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Sample records for acid-fast bacillus-positive culture

  1. AFB (Acid-Fast Bacillus) Smear and Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mycobacteria Smear; Mycobacteria Culture; TB NAAT Formal name: Acid-Fast Bacillus Smear and Culture and Sensitivity; Mycobacteria tuberculosis Nucleic Acid Amplification Test Related tests: TB Screening Tests ; Bacterial ...

  2. Use and cost-effectiveness of intraoperative acid-fast bacilli and fungal cultures in assessing infection of joint arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Wadey, Veronica M; Huddleston, James I; Goodman, Stuart B; Schurman, David J; Maloney, William J; Baron, Ellen J

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine a protocol for collecting acid-fast bacilli (AFB) and fungal intraoperative cultures during orthopedic procedures. An observational study was undertaken. Four hundred forty-six AFB cultures and 486 fungal cultures were processed over a 2-year period. The number of positive cultures was determined. A protocol specific to handling these types of specimens was developed. Cost analysis was completed to determine both the time and money saved if the new protocol was implemented. The infrequency of positive AFB and fungal cultures in this study suggests that it is only necessary to routinely request AFB and fungal cultures on 1 of 5 samples. Implementation of this protocol has potential to lead to substantial cost reduction and resource savings without diminishing patient outcomes. PMID:19879728

  3. Acid-fast stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003766.htm Acid-fast stain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines ...

  4. Acid-fast stain

    MedlinePlus

    The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines if a sample of tissue, blood, or other body ... dye. The slide is then washed with an acid solution and a different stain is applied. Bacteria ...

  5. Mistaken identity: Legionella micdadei appearing as acid fast bacilli on lung biopsy of a hematopoietic stem cell transplant patient

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, Paul Ravi; Martin, Brock A.; Ho, Dora Y.

    2015-01-01

    Legionella micdadei is a potential cause of invasive lung infections in immunocompromised hosts. On biopsy specimens, it can appear as an acid-fast bacillus (AFB) and can be mistaken for a member of genus Mycobacterium. As Legionella requires selective media to grow in culture, and a commonly used, commercially available urine antigen test for Legionella only detects Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 but not L. micdadei, it is important to consider this organism in the differential diagnosis for AFB in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of Legionella micdadei infection, which was initially treated empirically for non-tuberculous mycobacteria based on acid fast staining of biopsy tissue before the final diagnosis was made. PMID:25573597

  6. Reduction of Acid-Fast and Non-Acid-Fast Bacteria by Point of Use Coagulation-Flocculation-Disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Lisa M.; Sobsey, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Point of use (POU) household water treatment is increasingly being adopted as a solution for access to safe water. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are found in water, but there is little research on whether NTM survive POU treatment. Mycobacteria may be removed by multi-barrier treatment systems that combine processes such as coagulation, settling and disinfection. This work evaluated removal of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (Mycobaterium terrae) and a Gram-negative non-acid-fast environmental bacterium (Aeromonas hydrophila) by combined coagulation-flocculation disinfection POU treatment. Aeromonas hydrophila showed 7.7 log10 reduction in demand free buffer, 6.8 log10 in natural surface water, and 4 log10 reduction in fecally contaminated surface water. Turbidity after treatment was <1 NTU. There was almost no reduction in levels of viable M. terrae by coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant in natural water after 30 minutes. The lack of Mycobacteria reduction was similar for both combined coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant and hypochlorite alone. A POU coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant treatment effectively reduced A. hydrophila from natural surface waters but not Mycobacteria. These results reinforce previous findings that POU coagulation-flocculation-disinfection is effective against gram-negative enteric bacteria. POU treatment and safe storage interventions may need to take into account risks from viable NTM in treated stored water and consider alternative treatment processes to achieve NTM reductions. PMID:26580632

  7. Reduction of Acid-Fast and Non-Acid-Fast Bacteria by Point of Use Coagulation-Flocculation-Disinfection.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Lisa M; Sobsey, Mark D

    2015-11-01

    Point of use (POU) household water treatment is increasingly being adopted as a solution for access to safe water. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are found in water, but there is little research on whether NTM survive POU treatment. Mycobacteria may be removed by multi-barrier treatment systems that combine processes such as coagulation, settling and disinfection. This work evaluated removal of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium (Mycobaterium terrae) and a Gram-negative non-acid-fast environmental bacterium (Aeromonas hydrophila) by combined coagulation-flocculation disinfection POU treatment. Aeromonas hydrophila showed 7.7 log10 reduction in demand free buffer, 6.8 log10 in natural surface water, and 4 log10 reduction in fecally contaminated surface water. Turbidity after treatment was <1 NTU. There was almost no reduction in levels of viable M. terrae by coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant in natural water after 30 minutes. The lack of Mycobacteria reduction was similar for both combined coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant and hypochlorite alone. A POU coagulant-flocculant-disinfectant treatment effectively reduced A. hydrophila from natural surface waters but not Mycobacteria. These results reinforce previous findings that POU coagulation-flocculation-disinfection is effective against gram-negative enteric bacteria. POU treatment and safe storage interventions may need to take into account risks from viable NTM in treated stored water and consider alternative treatment processes to achieve NTM reductions. PMID:26580632

  8. Characteristics of endobronchial tuberculosis patients with negative sputum acid-fast bacillus

    PubMed Central

    Yıldız, Pınar

    2013-01-01

    Objective Endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) is defined as a tuberculous infection of the tracheobronchial tree with microbial and histopathological evidence, with or without parenchymal involvement. In this study, clinical, radiological and bronchoscopic characteristics of cases diagnosed to have EBTB were evaluated. Methods Sixteen patients with at least three negative sputum examinations for acid-fast bacillus (AFB) and diagnosed as having EBTB on the histopathological examination of bronchoscopically obtained specimens showing granulomatous structures with caseation necrosis and/or positive AFB-culture on the microbiological examination of bronchoscopically obtained specimens were included in our study. Age, sex, symptoms, tuberculin skin test (TST), microbiological examination results and radiological findings were recorded. Bronchoscopical lesions were classified according to Chung classification. Results EBTB was found to be more common in females. Most common symptoms were cough (100%), sputum (75%), weight loss (62.5%), hemoptisis (37.5%), chest pain (25%) and dyspnea (12.5%). Radiological examination findings revealed consolidations/infiltrations (87.5%), nodular lesions (37.5%), cavitary lesions (25%), unilateral (43.7%) or bilateral hilar widening (31.2%) and atelectasia (25%). Middle lob syndrome was seen in three cases. Most common lesions observed bronchoscopically were active caseous lesions, granular lesions, edematous hyperemic lesions, tumorous lesions, fibrostenotic lesions respectively. In all cases “granulomatous inflammation showing caseation” was shown in the histopathological examination of biopsy specimens. Conclusions EBTB can cause various radiological and bronchoscopical findings. In most of the cases distinct response is seen to antituberculous treatment. Bronchial stenosis is an important complication. Treatment should be given as soon as possible to avoid it. PMID:24409353

  9. Acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in the kidneys of mallards fed lead shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Bagley, G.E.; Irby, H.D.

    1966-01-01

    Acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies were found in the cells of the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidneys of mallards fed one, two, three or eight number 6 lead shot and maintained on cracked or whole corn and on grain-duck pellet diets. No acid-fast inclusion bodies were found in mallards fed one or three lead shot but maintained on a duck pellet ration. Dietary factors may be responsible for the failure of mallards fed a duck pellet ration to develop lead Inclusion bodies when treated with one or three lead shot. The authors suggest these inclusion bodies can be used as presumptive evidence for lead intoxication in mallards.

  10. ACID-FAST BACTERIA AND YEASTS AS INDICATORS OF DISINFECTION EFFICIENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the coliform group of organisms is considered to be less resistant to chlorine than some bacterial and viral pathogens, the utility of both yeast and acid-fast oganisms as potntial indicators of disinfection efficiency was evaluated. In most laboratory studies these two gro...

  11. Phosphorylation of KasB Regulates Virulence and Acid-Fastness in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Vilchèze, Catherine; Molle, Virginie; Carrère-Kremer, Séverine; Leiba, Jade; Mourey, Lionel; Shenai, Shubhada; Baronian, Grégory; Tufariello, Joann; Hartman, Travis; Veyron-Churlet, Romain; Trivelli, Xavier; Tiwari, Sangeeta; Weinrick, Brian; Alland, David; Guérardel, Yann; Jacobs, William R.; Kremer, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli display two signature features: acid-fast staining and the capacity to induce long-term latent infections in humans. However, the mechanisms governing these two important processes remain largely unknown. Ser/Thr phosphorylation has recently emerged as an important regulatory mechanism allowing mycobacteria to adapt their cell wall structure/composition in response to their environment. Herein, we evaluated whether phosphorylation of KasB, a crucial mycolic acid biosynthetic enzyme, could modulate acid-fast staining and virulence. Tandem mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis revealed that phosphorylation of KasB occurred at Thr334 and Thr336 both in vitro and in mycobacteria. Isogenic strains of M. tuberculosis with either a deletion of the kasB gene or a kasB_T334D/T336D allele, mimicking constitutive phosphorylation of KasB, were constructed by specialized linkage transduction. Biochemical and structural analyses comparing these mutants to the parental strain revealed that both mutant strains had mycolic acids that were shortened by 4–6 carbon atoms and lacked trans-cyclopropanation. Together, these results suggested that in M. tuberculosis, phosphorylation profoundly decreases the condensing activity of KasB. Structural/modeling analyses reveal that Thr334 and Thr336 are located in the vicinity of the catalytic triad, which indicates that phosphorylation of these amino acids would result in loss of enzyme activity. Importantly, the kasB_T334D/T336D phosphomimetic and deletion alleles, in contrast to the kasB_T334A/T336A phosphoablative allele, completely lost acid-fast staining. Moreover, assessing the virulence of these strains indicated that the KasB phosphomimetic mutant was attenuated in both immunodeficient and immunocompetent mice following aerosol infection. This attenuation was characterized by the absence of lung pathology. Overall, these results highlight for the first time the role of Ser/Thr kinase

  12. Improved Sensitivity of Sputum Smear Microscopy after Processing Specimens with C18-Carboxypropylbetaine To Detect Acid-Fast Bacilli: a Study of United States-Bound Immigrants from Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Laserson, K. F.; Yen, N. T. N.; Thornton, C. G.; Mai, V. T. C.; Jones, W.; An, D. Q.; Phuoc, N. H.; Trinh, N. A.; Nhung, D. T. C.; Lien, T. X.; Lan, N. T. N.; Wells, C.; Binkin, N.; Cetron, M.; Maloney, S. A.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of the specimen-processing method that uses the detergent C18-carboxypropylbetaine (CB-18) on the sensitivity of acid-fast bacillus (AFB) staining. Vietnamese immigrants with abnormal chest radiographs provided up to three sputum specimens, which were examined for acid-fast bacilli by use of direct auramine and Ziehl-Neelsen staining. The remaining sputum was split; half was cultured, and the other half was incubated with CB-18 for 24 h, centrifuged, and examined for AFB by both staining methods. CB-18 processing improved the sensitivity of AFB staining by 20 to 30% (only differences in auramine sensitivity were statistically significant) but reduced specificity by ≈20% (P < 0.05). These findings have direct utility for overseas migrant tuberculosis screening programs, for which maximizing test sensitivity is a major objective. PMID:16000478

  13. Demonstration of acid-fast bacilli in buffy coat and bone marrow smear--a diagnostic tool in pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sen, R; Singh, S; Singh, H P; Sen, J; Yadav, M S; Arora, B R

    1996-10-01

    Buffy coat smears prepared from peripheral blood and bone marrow aspirate obtained from proved 60 untreated cases of pulmonary tuberculosis were stained with Ziehl-Neelsen method and thoroughly screened for presence of tubercle bacilli. Acid-fast bacilli were detected in 55% cases in buffy coat, 48.3% cases in bone marrow, 38.3% cases both in buffy coat and bone marrow and 65% cases either in buffy coat or in bone marrow or in both. Considering the fact that demonstration of acid-fast bacilli may not be possible in more than 25-50% of the suspected cases of tuberculosis, these techniques are recommended for evaluation of their utility in establishing diagnosis of tuberculosis, particularly in reference to sputum negative cases of pulmonary tuberculosis and tuberculosis of inaccessible extrapulmonary sites. PMID:9141877

  14. Clinical significance of smear positivity for acid-fast bacilli after ≥5 months of treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyung Koo; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Lee, Hyun; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Huh, Hee Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong; Koh, Won-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) with acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive sputum smear at 5 months or later during treatment are considered to be cases of treatment failure according to World Health Organization guidelines. This study evaluated the proportion, clinical characteristics, and significance of positive sputum smears after ≥5 months of standard treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. This was a retrospective cohort study of 1611 patients with culture-confirmed drug-susceptible pulmonary TB who received standard anti-TB treatment from January 2009 to February 2014. Forty-one patients (2.5%) who were smear-positive after ≥5 months of treatment and 123 age- and sex-matched control patients were evaluated. Among the 41 smear-positive patients, culture of the sputum specimens yielded Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in 1 patient (2.4%), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in 7 (17.1%), and no growth in the remaining 33 patients (80.5%). Treatment was successfully completed in 40 patients (97.6%) with prolongation of the continuation phase regimens without change to second-line anti-TB treatment. In patients with smear positivity after ≥5 months of treatment compared with controls, cavitation on chest radiographs (53.7% vs. 25.2%, P = 0.001), bilateral involvement (51.2% vs. 30.1%, P = 0.01) and combined pleural effusion (26.8% vs. 10.6%, P = 0.01) were found more frequently at the time of treatment initiation, and paradoxical response occurred more commonly (19.5% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.002) during treatment. Smear-positive sputum after ≥5 months of standard anti-TB treatment was mainly because of nonviable MTB bacilli or NTM in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. AFB smear alone should not be used to assess treatment failure and careful examination of microbiologic status, including culture and drug susceptibility testing, is needed before making changes to retreatment regimens or empirical second

  15. Clinical significance of smear positivity for acid-fast bacilli after ≥5 months of treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyung Koo; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Lee, Hyun; Park, Hye Yun; Jeon, Kyeongman; Huh, Hee Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong; Koh, Won-Jung

    2016-08-01

    Patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) with acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive sputum smear at 5 months or later during treatment are considered to be cases of treatment failure according to World Health Organization guidelines. This study evaluated the proportion, clinical characteristics, and significance of positive sputum smears after ≥5 months of standard treatment in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB.This was a retrospective cohort study of 1611 patients with culture-confirmed drug-susceptible pulmonary TB who received standard anti-TB treatment from January 2009 to February 2014. Forty-one patients (2.5%) who were smear-positive after ≥5 months of treatment and 123 age- and sex-matched control patients were evaluated.Among the 41 smear-positive patients, culture of the sputum specimens yielded Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in 1 patient (2.4%), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in 7 (17.1%), and no growth in the remaining 33 patients (80.5%). Treatment was successfully completed in 40 patients (97.6%) with prolongation of the continuation phase regimens without change to second-line anti-TB treatment. In patients with smear positivity after ≥5 months of treatment compared with controls, cavitation on chest radiographs (53.7% vs. 25.2%, P = 0.001), bilateral involvement (51.2% vs. 30.1%, P = 0.01) and combined pleural effusion (26.8% vs. 10.6%, P = 0.01) were found more frequently at the time of treatment initiation, and paradoxical response occurred more commonly (19.5% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.002) during treatment.Smear-positive sputum after ≥5 months of standard anti-TB treatment was mainly because of nonviable MTB bacilli or NTM in patients with drug-susceptible pulmonary TB. AFB smear alone should not be used to assess treatment failure and careful examination of microbiologic status, including culture and drug susceptibility testing, is needed before making changes to retreatment regimens or empirical second-line anti

  16. Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the USA" (Alisa Woodring);…

  17. Anisotropic tubular filtering for automatic detection of acid-fast bacilli in Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Shan-e.-Ahmed; Marjan, M. Q.; Arif, Muhammad; Butt, Farhana; Sultan, Faisal; Rajpoot, Nasir M.

    2015-03-01

    One of the main factors for high workload in pulmonary pathology in developing countries is the relatively large proportion of tuberculosis (TB) cases which can be detected with high throughput using automated approaches. TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which appears as thin, rod-shaped acid-fast bacillus (AFB) in Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stained sputum smear samples. In this paper, we present an algorithm for automatic detection of AFB in digitized images of ZN stained sputum smear samples under a light microscope. A key component of the proposed algorithm is the enhancement of raw input image using a novel anisotropic tubular filter (ATF) which suppresses the background noise while simultaneously enhancing strong anisotropic features of AFBs present in the image. The resulting image is then segmented using color features and candidate AFBs are identified. Finally, a support vector machine classifier using morphological features from candidate AFBs decides whether a given image is AFB positive or not. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ATF method with two different feature sets by showing that the proposed image analysis pipeline results in higher accuracy and F1-score than the same pipeline with standard median filtering for image enhancement.

  18. Neuro-Sweet disease with positive modified acid-fast staining of the cerebrospinal fluid: A case report

    PubMed Central

    LIU, JUAN-FANG; LI, YUAN; LI, KAI; ZHANG, XIAO; YANG, YI-NING; ZHAO, GANG; LIU, ZHI-RONG

    2016-01-01

    Neuro-Sweet disease (NSD) is Sweet disease with central nervous system (CNS) involvement. To the best of our knowledge, the present case report is the first to describe NSD complicated by endogenous infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The present case report describes a male patient who developed NSD-induced meningitis, which initially manifested as a fever, headache and neck stiffness. Painful erythematous plaques subsequently developed on his face, neck and upper trunk. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed and the results were normal, whereas modified acid-fast stain analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provided a positive result. The patient was thus diagnosed with viral meningitis and tuberculosis. However, subsequent skin biopsy results demonstrated neutrophilic infiltration into the dermis without vasculitis, and subsequent human leukocyte antigen typing was positive for Cw1 and negative for B51 and the patient was diagnosed with NSD. Following treatment with corticosteroids, and antiviral and anti-tuberculotic agents, the clinical symptoms were reduced and the previously abnormal findings in the CSF examinations and associated laboratory data were improved. The present case indicates that the diagnosis of NSD is not easily achieved, and early skin biopsy is vital to ensure a fast and effective diagnosis. In addition to systemic corticosteroids, comprehensive treatment is also recommended for patients with NSD complicated by additional complex medical problems. PMID:27073429

  19. Improving sensitivity of direct microscopy for detection of acid-fast bacilli in sputum: use of chitin in mucus digestion.

    PubMed

    Farnia, P; Mohammadi, F; Zarifi, Z; Tabatabee, D J; Ganavi, J; Ghazisaeedi, K; Farnia, P K; Gheydi, M; Bahadori, M; Masjedi, M R; Velayati, A A

    2002-02-01

    In order to try to improve the results of direct smear microscopy, we used the mucus-digesting quality of chitin in tuberculosis (TB) laboratories. For this purpose, a total of 430 sputum specimens were processed by the N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) liquefaction, chitin sedimentation, and direct microscopy methods. Then, the smear sensitivity for acid-fast bacillus detection by chitin-treated sputum was compared with the sensitivity of smears prepared by other methods. Our results showed that the chitin solution took less time to completely homogenize the mucoid sputum than did the N-acetyl-L-cysteine and NaOCl methods. The N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration method demonstrated sensitivity and specificity levels of 83 and 97%, respectively. In comparison, the sensitivity of chitin sedimentation was 80%, with a specificity of 96.7%. The NaOCl liquefaction method showed a sensitivity of 78%, with a specificity of 96%. Finally, the sensitivity of direct microscopy was lower than those of the other tested methods and was only 46%, with a specificity of 90%. The chitin and NaOCl liquefaction methods are both easy to perform, and they do not require additional equipment (centrifuges). Also, our results demonstrated that the chitin method is less time-consuming than the NaOCl method, since only 30 min of incubation is required to bring complete sedimentation of bacilli in chitin-treated sputum whereas the NaOCl method needs 10 to 12 h to give the same results in the same sputum specimens. Therefore, the chitin liquefaction and sedimentation method may provide better results in TB laboratories of developing countries than the N-acetyl-L-cysteine concentration, NaOCl overnight sedimentation, and direct smear microscopy methods. PMID:11825964

  20. Decentralization of Acid Fast Bacilli(AFB) External Quality Assurance Using Blind Rechecking for Sputum Smear Microscopy in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Melese, Muluken; Jerene, Degu; Alem, Genetu; Seid, Jemal; Belachew, Feleke; Kassie, Yewulsew; Habte, Dereje; Negash, Solomon; Ayana, Gonfa; Girma, Belaineh; Haile, Yared K.; Hiruy, Nebiyu; Suarez, Pedro G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ethiopia achieved a rapid expansion of TB microscopic centers for acid fast bacilli (AFB). However, external quality assurance (EQA) services were, until recently, limited to few regional and sub-regional laboratories. In this paper, we describe the decentralization experience and the result of EQA using random blinded rechecking. Materials and Methods The routine EQA quarterly report was compiled and analyzed. A positive result by the microscopic center while the EQA center reported negative result is categorized as false positive (FP). A negative result by the microscopic center while the EQA center reported positive is considered false negative (FN). The reading of EQA centers was considered a gold standard to compute the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of the readings of microscopic centers. Results We decentralized sputum smear AFB EQA from 4 Regional Laboratories (RRLs) to 82 EQA centers and enrolled 956 health facilities in EQA schemes. Enrollment of HFs in EQA was gradual because it required training and mentoring laboratory professionals, institutionalizing internal QA measures, equipping all HFs to perform diagnosis, and establishing more EQA centers. From 2012 to 2014 (Phase I), the FP rate declined from 0.6% to 0.2% and FN fell from as high as 7.6% to 1.6% in supported health facilities (HFs). In HFs that joined in Phase II, FN rates ranged from 5.6 to 7.3%. The proportion of HFs without errors has increased from 77.9% to 90.5% in Phase I HFs and from 82.9% to 86.9% in Phase II HFs. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 95.0% and 99.7%, respectively. PPV and NPV were 93.3% and 99.7%, respectively. Conclusion Decentralizing blinded rechecking of sputum smear microscopy is feasible in low-income settings. While a comprehensive laboratory improvement strategy enhanced the quality of microscopy, laboratory professionals’ capacity in slide reading and smear quality requires continued

  1. Comparison of an acid-fast stain and a monoclonal antibody-based immunofluorescence reagent for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in faecal specimens from cattle and pigs.

    PubMed

    Quílez, J; Sánchez-Acedo, C; Clavel, A; del Cacho, E; López-Bernad, F

    1996-12-01

    A commercially available direct immunofluorescence (IF) assay with monoclonal antibodies (Monofluo Kit Cryptosporidium, Diagnostics Pasteur, France) was compared with the modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) acid-fast technique for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in faecal samples from cattle and pigs. Stool specimens individually collected from 108 bovines and 90 pigs were examined in a blind test. The results of the two procedures corresponded (both positive or negative) in 102 (94.4%) cattle samples and 80 (88.9%) pig faecal samples. However, the remaining six (5.5%) cattle specimens and 10 (11.1%) pig stool samples, all of them harboring few oocysts (0-1 oocysts per 20 x field), were negative by MZN and positive by IF. False-negative results of the acid-fast stain occurred in suckling (17.2% of discrepant results) and weaned calves (2.9%) as well as weaned piglets (43.7%) and fattening pigs (10%). Stool specimens from the remaining age groups were negative by both techniques. The MacNemar's chi-square test showed that differences between both methods were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Compared with immunofluorescence procedure, the sensitivity of MZN technique in samples from cattle and pigs was 79.3% and 67.7% and the negative predictive value was 92.9% and 85.5% respectively. The specificity and positive predictive values of the acid-fast stain were 100% in both animal species. It is concluded that the monoclonal antibody-based immunofluorescence reagent evaluated is more efficient that the MZN technique, especially for detecting a low number of Cryptosporidium oocysts, in faecal specimens from both cattle and pigs. PMID:9011016

  2. THE MICROBIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF TUBERCULOSIS IN A RESOURCE - LIMITED SETTING: IS ACID-FAST BACILLI MICROSCOPY ALONE SUFFICIENT?

    PubMed Central

    Odubanjo, M.O.; Dada-Adegbola, H.O.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to audit the processes for the microbiological diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in our resource-limited setting. A total of 694 specimens were received from 333 patients. 129 (38.7%) of these patients were positive for TB. 78 (60.5%) were positive on AFB microscopy alone, 13 (10.0%) on culture alone and 38 (29.5%) on both culture and AFB microscopy. Fifty-one (51) cases were positive on culture, 38 of these (74.5%) had growth on Lowensen-Jensen culture medium alone, 11 (19.6%) on Pyruvic Acid Enhanced Medium (PAEM) and 3 (5.9%) on both culture media. AFB microscopy showed a diagnostic specificity of 71.6% and a sensitivity of 74.5%. M. Bovis appears to be prevalent and we suggest the need for speciation. If AFB microscopy is to be routinely used alone, without confirmation by culture, then the overriding need is for quality to be fully assured in its use. PMID:25161484

  3. Detection of Acid Fast Bacilli in Saliva using Papanicolaou Stain Induced Fluorescence Method Versus Fluorochrome Staining: An Evaluative Study

    PubMed Central

    (Munot), Priya P Lunawat; Mhapuskar, Amit A; Ganvir, S M; Hazarey, Vinay K; Mhapuskar, Madhavi A; Kulkarni, Dinraj

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fifty years after effective chemotherapy, tuberculosis (TB) still remains leading infectious cause of adult mortality. The aim of present study was to evaluate diagnostic utility of papanicolaou (Pap) stain induced fluorescence microscopic examination of salivary smears in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study of 100 individuals clinically suspected of suffering from active pulmonary TB. Control group – 50 individuals are suffering from any pulmonary disease other than TB such as pneumonia or bronchiogenic carcinoma. Fluorescence microscopic examination of two salivary smears stained by Pap stain and auramine-rhodamine (A-R) stain respectively for each patient. Ziehl–Neelsen stained sputum smear examined under the light microscope for each patient. Culture was done in all the patients for microbiological confirmation. McNemar's Chi-square analysis, Kappa test, and Z-test. Results: The sensitivities of the three staining methods using culture as a reference method were 93.02%, 88.37% and 87.20% for Pap, A-R and Ziehl–Neelson respectively. Conclusion: Pap-induced fluorescence of salivary smears is a safe, reliable and rapid method, which can prove as a valuable diagnostic tool for diagnosis of TB. PMID:26229384

  4. Pure neuritic leprosy: Resolving diagnostic issues in acid fast bacilli (AFB)-negative nerve biopsies: A single centre experience from South India

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Monalisa; Uppin, Megha S.; Challa, Sundaram; Meena, A. K.; Kaul, Subhash

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Demonstration of lepra bacilli is essential for definite or unequivocal diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy (PNL) on nerve biopsy. However, nerves always do not show bacilli owing to the changes of previous therapy or due to low bacillary load in tuberculoid forms. In absence of granuloma or lepra bacilli, other morphologic changes in endoneurium and perineurium can be of help in making a probable diagnosis of PNL and treating the patient with multidrug therapy. Materials and Methods: Forty-six biopsies of PNL were retrospectively reviewed and histologic findings were compared with 25 biopsies of non leprosy neuropathies (NLN) including vasculitic neuropathy and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). The distribution of endoneurial infiltrate and fibrosis, perineurial thickening, and myelin abnormalities were compared between PNL and NLN biopsies and analyzed by Chi-square test. Results: Out of 46 PNL casses, 24 (52.17 %) biopsies were negative for acid fast bacilli (AFB). In these cases, the features which favor a diagnosis of AFB-negative PNL were endoneurial infiltrate (51.1%), endoneurial fibrosis (54.2%), perineurial thickening (70.8%), and reduced number of myelinated nerve fibers (75%). Interpretation and Conclusion: Nerve biopsy is an efficient tool to diagnose PNL and differentiate it from other causes of NLN. In absence of AFB, the diagnosis of PNL is challenging. In this article, we have satisfactorily evaluated the various hisopthological features and found that endoneurial inflammation, dense fibrosis, and reduction in the number of myelinated nerve fibers are strong supportive indicators of PNL regardless of AFB positivity. PMID:26425006

  5. Evaluation of different modifications of acid-fast staining techniques and stool enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in detecting fecal Cryptosporidium in diarrheic HIV seropositive and seronegative patients

    PubMed Central

    Parghi, Ekta; Dash, Lona; Shastri, Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    Rational: The role of Cryptosporidium as an agent of human diarrhea has been redefined over the past decade following recognition of the strong association between cases of cryptosporidiosis and immune deficient individuals (such as those with AIDS). Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of enteric parasites and to compare the diagnostic utility of stool enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with various modifications of acid-fast (AF) staining in detection of Cryptosporidium in stool samples of diarrheic patients. Materials and Methods: Stool samples from 186 cases comprising of 93 HIV seropositive and 93 seronegative patients were included. These were subjected to routine and microscopic examination as well as various modifications of AF staining for detection of coccidian parasites and ELISA for the detection of Cryptosporidium. Results: The prevalence of enteric parasites was 54.8% and of Cryptosporidium was 17.2% in HIV seropositive patients while it was 29.0% and 5.4%, respectively in seronegative patients. Of the 186 cases, 33 cases (17.7%) were positive for Cryptosporidium by stool ELISA as compared to 21 (11.3%) by modified AF staining (gold standard) showing sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 92.7%, respectively. The maximum cases of Cryptosporidium (21; 11.3%) were detected by AF staining using 3% acid alcohol. Conclusion: ELISA is a simple, useful, and rapid tool for detection of Cryptosporidium in stool, especially for large scale population studies. However, the role of modified AF staining in detection of Cryptosporidium and other coccidian parasites is important. Based on the results of various modifications of AF staining, the present study recommends the use of 3% acid alcohol along with 10% H2SO4. PMID:25250230

  6. Rate of recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from frozen acid-fast-bacillus smear-positive sputum samples subjected to long-term storage in Northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tessema, Belay; Beer, Joerg; Emmrich, Frank; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C

    2011-07-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. The diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis remain a challenge in the country. This study aimed to assess whether single morning sputum samples could be stored at -20 °C for extended periods of time at remote settings and then transported and successfully cultured for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Single morning sputum samples were collected from all smear-positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed at Gondar Hospital, Gondar Health Center, Metemma Hospital, Bahir Dar Hospital, and Debre Markos Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia between March and July 2009. Specimens were stored at the study sites and sent to the mycobacteriology laboratory at the University Hospital, Leipzig, Germany, where specimens were processed and inoculated into the BacT/Alert 3D system and Lowenstein-Jensen and Gottsacker media. Ice packs were added in the package of the specimens during transport. A total of 319 patients were enrolled in this study. The median specimen storage time was 132 days (range, 16 to 180 days). Of all specimens, 283 (88.7%) were culture positive by any of the three culturing systems. M. tuberculosis isolates from four contaminated specimens in all culturing systems were successfully isolated on Middlebrook 7H10 agar; thereby, the recovery rate increased to 287 (90.0%). The length of time of sputum storage had no significant effect on the rate of recovery of M. tuberculosis in all culturing systems. In conclusion, single morning sputum specimens collected at remote settings stored at -20 °C for long periods of time without the addition of preservatives can yield a high recovery rate. These findings suggest a simple and cost-effective alternative method of sputum storage for epidemiological and drug resistance studies in low-resource countries. PMID:21562105

  7. Early Detection of Mycobacteria Using a Novel Hydrogel Culture Method

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Mi Hee; Kim, Shine Young; Kim, Chang-Ki; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Sung Soo; Lee, Eun Yup

    2014-01-01

    Background Early laboratory detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is crucial for controlling tuberculosis. We developed a hydrogel mycobacterial culture method that retains the advantages of both solid and liquid methods in terms of speed, cost, and efficiency. Methods Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) suspensions and 200 acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive clinical specimens were inoculated in Middlebrook 7H9 liquid media (Becton-Dickinson and Company, USA) and mixed with 75 µL of 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-Phe-Phe-OH hydrogel stock solution in an Eppendorf tube just before culture incubation. The mixtures were cultured at 37℃ for as long as 14 days to monitor culture status. Results The number of M. bovis BCG increased with time. For 200 AFB smear-positive specimens, 155 of 158 conventional culture-positive specimens and 4 culture-negative or contaminated specimens yielded positive cultures within 14 days. For 128 specimens positive with the liquid culture method, the time to positive culture using the hydrogel method (mean, 12.6 days; range, 7 to 14 days) was significantly shorter than that for conventional liquid culture (mean, 16.2 days; range, 6 to 31 days; P<0.0001). Conclusions The hydrogel scaffold culture system is useful for timely, economical, and efficient detection of mycobacteria in clinical specimens. PMID:24422192

  8. Thin layer microcolony culture associated with PCR for early identification of Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    do Rosário, Tatiana Reis; Dib, Cristina Corsi; Roxo, Eliana; Pinheiro, Sônia Regina; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2014-01-01

    The initial growth of mycobacteria from 49 samples of cattle and buffalo organs collected in commercial slaughterhouses was compared between modified Middlebrook 7H11 thin layer microcolony culture and Stonebrink medium used in the isolation of Mycobacterium bovis. Aliquots were decontaminated by Petroff’s method, processed and cultured in both media. The identity of the acid-fast bacilli stained by Ziehl-Neelsen was confirmed by PCR. Optical microscopy showed that results of the early observation of Mycobacterium bovis colonies in thin layer culture were similar to those obtained in macroscopic observation of the colonies in Stonebrink medium. However, early observation of the colonies enabled early confirmation by PCR, given the shorter time to the visualization of colonies when thin layer culture was used (between the 12nd and 25th day of culture). PMID:24948936

  9. Urine culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  10. Stool Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bacterial Culture, stool; Feces Culture Formal name: Enteric Pathogens Culture, stool Related tests: Ova and Parasite Exam , ... Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli , Widal Test , Gastrointestinal Pathogens Panel All content on Lab Tests Online has ...

