based look at human activities. Cultural mediation
The University of Oregon's arts and administration program is highly regarded, and they also happen to put out a visually compelling broadside for arts and culture workers called "CultureWork." As its mission statement notes, the primary goal of the publication is "to provide timely workplace-oriented information on culture, the arts, education, policy, and community." The first issue appeared back in May 1997, and visitors are invited to view all of the back issues (along with the current one) here at this site. Some of the recent broadsides have included "Canaries in the Coal Mine: Art, Freedom, and Community," "Boomers, XY's and the Making of a Generational Shift in Arts Management," and "Recognizing Artists as Public Intellectuals: A Pedagogical Imperative."
Çardak, Mine; Özgür Özbek, Elif; Kebapçio?lu, Turhan
The abundance of culturable heterotropic bacteria studied on and according to depth levels and seasons in the Gulf of Antalya. Environmental factors were compared regarding culturable heterotrophic bacteria abundance and diversities of bacteria. During the study period (between August 2009 and April 2010, seasonally in the Gulf of Antalya, at six stations and six depth levels (0-20 cm, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200 m). The bacterial isolates were identified in the automated micro identification system VITEK 2 Compact 30 (Biomereux, France). The mean abundance was higher in Sts. D, E and F than Sts. A, B and C, located in the eastern part of the gulf. The mean abundance decreased as the depth level increased. The mean abundance of CHB ranged between 8.15 × 10(6) and 2.54 × 10(8) CFU ml(-1) throughout the year. Abundance of CHB differed according to the variations of biotic and abiotic factors. A total of 27 taxa of bacteria including six bacterial classes were reported in this study as the first records for the Gulf of Antalya. Six bacterial classes: Gamma Proteobacteria (46.81 %), Bacilli (27.66 %), Beta Proteobacteria (12.77 %), Alfa Proteobacteria (6.38 %), Actinobacteria (4.26 %) and Flavobacteria (2.13 %) were determined. The study resulted in increased knowledge on the composition and biochemical response of bacteria isolated from eutrophic and oligotrophic areas. 23 bacteria species belonging to 16 families were reported. PMID:25663240
Caulkins, Charles Daniel
for the production cf hybrids. Ccnventional breeding programs rely on many years of inbreeding to produce such homozygous parents. This study in- volved the culturing of sorghum anthers on med', a known to cause anhro- genesis in otier pecies of the Gramineae. I...;!;portance, haploid culture of many member of the family Gramineae have oeen attempted with some degree of success. :he technique v!as soon applied to rice (31, 32) and other cereal grains, such as barley, w'!eat? Triticale and rye, follow. . d rapidly (10...
T. C. McCaskie
This article is about gun culture in Kumasi today. Gun use in Asante, and elsewhere in Ghana, has increased significantly in the last decade. In practice and in the public imagination this is associated with the rise of youth gangs and the criminalization of urban space. Much has been written about youths and violence elsewhere in Africa, but this article
In this paper, the author begins by saying how privileged he feels to be included in the celebration of the American Indian Culture and Research Journal (AICRJ) and to toast forty years of American Indian studies at UCLA. He looks back over the field of Native American literature and criticism, then peeks at the present, and last, makes some…
Kitao, Kenji, Ed.; And Others
Representing a refereed selection of papers from the 1994 JALT Kansai Conference, this collection of 25 papers contains formal presentations, teaching experiences, research projects, and ideas for effective teaching. The papers and their authors are, as follows: (1) "Culturally Influenced Communication Patterns: Overview, Implications and…
Aschenbrenner, Joyce C.
We can identify black culture in terms of certain institutions and values which they share as members of an ethnic group, while recognizing that individual families and communities identify in important respects with other groups. The ascription of a humanistic character--defined as those values and institutions which black Americans have in…
Designed to be used as complementary instructional material for American students as well as second-generation Iranians in America, this work presents a collection of material for teaching Persian language and culture. Research and analysis of some relevant linguistic issues, interactive methodology of language teaching and acquisition, and models…
Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc., has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc., is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.
Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc. has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc. is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.
It might sound like a no-brainer that being bilingual or multilingual helps students planning engineering and just about any other career. But it is certainly true and is becoming more important as the economies of nations become more intertwined. What's more, being able to go beyond mere language ability and understand cultural distinctions are…
The world increasingly asks 'how do I benefit?' as opposed to 'how can I contribute?'. In an age of consumerism and the 'me' culture how can an ethos of community contribution flourish. As the SIG sees' it's numbers stable but it's student numbers converting to professional memberships decline, how can we stem the tide. It's time to think differently about
Boyer, Mary Ellen; And Others
This booklet, developed as part of a multicultural research project conducted in the San Diego Community College District, presents the findings of a nine-member research team on various aspects of the history and culture of Vietnamese Americans. The areas covered are: (1) the Vietnamese as immigrant, which includes a discussion of the trauma and…
Dade County Board of Public Instruction, Miami, FL.
This experimental curriculum guide is intended as an instructional resource for those secondary school social studies teachers who are either conducting the Negro History and Culture course or working to integrate existing curriculum in other social studies disciplines. The instruction units are specifically designed for two purposes: 1) to…
Daiello, Vicki; Hathaway, Kevin; Rhoades, Mindi; Walker, Sydney
Arguing for complicating the study of visual culture, as advocated by James Elkins, this article explicates and explores Lacanian psychoanalytic theory and pedagogy in view of its implications for art education practice. Subjectivity, a concept of import for addressing student identity and the visual, steers the discussion informed by pedagogical…
Dycus, David, Ed.
This collection of articles includes: "Implementing Discourse Analysis for Intermediate and Advanced Language Learners" (Maria Palmira Massi); "A Comparison of Front-Page News in Japanese and British Quality Press Newspapers: Cultural Differences Reflected in the Press" (Christopher Bond); "Have You Ever Heard of Ogino Ginko? Japanese Women in…
This document contains four symposium papers on cultural issues in organizations. "Emotion Management and Organizational Functions: A Study of Action in a Not-for-Profit Organization" (Jamie Callahan Fabian) uses Hochschild's emotion systems theory and Parsons' social systems theory to explain why members of an organization managed their…
A new cinema of the Caribbean is emerging, joining the company of the other 'Third Cinemas'. It is related to, but different from the vibrant film and other forms of visual representation of the Afro-Caribbean (and Asian) 'blacks' of the diasporas of the West - the new post-colonial subjects. All these cultural practices and forms of representation have the black
Bruckner, Martha; Mausbach, Ann
In 2005, the graduation rate for the Council Bluffs Community School District was, at 68 percent, the lowest in Iowa. District leaders knew that to improve, they needed to create a cultural change throughout the community. They began by getting community members involved in creating a strategic plan and mission statement that included a guarantee…
Partridge, Nicola C.
The experiments described are aimed at exploring PTH regulation of production of collagenase and protein inhibitors of collagenase (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases, TIMP-1 and -2) by osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells under conditions of weightlessness. The results of this work will contribute to information as to whether a microgravity environment alters the functions and responsiveness of the osteoblast. The objectives of the Bone Culture Research (BCR) experiment are: to observe the effects of microgravity on the morphology, rate of proliferation, and behavior of the osteoblastic cells, UMR 106-01; to determine whether microgravy affects the hormonal sensitivity of osteroblastic cells; and to measure the secretion of collagenase and its inhibitors into the medium under conditions of microgravity. The methods employed will consist of the following: the osteoblast-like cells, UMR-106-01, will be cultured in four NASDA cell culture chambers; two chambers will be subjected to microgravity on SL-J; two chambers will remain on the ground at KSC as ground controls but subjected to an identical set of culture conditions as on the shuttle; media will be changed four times; twice the cells will receive the hormone parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and media collected; cells will be photographed under conditions of microgravity; and media and photographs will be analyzed upon return to determine whether functions of the cells changed.
Grade 3 Standard2 Objective 1 Objective: Students will learn to identify elements of cultures in the seven different continents. Assignment: You have just been hired to be a travel agent. Your first customer wants to take a trip around a continent. To be a good travel agent ...
Itibari M. Zulu
Welcome to another edition of The Journal of Pan African Studies. Again we are pleased to offer you a selection of articles on the international African experience that articulates the particulars of human culture and consciousness in the era of Obama. Thus, we present a subscriber profile of Melvin Agunbiade Ojo, announcements, commentary and analysis on AFRICOM, and sixteen articles
A method for planning multicultural lessons for both regular and gifted and talented students, and sample lessons, are presented. The approach was developed in order to introduce Hispanic culture through literature in a bilingual classroom. All materials are constructed based on Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. The lessons were…
Altheide, David L.
Discusses the relevance of communication, meaning, and identity in putting information work into a cultural context. The process of information seeking is discussed, the mediation of communication formats and devices in determining meaning is described, and implications for information specialists are suggested. (11 references) (LRW)
Bailey, Beverley; Betts, Paul
In this paper we concern ourselves with the ways in which schools in general and special education procedures in particular tend to not be successful for those of our students who are from a different culture. (While we focus on Canadian Aboriginals, we also extend our thinking to those children who come from different races, ethnicities,…
Dean M. Perry; Renee Mercaldo-Allen; Catherine A. Kuropat; James B. Hughes
Spawning of field-captured adult tautog Tautoga onitis was accomplished under laboratory conditions. Natural spawning of tautog produced more viable embryos and larvae than did strip-spawning. Embryos were cultured to hatching and raised successfully through the larval stage to juveniles. Newly hatched larvae were fed protozoans from day 0 to day 6 posthatch, rotifers from day 2 to day 20 posthatch,
Moss, Robert; Solomon, Sondra
A tissue culture experiment that does not require elaborate equipment and that can be used to teach sterile technique, the principles of animal cell line maintenance, and the concept of cell growth curves is described. The differences between cancerous and normal cells can be highlighted. The procedure is included. (KR)
Smith, Ralph A., Ed.
Thirteen experts in the visual arts, literature, music, dance, and theater responded to the arguments of E. D. Hirsch's "Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know", focusing particularily on his alarm at the serious slippage that has occurred in the background knowledge and information prerequisite for effective communication. These…
Hartman, Hermene D.
What is television doing to our society and our culture? What has it done to education? Television has had a great impact on human behavior but rather than communicating, it dictates a philosophy of life, moral judgments and a lifestyle. Television presents a violent image of society where fantasy and reality are often confused. It is a system…
WRT 302: Writing Culture is an upper-level elective in the Department of Writing and Rhetoric at the University of Rhode Island (URI). As part of a group of four 300-level courses, Writing 302 draws many junior and senior majors in Writing and Rhetoric, English, and other majors who are looking to add creativity and experience with design to their…
Peters, Michael A.; Besley, A. C.
This article first reviews claims for the knowledge economy in terms of excludability, rivalry, and transparency indicating the way that digital goods behave differently from other commodities. In the second section it discusses the theory of "public knowledge cultures" starting from the primacy of practice based on Marx, Wittgenstein and…
Dujardin, B; Dujardin, M; Hermans, I
Over the last two decades, multiple studies have been conducted and many articles published about Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs). These studies mainly describe the characteristics of SAPs and analyse their economic consequences as well as their effects upon a variety of sectors: health, education, agriculture and environment. However, very few focus on the sociological and cultural effects of SAPs. Following a summary of SAP's content and characteristics, the paper briefly discusses the historical course of SAPs and the different critiques which have been made. The cultural consequences of SAPs are introduced and are described on four different levels: political, community, familial, and individual. These levels are analysed through examples from the literature and individual testimonies from people in the Southern Hemisphere. The paper concludes that SAPs, alongside economic globalisation processes, are responsible for an acute breakdown of social and cultural structures in societies in the South. It should be a priority, not only to better understand the situation and its determining factors, but also to intervene and act with strategies that support and reinvest in the social and cultural sectors, which is vital in order to allow for individuals and communities in the South to strengthen their autonomy and identify. PMID:14964018
Michael Haldrup; Jonas Larsen
Despite the fact that tourists constantly interact corporeally with things and physical places, tourist studies have failed to understand the significance of materiality and objects in modern tourism. Like much theory and research influenced by the ‘cultural turn’, tourist (and leisure) studies have melted everything solid into signs. This article is inspired by current calls for a renewed engagement with
Mendias, Elnora P.; Guevara, Edilma B.
Eight criteria for culturally competent scholarship (contextuality, relevance, communication styles, awareness of identity and power differences, disclosure, reciprocation, empowerment, time) were applied to an international education/research nursing program. Appropriate measures for each were developed and ways to improve the program were…
Ideally, education provides mutual enrichment for professor and students. In this article, the author often fears that he is learning far more than his students are in a course on intercultural communication. Its real subject sometimes seems to be the iron grip of American culture upon his students. What is most fascinating is that the power of…
Isenhart, Myra W.
A study examined the creation of a new division within an organization, where members of management were primarily from an "immigrant" or regulatory culture, to determine the effects on management and professional satisfaction. Data were elicited through both a survey instrument and in-depth interviews with 26 current employees and 12 former…
This paper surveys the research methods and approaches used in the multidisciplinary field of applied language studies or language education over the last fourty years. Drawing on insights gained in psycho- and sociolinguistics, educational linguistics and linguistic anthropology with regard to language and culture, it is organized around five…
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
CULTURE AND LOCAL GOVERNANCE CULTURE ET GOUVERNANCE LOCALE Jour et nuit : une géographie inversée travaux sont en passe d'être terminés. Nous avons choisi le secteur des quais car cette partie de la ville
National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006
An understanding of culture in organisations can offer insights into individual and group behaviour, and leadership. It can help to explain not just what happens in an organisation, but why it happens. However, many people are concerned not just with understanding culture, and hence organisational life. They see culture as something to be…
A survey of cultural policy in Israel, prepared for UNESCO, is one of a series of booklets to show how cultural policies are planned and implemented in various countries. The series provides a guide to these countries which have yet to establish cultural policies to help them profit from past experiences. The historical background of Israel's…
Provides a theoretical grounding to an activity that follows a communicative language teaching approach to teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. The activity, cultural isolation and cultural integration, motivates learners to relate their experiences and feelings in regard to diverse cultures. (Author/VWL)
The paper will examine the change in schools brought about by cultural diversity and examines the theories that surround the topic. I will evaluate and examine ways in which schools can accommodate cultural diversity. References will be made to cultural and social changes in our schools and how education is affected by such changes. The issue of…
Koski, Heikki; Seikkula, Ari
Discusses Finland's system of cultural services provided for communes that includes adult education, art activities, entertainment and physical culture. Article outlines the scope of the available and planned programs. (GB)
A number of synthetic and natural materials have been tried in cell culture and tissue engineering applications in recent years. Now Jeffrey Perkel takes a look at one new culture component that might surprise you-spider silk. PMID:24924388
The author reviews conceptions of culture and language to provide a conceptual framework for understanding the ways in which cultural differences between students and science teachers can influence learning of that subject. The paper is both theoretical and practical.