  11. Fecal culture

    MedlinePlus

    Stool culture; Culture - stool ... stool tests are done in addition to the culture, such as: Gram stain of stool Fecal smear ... Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis and bacterial food poisoning. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ...

  12. Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  13. Learning Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David

    Adult and continuing education in the arts can and does play a role in the development of cultural identity. Dimensions of culture include ethnicity, location, age, social class, and time. This definition of culture leads to the conclusion that cultures are generally small and are dynamic rather than static. Research shows that individuals in what…

  14. Culture matters.

    PubMed

    Arif, Zeba

    Zebaa Arif reflects on changes during her career as a mental health nurse in relation to cultural care issues: Cultural awareness is becoming embedded in patient care. All aspects of care are influenced by cultural beliefs and should form part of assessment. Leadership is essential in influencing cultural care, as is organisational commitment. PMID:16262169

  15. Cultural Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Daniel L.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience issues from the apparently incompatible combination of neuroscience and cultural psychology. A brief literature sampling suggests, instead, several preliminary topics that demonstrate proof of possibilities: cultural differences in both lower-level processes (e.g. perception, number representation) and higher-order processes (e.g. inferring others’ emotions, contemplating the self) are beginning to shed new light on both culture and cognition. Candidates for future cultural neuroscience research include cultural variations in the default (resting) network, which may be social; regulation and inhibition of feelings, thoughts, and actions; prejudice and dehumanization; and neural signatures of fundamental warmth and competence judgments. PMID:23874143

  16. Culturing Protozoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  17. Repellent Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Considers defining "culture," noting how it is difficult to define because those individuals defining it cannot separate themselves from it. Relates these issues to student writing and their writing improvement. Addresses violence in relation to culture. (SG)

  18. Culture Clubs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersten, Bridget Fitzgerald

    1998-01-01

    One way to break down barriers and promote understanding among English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and mainstream students is to establish culture clubs. Culture clubs involve frequent exchange of information about social, academic, and cultural topics in extracurricular settings. They are a critical component of ESL programs. The article explains…

  19. Teaching Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrath, Douglas R.

    The study of a foreign language is the study of another culture. Cultural involvement begins as learners progress from grammar to the actual use of language. Culture includes the ideas, customs, skills, arts, and tools of a people and influences both cognitive and affective behavior. It should be introduced as part of the total language…

  20. Skin or nail culture

    MedlinePlus

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  1. Cultural Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armas, Jose

    It is too often taken for granted that the communication process with culturally different children takes place as readily as it might with children from Anglo cultures. Most teachers receive training in verbal and formal communication skills; children come to school with nonverbal and informal communication skills. This initially can create…

  2. Ryukyuan Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trafton, Terry

    The Ryukyu Islands of Japan, of which Okinawa is the best known, possess a lengthy history and a sophisticated cultural background, an exploration of which helps to shed light on this area and on mainland Japan. This document is an exposition of Ryukuan culture. Divided into eight sections, the areas covered include: (1) Historical perspective;…

  3. Bronchoscopic culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... a laboratory exam to check a piece of tissue or fluid from the lungs for infection-causing germs. ... Culture - bronchoscopic ... used to get a sample ( biopsy ) of lung tissue or fluid. The sample ... a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ...

  4. Cultural History and Cultural Materialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Ronald

    1990-01-01

    Historicism critiques cultural history and cultural materialism as a methodology for literary analysis. Questions the finality of interpretation, how original values change, and whether dramatic history implies actual history. Using Shakespearean plays, analyzes the power and politics of a play in relation to its audience; posits that cultural…

  5. Tuberculous lymphadenitis: Comparison of cytomorphology, Ziehl–Neelsen staining, and rapid mycobacterial culture at a pediatric superspecialty hospital

    PubMed Central

    Mahana, Sonam; Tomar, Reena; Agrawal, Rawi; Saksena, Rushika; Manchanda, Vikas; Gupta, Ruchika

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate and compare the role of Ziehl–Neelsen (ZN) staining and mycobacterial culture in diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 56 fine needle aspirations (FNAs) from patients who were clinically suspected to have tuberculous lymphadenitis were included. Acid-fast Bacilli detection was attempted by ZN staining on smears as well as culture on Middlebrook 7H9 broth. Percentage positivity of both smears and culture was calculated. Results: Of the 56 cases, 46 showed cytomorphological features consistent with tuberculosis (TB). The most common pattern was only necrosis in 37 cases followed by necrotizing granulomas in 13 cases. ZN-stained smears were positive in 40 cases while culture was positive in only 27 cases. The highest smear and culture positivity was noted in cases with only necrosis. In six cases, diagnosis of TB was made on culture alone since smear was negative in these cases. Conclusion: FNA is a reliable technique for early and accurate diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis in many cases. Mycobacterial culture by newer rapid techniques can assist in bacillary detection in smear-negative cases and also allows for drug sensitivity testing. Hence, culture should be resorted to in such cases.

  6. Esophageal culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... for infection-causing germs in a sample of tissue from the esophagus. ... Culture - esophageal ... A sample of tissue from your esophagus is needed. The sample is ... or viruses. Other tests may be done to determine what medicine ...

  7. Endocervical culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... There, they are placed in a special dish (culture). They are then watched to see if bacteria, virus, or fungus grow. Further tests may be done to identify the specific organism and determine the best treatment.

  8. Bile culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... lab. There, it is placed in a special dish called a culture medium to see if bacteria, ... bacteria, virus, or fungus grew in the laboratory dish. Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among ...

  9. Esophageal culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... lab. There, it is placed in a special dish (culture) and watched for the growth of bacteria, ... means that no germs grew in the laboratory dish. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different ...

  10. Blood culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  11. Gastric culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... test or procedure preparation (3 to 6 years) School age test or procedure preparation (6 to 12 ... immune system. The final results of the gastric culture test may take several weeks. Your provider will ...

  12. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  13. Culturally Responsive Teaching: Understanding Disability Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2013-01-01

    To be culturally responsive teachers, we must first have an understanding of other cultures and how students from these cultures differ from one another. As we consider the many cultures represented in our classrooms, we might also consider students with disabilities as a cultural group. Within any main culture are subgroups differentiated by…

  14. Hydroponic Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steucek, G. L.; Yurkiewicz, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a hydroponic culture technique suitable for student exercises in biology. This technique of growing plants in nutrient solutions enhances plant growth, and is an excellent way to obtain intact plants with root systems free of soil or other particulate matter. (JR)

  15. Cultural Themes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Loriene, Comp.

    Part of a larger report on the Four Directions Project, an American Indian technology innovation project, this section includes 10 "pathfinders" to locating information on Native American cultural themes. The pathfinders were designed by students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Texas at Austin in…

  16. Culture Theory and American Cultural Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, John J.

    This paper addresses three questions related to cultural geography--(1) do cultural geographers have a serious interest in culture theory? (2) is there some indication in the ways in which cultural geographers have traditionally approached their subject which has given rise to an apparent lack of concern with the implications of culture theory?…

  17. Cultural neurolinguistics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui; Mei, Leilei; Chen, Chunhui; Dong, Qi

    2010-01-01

    As the only species that evolved to possess a language faculty, humans have been surprisingly generative in creating a diverse array of language systems. These systems vary in phonology, morphology, syntax, and written forms. Before the advent of modern brain-imaging techniques, little was known about how differences across languages are reflected in the brain. This chapter aims to provide an overview of an emerging area of research — cultural neurolinguistics — that examines systematic cross-cultural/crosslinguistic variations in the neural networks of languages. We first briefly describe general brain networks for written and spoken languages. We then discuss language-specific brain regions by highlighting differences in neural bases of different scripts (logographic vs. alphabetic scripts), orthographies (transparent vs. nontransparent orthographies), and tonality (tonal vs. atonal languages). We also discuss neural basis of second language and the role of native language experience in second-language acquisition. In the last section, we outline a general model that integrates culture and neural bases of language and discuss future directions of research in this area. PMID:19874968

  18. Culture et medias (Culture and the Media).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abastado, Claude

    1982-01-01

    The traditional conception of pluralistic culture is contrasted with a new, separate form of culture: mass media culture. Its components are noted: medium, message, "mosaic," and strategy, and methodology for its study is discussed. (MSE)

  19. Bacterial Wound Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Bacterial Wound Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Aerobic Wound Culture; Anaerobic Wound Culture Formal name: Culture, wound Related ...

  20. Advances in cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Maramorosch, K. )

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on advances in cell culture. Topics covered include: Genetic changes in the influenza viruses during growth in cultured cells; The biochemistry and genetics of mosquito cells in culture; and Tree tissue culture applications.

  1. Culture collections.

    PubMed

    Smith, David

    2012-01-01

    Culture collections no matter their size, form, or institutional objectives play a role in underpinning microbiology, supplying the resources for study, innovation, and discovery. Their basic roles include providing a mechanism for ex situ conservation of organisms; they are repositories for strains subject to publication, taking in safe, confidential, and patent deposits from researchers. They supply strains for use; therefore, the microorganisms provided must be authentic and preserved well, and any associated information must be valid and sufficient to facilitate the confirmation of their identity and to facilitate their use. The organisms must be collected in compliance with international conventions, international and national legislation and distributed to users indicating clearly the terms and conditions under which they are received and can be used. Collections are harmonizing approaches and characterizing strains to meet user needs. No one single collection can carry out this task alone, and therefore, it is important that output and strategy are coordinated to ensure culture collections deliver the basic resources and services microbiological innovation requires. This chapter describes the types of collection and how they can implement quality management systems and operate to deliver their basic functions. The links to information sources given not only provide support for the practitioners within collections but also provide guidance to users on accessing the huge resource available and how they can help ensure microbiology has the resources and a solid platform for future development. PMID:22569518

  2. Opening the Culture Door.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Barbara; Rasminsky, Judy Sklar

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that child care providers must collaborate with children's families in order to better understand their culture and their child, and to successfully deal with challenging behavior issues. Addresses: (1) culture definition; (2) culture and identity; (3) cultural differences; (4) seeing culture; (5) child care and school culture; (6) moving…

  3. Marketing across Cultures: Tools for Cultural Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffield, Barney T., III

    The concept of cultural universals, the basic needs shared by people around the world, is a critical concept in assessing the impact of culture on decisions about the international marketing of goods and services. In most cases, international marketers have little need to understand all the ways in which their culture differs from the culture of…

  4. Hispanic Culture and Relational Cultural Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Traditional personality theories do not consider the impact of culture on personality development. Yet, to provide culturally relevant services to the increasing Hispanic population in the U.S., more culturally relevant theories must be identified. This paper presents Relational Cultural Theory (RCT) as an alternative model to understanding…

  5. Academic Culture and Campus Culture of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Xi; Tian, Xianghong

    2012-01-01

    Academic culture of universities mainly consists of academic outlooks, academic spirits, academic ethics and academic environments. Campus culture in a university is characterized by individuality, academic feature, opening, leading, variety and creativity. The academic culture enhances the construction of campus culture. The campus culture…

  6. Inhibitory effects of polyoxyethylene stearate, PANTA, and neutral pH on growth of Mycobacterium genavense in BACTEC primary cultures.

    PubMed

    Realini, L; Van Der Stuyft, P; De Ridder, K; Hirschel, B; Portaels, F

    1997-11-01

    We report on the influences of polyoxyethylene stearate (POES), PANTA, and pH on primary cultures of Mycobacterium genavense in BACTEC vials. As a model for primary cultures from tissue, seven different strains first isolated from AIDS patients (five from Switzerland and two from the United States) were inoculated into nude mice in order to obtain large amounts of bacilli to test different conditions simultaneously. Our results demonstrate that the size of the inoculum (10[6] acid-fast bacilli/vial), an acid pH (pH 6.0), and the absence of additives (POES and PANTA) significantly (P < 0.001) increased the probability of a successful culture in 1 month, considering growth index (GI) of > or =100 or a GI of > or =999 as criterion of success. In logistic regression analysis, all factors maintained a significant (P < 0.001) independent effect, and no interactions were observed between them. The best conditions for the primary cultures of M. genavense were the use of Middlebrook 7H12 medium at pH 6.0 without any additives. PMID:9350735

  7. Revisiting cultural awareness and cultural relevancy.

    PubMed

    Abi-Hashem, Naji

    2015-10-01

    Comments on the original article by Christopher et al. (see record 2014-20055-001) regarding critical cultural awareness. The more insights and exploration of the meaning and influence of culture we receive, the better. There is no single treatment of any personal or collective culture(s) that can be inherently complete or totally exhaustive. New hermeneutics and skills are always needed, appreciated, and refreshing. PMID:26436315

  8. Dehistoricized Cultural Identity and Cultural Othering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiguo, Qu

    2013-01-01

    The assumption that each culture has its own distinctive identity has been generally accepted in the discussion of cultural identities. Quite often identity formation is not perceived as a dynamic and interactive ongoing process that engages other cultures and involves change in its responses to different challenges at different times. I will…

  9. Cultural Understanding Through Cross-Cultural Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briere, Jean-Francois

    1986-01-01

    A college course used an explicit intercultural approach and collective research activities to compare French and American cultures and to examine the reasons for cultural attitudes and culture conflict. Class assignments dealt with contrastive analyses of American and French institutions like advertising, cinema, feminism, etc. (MSE)

  10. Routine sputum culture

    MedlinePlus

    Sputum culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Culture, routine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, ... . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:409- ...

  11. Peritoneal fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... based on more than just the peritoneal fluid culture (which may be negative even if you have ...

  12. Lymph node culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - lymph node ... or viruses grow. This process is called a culture. Sometimes, special stains are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration does not ...

  13. Culture - joint fluid

    MedlinePlus

    Joint fluid culture ... fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. If these germs are detected, other tests may ... is no special preparation needed for the lab culture. How to prepare for the removal of joint ...

  14. Teaching Culturally Diverse Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa, Vivian; Tulbert, Beth

    1991-01-01

    Characteristics of culturally diverse students are discussed in terms of language, culture, and socioeconomic factors. Meeting the educational needs of culturally diverse students can involve interactive teaming of professionals; parent involvement; and providing appropriate services, assessment, curriculum, and instruction. (JDD)

  15. Popular Culture and English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Hilary Taylor

    1987-01-01

    Explores the origins and elements of popular culture--noting that English instruction and popular culture need not be mutually exclusive, and that selected materials from popular culture may serve goals of the English curriculum without compromising them. (NKA)

  16. Diagnostic value of the strand displacement amplification method compared to those of Roche Amplicor PCR and culture for detecting mycobacteria in sputum samples.

    PubMed Central

    Ichiyama, S; Ito, Y; Sugiura, F; Iinuma, Y; Yamori, S; Shimojima, M; Hasegawa, Y; Shimokata, K; Nakashima, N

    1997-01-01

    We compared the ability of the semiautomated BDProbeTec-SDA system, which uses the strand displacement amplification (SDA) method, with that of the Roche Amplicor-PCR system and the Septi-Chek AFB culture system to directly detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) and other mycobacteria in sputum samples. A total of 530 sputum samples from 299 patients were examined in this study. Of the 530 samples, 129 were culture positive for acid-fast bacilli with the Septi-Chek AFB system; 95 for MTB, 29 for M. avium-M. intracellulare complex (MAC), and 5 for other mycobacteria. The BDProbeTec-SDA system detected 90 of the 95 samples culture positive for MTB (sensitivity, 94.7%), and the Amplicor-PCR system detected 85 of the 95 samples culture positive for MTB (sensitivity, 89.5%). The specificity of each system, based on the clinical diagnosis, was 99.8% for SDA and 100% for PCR, respectively. Among the 29 samples culture positive for MAC, the BDProbeTec-SDA system detected MAC in 24 samples (sensitivity, 82.8%), whereas the Amplicor-PCR system detected MAC in 23 samples (sensitivity, 79.3%). The specificities of the systems were 98.3 and 100%, respectively. The high degrees of sensitivity and specificity of the BDProbeTec-SDA system suggest that it should be very useful in clinical laboratories for the rapid detection of mycobacteria in sputum samples. PMID:9399498

  17. Usefulness of lymphoid granulomatous inflammation culture obtained by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in a fungal endemic area

    PubMed Central

    Berger, John; Zamora, Felix; Podgaetz, Eitan; Andrade, Rafael; Dincer, H. Erhan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is the procedure of choice for the evaluation of mediastinal/hilar lymph node enlargements. Granulomatous inflammation of the mediastinal/hilar lymph nodes is often identified on routine histology. In addition, mediastinal lymphadenopathy may be present with undiagnosed infection. We sought to determine the usefulness of routine cultures and histology for infectious etiologies in a fungal endemic area when granulomatous inflammation is identified. Materials and Methods: We identified 56 of 210 patients with granulomatous inflammation on EBUS-TBNA biopsies from October 2012 through October 2014. An onsite cytologist evaluated all biopsies and an additional TBNA pass for microbiologic stains and cultures were obtained in those with granulomatous inflammation. Results: Of the 56 patients with granulomatous inflammation, 20 patients had caseating (necrotizing) granulomas while noncaseating (nonnecrotizing) granulomas were detected in 36 of the remainder patients. In patients with caseating granulomas, fungal elements were identified in 6 of 20 (30%) patients (histoplasma; N = 5, blastomyces; N = 1) on Grocott methenamine silver (GMS) stain. Lymph node cultures identified 3 of 20 (20%) patients as being positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (N = 1), Histoplasma capsulatum (N = 1), and Blastomyces dermatitidis (N = 1). Among patients with noncaseating granulomas, only 2 out of 36 (5%) were positive for fungal elements on GMS stain, identified as Histoplasma, although the lymph node cultures remained negative. Conclusion: The incidence of granulomatous inflammation of mediastinal lymph nodes was 26.6% in our series. Of these patients, noncaseating granulomas were more common (64% vs. 36%). Infectious organisms, fungal or acid-fast bacilli (AFB), on either staining or lymph node culture were rarely identified in noncaseating granulomas, 5% and none, respectively

  18. Cultural Energy & Grassroots Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleymeyer, Charles D.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses how cultural vitality drives successful community development. Links cultural, community, and environmental values. Examines successes and failures of programs attempting to link culture and development in Panama, Ecuador, and Colombia. Examines role of cultural self-examination for creating new development paradigm. Examines prospects…

  19. Developing Cultural Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matikainen, Tiina; Duffy, Carolyn B.

    2000-01-01

    Provides ways of developing students' awareness of cultural patterns among the different cultures of the world. Describes a lesson in which students learn about basic attitudes different cultures have toward three cultural value dimensions: the role of the individual in society, power distance, and time orientation. (Author/VWL)

  20. The Concept of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, John

    1987-01-01

    National identity and schooling are predicated on a particular yet ill-defined view of culture. To counter "popular" and "high" culture polarizations and arguments for cultural pluralism, this paper proposes that curricula be designed for student access to forms and symbols defining Australian culture through discourse and artistic…

  1. HPT: The Culture Factor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison, Roger M.; Wittkuhn, Klaus D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the challenges in managing performance across national cultures and within changing corporate cultures. Describes two human performance technology tools that can help performance consultants understand different cultures and provide the basis for successful management action: the culture audit and the systems model that can be adapted…

  2. Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Jacqueline Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Many teachers have only a cursory understanding of culturally relevant pedagogy, and their efforts to bridge the cultural gap often fall short. Culturally relevant pedagogy is a term that describes effective teaching in culturally diverse classrooms. It can be a daunting idea to understand and implement. Yet people tend to appreciate culturally…

  3. Many Forms of Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Adam B.

    2009-01-01

    Psychologists interested in culture have focused primarily on East-West differences in individualism-collectivism, or independent-interdependent self-construal. As important as this dimension is, there are many other forms of culture with many dimensions of cultural variability. Selecting from among the many understudied cultures in psychology,…

  4. Does Culture Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, David E.

    2002-01-01

    Objects to current preoccupations with culture (particularly race) in psychology and education, suggesting that it is unethical to let culture influence decision making. Notes the paucity of empirical evidence of statistical interactions between treatment and culture in psychotherapy or teaching and culture in education. Concludes that without…

  5. Popular Culture and Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Ray B., Ed.; Ambrosetti, Ronald J., Ed.

    The seven essays in this publication, including four read at the fall 1969 American Studies Association meeting, attempt to present both the nature of popular culture study and a guide for teachers of popular culture courses. Papers are (1) "Popular Culture: Notes toward a Definition" by Ray B. Browne; (2) "Can Popular Culture Save American…

  6. Cultural Approaches to Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS This article first introduces some main ideas behind culture and parenting and next addresses philosophical rationales and methodological considerations central to cultural approaches to parenting, including a brief account of a cross-cultural study of parenting. It then focuses on universals, specifics, and distinctions between form (behavior) and function (meaning) in parenting as embedded in culture. The article concludes by pointing to social policy implications as well as future directions prompted by a cultural approach to parenting. PMID:22962544

  7. Cultural Molding: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassebaum, Peter

    Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course, this learning module introduces the student to cultural molding, the idea that most human behavior can be traced to enculturation and exposure rather than to a socio-biological explanation of human behavior. Following a brief description of socialization,…

  8. Cultural Literacy: Negotiating Language, Culture, and Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ellen Riojas; Flores, Belinda Bustos

    2007-01-01

    Our schools see increasing numbers of students who reflect the wide diversity of this country's population, but too often these differences--culture, language, socioeconomic backgrounds, ethnicity are viewed from negative or deficit perspectives when they are, in fact, the cultural capital that enriches discussion, broadens viewpoints, and…

  9. Bile culture (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract. A specimen of bile is placed in culture media and observed for growth of microorganisms. If there ... no infection. If there is growth in the culture media, the growth is then isolated and identified to ...

  10. Rectal culture (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A rectal culture test is performed by inserting a cotton swab in the rectum. The swab is rotated gently, and withdrawn. A smear of the swab is placed in culture media to encourage the growth of microorganisms. The ...

  11. Armenian Cultural Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Cultural Astronomy is the reflection of sky events in various fields of nations' culture. In foreign literature this field is also called "Astronomy in Culture" or "Astronomy and Culture". Cultural astronomy is the set of interdisciplinary fields studying the astronomical systems of current or ancient societies and cultures. It is manifested in Religion, Mythology, Folklore, Poetry, Art, Linguistics and other fields. In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to this sphere, particularly international organizations were established, conferences are held and journals are published. Armenia is also rich in cultural astronomy. The present paper focuses on Armenian archaeoastronomy and cultural astronomy, including many creations related to astronomical knowledge; calendars, rock art, mythology, etc. On the other hand, this subject is rather poorly developed in Armenia; there are only individual studies on various related issues (especially many studies related to Anania Shirakatsi) but not coordinated actions to manage this important field of investigation.

  12. Science, Magic, and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangler, David G.

    1974-01-01

    The differences which appear when a heavily scientific culture comes in contact with a culture whose basic orientation toward nature and man is of a religious, magical character are briefly investigated. (NQ)

  13. Cultural changes in aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobl, Bill

    1991-01-01

    Cultural changes; people and jobs; examples of cultural changes required; advanced launch system (ALS) philosophy; ALS operability capabilities; and ALS operability in design are outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  14. Culture in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medin, Douglas L.; Bang, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Culture plays a large but often unnoticeable role in what we teach and how we teach children. We are a country of immense diversity, but in classrooms the dominant European-American culture has become the language of learning.

  15. Culture Differences and English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Language is a part of culture, and plays a very important role in the development of the culture. Some sociologists consider it as the keystone of culture. They believe, without language, culture would not be available. At the same time, language is influenced and shaped by culture, it reflects culture. Therefore, culture plays a very important…

  16. Teaching Culture: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessard-Clouston, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Discusses seven books on cultural awareness: (1) "Culture Learning" (Damen); (2) "Beyond the Language Classroom" (Fantini and others); (3) "Culturally Speaking" (Genzel and Cummings); (4) "Across Cultures" (Lim and Smalzer); (5) "Teaching Culture" (Seelye); (6) "Cultural Awareness" (Tomalin and Stempleski); and (7) "Culture Connection" (Wegmann…

  17. Frozen cultural plasticity.

    PubMed

    Houdek, Petr; Novakova, Julie

    2016-01-01

    We discuss cultural group selection under the view of the frozen plasticity theory and the different explanatory power and predictions of this framework. We present evidence that cultural adaptations and their influence on the degree of cooperation may be more complex than presented by Richerson et al., and conclude with the gene-environment-culture relationship and its impacts on cultural group selection. PMID:27561647

  18. Reconstituted Thymus Organ Culture.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zimu; Liu, Haifeng; Rui, Jinxiu; Liu, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    Reconstituted thymus organ culture is based on fetal thymus organ culture (FTOC). Purified thymocyte populations, from genetically modified mice or even from other species, are cultured in vitro with thymic lobes depleted of their endogenous thymocytes (by 2'-deoxyguanosine treatment) to form a new thymus. This potent and timesaving method is distinct from FTOC, which assesses development of unmodified thymic lobes, and reaggregate thymic organ culture, in which epithelial cells are separately purified before being aggregated with thymocytes. PMID:26294406

  19. Why Teach Visual Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passmore, Kaye

    2007-01-01

    Visual culture is a hot topic in art education right now as some teachers are dedicated to teaching it and others are adamant that it has no place in a traditional art class. Visual culture, the author asserts, can include just about anything that is visually represented. Although people often think of visual culture as contemporary visuals such…

  20. Problems Confronting Visual Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efland, Arthur D.

    2005-01-01

    A new movement has appeared recommending, in part, that the field of art education should lessen its traditional ties to drawing, painting, and the study of masterpieces to become the study of visual culture. Visual cultural study refers to an all-encompassing category of cultural practice that includes the fine arts but also deals with the study…

  1. Language, Culture and Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candlin, Christopher N.

    1992-01-01

    Paper seeks a principled way to integrate second and foreign language teaching with a study of the cultures of those languages and the learners' cultures within the curriculum framework of purposes, content, and evaluation. It examines current contexts in language education then discusses integrating language, culture, and curriculum. (SM)

  2. Principals as Cultural Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Karen Seashore; Wahlstrom, Kyla

    2011-01-01

    Principals have a strong role to play in forming school cultures that encourage change. Changing a school's culture requires shared or distributed leadership and instructional leadership. A multiyear study found that three elements are necessary for a school culture that stimulates teachers to improve their instruction: 1) Teachers and…

  3. Anaerobic thermophilic culture

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Wiegel, Jurgen K. W.

    1981-01-01

    A newly discovered thermophilic anaerobe is described that was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC 3/550. T. Ethanolicus is cultured in aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions and is used in a novel process for producing ethanol by subjecting carbohydrates, particularly the saccharides, to fermentation action of the new microorganism in a biologically pure culture.

  4. The Two Cultures Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultberg, John

    1997-01-01

    Addresses the work of British writer, C. P. Snow, and examines the differences in scientific and literary cultures. Discusses post-World War II professionalization of science and the rebellious literary culture; the scientific revolution; the lack of communication between the two cultures; the generalization of science through sociology; the need…

  5. Europeana: Think Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kail, Candice

    2011-01-01

    Europeana: Think Culture (http://www.europeana.eu) is a wonderful cultural repository. It includes more than 15 million items (images, text, audio, and video) from 1,500 European institutions. Europeana provides access to an abundance of cultural and heritage information and knowledge. Because Europeana has partnered with and brought together so…

  6. Cultural Arts Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistone, Kathleen A.

    The handbook presents activities to aid elementary school classroom teachers as they develop and implement cultural arts lessons. A cultural arts program is interpreted as a way to help students develop perceptual awareness, build a basic vocabulary in some art cultural form, evaluate their own works of art, appreciate creative expressions, and…

  7. Transcending Cultural Borders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Robert; Murphy, Kris; Jaworski, Joy

    2007-01-01

    Cultural diversity presents many challenges to the art educator. Teaching children to be tolerant and to appreciate differences is particularly important in a world that is characterized by polarization, embittered cultural divisions, and prejudice. Students' knowledge and attitudes are mediated by popular culture, which often reduces cultural…

  8. Literacy: "Kultur" and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterowd, W. Ross

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the implications of the work of Paulo Freire for understanding cultural literacy. Points out that Freire differentiates between "kultur" (stable, immutable cultural institutions) and "culture" (something that is always becoming or being made), and that the difference has important implications for education. (SKC)

  9. Language, Culture, and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focus in Change, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This theme issue, devoted to the relationship between language, culture, and identity, contains three articles, all by Anne Turnbaugh Lockwood, and a commentary by Florence L. Johnson. The first article, entitled "The Heart of Culture," reports on an interview with Henry T. Trueba, an educator specializing in the roles of language, culture, and…

  10. The University Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simplicio, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the role university culture can play on a campus and how it can impact policy and practice. The article explores how a university's history, values, and vision form its culture and how this culture in turn affects its stability and continuity. The article discusses how newcomers within the university are…

  11. Cultur(ally) Jammed: Culture Jams as a Form of Culturally Responsive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Ulyssa

    2012-01-01

    Does the person become the name or does the name become the person? This question was asked by a participant of my culture jam entitled, "What's my name?" In this culture jam, I asked people to discern the name of a person based solely on their appearance and a list of possible names below their picture. This article aims to show how culture jams…

  12. Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity?

    PubMed

    van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-05-22

    Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity. PMID:22625856

  13. Preparing culturally competent practitioners.

    PubMed

    St Clair, A; McKenry, L

    1999-05-01

    Preparing culturally competent practitioners is critical, and evaluating the effect of experiences intended to move students toward cultural competence is important. This research study explored the relationship among short-term international nursing clinical immersion experiences, cultural self-efficacy, and cultural competence. A triangulated research design was used to explore the relationship among the variables with 200 senior undergraduate and graduate nursing students from a university in New England. Quantitative analysis found statistically significant differences in the achievement of cultural self-efficacy for the participants who completed the international clinical experiences versus those who remained in the United States. Qualitative analysis, used to further explain the quantitative results, found that the differences were related to international students' ability to overcome their ethnocentrism, experience a transformative perspective about being culturally aware and sensitive, as well as understand and integrate the patients' cultural practices and beliefs into the students' Western health care practices. It became apparent that something other than cultural self-efficacy had occurred for participants in the international immersion experiences. The students believed they had entered the arena of cultural competence. Short-term clinical cultural immersion experiences have relevance for assisting faculty to move nursing students toward an understanding and achievement of cultural competence in ways currently not possible with nonimmersion community cultural experiences. PMID:10438097

  14. Safeguards Culture: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2010-06-01

    Today, safeguards culture can be a useful tool for measuring nonproliferation postures, but so far its impact on the international safeguards regime has been underappreciated. There is no agreed upon definition for safeguards culture nor agreement on how it should be measured. This paper argues that safeguards culture as an indicator of a country’s nonproliferation posture can be a useful tool.

  15. Cultural Exploration through Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schall, Janine M.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing diversity in the United States means that all students must understand multiple cultural perspectives and identities. Educators need to facilitate learning engagements that highlight the complexities of culture and cultural identity, going beyond surface characteristics such as foods, holidays, and clothing that are often the focus in…

  16. Resource Guide: Cultural Resilience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Joyce A.; Peacock, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Offers resources for the study of cultural resilience. This term, used in American Indian culture theory, suggests that traditional culture can help to overcome oppression, abuse, poverty, and other social ills. Offers annotated reference to 19 books, articles, Internet sites, and other publications. (NB)

  17. Cultural Knowledge in Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olk, Harald

    2003-01-01

    Describes a study exploring the influence of cultural knowledge on the translation performance of German students of English. Found that the students often lacked sufficient knowledge about British culture to deal with widely-used cultural concepts. Findings suggest that factual reference sources have an important role to play in translation…

  18. Cultural effects on mindreading.

    PubMed

    Perez-Zapata, Daniel; Slaughter, Virginia; Henry, Julie D

    2016-01-01

    People from other cultural backgrounds sometimes seem inscrutable. We identified a potential cause of this phenomenon in two experiments demonstrating that adults' mental state inferences are influenced by the cultural identity of the target. We adapted White, Hill, Happé, and Frith's (2009) Strange Stories to create matched intra-cultural and cross-cultural mindreading and control conditions. Experiment 1 showed that Australian participants were faster to respond and received higher scores in the intra-cultural mindreading condition relative to the cross-cultural mindreading condition, but performance in the control conditions was equivalent. Experiment 2 replicated this pattern in independent samples of Australian and Chilean participants. These findings have important implications for cross-cultural communication and understanding. PMID:26529195

  19. Predicting results of mycobacterial culture on sputum smear reversion after anti-tuberculous treatment: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is currently known regarding sputum smear reversion (acid-fast smear becomes positive again after negative conversion) during anti-tuberculous treatment. This study aimed to evaluate its occurrence in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and identify factors predicting results of mycobacterial culture for smear-reversion of sputum samples. Methods The retrospective review was performed in a tertiary referral center and a local teaching hospital in Taiwan. From 2000 to 2007, patients with smear-positive culture-confirmed pulmonary TB experiencing smear reversion after 14 days of anti-tuberculous treatment were identified. Results The 739 patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB had 74 (10%) episodes of sputum smear reversion that grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 22 (30%) (Mtb group). The remaining 52 episodes of culture-negative sputum samples were classified as the non-Mtb group. The anti-tuberculous regimen was modified after confirming smear reversion in 15 (20%). Fourteen episodes in the Mtb group and 15 in the non-Mtb group occurred during hospitalization. All were admitted to the negative-pressure rooms at the time of smear reversion. Statistical analysis showed that any TB drug resistance, smear reversion within the first two months of treatment or before culture conversion, and the absence of radiographic improvement before smear reversion were associated with the Mtb group. None of the smear reversion was due to viable M. tuberculosis if none of the four factors were present. Conclusions Sputum smear reversion develops in 10% of patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB, with 30% due to viable M. tuberculosis bacilli. Isolation and regimen modification may not be necessary for all drug-susceptible patients who already have radiographic improvement and develop smear reversion after two months of treatment or after sputum culture conversion. PMID:20205743

  20. Safeguards Culture: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2009-05-27

    Abstract: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper builds on that theoretical discussion to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Paper: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop on “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges,” in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper, coauthored by Karyn R. Durbin and Andrew Van Duzer, described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper updates that theoretical discussion, and seeks to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Implicit in this discussion is an understanding that improving a culture is not an end in itself, but is one method of improving the underlying discipline, that is safety, security, or safeguards. Culture can be defined as a way of life, or general customs and beliefs of a particular group of people at a particular time. There are internationally accepted definitions of safety culture and nuclear security culture. As yet, there is no official agreed upon definition of safeguards culture. At the end of the paper I will propose my definition. At the Santa Fe Workshop the summary by the Co-Chairs of Working Group 1, “The Further Evolution of Safeguards,” noted: “It is clear that ‘safeguards culture

  1. Cross-Cultural Impression Management: A Cultural Knowledge Audit Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spong, Abigail; Kamau, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many people moving into a new culture for work or study do so without prior cross-cultural training, yet successful cultural adaptation has important ramifications. The purpose of this paper is to focus on cross-cultural impression management as an element of cultural adaptation. Does cultural adaptation begin by paying strong attention…

  2. Culture, Culture Learning and New Technologies: Towards a Pedagogical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Mike

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to improve approaches to the learning and teaching of culture using new technologies by relating the key qualities and dimensions of the culture concept to elements within a pedagogical framework. In Part One, five facets of the culture concept are developed: culture as elemental; culture as relative; culture as group membership;…

  3. Astronomy in Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, M.

    2010-07-01

    Which is more appropriate? “Astronomy in culture,” or “Astronomy and culture,” or “Culture without astronomy?” These are only few variants, each with its own sense. I guess the last question is the most pertinent. Does culture really exist without astronomy? The existence and evolution of the human civilization answer NO! But what “culture” means? When we are thinking of a culture (the Hellenistic one, for instance), we mean a set of customs, artistic, religious, intellectual manifestations that differentiate one group or society from another. On the other hand, we often use the notion of culture in a different sense: shared beliefs, ways of regarding and doing, which orient more or less consciously the behavior of an individual or a group. An example would be the laic culture. Moreover, the set of knowledge acquired in one or several domains also constitutes a culture, for instance the scientific culture of an individual or a group. Finally, the set of cultures is nothing else but the civilization. Now, if we come back in time into the history of civilization, we find a permanent component, which was never missing and often played a decisive part in its evolution: the Astronomy.

  4. Culture and psychiatric diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning. PMID:23816860

  5. Culture and Psychiatric Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, a number of components related to psychiatric diagnosis have come under criticism for their inaccuracies and inadequacies. Neurobiologists and anthropologists have particularly criticized the rigidity of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis –composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress—as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning. PMID:23816860

  6. Timely culture for mycobacteria which utilizes a microcolony method.

    PubMed Central

    Welch, D F; Guruswamy, A P; Sides, S J; Shaw, C H; Gilchrist, M J

    1993-01-01

    For the isolation of mycobacteria from clinical specimens, we evaluated a method that used a thinly poured Middlebrook 7H11 agar plate (10 by 90 mm) that was examined microscopically. Inoculated plates were sealed, incubated, and examined at regular intervals for the appearance of microcolonies. Plates were examined microscopically, while still sealed, by focusing on the agar surface through the bottom of the plate and the agar. Plates were scanned at low power (x40 total magnification), and colony morphology was confirmed at intermediate power (x100 to x180 magnification). This method was compared with a traditional method that used macroscopic examination of standard mycobacterial media. By using all specimens submitted for mycobacterial culture over the duration of the study, the method was evaluated until 270 isolates of mycobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, n = 103; M. avium-M. intracellulare, n = 115; miscellaneous, n = 52) were detected. While the conventional method required an average of 23 days to the time of first detection of mycobacteria, the experimental method required an average of only 11 days. When limited to acid-fast stain-positive specimens that were culture positive for M. tuberculosis, the average interval to positivity was 7 days for the microcolony method compared with 17 days for the conventional method. With the experimental method, the microscopic colonial morphology allowed for the presumptive identification of M. tuberculosis colonies, which were distinguished by cording, and M. avium-M. intracellulare colonies, which were smooth and entire. Presumptive identification was complete for 83.5% of the M. tuberculosis isolates within 10 days and for 85% of the M. avium-M. intracellulare isolates within 11 days after inoculation. If the microcolony method was combined with a conventional tube medium, the composite would optimize for speed of recovery while providing the full sensitivity of the conventional method. In addition to reducing

  7. Bone marrow aspiration, biopsy, and culture in the evaluation of HIV-infected patients for invasive mycobacteria and histoplasma infections.

    PubMed

    Akpek, G; Lee, S M; Gagnon, D R; Cooley, T P; Wright, D G

    2001-06-01

    Bone marrow (BM) aspiration and biopsy are used commonly in clinical practice to diagnose invasive tissue infections caused by Mycobacterium avium intracellulare (MAC), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB), and Histoplasma capsulatum (HC) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) infection. However, the value of these invasive procedures relative to other diagnostic approaches has not been clearly defined. To determine the value of BM culture and BM histology in the diagnosis of opportunistic MAC/TB and HC infections in immunosuppressed patients with HIV, we retrospectively reviewed the records of 56 adult patients with HIV who underwent a single BM aspiration, biopsy, and culture because of unexplained fever and/or other clinical features suggestive of MAC/TB or HC infection. Thirty-two patients (57%) were ultimately diagnosed with MAC/TB or HC infection by positive cultures of BM, blood, sputum, or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or by the histologic detection of organisms in biopsies of BM or other tissues. The diagnostic sensitivity of BM cultures was equal to that of blood cultures (20/32, or 63%). Granuloma and/or histologically apparent organisms were seen in BM biopsy specimens in 11 of 32 individuals (34%) ultimately diagnosed with MAC/TB or HC infections. Among these 11 cases, both granuloma and acid-fast staining organisms were found in the BM biopsy specimens of 2 individuals for whom both BM and blood cultures were negative. Certain clinical symptoms and signs at the time of BM examination were found by logistic regression analysis to be significantly associated with a subsequent diagnosis of MAC/TB or HC infections; these included high fever, long duration of febrile days prior to BM examination, and elevated direct bilirubin. In conclusion, while the diagnostic sensitivity of BM cultures was found to be no greater than that of blood cultures in detecting MAC/TB or HC infections in immunosuppressed HIV+ patients, histopathologic examination of BM

  8. Nature/culture/seawater.

    PubMed

    Helmreich, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Seawater has occupied an ambiguous place in anthropological categories of "nature" and "culture." Seawater as nature appears as potentiality of form and uncontainable flux; it moves faster than culture - with culture frequently figured through land-based metaphors - even as culture seeks to channel water's (nature's) flow. Seawater as culture manifests as a medium of pleasure, sustenance, travel, disaster. I argue that, although seawater's qualities in early anthropology were portrayed impressionistically, today technical, scientific descriptions of water's form prevail. For example, processes of globalization - which may also be called "oceanization" - are often described as "currents," "flows," and "circulations." Examining sea-set ethnography, maritime anthropologies, and contemporary social theory, I propose that seawater has operated as a “theory machine” for generating insights about human cultural organization. I develop this argument with ethnography from the Sargasso Sea and in the Sea Islands. I conclude with a critique of appeals to water's form in social theory. PMID:21560270

  9. Cultural Learning Redux.

    PubMed

    Tomasello, Michael

    2016-05-01

    M. Tomasello, A. Kruger, and H. Ratner (1993) proposed a theory of cultural learning comprising imitative learning, instructed learning, and collaborative learning. Empirical and theoretical advances in the past 20 years suggest modifications to the theory; for example, children do not just imitate but overimitate in order to identify and affiliate with others in their cultural group, children learn from pedagogy not just episodic facts but the generic structure of their cultural worlds, and children collaboratively co-construct with those in their culture normative rules for doing things. In all, human children do not just culturally learn useful instrumental activities and information, they conform to the normative expectations of the cultural group and even contribute themselves to the creation of such normative expectations. PMID:27189393

  10. Culture and math.

    PubMed

    Tcheang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Cultural differences have been shown across a number of different cognitive domains from vision, language, and music. Mathematical cognition is another domain that is an integral part of modern society and because there are a fixed number of ways in which many math operations can be performed, it is also an apposite tool for cultural comparisons. This discussion examines the literature on mathematical processing in accordance with culture, summarizing the brain regions involved across various mathematical tasks. In doing so, we provide a clear picture of the anatomical similarities and differences between cultures when performing different math tasks. This information is useful to explore the possibility of enhancement of mathematical skills, where different strategies may be applicable in accordance with culture. It also contributes to the evolutionary development of different math skills and the growing theory that anatomical and behavioral studies must account for the cultural identity of their sample. PMID:24090438

  11. Culture and intelligence.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    Intelligence cannot be fully or even meaningfully understood outside its cultural context. Work that seeks to study intelligence acontextually risks the imposition of an investigator's view of the world on the rest of the world. Moreover, work on intelligence within a single culture mayfail to do justice to the range of skills and knowledge that may constitute intelligence broadly defined and risks drawing false and hasty generalizations. This article considers the relevance of culture to intelligence, as well as its investigation, assessment, and development. Studies that show the importance of understanding intelligence in its cultural context are described; the author concludes that intelligence must be understood in such context. PMID:15511120

  12. Cultural aspects of suicide.

    PubMed

    Maharajh, Hari D; Abdool, Petal S

    2005-09-01

    Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies. PMID:16155688

  13. Cultural change that sticks.

    PubMed

    Katzenbach, Jon R; Steffen, Ilona; Kronley, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    When a major change initiative runs aground, leaders often blame their company's culture for pushing it off course. They try to forge ahead by overhauling the culture--a tactic that tends to fizzle, fail, or backfire. Most cultures are too well entrenched to be jettisoned. The secret is to stop fighting your culture--and to work with and within it, until it evolves in the right direction. Today's best-performing companies, such as Southwest Airlines, Apple, and the Four Seasons, understand this, say the authors, three consultants from Booz & Company. These organizations follow five principles for making the most of their cultures: 1. Match strategy to culture. Culture trumps strategy every time, no matter how brilliant the plan, so the two need to be in alignment. 2. Focus on a few critical shifts in behavior. Wholesale change is hard; choose your battles wisely. 3. Honor the strengths of the existing culture. Every culture is the product of good intentions and has strengths; put them to use. 4. Integrate formal and informal interventions. Don't just implement new rules and processes; identify "influencers" who can bring other employees along. 5. Measure and monitor cultural evolution. Otherwise you can't identify backsliding or correct course. When the leaders of Aetna applied these rules while implementing a new strategy in the early 2000s, they reinvigorated the company's ailing culture and restored employee pride. That shift was reflected in the business results, as Aetna went from a $300 million loss to a $1.7 billion gain. PMID:22852451

  14. Cultural Legacies: Operationalizing Chicano Cultural Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordaz, Maricela; Anda, Diane de

    1996-01-01

    Survey of 41 Chicanos and 39 whites ages 18-80 found that despite effects of acculturation, Chicanos held educational and developmental values and beliefs consistent with ancient Nahuatl (Aztec) society, an indigenous Mexican culture. Suggests a need to examine social service delivery systems to determine whether assumptions and procedures are…

  15. Assessing Knowledge of Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Robert

    The procedures used in a study to determine how well a group of American Indian college students understood their traditional and modern cultures and a college Caucasian culture were explained in this paper. The sample consisted of 111 Indian students enrolled in the University of New Mexico. The students were tested in the areas of knowledge of…

  16. Developing Culturally Competent Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focal Point, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This special issue examines multicultural aspects of services provided by agencies concerned with children's mental health. The lead article is titled "Developing Culturally Competent Organizations" by James L. Mason. This article uses the cultural competence model to discuss an organization's self-evaluation and its planning in the areas of…

  17. Culture and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Heejung S.; Sherman, David K.; Taylor, Shelley E.

    2008-01-01

    Social support is one of the most effective means by which people can cope with stressful events. Yet little research has examined whether there are cultural differences in how people utilize their social support networks. A review of studies on culture and social support presents evidence that Asians and Asian Americans are more reluctant to…

  18. Cultural Discontinuities and Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbu, John U.

    1982-01-01

    Attempts to define the cultural discontinuity (between schools and students) hypothesis by distinguishing between universal, primary, and secondary discontinuities. Suggests that each of these is associated with a distinct type of school problem, and that secondary cultural discontinuities commonly affect minority students in the United States.…

  19. Cultural Policies in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depaigne, Jacques

    The booklet presents a synopsis of reports on national cultural policies by government officials of nations belonging to the Council of Europe. The main purpose of the document is to provide an overview of institutional facilities, financial resources, and goals of cultural policy. The document is presented in five major sections. Section I…

  20. Culture and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Gayle; And Others

    Developed by the Texas Department of Human Resources' Child Development Division, this guide supports and encourages the integration of cultural diversity into children's programs; furnishes basic information related to race, ethnicity, and culture; and briefly considers some issues associated with the concepts. While not dealing in depth with all…

  1. Culturally Responsive Teaching Matters!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozleski, Elizabeth B.

    2010-01-01

    In 2000, Professor Geneva Gay wrote that culturally responsive teaching connects students' cultural knowledge, prior experiences, and performance styles to academic knowledge and intellectual tools in ways that legitimize what students already know. By embracing the sociocultural realities and histories of students through what is taught and how,…

  2. Introduction to Cambodian Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chhim, Sun-Him

    This booklet about the cultural background of Cambodia is one of three booklets that serve as a foundation for understanding the cultural diversity and values of Cambodian, Laotian, and Vietnamese students. Cambodia, or Kampuchea, has a population of about 7,000,000 and is located in mainland Southeast Asia. Its history is divided into the…

  3. Cultural Pluralism on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Harold E.; And Others

    This book is addressed primarily to higher education personnel responsible for campus programming that promotes a culturally plural environment. These chapters are included: (1) "Affirming Affirmative Action" (Harold E. Cheatham); (2) "Identity Development in a Pluralistic Society" (Harold E. Cheatham); (3) "The Minority Cultural Center on a…

  4. Understanding Corporate Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluff, Gary A.

    1988-01-01

    Considers concept of corporate culture and discusses several values which can be considered when assessing corporate culture, and the "compatibility scales" used to measure them. Included are discussions of employee attitudes, work atmosphere, internal communications, management style, employment opportunity, stability, business ethics, corporate…

  5. Pop Culture in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, David Manning, Ed.

    The nature of today's popular culture, its place in American life, and its merit or lack of it are the themes of these essays from "The New York Times Magazine." Introductory essays discuss the use of leisure time, paying the cost of the arts, and whether American society can be considered "cultured." Subsequent essays discuss the nature of radio…

  6. Crusade for Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayre, Ruth W.

    1995-01-01

    Reprints an article originally published in 1961. Describes the "culture crusade" at William Penn High School for Girls in midcity Philadelphia, part of Project WINGS, an overall program of educational incentive and motivation. Notes that over a 2-year period, more than 1,000 girls went on at least 1 cultural trip. (RS)

  7. A School Culture Audit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald; Blackburn, Barbara R.

    2009-01-01

    Educators know that something needs to change; they analyze data, build a plan, and provide professional development, yet little changes. Often that is because they fail to take into account the culture of their schools. Culture reflects the complex set of values, traditions, assumptions, and patterns of behavior that are present in a school.…

  8. Teaching Languages, Teaching Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony J., Ed.; Crozet, Chantal, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines what it means to teach culture as an integrated part of language from both the language learner's and the language teacher's perspectives. The 11 papers include the following: "Teaching Cultures as an Integrated Part of Language: Implications for the Aims, Approaches and Pedagogies of Language Teaching" (Chantal…

  9. Introduction to Vietnamese Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Te, Huynh Dinh

    This booklet about the cultural background of Vietnam is one of three booklets that serve as a foundation for understanding the cultural diversity and values of Cambodian, Laotian, and Vietnamese students. Vietnam is located on the eastern coast of the Indochinese peninsula and has a population of 56 million. Its history is divided into the…

  10. The Popular Culture Explosion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Ray B.; Madden, David

    Popular culture is defined here as anything produced by and/or dissembled by the mass media or mass production or transportation, either directly or indirectly, and that reaches the majority of the people. This sampler from mass magazines, intended for use in the study of popular culture, includes fiction from "Playboy"; articles on cars, Johnny…

  11. Building Culturally Responsive Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polleck, Jody; Shabdin, Shirin

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a variety of culturally responsive approaches and activities so as to better know and understand our students' diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. These methods will not only help to make more equitable classrooms where we make meaningful connections with our students--but also yield useful data so as to inform our…

  12. ARS Culture Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The internationally recognized Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Culture Collection will be described to include the microorganisms maintained by the collection, preservation methods and worldwide distribution of cultures. The impact of the germplasm will be described to include discovery of the f...

  13. Outline of World Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, George Peter

    This outline supplements the topical classification of the "Outline of Cultural Materials" with a new outline organizing and classifying the known cultures of the world. The new system: (1) expedites the beginning of actual processing of information into the Human Relations Area Files, (2) permits excerpting of sources processed that pertain to…

  14. Research: A Cultural Bridge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallance, Roger J.; Tchacos, E.

    An ongoing qualitative cross-cultural research project, using ethnographic methods of immersion and reference to the lived experience, is addressing the high rates of Indigenous youth suicide in remote Kimberley (Western Australia) communities. To ensure that cultural sensitivities are observed and work toward valid data collection and analysis,…

  15. Cultural Competence Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garran, Ann Marie; Werkmeister Rozas, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) adopted 10 discrete standards of culturally competent practice which undergird our commitment to diversity and social justice. The concept of intersectionality is newly emerging in social work, though, causing us to reflect on our current conceptualizations of cultural competence.…

  16. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  17. Grounding Evaluations in Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Maurice; Ryan, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of and the attention given to culture in the evaluation field over the last decade has created a heightened awareness of and need for evaluators to understand the complexity and multidimensionality of evaluations within multicultural, multiracial, and cross-cultural contexts. In this article, the authors discuss how cultural…

  18. Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triandis, Harry C.; Brislin, Richard W.

    1984-01-01

    Provides references to the work of cross-cultural psychologists that can be integrated into regular undergraduate psychology courses. Discusses methodological problems, benefits, and difficulties of cross-cultural research. Reviews contributions of this field to the study of perception, cognition, motivation, interpersonal interaction, and group…

  19. Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triandis, Harry C.; Brislin, Richard W.

    Cross-Cultural psychology refers to the collective efforts of researchers who work among people who live in different societies, with different languages and different forms of government. There are a number of benefits to the study of human behavior which can be accrued by carrying out research in various cultures, largely concerned with better…

  20. Check your cultural competence.

    PubMed

    Taylor, R

    1998-08-01

    Intrapersonal reactions such as ethnocentrism, prejudice, anxiety, stereotyping, and our comfort zone with the familiar can influence our interactions with culturally diverse people. Here, we explore these stumbling blocks, the dynamics behind these reactions, and strategies nurse managers can employ to enhance their cultural competence. PMID:9807388

  1. Preparing Culturally Competent Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Clair, Anita; McKenry, Leda

    1999-01-01

    Compared to 120 controls, 80 nursing students participating in international clinical-immersion experiences showed a significant increase in cultural self-efficacy and awareness, ability to overcome ethnocentrism, and ability to integrate patients' cultural beliefs into health-care practices. (SK)

  2. Cultural Collage Paintings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a cultural collage painting project. Three things served as the impetus for this project: (1) a desire for students to explore the theme of "culture"; (2) an appreciation for the photo-montaged, layered images one sees in print media; and (3) noticing that projects from core subject areas hanging on the walls…

  3. Cell Culture Made Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Frank J.

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps to generate cell samples for observation and experimentation. The procedures (which use ordinary laboratory equipment) will establish a short-term primary culture of normal mammalian cells. Information on culture vessels and cell division and a list of questions to generate student interest and involvement in the topics are…

  4. Introduction: transnational lesbian cultures.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Heike; Mahn, Churnjeet

    2014-01-01

    This special issue examines the transnational shape and shaping of lesbian lives and cultures in and across China, India, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It uses the expression "transnational lesbian cultures" to suggest that despite sometimes radically different sociopolitical and cultural contexts, the lived experiences of same-sex desire and their emotional attachments create particular affinities between women who love women, affinities that reach across the distinct cultural and social contexts that shape them. The articles brought together explore lesbian subcultures, film, graphic novels, music, and online intimacies. They show that as a cultural and political signifier and as an analytical tool, lesbian troubles and complicates contemporary sexual politics, not least by revealing some of the gendered structures that shape debates about sexuality in a range of critical, cultural and political contexts. While the individual pieces cover a wide range of issues and concerns-which are often highly specific to the historical, cultural, and political contexts they discuss-together they tell a story about contemporary transnational lesbian culture: one that is marked by intricate links between norms and their effects and shaped by the efforts to resist denial, discrimination, and sometimes even active persecution. PMID:24972280

  5. Cultural Awareness for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Judy; And Others

    This book documents a portion of The Learning Tree program, which develops cultural awareness. It provides activities, written from practical experience, that are designed to give children their first contact with the customs of other cultures. These activities are for teachers to share with preschool-, kindergarten-, and primary-school-age…

  6. Anaerobic thermophilic culture system

    DOEpatents

    Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Wiegel, Jurgen K. W.

    1981-01-01

    A mixed culture system of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus ATCC31550 and the microorganism Clostridium thermocellum ATCC31549 is described. In a mixed nutrient culture medium that contains cellulose, these microorganisms have been coupled and cultivated to efficiently ferment cellulose to produce recoverable quantities of ethanol under anaerobic, thermophilic conditions.

  7. Pop Goes the Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurlansky, Mark J.

    1977-01-01

    Popular culture is defended as a solid academic entry that is a new approach to sociology, art, and literature. The contributions and theories of three professors are discussed: Arthur Asa Berger, Leslie Fiedler, and Alan Gowans. They illustrate the range and diversity in the pop culture field. (LBH)

  8. Cultural Diplomacy in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigh, Anthony

    The evolution of European government activities in the sphere of international cultural relations is examined. Section 1 describes the period between World War I and World War II when European governments tried to enhance their prestige and policies by means of cultural propaganda. Section 2 analyzes the period during World War II when the…

  9. Complexity in Cultural Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Despite their diverse national backgrounds, 28 interviewees speak similarly about the complexity of the cultural realities with which they live, and refuse to be pinned down to specific cultural types. While nation is of great importance, unless personally inspiring, it tends to be an external force which is in conflict with a wide variety of…

  10. Culture and Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    Intelligence cannot be fully or even meaningfully understood outside its cultural context. Work that seeks to study intelligence acontextually risks the imposition of an investigator's view of the world on the rest of the world. Moreover, work on intelligence within a single culture may fail to do justice to the range of skills and knowledge that…

  11. Culture and cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities. PMID:20679109

  12. Cultural dimensions of learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyford, Glen A.

    1990-06-01

    How, what, when and where we learn is frequently discussed, as are content versus process, or right brain versus left brain learning. What is usually missing is the cultural dimension. This is not an easy concept to define, but various aspects can be identified. The World Decade for Cultural Development emphasizes the need for a counterbalance to a quantitative, economic approach. In the last century poets also warned against brutalizing materialism, and Sorokin and others have described culture more recently in terms of cohesive basic values expressed through aesthetics and institutions. Bloom's taxonomy incorporates the category of affective learning, which internalizes values. If cultural learning goes beyond knowledge acquisition, perhaps the surest way of understanding the cultural dimension of learning is to examine the aesthetic experience. This can use myths, metaphors and symbols, and to teach and learn by using these can help to unlock the human potential for vision and creativity.

  13. Use of a multiplex PCR to detect and identify Mycobacterium avium and M. intracellulare in blood culture fluids of AIDS patients.