Maintains that child care teachers can help remedy cultural tunnel vision by promoting cultural diversity and understanding as they work with children and communicate with parents about what they are doing. (BB)
Cafri, U?ur; Aslan, Gönül; Direkel, Sahin; Tarhan, Gülnur; Ceyhan, Ismail; Emekda?, Gürol
Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) found frequently in tap water and environment cause important opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify non-tuberculous mycobacteria in soil, raw milk and water distribution system samples in Mersin (a province located at Mediterranean region of Turkey). A total of 101 water, 124 soil and 40 milk samples collected from the central part and suburban parts of Mersin during November 2003-May 2004 period were included in the study. Water samples were collected from 29 different water distribution systems; soil samples from different parks and gardens and milk samples from raw milks sold at different districts. After the samples were processed by homogenization and decontamination, acid-fast staining and culture into Löwenstein-Jensen medium were performed. Acid-fast bacilli isolated from culture medium were identified by using conventional methods, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) and INNO-LIPA Mycobacteria methods. NTM were identified from 4.9% (5/101) of water samples and 0.8% (1/124) of soil samples by culture and PCR. No NTM were detected in the raw milk samples. Three of the NTM strains isolated from water samples were defined as Mycobacterium chelonae type III and two as Mycobacterium kansasii type II. One NTM strain isolated from soil was defined as Mycobacterium fortuitum. It was of note that two of the five NTM positive water samples were tap water samples collected from hospitals. It was concluded that NTM colonization/contamination of water and environment in the hospitals was a potential risk factor in terms of nosocomial infections. Thus surveillance cultures of the water systems and the medical devices in the hospital are necessary to fix the source of NTM, to identify and type the strains and to establish effective control measures such as sterilization, disinfection, maintenance and modernization of water systems. PMID:21063989
Background Induced sputum (IS) has been used to collect airway secretions in subjects who have inadequate sputum production. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of IS for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in adults unable to expectorate sputum. Methods Medical records of 39 PTB patients who underwent IS due to absence of spontaneous sputum production between January 2011 and March 2014 at a tertiary hospital in South Korea were reviewed. Results of acid fast bacilli smear, Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture and polymerase chain reaction assay for M. tuberculosis (TB-PCR) of IS specimens from these patients were analyzed. Clinical and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) characteristics were also analyzed to find characteristics associated with IS culture positivity. Results Of the 39 IS specimens from PTB patients, 7 (17.9%) were smear positive and 31 (79.5%) were culture positive. Twenty-four IS specimens were tested for TB-PCR and 13 (54.2%) were positive on TB-PCR. Multivariate analysis showed that younger age (p=0.04) and presence of tree-in-bud appearance on HRCT (p=0.03) were independent predictors of IS culture positivity. Conclusion IS is useful for the diagnosis of PTB in adults unable to expectorate sputum. Younger age and tree-in-bud appearance on HRCT were associated with IS culture positivity in these patients. PMID:26175773
Heindl, Herwig; Thiel, Vera; Wiese, Jutta; Imhoff, Johannes F
From specimens of the bryozoan Membranipora membranacea collected in the Baltic Sea, bacteria were isolated on four different media, which significantly increased the diversity of the isolated groups. All isolates were classified according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and tested for antimicrobial properties using a panel of five indicator strains and six different media. Each medium featured a unique set of isolated phylotypes, and a phylogenetically diverse collection of isolates was obtained. A total of 96 isolates were assigned to 49 phylotypes and 29 genera. Only one-third of the members of these genera had been isolated previously from comparable sources. The isolates were affiliated with Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria. A comparable large portion of up to 22 isolates, i.e., 15 phylotypes, probably represent new species. Likewise, 47 isolates (approximately 50%) displayed antibiotic activities, mostly against grampositive indicator strains. Of the active strains, 63.8 % had antibiotic traits only on one or two of the growth media, whereas only 12.7 % inhibited growth on five or all six media. The application of six different media for antimicrobial testing resulted in twice the number of positive hits as obtained with only a single medium. The use of different media for the isolation of bacteria as well as the variation of media considered suitable for the production of antibiotic substances significantly enhanced both the number of isolates obtained and the proportion of antibiotic active cultures. Thus the approach described herein offers an improved strategy in the search for new antibiotic compounds. PMID:22837149
Scholz, Jared; Sipp, Kalah; Stratton, Emily
Oral history interview with Jared Scholz and Kalah Sipp conducted by Emily Stratton in Lawrence, Kansas, on June 26, 2013. Jared Scholz is the founder and Senior Pastor of The Greenhouse Culture; Kalah Sipp is The Greenhouse Culture’s Administrative...
Moalosi, Richie; Popovic, Vesna; Hickling-Hudson, Anne
There is little in-depth research that can assist designers to use culture as a catalyst for designing innovative products within Botswana's context. The concept of culture and design are intertwined, thus modifications stemming from cultural evolution both reflect and determine developments in design. The paper discusses an experimental design…
Ball, O. M. (Oscar Melville)
............................................ Inoculatjon with Nitro-culture for alfalfa 12 ............................................... Cultures in soil from compost heap 12 .................................................................. Cultures in pure sand 13.... Soil of the best quality, obtained from the compost heap of the College Horticultural Department and pure crushed quartz sand, were used in the second series. The pots were of white clay, of the the ordinary six-inch pattern. CROSS...
Carr, Jean Ferguson
The renaming of literature appreciation as cultural studies marks a rethinking of what is experienced as cultural materials, going beyond reading and writing to media, popular culture, newspapers, advertising, textbooks, and advice manuals. It also marks the movement away from the study of an object to the study of criticism. (MSE)
Making cultural history New perspectives on Western heritage Edited by Anna Källén nordic academic press Making cultural v10.indd 3 2013-08-26 15:54 #12;This volume is simultaneously published digitally: Johan Linder Printed by ScandBook, Falun 2013 ISBN 978-91-87351-19-8 Making cultural v10.indd 4 2013
What Is Intangible Cultural Heritage? #12;Photo: Patsy's wool socks for sale, Trout River, photo courtesy John MacDermid. #12;Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) or what some call "Living Heritage cards or skateboard. 1 What is Intangible Cultural Heritage? Photos: Left: Bboying (Breakdancing
Making cultural history New perspectives on Western heritage Edited by Anna Källén nordic academic the result of cooperative effort, in a `hand-me-down' narrative of sorts, where the cultural heritage press Making cultural v10.indd 3 2013-08-26 15:54 #12;This volume is simultaneously published digitally
Barnes, Bradley; Bourke, Brian
The authors advance the concept that institutional culture is a purposeful framework by which to view SEM's utility, particularly as a cultural change agent. Through the connection of seemingly independent functions of performance and behavior, implications emerge that deepen the understanding of the influence of culture on performance outcomes…
Siple, Linda; Greer, Leslie; Holcomb, Barbara Ray
It often comes as a surprise to people that many deaf people refer to themselves as being members of Deaf culture. The American Deaf culture is a unique linguistic minority that uses American Sign Language (ASL) as its primary mode of communication. This tipsheet provides a description of Deaf culture and suggestions for effective communication.
Prague's main feature is that, out of many cultural treasures, it preserved its architectural culture and put it to practical use to present day. Particularly Prague has embraced a wealth of architectural styles from many ages. From the Romanesque, the Gothic culture of Czech's pinnacle age, Baroque, Neo Classicism, the Art Nouveau style buildings that concentrated in Prague at the
Humanities, Arts & Cultural Research and Innovation Office of the Vice President, Research and Innovation www.research.utoronto.ca #12;U of T Humanities, Arts & Culture v 1.9 March 14, 2013 Report errors or omissions to firstname.lastname@example.org Page 2 of 71 HUMANITIES, ARTS & CULTURAL RESEARCH AND INNOVATION
As the nations of the world pursue development, the role of culture is important to consider in development activities. This report examines the link between culture and development and suggests that a people's cultural traditions and practices can be utilized in successful development activities. The investigation functions on the premise that…
Contemporary Western culture increasingly uses visual images as a method of communicating ideas, meaning and concepts. The reliance on visual information has dramatically increased with the evolution of newer imaging technologies. Images play a critical role within the media, advertising, popular culture, personal memories, medical science and forensic science. This paper will discuss relationships between methodologies used in visual culture
Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Carson, Russell L.; Burden, Joe, Jr.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the common assumption that teachers of color (TOC) are more culturally competent than White teachers by assessing physical education teachers' cultural competency. A secondary purpose was to ascertain the possible differences in cultural competence levels of White teachers in diverse school settings versus…
This discussion examines some of the major issues and attributes of culturally responsive teaching. It begins with explaining my views of culturally responsive teaching and how I incorporate cultural responsiveness in my writing to teach readers what it means. These general conceptual frameworks are followed by a discussion of some specific…
White, Douglas R.
was to represent the cultural diversity of well-described human societies- ranges from contemporary hunterSTANDARD CROSS- CULTURAL SAMPLE The Standard Cross-Cultural Sample, or SCCS (Murdock and White 1969), is a cumulative and collaborative data- base of coded variables on maximally diverse and ethno- graphically best
A. R. Lauer
Three parallel forms of a test of 150 multiple-choice items representing knowledge about painting, music, architecture, sculpture, drama, literature, and non-artistic culture were constructed. The testee indicated the one of the seven categories to which the phrase, term, descriptive words, or name of a man referred. The test was given to 2089 high-school, college, and university students representing every section
Culture et problèmes cognitifs. - L'A. étudie les effets du niveau culturel et des processus d'acculturation sur deux aspects du fonctionnement cognitif: l'exploration d'une configuration perceptive et l'élaboration des informations. Pour rendre compte du premier, ont été retenus les résultats d'une recherche faite sur des populations primitives de l'Amazonie soumises au test de Roschach: l'augmentation du pourcentage des réponses Dd.,
Pellis, Neal R.; Duray, Paul H.; Hatfill, Steven J.
Attempts to simulate normal tissue micro-environments in vitro have been thwarted by the complexity and plasticity of the extracellular matrix, which is important in regulating cytoskeletal and nuclear matrix proteins. Gravity is one of the problems, tending to separate components that should be kept together. For space shuttle experiments, NASA engineers devised a double-walled rotating bioreactor, which is proving to be a useful tissue culture device on earth as well as in space.
Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.
As the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) implements a State Level Approach to its safeguards verification responsibilities, a number of countries are beginning new nuclear power programs and building new nuclear fuel cycle faculties. The State Level approach is holistic and investigatory in nature, creating a need for transparent, non-discriminatory judgments about a state's nonproliferation posture. In support of this need, the authors previously explored the value of defining and measuring a state's safeguards culture. We argued that a clear definition of safeguards culture and an accompanying set of metrics could be applied to provide an objective evaluation and demonstration of a country's nonproliferation posture. As part of this research, we outlined four high-level metrics that could be used to evaluate a state's nuclear posture. We identified general data points. This paper elaborates on those metrics, further refining the data points to generate a measurable scale of safeguards cultures. We believe that this work could advance the IAEA's goals of implementing a safeguards system that is fully information driven, while strengthening confidence in its safeguards conclusions.
The Hmong people came to the United States as refugees after the Vietnam War, and they were mainly resettled in California, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. The Hmong Cultural Center was established in St. Paul, Minnesota in 1992, and their website has a wealth of resources "that enhance cross-cultural awareness and understanding between Hmong and non-Hmong persons." Visitors in the healthcare field will find value in one such resource, "View the Hmong History and Culture Presentation for Healthcare Providers", which can be found on the menu on the left-hand side of the page. Visitors will learn that some Hmong beliefs about the body conflict with Western medicine, such as the belief that drawing blood may weaken the physical body and that surgery may hinder reincarnation or allow evil spirits to enter the body. Visitors interested in doing research on the Hmong people should click on the "Research Data and Publications" link to find a "Hmong Studies Journal", "Tutorial on How to Access Hmong Census Data", and "Hmong Studies Research Bibliographies".
Wu, Jianguo "Jingle"
Science+Business Media B.V. 2010 The objects of study in landscape ecology become increasingly ``cultural popularity of the term on a global scale was the adoption of cultural landscapes in the International international legal instrument to recognize and pro- tect cultural landscapes (UNESCO 1996). Three categories
David M. Horowitz
The cultural consensus model is a method that is used by anthropologists to study intracultural variance, intercultural differences and cultural consonance across a variety of contexts. In order to provide academic scholars who study consumer, organizational and national culture with an additional tool that could be used to triangulate on ethnographic conclusions, this paper reviews the conceptual and methodological foundations
La Roche, Martin; Lustig, Kara
In this article we review a wide range of cultural adaptations of acceptance-based behavior therapies (ABBT) from a cultural perspective. Consistent with the cultural match model, we argue that psychotherapeutic cultural adaptations are more effective as the cultural characteristics of patients are matched to the cultural characteristics of the…
Chiao, Joan Y.; Cheon, Bobby K.; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.
The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed. PMID:23914126
Statistics, Science, & Public Policy: The Two Cultures? Shifting cultures: Stimulus as presented to the conference Statistics, Science, & Public Policy: The Two Cultures? at Hearstmonceux Castle, England. The session was entitled `The University Culture'. The talk was intended to complement
Cultural competency is defined as the ability to effectively interact with people from diverse cultures and recognize the importance of cultural differences. These skills will be increasingly important for environmental engineers who work on teams with professionals from diverse backgrounds and design solutions to global problems. For example, these skills are particularly important when engaging in projects for Engineers Without Borders (EWB) and similar organizations. In order to evaluate if curriculum help develop these skills in students, an assessment instrument is needed. A wide variety of such surveys have been developed and validated, although generally for settings outside engineering academia. In this research, the Miville-Guzman Universality-Diversity Scale short form (MGUDS-S) was used. It is a written 15 question survey with responses on a 6-point Likert scale. It evaluates universal-diverse orientation (UDO) and has been most widely used in medical school settings. The overall UDO score is composed of three subscales: diversity of contact, relativistic appreciation, and discomfort with differences. The author also added four of the Pittsburgh Freshman Engineering Attitudes Survey (PFEAS) questions and eight self-created questions to the survey, in addition to five demographic questions. The self-created questions were specific to engineering. This survey was administered in three freshmen courses (environmental, civil, and undeclared engineering) and two senior design courses (environmental and civil engineering) in fall 2006. Four of the eight self-created questions were modified and two additional demographic questions were added prior to administering the survey in two freshmen courses (environmental and civil engineering) and an Engineering for the Developing World course for seniors and graduate students in fall 2007. The results from the survey and evaluation of its usefulness are presented.
Psychotherapy is a Western method of treating mental illness. Culturally adapting psychotherapy to better meet the needs of ethnic minorities is an important endeavor. Hall et al. (2011) did an excellent job of reviewing the intersection and divergence between Asian culture and mindfulness and acceptance-based therapies. They also point out that some therapies can be naturally syntonic with Asian American cultural values and belief systems. This is especially important given cultural differences between the East and West. Below, I provide an overview of the complexities involved in adapting treatments for diverse clients. I also discuss the importance of deconstructing stereotypes and understanding the complex interplay between clinical and cultural issues. Individualization of treatment for diverse clients can be achieved through culturally formed practice. PMID:21966098
Kobayashi, Yutaka; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi
Culture can grow cumulatively if socially learnt behaviors are improved by individual learning before being passed on to the next generation. Previous authors showed that this kind of learning strategy is unlikely to be evolutionarily stable in the presence of a trade-off between learning and reproduction. This is because culture is a public good that is freely exploited by any member of the population in their model (cultural social dilemma). In this paper, we investigate the effect of vertical transmission (transmission from parents to offspring), which decreases the publicness of culture, on the evolution of cumulative culture in both infinite and finite population models. In the infinite population model, we confirm that culture accumulates largely as long as transmission is purely vertical. It turns out, however, that introduction of even slight oblique transmission drastically reduces the equilibrium level of culture. Even more surprisingly, if the population size is finite, culture hardly accumulates even under purely vertical transmission. This occurs because stochastic extinction due to random genetic drift prevents a learning strategy from accumulating enough culture. Overall, our theoretical results suggest that introducing vertical transmission alone does not really help solve the cultural social dilemma problem. PMID:25979371
This paper examines recent debates about the role of what Bourdieu termed cultural intermediaries in the formation and reproduction of the relations of cultural capital. Workers in the cultural or creative industries were given a central place in Bourdieu's schema in the creation of hierarchies of value in the production and consumption of symbolic goods. Subsequent writers about the apparent emergence of a creative economy (Lash and Urry 1994; Featherstone 1991) have given workers involved in the production and distribution of cultural goods a pivotal place in the development of late or post-modernity. More recent work (Negus 2002; Nixon and du Gay 2002) has criticized the validity and coherence of the term as it has come to be understood and called for more rigour in its definition and use. This paper adds to this debate by considering the book trade as a space in which the gap between production and consumption of cultural goods is mediated. It suggests that cultural intermediaries, as cultural workers, are engaged in the reproduction of the cultural aspects of social class by 'shoring up' their insecure position in the relations of cultural capital, rather than simply being the taste leaders of a reflexive modernity. PMID:15777465
Sigmund Freud: Conflict and Culture was organized by the Library of Congress in cooperation with the Sigmund Freud-Museum, Vienna and the Freud Museum, London. The exhibit features vintage photographs, prints, and original manuscripts. In addition, selected film and television clips, along with materials from newspapers, magazines, and comic books, are interwoven throughout the exhibition to highlight the influence of psychoanalysis on popular culture. The physical exhibition is composed of three major sections. Section one, Formative Years, highlights the milieu of Freud's early professional development in late nineteenth-century Vienna. Section two, The Individual: Therapy and Theory, examines key psychoanalytic concepts and how Freud used them in some of his most famous cases. Lastly, section three, From the Individual to Society, focuses on the diffusion of psychoanalytic ideas and Freud's speculations about the origins of society, the social functions of religion and art, and how crises reveal fundamental aspects of human nature. On the whole, the exhibition offers a moderate examination of Freud's life and his key ideas, as well as their effect upon the twentieth century.
Lohrmann, Hans-Peter; Graw, Carole M.; Graw, Robert G.
Lymphocytes, stimulated with different doses of plant mitogens or allogeneic cells, incorporate varying amounts of [3H]thymidine. Theoretically, this may be due to different numbers of responding cells, to earlier proliferative response of these cells, and/or to their more or less rapid transit through the cell cycle. Dog peripheral blood lymphocytes were stimulated in vitro with different doses of phytohemagglutinin (PHA), or with allogeneic lymphocytes. After their synchronization by incubation with hydroxyurea (4 mM), the mean durations of the cell cycle, and of the different cell cycle phases were constant and unrelated to strength or type of stimulation. PHA-stimulated lymphocyte cultures were maintained in the presence of colchicine, to prevent clonal proliferation of responding lymphocytes. DNA uptake in this setting, attributed to first generation responders, was related to the strength of proliferative lymphocyte response in control cultures without colchicine. Furthermore, cell proliferation occurred earlier with greater stimulation. It is concluded that higher [3H]thymidine uptake in vitro by stimulated lymphocytes is due to greater numbers of responding cells, which are triggered into proliferative response earlier, and not to a more rapid transit of the responding cells through the cell cycle. PMID:4825240
El Khéchine, Amel; Henry, Mireille; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel
The laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis mainly relies on the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) organisms in the sputum. In patients who do not give sputum, alternative respiratory tract specimens can be obtained only by invasive procedures. Based on the known survival of MTC organisms in the gastric fluid, we hypothesized that swallowed MTC organisms would be detectable in stool samples. We compared the presence of MTC organisms in respiratory tract specimens and stool specimens collected in parallel from the same patients. MTC was detected in cultures grown on egg-based medium after appropriate decontamination, by microscopic examination after Ziehl-Neelsen staining and by real-time PCR detection of IS6110 using internal controls. A case of pulmonary tuberculosis was defined by the presence of (i) clinical and radiological signs and symptoms suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis, and (ii) culture of MTC organisms from at least one respiratory tract specimen or (iii) the presence of acid-fast bacilli in the sputum that were subsequently identified as MTC organisms by real-time PCR. The observation of 134 patients suspected to be suffering pulmonary tuberculosis led to the identification of 24 cases and 110 non-infected control patients. Cases and controls did not significantly differ with respect to sex but cases were significantly younger than controls. The sensitivity/specificity was 37.5%/100% for the microscopic examination of stools, 54.2%/100% for culturing and 100%/97.3% for real-time PCR. The positive predicted value was 100%, 100% and 88.9%, respectively, and the negative predicted value was 88%, 90.9% and 100%, respectively. In four patients, a stool specimen initially yielded the correct diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis before evaluation of the respiratory tract specimen confirmed the diagnosis. These data indicate that stools could be used in conjunction with sputum testing or as an alternative specimen upon which to base the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis by molecular identification of acid-fast bacilli and culture. This non-invasive alternative procedure is of particular interest for patients who cannot expectorate. PMID:19389783
Carew, D P; Bainbridge, T
Suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus, Apocynum cannabinum and Conium maculatum were examined for their capacity to transform aniline, anisole, acetanilide, benzoic acid and coumarin. None of the cultures transformed acetanilide but each produced acetanilide when fed aniline. All three cultures converted benzoic acid to its para-hydroxy derivative. Coumarin was selectively hydroxylated at the 7-position by Catharanthus and Conium and anisole was O-demethylated only by older Catharanthus tissue. PMID:1084950
Conclusions Today there is a need to coordinate laws and policies on the national, regional and global level in order to encourage and\\u000a realise cultural diversity. In the field of cinema, that exemplified the issues and solutions at stake for the purposes of\\u000a this paper, market mechanisms have so far failed to preserve and promote cultural diversity. Cultural diversity can be
Schloeder, D; Schori-Ahmed, D
When the merging of organizational cultures comes together, a plan must be implemented to market the new organization to the community. Community, in this instance, is defined as the patients, employees, physicians, insurers, and any others who may be affected by a change in the health care system. This article focuses on a merging organizational culture and the marketing of that new culture. PMID:10373985
Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; LaDuc, Myron; Stuecker, Tara
A method of discriminating between spore-forming and non-spore-forming bacteria is based on a combination of simultaneous sporulation-specific and non-sporulation-specific quantitative polymerase chain reactions (Q-PCRs). The method was invented partly in response to the observation that for the purposes of preventing or reducing biological contamination affecting many human endeavors, ultimately, only the spore-forming portions of bacterial populations are the ones that are problematic (or, at least, more problematic than are the non-spore-forming portions). In some environments, spore-forming bacteria constitute small fractions of the total bacterial populations. The use of sporulation-specific primers in Q-PCR affords the ability to assess the spore-forming fraction of a bacterial population present in an environment of interest. This assessment can provide a more thorough and accurate understanding of the bacterial contamination in the environment, thereby making it possible to focus contamination- testing, contamination-prevention, sterilization, and decontamination resources more economically and efficiently. The method includes the use of sporulation-specific primers in the form of designed, optimized deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) oligonucleotides specific for the bacterial spoIVA gene (see table). [In "spoIVA," "IV" signifies Roman numeral four and the entire quoted name refers to gene A for the fourth stage of sporulation.] These primers are mixed into a PCR cocktail with a given sample of bacterial cells. A control PCR cocktail into which are mixed universal 16S rRNA primers is also prepared. ["16S rRNA" denotes a ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequence that is common to all organisms.] Following several cycles of heating and cooling according to the PCR protocol to amplify amounts of DNA molecules, the amplification products can be analyzed to determine the types of bacterial cells present within the samples. If the amplification product is strong, relative to the product of a control PCR sequence, then it is concluded that the bacterial population in the sample consists predominantly of spore-forming cells. If the amplification product is weak or nonexistent, then it is concluded that the bacterial population in the sample consists predominantly or entirely of non-spore-forming cells.
Elbaz, Ashraf F; Sobhi, Ahmed; ElMekawy, Ahmed
The discovery of novel bacterial cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) enzyme could provide advantages in terms of its production and relative activity. In this study, eight bacterial strains isolated from soils of a biodiversity-rich vegetation in Egypt based on their hydrolyzing activity of starch, were screened for CGTase activity, where the most active strain was identified as Bacillus lehensis. Optimization process revealed that the using of rice starch (25%) and a mixture of peptone/yeast extract (1%) at pH 10.5 and 37 °C for 24 h improved the bacterial growth and enzyme activity. The bacterial CGTase was successively purified by acetone precipitation, gel filtration chromatography in a Sephadex G-100 column and ion exchange chromatography in a DEAE-cellulose column. The specific activity of the CGTase was increased approximately 274-fold, from 0.21 U/mg protein in crude broth to 57.7 U/mg protein after applying the DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. SDS-PAGE showed that the purified CGTase was homogeneous with a molecular weight of 74.1 kDa. Characterization of the enzyme exhibited optimum pH and temperature of 7 and 60 °C, respectively. CGTase relative activity was strongly inhibited by Mg(2+), Zn(2+), Al(3+) and K(+), while it was slightly enhanced by 5 and 9% with Cu(2+) and Fe(2+) metal ions, respectively. PMID:25362891
Claidière, Nicolas; Scott-Phillips, Thomas C.; Sperber, Dan
Darwin-inspired population thinking suggests approaching culture as a population of items of different types, whose relative frequencies may change over time. Three nested subtypes of populational models can be distinguished: evolutionary, selectional and replicative. Substantial progress has been made in the study of cultural evolution by modelling it within the selectional frame. This progress has involved idealizing away from phenomena that may be critical to an adequate understanding of culture and cultural evolution, particularly the constructive aspect of the mechanisms of cultural transmission. Taking these aspects into account, we describe cultural evolution in terms of cultural attraction, which is populational and evolutionary, but only selectional under certain circumstances. As such, in order to model cultural evolution, we must not simply adjust existing replicative or selectional models but we should rather generalize them, so that, just as replicator-based selection is one form that Darwinian selection can take, selection itself is one of several different forms that attraction can take. We present an elementary formalization of the idea of cultural attraction. PMID:24686939
Spaulding, Glenn F. (inventor)
An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.
This lesson will help students understand the cultural nature of scientific research. Students explore famous scientists, their theories, places of origin, and their culture. They document scientific viewpoints of famous scientists throughout history and discuss geographical region, culture, gender, and other factors effecting scientific theories and discoveries. This activity helps students understand the cultural nature of scientific research and how people interpret science in different ways based on their social environments. This activity is one of several in the Swift: Eyes through Time collection available on the Teachers' Domain website.
Gelfand, Michele; Shteynberg, Garriy; Lee, Tiane; Lun, Janetta; Lyons, Sarah; Bell, Chris; Chiao, Joan Y; Bruss, C Bayan; Al Dabbagh, May; Aycan, Zeynep; Abdel-Latif, Abdel-Hamid; Dagher, Munqith; Khashan, Hilal; Soomro, Nazar
Anecdotal evidence abounds that conflicts between two individuals can spread across networks to involve a multitude of others. We advance a cultural transmission model of intergroup conflict where conflict contagion is seen as a consequence of universal human traits (ingroup preference, outgroup hostility; i.e. parochial altruism) which give their strongest expression in particular cultural contexts. Qualitative interviews conducted in the Middle East, USA and Canada suggest that parochial altruism processes vary across cultural groups and are most likely to occur in collectivistic cultural contexts that have high ingroup loyalty. Implications for future neuroscience and computational research needed to understand the emergence of intergroup conflict are discussed. PMID:22271785
Akhavan Sepahy, Abbas; Jabalameli, Leila
Soil samples of Tehran jungle parks were screened for proteolytic Bacilli. Among eighteen protease producers one of the isolates obtained from Lavizan park, in north east of Tehran, was selected for further experimental studies. This isolate was identified as Bacillus sp. strain CR-179 based on partial sequencing of 16S rRNA. Various nutritional and environmental parameters affected protease production by Bacillus sp. strain CR-179. Protease production by this Bacillus cultivated in liquid cultures reached a maximum at 24?h, with levels of 340.908?U/mL. Starch and maltose were the best substrates for enzyme production while some pure sugars such as fructose, glucose, and sucrose could not influence production of protease. Among various organic nitrogen sources corn steep liquor, which is commercial, was found as the best substrate followed by yeast extract, whey protein, and beef extract. The optimal pH and optimal temperature of enzyme production were 8.0 and 45°C, respectively. Studies on enzymatic characterization revealed that crude protease showed maximum activity at pH 9.0 and 60°C, which is indicating the enzyme to be thermoalkaline protease. PMID:22191016
Goold, Annegret; Craig, Annemieke; Coldwell, Jo
The term "culture" has been in common use for a long time. However there is no universally accepted definition and hence it is important to define clearly what culture means in a particular research context. The research reported here is part of a project undertaken at a large Australian university in late 2005. The overall aim of the project was…
This manual provides a basic understanding of cultural differences that teachers are likely to encounter among exceptional children in their classrooms. The manual aims to create an atmosphere where children respect individual differences in themselves and in others. Several cultures are introduced, including Arabic Lebanese, Hispanic, Native…
Cogan, T M; Beresford, T P; Steele, J; Broadbent, J; Shah, N P; Ustunol, Z
With 2005 retail sales close to $4.8 million, cultured dairy products are driving the growth of dairy foods consumption. Starter cultures are of great industrial significance in that they play a vital role in the manufacturing, flavor, and texture development of fermented dairy foods. Furthermore, additional interest in starter bacteria has been generated because of the data accumulating on the potential health benefits of these organisms. Today, starter cultures for fermented foods are developed mainly by design rather than by the traditional screening methods and trial and error. Advances in genetics and molecular biology have provided opportunities for genomic studies of these economically significant organisms and engineering of cultures that focuses on rational improvement of the industrially useful strain. Furthermore, much research has been published on the health benefits associated with ingesting cultured dairy foods and probiotics, particularly their role in modulating immune function. The aim of this review is to describe some of the major scientific advances made in starter and non-starter lactic acid bacteria during the past 10 yr, including genomic studies on dairy starter cultures, engineering of culture attributes, advances in phage control, developments in methods to enumerate lactic acid bacteria and probiotics in dairy foods, and the potential role of cultured dairy foods in modulation of immune function. PMID:17699017
This paper is concerned with research into the stakeholder positions that exist in destinations hosting community cultural festivals. The investigation explores the contribution of stakeholders in the survival of regional community cultural festivals. Each of four festivals fills an important role in its community’s annual portfolio of leisure activities. The case study festivals have been conducted for between 10 to
Aldred, Nannette, Ed.; Ryle, Martin, Ed.
This book contains 12 papers that trace the connections and tensions between the original aims and forms of cultural studies in Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the current settings, goals, and methodologies of cultural studies. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (Nannette Aldred and Martin Ryle); "Marginal Occupations: Adult…
In this article, I examine two hypotheses of language origins: the extended mirror system hypothesis and the vocal grooming hypothesis. These conflict in several respects, partly because their authors were trained in different disciplines and influenced by different kinds of evidence. I note some ethnographic/linguistic and psychological issues which, in my view, have not been sufficiently considered by these authors, and present a ‘play and display’ hypothesis which aims to explain the evolution, not of language, but of the ‘culture ready brain’—with apologies to Arbib for so extending his original concept. In the second half of the article, I will test all three hypotheses against the available fossil, archaeological and neuroimaging evidence. PMID:20558409
Sariyer, Ilker Kudret
Efficient transfection of genes into neurons is a crucial step for the study of neuronal cell biology and functions. These include but are not limited to investigating gene function by overexpression of target proteins via expression plasmids and knocking down the expression levels of neuronal genes by RNA interference (RNAi). In addition, reporter gene constructs are widely used to investigate the promoter activities of neuronal genes. Numerous transfection techniques have been established to deliver genes into the cells. However, efficient transfection of post-mitotic cells, including neurons, still remains a challenging task. Here, we overview the advantages and disadvantages of various techniques for the transfection of primary neurons, and provide an optimized protocol for FuGENE-6 (Promega) which allows a suitable transfection efficiency of primary neuronal cultures. PMID:23975826
The Celtic Art and Cultures Website was originally created for art history students at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill and can now be used by any would-be student of Celtic Art with access to a newer Web browser. The main feature of the site is its multimedia database of Celtic-related images, maps, timelines, and vocabulary aids complete with spoken pronunciations. Images can be viewed by period, material, object, and country. If you find yourself uncertain of which time period or object type to choose, as I did, helpful information is available in the Maps & Timelines section. The course syllabus, which can be found under site info, also provides an overview of Celtic Art.