    PubMed Central

    Kulski, J K; Khinsoe, C; Pryce, T; Christiansen, K

    1995-01-01

    The presence of mycobacteria in blood culture fluids (BACTEC) of AIDS patients with positive growth indices (GIs, > 20 U) was investigated by using a multiplex PCR to detect and identify members of the genus Mycobacterium, M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. tuberculosis. Three different methods of extracting mycobacterial DNA from blood culture fluid were compared for use with the multiplex PCR. Mycobacterial cells were pelleted from a small aliquot of blood culture fluid by centrifugation, and the DNA was extracted from cells by heat lysis or a sodium iodide-isopropanol or a phenol-chloroform method. DNAs of different sizes were amplified from a region of the MPB70 gene of M. tuberculosis (372 bp) and from a region of the 16S rRNA gene of members of the genus Mycobacterium (1,030 bp), M. intracellulare (850 bp), or M. avium (180 bp) as a multiplex PCR in a single tube. The amplified DNA products were detected by agarose gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining in all 41 (100%) positive cultures after sodium iodide-isopropanol extraction, in 18 (44%) after heat lysis, and in 5 (12%) after phenol-chloroform extraction. Of the 41 positive cultures, 38 were identified as M. avium and 2 were identified as M. intracellulare by both routine methods and multiplex PCR. The remaining mycobacterium was identified as M. intracellulare by routine methods and as M. avium by the multiplex PCR. Another six blood cultures that were negative for the presence of acid-fast bacilli after Ziehl-Neelson staining were also negative by PCR.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7751375

  14. Infusing Culture in Career Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Nancy; Collins, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the culture-infused career counselling (CICC) model. Six principles are foundational to a tripartite model emphasizing cultural self-awareness, awareness of client cultural identities, and development of a culturally sensitive working alliance. The core competencies ensure the cultural validity and relevance of career…

  15. Culturally-Sensitive Learning Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2010-01-01

    In today's global world, to provide meaningful education, teacher-librarians and their students need to become culturally competent: open to learning about other cultures and sharing one's own culture, able to change personal perspectives, and able to communicate effectively across cultures. Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions provides a…

  16. Cultural Factors in Clinical Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    Examines special issues in cross-cultural psychopathology, including culture-bound syndromes, variable distribution of psychopathology across cultures, and cultural distinctions between belief and delusion and between trance and hallucination. Offers suggestions for educating clinicians about cross-cultural conceptual issues and teaching the…

  17. Contribution to the diagnosis of Johne's disease in cattle. Comparative studies on the validity of Ziehl-Neelsen staining, faecal culture and a commercially available DNA-Probe test in detecting Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in faeces from cattle.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, K; Dräger, K G; Klawonn, W; Hess, R G

    1999-03-01

    In the present study, 132 selected faecal samples from clinically affected and subclinically infected cattle from dairy herds known to be affected by Johne's disease were investigated for the presence of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis using Ziehl-Neelsen staining, faecal culture and a commercially available DNA-Probe test. The sensitivity was 36.4% for Ziehl-Neelsen staining, 85.6% for faecal culture and 47.7% for the DNA-Probe test. Proving the presence of acid-fast bacteria in 49.3% of the samples from clinically affected cattle and 19.3% of those from subclinically infected cattle, Ziehl-Neelsen staining had the lowest detection rate of the three tests under investigation. Faecal culture showed the highest detection rate of M. paratuberculosis in samples from both clinically affected (84.0%) and subclinically infected (87.7%) animals. The DNA-Probe test showed a positive result in 68.0% of the samples from clinically affected cattle and 21.1% of those from subclinically infected cattle. Ziehl-Neelsen staining proved unreliable in diagnosing Johne's disease. Faecal culture was the most sensitive method for detecting M. paratuberculosis both in clinically affected and subclinically infected cattle. The sensitivity of a commercially available DNA-Probe test has to be enhanced to enable a quick and reliable diagnosis of Johne's disease. PMID:10216457

  18. Optimizing stem cell culture.

    PubMed

    van der Sanden, Boudewijn; Dhobb, Mehdi; Berger, François; Wion, Didier

    2010-11-01

    Stem cells always balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Hence, stem cell culture parameters are critical and need to be continuously refined according to progress in our stem cell biology understanding and the latest technological developments. In the past few years, major efforts have been made to define more precisely the medium composition in which stem cells grow or differentiate. This led to the progressive replacement of ill-defined additives such as serum or feeder cell layers by recombinant cytokines or growth factors. Another example is the control of the oxygen pressure. For many years cell cultures have been done under atmospheric oxygen pressure which is much higher than the one experienced by stem cells in vivo. A consequence of cell metabolism is that cell culture conditions are constantly changing. Therefore, the development of high sensitive monitoring processes and control algorithms is required for ensuring cell culture medium homeostasis. Stem cells also sense the physical constraints of their microenvironment. Rigidity, stiffness, and geometry of the culture substrate influence stem cell fate. Hence, nanotopography is probably as important as medium formulation in the optimization of stem cell culture conditions. Recent advances include the development of synthetic bioinformative substrates designed at the micro- and nanoscale level. On going research in many different fields including stem cell biology, nanotechnology, and bioengineering suggest that our current way to culture cells in Petri dish or flasks will soon be outdated as flying across the Atlantic Ocean in the Lindbergh's plane. PMID:20803548

  19. Cultural Evolution and SETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Drake Equation for the number of radio communicative technological civilizations in the Galaxy encompasses three components of cosmic evolution: astronomical, biological and cultural. Of these three, cultural evolution totally dominates in terms of the rapidity of its effects. Yet, SETI scientists do not take cultural evolution into account, perhaps for understandable reasons, since cultural evolution is not well-understood even on Earth and is unpredictable in its outcome. But the one certainty for technical civilizations billions, millions, or even thousands of years older than ours is that they will have undergone cultural evolution. Cultural evolution potentially takes place in many directions, but this paper argues that its central driving force is the maintenance, improvement and perpetuation of knowledge and intelligence, and that to the extent intelligence can be improved, it will be improved. Applying this principle to life in the universe, extraterrestrials will have sought the best way to improve their intelligence. One possibility is that they may have long ago advanced beyond flesh-and-blood to artificial intelligence, constituting a postbiological universe. Although this subject has been broached, it has not been given the attention it is due from its foundation in cultural evolution. Nor has the idea of a postbiological universe been carried to its logical conclusion, including a careful analysis of the implications for SETI. SETI scientists, social scientists, and experts in AI should consider the strengths and weaknesses of this new paradigm.

  20. Organizational climate and culture.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Benjamin; Ehrhart, Mark G; Macey, William H

    2013-01-01

    Organizational climate and organizational culture theory and research are reviewed. The article is first framed with definitions of the constructs, and preliminary thoughts on their interrelationships are noted. Organizational climate is briefly defined as the meanings people attach to interrelated bundles of experiences they have at work. Organizational culture is briefly defined as the basic assumptions about the world and the values that guide life in organizations. A brief history of climate research is presented, followed by the major accomplishments in research on the topic with regard to levels issues, the foci of climate research, and studies of climate strength. A brief overview of the more recent study of organizational culture is then introduced, followed by samples of important thinking and research on the roles of leadership and national culture in understanding organizational culture and performance and culture as a moderator variable in research in organizational behavior. The final section of the article proposes an integration of climate and culture thinking and research and concludes with practical implications for the management of effective contemporary organizations. Throughout, recommendations are made for additional thinking and research. PMID:22856467

  1. [Cultural diversity reflexive learning].

    PubMed

    Pomarede, Ma José Morera; Caparà, Núria Roca

    2007-10-01

    Recent international migration trends contribute to set up new social scenarios where an increasing cultural diversity becomes self-evident. From a global diversity on a planetary scale, we enter into a local diversity comprised by persons, groups and emerging cultures with whom we share our daily life experiences. In this context, social relationships are not always easy and we may note difficulties due to the ethnocentrism each group has and due to a lack of knowledge, or distrust or prejudices among persons or groups having diverse cultural origins. PMID:18274398

  2. a Cultural Market Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HerdaǦDELEN, Amaç; Bingol, Haluk

    Social interactions and personal tastes shape our consumption behavior of cultural products. In this study, we present a computational model of a cultural market and we aim to analyze the behavior of the consumer population as an emergent phenomena. Our results suggest that the final market shares of cultural products dramatically depend on consumer heterogeneity and social interaction pressure. Furthermore, the relation between the resulting market shares and social interaction is robust with respect to a wide range of variation in the parameter values and the type of topology.

  3. Popular Culture, Cultural Resistance, and Anticonsumption Activism: An Exploration of Culture Jamming as Critical Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandlin, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter examines popular culture as a site of cultural resistance. Specifically, it explores how "culture jamming," a cultural-resistance activity, can be a form of adult education. It examines adult education and learning as it intersects with both consumerism and popular culture. Focus is placed on a growing social movement of individuals…

  4. Activities for Exploring Cultural Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Susan K.

    1992-01-01

    Presents topics for parents to use when discussing cultural diversity with their children (basic needs, cultural attitudes, body language, the arts, and language). Activities for exploring cultural diversity are suggested, and a list of multicultural resources is included. (SM)

  5. Enterprise, Culture and Anarchy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, P. R.

    1989-01-01

    Britain's proposed plans for reform of higher education are criticized for lack of historical perspective on the nature and cultivation of culture and intellect, removal of institutional autonomy, and irresponsible government intervention. (MSE)

  6. Culture - joint fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... special dish and watched to see if bacteria, fungi, or viruses grow. This is called a culture. ... result is considered normal if no organisms (bacteria, fungi, or viruses) grow in the laboratory dish. Normal ...

  7. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  8. Art and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Robin

    1975-01-01

    The art department at Fremont Junior High School in Mesa, Arizona, developed a project in which Indian, Mexican-American, and White-Anglo American students learned about their different cultural values and tradititions. (Author/RK)

  9. Blood Culture Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to detect the presence of bacteria or fungi in the blood, to identify the type present, ... blood cultures to detect and identify bacteria and fungi. Other related tests that may be performed include: ...

  10. Culture, personality and psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Varma, V K

    1988-01-01

    Conventional Western-model psychotherapy is based on a number of premises regarding its rationale and technique. The increasing experience in psychotherapy globally is questioning the universality of these premises, suggesting that these could be to a large extent culture-specific, having developed in a particular culture at a particular time. Hence, the need to move from a dogmatic approach to psychotherapy to a flexible approach taking into account the socio-cultural reality. The paper identifies a number of cultural variables involving the intrapsychic mechanisms (e.g. cognitive and expressive), social relatedness (e.g. autonomy, social distance) and religious-philosophical belief systems (concept of sin, and belief in fatalism and after-life/reincarnation) and discusses their role in the approach to and process of psychotherapy, illustrating it with the situation in the Indian setting. PMID:3410660

  11. Lymph node culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration ... normal result means there was no growth of microorganisms on the lab dish. Normal value ranges may ...

  12. Cultural Astronomy in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renshaw, Steven L.

    While Japan is known more for its contributions to modern astronomy than its archaeoastronomical sites, there is still much about the culture's heritage that is of interest in the study of cultural astronomy. This case study provides an overview of historical considerations necessary to understand the place of astronomy in Japanese society as well as methodological considerations that highlight traditional approaches that have at times been a barrier to interdisciplinary research. Some specific areas of study in the cultural astronomy of Japan are discussed including examples of contemporary research based on interdisciplinary approaches. Japan provides a fascinating background for scholars who are willing to go beyond their curiosity for sites of alignment and approach the culture with a desire to place astronomical iconography in social context.

  13. Embracing cultural diversity.

    PubMed

    Casady, W M

    2001-01-01

    Healthcare providers from all backgrounds are taught the Western medicine approach with little consideration given to cultural-specific care. Yet, today it is difficult to ignore that approximately 33 percent of Americans originate from ethnically diverse groups. As our population continues to become more diversified, it is imperative that healthcare professionals become more sensitive to cultural differences. Effectively managing cultural diversity in the workplace requires a complex set of skills as well as an understanding of the concept. Communication skills will be challenged in a complex and diverse work environment. Managers must learn to listen. Embracing cultural diversity is a two-step process. The first step begins with personal self-interest and self-examination. The second step in the process is the "awakening." Tomorrow's successful managers will take an active role today in creating an environment that views diversity as an asset to the work force. PMID:11302066

  14. Envisioning cultural practices

    PubMed Central

    Mattaini, Mark A.

    1996-01-01

    Graphic visualization has demonstrated its value for organizing transactional data and modeling complex phenomena in a wide variety of fields, from theoretical physics to medicine. Behavior analysts have historically used a variety of graphic tools not only for presentation but also for analysis and teaching. As they turn increasingly to the analysis and design of cultural practices, the phenomena behavior analysts study are becoming increasingly complicated. Many cultural practices of interest are embedded in extensive webs of interlocking practices and contingencies that can be difficult to grasp comprehensively. Building on contingency diagrams, which have proven to be useful for the analysis of operant behavior, and graphic tools developed for object-oriented systems analysis, this paper suggests graphic tools for capturing the interlocking contingencies that constitute cultures. These diagrams offer a broad-bandwidth technology for analyzing and designing cultural practices. ImagesFigure 3 PMID:22478262

  15. Pericardial fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - pericardial fluid ... the heart (the pericardium). A small amount of fluid is removed. You may have an ECG and ... x-ray after the test. Sometimes the pericardial fluid is taken during open heart surgery. The sample ...

  16. Pleural fluid culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - pleural fluid ... is used to get a sample of pleural fluid. The sample is sent to a laboratory and ... the chest wall into the pleural space. As fluid drains into a collection bottle, you may cough ...

  17. Are Canadians Cultural Cuckoos?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickleburgh, Brita

    1977-01-01

    The author believes that teachers have been remiss in transmitting Canadian culture to their students. They have also neglected the development of self-realization and identity in the majority of students. (Author)

  18. Cultural Astronomy of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2004-06-01

    Like people all over the world, Africans have a long history of observing and trying to understand the workings of the heavens. Though many African cultures did not have writing systems, their understandings of the night sky have been preserved and passed on through stories, art, dance, and artifacts, sometimes in unexpected and complex ways. Focusing on specific ethnic groups, this talk is a survey of some of the ways that Africans have woven their knowledge of the night sky into their cultures.

  19. Hanford cultural resources laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, M.K.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes activities of the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) which was established by the Richland Operations Office in 1987 as part of PNL.The HCRL provides support for the management of the archaeological, historical, and traditional cultural resources of the site in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act.

  20. Astronomy in Aboriginal culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhathal, Ragbir

    2006-10-01

    In all probability, long before other civilizations had named the celestial objects in the night sky, the indigenous people of Australia had not only given them names but had also built an astronomical knowledge system which they incorporated into their social, cultural and religious life. Their socio-cultural astronomical knowledge system both assists and clashes with Australia's legal system, which is based on English law.

  1. Astronomy and Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, M.

    2006-08-01

    Astronomy is, by definition, the sum of the material and spiritual values created by mankind and of the institutions necessary to communicate these values. Consequently, astronomy belongs to the culture of each society and its scientific progress does nothing but underline its role in culture. It is interesting that there is even a European society which bears this name "Astronomy for Culture" (SEAC). Its main goal is "the study of calendric and astronomical aspects of culture". Owning ancient evidence of astronomical knowledge, dating from the dawn of the first millennium, Romania is interested in this topic. But Astronomy has a much deeper role in culture and civilization. There are many aspects that deserve to be discussed. Examples? The progress of astronomy in a certain society, in connection with its evolution; the place held by the astronomy in literature and, generally, in art; the role of the SF in the epoch of super-mediatization; astronomy and belief; astronomy and astrology in the modern society, and so forth. These are problems that can be of interest for IAU, but the most important one could be her educational role, in the formation of the culture of the new generation, in the education of the population for the protection of our planet, in the ensuring of a high level of spiritual development of the society in the present epoch.

  2. Mainstreaming culture in psychology.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Fanny M

    2012-11-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks. PMID:23163473

  3. Scientific Culture and School Culture: Epistemic and Procedural Components.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Aleixandre, Maria Pilar; Diaz de Bustamante, Joaquin; Duschl, Richard A.

    This paper discusses the elaboration and application of "scientific culture" categories to the analysis of students' discourse while solving problems in inquiry contexts. Scientific culture means the particular domain culture of science, the culture of science practitioners. The categories proposed include both epistemic operations and procedural…

  4. Examining Cultural Intelligence and Cross-Cultural Negotiation Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Kevin S.; Feyerherm, Ann; Gu, Minhua

    2015-01-01

    International negotiation failures are often linked to deficiencies in negotiator cross-cultural capabilities, including limited understanding of the cultures engaged in the transaction, an inability to communicate with persons from different cultural backgrounds, and limited behavioral flexibility to adapt to culturally unfamiliar contexts.…

  5. Creating Cultural Consumers: The Dynamics of Cultural Capital Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisida, Brian; Greene, Jay P.; Bowen, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    The theories of cultural reproduction and cultural mobility have largely shaped the study of the effects of cultural capital on academic outcomes. Missing in this debate has been a rigorous examination of how children actually acquire cultural capital when it is not provided by their families. Drawing on data from a large-scale experimental study…

  6. The Culture Based Model: Constructing a Model of Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent trends reveal that models of culture aid in mapping the design and analysis of information and communication technologies. Therefore, models of culture are powerful tools to guide the building of instructional products and services. This research examines the construction of the culture based model (CBM), a model of culture that evolved…

  7. From Cultural Awareness to Intercultural Awareness: Culture in ELT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Will

    2012-01-01

    Cultural awareness (CA) has emerged over the last few decades as a significant part of conceptualizing the cultural dimension to language teaching. That is, L2 users need to understand L2 communication as a cultural process and to be aware of their own culturally based communicative behaviour and that of others. However, while CA has provided a…

  8. Culture, cultural factors and psychiatric diagnosis: review and projections

    PubMed Central

    ALARCÓN, RENATO D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to provide conceptual justifications for the inclusion of culture and cultural factors in psychiatric diagnosis, and logistic suggestions as to the content and use of this approach. A discussion of the scope and limitations of current diagnostic practice, criticisms from different quarters, and the role and relevance of culture in the diagnostic encounter, precede the examination of advantages and disadvantages of the approach. The cultural content of psychiatric diagnosis should include the main, well-recognized cultural variables, adequate family data, explanatory models, and strengths and weaknesses of every individual patient. The practical aspects include the acceptance of “cultural discordances” as a component of an updated definition of mental disorder, and the use of a refurbished cultural formulation. Clinical “telescoping” strategies to obtain relevant cultural data during the diagnostic interview, and areas of future research (including field trials on the cultural formulation and on “culture bound syndromes”), are outlined. PMID:19812742

  9. Culture and personality: toward an integrated cultural trait psychology.

    PubMed

    Church, A T

    2000-08-01

    Two theoretical perspectives currently dominate research on culture and personality, the cross-cultural trait psychology approach, in which the trait concept is central, and the cultural psychology approach, in which the trait concept is questioned. Here I review theory and research from both perspectives and propose that the tenets of cultural psychology, at least in their more moderate forms, can be synthesized with the trait psychology approach, resulting in an integrated cultural trait psychology perspective. PMID:10934686

  10. Uterine culture in mares.

    PubMed

    Brook, D

    1984-05-01

    A guarded, sterile swab is used to obtain samples for uterine culture. With the mare in stocks, the tail bandage and the perineum washed, the culture rod is introduced into the vagina with a gloved hand. After the rod is guided through the cervix, the guard cap is dislodged and the swab is rubbed along the endometrium, after which the rod is extracted. Samples for uterine culture should only be obtained during full estrus. Swabs should be directly plated onto agar within 2 hours of collection. Blood agar is appropriate for initial screening, but use of specialized types of agar expedites identification of microbes. Plates are incubated at 37 C and inspected for growth every 12 hours. The type and number of bacterial colonies should be coupled with the history and clinical signs in deciding on the necessity and type of treatment. Pure, heavy bacterial growth is usually accompanied by clinical signs of infection. Interpretation of the significance of moderate bacterial growth may be aided by cytologic examination of endometrial smears, made by rolling the swab onto a glass slide and staining with Diff - Quik . Large numbers of neutrophils indicate the need for antibiotic therapy. Mixed bacterial growth and variable numbers of neutrophils usually indicate faulty sampling technic. Microaerophilic or anaerobic cultures may aid diagnosis in cases of equivocal aerobic culture results. PMID:6377040

  11. [Psychotherapy as cultural discourse].

    PubMed

    Józefik, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    It is impossible to think about psychotherapy without reference to the cultural context. In order to understand the development of this domain it is helpful to apply the concept of cultural discourse. When we think about the over one hundred years' history of psychotherapy it becomes clear that understanding of a person, his/her difficulties, psychopathology, the role of a psychotherapist, psychotherapy and its limitations have been changing. It depended on the acknowledged epistemological horizon. Therefore it is important to observe the process of creating discourses related to psychotherapeutic "reality". These discourses are not simply descriptive but they participate in creation of reality. They are not neutral, on the contrary, their application has broad practical, theoretical, ethical and legal consequences. An attempt to describe the culture, or better cultures, we are immersed in, is an attempt to describe the identity of contemporary psychotherapists. This article, referring to the constructionists' perspective and works of Michael Foucault, presents how cultural changes influence psychotherapists' ways of thinking, their practice and presence in social space. PMID:22220490

  12. How Culture Shock Affects Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barna, LaRay M.

    The paper defines the term "culture shock" and discusses the changes that this state can make in a person's behavior. Culture shock refers to the emotional and physiological reaction of high activation that is brought about by sudden immersion in a new culture. Because one's own culture shields one from the unknown and reduces the need to make…

  13. Culture from the Bottom Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dwight; Sohn, Jija

    2013-01-01

    The culture concept has been severely criticized for its top-down nature in TESOL, leading arguably to its falling out of favor in the field. But what of the fact that people do "live culturally" (Ingold, 1994)? This article describes a case study of culture from the bottom up--culture as understood and enacted by its individual users.…

  14. Cultural Perspectives Toward Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Li

    2008-01-01

    Cultural conflicts may be derived from using inappropriate language. Appropriate linguistic-pragmatic competence may also be produced by providing various and multicultural backgrounds. Culture and language are linked together naturally, unconsciously, and closely in daily social lives. Culture affects language and language affects culture through…

  15. Communication Media in Ancient Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabusch, David M.

    Interest in early means of communication and in the uses and kinds of media that existed in ancient cultures is starting to grow among communication scholars. Conversation analysis of these cultures is obviously impossible, so that the emphasis must rest with material cultural artifacts. Many ancient cultures used non-verbal codes for dyadic…

  16. Cultural Bias in Testing ESL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargill-Power, C.

    Although cultural content is unavoidable as a backdrop for good language testing, cultural bias in testing English as a second language presents many dangers. A picture cue calling for a correct grammatical response may evoke an incorrect answer if the pictorial content is culturally coded. The cultural background behind a test must be accurately…

  17. Organizational Culture and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Catherine A.

    2003-01-01

    '..only a fool perseveres in error.' Cicero. Humans will break the most advanced technological devices and override safety and security systems if they are given the latitude. Within the workplace, the operator may be just one of several factors in causing accidents or making risky decisions. Other variables considered for their involvement in the negative and often catastrophic outcomes include the organizational context and culture. Many organizations have constructed and implemented safety programs to be assimilated into their culture to assure employee commitment and understanding of the importance of everyday safety. The purpose of this paper is to examine literature on organizational safety cultures and programs that attempt to combat vulnerability, risk taking behavior and decisions and identify the role of training in attempting to mitigate unsafe acts.

  18. Culture, context, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, David

    2007-12-01

    In this article I propose a model that posits three major sources of influence on behavior-basic human nature (via universal psychological processes), culture (via social roles), and personality (via individual role identities) and argue that individual behaviors are the products of the interaction between the three. I discuss how culture emerges from the interaction of basic human nature and the ecological contexts in which groups exist, and how social roles are determined by culture-specific psychological meanings attributed to situational contexts. The model further suggests that situational context moderates the relative contributions of the three sources in influencing behavior. I provide examples of apparent contradictory findings in the study of emotion that can be explained by the model proposed. PMID:17995466

  19. Digital Microfluidic Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Ng, Alphonsus H C; Li, Bingyu Betty; Chamberlain, M Dean; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2015-01-01

    Digital microfluidics (DMF) is a droplet-based liquid-handling technology that has recently become popular for cell culture and analysis. In DMF, picoliter- to microliter-sized droplets are manipulated on a planar surface using electric fields, thus enabling software-reconfigurable operations on individual droplets, such as move, merge, split, and dispense from reservoirs. Using this technique, multistep cell-based processes can be carried out using simple and compact instrumentation, making DMF an attractive platform for eventual integration into routine biology workflows. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art in DMF cell culture, and describe design considerations, types of DMF cell culture, and cell-based applications of DMF. PMID:26643019

  20. Accelerating the culture change!

    PubMed

    Klunk, S W; Panetta, J; Wooten, J

    1996-11-01

    Exide Electronics, a major supplier of uninterruptible power system equipment, embarked on a journey of changing a culture to improve quality, enhance customer responsiveness, and reduce costs. This case study examines the evolution of change over a period of seven years, with particular emphasis on the most recent years, 1992 through 1995. The article focuses on the Raleigh plant operations and describes how each succeeding year built on the successes and fixed the shortcomings of the prior years to accelerate the culture change, including corrective action and continuous improvement processes, organizational structures, expectations, goals, achievements, and pitfalls. The real challenge to changing the culture was structuring a dynamic approach to accelerate change! The presentation also examines how the evolutionary process itself can be created and accelerated through ongoing communication, regular feedback of progress and goals, constant evaluation and direction of the process, and measuring and paying for performance. PMID:10162360

  1. Low frequency cultural noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Jin Soo; Kang, Tae-Seob; Baag, Chang-Eob

    2009-09-01

    Abnormal cultural seismic noise is observed in the frequency range of 0.01-0.05 Hz. Cultural noise generated by human activities is generally observed in frequencies above 1 Hz, and is greater in the daytime than at night. The low-frequency noise presented in this paper exhibits a characteristic amplitude variation and can be easily identified from time domain seismograms in the frequency range of interest. The amplitude variation is predominantly in the vertical component, but the horizontal components also show variations. Low-frequency noise is markedly periodic, which reinforces its interpretation as cultural noise. Such noise is observed world-wide, but is limited to areas in the vicinity of railways. The amplitude variation in seismograms correlates strongly with railway timetables, and the waveform shows a wavelength shift associated with the Doppler effect, which indicates that the origin of seismic background noise in the frequency range 0.01-0.05 Hz is railways.

  2. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    PubMed

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies. PMID:25343628

  3. Mass algal culture system

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Lawrence P.

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus and process for the culture of algae in a liquid medium is disclosed. The medium circulates through an open trough and is exposed to an atmosphere which is temperature regulated. The nutrient content of the liquid medium is regulated to control the chemical composition growth and reproduction characteristics of the cultured algae. Before it is allowed to strike the medium, sunlight is passed through a filter to remove wavelengths which are not photosynthetically active. Heat energy can be recovered from the filter.

  4. Mass algal culture system

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Lawrence P.

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus and process for the culture of algae in a liquid medium is disclosed. The medium circulates through an open trough and is exposed to an atmosphere which is temperature regulated. The nutrient content of the liquid medium is regulated to control the chemical composition growth and reproduction characteristics of the cultured algae. Before it is allowed to strike the medium, sunlight is passed through a filter to remove wavelengths which are not photosynthetically active. Heat energy can be recovered from the filter.

  5. Hydroponics or soilless culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, H. D.

    1963-01-01

    Historically, hydroponics is not a new field; plant physiologists have known and used it for some 100 years. Inevitably, some enthusiasts got carried away.Claims were made of enormous potential yields; skyscraper tops were said to be capable of producing enough food for all of their occupants; and closets, basements, garages, etc. were wishfully converted into fields for hydroponic culture. Numerous publications on the subject appeared during this period. Basic requirements for hydropinc techniques are given along with examples of where soilless culture has been used commercially.

  6. Culture, Personality, Health, and Family Dynamics: Cultural Competence in the Selection of Culturally Sensitive Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperry, Len

    2010-01-01

    Cultural sensitivity and cultural competence in the selection of culturally sensitive treatments is a requisite for effective counseling practice in working with diverse clients and their families, particularly when clients present with health issues or medical problems. Described here is a strategy for selecting culturally sensitive treatments…

  7. The Culture of Migrancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGilvra, Bridget

    Approximately 360,000 people in Florida are migrant and seasonal farmworkers. Although this group includes a wide array of ethnicities with their own cultural characteristics, the shared experience of migrancy lends some common threads to an otherwise diverse population. This publication explores these commonalities, as they relate to educators'…

  8. Humanism in Black Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aschenbrenner, Joyce C.

    We can identify black culture in terms of certain institutions and values which they share as members of an ethnic group, while recognizing that individual families and communities identify in important respects with other groups. The ascription of a humanistic character--defined as those values and institutions which black Americans have in…

  9. Counseling and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtado, Juan; And Others

    This booklet, developed for school counselors, explores basic considerations for effective counseling of Lau students, defined as those from distinct language and cultural backgrounds, whose home language is other than English and who are not performing conceptually and linguistically at a level equal to district standards. Following a brief…

  10. Leadership and School Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Richard

    Present attempts to transform the meaning and purposes of schooling through a radically reformed notion of leadership are examined in this paper. The first part presents a framework that explains the mechanisms through which school cultures are produced, reproduced, and transformed: pedagogy, curriculum, assessment, and discipline. The first…

  11. Making Mathematics Culturally Relevant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Examines three strands of elementary mathematics--numerals and counting, recording and calculating, and mathematics exploration and play--and provides ways to integrate culture and mathematics experiences in each area. Specific topics include Egyptian methods for multiplication, the abacus, and the words for the numbers 1-10 in seven different…

  12. Language and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramsch, Claire

    2014-01-01

    This paper surveys the research methods and approaches used in the multidisciplinary field of applied language studies or language education over the last fourty years. Drawing on insights gained in psycho- and sociolinguistics, educational linguistics and linguistic anthropology with regard to language and culture, it is organized around five…

  13. Becoming Culturally Proficient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-Hood, Marian

    2007-01-01

    Ernest Everett Just Middle School, located in Mitchellville, Maryland, has a student population that is almost homogenous. In fact, 98% of the students are Black. As a veteran principal, the author's greatest fear has been not being able to provide students with a broad spectrum of ethnic, cultural, and religious experiences--experiences that they…

  14. On Studying Organizational Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettigrew, Andrew M.

    1979-01-01

    Examines the values of the concepts of symbol, language, ideology, belief, ritual, and myth in understanding the creation of new cultures and in unraveling the related processes by which entrepreneurs give energy, purpose, and commitment to the organizations they are bringing into being. (Author/IRT)

  15. Bone culture research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, Nicola C.

    1993-01-01

    The experiments described are aimed at exploring PTH regulation of production of collagenase and protein inhibitors of collagenase (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases, TIMP-1 and -2) by osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cells under conditions of weightlessness. The results of this work will contribute to information as to whether a microgravity environment alters the functions and responsiveness of the osteoblast. The objectives of the Bone Culture Research (BCR) experiment are: to observe the effects of microgravity on the morphology, rate of proliferation, and behavior of the osteoblastic cells, UMR 106-01; to determine whether microgravy affects the hormonal sensitivity of osteroblastic cells; and to measure the secretion of collagenase and its inhibitors into the medium under conditions of microgravity. The methods employed will consist of the following: the osteoblast-like cells, UMR-106-01, will be cultured in four NASDA cell culture chambers; two chambers will be subjected to microgravity on SL-J; two chambers will remain on the ground at KSC as ground controls but subjected to an identical set of culture conditions as on the shuttle; media will be changed four times; twice the cells will receive the hormone parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and media collected; cells will be photographed under conditions of microgravity; and media and photographs will be analyzed upon return to determine whether functions of the cells changed.

  16. Rethinking Culture and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambach, Amy

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews three books that provide complementary and thought-provoking insights. The three books under review are: (1) "Reproducing class: education, neoliberalism, and the rise of the new middle class in Istanbul," by Henry J. Rutz and Erol M. Balkan; (2) "Technology, culture, family: influences on home life," by Elizabeth B. Silva; and…

  17. Pop Culture Peeps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruszewski, Julie; Fontes, Kris

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a classroom activity called Pop Culture Peep. In this particular activity, students are required to first research famous artists and/or famous artworks to have an image to use as a reference. Students then plan out how they would decorate the Peep, deciding what materials they would use to create the Peep in…

  18. Ear drainage culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a lab and placed on a special dish (culture media). The lab team checks the dish every day to see if bacteria, fungi, or ... Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD ...