> Abstract A typical, small encatchment (catena Bölkendorf) in the moraine, northeast German agricultural landscape Schorfheide-Chorin was studied with respect to summit, midslope, and foot-slope positions at northern and southern slope exposure, respectively, including a central noncultivated kettle hole position (pot hole). Across the sequence of seven distinct sampling positions, soil organic carbon and total nitrogen contents, soil gravimetric water content, and soil microbial biomass displayed maxima at the kettle hole position. Soil pH revealed a decreasing trend at the northern exposed slope and a minimum at the kettle hole position. Against this background, the population density of total culturable bacteria clearly displayed a minimum at the kettle hole position, whereas the population density of carboxymethylcellulose decomposing bacteria was not clearly differentiated in relation to sampling positions. To study the phylogenetic diversity of culturable cellulolytic bacteria, 311 isolates were obtained from the sampling positions across the entire encatchment and examined by restriction analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA. Using the restriction enzyme ScrFI, isolates were classified into 31 pattern groups. Although the ratio of actinomycetes within total isolates ranged from 0.73 to 0.94, only 16 pattern groups originated from actinomycetes, but 15 from other bacteria. At all sampling positions, a dominant pattern group was identified, containing 38 to 65% of total isolates. Two site-specific pattern groups could be identified, representing significant parts of the total population, which were highly specific for the kettle hole (19% of total isolates) and for foot- and midslope positions (15-18% of total isolates), respectively. In general, the composition of cellulolytic isolates across the encatchment displayed differences with respect to slope positions, but was not significantly affected by soil properties. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, isolates of the dominant as well as the specific pattern groups could be assigned to the genus Streptomyces. Furthermore, sequencing of 16S rDNA of isolates of another three pattern groups revealed a high phylogenetic diversity among these isolates, including cellulomonads and bacilli.http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00248/bibs/37n4p238.html PMID:10341053
After studying the culture and art of the ancient civilizations of South America, Mesopotamia, Greece, and Egypt, secondary level art students made spirit boxes as expressions of the various cultures. How to make the boxes and how to prepare the face molds are described. (RM)
Hwang, Eun Jin
As a critical unit for identifying family-constructed meanings of education, a deeper contextual understanding of Korean immigrant parents' cultural/ethnic perceptions in relation to educational beliefs should be central to culturally responsive education designed to support Korean immigrant families. It is necessary for educators to examine…
This study aims to investigate the cultural identity of Korean English and to make the intercultural communications among non-native speakers successful. The purposes of this study can be summarized as follows: 1) to recognize the concept of English as an International Language (EIL), 2) to emphasize cross-cultural understanding in the globalized…
The entire history of the human race has been marked by transfers of cultural advances from one civilization to another. Suggests that those using cultural diversity to promote ethnic enclaves may be cutting off those ethnic groups from the knowledge, skills, and resources that Western civilization has gleaned from other world civilizations. (CJS)
Kotani, H; McGarrity, G J
Studies were performed to characterize the effects of ureaplasmas in HeLa, 3T6, and CV-1 cell cultures. The ureaplasmas studied were human Ureaplasma urealyticum T960 (serotype VIII), bovine U. diversum T95, simian strain T167-2, ovine strain 1202, canine strain D1M-C, and feline strains 382 and FT2-B. FT2-B was the only ureaplasma to grow in the cell free culture medium, Dulbecco modified Eagle-Earle medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum. The growth pattern of the ureaplasmas varied in the different cell cultures, but each strain grew in at least two of the cell cultures, suggesting a requirement for a product of the cell culture and for low concentrations of urea. When growth occurred, organisms grew to concentrations that approached, but did not equal, those observed in 10B broth. Most, but not all, ureaplasmas grew quickly, reaching peak titers 2 days after infection. Canine strain D1M-C did not grow in 3T6, but showed rapid growth in HeLa and CV-1 cells, killing both cultures, In some systems, e.g., U. urealyticum T960 and simian strain T167-2, the infection persisted, and ureaplasmas could be recovered from cell cultures four passages after infection, when studies were terminated. The cell culture ureaplasmas grew on T agar, but not on mycoplasma agar medium. Images PMID:3699891
Peace lifestyles are possible in social environments that endorse peace activism. This discussion of community change processes provides an outline of mechanisms needed for successful community activism working at the cultural level. The Community Peace Cultures Program (CPCP) is an approach to building supportive environments for peace…
Tamariz, Mónica; Kirby, Simon
Through cultural transmission, repeated learning by new individuals transforms cultural information, which tends to become increasingly compressible (Kirby, Cornish, & Smith, 2008; Smith, Tamariz, & Kirby, 2013). Existing diffusion chain studies include in their design two processes that could be responsible for this tendency: learning…
and culture, interact with Chinese students and businesses followed by a 5 day business visit to internationalMGMT228 Chinese Business Practices and Culture School of Business and Economics 2014business Costs information on the course, or to apply: email: email@example.com web: www.bsec.canterbury.ac.nz/international-business
David Y. F. Ho
Internalized culture is introduced as a psychological, rather than anthropological, construct most useful to counselors. It addresses explicitly both between-group and within-group variations resulting from individual differences in enculturation, and helps to sensitize counselors against overgeneralization and stereotyping. An explication of the construct leads to the problem of defining cultural boundaries. Serious difficulties in definition arise especially when three classes
A five-year course sequence focusing on the relationship of language and culture in world history is described. The program, beginning in grade 3, prepares students for later study of foreign and classical languages, develops English language skills, and cultivates general cultural interest. At the first level, students are introduced to some…
Three New American High Schools (in Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and Greenbelt, Maryland) have successfully replaced the special-education culture of separation with a culture of inclusion. A large part of moving from self-contained practices to inclusion was helping students become self-advocates, so that the world outside school and home would not…
Richard Eckersley; Keith Dear
Youth suicide has risen in most developed nations over the past 50 years, especially among males, but the increase remains to be explained. Statistical analyses were used to examine associations between youth suicide rates in 11–21 mainly Western, developed nations and 32 socio-economic and cultural variables. The central hypothesis was that suicide rates would be correlated with various cultural measures
The Title III Quarterly, 1973
Title III projects dealing with cultural diversity in the classroom are described in this issue of the Title III Quarterly. Major articles are devoted to the following projects: Two Arts Culture Three Project, developing the crafts and music of mountain whites, blacks, and Cherokees; the Rota Bilingual Project, the Marianas District, emphasizing…
School culture is unique, which has a lot to do with the unpredictable and sometimes irrational behavior that can occur at the bargaining table. When confronting the uniqueness of school cultures, the key to understanding and leading through the trials and tribulations of collective bargaining is to recognize the uniqueness of the people who enter…
Elizabeth McKinley; Pauline Mcpherson Waiti; Beverley Bell
An area for future research in science education is that of the interaction of language, culture and science education. This paper outlines the background to current debates and development work in language, culture and science education in New Zealand, with respect to the indigenous Maori people. Concern about the participation and achievement of Maori students in science education has led
Philip R. Harris
This paper explains the concept of cultural synergy and provides a contrast of societies that could be characterized as having high or low synergy, as well as organizational culture that reflects high and low synergy. Within organizations, the research insights reported here center on behaviors and practices that contribute to synergy and success among teams, particularly in terms of international
Anastasios A. Economides
Purpose – In a collaborative learning environment there will be many learners with diverse cultures. These learners should be supported to communicate and collaborate among themselves. The variety of the communication and collaboration tools and modes available to each learner would depend on his\\/her personal cultural background. The purpose of this paper is to suggest the adaptation of the collaborative
Walter, Ann; Grant, Samantha
Culturally Responsive Youth Work: The Journey Matters is based on the theory that when knowledge and skills are found within the lived experiences and cultural contexts of youth, they are more meaningful and more engaging and are learned more easily (Gay, 2000). The program was evaluated using a retrospective pre-then-post test evaluation and…
Julianne Lutz Newton; William C. Sullivan
Civil societies are related in complex ways with the nature that surrounds them. Drawing upon ecological principles, social, economic, and political theories, and empirical evidence from environmental psychology, we explore the ongoing dialectic between nature and culture—how humans alter nature and nature alters humans, their cultures and associations—with particular reference to civil society. In our view, civil society scholars overlook
emotional support: identification · Education in health, hygiene, diet: self-responsibility · Physical 1952 · Trained at the College of Physical Education, Tashkent & Moscow · `Soviet Honour Master of Sport. Aims of Soviet Olympic Culture 1951-91 Building a physical sports culture Prestige 2. Civic
Miller, Carol F.
This syllabus introduces the purposes and organization of a course on Popular Culture as evidence of American civilization offered at Meramec Community College. The guide first presents a rationale for the study of popular culture and then lists course requirements; discusses techniques such as comparative analysis and psychoanalytic investigation…
Simpkins, Sandra D; Riggs, Nathaniel R
Increasing ethnic diversity among American youth, in combination with funding priorities often targeting underserved populations, has increased the number of diverse youth attending afterschool programs (ASPs). At present, there is little guidance on how to best design ASPs and prepare staff to support the development of these diverse youth. The fields of medicine and education have begun to explore the impact of cultural competence at the organizational, structural, and professional levels to help bridge potential cultural divides. This chapter will briefly review the literature on cultural competence and emerging evidence within ASPs. It will then provide concrete examples of how afterschool programs have infused culturally tailored content and/or staff trainings to build cultural competence. Finally, specific recommendations will be made to serve as a springboard for future research and practice. PMID:25537353
Brislin, Robert W., Ed.
The twelve papers included in this second volume of Topics in Culture are related to the Institute's four areas of research interest: cultural identity, cultures in contact, language in culture, and thought and expression in cultural learning. The articles also examine one or more of four themes which transcend the four research areas: learning…
This paper is first to exemplify the problems caused by culture difference. After this, a survey is made on Chinese -western culture difference and its main aspects, followed by the Chinese and western culture difference on the layer of language. In the second part the discussion of the relationship between language and culture reveals the importance of culture education in
Mark V. Flinn
Applications of modern evolutionary theory to human culture have generated several different theoretical approaches that challenge traditional anthropological perspectives. “Cultural selection” and “mind parasite” theories model culture as an independent evolutionary system because transmission of cultural traits via social learning is distinct from transmission of genes via DNA replication. “Dual-inheritance” and “co-evolution” theories model culture as an intermediary evolutionary process
Kleymeyer, C D
The importance of culture in economic development is discussed based on 10 years of case reports in the publication, Grassroots Development. Cultural energy is considered important for the launching, sustainment, and expansion of programs; yet, only 10% of IAF Foundation grants over 20 years have focused on cultural energy as a tool for development. By the late 1960s development theorists blamed the lack of progress on "backward looking traditional cultures." In Latin America culture was seen as an obstacle to be overcome rather than an opportunity. The debt and environmental crisis of the 1980s has opened the doors to new methods. A recent study of the Aymara and Mapuche in Chile found that uprooting local culture meant loss of land, cultural roots, and social relationships, as well as loss of stewardship of the environment. The Kuna is Panama were seen as successful in combining traditional ways with Western ideas in formation of an ecological park; this was accomplished through self-confidence and self-will in grassroots development. However, the Kuna have also undergone changes and the ancestral view of nature and humanity's place in it is being undermined. The acculturation of the young may leave an emptiness that is neither Panamanian nor Kuna. The Chimborazo Indians in the highlands of Ecuador have only achieved moderate success in eliminating poverty in spite of international efforts which imposed development schemes onto the community. The Feria Educativa (Educational Fair) was formed among indigenous volunteers working with the Serviceo Ecuatoriano de Voluntarios-Chimborazo to promote culture and self-help. Members enter the community only when invited; the program uses puppets and sociodramas to portray common problems such as illiteracy and stimulate group participation. Their efforts have been successful in establishing literacy, reforestation, and economic activity programs. The Kuna shopped among Western ideas to chose ones appropriate to their culture and the Chimborazo look to their cultural past for ideas to use in the modern context. An example is given of cultural awareness and participatory evaluation among the Sikuani Indians in Colombia. How to tap cultural energy and the prospects for culture-based development are discussed as resourceful ways to promote development and community action. PMID:12286186
Darbinyan, Armine; Pozniak, Paul; Darbinian, Nune; White, Martyn K.; Khalili, Kamel
The culturing of neurons results in formation of the layer of neurons with random extensive overlapping outgrowth. To understand specific roles of somas, axons and dendrites in complex function of neurons and to identify molecular mechanisms of biological processes in these cellular compartments various methods were developed. We utilized AXon Investigation System (AXIS™) manufactured by Millipore. This device provides an opportunity to orient neuronal outgrowth and spatially isolate neuronal processes from neuronal bodies. AXIS device is a slide-mounted microfluidic system, which consists of four wells. Two of the wells are connected by a channel on each side of the device (Figure 12.1). Channels are connected by microgrooves (approximately 120). The size of microgrooves (10 ?m in width and 5 ?m in height) do not permit passage of cell through while allowing extension of neurites. The microfluidic design also allows an establishment of a hydrostatic gradient when the volume in one chamber is greater than that in the other (1). This feature allows studying of the effect of specific compounds on selected compartments of neurons. PMID:23975828
Bétrémieux, P; Mannoni, C
The period of palliative care is a difficult time for parents and caregivers because they are all weakened by the proximity of death. First of all, because of religious and cultural differences, parents and families cannot easily express their beliefs or the rituals they are required to develop; second, this impossibility results in conflicts between the caregiver team and the family with consequences for both. Caregivers are concerned to allow the expression of religious beliefs and cultural demands because it is assumed that they may promote the work of mourning by relating the dead child to its family and roots. However, caregivers' fear not knowing the cultural context to which the family belongs and having inappropriate words or gestures, as sometimes families dare not, cannot, or do not wish to describe their cultural background. We attempt to differentiate what relates to culture and to religion and attempt to identify areas of potential disagreement between doctors, staff, and family. Everyone has to work with the parents to open a space of freedom that is not limited by cultural and religious assumptions. The appropriation of medical anthropology concepts allows caregivers to understand simply the obligations imposed on parents by their culture and/or their religion and open access to their wishes. Sometimes help from interpreters, mediators, ethnopsychologists, and religious representatives is needed to understand this reality. PMID:23896086
Safety Management has lately been considered by some Nuclear Regulatory agencies as the tool on which to concentrate their efforts to implement modern regulation structures, because Safety Culture was said to be difficult to monitor. However, Safety Culture can be assessed and monitored even if it is problematical to make Safety Culture the object of regulation. This paper stresses the feasibility and importance of Safety Culture Assessment based on self-assessment applications performed in several nuclear organizations in Latin America. Reasons and ownership for assessing Safety Culture are discussed, and relevant aspects considered for setting up and programming such an assessment are shown. Basic principles that were taken into account, as well as financial and human resources used in actual self-assessments are reviewed, including the importance of adequate statistical analyses and the necessity of proper feed-back of results. The setting up of action plans to enhance Safety Culture is the final step of the assessment program that once implemented will enable to establish a Safety Culture monitoring process within the organization.