  19. Cultural Issues in Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on cultural issues in organizations. "Emotion Management and Organizational Functions: A Study of Action in a Not-for-Profit Organization" (Jamie Callahan Fabian) uses Hochschild's emotion systems theory and Parsons' social systems theory to explain why members of an organization managed their…

  20. Cultural practices in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Alabi, E M

    1990-05-01

    Nigeria has a rich cultural heritage. Cultural practices include extended family; adequate care for new mothers for 40 days after delivery; prolonged breastfeeding; and respect for elders. Many negative practices exist, most of them affecting the health of children and women. About 90% of babies are delivered by mostly untrained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and healers. Child marriage is a common Nigerian practice. This deprives the girl of education and results in teenage pregnancy. Legislation does not seem to be very effective. It is hoped that will education, girls will be allowed to remain in school until the age of 18. Female circumcision and vaginal mutilation and also common in Nigerian culture. TBAs and healers have stated that there is severe bleeding after circumcision, sometimes so severe that it leads to death. Other harmful delivery practices include bathing in boiling water; gishiri cut, a crude local symphysiotomy; and agurya cut--removal of the hymen loop on 7-day-old females. Bathing in boiling water results in many women being burned or disfigured; gishiri cut has resulted in vesicovaginal fistula in many young girls. Other harmful practices are purging of infants to get rid of impurities "they might have swallowed while in the uterus;" uvulectomy in infants, and induction of postpartum hemorrhage to clear the uterus of impure blood. The list goes on and on. Women and children are exposed to many unhealthy practices in the name of tradition or culture. PMID:12157983

  1. Liver Cell Culture Devices

    PubMed Central

    Andria, B.; Bracco, A.; Cirino, G.; Chamuleau, R. A. F. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the last 15 years many different liver cell culture devices, consisting of functional liver cells and artificial materials, have been developed. They have been devised for numerous different applications, such as temporary organ replacement (a bridge to liver transplantation or native liver regeneration) and as in vitro screening systems in the early stages of the drug development process, like assessing hepatotoxicity, hepatic drug metabolism, and induction/inhibition studies. Relevant literature is summarized about artificial human liver cell culture systems by scrutinizing PubMed from 2003 to 2009. Existing devices are divided in 2D configurations (e.g., static monolayer, sandwich, perfused cells, and flat plate) and 3D configurations (e.g., liver slices, spheroids, and different types of bioreactors). The essential features of an ideal liver cell culture system are discussed: different types of scaffolds, oxygenation systems, extracellular matrixes (natural and artificial), cocultures with nonparenchymal cells, and the role of shear stress problems. Finally, miniaturization and high-throughput systems are discussed. All these factors contribute in their own way to the viability and functionality of liver cells in culture. Depending on the aim for which they are designed, several good systems are available for predicting hepatotoxicity and hepatic metabolism within the general population. To predict hepatotoxicity in individual cases genomic analysis might be essential as well. PMID:26998397

  2. Cultural Vignette: Mexican Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Mary Ellen; And Others

    Developed as part of a multicultural research project in the San Diego Community College District, this booklet presents the findings of a 10-member research team about various elements of Mexican-American culture. The areas covered are: (1) historical background on the Mexican heritage of the United States from pre-colonial times to the present…

  3. Rebuilding a safety culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodney, George A.

    1991-11-01

    The development of a culture of safety and NASA since the Challenger accident is reviewed. The technical elements of the strengthened NASA safety program are described, including problem reporting, risk/assessment/risk management, operational safety, and safety assurance are addressed. Future directions in the development of safety are considered.

  4. Public Knowledge Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    This article first reviews claims for the knowledge economy in terms of excludability, rivalry, and transparency indicating the way that digital goods behave differently from other commodities. In the second section it discusses the theory of "public knowledge cultures" starting from the primacy of practice based on Marx, Wittgenstein and…

  5. Mammalian Cell Culture Simplified.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Robert; Solomon, Sondra

    1991-01-01

    A tissue culture experiment that does not require elaborate equipment and that can be used to teach sterile technique, the principles of animal cell line maintenance, and the concept of cell growth curves is described. The differences between cancerous and normal cells can be highlighted. The procedure is included. (KR)

  6. Children Teaching Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Margy Burns

    1988-01-01

    Junior high school pupils from Cambodia drew pictures to teach Americans about Cambodia. The efforts were organized into a project in which many types of media were used to present cultural shows. This helped the immigrants share information about their native country as they improved their English skills. Photographs are included. (VM)

  7. Understanding Quality Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehlers, Ulf Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a holistic understanding of quality in higher education which reveals the current debates about accreditation or quality process standards as insufficient, and to propose an enhanced model for quality culture in educational organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The conceptual framework is…

  8. Quality, Culture and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strydom, J. F.; Zulu, N.; Murray, L.

    2004-01-01

    Higher education in South Africa has been grappling with the issue of quality assurance since the early 1990s. This paper investigates the relationships or tensions between quality, culture and change as a result of the introduction of quality assurance systems in higher education institutions in South Africa. The imperatives for the introduction…

  9. Rebuilding a safety culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodney, George A.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a culture of safety and NASA since the Challenger accident is reviewed. The technical elements of the strengthened NASA safety program are described, including problem reporting, risk/assessment/risk management, operational safety, and safety assurance are addressed. Future directions in the development of safety are considered.

  10. Cultural and Linguistic Ambidexterity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galuszka, Peter

    2007-01-01

    It might sound like a no-brainer that being bilingual or multilingual helps students planning engineering and just about any other career. But it is certainly true and is becoming more important as the economies of nations become more intertwined. What's more, being able to go beyond mere language ability and understand cultural distinctions are…

  11. Cultural Literacy & Arts Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph A., Ed.

    Thirteen experts in the visual arts, literature, music, dance, and theater responded to the arguments of E. D. Hirsch's "Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know", focusing particularily on his alarm at the serious slippage that has occurred in the background knowledge and information prerequisite for effective communication. These…

  12. Dictionary of Black Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskin, Wade; Runes, Richard N.

    This dictionary is an encyclopedic survey of the cultural background and development of the black American, covering the basic issues, events, contributions and biographies germane to the subject. The author-compiler is Chairman of Classical Languages Department at Southeastern State College, Durant, Oklahoma. Richard Runes is practicing law as a…

  13. Assessing Culturally Competent Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendias, Elnora P.; Guevara, Edilma B.

    2001-01-01

    Eight criteria for culturally competent scholarship (contextuality, relevance, communication styles, awareness of identity and power differences, disclosure, reciprocation, empowerment, time) were applied to an international education/research nursing program. Appropriate measures for each were developed and ways to improve the program were…

  14. Cross-Cultural HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document consists of three papers presented at a symposium on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD) moderated by Connie Fletcher at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Intercultural Adjustment of U.S. Expatriates in the People's Republic of China" (Hallett G. Hullinger, Robert E. Nolan) presents…

  15. Researching Society and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, Clive, Ed.

    This book provides theoretically informed guidance to practicing the key research methods for investigating society and culture. It is a text in both methods and methodology, in which the importance of understanding the historical, theoretical and institutional context in which particular methods have developed is stressed. The contributors of the…

  16. Literacy: "Kultur" and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterowd, W. Ross

    For those who consider themselves teachers, "cultural literacy" is an issue worth pondering. In "Education for Critical Consciousness," Paulo Freire deplores the "banking concept" of education, in which a teacher "pours" knowledge into "passive receptacles," because Freire believes that texts have no single, stable meaning. He defines "Kultur" as…

  17. Plant Tissue Culture Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert Alan

    Plant tissue culture has developed into a valid botanical discipline and is considered a key area of biotechnology, but it has not been a key component of the science curriculum because of the expensive and technical nature of research in this area. This manual presents a number of activities that are relatively easy to prepare and perform. The…

  18. Aboriginal Cultural Awareness Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chee, Donna Ah; Maidment, Debra; Hayes-Hampton, Margie

    The Institute for Aboriginal Development (IAD) is an Aboriginal-controlled language resource center and adult education center serving the Aboriginal communities of central Australia. Its activities include education programs, which range from literacy and numeracy to vocational and tertiary-level courses; an Aboriginal language and culture center…

  19. Weather and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contemporary Learning Center, Houston, TX.

    This document is a minicourse on the interaction of weather, environment, and culture. It is designed for the high school student to read and self-administer. Performance objectives, enabling activities, and postassessment questions are given for each of eight modules. The modules are: (1) Basic Facts About Your Weather Known As Rain, (2) The…

  20. Complicating Visual Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daiello, Vicki; Hathaway, Kevin; Rhoades, Mindi; Walker, Sydney

    2006-01-01

    Arguing for complicating the study of visual culture, as advocated by James Elkins, this article explicates and explores Lacanian psychoanalytic theory and pedagogy in view of its implications for art education practice. Subjectivity, a concept of import for addressing student identity and the visual, steers the discussion informed by pedagogical…

  1. California Cultural Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Patricia M.; Francisco, Grace; Keller, Shelly G.

    2007-01-01

    This document is designed for readers who have an interest in developing cultural community partnerships but who may not have an in-depth understanding of the concept or process. It provides a focus for partnership and joint venture discussions within agencies, community organizations or communities at large. Seven public library community…

  2. Action Learning: Cultural Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Gillian; de Vera, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the experience of forming a set in a higher education institution and offers some observations and insights gained from the perspectives of the role of the set adviser, cultural differences and the challenges of attempting to align theory, practice and experience.

  3. Cultural practices updates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultural practice updates from 2013 included the effects of shredding in spring, residue management, periodic flooding, no-till fertilizer applications, and billet planting on cane tonnage and sugar yield. Shredding, whether high or low, had little impacts in 2013. However, burning following shreddi...

  4. Encountering an Alien Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sproull, Lee S.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Applies a cultural perspective to the problem of introducing novices to computing. Presents a model of initial socialization composed of reality shock, confusion, and attempts at control. Describes a survey of college students' first encounters with computers and suggests that the social contexts of introductory courses encourage feelings of…

  5. Creating a Collaborative Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonson, Stacey; Fisher, Alice; Brown, Genevieve; Irby, Beverly; Lunenburg, Fred; Creighton, Ted; Czaja, Marion; Merchant, Jimmy; Christianson, Judy

    More and more research is focusing on the importance of a healthy work environment and its impact on workers' well-being and productivity. A culture of collaboration has been shown to have an important impact on school-reform efforts and is recognized by several authors as an effective platform for progress within an organization. A collaborative…

  6. Computers, Culture, and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westby, Carol; Atencio, David J.

    2002-01-01

    Opinions vary regarding the impact of computers on children and value of using computers in the education of children. This article discusses the impact of technology on culture, attitudes about technological change, the nature of literacy in a technological society, and frameworks for thinking about teaching and learning with technology.…

  7. It Takes a Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckner, Martha; Mausbach, Ann

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, the graduation rate for the Council Bluffs Community School District was, at 68 percent, the lowest in Iowa. District leaders knew that to improve, they needed to create a cultural change throughout the community. They began by getting community members involved in creating a strategic plan and mission statement that included a guarantee…

  8. Cultural Learning Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasello, Michael

    2016-01-01

    M. Tomasello, A. Kruger, and H. Ratner (1993) proposed a theory of cultural learning comprising imitative learning, instructed learning, and collaborative learning. Empirical and theoretical advances in the past 20 years suggest modifications to the theory; for example, children do not just imitate but overimitate in order to identify and…

  9. Respectful Youth Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Erik K.

    2014-01-01

    Children are social beings who rely on interactions with others to survive and thrive. Since the human brain is wired to connect, cultures in schools and youth organizations must be designed so youth can bond to supportive peers and adults. Children learn through observation, modeling, and responding to people in their environments. Bronfenbrenner…

  10. Cross-Cultural HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    These five papers are from a symposium that was facilitated by David C. Bjorkquist on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD) at the 1995 Academy of Human Resource Development conference. "Developing Managers for Overseas Assignments in the Pacific Rim: A Study of International HRD Issues in Singapore" (A. Ahad M. Osman-Gani, Thian-Ser…

  11. Understanding Learning Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodkinson, Phil; Biesta, Gert; James, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper sets out an explanation about the nature of learning cultures and how they work. In so doing, it directly addresses some key weaknesses in current situated learning theoretical writing, by working to overcome unhelpful dualisms, such as the individual and the social, and structure and agency. It does this through extensive use of some…

  12. Culture and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji, Ed.; And Others

    Representing a refereed selection of papers from the 1994 JALT Kansai Conference, this collection of 25 papers contains formal presentations, teaching experiences, research projects, and ideas for effective teaching. The papers and their authors are, as follows: (1) "Culturally Influenced Communication Patterns: Overview, Implications and…

  13. Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc. has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc. is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

  14. Cell Culturing of Cytoskeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Cell culturing, such as this bone cell culture, is an important part of biomedical research. The BioDyn payload includes a tissue engineering investigation. The commercial affiliate, Millenium Biologix, Inc., has been conducting bone implant experiments to better understand how synthetic bone can be used to treat bone-related illnesses and bone damaged in accidents. On STS-95, the BioDyn payload will include a bone cell culture aimed to help develop this commercial synthetic bone product. Millenium Biologix, Inc., is exploring the potential for making human bone implantable materials by seeding its proprietary artificial scaffold material with human bone cells. The product of this tissue engineering experiment using the Bioprocessing Modules (BPMs) on STS-95 is space-grown bone implants, which could have potential for dental implants, long bone grafts, and coating for orthopedic implants such as hip replacements.

  15. Native American Cultural Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Loriene, Comp.

    Part of a larger report on the Four Directions Project, an American Indian technology innovation project, this section includes 13 "pathfinders" to locating information on Native American and other indigenous cultural groups. The pathfinders were designed by students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of…

  16. Culturing Uveal Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Angi, Martina; Versluis, Mieke; Kalirai, Helen

    2015-04-01

    A major challenge in cancer research is the use of appropriate models with which to study a specific biological question. Cell lines have long been used to study cellular processes and the effects of individual molecules because they are easy to use, grow rapidly, produce reproducible results and have a strong track record in research. In uveal melanoma in particular, the absence of animal models that faithfully replicate the behavior of the human disease has propagated the generation and use of numerous cell lines by individual research groups. This in itself, however, can be viewed as a problem due to the lack of standardization when characterizing these entities to determine how closely they reflect the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of this disease. The alternative is to use in vitro primary cultures of cells obtained directly from uveal melanoma patient samples, but this too has its difficulties. Primary cell cultures are difficult to use, hard to obtain and can show considerable heterogeneity. In this article, we review the following: (1) the uveal melanoma cell lines that are currently available, discussing the importance of establishing a bank of those that represent the molecular heterogeneity of uveal melanoma; (2) the methods used to isolate and perform short-term cultures of primary uveal melanoma cells, and (3) the establishment of 3D tissue culture models that bridge the gap between 2D in vitro systems and in vivo models with which to dissect cancer biology and perform therapeutic screens. PMID:27171555

  17. Supervision as Cultural Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinders, David J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a framework for "culturally responsive supervision." An understanding of analogic or iconic metaphors reveals the power of language to shape what are regarded as matters of fact. Kinesics, proxemics, and prosody bring into focus channels of nonverbal communication. The concept of "framing" calls attention to the metamessages of verbal…

  18. Culture and Imperialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Said, Edward W.

    Growing out of a series of lectures given at universities in the United States, Canada, and England, this book reopens the dialogue between literature and the life of its time. It draws dramatic connections between the imperial endeavor and the culture that both reflected and reinforced it, describing a general pattern of relationships between the…

  19. Quality Culture Survey Report.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pritesh; Baker, Denyse; Burdick, Rick; Chen, Cylia; Hill, Jonathon; Holland, Morgan; Sawant, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The Parenteral Drug Association conducted an anonymous global survey of quality culture in the pharmaceutical industry to determine whether there is a relationship between certain quality behaviors and certain quality attributes, and whether these quality attributes could be used as surrogates (or proxy variables) to assess quality culture. Other studies have shown that an unhealthy quality culture is a root cause of many quality or compliance issues seen by sites and organizations. Statistical analysis of survey data suggests that certain attributes are driving good behaviors, and the demographic data suggests that this relationship holds irrespective of the geographic location of the site. Executive survey respondents had a more optimistic view of the current state of quality culture than survey respondents at large, with cross-functional vision showing the biggest gap (P-value = 0.07, F-Test). The top five quality attributes that can serve as surrogates for quality culture were (1) Management communication that quality is everyone's responsibility, (2) Site has formal quality improvement objectives and targets, (3) Clear performance criteria for feedback and coaching, (4) Quality topics included in at least half of all-hands meetings, and (5) Collecting error prevention metrics. These identified mature quality attributes are related to management responsibility, and continual improvement of the pharmaceutical quality system sections of ICH Q10, and therefore may be amenable to be incorporated in audit programs or in regulatory inspections. Additional research and discussion is required to build a coherent approach, which the pharmaceutical industry and regulators can adopt. PMID:26429110

  20. Cultural competency training in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, A; Collazos, F; Ramos, M; Casas, M

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that the quality of care provided to immigrant and ethnic minority patients is not at the same level as that provided to majority group patients. Although the European Board of Medical Specialists recognizes awareness of cultural issues as a core component of the psychiatry specialization, few medical schools provide training in cultural issues. Cultural competence represents a comprehensive response to the mental health care needs of immigrant and ethnic minority patients. Cultural competence training involves the development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that can improve the effectiveness of psychiatric treatment. Cognitive cultural competence involves awareness of the various ways in which culture, immigration status, and race impact psychosocial development, psychopathology, and therapeutic transactions. Technical cultural competence involves the application of cognitive cultural competence, and requires proficiency in intercultural communication, the capacity to develop a therapeutic relationship with a culturally different patient, and the ability to adapt diagnosis and treatment in response to cultural difference. Perhaps the greatest challenge in cultural competence training involves the development of attitudinal competence inasmuch as it requires exploration of cultural and racial preconceptions. Although research is in its infancy, there are increasing indications that cultural competence can improve key aspects of the psychiatric treatment of immigrant and minority group patients. PMID:18371580

  1. Culturally Relevant Physical Education in Urban Schools: Reflecting Cultural Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flory, Sara B.; McCaughtry, Nate

    2011-01-01

    Using a three-part theoretical framework, the cultural relevance cycle--which consists of (a) knowing community dynamics, (b) knowing how community dynamics influence educational processes, and (c) implementing strategies that reflect cultural knowledge of the community--we examined teachers' and students' perspectives on culturally relevant…

  2. Cultural Diversity and the Changing Culture of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nderu-Boddington, Eulalee

    2008-01-01

    The paper will examine the change in schools brought about by cultural diversity and examines the theories that surround the topic. I will evaluate and examine ways in which schools can accommodate cultural diversity. References will be made to cultural and social changes in our schools and how education is affected by such changes. The issue of…

  3. Cultural Borderlands: Cultural Dissonance in the International School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Discusses an investigation into the process of intercultural learning in an international school. Reports that cultural dissonance among students, between students and teachers, and in relation to the school culture, seemed to be the catalyst by which intercultural learning took place. Describes Hofstede's study of national cultural dimensions in…

  4. Managing Culture--Making Culture Work for You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006

    2006-01-01

    An understanding of culture in organisations can offer insights into individual and group behaviour, and leadership. It can help to explain not just what happens in an organisation, but why it happens. However, many people are concerned not just with understanding culture, and hence organisational life. They see culture as something to be…

  5. Cultural Education--Iroquois Cultural Study for Elementary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catherine

    Presenting a sequenced cultural education program, this curriculum guide for an Iroquois cultural study for elementary grades concentrates on providing a supplemental classroom program to an existing social studies curriculum, though it is also aimed at teaching culture in Native American classes. Program objectives are to provide students with…

  6. The Reaffirmation of Cultural Identity in Cross-cultural Encounters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosmitzki, Corinne

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between cultural contact and cultural identity as conceptualized in two research approaches: social identity theory and acculturation. The groups studied were German and Americans who either lived in their nonnative culture or had no direct contact. Comparisons between bicultural and monocultural groups revealed a…

  7. Contemporary Culture: A Model for Teaching a Culture's Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Tom

    Current approaches to teaching culture which have adapted the anthropological model to contemporary life situations can serve as a guide to the organization of traditional civilization course material, from which exercises can be developed. Culture instruction should incorporate a cross-cultural dimension, be authentically contemporary, and be…

  8. Ethnic Culture and Corporate Culture: Using Black Styles in Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foeman, Anita Kathy; Pressley, Gary

    A review of the literature reveals obvious cultural differences between black and white members of American society. Further analysis indicates that the culture of black Americans has fostered the development of a number of characteristics that would help them to function in corporate cultures that are populated primarily by white Americans.…

  9. Cultural Policy in Poland. Studies and Documents on Cultural Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balicki, Stanislaw Witold; And Others

    A survey of cultural policy in Poland, prepared for UNESCO, is one of a series showing how cultural policies are planned and implemented in member states. The dual traditions of the ready assimilation of European elements into Polish culture and Poland's determination to maintain a national identity throughout 123 years of partition are presented…

  10. Teaching Culture Perception: Documenting and Transforming Institutional Teaching Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kustra, Erika; Doci, Florida; Gillard, Kaitlyn; Hondzel, Catharine Dishke; Goff, Lori; Gabay, Danielle; Meadows, Ken N.; Borin, Paola; Wolf, Peter; Ellis, Donna; Eiliat, Hoda; Grose, Jill; Dawson, Debra L.; Hughes, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    An institutional culture that values teaching is likely to lead to improved student learning. The main focus of this study was to determine faculty, graduate and undergraduate students' perception of the teaching culture at their institution and identify indicators of that teaching culture. Themes included support for teaching development; support…

  11. Teaching Culture as a Second Language: Private Culture and Kinesics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, James

    Culture-specific non-verbal communication is regarded here as an essential "language" that has been neglected in modern language teaching pedagogy, though the substance of culture is often referred to in the curriculum. A distinction is drawn between the public aspects of culture commonly experienced by the second language learner and the private…

  12. Thailand: refining cultural values.

    PubMed

    Ratanakul, P

    1990-01-01

    In the second of a set of three articles concerned with "bioethics on the Pacific Rim," Ratanakul, director of a research center for Southeast Asian cultures in Thailand, provides an overview of bioethical issues in his country. He focuses on four issues: health care allocation, AIDS, determination of death, and euthanasia. The introduction of Western medicine into Thailand has brought with it a multitude of ethical problems created in part by tension between Western and Buddhist values. For this reason, Ratanakul concludes that "bioethical enquiry in Thailand must not only examine ethical dilemmas that arise in the actual practice of medicine and research in the life sciences, but must also deal with the refinement and clarification of applicable Thai cultural and moral values." PMID:2318624

  13. Tissue Culture in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Duray, Paul H.; Hatfill, Steven J.

    1997-01-01

    Attempts to simulate normal tissue micro-environments in vitro have been thwarted by the complexity and plasticity of the extracellular matrix, which is important in regulating cytoskeletal and nuclear matrix proteins. Gravity is one of the problems, tending to separate components that should be kept together. For space shuttle experiments, NASA engineers devised a double-walled rotating bioreactor, which is proving to be a useful tissue culture device on earth as well as in space.

  14. Culture and conservation

    SciTech Connect

    McNeely, J.A.; Pitt, D.

    1985-01-01

    The threat posed by human activity in the natural environment is one of the major global problems of the present time. Much has been done throughout the world to promote conservation, but one theme that has generally been neglected is the contribution that local culture can make to conservation. Many people pass on from one generation to the next traditional lore and customs which amount to effective conservation policies. This book identifies such traditional conservation measures, examines their extent, and judges their effectiveness.

  15. College Drinking - Changing the Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... about college alcohol policies College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ... More about special features College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ...

  16. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  17. Conflict Resolution for Contrasting Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Clifford C.; Lipp, G. Douglas

    1998-01-01

    A seven-step process can help people from different cultures understand each other's intentions and perceptions so they can work together harmoniously: problem identification, problem clarification, cultural exploration, organizational exploration, conflict resolution, impact assessment, and organizational integration. (JOW)

  18. Gastric tissue biopsy and culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - gastric tissue; Biopsy - gastric tissue ... of organisms that cause infection. A gastric tissue culture may be considered normal if it does not show certain bacteria. Stomach acids normally prevent too much bacteria from growing.

  19. Measuring Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2011-07-19

    As the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) implements a State Level Approach to its safeguards verification responsibilities, a number of countries are beginning new nuclear power programs and building new nuclear fuel cycle faculties. The State Level approach is holistic and investigatory in nature, creating a need for transparent, non-discriminatory judgments about a state's nonproliferation posture. In support of this need, the authors previously explored the value of defining and measuring a state's safeguards culture. We argued that a clear definition of safeguards culture and an accompanying set of metrics could be applied to provide an objective evaluation and demonstration of a country's nonproliferation posture. As part of this research, we outlined four high-level metrics that could be used to evaluate a state's nuclear posture. We identified general data points. This paper elaborates on those metrics, further refining the data points to generate a measurable scale of safeguards cultures. We believe that this work could advance the IAEA's goals of implementing a safeguards system that is fully information driven, while strengthening confidence in its safeguards conclusions.

  20. Crowdsourcing Lost Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stathopoulou, E. K.; Georgopoulos, A.; Panagiotopoulos, G.; Kaliampakos, D.

    2015-08-01

    Cultural Heritage all over the world is at high risk. Natural and human activities endanger the current state of monuments and sites, whereas many of them have already been destroyed especially during the last years. Preventive actions are of utmost importance for the protection of human memory and the prevention of irreplaceable. These actions may be carried out either in situ or virtually. Very often in situ preventive, or protective or restoration actions are difficult or even impossible, as e.g. in cases of earthquakes, fires or war activity. Digital preservation of cultural heritage is a challenging task within photogrammetry and computer vision communities, as efforts are taken to collect digital data, especially of the monuments that are at high risk. Visit to the field and data acquisition is not always feasible. To overcome the missing data problem, crowdsourced imagery is used to create a visual representation of lost cultural heritage objects. Such digital representations may be 2D or 3D and definitely help preserve the memory and history of the lost heritage. Sometimes they also assist studies for their reconstruction. An initiative to collect imagery data from the public and create a visual 3D representation of a recently destroyed stone bridge almost 150 years old is being discussed in this study. To this end, a crowdsourcing platform has been designed and the first images collected have been processed with the use of SfM algorithms.

  1. Culture and gambling fallacies.

    PubMed

    Ji, Li-Jun; McGeorge, Kayla; Li, Ye; Lee, Albert; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Euro-Canadians and Chinese typically hold different theories about change; Euro-Canadians often engage in linear thinking whereas Chinese often engage in non-linear thinking. The present research investigated the effects of culture-specific theories of change in two related gambling fallacies: the gambler's fallacy (GF; the belief that one is due for a win after a run of losses) and the hot-hand fallacy (HHF; the belief that one's winning streak is likely to continue). In Study 1, participants predicted the outcome of a coin toss following a sequence of tosses. Study 2 involved predicting and betting on the outcome of a basketball player's shot following a sequence of shots. In Study 1, Asians (mainly Chinese) were significantly more likely than Euro-Canadians to believe that they would win (correctly predict the coin toss) after a series of losses (a non-linear thinking pattern), suggesting greater susceptibility to the gambler's fallacy. In Study 2, Euro-Canadians were more likely than Chinese to predict outcomes consistent with a basketball player's streaks (a linear thinking pattern), suggesting greater susceptibility to the hot hand fallacy. By illustrating the role of cultural differences in cognition, these findings contribute to our understanding of why certain cultural groups, such as Chinese, are more susceptible to gambling. PMID:26405630

  2. Culturally Competent School Nurse Practice.

    PubMed

    Carr, Bette; Knutson, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    School nurses are among the professional specialty disciplines in the school environment that have the unique opportunity of exploring and building upon effective practices when working and providing service to diverse populations. As such, school nurses must not only acquire the skills to survive in the culture of education; they must also develop cultural competence by engaging in self-identity and reflection, understanding cultural differences, being culturally responsive, identifying social injustices, and engaging in life-long learning experiences. PMID:26515571

  3. Cultural changes within the NHS.

    PubMed

    Oakley, P

    The NHS is in the throes of profound change. How much of it is cultural? Indeed, what do we mean when we talk about the culture of an organisation? And if we succeed in defining culture, how does an understanding of this concept help us to manage the service better? This article sets out to answer these questions and argues that an understanding of organisational culture is a necessary part of good human resource management. PMID:7551487

  4. Comparative Study of GeneXpert with ZN Stain and Culture in Samples of Suspected Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Ashish; Bhatia, Vinay; Dutt, Sarjana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis remains one of the deadliest communicable diseases. There are number of tests available for the diagnosis of tuberculosis but conventional microscopy has low sensitivity and culture although gold standard, but takes longer time for positivity. On the other side, Nucleic acid amplification techniques due to its rapidity and sensitivity not only help in early diagnosis and management of tuberculosis especially in patients with high clinical suspicion like immunocompromised patients, history of contact with active tuberculosis patient etc., but also curtail the transmission of the disease. Aim To evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Nucleic acid amplification assay (GeneXpert) using respiratory samples in patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis and compare with AFB smear microscopy (Ziehl Neelsen stain) and Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) culture. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the respiratory samples of suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (including Bronchoalveolar lavage and sputum) of 170 patients from Jan 2015 to Nov 2015 for ZN stain, culture and GeneXpert (Xpert® MTB/Rif assay). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of GeneXpert and ZN microscopy were calculated using Liquid culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as gold standard. Results A total of 170 patient samples were evaluated in final analysis. Of these, 14 samples were positive by all three methods used in our study. The overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of GeneXpert were 86.8%, 93.1%, 78.5% and 96% respectively and for BAL sample, 81.4%, 93.4%, 73.3% and 95.7% respectively. The overall sensitivity and specificity of AFB smear microscopy were 22.2%, % and 78.5% respectively and for BAL sample 22.2% and 100% respectively. For AFB negative samples sensitivity and specificity were 79.1% and 93.1% respectively. Conclusion GeneXpert has a higher sensitivity than AFB smear microscopy in

  5. Cultural Backgrounds and Textual Appropriation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Ling

    2006-01-01

    This study examines interviews with 46 undergraduates to explore if participants with differing language and cultural backgrounds view plagiarism or textual appropriation primarily as a) a language problem because of a lack of words of one's own, or b) a cultural challenge as a result of either some first language (L1) cultural training to…

  6. Creativity and the Culturally Different.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Dormalee H.

    This document deals with nurturing creativity in the culturally different. It begins by pointing out that every person has a unique set of experiences and could therefore be considered "culturally different". The same methods are used to encourage creativity in those commonly labelled "culturally different" as are used with any individual. If…

  7. Reading, Writing, and Culture Shock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damen, Louise

    Considerations for identifying the stages of cultural learning of individual students of English as a second language (ESL) are discussed. It is suggested that culture shock, or the shock of the new, is a common experience for those learning a second language in a second culture, and that anger, unhappiness, frustration, and even illness may…

  8. Discovering the Culture of Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plank, Emily

    2016-01-01

    We often filter our interactions with children through the lens of adulthood. View the culture of childhood through a whole new lens. Identify age-based bias and expand your outlook on and understanding of early childhood as a culture. Examine various elements of childhood culture: language, the power of believing, artistic expressions, and social…

  9. Wound Drainage Culture (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Wound Drainage Culture KidsHealth > For Parents > Wound Drainage Culture Print A A A Text Size What's in ... de heridas What It Is A wound drainage culture is a test to detect germs such as ...

  10. Cultural Diversity and Multicultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Geneva

    2013-01-01

    This discussion examines some of the major issues and attributes of culturally responsive teaching. It begins with explaining my views of culturally responsive teaching and how I incorporate cultural responsiveness in my writing to teach readers what it means. These general conceptual frameworks are followed by a discussion of some specific…

  11. Adolescent Maturation in Transitioning Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulroy, Kevin; Palacios, Anna; Reid, Robert E.

    This is a theoretical study of adolescent maturation within a cultural context. Personality development and disintegration due to the pressure of a dominant culture on a minority culture is considered. An attempt is made to understand how teachers might assist students to work out their psychological growth by story telling. The need for cultural…

  12. Cultural Adaptation in Outdoor Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabrizio, Sheila M.; Neill, James

    2005-01-01

    Outdoor programs often intentionally provide a different culture and the challenge of working out how to adapt. Failure to adapt, however, can cause symptoms of culture shock, including homesickness, negative personal behavior, and interpersonal conflict. This article links cross-cultural and outdoor programming literature and provides case…

  13. Culture-Orientated Product Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moalosi, Richie; Popovic, Vesna; Hickling-Hudson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    There is little in-depth research that can assist designers to use culture as a catalyst for designing innovative products within Botswana's context. The concept of culture and design are intertwined, thus modifications stemming from cultural evolution both reflect and determine developments in design. The paper discusses an experimental design…

  14. Linguistic Relativity and Cultural Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhifang, Zhu

    2002-01-01

    A culture is usually with the bias of universalization. Each culture has its ultimate concern, and its answers to the concern make up a worldview. And each culture is inclined to see its worldview as universal. The Christian thinks that Jehovah God is the creator and law-maker of the whole universe; Chinese think that the sage's teaching sheds…

  15. Is cultural group selection enough?

    PubMed

    Read, Dwight

    2016-01-01

    Richerson et al. propose cultural group selection (CGS) as the basis for understanding the evolution of cultural systems. Their proposal does not take into account the nature of cultural idea systems as being constituted at an organizational, rather than an individual level. The sealing partners of the Netsilik Inuit exemplify the problem with their account. PMID:27562228

  16. Cultural Literacy and Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Aniello, Charles A.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the role of library reference services in the enhancement of cultural literacy. The discussion covers the relationship between the extent of cultural literacy possessed by reference librarians and the quality of librarian patron interactions, and the role of reference sources in the cultural literacy of librarians and patrons. (53…

  17. SEM: A Cultural Change Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Bradley; Bourke, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The authors advance the concept that institutional culture is a purposeful framework by which to view SEM's utility, particularly as a cultural change agent. Through the connection of seemingly independent functions of performance and behavior, implications emerge that deepen the understanding of the influence of culture on performance outcomes…

  18. Creating a Collaborative Campus Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Crystal

    2004-01-01

    Organizational culture influences whether or not community colleges maintain local support as well as overall institutional effectiveness. This paper discusses culture and the context of culture at River Parishes Community College (RPCC) a new institution within the Louisiana Community and Technical College System, currently in its fifth academic…

  19. Cultural Reproduction, Cultural Mobility, Cultural Resources, or Trivial Effect? A Comparative Approach to Cultural Capital and Educational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jun; Hampden-Thompson, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    We assess explanations for the associations between cultural capital (especially cultural activities and cultural possessions) and educational performance of schooled adolescents in 22 Western industrialized countries based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). We further ascertain variations in the effect of…

  20. Complicating the Concept of Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Levitt, Kathryn M.

    2012-01-01

    This essay argues against a simple, reified view of culture as a set of ideas and norms belonging to a group or nation, and considers the implications of a more complicated concept for discussion of world culture and the global/local nexus. Most anthropologists define culture as the making of meaning, with an emphasis on the process itself as…

  1. Socioemotional Development in Cultural Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinyin, Ed.; Rubin, Kenneth H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Filling a significant gap in the literature, this book examines the impact of culture on the social behaviors, emotions, and relationships of children around the world. It also explores cultural differences in what is seen as adaptive or maladaptive development. Eminent scholars discuss major theoretical perspectives on culture and development and…

  2. Framework for Culturally Proactive Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guion, Lisa A.; Chattaraj, Samantha; Sullivan-Lytle, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    This article proposes a conceptual framework for connecting family and consumer sciences (FCS) programs to the culturally diverse communities of children, youth, and families served. The framework consists of components for achieving culturally inclusive organizations and culturally proactive programs that will lead to more positive outcomes for…

  3. Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.

    2010-01-01

    To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid

  4. CULTURAL COMPETENCE AND PSYCHOTHERAPY: APPLYING ANTHROPOLOGICALLY INFORMED CONCEPTIONS OF CULTURE

    PubMed Central

    Lakes, Kimberley; López, Steven R.; Garro, Linda C.

    2013-01-01

    The authors apply two contemporary notions of culture to advance the conceptual basis of cultural competence in psychotherapy: Kleinman’s (1995) definition of culture as what is at stake in local, social worlds, and Mattingly and Lawlor’s (2001) concept of shared narratives between practitioners and patients. The authors examine these cultural constructs within a clinical case of an immigrant family caring for a young boy with an autism-spectrum disorder. Their analysis suggests that the socially based model of culture and the concept of shared narratives have the potential to broaden and enrich the definition of cultural competence beyond its current emphasis on the presumed cultural differences of specific racial and ethnic minority groups. PMID:22122131

  5. From cultural traditions to cumulative culture: parameterizing the differences between human and nonhuman culture.

    PubMed

    Kempe, Marius; Lycett, Stephen J; Mesoudi, Alex

    2014-10-21

    Diverse species exhibit cultural traditions, i.e. population-specific profiles of socially learned traits, from songbird dialects to primate tool-use behaviours. However, only humans appear to possess cumulative culture, in which cultural traits increase in complexity over successive generations. Theoretically, it is currently unclear what factors give rise to these phenomena, and consequently why cultural traditions are found in several species but cumulative culture in only one. Here, we address this by constructing and analysing cultural evolutionary models of both phenomena that replicate empirically attestable levels of cultural variation and complexity in chimpanzees and humans. In our model of cultural traditions (Model 1), we find that realistic cultural variation between populations can be maintained even when individuals in different populations invent the same traits and migration between populations is frequent, and under a range of levels of social learning accuracy. This lends support to claims that putative cultural traditions are indeed cultural (rather than genetic) in origin, and suggests that cultural traditions should be widespread in species capable of social learning. Our model of cumulative culture (Model 2) indicates that both the accuracy of social learning and the number of cultural demonstrators interact to determine the complexity of a trait that can be maintained in a population. Combining these models (Model 3) creates two qualitatively distinct regimes in which there are either a few, simple traits, or many, complex traits. We suggest that these regimes correspond to nonhuman and human cultures, respectively. The rarity of cumulative culture in nature may result from this interaction between social learning accuracy and number of demonstrators. PMID:24928150

  6. Popular Cultural Pedagogy, in Theory; Or: What Can Cultural Theory Learn about Learning from Popular Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Culture has been theorized as pedagogy. In several languages and many contexts "culture" and "education" can be used interchangeably. This issue of the journal "Educational Philosophy and Theory" seeks to explore the dual proposition (1) that pedagogy is central to politicized cultural theory, but (2) that it has been…

  7. Perspectives on culture and concepts.

    PubMed

    ojalehto, Bethany l; Medin, Douglas L

    2015-01-01

    The well-respected tradition of research on concepts uses cross-cultural comparisons to explore which aspects of conceptual behavior are universal versus culturally variable. This work continues, but it is being supplemented by intensified efforts to study how conceptual systems and cultural systems interact to modify and support each other. For example, cultural studies within the framework of domain specificity (e.g., folkphysics, folkpsychology, folkbiology) are beginning to query the domains themselves and offer alternative organizing principles (e.g., folksociology, folkecology). Findings highlight the multifaceted nature of both concepts and culture: Individuals adopt distinct conceptual construals in accordance with culturally infused systems such as language and discourse, knowledge and beliefs, and epistemological orientations. This picture complicates questions about cognitive universality or variability, suggesting that researchers may productively adopt a systems-level approach to conceptual organization and cultural epistemologies. Related implications for diversity in cognitive science are discussed. PMID:25251487

  8. Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Joan Y.; Cheon, Bobby K.; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J.; Blizinsky, Katherine D.

    2013-01-01

    The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed. PMID:23914126

  9. Cultural competence: a constructivist definition.

    PubMed

    Blanchet Garneau, Amélie; Pepin, Jacinthe

    2015-01-01

    In nursing education, most of the current teaching practices perpetuate an essentialist perspective of culture and make it imperative to refresh the concept of cultural competence in nursing. The purpose of this article is to propose a constructivist definition of cultural competence that stems from the conclusions of an extensive critical review of the literature on the concepts of culture, cultural competence, and cultural safety among nurses and other health professionals. The proposed constructivist definition is situated in the unitary-transformative paradigm in nursing as defined by Newman and colleagues. It makes the connection between the field of competency-based education and the nursing discipline. Cultural competence in a constructivist paradigm that is oriented toward critical, reflective practice can help us develop knowledge about the role of nurses in reducing health inequalities and lead to a comprehensive ethical reflection about the social mandate of health care professionals. PMID:25037305

  10. Manuals of Cultural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballonoff, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Ethnography often studies social networks including empirical descriptions of marriages and families. We initially concentrate on a special subset of networks which we call configurations. We show that descriptions of the possible outcomes of viable histories form a manual, and an orthoalgebra. We then study cases where family sizes vary, and show that this also forms a manual. In fact, it demonstrates adiabatic invariance, a property often associated with physical system conservation laws, and which here expresses conservation of the viability of a cultural system.

  11. Microfluidic Cell Culture Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takayama, Shuichi (Inventor); Cabrera, Lourdes Marcella (Inventor); Heo, Yun Seok (Inventor); Smith, Gary Daniel (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic devices for cell culturing and methods for using the same are disclosed. One device includes a substrate and membrane. The substrate includes a reservoir in fluid communication with a passage. A bio-compatible fluid may be added to the reservoir and passage. The reservoir is configured to receive and retain at least a portion of a cell mass. The membrane acts as a barrier to evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid from the passage. A cover fluid may be added to cover the bio-compatible fluid to prevent evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid.

  12. 'Two cultures' turns 50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2009-05-01

    Half a century ago this month, the physicist and author Charles Percy Snow (1905-1980) delivered the annual Rede Lecture in the Senate House of the University of Cambridge. (Usually referred to as C P Snow, he was later made a life peer and enjoyed appearing in the House of Lords as Baron Snow, despite being a self-professed socialist.) Its title - "The Two Cultures" - referred to a gulf Snow diagnosed between "literary intellectuals" and "natural scientists", and it elaborated themes he had mentioned in the New Statesman three years earlier. The talk was published in Encounter in June and July 1959, and then as a book.

  13. Being Mindful about the Assessment of Culture: A Cultural Analysis of Culturally Adapted Acceptance-Based Behavior Therapy Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Roche, Martin; Lustig, Kara

    2013-01-01

    In this article we review a wide range of cultural adaptations of acceptance-based behavior therapies (ABBT) from a cultural perspective. Consistent with the cultural match model, we argue that psychotherapeutic cultural adaptations are more effective as the cultural characteristics of patients are matched to the cultural characteristics of the…

  14. Mindfulness in cultural context.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2015-08-01

    Mindfulness meditation and other techniques drawn from Buddhism have increasingly been integrated into forms of psychotherapeutic intervention. In much of this work, mindfulness is understood as a mode of awareness that is present-centered and nonevaluative. This form of awareness is assumed to have intrinsic value in promoting positive mental health and adaptation by interrupting discursive thoughts that give rise to suffering. However, in the societies where it originated, mindfulness meditation is part of a larger system of Buddhist belief and practice with strong ethical and moral dimensions. Extracting techniques like mindfulness meditation from the social contexts in which they originate may change the nature and effects of the practice. The papers in this issue of Transcultural Psychiatry explore the implications of a cultural and contextual view of mindfulness for continued dialogue between Buddhist thought and psychiatry. This introductory essay considers the meanings of mindfulness meditation in cultural context and the uses of mindfulness as a therapeutic intervention in contemporary psychiatry and psychology. PMID:26264787

  15. Citrus Tissue Culture

    PubMed Central

    Einset, John W.

    1978-01-01

    In vitro growth of explant (juice vesicle or albedo tissues) cultures from citron (Citrus medica), lemon (C. limon), grapefruit (C. paradisi), sweet orange (C. sinensis), and mandarin (C. reticulata) fruits was stimulated by addition of orange juice (10% v/v optimum) to a basal medium containing Murashige and Skoog salts, 50 grams per liter sucrose, 100 milligrams per liter myo-inositol, 5 milligrams per liter thiamine·HCl, 2 milligrams per liter 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.5 milligrams per liter kinetin. In analyzing this effect of orange juice on citron explant cultures, we failed to obtain increased yields by addition of appropriate concentrations of citric acid to the basal medium but obtained growth stimulation when the medium was supplemented with juice from an “acidless” orange variety (cv. Lima). These facts suggest that some component(s) other than citric acid is involved. Addition of the inorganic ash corresponding to 10% (v/v) orange juice to the basal medium had no effect on yields. Similarly, the stimulatory effect of orange juice could not be explained based on its content of sucrose or of organic growth factors already present in the basal medium. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:16660631

  16. Anaerobic bag culture method.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1975-06-01

    In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method. PMID:1100671

  17. Anaerobic bag culture method.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, J E; Stewart, P R

    1975-01-01

    In a new method of anaerobic culture, a transparent, gas-impermeable bag is used and the anaerobic environment is established with copper sulfate-saturated steel wool. An Alka-Seltzer tablet generates carbon dioxide. The agar plate surface can be inspected through the bag at any time without interrupting the anaerobic atmosphere or disturbing other specimens. Methylene blue indicator strips are completely reduced by 4 h after the bag is set up and have remained reduced for as long as 3 weeks. Growth of 16 different stock culture anaerobes was generally equivalent by the bag and GasPak jar methods. Yield and growth of anaerobic isolates also were equivalent with 7 of 10 clinical specimens; from the other 3 specimens, 13 isolates were recovered, 5 by both the bag and jar methods and the rest by one method or the other. No consistent differences were found between the anaerobic bag and GasPak jar methods in the yield of anaerobes from clinical specimens. Early growth (24 h of incubation) of anaerobes from one specimen was detected with the bag method. Images PMID:1100671

  18. Sociality influences cultural complexity

    PubMed Central

    Muthukrishna, Michael; Shulman, Ben W.; Vasilescu, Vlad; Henrich, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological and ethnohistorical evidence suggests a link between a population's size and structure, and the diversity or sophistication of its toolkits or technologies. Addressing these patterns, several evolutionary models predict that both the size and social interconnectedness of populations can contribute to the complexity of its cultural repertoire. Some models also predict that a sudden loss of sociality or of population will result in subsequent losses of useful skills/technologies. Here, we test these predictions with two experiments that permit learners to access either one or five models (teachers). Experiment 1 demonstrates that naive participants who could observe five models, integrate this information and generate increasingly effective skills (using an image editing tool) over 10 laboratory generations, whereas those with access to only one model show no improvement. Experiment 2, which began with a generation of trained experts, shows how learners with access to only one model lose skills (in knot-tying) more rapidly than those with access to five models. In the final generation of both experiments, all participants with access to five models demonstrate superior skills to those with access to only one model. These results support theoretical predictions linking sociality to cumulative cultural evolution. PMID:24225461

  19. Cultural Adaptations: A Complex Interplay between Clinical and Cultural Issues.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Wei-Chin

    2011-09-01

    Psychotherapy is a Western method of treating mental illness. Culturally adapting psychotherapy to better meet the needs of ethnic minorities is an important endeavor. Hall et al. (2011) did an excellent job of reviewing the intersection and divergence between Asian culture and mindfulness and acceptance-based therapies. They also point out that some therapies can be naturally syntonic with Asian American cultural values and belief systems. This is especially important given cultural differences between the East and West. Below, I provide an overview of the complexities involved in adapting treatments for diverse clients. I also discuss the importance of deconstructing stereotypes and understanding the complex interplay between clinical and cultural issues. Individualization of treatment for diverse clients can be achieved through culturally formed practice. PMID:21966098

  20. Organisational culture and consultant nurse outcomes: Part 1--Organisational culture.

    PubMed

    Manley, K

    2000-01-01

    Organisational culture is presented as a complex concept underpinned by specific values, beliefs and assumptions that account for the way things are done. Strong organisational cultures and a number of other attributes are highlighted as having influence on performance. The role of leadership is recognised as key to facilitating cultural change, as is the use of approaches which clarify values and highlight contradictions between espoused culture and culture in practice. A three-year study in which a consultant nurse post in critical care was operationalised demonstrated the achievement of an organisational culture with positive impact on the unit in which it was based, on practitioners and their practice, and also on the trust. Transformational leadership combined with other facilitative processes, expertise in the practice of nursing, and other subroles of the consultant nurse are further highlighted as influential. PMID:11235414

  1. Cultural Adaptations: A Complex Interplay between Clinical and Cultural Issues

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Wei-Chin

    2011-01-01

    Psychotherapy is a Western method of treating mental illness. Culturally adapting psychotherapy to better meet the needs of ethnic minorities is an important endeavor. Hall et al. (2011) did an excellent job of reviewing the intersection and divergence between Asian culture and mindfulness and acceptance-based therapies. They also point out that some therapies can be naturally syntonic with Asian American cultural values and belief systems. This is especially important given cultural differences between the East and West. Below, I provide an overview of the complexities involved in adapting treatments for diverse clients. I also discuss the importance of deconstructing stereotypes and understanding the complex interplay between clinical and cultural issues. Individualization of treatment for diverse clients can be achieved through culturally formed practice. PMID:21966098

  2. A paradox of cumulative culture.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yutaka; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2015-08-21

    Culture can grow cumulatively if socially learnt behaviors are improved by individual learning before being passed on to the next generation. Previous authors showed that this kind of learning strategy is unlikely to be evolutionarily stable in the presence of a trade-off between learning and reproduction. This is because culture is a public good that is freely exploited by any member of the population in their model (cultural social dilemma). In this paper, we investigate the effect of vertical transmission (transmission from parents to offspring), which decreases the publicness of culture, on the evolution of cumulative culture in both infinite and finite population models. In the infinite population model, we confirm that culture accumulates largely as long as transmission is purely vertical. It turns out, however, that introduction of even slight oblique transmission drastically reduces the equilibrium level of culture. Even more surprisingly, if the population size is finite, culture hardly accumulates even under purely vertical transmission. This occurs because stochastic extinction due to random genetic drift prevents a learning strategy from accumulating enough culture. Overall, our theoretical results suggest that introducing vertical transmission alone does not really help solve the cultural social dilemma problem. PMID:25979371

  3. [Bacteriocidal activity of Streptomyces cultures].

    PubMed

    Polishchuk, L V; Bambura, O I; Luk'ianchuk, V V

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriocidal activity of metabolites synthesized by 17 plasmid-containing cultures of Streptomyces has been studied. These cultures were isolated from soils of Ukraine with different anthropogenic contamination. The cultures, in their majority (85.3%), synthesized bioactive metabolites, which suppressed growth of microorganisms of different taxonomical groups, pathogenic for people, animals or plants. None of 17 Streptomyces cultures was able to suppress growth of yeasts or Escherichia coli. All 17 investigated cultures of Streptomyces were polyresistant to antibiotics, which were used in medicine and veterinary: makrolide, aminoglycoside, beta-lactam and other groups. Resistance of 8 cultures to the antibiotic thiostrepton, which was widely used in some branches of science, was found. PMID:23088099

  4. Cultural Humility in Psychotherapy Supervision.

    PubMed

    Hook, Joshua N; Watkins, C Edward; Davis, Don E; Owen, Jesse; Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Ramos, Marciana J

    2016-01-01

    As a core component of multicultural orientation, cultural humility can be considered an important attitude for clinical supervisees to adopt and practically implement. How can cultural humility be most meaningfully incorporated in supervision? In what ways can supervisors stimulate the development of a culturally humble attitude in our supervisees? We consider those questions in this paper and present a model for addressing cultural humility in clinical supervision. The primary focus is given to two areas: (a) modeling and teaching of cultural humility through interpersonal interactions in supervision, and (b) teaching cultural humility through outside activities and experiences. Two case studies illustrating the model are presented, and a research agenda for work in this area is outlined. PMID:27329404

  5. Cognition is … Fundamentally Cultural

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard

    2013-01-01

    A prevailing concept of cognition in psychology is inspired by the computer metaphor. Its focus on mental states that are generated and altered by information input, processing, storage and transmission invites a disregard for the cultural dimension of cognition, based on three (implicit) assumptions: cognition is internal, processing can be distinguished from content, and processing is independent of cultural background. Arguing against each of these assumptions, we point out how culture may affect cognitive processes in various ways, drawing on instances from numerical cognition, ethnobiological reasoning, and theory of mind. Given the pervasive cultural modulation of cognition—on all of Marr’s levels of description—we conclude that cognition is indeed fundamentally cultural, and that consideration of its cultural dimension is essential for a comprehensive understanding. PMID:25379225

  6. The biology of cultural conflict

    PubMed Central

    Berns, Gregory S.; Atran, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Although culture is usually thought of as the collection of knowledge and traditions that are transmitted outside of biology, evidence continues to accumulate showing how biology and culture are inseparably intertwined. Cultural conflict will occur only when the beliefs and traditions of one cultural group represent a challenge to individuals of another. Such a challenge will elicit brain processes involved in cognitive decision-making, emotional activation and physiological arousal associated with the outbreak, conduct and resolution of conflict. Key targets to understand bio-cultural differences include primitive drives—how the brain responds to likes and dislikes, how it discounts the future, and how this relates to reproductive behaviour—but also higher level functions, such as how the mind represents and values the surrounding physical and social environment. Future cultural wars, while they may bear familiar labels of religion and politics, will ultimately be fought over control of our biology and our environment. PMID:22271779

  7. The culture ready brain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I examine two hypotheses of language origins: the extended mirror system hypothesis and the vocal grooming hypothesis. These conflict in several respects, partly because their authors were trained in different disciplines and influenced by different kinds of evidence. I note some ethnographic/linguistic and psychological issues which, in my view, have not been sufficiently considered by these authors, and present a ‘play and display’ hypothesis which aims to explain the evolution, not of language, but of the ‘culture ready brain’—with apologies to Arbib for so extending his original concept. In the second half of the article, I will test all three hypotheses against the available fossil, archaeological and neuroimaging evidence. PMID:20558409

  8. Sublimation, culture, and creativity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Emily; Zeppenfeld, Veronika; Cohen, Dov

    2013-10-01

    Combining insights from Freud and Weber, this article explores whether Protestants (vs. Catholics and Jews) are more likely to sublimate their taboo feelings and desires toward productive ends. In the Terman sample (Study 1), Protestant men and women who had sexual problems related to anxieties about taboos and depravity had greater creative accomplishments, as compared to those with sexual problems unrelated to such concerns and to those reporting no sexual problems. Two laboratory experiments (Studies 2 and 3) found that Protestants produced more creative artwork (sculptures, poems, collages, cartoon captions) when they were (a) primed with damnation-related words, (b) induced to feel unacceptable sexual desires, or (c) forced to suppress their anger. Activating anger or sexual attraction was not enough; it was the forbidden or suppressed nature of the emotion that gave the emotion its creative power. The studies provide possibly the first experimental evidence for sublimation and suggest a cultural psychological approach to defense mechanisms. PMID:23834638

  9. Mineralogy and cultural heritage.

    PubMed

    Artioli, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there has been an escalation in the number of mineralogical studies involving cultural heritage materials. A number of factors have contributed to this exponential growth, including the shrinking budgets in traditional research fields, which forced the expansion of applications of mineralogical methods to novel research areas. Mineralogy as a discipline is traditionally connected to geology, petrology, and geochemistry, although it also has the strong tendency to embody the methods and techniques of modern crystallography and advanced materials science. Arguably, this makes it ideally suited and well equipped to meet the demanding challenges posed by archaeometric analysis and conservation problems. A few case studies linking mineralogy and archaeometry are discussed. PMID:21138159

  10. Culture and demoralization in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo, John M; Gostoli, Sara

    2013-01-01

    In most societies, members of a culture have attempted to help each other in times of trouble with various types of healing methods. Demoralization - an individual experience related to a group phenomenon - responds to certain elements shared by all psychotherapies. This article has three objectives: (1) to review the theoretical background leading to our current views on culture and demoralization in psychotherapy, (2) to discuss the methodological challenges faced in the cross-cultural study of demoralization and psychotherapy, and (3) to describe the clinical applications and research prospects of this area of inquiry. Demoralization follows a shattering of the individual's assumptive world and it is different from homeostatic responses to a stressful situation or from depressive disorders. Only a few comparative studies of this construct across cultures have been undertaken. The presentation of distress may vary widely from culture to culture and even within the same culture. To avoid 'category fallacy', it is important to understand the idioms of distress peculiar to a cultural group. A cultural psychiatrist or psychotherapist would have to identify patient's values and sentiments, reconstruct his/her personal and collective ambient worlds, and only then study demoralization. The limitations of our current diagnostic systems have resulted in methodological challenges. Cultural clinicians should consider using a combination of both 'clinimetric' and 'perspectivistic' approaches in order to arrive at a diagnosis and identify the appropriate intervention. The presenting problem has to be understood in the context of the patient's individual, social and cultural background, and patients unfamiliar with Western-type psychotherapies have to be prepared to guide their own expectations before the former are used. Future research should identify the gaps in knowledge on the effectiveness of cultural psychotherapy at reversing or preventing demoralization. PMID:23816865

  11. Biotransformations with plant tissue cultures.

    PubMed

    Carew, D P; Bainbridge, T

    1976-01-01

    Suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus, Apocynum cannabinum and Conium maculatum were examined for their capacity to transform aniline, anisole, acetanilide, benzoic acid and coumarin. None of the cultures transformed acetanilide but each produced acetanilide when fed aniline. All three cultures converted benzoic acid to its para-hydroxy derivative. Coumarin was selectively hydroxylated at the 7-position by Catharanthus and Conium and anisole was O-demethylated only by older Catharanthus tissue. PMID:1084950

  12. Rules, culture, and fitness.

    PubMed

    Baum, W M

    1995-01-01

    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be "internalized," the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain ("If you'll do X, then I'll do Y"), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule ("Dress warmly; it's cold outside") can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior. PMID:22478201

  13. High density cell culture system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.

  14. How Darwinian is cultural evolution?

    PubMed Central

    Claidière, Nicolas; Scott-Phillips, Thomas C.; Sperber, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Darwin-inspired population thinking suggests approaching culture as a population of items of different types, whose relative frequencies may change over time. Three nested subtypes of populational models can be distinguished: evolutionary, selectional and replicative. Substantial progress has been made in the study of cultural evolution by modelling it within the selectional frame. This progress has involved idealizing away from phenomena that may be critical to an adequate understanding of culture and cultural evolution, particularly the constructive aspect of the mechanisms of cultural transmission. Taking these aspects into account, we describe cultural evolution in terms of cultural attraction, which is populational and evolutionary, but only selectional under certain circumstances. As such, in order to model cultural evolution, we must not simply adjust existing replicative or selectional models but we should rather generalize them, so that, just as replicator-based selection is one form that Darwinian selection can take, selection itself is one of several different forms that attraction can take. We present an elementary formalization of the idea of cultural attraction. PMID:24686939

  15. Preparing Science Teachers for Culturally Diverse Students: Developing Cultural Literacy Through Cultural Immersion, Cultural Translators and Communities of Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2006-09-01

    This three year study of P-12 professional development is grounded in sociocultural theories that hold that building knowledge and relationships among individuals from different cultural backgrounds entails joint activity toward common goals and cultural dialogues mediated by cultural translators. Sixty P-12 pre and in-service teachers in a year long interdisciplinary science curriculum course shared the goal of developing culturally relevant, standards-based science curricula for Native Hawai'ian students. Teachers and Native Hawai'ian instructors lived and worked together during a five day culture-science immersion in rural school and community sites and met several times at school, university, and community sites to build knowledge and share programs. Teachers were deeply moved by immersion experiences, learned to connect cultural understandings, e.g., a Hawai'ian sense of place and curriculum development, and highly valued collaborating with peers on curriculum development and implementation. The study finds that long term professional development providing situated learning through cultural immersion, cultural translators, and interdisciplinary instruction supports the establishment of communities of practice in which participants develop the cross-cultural knowledge and literacy needed for the development of locally relevant, place and standards-based curricula and pedagogy.

  16. Toward a genealogy of culture.

    PubMed

    Rendon, M

    2001-12-01

    Using psychoanalytic theory, this paper attempts to trace the natural history of the phenomenon designated as Culture. It postulates that psychoanalysis, a product of the Hegelian philosophical revolution, is still one of the best instruments to understand Culture. It traces the origins of culture as postulated by Freud and the pioneer anthropologists and its course from early and evolved religion through humanism, science, and finally postmodernism. It emphasizes the dialectical concepts in psychoanalysis and reviews summarily those psychoanalysts that, according to the author, have had a major impact on the study of culture: Freud, Horney, and Lacan. PMID:11760661

  17. Cross-cultural organizational behavior.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Michele J; Erez, Miriam; Aycan, Zeynep

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews research on cross-cultural organizational behavior (OB). After a brief review of the history of cross-cultural OB, we review research on work motivation, or the factors that energize, direct, and sustain effort across cultures. We next consider the relationship between the individual and the organization, and review research on culture and organizational commitment, psychological contracts, justice, citizenship behavior, and person-environment fit. Thereafter, we consider how individuals manage their interdependence in organizations, and review research on culture and negotiation and disputing, teams, and leadership, followed by research on managing across borders and expatriation. The review shows that developmentally, cross-cultural research in OB is coming of age. Yet we also highlight critical challenges for future research, including moving beyond values to explain cultural differences, attending to levels of analysis issues, incorporating social and organizational context factors into cross-cultural research, taking indigenous perspectives seriously, and moving beyond intracultural comparisons to understand the dynamics of cross-cultural interfaces. PMID:17044797

  18. Multi-cultural network security

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, D.F.