Grosse, Christine Uber; Uber, David
Eight business Spanish texts were examined to learn about the cultural content of the business Spanish curriculum. Questions of cultural topics and themes, presentation of cultural information, activities and techniques, and use of authentic materials were considered. (16 references) (LB)
... in which most people share the same religion, religious beliefs significantly shape the culture's worldview. Each culture's ... find out more about the customs and mourning practices of a person from another culture, consider talking ...
are strongly committed to documenting, preserving, and making accessible the continent's cultural heritage' identifying their cultural heritage. Safeguarding and making accessible the artifacts, oral histories are important cultural heritage priorities that were recognized at the second annual conference and general
Eagle Feather Tutoring Native American Cultural Center 218 Lory Student Center Colorado State American Cultural Center NACC #12;The Eagle Feather Tutoring Program Mission Statement: The Eagle Feather Feather Tutoring Program Native American Cultural Center NACC #12;
Ying Wang; Linxin Zheng
The paper starts from an investigation on the intangible cultural heritage and cultural creative industry in Hangzhou. Based on some research and analysis of the investigation results, this paper associates intangible cultural heritage with cultural creative industry and puts forward that cultural creative industry will be one of the best opportunities for intangible cultural heritage and the latter will promote
Centola, Damon; Gonzalez-Avella, Juan Carlos; Eguiluz, Victor M.; San Miguel, Maxi
Studies of cultural differentiation have shown that social mechanisms that normally lead to cultural convergence--homophily and influence--can also explain how distinct cultural groups can form. However, this emergent cultural diversity has proven to be unstable in the face of cultural drift--small errors or innovations that allow cultures to…
W. Wernicke; R. I. S. Brettell
Summary In this paper we present further studies on the generation of tissue cultures from leaves of the cerealSorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. It could be shown that during differentiation the leaf tissue rapidly loses the ability to respond to conventional tissue culture techniques. This was probably related to a loss of sensitivity towards 2,4-D, an otherwise most potent growth regulator
McGraw, John J.; Wallot, Sebastian; Mitkidis, Panagiotis; Roepstorff, Andreas
One of the most essential but theoretically vexing issues regarding the notion of culture is that of cultural evolution and transmission: how a group’s accumulated solutions to invariant challenges develop and persevere over time. But at the moment, the notion of applying evolutionary theory to culture remains little more than a suggestive trope. Whereas the modern synthesis of evolutionary theory has provided an encompassing scientific framework for the selection and transmission of biological adaptations, a convincing theory of cultural evolution has yet to emerge. One of the greatest challenges for theorists is identifying the appropriate time scales and units of analysis in order to reduce the intractably large and complex phenomenon of “culture” into its component “building blocks.” In this paper, we present a model for scientifically investigating cultural processes by analyzing the ways people develop conventions in a series of LEGO construction tasks. The data revealed a surprising pattern in the selection of building bricks as well as features of car design across consecutive building sessions. Our findings support a novel methodology for studying the development and transmission of culture through the microcosm of interactive LEGO design and assembly. PMID:25309482
Tamariz, Mónica; Kirby, Simon
Through cultural transmission, repeated learning by new individuals transforms cultural information, which tends to become increasingly compressible (Kirby, Cornish, & Smith, ; Smith, Tamariz, & Kirby, ). Existing diffusion chain studies include in their design two processes that could be responsible for this tendency: learning (storing patterns in memory) and reproducing (producing the patterns again). This paper manipulates the presence of learning in a simple iterated drawing design experiment. We find that learning seems to be the causal factor behind the increase in compressibility observed in the transmitted information, while reproducing is a source of random heritable innovations. Only a theory invoking these two aspects of cultural learning will be able to explain human culture's fundamental balance between stability and innovation. PMID:25039798
Seaborg, Glenn T.
Federal financial assistance to the arts and the sciences, including that provided for higher education, will tend to unite the Two Cultures'' and help direct education from a focus on earning a living'' to total living.'' (AL)
Rappel, Michael J
Islet transplantation has become a promising treatment for type I diabetes mellitus due to recent success since the development of the Edmonton Protocol. Islet culture prior to transplantation is standard practice in most ...
A schoolteacher recollects her second teaching job experience at a predominately African American high school. She learnt cultural differences in communication, social interaction, ways of responding, and linguistic style.
W. A. Glooschenko; H. Curl
A COMMUNICATION from Lafeber and Steenbergen1 described a ``simple device for obtaining synchronous cultures of algae''. They stated that Scenedesmus obliquus, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, and Chlorella vulgaris all underwent synchronous cell division induced by the photo-period used.
Perks and Culture · Competitive compensation · Health coverage and wellness program · 401(k) plan path with a variety of new jobs and skills · Active recent graduate community · Diversity and inclusion
Bedouin women tend to remain quiet and expressionless while giving birth despite reporting high levels of pain and fear (Harrison 1991). Culture undoubtedly influences pain perception and expression but there are dangers in making assumptions about particular groups. This article explores the underlying research and the complex clinical picture highlighting the need for cultural awareness--but ultimately we must care for the individual person in pain. PMID:19051959
C. P. Gause
\\u000a The intersection of classes, cultures, and ethnic identities occur in public spaces (Robbins, 1993). Schools are public spaces\\u000a that foster social solidarity, group identification, and community (Carlson & Apple, 1998). Depending upon the culture and\\u000a climate of schools, these public spaces may also produce alienation for some students (Delpit, 1995; Ladson-Billings, 1997).\\u000a Some schools are, in fact, sites of ongoing
Twigg, Julia; Martin, Wendy
Over the last decade, Cultural Gerontology has emerged as one of the most vibrant elements of writing about age (Twigg, J., & Martin, W. (Eds.) (2015). The Routledge handbook of cultural gerontology. London: Routledge). Reflecting the wider Cultural Turn, it has expanded the field of gerontology beyond all recognition. No longer confined to frailty, or the dominance of medical and social welfare perspectives, cultural gerontology addresses the nature and experience of later years in the widest sense. In this review, we will explore how the Cultural Turn, which occurred across the social sciences and humanities in the late 20th century, came to influence age studies. We will analyze the impulses that led to the emergence of the field and the forces that have inhibited or delayed its development. We will explore how cultural gerontology has recast aging studies, widening its theoretical and substantive scope, taking it into new territory intellectually and politically, presenting this in terms of 4 broad themes that characterize the work: subjectivity and identity; the body and embodiment; representation and the visual; and time and space. Finally, we will briefly address whether there are problems in the approach. PMID:24974388
Strathmann, Richard R
Larvae of marine invertebrates cultured in the laboratory experience conditions that they do not encounter in nature, but development and survival to metamorphic competence can be obtained in such cultures. This protocol emphasizes simple methods suitable for a wide variety of larvae. Culturing larvae requires seawater of adequate quality and temperature within the tolerated range. Beyond that, feeding larvae require appropriate food, but a few kinds of algae and animals are sufficient as food for diverse larvae. Nontoxic materials include glass, many plastics, hot-melt glue, and some solvents, once evaporated. Cleaners that do not leave toxic residues after rinsing include dilute hydrochloric or acetic acid, sodium hypochlorite (commercial bleach), and ethanol. Materials that can leave toxic residues, such as formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, detergents, and hand lotions, should be avoided, especially with batch cultures that lack continuously renewed water. Reverse filtration can be used to change water gently at varying frequencies, depending on temperature and the kinds of food that are provided. Bacterial growth can be limited by antibiotics, but antibiotics are often unnecessary. Survival and growth are increased by low concentrations of larvae and stirring of large or dense cultures. One method of stirring large numbers of containers is a rack of motor-driven paddles. Most of the methods and materials are inexpensive and portable. If necessary, a room within a few hours of the sea could be temporarily equipped for larval culture. PMID:24567204
Sandlin, Jennifer A.; Milam, Jennifer L.
Culture jamming, the act of resisting and re-creating commercial culture in order to transform society, is embraced by groups and individuals who seek to critique and (re)form how culture is created and enacted in our daily lives. In this article, we explore how two groups--Adbusters and Reverend Billy and the Church of Stop Shopping--use culture…
n10 p43-83, 1971
This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1500 words) describing briefly Mexico's cultural relations with 23 nations with which she has cultural exchange agreements. The reasons for cultural exchange are stated, such as the belief that cultural relations promote good relations among nations. The agreements concluded between…
Yoshino, T P; Bickham, U; Bayne, C J
In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome. PMID:24198436
Goodwin, Thomas J. (inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (inventor); Wolf, David A. (inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (inventor)
Normal mammalian tissue and the culturing process has been developed for the three groups of organ, structural and blood tissue. The cells are grown in vitro under microgravity culture conditions and form three dimensional cell aggregates with normal cell function. The microgravity culture conditions may be microgravity or simulated microgravity created in a horizontal rotating wall culture vessel.
Growth of interest in teaching culture within English as a second language (ESL) instruction shows that the basic view of language is changing. However, development of a coherent conceptual framework for teaching culture in ESL has not kept pace with the production of culture-oriented materials. Culture learning is more complex than language…
Lee, John D.
, and government intervention? © 2007 AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety #12;Our apparent complacency and traffic safety as effects of culture. In order to understand culture's role in shaping driving behavior of culture. We argue that how the traffic safety community defines culture dictates courses of action taken
Grosse, Christine Uber; Uber, David
A study examined eight business Spanish textbooks for cultural content by looking at commonly appearing cultural topics and themes, presentation of cultural information, activities and techniques used to promote cultural understanding, and incorporation of authentic materials. The texts were evenly divided among beginning, intermediate, and…
Hummer, Paul J., Jr.
Provides instructions for teachers and students to culture protozoans for use in science laboratories. Sections include setting up a culture area, basic culture media, amoeba culture technique, powdered milk-wheat-rice medium, alfalfa medium, and uses of the protozoa in the laboratory. (PR)
C. J. Griffith; K. M. Livesey; D. Clayton
Purpose – The concept of food safety organizational culture, whilst largely ignored in the past, is attracting increasing interest. The purpose of this paper is to examine a possible framework for assessing a business's food safety culture. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The literature on health and safety culture and organizational culture is examined and relevant components applicable to food safety are identified
Argues that misconceptions about culture, and the vastness of the topic make teaching global cultures difficult. Presents a general model for visually organizing concepts associated with culture that can be used in the classroom. Includes a lesson plan on how cultural perspectives can affect the definition and use of resources. (DSK)
This article examines the role of cultural awareness (CA) and intercultural awareness (ICA) in classroom theory and practice. CA and ICA can be roughly characterised as an awareness of the role of culture in communication with CA focused on national cultures and ICA on more dynamic and flexible relationships between languages and cultures. There…
Richard McDermott; Carla O’Dell
Culture is often seen as the key inhibitor of effective knowledge sharing. A study of companies where sharing knowledge is built into the culture found that they did not change their culture to match their knowledge management initiatives. They adapted their approach to knowledge management to fit their culture. They did this by: linking sharing knowledge to solving practical business
National cultures are distinguished from organizational cultures. The first have been studied from over 50 countries, and described with the help of five dimensions. The differences shown set limits to the validity of management theories across borders. Special attention is paid to characteristics of East Asian cultures that help explain the recent economic success of these countries. Organizational cultures were
Bhavnagri, Navaz Peshotan; Gonzalez-Mena, Janet
Describes the significance of culture in infant care. Questions the universality of child development theory and research findings. Discusses cultural issues related to sleeping routines, including co-sleeping arrangements, the role of cultural elders or expert specialists, consequences of co-sleeping, and using an evolutionary, cross-cultural,…
As global interaction and cultural diversity become prominent, cultural competence has received more attention. To understand nonprofit organizations' (NPO's) international workers' learning process in terms of cultural competence, this study used a cultural competence attainment model as a theoretical framework, enlisted 10 Taiwanese…
Robert L. Helmreich; John A. Wilhelm; James R. Klinect; Ashleigh C. Merritt
Crew Resource Management (CRM) training is one of the critical elements of an organizational strategy to minimize risk and manage human error. The influences of three cultures that are relevant to the cockpit are described: the professional cultures of the pilots, the cultures of organizations, and the national cultures surrounding individuals and their organizations. A model of threat and error
1 Opportunities for Game Culture and Technology in Public Libraries Walt Scacchi Institute.ics.uci.edu/~wscacchi Computer Games in Libraries · A little background on game culture and technology · New game opportunities for public libraries · Libraries as community centers for games culture and technology #12;2 Game Culture
Guillermo Solano-Flores; Sharon Nelson-Barber
We propose the concept of cultural validity as a form of test validity in science assessment. The conceptual relevance of cultural validity is supported by evidence that culture and society shape an individual's mind and thinking. To attain cultural validity, the process of assessment development must consider how the sociocultural context in which students live influences the ways in which
An examination of cultural pluralism in Israeli society and education questions Israel's commitment to cultural pluralism and argues that the guiding ideology of Israel's educational system emphasizes nation building. The proposed integrative national and cultural agenda ignores Israeli Palestinians and favors cultures and traditions of Jews of…
To explain emergent cultural phenomena, this paper argues, it is inevitable to understand the evolution of complex human cognitive adaptations and their links to the population-level dynamics of cultural variation. On the one hand, the process of cultural transmission is influenced and constrained by humansâ€™ evolved psychology; people tend to acquire some cultural variants rather than others. On the other
Omidvar, Pegah; Tan, Bee Hoon
The need for cross-cultural understanding of the relationship between culture and learning style is becoming increasingly important because of the changing cultural mix of classrooms and society at large. The research done regarding the two variables is mostly quantitative. This review summarizes results of the existing research on cultural…
Sardar, Moumita; Jadhav, Savita Vivek; Vyawahare, Chanda; Misra, Rabindranath
Tuberculosis, a contagious bacterial disease which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, primarily involves the lungs.Though Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is the commonest clinical presentation, there is a need for alertness towards uncommon presentations which involve other organs. Tuberculous otitis media (TOM) is one such rare presentation seen in paediatric practice. It is characterized by painless otorrhoea which fails to respond to the routine antibacterial treatment. TOM usually occurs secondary to PTB. Here is a case of tuberculous otitis media with Proteus mirabilis co-infection, with no evidence of PTB. In the sample of ear discharge obtained from the patient, acid fast bacilli were demonstrated on direct microscopy after Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Culture done on Lowenstein-Jensen medium demonstrated slow-growing Mycobacterium. Bacteriological culture and identification helped in isolating Proteus mirabilis. PCR, followed by Line- Probe Assay for early identification and susceptibility testing to primary drugs, was done. Further, patient tested negative for the Mantoux test. Patient was enrolled in National Tuberculosis programme- RNTCP. This case emphasizes on one of the less common presentations of a common disease. A high clinical suspicion and laboratory confirmation are required for appropriate patient management. PMID:24995225
Background Despite the important role of goats for meat and milk production in Ethiopia, little information is available on the epidemiology of caprine tuberculosis (TB). Caprine TB is important as milk is usually consumed raw particularly by Ethiopian pastoralists. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of TB in goats at an abattoir, to evaluate associated risk factors and to characterize the causative mycobacteria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1990 randomly selected male goats that were slaughtered at Luna Export Abattoir of central Ethiopia. Postmortem examination, mycobacterial culturing and molecular typing techniques like genus typing, deletion typing and spoligotyping were used. Result The overall prevalence of caprine TB-like lesions was 3.5%. The lesion prevalence increased significantly with increasing age. Mycobacteria were found by culture and seen as acid fast bacilli in 12% of the goats with TB-like lesions. Characterization of the eight isolates using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated that five of them belonged to the genus Mycobacterium. Four of the latter were confirmed to be members of the M. tuberculosis complex. Further characterization of the three M. tuberculosis isolates by spoligotyping identified them as type SIT53 and two new spoligotypes. Conclusion The isolation of M. tuberculosis from goats in this study indicates a potential risk of transmission of M. tuberculosis between humans and goats. PMID:23433481
Falade, Oluwaseun O.; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S.; Kaul, Daniel R.; Saint, Sanjay; Murphy, Patrick A.