    1996-04-01

    Education and awareness are widely acknowledged to be among the fundamental issues of Internet security, but only in the sense of making Internet users more security conscious. For the Internet to achieve its promise as an information highway, however, a complementary education effort is needed. If adequate Internet security is to be achieved, we must also increase the awareness of the professional security community of the requirements, attitudes, and habits of the many different cultures that participate in the Internet. Discussions of {open_quotes}the Internet{close_quotes} encourage the misapprehension that there is a single, uniform user community instead of a loose alliance of many cultures that differ in many fundamental aspects. This is true even if we limit our consideration to ethical cultures. At this Workshop alone we have representatives of administrative and military cultures, Governmental and commercial cultures, profit-cultures and non-profit cultures, research and operational cultures. Internet cultures are united in their desire to exploit the connectivity, flexibility, and rapidity of communication provided by the net, but differ greatly in their motivations, their attitudes towards authority, their willingness to cooperate within their own communities, their interest in technical arcana, and the patience with which they will put up with - or the enthusiasm with which they will embrace - the growing list of procedures deemed necessary for acceptable security. They even differ in how they define {open_quotes}acceptable security{close_quotes}.

  19. The cultural contagion of conflict.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Michele; Shteynberg, Garriy; Lee, Tiane; Lun, Janetta; Lyons, Sarah; Bell, Chris; Chiao, Joan Y; Bruss, C Bayan; Al Dabbagh, May; Aycan, Zeynep; Abdel-Latif, Abdel-Hamid; Dagher, Munqith; Khashan, Hilal; Soomro, Nazar

    2012-03-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds that conflicts between two individuals can spread across networks to involve a multitude of others. We advance a cultural transmission model of intergroup conflict where conflict contagion is seen as a consequence of universal human traits (ingroup preference, outgroup hostility; i.e. parochial altruism) which give their strongest expression in particular cultural contexts. Qualitative interviews conducted in the Middle East, USA and Canada suggest that parochial altruism processes vary across cultural groups and are most likely to occur in collectivistic cultural contexts that have high ingroup loyalty. Implications for future neuroscience and computational research needed to understand the emergence of intergroup conflict are discussed. PMID:22271785

  20. The cultural contagion of conflict

    PubMed Central

    Gelfand, Michele; Shteynberg, Garriy; Lee, Tiane; Lun, Janetta; Lyons, Sarah; Bell, Chris; Chiao, Joan Y.; Bruss, C. Bayan; Al Dabbagh, May; Aycan, Zeynep; Abdel-Latif, Abdel-Hamid; Dagher, Munqith; Khashan, Hilal; Soomro, Nazar

    2012-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence abounds that conflicts between two individuals can spread across networks to involve a multitude of others. We advance a cultural transmission model of intergroup conflict where conflict contagion is seen as a consequence of universal human traits (ingroup preference, outgroup hostility; i.e. parochial altruism) which give their strongest expression in particular cultural contexts. Qualitative interviews conducted in the Middle East, USA and Canada suggest that parochial altruism processes vary across cultural groups and are most likely to occur in collectivistic cultural contexts that have high ingroup loyalty. Implications for future neuroscience and computational research needed to understand the emergence of intergroup conflict are discussed. PMID:22271785

  1. Cell Culture, Technology: Enhancing the Culture of Diagnosing Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Alshrari, Ahmed Subeh; Syahida, Ahmad; Sekawi, Zamberi

    2016-01-01

    Cell culture involves a complex of processes of cell isolation from their natural environment (in vivo) and subsequent growth in a controlled environmental artificial condition (in vitro). Cells from specific tissues or organs are cultured as short term or established cell lines which are widely used for research and diagnosis, most specially in the aspect of viral infection, because pathogenic viral isolation depends on the availability of permissible cell cultures. Cell culture provides the required setting for the detection and identification of numerous pathogens of humans, which is achieved via virus isolation in the cell culture as the “gold standard” for virus discovery. In this review, we summarized the views of researchers on the current role of cell culture technology in the diagnosis of human diseases. The technological advancement of recent years, starting with monoclonal antibody development to molecular techniques, provides an important approach for detecting presence of viral infection. They are also used as a baseline for establishing rapid tests for newly discovered pathogens. A combination of virus isolation in cell culture and molecular methods is still critical in identifying viruses that were previously unrecognized. Therefore, cell culture should be considered as a fundamental procedure in identifying suspected infectious viral agent. PMID:27134874

  2. Cultural Capital: Objective Probability and the Cultural Arbitrary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Rob

    2004-01-01

    This paper attempts to explicate and locate the concept of 'cultural capital' in terms of Pierre Bourdieu's more general theory of the forms of capital and their transubstantiations. It examines the manner in which the relationship between the economic field, and its relations of inequality and power, and the cultural field involves a process of…

  3. Cultural Leadership: The Culture of Excellence in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, William G.; Gresso, Donn W.

    Changing the system of rules, roles, and relationships that determine how the components of school redesign are addressed is the challenge that confronts administrators who seek to create a culture of excellence in schools. This book examines the role of effective leadership in achieving significant educational improvement, arguing that culture,…

  4. International Students' Culture Learning and Cultural Adaptation in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Ran; Chiang, Shiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    This article examines international students' cultural adaptation at a major national university in China. A survey was designed to measure international students' adaptation to the Chinese sociocultural and educational environments in terms of five dimensions: (1) cultural empathy, (2) open-mindedness, (3) emotional stability, (4) social…

  5. Grist and mills: on the cultural origins of cultural learning

    PubMed Central

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Cumulative cultural evolution is what ‘makes us odd’; our capacity to learn facts and techniques from others, and to refine them over generations, plays a major role in making human minds and lives radically different from those of other animals. In this article, I discuss cognitive processes that are known collectively as ‘cultural learning’ because they enable cumulative cultural evolution. These cognitive processes include reading, social learning, imitation, teaching, social motivation and theory of mind. Taking the first of these three types of cultural learning as examples, I ask whether and to what extent these cognitive processes have been adapted genetically or culturally to enable cumulative cultural evolution. I find that recent empirical work in comparative psychology, developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience provides surprisingly little evidence of genetic adaptation, and ample evidence of cultural adaptation. This raises the possibility that it is not only ‘grist’ but also ‘mills’ that are culturally inherited; through social interaction in the course of development, we not only acquire facts about the world and how to deal with it (grist), we also build the cognitive processes that make ‘fact inheritance’ possible (mills). PMID:22734061

  6. La Culture Canadienne-Francaise = French Canadian Culture. Interim Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussiere, Adrien L., Ed.

    Materials about the culture specific to French-speaking people in Canada are presented as part of the cultural component of the prescribed second language curriculum. The materials follow the suggested sequence of studying the "French Fact" in Alberta in grade 7, the study of French settlements in Canada in grade 8, and in-depth study of Quebec…

  7. Accommodating Culture and Cultural Diversity in Online Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goold, Annegret; Craig, Annemieke; Coldwell, Jo

    2007-01-01

    The term "culture" has been in common use for a long time. However there is no universally accepted definition and hence it is important to define clearly what culture means in a particular research context. The research reported here is part of a project undertaken at a large Australian university in late 2005. The overall aim of the project was…

  8. Does Cultural Capital Matter?: Cultural Divide and Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seoyong; Kim, Hyesun

    2009-01-01

    Since the remarkable work of Pierre Bourdieu, the concept of cultural capital has gained wide popularity along with theoretical and conceptual debates. This trend represents the social-structural change from materialism to postmaterialism. However, there are few empirical studies which find the cause and effect of cultural capital. Based on…

  9. Determining Accuracy of Cultural Perceptions of Oriental Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Gary L.; Skelton, Sarah C.

    Do social studies textbooks used in U.S. schools provide an unbiased view of other cultures? This research study analyzes five social studies textbook series and 26 children's literature books used as supplementary materials for teaching about Oriental cultures. The instrument used was the Evaluation Coefficient Analysis (ECA) with the focus on…

  10. Cultural Diversity or Cultural Imperialism: Liberal Education in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanks, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A faculty member's experience at the American University in Cairo (Egypt) reveals that pluralism and tolerance are western concepts, even within the college curriculum. National identity affords cultural stability: where the American melting-pot experience is reinforced by the notion of cultural diversity, the national identity of Egypt is…

  11. Complicating Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: Unpacking West African Immigrants' Cultural Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Keisha McIntosh; Jackson, Iesha; Knight, Michelle G.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents findings from a case study of 18 second- and 1.5-generation West African immigrants. We draw upon notions of elusive culture and indigenous knowledges to highlight participants' complex cultural identities and respond to anti-immigration discourses through positioning West African immigrant students as assets in American…

  12. Council for Cultural Cooperation and Cultural Fund. Annual Report 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    This report summarizes programs, studies, and symposia conducted by the Council for Cultural Cooperation (CCC) to enhance communication and interaction on educational and cultural matters between the members of the Council of Europe. The first section describes activities undertaken to promote European interaction. These include (1) exchange…

  13. Cultural Descriptions as Political Cultural Acts: An Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Interculturality may be something normal which everyone possesses to a degree. However, dominant neo-essentialist theories of culture give the impression that we are too different to easily cross-cultural boundaries. These theories support the development of academic disciplines and the need for professional certainty in intercultural training.…

  14. Cultural Relativism: As Strategy for Teaching the "Culturally-Different."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Cecelia Nails

    "Cultural relativism" exists when individuals can choose the values and responsible life styles that afford the natural and best vehicles of productive and positive expression. This paper suggests a strategy for accomplishing this kind of cultural acceptance in the present educational system. It calls for the transmission of basic, unbiased data…

  15. Culture in the Classroom: A Cultural Enlightenment Manual for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loridas, Laura

    This manual provides a basic understanding of cultural differences that teachers are likely to encounter among exceptional children in their classrooms. The manual aims to create an atmosphere where children respect individual differences in themselves and in others. Several cultures are introduced, including Arabic Lebanese, Hispanic, Native…

  16. Cell Culture, Technology: Enhancing the Culture of Diagnosing Human Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hudu, Shuaibu Abdullahi; Alshrari, Ahmed Subeh; Syahida, Ahmad; Sekawi, Zamberi

    2016-03-01

    Cell culture involves a complex of processes of cell isolation from their natural environment (in vivo) and subsequent growth in a controlled environmental artificial condition (in vitro). Cells from specific tissues or organs are cultured as short term or established cell lines which are widely used for research and diagnosis, most specially in the aspect of viral infection, because pathogenic viral isolation depends on the availability of permissible cell cultures. Cell culture provides the required setting for the detection and identification of numerous pathogens of humans, which is achieved via virus isolation in the cell culture as the "gold standard" for virus discovery. In this review, we summarized the views of researchers on the current role of cell culture technology in the diagnosis of human diseases. The technological advancement of recent years, starting with monoclonal antibody development to molecular techniques, provides an important approach for detecting presence of viral infection. They are also used as a baseline for establishing rapid tests for newly discovered pathogens. A combination of virus isolation in cell culture and molecular methods is still critical in identifying viruses that were previously unrecognized. Therefore, cell culture should be considered as a fundamental procedure in identifying suspected infectious viral agent. PMID:27134874

  17. Cultural neuroscience: biology of the mind in cultural contexts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heejung S; Sasaki, Joni Y

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a review of how cultural contexts shape and are shaped by psychological and neurobiological processes. We propose a framework that aims to culturally contextualize behavioral, genetic, neural, and physiological processes. Empirical evidence is presented to offer concrete examples of how neurobiological processes underlie social behaviors, and how these components are interconnected in larger cultural contexts. These findings provide some understanding of how the meanings shared by cultural experiences trigger a neurobiological, psychological, and behavioral chain of events, and how these events may be coordinated and maintained within a person. The review concludes with a reflection on the current state of cultural neuroscience and questions for the field to address. PMID:24050186

  18. Three Dimensional Primary Hepatocyte Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoffe, Boris

    1998-01-01

    Our results demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of culturing PHH in microgravity bioreactors that exceeded the longest period obtained using other methods. Within the first week of culture, isolated hepatocytes started to form aggregates, which continuously increased in size (up to 1 cm) and macroscopically appeared as a multidimensional tissue-like assembly. To improve oxygenation and nutrition within the spheroids we performed experiments with the biodegradable nonwoven fiber-based polymers made from PolyGlycolic Acid (PGA). It has been shown that PGA scaffolds stimulate isolated cells to regenerate tissue with defined sizes and shapes and are currently being studied for various tissue-engineering applications. Our data demonstrated that culturing hepatocytes in the presence of PGA scaffolds resulted in more efficient cell assembly and formations of larger cell spheroids (up to 3 cm in length, see figure). The histology of cell aggregates cultured with PGA showed polymer fibers with attached hepatocytes. We initiated experiments to co-culture primary human hepatocytes with human microvascular endothelial cells in the bioreactor. The presence of endothelial cells in co-cultures were established by immunohistochemistry using anti-CD34 monoclonal Ab. Our preliminary data demonstrated that cultures of purified hepatocytes with human microvascular endothelial cells exhibited better growth and expressed higher levels of albumin MRNA for a longer period of time than cultures of ppfified, primary human hepatocytes cultured alone. We also evaluated microsomal deethylation activity of hepatocytes cultured in the presence of endothelial cells.In summary, we have established liver cell culture, which mimicked the structure and function of the parent tissue.

  19. Peace Lifestyle and Peace Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Judd

    Peace lifestyles are possible in social environments that endorse peace activism. This discussion of community change processes provides an outline of mechanisms needed for successful community activism working at the cultural level. The Community Peace Cultures Program (CPCP) is an approach to building supportive environments for peace…

  20. Creating a winning organizational culture.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Robert James

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the idea of how to create a winning organizational culture. By definition, a winning organizational culture is one that is able to make current innovations stick, while continuously changing based on the demands of the marketplace. More importantly, the article explores the notion that a winning organizational culture can have a profound impact on the conscious of the workforce, helping each individual to become a better, more productive person, who provides important services and products to the community. To form a basis toward defining the structure of what a winning organization culture looks like, 4 experts were asked 12 questions related to the development of an organizational culture. Three of the experts have worked intimately within the health care industry, while a fourth has been charged with turning around an organization that has had a losing culture for 17 years. The article provides insight into the role that values, norms, goals, leadership style, familiarity, and hiring practices play in developing a winning organizational culture. The article also emphasizes the important role that leaders perform in developing an organizational culture. PMID:19910709

  1. Cultural Understanding: Spanish Level 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Reid

    The teacher's attention is focused on selected elements of Spanish culture which may be taught integrally with instructional materials found in the first-year Spanish texts "Entender y Hablar", "La Familia Fernandez", and "A-LM Spanish, Level One". Items are cross-referenced for 42 cultural concepts ranging from nicknames to streets, roads, and…

  2. Cultural Warping of Childbirth, Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2007-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education revisits Doris Haire's classic 1972 article, “The Cultural Warping of Childbirth,” and describes the birth culture of today. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote normal birth.

  3. New Swedish Cultural Environment Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs, Stockholm (Sweden).

    Current Swedish cultural policy was laid down in 1974. It was decided that one of the aims of that policy must be to ensure that earlier periods of history would be preserved and brought to life. The Government Bill (Prop. 1987/88:104) on protection of the cultural environment is concerned with helping the general public understand that cultural…

  4. Cultural Diversity in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Marlene G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Federal employees (N=242) completed 102-item questionnaire on work environment, job satisfaction, and career development. Results suggest that men, women, and people of color do not share a common organizational culture. Instead, each group defines and organizes its experience in different ways. Viewing gender and race as cultures provides a basis…

  5. Cultural Cleavage and Criminal Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheingold, Stuart A.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews major theories of criminal justice, proposes an alternative analytic framework which focuses on cultural factors, applies this framework to several cases, and discusses implications of a cultural perspective for rule of law values. Journal available from Office of Publication, Department of Political Science, University of Florida,…

  6. Principals Influence Culture of Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Sophia

    2000-01-01

    Three New American High Schools (in Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and Greenbelt, Maryland) have successfully replaced the special-education culture of separation with a culture of inclusion. A large part of moving from self-contained practices to inclusion was helping students become self-advocates, so that the world outside school and home would not…

  7. An Elementary Language Culture Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stones, Valerie

    A five-year course sequence focusing on the relationship of language and culture in world history is described. The program, beginning in grade 3, prepares students for later study of foreign and classical languages, develops English language skills, and cultivates general cultural interest. At the first level, students are introduced to some…

  8. Cultural Resources Handbook. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Dorothy

    Designed to ensure proper application of environmental and other laws which protect Native American cultural resources, this handbook summarizes the laws that protect cultural resources, describes the proper application of those laws, and offers suggestions to aid Native Americans in taking an active role in ensuring that laws are effective. Part…

  9. Developing Culturally Competent Family Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrar, Amy; Xiong, Dao

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates several key cultural perspectives that must be considered in order to overcome communication barriers when providing culturally competent family services. Describes the challenges encountered by Hmong and other Southeast Asian families at a parent center. Presents an account of a Hmong father's experiences seeking care for his child…

  10. Cultural Collision in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachum, Floyd D.; McCray, Carlos R.

    2004-01-01

    Young African Americans face several critical issues such as dire economic circumstances, peer pressure, random violence, and feelings of alienation from the cultural mainstream in America. Black popular culture for these youth creates a value system born out of these same issues. This analysis will address the influence of Black popular culture…

  11. Culture and Text: Equivalence Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisafulli, Edoardo

    1993-01-01

    Discusses two English translations of an identical passage from "The Divine Comedy" by Dante Alighieri. Considers the different approaches manifested by these two translators. Argues that cultural elements exert great influence on the work of translators and that culture must become central to any theory of translation. (HB)

  12. The Spectacle of Visual Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garoian, Charles R.; Gaudelius, Yvonne M.

    2004-01-01

    In this article we characterize the ideology of visual culture as "spectacle pedagogy" in that images teach us what and how to see and think and, in doing so, they mediate the ways in which we interact with one another as social beings. Given that we are always immersed in visual culture, an understanding of its impact on social relations enables…

  13. Music Education and Cultural Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    Renewed interest in the relationship between music education and cultural identity draws its vigor from strongly divergent sources. Globalized education and globalized musical culture supply new paradigms for understanding the central tasks of music education and their responsibility to a multicultural ethic of diversity, hybridity and difference.…

  14. Teacher Evaluation and School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Dyann Renee

    2013-01-01

    Teacher evaluation and school culture have been identified as powerful shaping forces in the quality of education. The purpose of this quantitative correlational study, based on a constructivist theoretical framework, was to determine the relationship between teacher evaluation and school culture in a suburban school in the northeastern part of…

  15. American Civilization--Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carol F.

    This syllabus introduces the purposes and organization of a course on Popular Culture as evidence of American civilization offered at Meramec Community College. The guide first presents a rationale for the study of popular culture and then lists course requirements; discusses techniques such as comparative analysis and psychoanalytic investigation…

  16. A Comparison of the Cultural

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Eun Jin

    2012-01-01

    As a critical unit for identifying family-constructed meanings of education, a deeper contextual understanding of Korean immigrant parents' cultural/ethnic perceptions in relation to educational beliefs should be central to culturally responsive education designed to support Korean immigrant families. It is necessary for educators to examine…

  17. Building a Culture of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Marc R.

    2009-01-01

    Culture is the social and intergenerational glue that defines, connects, sustains, and enriches the members of successful communities--including schools and classrooms. A classroom culture is a psychological atmosphere that nurtures and shapes students' attitudes about their own identity, classes, school, and learning in general. Classroom culture…

  18. Educational Leadership: Culture and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmock, Clive; Walker, Allan

    2005-01-01

    The aim in writing this book is to explore the relationships between school leadership and culture. Educational leadership is a socially bounded process. It is subject to the cultural traditions and values of the society in which it is exercised. In this it is no different from other social processes. It thus manifests itself in different ways in…

  19. Preschool in Three Cultures Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    When "Preschool in Three Cultures" was published in 1989, it attracted great attention, as a result of the insights into the three cultures explored as well as the methodology that anchored the research. What made the book so intriguing to many scholars, regardless of their geographical areas of interest, however, was the unique methodology…

  20. Establishing a Culture of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Wendy F.

    2009-01-01

    College representatives typically start accreditation visits by talking to the visiting team about their institution's culture of assessment. Too often, however, the speakers lack an understanding of what that truly means. To determine whether an assessment culture exists--that is, whether the predominating attitudes and behaviors that…

  1. Frugal Fun with Fungal Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundberg, Marshall D.

    2001-01-01

    A home kitchen can serve as a stockroom to provide the supplies needed to culture fungi for classroom use. Provides some alternative media and cultural techniques along with two alternative classroom investigations that can be employed in elementary through college-level classrooms. (Author/SAH)

  2. Cultural Voucher Program; Program Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Museums Collaborative, Inc., New York, NY.

    A description of the Museums Collaborative Voucher Program, a system through which cultural institutions conduct programs with large, heterogeneous, adult populations in New York City is provided in this paper. The program began with two goals: to broaden the audience served by New York City's cultural institutions and to provide the institutions…

  3. Identity, Culture and Cosmopolitan Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Fazal

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the policy notion of multiculturalism, and suggests that it is no longer adequate for understanding contemporary forms of interculturality that span across the globe, and are deeply affected by the processes of cultural globalization. Cultural identities can no longer be assumed as static and nation-bound, and are created…

  4. Art Museum of World Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Proposes an activity that acts as an end-of-the-year review for seventh-grade history in which the students demonstrate their knowledge by applying for a position in an art museum. Explains that the students choose one display and culture presented in the student-created museum and advertise their culture in a three minute presentation. (CMK)

  5. Culture Regions in Geography Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehn, Dieter L.

    One of the demands imposed on geography instruction is to inform about the world, but there is some disagreement on how this is to be achieved. Criticism is most frequently directed at the regional geography approach of subdividing the world into culture regions. This paper addresses the question of whether global subdivision by culture regions…

  6. Cultural Practices, Oppression, and Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turiel, Elliot

    1998-01-01

    Argues that contested meanings, multiple judgments, and conflicts are part of cultures and the individual's thoughts and actions. Contends that people make moral judgments that may affirm or contradict cultural norms and practices, and sometimes invoke concepts of welfare, justice, and rights. Notes that some key aspects of Baumrind's neo-Marxist…

  7. Huanglongbing and psyllid cell cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We successfully established cell cultures of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae: Hemiptera), DcHH-1. The cell culture also supported growth of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. This bacterial pathogen is associated with Huanglongbing, known as citrus greening disease. Research on...

  8. An Analysis of School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    This study offers an exploratory account of school climate, culture, and Black identity as posited by Milliones' (1980) Four Stages of Black Consciousness model. According to the literature schools having high populations of students from low socioeconomic backgrounds are considered problematic. Culture and climate significantly impact school…

  9. Cultural Awareness: A Resource Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Velma E.; McNeill, Earldene

    This annotated bibliography cites books for children and resource materials such as books and articles, bibliographies, catalogs, and periodicals for adults which deal with various aspects of different cultures. Posters, pictures, records, films, filmstrips, slides, dolls, and museums which pertain to particular cultures are also listed. Separate…

  10. Spirit Boxes: Expressions of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMuro, Ted

    1984-01-01

    After studying the culture and art of the ancient civilizations of South America, Mesopotamia, Greece, and Egypt, secondary level art students made spirit boxes as expressions of the various cultures. How to make the boxes and how to prepare the face molds are described. (RM)

  11. Cultural Contacts, Attitudes and Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Carol; Purbhoo, Mary

    To investigate the effects of contacts with people from other cultures, students in nine Canadian secondary schools with differing ethnic population densities were compared. The first focus of the study was the development of cross-cultural understanding. Three measurement instruments were administered to eleventh grade English and history classes…

  12. Cultural competence in patient education.

    PubMed

    Garity, J

    2000-03-01

    As a community health nurse, have you tested your cultural consideration quotient in patient education recently? Can you define the difference between ethnocentrism and multiculturalism? Do you find that you and your colleagues work with more or less transcultural nursing in your daily practice? Find out why cultural competence is vital to nurses' success in the 21st century. PMID:11009778

  13. Culture: Copying, Compression, and Conventionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamariz, Mónica; Kirby, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Through cultural transmission, repeated learning by new individuals transforms cultural information, which tends to become increasingly compressible (Kirby, Cornish, & Smith, 2008; Smith, Tamariz, & Kirby, 2013). Existing diffusion chain studies include in their design two processes that could be responsible for this tendency: learning…

  14. Race, Culture, and Educational Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article criticizes the view that, if cultural factors within the black community explain poor educational outcomes for blacks, then blacks should bear all of the disadvantages that follow from this. Educational outcomes are the joint, iterated product of schools' responses to students' and parents' culturally conditioned conduct. Schools are…

  15. Cherokee Culture across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larch, Lillie

    1993-01-01

    A teacher describes how she integrated Cherokee culture and folklore with the required curriculum at Cherokee Elementary School (Cherokee, North Carolina). Includes an annotated list of 22 Native American cultural resources and a list of 30 books and journal articles on folk games and toys and their uses in education. (LP)

  16. In Pursuit of Cultural Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Edgar

    1989-01-01

    A person does not need to be culturally literate (as defined by E.D. Hirsch) to read American contemporary fiction. This article explores alternative definitions, barriers to cultural literacy, and suggestions for change: building on students' interests, providing out-of-classroom learning experiences, sharing anecdotal material, and emphasizing…

  17. Cultural Accommodation Model of Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2011-01-01

    The current article provides an overview to the cultural accommodation model (CAM) of counseling (Leong & Lee, 2006) that may help guide employment counselors' work. The integrative multidimensional model of cross-cultural counseling (Leong, 1996), a precursor to the CAM, is also reviewed.

  18. Careers in a Cultural Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fouad, Nadya A.; Arbona, Consuelo

    1994-01-01

    Gives overview of research on Super's theory across cultures within United States and internationally. Notes that research indicates that theory has some cross-cultural validity, yet there seem to be measurement concerns. Discusses two areas for future investigation: development of ethnic identity as vocational task and research on developmental…

  19. Japan: Geography, Cuisine, and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Karen

    These materials are designed as four modules: geography, foods, the kitchen, and culture and are to be used singly or jointly as a unit on Japanese food and culture. Common ingredients of Japanese food, nutritional information, methods of preparation, and illustrations of utensils and eating implements are given in conjunction with cultural…

  20. Cultural Identity in Korean English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Bok-Myung

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the cultural identity of Korean English and to make the intercultural communications among non-native speakers successful. The purposes of this study can be summarized as follows: 1) to recognize the concept of English as an International Language (EIL), 2) to emphasize cross-cultural understanding in the globalized…

  1. (Inter)Culturing the Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Phyllis, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This journal issue presents four major articles on cultural diversity issues in the education of gifted students. The first article is "An Alternative Approach to the Identification of Gifted Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners" by Carol S. Lidz and Sheila L. Macrine. It evaluates a dynamic assessment approach to identification of…

  2. Africa in World Cultures Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Jo

    1980-01-01

    Maintains that many world geography and culture textbooks that deal with Africa present misinformation and misleading generalities. Reviews three recent textbooks--"Insights: Sub-Saharan Africa," by Ella C. Leppert, "People and Progress: A Global History," by Milton Finkelstein, and "World Cultures," by Clarence L. Van Steeg. (DB)

  3. Bargaining within the School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul

    2007-01-01

    School culture is unique, which has a lot to do with the unpredictable and sometimes irrational behavior that can occur at the bargaining table. When confronting the uniqueness of school cultures, the key to understanding and leading through the trials and tribulations of collective bargaining is to recognize the uniqueness of the people who enter…

  4. Does Culture Affect Reading Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliner, David; Casanova, Ursula

    1986-01-01

    Culture influences how and what people learn. When recalling what they read about an unfamiliar event, readers distorted information to render its meaning more familiar. Suggestions to help teachers be aware of culture incompatibility and to include a variety of perspectives in classroom materials and instruction are presented. (MT)

  5. Amplification of fluorescently labelled DNA within gram-positive and acid-fast bacteria.

    PubMed

    Vaid, A; Bishop, A H

    1999-10-01

    Representative organisms from a variety of Gram-positive genera were subjected to varying regimes in order to optimise the intracellular amplification of DNA. The bacteria were subjected to treatments with paraformaldehyde, muramidases and mild acid hydrolysis to discover which regime made each organism permeable to the amplification reagents yet allowed retention of the fluorescein-labelled amplified products within the cell. Scanning electron micrographs were used to corroborate the effectiveness of the treatments, as seen by fluorescent photomicrographs, with the damage caused to the bacterial walls. A combination of mutanolysin and lysozyme was found most effective for Bacillus cereus, whereas permeabilisation of Streptomyces coelicolor, Lactococcus lactis and Clostridium sporogenes was most effective when exposed to lysozyme only. Surprisingly, direct amplification with no pre-treatment gave the brightest fluorescence in Mycobacterium phlei. Comparing the techniques of whole cell PCR, primed in situ labelling (PRINS), and cycle PRINS showed that under the conditions used the strongest intensity of fluorescence was obtained with in situ PCR; only L. lactis and M. phlei produced signals with cycle PRINS, fluorescence was not seen for any of the organisms with PRINS. PMID:10520585

  6. Acid-fast lipids are important structural components of oocyst walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coccidia are protozoan parasites that cause significant human disease and are of major agricultural importance. Cryptosporidium spp.cause diarrhea in humans and animals, while congenital Toxoplasma infections causes blindness and death. Eimeria kills chickens, so all poultry feed contain antibioti...

  7. ENHANCED DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM IN THE ACID-FAST STAIN. (R826138)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  8. The Two Cultures in Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Cleghorn, R A

    1965-07-10

    The division between the two cultures of the literary and scientific worlds is considered, as is the division between the two cultures of humanism and somaticism. The development of psychiatric thought important to this latter dichotomy is described through the Age of Enlightenment, the Romantic Movement and the New Enlightenment. The two cultures of our present literary and scientific milieux are equated with the romanticism and somaticism of the past. The development of two cultures in psychiatry is traced, beginning with Freud's attempt to combine science and romanticism, to the present day where one finds some degree of convergence between the somatic and psychoanalytic approaches. Criteria are presented for a greater union of the two cultures in psychiatry. PMID:20328284

  9. Optimum culture in the cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamori, Hisaaki

    1987-01-01

    Even with the same program and objectives, if the culture is different, there will be different approaches to the goal of flight safety. However, the cockpit environment is culture-free so it is not as important to think of a person's cultural background as it is to think of the approach to the goal of ultimate safety. Crew members can look at their individual safety goals and compare them to their own performance to see if their behavior matches their own safety goals. The cockpit environment must be culture-free in order to obtain the ultimate safety goal. One must first realize how their culture affects their behavior before they can begin to change their attitude and actions in the cockpit.