A 64-year-old Filipino man presented to a Baltimore hospital with a 4-month history of worsening midback pain, progressive leg weakness, and intermittent bladder and bowel incontinence. He had no fever or pulmonary symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the thoracic spine revealed hypointense T1-weighted and hyperintense T2-weighted bone marrow signal involving vertebral bodies T2, T3, and T4 (findings that were consistent with osteomyelitis); vertebral compression fractures; an epidural fluid collection; and spinal cord compression (Fig. 1). Multiple blood cultures were negative. Because the spine was considered unstable, he underwent T2, T3, and T4 vertebrectomy with fusion from C3 to T8. Pathological studies of the operative specimen revealed granulation and chronic inflammation. No organisms were identified with the use of routine or special stains, including an auramine– phenol stain for acid-fast bacilli. Vertebral bone and material from the fluid collection were sent for fungal, mycobacterial, and routine bacterial cultures before the initiation of treatment with antimicrobial agents. PMID:18687644
Rana, Geetika; Anuradha; Duggal, Nandini; Arora, Jyoti
Paradoxical reactions like immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) as seen with patients on retroviral treatment in HIV infection, have also been identified in HIV sero-negative patients with extra pulmonary tuberculosis especially lymph-node tuberculosis. Musculo-skeletal tuberculosis presenting as a cold abscess of the anterior chest wall is a rare entity which poses diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. A 35-year-old immunocompetent male came with complains of painless lump on right side of his chest over 9th and 10th intercostal space which gradually increased and extended upto 11th rib area. Clinically, diagnosis of cold abscess was made and anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) was started. Despite of being on ATT for 3 weeks, patient developed pain and signs of inflammation. Fluid was aspirated and sent for biochemical and microbiological investigations. The aspirated fluid was positive for acid fast bacilli by ZN stain and grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis in culture, sensitive to first line ATT. Pyogenic and fungal culture was negative. This case presented as an anterior chest wall cold abscess which deteriorated on initiation of first line ATT, thus creating a suspicion of resistance to ATT which was cleared on ATT susceptibility testing. Hence, this case underlines the possibility of treatment paradoxes seen in immunocompetent musculo-skeletal tuberculosis.
Garcia, Justin R.; Reiber, Chris; Massey, Sean G.; Merriwether, Ann M.
“Hookups,” or uncommitted sexual encounters, are becoming progressively more engrained in popular culture, reflecting both evolved sexual predilections and changing social and sexual scripts. Hook-up activities may include a wide range of sexual behaviors, such as kissing, oral sex, and penetrative intercourse. However, these encounters often transpire without any promise of, or desire for, a more traditional romantic relationship. A review of the literature suggests that these encounters are becoming increasingly normative among adolescents and young adults in North America, representing a marked shift in openness and acceptance of uncommitted sex. We reviewed the current literature on sexual hookups and considered the multiple forces influencing hookup culture, using examples from popular culture to place hooking up in context. We argue that contemporary hookup culture is best understood as the convergence of evolutionary and social forces during the developmental period of emerging adulthood. We suggest that researchers must consider both evolutionary mechanisms and social processes, and be considerate of the contemporary popular cultural climate in which hookups occur, in order to provide a comprehensive and synergistic biopsychosocial view of “casual sex” among emerging adults today. PMID:23559846
Radmer, R.; Behrens, P.; Arnett, K.; Gladue, R.; Cox, J.; Lieberman, D.
Microalgae are well-suited as a component of a Closed Environmental Life Support System (CELSS), since they can couple the closely related functions of food production and atmospheric regeneration. The objective was to provide a basis for predicting the response of CELSS algal cultures, and thus the food supply and air regeneration system, to changes in the culture parameters. Scenedesmus growth was measured as a function of light intensity, and the spectral dependence of light absorption by the algae as well as algal respiration in the light were determined as a function of cell concentration. These results were used to test and confirm a mathematical model that describes the productivity of an algal culture in terms of the competing processes of photosynthesis and respiration. The relationship of algal productivity to cell concentration was determined at different carbon dioxide concentrations, temperatures, and light intensities. The maximum productivity achieved by an air-grown culture was found to be within 10% of the computed maximum productivity, indicating that CO2 was very efficiently removed from the gas stream by the algal culture. Measurements of biomass productivity as a function of cell concentration at different light intensities indicated that both the productivity and efficiency of light utilization were greater at higher light intensities.
Takahashi, Taiki; Hadzibeganovic, Tarik; Cannas, Sergio A; Makino, Takaki; Fukui, Hiroki; Kitayama, Shinobu
According to theories of cultural neuroscience, Westerners and Easterners may have distinct styles of cognition (e.g., different allocation of attention). Previous research has shown that Westerners and Easterners tend to utilize analytical and holistic cognitive styles, respectively. On the other hand, little is known regarding the cultural differences in neuroeconomic behavior. For instance, economic decisions may be affected by cultural differences in neurocomputational processing underlying attention; however, this area of neuroeconomics has been largely understudied. In the present paper, we attempt to bridge this gap by considering the links between the theory of cultural neuroscience and neuroeconomic theory of the role of attention in intertemporal choice. We predict that (i) Westerners are more impulsive and inconsistent in intertemporal choice in comparison to Easterners, and (ii) Westerners more steeply discount delayed monetary losses than Easterners. We examine these predictions by utilizing a novel temporal discounting model based on Tsallis' statistics (i.e. a q-exponential model). Our preliminary analysis of temporal discounting of gains and losses by Americans and Japanese confirmed the predictions from the cultural neuroeconomic theory. Future study directions, employing computational modeling via neural networks, are outlined and discussed. PMID:19675524
Machery, Edouard; Mallon, Ron; Nichols, Shaun; Stich, Stephen P
Theories of reference have been central to analytic philosophy, and two views, the descriptivist view of reference and the causal-historical view of reference, have dominated the field. In this research tradition, theories of reference are assessed by consulting one's intuitions about the reference of terms in hypothetical situations. However, recent work in cultural psychology (e.g. Nisbett, R. E., Peng, K., Choi, I., & Norenzayan, A. (2001). Culture and systems of thought: holistic vs. analytic cognition. Psychological Review, 108, 291-310.) has shown systematic cognitive differences between East Asians and Westerners, and some work indicates that this extends to intuitions about philosophical cases (Weinberg, J., Nichols, S., & Stich, S. (2001). Normativity and epistemic intuitions. Philosophical Topics 29(1&2), 429-459.) In light of these findings on cultural differences, an experiment was conducted which explored intuitions about reference in Westerners and East Asians. The experiment indicated that, for certain central cases, Westerners are more likely than East Asians to report intuitions that are consistent with the causal-historical view. These results constitute prima facie evidence that semantic intuitions vary from culture to culture, and the paper argues that this fact raises questions about the nature of the philosophical enterprise of developing a theory of reference. PMID:15019555
Heidi Vrankin; Mowlot Kazati; Manisha Rajadhyaksha
Non-verbal communication across cultures is one of the under-rated aspects of multicultural and language training. This communication across cultures can prepare students, Peace Corps and NGO volunteers, professionals and consultants for their cultural immersion experiences. Not understanding the importance of non-verbal communication, especially in inter-cultural settings, can cause serious adjustment problems to the person entering another culture. This is reflected
Fiedler, Fred E.; And Others
The construction of self-administered, programed, culture training manuals, called "Culture Assimilators," is described here. These programs provide an apparently effective method for assisting members of one culture to interact and adjust successfully with members of another culture. Culture assimilators have been constructed for the Arab…
Scroggins Wesley A; Rozell Elizabeth J; Guo Aimin; Šebestová Jarmila; Velo Veronica
As business becomes more global in nature, management researchers are increasingly interested in conducting cross-cultural research. Although cross-cultural management research has provided us with an understanding of management practice in various cultures, the nature of the research presents researchers with numerous challenges. One such challenge is the issue of cultural construct equivalency. Cultural construct equivalency concerns the validity of measures
FORBES, JACK D.
THE CULTURALLY DIFFERENT PUPIL IS DISTINGUISHED FROM THE CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED IN THIS ESSAY. THE SINGLE-CULTURAL ORIENTATION OF MOST AMERICAN SCHOOLS HAS CREATED EDUCATIONAL DISADVANTAGES FOR MANY STUDENTS. THE CULTURALLY DIFFERENT STUDENT WHO DOESN'T FIT INTO THE MONO-CULTURAL SCHOOL RETALIATES BY WITHDRAWAL, WHEREUPON HE IS LABELED AS…
Vale, G. L.; Flynn, E. G.; Kendal, R. L.
Cumulative culture denotes the, arguably, human capacity to build on the cultural behaviors of one's predecessors, allowing increases in cultural complexity to occur such that many of our cultural artifacts, products and technologies have progressed beyond what a single individual could invent alone. This process of cumulative cultural evolution…
Makarova, Elena A.; Makarova, Elena L.
Interaction of cultures calls for cultural awareness development. Knowledge is a powerful weapon to overcome prejudices, stereotyping and xenophobia. To build cultural awareness and tolerance to the peculiarities of someone else's culture, global learners must learn how to determine the existence of differences between cultures and how to adapt…
White, Douglas R.
of Culture Robert F. Manlove Ethnic Diversity, Habitat Diversity and Rainfall Codes: STDS88-90 Elizabeth1045- world cultures 0564 Journal of Comparative and Cross-Cultural Research Vol 13 No 2 Spring Cashdan Christianity and Democracy: A Cross-Cultural Study (Afterthoughts) Andrey Korotayev World Cultures
Stockinger, Diane E; Roellich, Kathleen M; Vogel, Keith W; Eiffert, Kathy L; Torrence, Anne E; Prentice, Jennifer L; Stephens, Karen G; Wallis, Carolyn K; Hotchkiss, Charlotte E; Murnane, Robert D
An adult, female, pig-tailed macaque (Macaca nemestrina) of Indonesian origin presented with profound weight loss, anemia (PCV, 29%; normal, 36% to 45%), hypoalbuminemia (1.0 g/dL; normal, 3.5 to 5.2 g/dL), elevated alkaline phosphatase (1990 U/L; normal, 26 to 98 U/L), and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (75 mm/h; normal, less than 20 mm/h). Abdominal ultrasonography demonstrated an enlarged liver with hyperechoic areas. Euthanasia was performed. Grossly, the liver had multifocal, effacing, white masses throughout and was enlarged with rounded edges. There were 2, small nodules in the right lung lobes. Histologically, the hepatic masses were densely fibrous-encapsulated granulomas with vast central necrosis. The lung nodules also were maturing granulomas, and one kidney and one atrium had small, early granulomas. Fite acid-fast stains of liver and lung revealed very few acid-fast bacilli. PCR analysis of paraffin-embedded liver identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Culture of the liver was negative twice. This macaque had 16 negative intradermal tuberculin skin tests over the course of 6 y. We hypothesize that the animal arrived with a latent hepatic or enteric infection that later recrudesced and disseminated. Primary hepatic mycobacteriosis is not a typical presentation of tuberculosis in macaques. Negative tuberculin skin tests can be seen with latent infections and extrapulmonary tuberculosis such as Pott disease. This case underscores the problems associated with current surveillance procedures and the risks associated with latent mycobacterial infections in macaques. PMID:21439222
Important events in embryonic development such as gastrulation, neurulation, and cranial neural crest development occur in ectodermal tissues during vertebrate embryonic development. Although the chicken embryo is a well-established model system in developmental biology, problems of accessibility of the ectoderm for experimental manipulation and an inability to generate gene knockouts previously impeded studies of gene regulation and key processes during chicken gastrulation and neurulation. The technique of in ovo electroporation permits genetic manipulation and provides a powerful animal model. However, the problem of accessibility to the ectoderm in ovo requires an ex ovo whole-embryo culture approach combined with electroporation. This Unit provides convenient and reproducible whole-embryo ex ovo culture and electroporation protocols. These chicken embryo culture protocols can be used not only for gene regulatory experiments, but also for time-lapse imaging of the dynamics of early vertebrate development. PMID:22968841
Chatters, J.C. (ed.)
As a federal agency, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by Congress and the President to provide leadership in the preservation of prehistoric, historical, and cultural resources on lands it administers, to manage these in a spirit of stewardship for future generations, and to protect and preserve the rights of Native Americans to religious freedom. The purpose of this document is to describe how the DOE-Richland Operations (DOE-RL) will meet those responsibilities on the Hanford Site, pursuant to guidelines for Agency Responsibilities under the Historic Preservation Act (FR 53:31, February 17, 1988). This document is intended for multiple uses. Among other things, the text is designed as a manual for cultural resource managers to follow and as an explanation of the process of cultural resource regulatory compliance for the DOE-RL and Site contractors. 10 refs., 17 figs., 11 tabs.
There is a fairly closed circle between culture, language, meaning, and truth such that the world of a given culture is a world understood in terms of the meanings produced in that culture. Medicine is, in fact, a subculture of a powerful type and has its own language and understanding of the range of illnesses that affect human beings. So how does medicine get at the truth of people and their ills in such a way as to escape its own limited constructions? There is a way out of the closed circle implicit in the idea of a praxis and the engagement with reality that is central to it and the further possibility introduced by Jacques Lacan that signification is never comprehensive in relation to the subject's encounter with the real. I will explore both of these so as to develop a conception of truth that is apt for the knowledge that arises in the clinic. PMID:17178003
Vakoch, Douglas A.
As scholars involved with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have contemplated how we might portray humankind in any messages sent to civilizations beyond Earth, one of the challenges they face is adequately representing the diversity of human cultures. For example, in a 2003 workshop in Paris sponsored by the SETI Institute, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) SETI Permanent Study Group, the International Society for the Arts, Sciences and Technology (ISAST), and the John Templeton Foundation, a varied group of artists, scientists, and scholars from the humanities considered how to encode notions of altruism in interstellar messages
Karen R Steingart; Megan Henry; Suman Laal; Philip C Hopewell; Andrew Ramsay; Dick Menzies; Jane Cunningham; Karin Weldingh; Madhukar Pai
BackgroundThe global tuberculosis epidemic results in nearly 2 million deaths and 9 million new cases of the disease a year. The vast majority of tuberculosis patients live in developing countries, where the diagnosis of tuberculosis relies on the identification of acid-fast bacilli on unprocessed sputum smears using conventional light microscopy. Microscopy has high specificity in tuberculosis-endemic countries, but modest sensitivity
Claus D Buergelt; Pamela E Ginn
The morphologic changes of subclinical Johne’s disease in North American Bison (Bison bison) are characterized by microgranulomas composed of epithelioid macrophages and individual multinucleate giant cells of Langhans’-type occasionally containing individual cytoplasmic acid-fast bacilli compatible with Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis. The microgranulomas are best visualized in the mesenteric lymph nodes of infected subclinical animals. Macrophages that can be confused with infection-associated
Baro, Abhamoni; Shah, Ira; Chandane, Parmarth; Khosla, Indu
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare pulmonary disease. Diagnosis is established by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), which has macroscopic ‘milky appearance’, and in the presence of typical computed tomography, findings are diagnostic of PAP but, however, the feature of periodic acid–Schiff-positive eosinophilic proteinaceous fluid raises the confidence of the diagnosis. We report late-onset PAP in a 10-year-old girl who had acid fast bacilli on an initial BAL examination, but was subsequently diagnosed as PAP.
Rocha, V.C.M.; Corrêa, S.H.R.; Oliveira, E.M.D.; C.A.R., Rodriguez; Fedullo, J.D.; Matrone, M.; Setzer, A.; Ikuta, C.Y.; Vejarano, M.P.; Figueiredo, S.M.; Ferreira Neto, J.S.
Two waterbucks from São Paulo Zoo Foundation exhibited respiratory symptoms in July 2004. After euthanasia, granulommas in lungs and mediastinic lymph nodes were observed. Acid-fast bacilli isolated were identified as Mycobacterium bovis spoligotype SB0121 by PRA and spoligotyping. They were born and kept in the same enclosure with the same group, without any contact to other species housed in the zoo. This is the first detailed description of M. bovis infection in Kobus ellipsiprymnus. PMID:24031687
Hill, S; McNulty, D
This article is a case study which focuses on organisational and cultural change associated with the incorporation of a college which provided pre- and post-registration nursing and midwifery education into a much larger institution within the university sector. Among the issues addressed is whether transformational change, such as that represented by incorporation or merger, can be used by managers to successfully refashion the culture of the organisation, making more effective than traditional or discipline-based management structures. It examines the barriers to change and the various considerations that arose in determining the fit of managerial styles and assesses the outcomes of the process of change. PMID:10346302
Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan; Bäärnhielm, Sofie; Rohlof, Hans; Kirmayer, Laurence J.; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Jadhav, Sushrut; Hinton, Ladson; Alarcón, Renato D.; Bhugra, Dinesh; Groen, Simon; van Dijk, Rob; Qureshi, Adil; Collazos, Francisco; Rousseau, Cécile; Caballero, Luis; Ramos, Mar; Lu, Francis
The Outline for Cultural Formulation (OCF) introduced with DSM-IV provided a framework for clinicians to organize cultural information relevant to diagnostic assessment and treatment planning. However, use of the OCF has been inconsistent, raising questions about the need for guidance on implementation, training, and application in diverse settings. To address this need, DSM-5 introduced a cultural formulation interview (CFI) that operationalizes the process of data collection for the OCF. The CFI includes patient and informant versions and 12 supplementary modules addressing specific domains of the OCF. This article summarizes the literature reviews and analyses of experience with the OCF conducted by the DSM-5 Cross-Cultural Issues Subgroup (DCCIS) that informed the development of the CFI. We review the history and contents of the DSM-IV OCF, its use in training programs, and previous attempts to render it operational through questionnaires, protocols, and semi-structured interview formats. Results of research based on the OCF are discussed. For each domain of the OCF, we summarize findings from the DCCIS that led to content revision and operationalization in the CFI. The conclusion discusses training and implementation issues essential to service delivery. PMID:24865197
Gutierrez, Antonio P.
As the cultural and ethnic diversity of the student population rises within school districts across the nation, the matter of translating materials in a language that is understandable and meaningful to the target population becomes more pressing. There are multitude of problems inherent in translation of materials from one language to another. To…
Lehman, Dan Van; Eno, Omar
This booklet is a basic introduction to the people, history, and cultures of the Somali Bantu. It is designed primarily for service providers and others assisting Somali Bantu refugees in their new communities in the United States. It focuses on: "Introduction"; "Land"; "People" (place in society and social structures); "History" (colonial period,…
Cheng, Li-Rong Lilly
Professionals in the field of special education are constantly being asked about efficacy and outcome-based practice. The tragic event that took place at Virginia Tech shocked the world. This article uses the Virginia Tech tragedy as a base to discuss the need for all professionals to develop cultural competence. Furthermore, it discusses the…
Robson, Barbara; Lipson, Juliene
This booklet provides a basic introduction to the people, history, and cultures of Afghanistan. It is designed primarily for service providers and others assisting the Afghan refugees in their new communities in the United States. The 12 sections focus on: (1) "Preface"; (2) "Introduction" (recent Afghan refugees); (3) "The Land"; (4) "The…
Eddy, Pamela L.; Hart, Jeni
Using qualitative inquiry, this paper employs a cultural lens to explore the work life experiences of faculty who work in smaller higher education administration programs in institutions that are not high-level research universities. The research focus included understanding how participants made sense of the institutions in which they worked and…
LeCompte, Margaret D.
This article describes how different constituencies in a major research university tried to initiate change despite disagreements over common goals, norms and principles. The context was a culture war. The university administration wanted to impose a corporatising and privatising philosophy which it felt was crucial to preserving the…
Giunter, E A; Ovodov, Iu S
Callus and suspension cultures of campion (Silene vulgaris) produced pectin polysaccharides, similar in structure to the polysaccharides of intact plants. The major components of the pectins were D-galacturonic acid, galactose, arabinose, and rhamnose residues. The maximum content of pectins was found in callus. The monosaccharide composition of arabinogalactans isolated from cells and a culture medium of callus cultures were similar, with the ratio between arabinose and galactose of 1: (2.3-6.5) being retained. The arabinogalactans from the cells and culture medium of the suspension cultures also had a similar structure, and the arabinose to galactose ratio was 1: (1.5-1.8). In contrast to the callus cultures, the suspension cultures produced arabinogalactans with an increased content of arabinose residues and a decreased content of galactose residues. The greatest content of arabinogalactan was detected in the culture medium of the suspension cultures. PMID:17345866
O'Donnell, Max R; Pym, Alexander; Jain, Paras; Munsamy, Vanisha; Wolf, Allison; Karim, Farina; Jacobs, William R; Larsen, Michelle H
Improved diagnostics and drug susceptibility testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis are urgently needed. We developed a more powerful mycobacteriophage (?(2)GFP10) with a fluorescent reporter. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) allows for rapid enumeration of metabolically active bacilli after phage infection. We compared the reporter phage assay to GeneXpert MTB/RIF for detection of M. tuberculosis and rifampin (RIF) resistance in sputum. Patients suspected to have tuberculosis were prospectively enrolled in Durban, South Africa. Sputum was incubated with ?(2)GFP10, in the presence and absence of RIF, and bacilli were enumerated using FACS. Sensitivity and specificity were compared to those of GeneXpert MTB/RIF with an M. tuberculosis culture as the reference standard. A total of 158 patients were prospectively enrolled. Overall sensitivity for M. tuberculosis was 95.90% (95% confidence interval (CI), 90.69% to 98.64%), and specificity was 83.33% (95% CI, 67.18% to 93.59%). In acid-fast bacillus (AFB)-negative sputum, sensitivity was 88.89% (95% CI, 73.92% to 96.82%), and specificity was 83.33% (95% CI, 67.18% to 93.59%). Sensitivity for RIF-resistant M. tuberculosis in AFB-negative sputum was 90.00% (95% CI, 55.46% to 98.34%), and specificity was 91.94% (95% CI, 82.16% to 97.30%). Compared to GeneXpert, the reporter phage was more sensitive in AFB smear-negative sputum, but specificity was lower. The ?(2)GFP10 reporter phage showed high sensitivity for detection of M. tuberculosis and RIF resistance, including in AFB-negative sputum, and has the potential to improve phenotypic testing for complex drug resistance, paucibacillary sputum, response to treatment, and detection of mixed infection in clinical specimens. PMID:25926493
Nicola Masini; Francesco Soldovieri; Monica Alvarez de Buergo; Jean Dumoulin
This special issue of Journal of Geophysics and Engineering offers a diverse panorama of approaches and technologies that aim to characterize and analyse the state of conservation and health of cultural heritage and civil infrastructure. In particular, it provides a significant overview not only of the effectiveness but also of the limitations of single diagnostic techniques, which can be overcome
Cooney, Barry D.
Cultural distinctions in the approach to social relationships, access to information, personal motivation, and hierarchy make Japan an effective economic power. U.S. business can learn from the Japanese ways to create more information-based organizations, think in global terms, foster links between business and education, and develop internal…
S. M. A. ZOBAYED
Aeration in a tissue culture vessel can involve two different major processes. Firstly, bulk flow, humidity-induced and venturi-induced convective flows of air and diffusion of gas molecules. These processes may not be entirely unconnected and commonly can be termed as ‘natural aeration’ or ‘natural ventilation’. Secondly, the ‘forced aeration’ or ‘forced ventilation’ where outer air are delivered to plant tissues
“Performing Determinism” discusses the performance of disability through poetry: the instability of language, the ability of words to clasp both generic and specific meaning, and the gaps that surround the performances of self. Disability culture acts as a frame for the inquiry, as the essay discusses crip aesthetics, crip critical practice, and the embodiment of language. In the reading of
Descriptions are provided of projects undertaken at three county colleges in New Jersey to improve the cultural enrichment opportunities of the surrounding communities. First, introductory material discusses the pluralistic components (i.e., federal, state, and local governments; philanthropic foundations; private patrons; business; and the market…
Andre P. Derdeyn
Issues of child custody in divorce can be usefully considered in the light of cultural and social change. Divorce itself was an unusual and reprehensible event just over a 100 years ago. The tradition of English common law regarding the father's right to custody and the duty to support prevailed in the early years of this country. In conjunction with
Pajak, Edward F.
Background/Context: Scholars have described American culture in recent decades as narcissistic, manifested by displays of self-absorption tantamount to a pathological syndrome that has reached epidemic proportions. An education reform movement that is highly critical of public schools, teachers, and students has simultaneously emerged, espousing a…
Criticizes the approach towards literacy taken by E. D. Hirsch, Jr. in "Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know." Compares Hirsch's list of "What Literate Americans Know" with lists in books on trivia. Expresses concern about the narrow sense in which Hirsch conceives context in relationship to literacy. (LS)
S. A. DENEV; Tz. PEEVA; P. RADULOVA; N. STANCHEVA; G. STAYKOVA; G. BEEV; P. TODOROVA; S. TCHOBANOVA
Abstract DENEV,, S. A., Tz. PEEVA, P. RADULOVA, P. STANCHEVA, G. STAYKOVA, G. BEEV, P. TODOROVA and S. TCHOBANOVA, 2007. Yeast cultures in ruminant nutrition. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci.13: 357-374 Interest in the use of fungal direct-fed microbials in ruminant nutrition is considerable.The
This review article examines the oncogenic effects of radiation with emphasis on ionizing radiations. Cell transformation in vitro is examined with respect to culture systems currently used in these studies, initiation and phenotypic expression of transformation and criteria for transformation. The section of radiation oncogenesis in vitro includes ionizing and nonionizing radiation studies and cocarcinogens and modulators of radiogenic transformations.
Nye, Russel B., Ed.
This document contains fifteen essays which study some of the didactic, moralistic literature which was popular in nineteenth century America, and speculate about the culture from which the literature evolved. The essays include "Millions of Moral Little Books: Sunday School Books in Their Popular Context"; "Nineteenth Century Gift Books: A…
Ministry of Education and Culture (Indonesia).
The report reviews educational development in Indonesia. The Ministry of Education and Culture is continuing systematic attempts at educational reform in accordance with national objectives and reports that it has made significant improvement since the beginning of formal educational planning in 1969. Reasons given by the government for this…
Marshall, Elizabeth, Ed.; Sensoy, Ozlem, Ed.
"Rethinking Popular Culture and Media" is a provocative collection of articles that begins with the idea that the "popular" in classrooms and in the everyday lives of teachers and students is fundamentally political. This anthology includes outstanding articles by elementary and secondary public school teachers, scholars, and activists who…
Parody and related forms of political humor are essential resources for sustaining democratic public culture. They do so by exposing the limits of public speech, transforming discursive demands into virtual images, setting those images before a carnivalesque audience, and celebrating social leveling while decentering all discourses within the…
Dillon, Patrick; Wang, Ruolan; Tearle, Penni
This paper reports a small-scale investigation into the differences in learning behaviour exhibited by members of an intercultural group undertaking an online course on educational enquiry in support of doctoral research in education. Differences in learning behaviour can be attributed in part to the different cultural and linguistic backgrounds…
Giles, Howard; Dorjee, Tenzin
Tibetan civilisation is over two millenniums old and, today, its struggles in diaspora open up a new chapter in Tibetan history. Diasporic Tibetans (e.g. in India and the USA) have made tremendous efforts over the last few decades to maintain their way of life. We focus on cultural identity in the Tibetan diasporas, with special attention focused…
Schwartz, Betty L.; Tappenden, Jacqueline W.
This course guide, the first in a two-year sequence, is designed to give students an overview of Greek and Roman culture and language from the era of the early Aegean civilizations in Greece and Asia Minor to the Augustan Age in Rome. Six units of study are concerned with the growth and development of Greece and with the metamorphosis of Rome from…
Resiliency is what propels many students to continue moving forward under difficult learning and life conditions. We intuitively think that such resilience is a character quality that cannot be taught. On the contrary, when a teacher sets the right conditions and culture for it in the classroom by teaching collaboration and communication skills,…
Roth, Wolff-Michael; Lee, Yew Jin; Hwang, SungWon
Over the past three decades, science educators have accumulated a vast amount of information on conceptions--variously defined as beliefs, ontologies, cognitive structures, mental models, or frameworks--that generally (at least initially) have been derived from interviews about certain topics. During the same time period, cultural studies has…
Kelly, Gene F.
Discusses bisexual modes of behavior in light of current attitudes within the youth culture and with the realization that on the basis of abailable research, generalization is difficult. Changing sex role values are discussed and some causative factors are placed in the context of current social trends. (Author/BW)
Wyatt, Tasha R.
In 2002, Greenlandic reform leaders launched a comprehensive, nation-wide reform to create culturally compatible education. Greenland's reform work spans the entire educational system and includes preschool through higher education. To assist their efforts, reform leaders adopted the Standards for Effective Pedagogy developed at the Center for…
Marco De Boni; Martyn Prigmore
The problem of privacy is examined in the context of globalisation , showing that current approaches to privacy are culturally biased, reflecting only one of a number of possible standpoints. Current thinking on the problem of privacy, based for the most part on Anglo-Saxon Empiricist philosophy, is shown to be limited in that it is only one of a number
The article proceeds from the argument that war is a social institution and not a historical inevitability of human interaction, that is, war can be "unlearned." This process involves deconstructing/dismantling war as an institution in society. An important step in this process is to understand the philosophical and cultural bases on which…
National Forum: Phi Kappa Phi Journal, 1989
Articles on literary canon include: "Educational Anomie" (Stephen W. White); "Why Western Civilization?" (William J. Bennett); "Peace Plan for Canon Wars" (Gerald Graff, William E. Cain); "Canons, Cultural Literacy, and Core Curriculum" (Lynne V. Cheney); "Canon Busting: Basic Issues" (Stanley Fish); "A Truce in Curricular Wars" (Chester E. Finn,…
The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to examine the nature and causes of school discipline problems and school violence including an increase in the number of racial, cultural, and class hostility incidents; and (2) to offer remedies which might help alleviate disruptions to the learning process. Eight middle schools with a total of 3,212…
This chapter describes a quantal method for assaying culturable human enteric viruses from water matrices. The assay differs from the plaque assay described in Chapter 10 (December 1987 Revision) in that it is based upon the direct microscopic viewing of cells for virus-induced ...
Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.
This module provides cultural information that will be helpful to military personnel in understanding some aspects of the German way of life. The topics covered in the booklet are: housing, postal services, forms of address, courtesies, getting around, driving, hotels, restaurants, beer and wine, recreation, entertainment, health spas, shopping,…
Bruno S. Frey; Dominic Rohner
Famous cultural monuments are often regarded as unique icons, making them an attractive target for terrorists. Despite huge military and police outlays, terrorist attacks on important monuments can hardly be avoided. We argue that an effective strategy to discourage terrorist attacks on iconic monuments is for a government to show a firm commitment to swift reconstruction. Using a simple game?theoretic
Johnson, Yvonne M.; Munch, Shari
Cultural competence (CC) is considered highly relevant to social work practice with clients belonging to ethnic and racial minority groups, as the burgeoning literature and creation of practice standards on CC attest. However, examination of the conceptual underpinnings of CC reveals several major anomalies. The authors argue that several aspects…
Arguing that the contemporary cultural model of socially appropriate mothering takes the form of an ideology of "intensive mothering," this book explores the contradictions manifested by pressures on mothers to expend time, energy, and resources on raising children when so many women are in the workplace, and by the unselfish nurturing that guides…
Hondo, Junko; Goodman, Bridget
The treatment of politeness features is particularly revealing of the complex dynamics that language teachers face given the cultural variety present in schools and colleges. Along with its positive contributions to the learning environment, the growing student diversity poses a significant challenge for both students and educators. This paper…
Lynch, Pip; Moore, Kevin; Minchington, Lyn
In previous work, Lynch and Moore theorised that the current popularity of adventure in recreation and education contexts is deeply paradoxical at social, economic and technological levels. Extending this thesis, we investigated the extent to which "adventure culture" can be considered quantitatively and qualitatively specific to particular…
This essay addresses the question: given the flattening out of the cultural hierarchy that was the vestige of colonialism and nation-building, is there anything that might be uniquely common about the common school in this postmodern age? By "uniquely common" I do not mean those subjects that all schools might teach, such as reading or arithmetic.…
Harris, Brad, Ed.
This second edition of the Louisiana Cultural Resources Directory provides an expansion of the scope of information to include artists and organizations engaged in arts activities targeted to adult and general audiences as well as those whose efforts are aimed primarily at school children. The overall intent is to facilitate connections between…
Yasuyuki Sakai; Eric Leclerc; Teruo Fujii
Microfluidics is the emerging technologies that could bring favorable features to tissue engineering applications. Fundamental\\u000a techniques to fabricated microfluidic cell-culture devices and experimental attempts towards in vitro liver tissue reconstitution\\u000a are presented for further discussion on the possible developments in the field of lab-on-a-chip for cellomics.
Ford, Benjamin L.
. Consequently, it was at the heart of early Great Lakes maritime culture. This position was emphasized by an early 19th-century commentator who compared Ontario (then Upper Canada) to Asia Minor and Lake Ontario to the Mediterranean (Anonymous 18...
Vardeman, Stephen B.
IE 361 Quality Control Mini Culture Project "ROBUST ENGINEERING" For: Dr. Vardeman By: Jason as the products quality get farther away from the target value. The traditional control limits were defined main types of quality in a product. These types are (1) customer quality and (2) engineered quality
In this article, the author discusses how contemporary popular culture influences religious meaning of people in pluralistic society. One such powerful media that influences religious beliefs is the television. Meaning making about faith, how people make meaning, and the nature of those meanings are central concerns of religious education and…
Hyun Uk Kim
Whereas the autism prevalence rate has been very closely monitored in the United States, the same has not been observed in many other countries. This may be attributed to the fact that each culture views and defines autism differently. Using field notes and semi-structured interviews with family members with an individual with autism, teachers, and professionals in Canada, Nicaragua, and
Patricia Amelia Tomei
The objective of this article is to make an exploratory analysis of the Pokémon game as a learning tool of a changing Japanese culture within the universe of children where American values prevail. In this article, using the analysis of the Pokémon universe as a starting point, we will try to clarify the premise that the game literally teaches how
When introducing a foreign gene into a target genome in plant tissue, you need to grow the transgenic cell to a complete plant. This is done by plant tissue culture, a biotechnique based on the concept that an organ, tissue or cell of a plant can be manipulated to grow back into a complete plant.
Douglas A. Vakoch
As scholars involved with the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) have contemplated how we might portray humankind in any messages sent to civilizations beyond Earth, one of the challenges they face is adequately representing the diversity of human cultures. For example, in a 2003 workshop in Paris sponsored by the SETI Institute, the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) SETI Permanent
India suffers from severe environmental problems with respect to deforestation, flooding, and pollution. These problems are associated with industrialization, lack of money to enforce anti-pollution practices, climatic and population pressures, and cultural factors. Half of India's forests have been cut in the last 40 years. Deforestation is the…
Goodyear, F. H.
A 150-item Test of Cultural Empathy originated in the spring of 1973 with a group of 16 students of three major ethnic groups in a class in Intercultural Communication at Texas Christian University (TCU). Although the test items were generally original, a few items came from the Dove Counterbalance I.Q. Test. The test was validated through four…
Ford, Benjamin L.
survey area and Lake Ontario as a whole. By treating each survey area as a distinct landscape, it was possible to discuss how various cultures and groups used each space and to identify instances of both dynamism and continuity in the landscapes. Results...
Krupp, Edwin C.
Broad public embrace of archaic astronomy probably began in the eighteenth century with awareness of the summer solstice sunrise's affiliation with Stonehenge. Since that time, Stonehenge has retained an astronomical mystique that attracts crowds mobilized by the monument's supposed cosmic purpose. They are committed to witness prehistoric heritage operating in real time and with enduring function. More recently, mass media have intermittently thrown a spotlight on new archaeoastronomical discoveries. While the details, ambiguities, and nuances of disciplined study of astronomy in antiquity do not usually infiltrate popular culture, some astronomical alignments, celestial events, sky-tempered symbols, and astral narratives have become well known and referenced in popular culture. Places and relics that command public interest with astronomical connotations are transformed into cultural icons and capture visitors on a quest for the authenticity the past is believed to possess. Monuments and ideas that successfully forge a romantic bond with the past and inspire an imagined sense of sharing the experience, perspective, and wisdom of antiquity persist in the cultural landscape.
D. S. Morisseau; I. E. Schoenfeld
The Commission's recent experiences with several plants with operational problems has brought to light management processes and policies that have produced and phenomenon that has been termed `organizational environment\\/operator culture'. This phenomenon has been characterized as the attitudes, norms, practices, and history of the utility and its personnel and the role these characteristics play in creating an atmosphere that have
Mankiw, Dorothy S.; Elefante, Michael A.
This teacher's manual presents a course outline for the second semester (270 hours) of a four-semester course in beauty culture. The syllabus is divided into nine sections and includes the following areas of instruction: the shop and the cosmetologist; scalp applications and shampooing; hair styling; hair cutting; manicuring and pedicuring;…
Mankiw, Dorothy S.; Elefante, Michael A.
This teacher's manual presents a course outline for the first semester (270 hours) of a four-semester course in beauty culture. The syllabus is divided into six sections and includes the following areas of instruction: shop, school, and the cosmetologist; sterilization practices in the beauty salon; scalp and hair applications and shampooing; hair…
Allen J. Scott
An increasingly important fraction of contemporary economic activity is devoted to the production of cultural outputs, i.e. goods and services with high levels of aesthetic or semiotic content. This kind of economic activity is especially, and increasingly, associated with a number of large cities scattered over the globe. A conceptual account of this phenomenon is provided on the basis of
Grossmann, Igor; Karasawa, Mayumi; Izumi, Satoko; Na, Jinkyung; Varnum, Michael E W; Kitayama, Shinobu; Nisbett, Richard E
People from different cultures vary in the ways they approach social conflicts, with Japanese being more motivated to maintain interpersonal harmony and avoid conflicts than Americans are. Such cultural differences have developmental consequences for reasoning about social conflict. In the study reported here, we interviewed random samples of Americans from the Midwest United States and Japanese from the larger Tokyo area about their reactions to stories of intergroup and interpersonal conflicts. Responses showed that wisdom (e.g., recognition of multiple perspectives, the limits of personal knowledge, and the importance of compromise) increased with increasing age among Americans, but older age was not associated with wiser responses among Japanese. Younger and middle-aged Japanese showed greater use of wise-reasoning strategies than younger and middle-aged Americans did. This cultural difference was weaker for older participants' reactions to interpersonal conflicts and was actually reversed for intergroup conflicts. This research has important implications for the study of aging, cultural psychology, and wisdom. PMID:22933459
School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004
This article describes the Grecian "Lion Funerary Monument" dating back to about 350 BC. Significant historical, cultural, and artistic elements of the ancient monument are highlighted. Details about the artist based on the monument itself are also described and questions to consider are provided.
Examines the historical circumstances, prevailing from the early nineteenth century onward, under which the textbook-centered culture of Indian education developed. Discusses conditions associated with colonial rule, teachers' service conditions and professional status, the examination system, and imposition of a foreign language as they…
· No language requirement, although you will have a great opportunity to practice your Mandarin skills during 15 students; max 30 Basic info #12;· China is currently the world's 2nd largest economy · Economic businesses engage Chinese consumers Increase your cultural awareness Learn basic customs and a little bit
Mitchell, Rebecca; Boyle, Brendan; Nicholas, Stephen
Purpose: This paper aims to explore the assumption that the impact of cultural diversity on knowledge creating capability is consequent to associated differences in knowledge and perspectives, and suggests that these knowledge differences produce their effect by triggering deliberative, collaborative behaviours. Design/methodology/approach: To…
Over the past decade, the field of biocultural diversity has arisen as an area of transdisciplinary research concerned with investigat- ing the links between the world's linguistic, cultural, and biologi- cal diversity as manifestations of the diversity of life. The impetus for the emergence of this field came from the observation that all three diversities are under threat by some
12/13/14 9am-3pm PLACE: TBA NARRATIVES OF DIVERSITY: ENCOURAGING CULTURAL RESPONSIVENESS PRESENTERS professionals, including faculty and students of the health professions.The aim of the Narratives of Diversity experiences with diversity and marginalization in order to bring a heightened awareness of these issues
With the rhetoric in international management espousing the value of being able to access and capitalise on the knowledge of a workforce with international experience in order to compete globally and the need to embrace diversity (including cultural or ethnic diversity) in and across organisations, this paper discusses the findings from a qualitative research undertaking where senior and middle managers
This book serves as an introduction to issues of diversity. Each chapter addresses an issue relevant to life and work in gender-conscious and ethnically diverse environments. Taken together, the chapters challenge the reader to develop alternative views on gender, color, culture, and human relations. The first chapter introduces key notions, such…
solutions to support the diverse businesses of Chevron Corporation. IT employees support a spectrumPerks and Culture · Competitive compensation · Relocation packages · Performance bonuses · 401(k) plan with company match and immediate vesting · Pension plan vested after 5 years · Employee referral
Brescia, William, Ed.; Reeves, Carolyn, Ed.; Skinner, Linda, Ed.
An effort to better prepare Choctaw youngsters for kindergarten, the Choctaw Culture Early Education Program developed a resource of 58 activities adapted to meet the needs of Choctaw 3- and 4-year olds. The activities are divided into four sections pertaining to getting started, relating to five project publications (How the Flowers Came to Be,…
Khanum, Mohammadi Akheela; Chaurasia, Mousmi A
This study examines the Arabic interface design elements that are largely influenced by the cultural values. Cultural markers are examined in websites from educational, business, and media. Cultural values analysis is based on Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions. The findings show that there are cultural markers which are largely influenced by the culture and that the Hofstede's score for Arab countries is partially supported by the website design components examined in this study. Moderate support was also found for the long term orientation, for which Hoftsede has no score.
Hussein, Eman M; Abdul-Manaem, Ahmed H; el-Attary, Said L
Observation of acid fast C. cavetanensis oocysts were proved in a sputum sample of a 45 years-old male HIV negative patient who was admitted to Chest Hospital due to loss of weight, cough with expectoration of purulent sputum and dyspnea. The radiological picture suggested active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Sputum samples which were positive for acid fast bacilli as proved by Ziehl-Neelsen stain technique showed large (8-10 microm) spherical acid-fast C. cayetanensis oocysts and their identify was confirmed by molecular techniques (Nested PCR). The patient was successfully treated for TB since 4 years. However, this was the second time to report C. cayetanensis oocysts in human sputum. The first one was in Argentina. So, C. cayetanensis is a new respiratory system pathogen which must be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:16333888
Rodrigues, Carl A.
Presents a cultural classification of societies: large or small power distance (centralized or decentralized power structure), collective or individual, strong or weak uncertainty avoidance, masculine or feminine, Confucian/non-Confucian, master of destiny or fatalistic, improvement or status quo, personnel selection based on merit or…
This article illustrates the culture consciousness of Hmong immigrant community leaders as they made sense of the educational experiences of Hmong American children and families. It draws on the work of scholars who have theorized "critical" essentialism to suggest that Hmong leaders are critically aware of the role and import of…
Tomiyama, A. Janet; Mann, Traci
Objective: The authors evaluated the validity of familial enmeshment (extreme proximity in family relationships) as a risk factor for eating disorders across cultural value orientations. They tested the hypothesis that although familial enmeshment may be a risk factor for eating disorder pathology for (1) participants of non-Asian descent or (2)…
Rapid expansion of multinational corporations (MNCs) and their global operations across the world have created business systems that are politically, culturally and economically interconnected. In this paper, stories of Thai and Israeli managers of two MNCs headquartered in Sweden and the US show how firms' local management cultures run into each other and produce new hybrid forms of management cultures.
Kelly M Simpson
Introduction: This project explores the links between shared cultural beliefs in the illness domain, specific to lymphatic filariasis, and a support group program implemented in three Haitian towns. The purpose is to introduce an innovative approach to evaluation, the cultural model evaluation technique (CM Evaluation), as well as gain an understanding of the shifting cognitive belief structure around the cultural
Suku Bhaskaran; Nishal Sukumaran
Purpose – This paper aims to trace the evolution of nationality-based business organisations in Malaysia and review whether national culture, as determined by the nationality-based work values, beliefs and orientations of the owners and managers of organisations, influences the values, orientations and practices of organisations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In-depth literature review and “key-informant” surveys, based on which a structured questionnaire was
Centola, D; Gonzalez-Avella, J C; Miguel, M S; Centola, Damon; Eguiluz, Victor M.; Gonzalez-Avella, Juan Carlos
In studies of cultural differentiation, the joint mechanisms of homophily and influence have been able to explain how distinct cultural groups can form. While these mechanisms normally lead to cultural convergence, increased levels of heterogeneity can allow them to produce global diversity. However, this emergent cultural diversity has proven to be unstable in the face of "cultural drift"- small errors or innovations that allow cultures to change from within. We develop a model of cultural differentiation that combines the traditional mechanisms of homophily and influence with a third mechanism of 2network homophily", in which network structure co-evolves with cultural interaction. We show that if social ties are allowed to change with cultural influence, a complex relationship between heterogeneity and cultural diversity is revealed, in which increased heterogeneity can reduce cultural group formation while simultaneously increasing social connectedness. Our results show that in certain regions of the param...
2011-2012 University of Maryland Nyumburu Cultural Center Building #232, Suite 1120 College Park, Maryland 20742-4517 THE NYUMBURU ANNUAL REPORT "Forty-one Years of Cultural and Academic ...................................................................22 The Maryland Gospel Choir ......................................................................22
Through the use of analogies and analytical philosophy, this article explores the question in what way does science belong to our cultural world. Notes the fragmentation of science and provides recommendations for integrating science and culture. (JDH)
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
:..................................................177 THE SCENARIO..................................177 IN THE VALLEY OF BITTER LOVE: .......179......................................197 1985-1987.............................................197 "CULTURAL FEVER," "BOURGEOIS LIBERALISM...................................................197 4 #12;CULTURAL FEVER?..............................200 Chinese Notebook
Mans, Minette E.
Examines the importance of a national cultural policy for Namibia. Describes how the policy was developed and addresses the draft policy. Discusses the purpose of a cultural policy and the concerns and recommendations for the implementation of the policy. (CMK)
Downtowns of small cities and towns are often overlooked when thinking of cultural and gathering spaces. Unlike a large city that usually has a vibrant historical and cultural history represented by clustering of museums, ...
Huang, Cheng-Zhi Anna
We all share similar innate emotions, but our cultural experiences nurture us to express them differently. The musical form "theme and variations" offer us a unique lens to uncover in each culture the relationships between ...
Stephens, Graeme L.
Eagle Feather Tutoring Native American Cultural Center 218 Lory Student Center Colorado State living things" -Author Unknown Native American Cultural Center NACC #12;The Eagle Feather Tutoring Program Mission Statement: The Eagle Feather Tutoring Program is designed to increase retention
Keyong Dong; Ying Liu
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to: summarize the major research that has been conducted regarding cross-cultural issues in China; show the current practices on cross-cultural management in Chinese organizations; and then identify future research needs on cross-cultural management in China. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Meta-analysis was carried out to summarize research of cross-cultural management in China. Findings – Empirical
WANG De-hua; LI Hui
All cultures make use of nonverbal communication but the meanings of nonverbal communication vary across cultures. Nonverbal communication may be as important to understand as words are, for it can cause misunderstandings between people from different cultures if they misinterpret nonverbal symbols. Nonverbal communication is largely beyond our conscious, and the system we learn is not determined by the genetic
"Culture Currents" presents the books, essays, poetry, performances, music, websites and other cultural media influencing educational leaders. "Culture Currents" is a snapshot, a peek behind the scenes. It reveals what people are reading or seeing that may not be normally mentioned or cited in their academic work. In this issue's contribution, two…