  10. The Two Cultures in Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Cleghorn, R. A.

    1965-01-01

    The division between the two cultures of the literary and scientific worlds is considered, as is the division between the two cultures of humanism and somaticism. The development of psychiatric thought important to this latter dichotomy is described through the Age of Enlightenment, the Romantic Movement and the New Enlightenment. The two cultures of our present literary and scientific milieux are equated with the romanticism and somaticism of the past. The development of two cultures in psychiatry is traced, beginning with Freud's attempt to combine science and romanticism, to the present day where one finds some degree of convergence between the somatic and psychoanalytic approaches. Criteria are presented for a greater union of the two cultures in psychiatry. PMID:20328284

  11. The Culture of Care.

    PubMed

    Affleck, Ewan

    2016-01-01

    The obstacle to achieving meaningful healthcare transformation may not be a function of the integrity of reform models such as Triple Aim, but rather a by-product of the nature of healthcare stewardship. Classical definitions of health stewardship - as a governmental mandate - may be more aspirational than a reflection of reality in Canada. In Canada, healthcare is not organized as an intelligible system, but it is a disjoint matrix of services, that is governed by actions of a variety of "stewards" or power brokers - professional, governmental, non-governmental and corporate interests - that are often at odds. The complex relationships between the power brokers form the organizational culture of healthcare and informs the dynamic interplay of the power brokers that jockey for control, resulting in system disintegration that is an anathema to any healthcare reform. As a macro-level reform tool, Triple Aim is unlikely to succeed because the fundamental problem with healthcare has not yet been addressed: healthcare is ungoverned. Perhaps in the context of grassroots reform projects, the nascent principles of Triple Aim could grow, be replicated and be gently disseminated, and, by a process of reverse engineering, a model of health stewardship that is best suited to sound principles of quality care can evolve. PMID:27009584

  12. Bim for Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Giudice, M.; Osello, A.

    2013-07-01

    When you think about the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) Industry people tend to refers to new buildings, but nowadays the recovery of existing ones is increasingly the subject of the research. The current historical context raises this issue at the center of numerous thought due both to economic and environmental conditions. So, the need to refurbish the cultural heritage is becoming more important than the construction of new buildings. Modern technologies allow professionals to do this to turn the buildings into structures capable to meet the users' confort with a considerable energy saving. Italy is trying to make a change to the construction industry through the national InnovANCE project, which aims to develop the first national database able to share information among professionals through the help of Building Information Modeling (BIM). In this way the subject involved in a construction process can update their way of working, with a consequent time and cost saving. This paper aims to present the way in which the InnovANCE project can be considered as the key for Italy to change the way to conceive the building industry, using a case study such as the old thermal power of Politecnico di Torino, starting from the survey step. The methodology followed to obtain the 3D model will be described, starting from the data of a topographic and a laser scanner survey and from an archival documents research.

  13. Cultural horizons for mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Kay; Paraides, Patricia; Jannok Nutti, Ylva; Johansson, Gunilla; Bennet, Maria; Doolan, Pat; Peckham, Ray; Hill, John; Doolan, Frank; O'Sullivan, Dominic; Murray, Libbey; Logan, Patricia; McNair, Melissa; Sunnari, Vappu; Murray, Beatrice; Miller, Alissa; Nolan, John; Simpson, Alca; Ohrin, Christine; Doolan, Terry; Doolan, Michelle; Taylor, Paul

    2011-06-01

    As a result of a number of government reports, there have been numerous systemic changes in Indigenous education in Australia revolving around the importance of partnerships with the community. A forum with our local Dubbo community established the importance of working together and developed a model which placed the child in an ecological perspective that particularly noted the role of Elders and the place of the child in the family. However, there was also the issue of curriculum and mathematics education to be addressed. It was recognised that a colonised curriculum reduces the vision of what might be the potential for Indigenous mathematics education. This paper reports on the sharing that developed between our local community and some researchers and teachers from Sweden, Papua New Guinea and New Zealand. It has implications for recognising the impact of testing regimes, the teaching space, understanding the ways children learn, the curriculum, and teacher education. As a result of these discussions, a critical pedagogy that considers culture and place is presented as an ecocultural perspective on mathematics education. This perspective was seen as critical for the curriculum and learning experiences of Indigenous children.

  14. Children who cross cultures.

    PubMed

    Ory, F G; Simons, M; Verhulst, F C; Leenders, F R; Wolters, W H

    1991-01-01

    The subject of this study is the effects of transcultural sojourn and culture shock on the psycho-social development and school achievement of Dutch children. One hundred and three Dutch children in the age range 6-17 years who stayed abroad with their parents for at least two years and returned to Holland were compared with 81 Dutch classmates of the same age and sex. The class teacher and parent(s) were the informants. The transcultural group showed more behavioural problems on the Dutch version of the Child Behavior Checklist developed by Achenbach. Parents of the transcultural group regarded their children on a modified Graham & Rutter questionnaire as less happy than the control parents. However, no differences were found for academic achievement or problem behaviour at school as assessed by the teacher version of the CBCL, the 'Teacher's Report Form' (TRF). Organizations which send their employees abroad should direct more attention to employees' children. Attention given by parents and teachers to language problems and school performance should not pre-empt close attention to the psycho-social development of children. PMID:2008618

  15. NASA Bioreactor tissue culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  16. Surveys of organizational culture and safety culture in nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Walter S.

    2000-07-30

    The results of a survey of organizational culture at a nuclear power plant are summarized and compared with those of a similar survey which has been described in the literature on ''high-reliability organizations''. A general-purpose cultural inventory showed a profile of organizational style similar to that reported in the literature; the factor structure for the styles was also similar to that of the plant previously described. A specialized scale designed to measure ''safety culture'' did not distinguished among groups within the organization that would be expected to differ.

  17. Why does human culture increase exponentially?

    PubMed

    Enquist, M; Ghirlanda, S; Jarrick, A; Wachtmeister, C-A

    2008-08-01

    Historical records show that culture can increase exponentially in time, e.g., in number of poems, musical works, scientific discoveries. We model how human capacities for creativity and cultural transmission may make such an increase possible, suggesting that: (1) creativity played a major role at the origin of human culture and for its accumulation throughout history, because cultural transmission cannot, on its own, generate exponentially increasing amounts of culture; (2) exponential increase in amount of culture can only occur if creativity is positively influenced by culture. The evolution of cultural transmission is often considered the main genetic bottleneck for the origin of culture, because natural selection cannot favor cultural transmission without any culture to transmit. Our models suggest that an increase in individual creativity may have been the first step toward human culture, because in a population of creative individuals there may be enough non-genetic information to favor the evolution of cultural transmission. PMID:18571686

  18. Cultural energy grassroots and development.

    PubMed

    Kleymeyer, C D

    1992-01-01

    The importance of culture in economic development is discussed based on 10 years of case reports in the publication, Grassroots Development. Cultural energy is considered important for the launching, sustainment, and expansion of programs; yet, only 10% of IAF Foundation grants over 20 years have focused on cultural energy as a tool for development. By the late 1960s development theorists blamed the lack of progress on "backward looking traditional cultures." In Latin America culture was seen as an obstacle to be overcome rather than an opportunity. The debt and environmental crisis of the 1980s has opened the doors to new methods. A recent study of the Aymara and Mapuche in Chile found that uprooting local culture meant loss of land, cultural roots, and social relationships, as well as loss of stewardship of the environment. The Kuna is Panama were seen as successful in combining traditional ways with Western ideas in formation of an ecological park; this was accomplished through self-confidence and self-will in grassroots development. However, the Kuna have also undergone changes and the ancestral view of nature and humanity's place in it is being undermined. The acculturation of the young may leave an emptiness that is neither Panamanian nor Kuna. The Chimborazo Indians in the highlands of Ecuador have only achieved moderate success in eliminating poverty in spite of international efforts which imposed development schemes onto the community. The Feria Educativa (Educational Fair) was formed among indigenous volunteers working with the Serviceo Ecuatoriano de Voluntarios-Chimborazo to promote culture and self-help. Members enter the community only when invited; the program uses puppets and sociodramas to portray common problems such as illiteracy and stimulate group participation. Their efforts have been successful in establishing literacy, reforestation, and economic activity programs. The Kuna shopped among Western ideas to chose ones appropriate to their

  19. Introduction to Cambodian Culture; Laos Culturally Speaking; Introduction to Vietnamese Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chhim, Sun-Him; And Others

    This document comprises three booklets that serve as a foundation for understanding the cultural diversity and values of Cambodian, Laotian, and Vietnamese students. Each booklet reviews the country's history and geography. "Introduction to Cambodian Culture" (S. Chhim) discusses the following topics: (1) the Khmer concept of individual worth; (2)…

  20. International HPT: Rx for Culture Shock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Clare Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    Examines the cultural adaptation process experienced by people working in foreign environments. Reviews current organizational gaps in managing cross-cultural challenges; examines the phenomenon of culture shock; and presents a model for applying HPT (human performance technology) strategies to change culture shock to cross-cultural competence.…

  1. The Need for an Ecological Cultural Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Clair, Robert N.; Busch, John A.

    This paper discusses social and cultural change, deep ecology, and systems thinking in relation to the maintenance of Indigenous cultures and languages. All cultures change, and the current crisis in language loss for Native communities is related to cultural change. From a systems perspective, culture is a way of thinking about one's social…

  2. Transcending Cultural Borders: Implications for Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jegede, Olugbemiro J.; Aikenhead, Glen S.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews collateral learning theory as a cognitive explanation for how pupils cope with disparate worldviews mediated by transcending cultural borders between their everyday culture and the culture of science. Proposes a new pedagogy in which teachers assume the role of culture broker in the classroom to achieve culturally sensitive curriculum and…

  3. The Need for Culturally Relevant Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy-Brown, Nyama

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for culturally relevant teaching in dance education. Many dance teachers have heard the buzz words "culturally relevant teaching methods." Yet these dance educators acknowledge that the "dance culture" is not always synonymous with "culturally relevant." This paper examines the issue of culturally relevant teaching methods in dance…

  4. Providing leadership in a culturally diverse workplace.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Geraldine

    2007-08-01

    Cultural diversity is an increasingly important characteristic of the work force. Occupational health nurses with sensitivity to the influence of culture on behavior and knowledge of strategies to deliver culturally competent services can lead to and/or help develop a culturally sensitive health care environment and influence corporate culture and policies. PMID:17847627

  5. IMPORTANCE OF SAFETY CULTURE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Spitalnik, J.

    2004-10-06

    Safety Management has lately been considered by some Nuclear Regulatory agencies as the tool on which to concentrate their efforts to implement modern regulation structures, because Safety Culture was said to be difficult to monitor. However, Safety Culture can be assessed and monitored even if it is problematical to make Safety Culture the object of regulation. This paper stresses the feasibility and importance of Safety Culture Assessment based on self-assessment applications performed in several nuclear organizations in Latin America. Reasons and ownership for assessing Safety Culture are discussed, and relevant aspects considered for setting up and programming such an assessment are shown. Basic principles that were taken into account, as well as financial and human resources used in actual self-assessments are reviewed, including the importance of adequate statistical analyses and the necessity of proper feed-back of results. The setting up of action plans to enhance Safety Culture is the final step of the assessment program that once implemented will enable to establish a Safety Culture monitoring process within the organization.

  6. Urban Cultural Heritage Endangerment: Degradation of historico-cultural landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Eric; Cabral, Pedro; Caetano, Mário; Painho, Marco; Nijkamp, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Sustainable development has become one of the great debates of policy-making of the XXI century. The world, is facing unprecedented change following the anthropocentrism of socio-economic growth. However, the commitment of man to ‘transmit to future generations at least the same as had' (ref) seems to be a narrowing, given extensive urban growth, population increase and climate change. However, over the last twenty years, the usage of spatial information systems have brought a positive contribution for better acknowledging the problem of environmental change, and bringing more constructive approaches to planning. Prompted by much research interest in Europe, a broad specter of biodiversity loss models, pollution and environmental degradation algorithms as well as climate change models, have become important tools under the European umbrella. Recognizing the essence of sustainable development, historico-cultural and archaeological regions have a remarkable role in the transformation of landscapes and maintenance of cultural and regional identity. Furthermore, the socio-economic, political-geographic and cultural-scientific history of the dynamics of places and localities on our earth is reflected in their historico-cultural heritage. This patrimony comprises cultural assets, such as old churches, palaces, museums, urban parks, historical architecture of cities, or landscapes of historical interest. Historico-cultural heritage also includes archaeological sites, which sometimes not only have a local value but may have a worldwide significance (e.g. Pompeii). However, massive urban growth is affecting directly the existing historico-cultural resources throughout the European region, and little attention is given to this juxtaposing reality of peri-urban growth and cultural / archaeological heritage preservation. Also, the settling patterns within historico-cultural local clusters follow a similar pattern as current growth tendencies, given the physical conditions of

  7. Culture-specific familiarity equally mediates action representations across cultures.

    PubMed

    Umla-Runge, Katja; Fu, Xiaolan; Wang, Lamei; Zimmer, Hubert D

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that we need to distinguish between means and end information about actions. It is unclear how these two subtypes of action information relate to each other with theoretical accounts postulating the superiority of end over means information and others linking separate means and end routes of processing to actions of differential meaningfulness. Action meaningfulness or familiarity differs between cultures. In a cross-cultural setting, we investigated how action familiarity influences recognition memory for means and end information. Object directed actions of differential familiarity were presented to Chinese and German participants. Action familiarity modulated the representation of means and end information in both cultures in the same way, although the effects were based on different stimulus sets. Our results suggest that, in the representation of actions in memory, end information is superordinate to means information. This effect is independent of culture whereas action familiarity is not. PMID:24168196

  8. Convergence of Culture and ICTs: E-Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drigas, Athanasios; Koukianakis, Lefteris

    In modern society where digital technology prevails, the combination of Information and Communication technology (ICT) and the various human activities created the term e-services. This paper presents an e-culture services portal, focusing on e-culture applications like e-literature, e-gallery and music servers. The user-visitor has the opportunity to navigate through its pages which contain a large amount of information about Greek literature, galleries and music in the form of text, images and sound. Although it started as an early e-culture application, today it has been updated with new web-based technologies, in order to be accessible by people with visual disabilities, using dynamical techniques for content management. Its goals are mainly to make the so-called "Information for All" scheme a palpable reality and secondly to spread the aforementioned Greek cultural heritage aspects to a global level.

  9. Cultural competence models in nursing.

    PubMed

    Alexander, G Rumay

    2008-12-01

    A fundamental change is needed in the way clinicians provide care to patients, including the way the workforce is educated for the demographic challenges of meeting the needs of a diverse nation. Health disparities exist for many reasons, including the failure to prepare providers for mastery of a cultural competency skill set. There are many cultural competency frameworks available to provide intentional direction and intentional vision for the development, implementation, and actualization of providing culturally appropriate care. This article highlights prevalent frameworks and the needs that theoretic models address as health care providers deal with the nuances and necessary understandings to meet their contracts with society. PMID:19007707

  10. Caught between cultures: cultural norms in Jungian psychodynamic process.

    PubMed

    Heyer, Gretchen

    2012-11-01

    In our increasingly mobile world, more of us are caught between cultures rather than in one culture. We straddle different ethnic, racial, political, geographical, and religious groups, forced into awareness of the precarious nature of our self-definition, involuntarily gazing at the constructed nature of our cultural norms, unable to avoid reckoning with the choices of which collective to honour. The impossibility of separating individual from collective is foundational to work as Jungian practitioners, but a paradox of individuation is becoming free of the control of collective norms while simultaneously living within those very norms. In such a conflict it becomes easy to overlook the fact that when the norms we have incorporated into ourselves are from cultures vastly different from the one in which we live, the cacophony can be overwhelming. In this paper, I will draw from postmodern theorists such as Derrida, Foucault and Irigaray in an effort to re-imagine the role of culture in psychodynamic process. The case of a Muslim Iranian man working with a Christian American woman analyst will be used to explore the complexity of a multitude of cultural norms present in the consulting room. PMID:23130617

  11. Creativity and Culture: A Two Way Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudowicz, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    Discusses different manifestations of the impact of culture on creativity and reviews empirical studies. Makes the case that creative expression is a universal human phenomenon that is grounded in culture and has impact on culture itself. (SLD)

  12. Type Culture Collections and Their Databases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial culture collections, also known as Biological Resource Centers, are primary suppliers of microbial cultures (germplasm) for medical, agricultural and biotechnological research and development. Many countries have one or more culture collections, which may specialize in certain microbial g...

  13. The Cultural Content of Business Spanish Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Christine Uber; Uber, David

    1992-01-01

    Eight business Spanish texts were examined to learn about the cultural content of the business Spanish curriculum. Questions of cultural topics and themes, presentation of cultural information, activities and techniques, and use of authentic materials were considered. (16 references) (LB)

  14. [Safety culture: definition, models and design].

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Holger; Hammer, Antje; Ernstmann, Nicole; Kowalski, Christoph; Ommen, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Safety culture is a multi-dimensional phenomenon. Safety culture of a healthcare organization is high if it has a common stock in knowledge, values and symbols in regard to patients' safety. The article intends to define safety culture in the first step and, in the second step, demonstrate the effects of safety culture. We present the model of safety behaviour and show how safety culture can affect behaviour and produce safe behaviour. In the third step we will look at the causes of safety culture and present the safety-culture-model. The main hypothesis of this model is that the safety culture of a healthcare organization strongly depends on its communication culture and its social capital. Finally, we will investigate how the safety culture of a healthcare organization can be improved. Based on the safety culture model six measures to improve safety culture will be presented. PMID:19998775

  15. [Culture and durability].

    PubMed

    Arizpe, L; Paz, F

    1992-01-01

    The concept of sustainability is usually defined according to specific socioeconomic contexts and is vague in application, but nevertheless essential for defining longterm objectives. This work seeks to demonstrate that the place of sustainability in a development model depends on the cultural values behind abstract ideas and on the perceptions and interests of different social and political groups regarding the environment more than it does on the biophysical exchanges between societies and the natural environment. The idea of sustainable development reflects a new political will to continue to live on earth in the same fashion as at present, but new forms on international organization, government, and commerce more conducive to sustainable development have not yet clearly emerged. Other concepts used in social and anthropological analysis, such as social reproduction, appear relevant in considering sustainability. Sustainable development should be analyzed and applied at both the macroeconomic and microeconomic levels. Demographic growth is a determining factor in use of natural resources in today's world, but its dysfunctionality at the macro level contrasts with its continuing functionality at the family level in many poor rural communities. An exploratory analysis of the living conditions of the natives of the tropical forest of southeast Mexico, the Lacandon, suggests how different populations understand the concept of sustainability and manage their vital resources accordingly. The Lacandon tropical forest of 1.4 million hectares had lost only 6% of its original cover through the early 1960s. But beginning in 1963, the Mexican government, as part of the Alliance for Progress program, began a colonization project that eventually led to disorganized migration and uncontrolled harvesting of tropical woods in the forests of Chiapas. A settlement program begun in the area nearest the Guatemalan border to control the movements of Guatemalan refugees and guerillas

  16. Gastric tissue biopsy and culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... laboratory test that examines the tissue sample for bacteria and other organisms that can cause disease. ... of organisms that cause infection. A gastric tissue culture may be ... Stomach acids normally prevent too much bacteria from growing.

  17. Cultural Humility: A Concept Analysis.

    PubMed

    Foronda, Cynthia; Baptiste, Diana-Lyn; Reinholdt, Maren M; Ousman, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    Diversity is being increasingly recognized as an area of emphasis in health care. The term cultural humility is used frequently but society's understanding of the term is unclear. The aim of this article was to provide a concept analysis and a current definition for the term cultural humility. Cultural humility was used in a variety of contexts from individuals having ethnic and racial differences, to differences in sexual preference, social status, interprofessional roles, to health care provider/patient relationships. The attributes were openness, self-awareness, egoless, supportive interactions, and self-reflection and critique. The antecedents were diversity and power imbalance. The consequences were mutual empowerment, partnerships, respect, optimal care, and lifelong learning. Cultural humility was described as a lifelong process. With a firm understanding of the term, individuals and communities will be better equipped to understand and accomplish an inclusive environment with mutual benefit and optimal care. PMID:26122618

  18. The African Cultural Astronomy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urama, Johnson O.; Holbrook, Jarita C.

    2011-06-01

    Indigenous, endogenous, traditional, or cultural astronomy focuses on the many ways that people and cultures interact with celestial bodies. In most parts of Africa, there is very little or no awareness about modern astronomy. However, like ancient people everywhere, Africans wondered at the sky and struggled to make sense of it. The African Cultural Astronomy Project aims to unearth the body of traditional knowledge of astronomy possessed by peoples of the different ethnic groups in Africa and to consider scientific interpretations when appropriate for cosmogonies and ancient astronomical practices. Regardless of scientific validity, every scientist can relate to the process of making observations and creating theoretical mechanisms for explaining what is observed. Through linking the traditional and the scientific, it is believed that this would be used to create awareness and interest in astronomy in most parts of Africa. This paper discusses the vision, challenges and prospects of the African Cultural Astronomy Project in her quest to popularize astronomy in Africa.

  19. Cultural Preservation Program for Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbaran, Francisco Ramon

    2011-01-01

    In this technical report, an innovative cultural preservation program for implementation in Athabascan villages is presented. The parameters for success in implementing such a project is discussed based on a workshop with Athabascan elders.

  20. Cross-Cultural Counseling Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahia, Chikezie Emmanuel

    1984-01-01

    Examines problems and concerns of cross cultural counseling and psychotherapy. Raises specific questions concerning research designs and approaches, differences in cosmology, epistemology, differences in nosology, and problems of evaluation or testing. (JAC)

  1. Educational Success and Surrounding Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Garrison

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum, instruction, and services we provide in schools, colleges, and universities matter a lot, but if we continue to ignore our students' "surrounding culture," progress toward a more educated nation will continue to be disappointing.

  2. Popular Culture in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allender, Dale

    2004-01-01

    Traditional and innovative elements such as bells and music with quick pacing accented by a voice that students could recognize is used to effortlessly bring students to the classroom. Popular culture is shown to work well using classroom examples.

  3. Science, Culture, Universities and Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1972-01-01

    Federal financial assistance to the arts and the sciences, including that provided for higher education, will tend to unite the Two Cultures'' and help direct education from a focus on earning a living'' to total living.'' (AL)

  4. Homophily, Cultural Drift, and the Co-Evolution of Cultural Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centola, Damon; Gonzalez-Avella, Juan Carlos; Eguiluz, Victor M.; San Miguel, Maxi

    2007-01-01

    Studies of cultural differentiation have shown that social mechanisms that normally lead to cultural convergence--homophily and influence--can also explain how distinct cultural groups can form. However, this emergent cultural diversity has proven to be unstable in the face of cultural drift--small errors or innovations that allow cultures to…

  5. Building Cross-Cultural Bridges--Cultural Analysis of Critical Incidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Caroline

    Culture forms the basis for cross-cultural awareness and understanding. The initial response to a new culture is to find it fascinating, exotic, and thrilling. Although, to function in a new cultural environment, and become aware of deep cultural patterns people need time, research, and investigation. Dealing with a new culture, people need a…

  6. Random drift and culture change.

    PubMed

    Bentley, R Alexander; Hahn, Matthew W; Shennan, Stephen J

    2004-07-22

    We show that the frequency distributions of cultural variants, in three different real-world examples--first names, archaeological pottery and applications for technology patents--follow power laws that can be explained by a simple model of random drift. We conclude that cultural and economic choices often reflect a decision process that is value-neutral; this result has far-reaching testable implications for social-science research. PMID:15306315

  7. Random drift and culture change.

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Hahn, Matthew W.; Shennan, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    We show that the frequency distributions of cultural variants, in three different real-world examples--first names, archaeological pottery and applications for technology patents--follow power laws that can be explained by a simple model of random drift. We conclude that cultural and economic choices often reflect a decision process that is value-neutral; this result has far-reaching testable implications for social-science research. PMID:15306315

  8. Defining and Measuring Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2010-07-31

    In light of the shift toward State Level Evaluations and information driven safeguards, this paper offers a refined definition of safeguards culture and a set of metrics for measuring the extent to which a safeguards culture exists in a state. Where the IAEA is able to use the definition and metrics to come to a positive conclusion about the country, it may help reduce the burden on the Agency and the state.

  9. The Pace of Cultural Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Today, humans inhabit most of the world’s terrestrial habitats. This observation has been explained by the fact that we possess a secondary inheritance mechanism, culture, in addition to a genetic system. Because it is assumed that cultural evolution occurs faster than biological evolution, humans can adapt to new ecosystems more rapidly than other animals. This assumption, however, has never been tested empirically. Here, I compare rates of change in human technologies to rates of change in animal morphologies. I find that rates of cultural evolution are inversely correlated with the time interval over which they are measured, which is similar to what is known for biological rates. This correlation explains why the pace of cultural evolution appears faster when measured over recent time periods, where time intervals are often shorter. Controlling for the correlation between rates and time intervals, I show that (1) cultural evolution is faster than biological evolution; (2) this effect holds true even when the generation time of species is controlled for; and (3) culture allows us to evolve over short time scales, which are normally accessible only to short-lived species, while at the same time allowing for us to enjoy the benefits of having a long life history. PMID:23024804

  10. The challenge of cultural gerontology.

    PubMed

    Twigg, Julia; Martin, Wendy

    2015-06-01

    Over the last decade, Cultural Gerontology has emerged as one of the most vibrant elements of writing about age (Twigg, J., & Martin, W. (Eds.) (2015). The Routledge handbook of cultural gerontology. London: Routledge). Reflecting the wider Cultural Turn, it has expanded the field of gerontology beyond all recognition. No longer confined to frailty, or the dominance of medical and social welfare perspectives, cultural gerontology addresses the nature and experience of later years in the widest sense. In this review, we will explore how the Cultural Turn, which occurred across the social sciences and humanities in the late 20th century, came to influence age studies. We will analyze the impulses that led to the emergence of the field and the forces that have inhibited or delayed its development. We will explore how cultural gerontology has recast aging studies, widening its theoretical and substantive scope, taking it into new territory intellectually and politically, presenting this in terms of 4 broad themes that characterize the work: subjectivity and identity; the body and embodiment; representation and the visual; and time and space. Finally, we will briefly address whether there are problems in the approach. PMID:24974388

  11. Culturing larvae of marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Strathmann, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    Larvae of marine invertebrates cultured in the laboratory experience conditions that they do not encounter in nature, but development and survival to metamorphic competence can be obtained in such cultures. This protocol emphasizes simple methods suitable for a wide variety of larvae. Culturing larvae requires seawater of adequate quality and temperature within the tolerated range. Beyond that, feeding larvae require appropriate food, but a few kinds of algae and animals are sufficient as food for diverse larvae. Nontoxic materials include glass, many plastics, hot-melt glue, and some solvents, once evaporated. Cleaners that do not leave toxic residues after rinsing include dilute hydrochloric or acetic acid, sodium hypochlorite (commercial bleach), and ethanol. Materials that can leave toxic residues, such as formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, detergents, and hand lotions, should be avoided, especially with batch cultures that lack continuously renewed water. Reverse filtration can be used to change water gently at varying frequencies, depending on temperature and the kinds of food that are provided. Bacterial growth can be limited by antibiotics, but antibiotics are often unnecessary. Survival and growth are increased by low concentrations of larvae and stirring of large or dense cultures. One method of stirring large numbers of containers is a rack of motor-driven paddles. Most of the methods and materials are inexpensive and portable. If necessary, a room within a few hours of the sea could be temporarily equipped for larval culture. PMID:24567204

  12. Molluscan cells in culture: primary cell cultures and cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, T. P.; Bickham, U.; Bayne, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro cell culture systems from molluscs have significantly contributed to our basic understanding of complex physiological processes occurring within or between tissue-specific cells, yielding information unattainable using intact animal models. In vitro cultures of neuronal cells from gastropods show how simplified cell models can inform our understanding of complex networks in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures from marine and freshwater bivalve and gastropod species are used as biomonitors for environmental contaminants, as models for gene transfer technologies, and for studies of innate immunity and neoplastic disease. Despite efforts to isolate proliferative cell lines from molluscs, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 embryonic (Bge) cell line is the only existing cell line originating from any molluscan species. Taking an organ systems approach, this review summarizes efforts to establish molluscan cell cultures and describes the varied applications of primary cell cultures in research. Because of the unique status of the Bge cell line, an account is presented of the establishment of this cell line, and of how these cells have contributed to our understanding of snail host-parasite interactions. Finally, we detail the difficulties commonly encountered in efforts to establish cell lines from molluscs and discuss how these difficulties might be overcome. PMID:24198436

  13. Relaciones Culturales de Mexico: Convenios de Intercambio Cultural y Asistencia Tecnica (Mexican Cultural Relations: Cultural Exchange and Technical Assistance Agreements).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    n10 p43-83, 1971

    1971-01-01

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1500 words) describing briefly Mexico's cultural relations with 23 nations with which she has cultural exchange agreements. The reasons for cultural exchange are stated, such as the belief that cultural relations promote good relations among nations. The agreements concluded between…

  14. Organizational Culture and Effectiveness in Higher Education: A Test of the "Culture Type" and "Strong Culture" Hypotheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, John C.; St. John, Edward P.

    1996-01-01

    The relative merits of two prominent lines of inquiry into the linkage between organizational culture and effectiveness (culture type and strong culture hypotheses) were studied with 334 colleges and universities. Findings support both approaches and suggest that alternative culture types are differentially effective on different performance…

  15. Control, culture and chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Bates, M S; Rankin-Hill, L

    1994-09-01

    In the past decade, the literature on chronic pain shows an increasing interest in the relationship between patients' locus of control (LOC) beliefs and their responses to the chronic pain experience [1-5]. However, few of these studies assess the relationships between ethnic or cultural background and LOC style in the chronic pain experience--despite research suggesting that culture affects chronic pain responses [6-8]. This report of two quantitative and qualitative research projects among chronic pain sufferers in New England and in Puerto Rico, shows significant relationships between patients' LOC style and variations in reported chronic pain intensity and responses. Our studies also demonstrate a relationship between LOC style and ethnic or cultural background and an interaction between LOC style and cultural identity in variations in reported pain intensity. In addition, we found intra-ethnic/cultural-group variations in the pain experience related to LOC style. In these chronic pain populations, the qualitative data further suggests that LOC style may not be a permanent, unchanging characteristic or cognitive interpretation. Instead, an individual's LOC style may be altered by the chronic pain experience and such a style may change at various stages in the chronic pain 'career'. These studies also show that in many ethnic/cultural groups, an increased sense of control may contribute to an increased ability to cope successfully with the chronic pain experience. In light of these findings, we suggest that it may be possible to alter a patient's sense of control through the development of deliberate culturally appropriate and personally relevant programs designed to help the patients establish a sense of control over their lives and their pain. PMID:7973863

  16. Organizational culture, safety culture, and safety performance at research facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, William S.

    2000-07-30

    Organizational culture surveys of research facilities conducted several years ago and archival occupational injury reports were used to determine whether differences in safety performance are related to general organizational factors or to ''safety culture'' as reflected in specific safety-related dimensions. From among the organizations surveyed, a pair of facilities was chosen that were similar in size and scientific mission while differing on indices of work-related injuries. There were reliable differences in organizational style between the facilities, especially among workers in environment, safety, and health functions; differences between the facilities (and among job categories) on the safety scale were more modest and less regular.

  17. Building an ethical organizational culture.

    PubMed

    Nelson, William A; Taylor, Emily; Walsh, Thom

    2014-01-01

    The success of a health care institution-as defined by delivering high-quality, high-value care, positive patient outcomes, and financial solvency-is inextricably tied to the culture within that organization. The ability to achieve and sustain alignment between its mission, values, and everyday practices defines a positive organizational culture. An institution that has a diminished organizational culture, reflected in the failure to consistently align management and clinical decisions and practices with its mission and values, will struggle. The presence of misalignment or of ethics gaps affects the quality of care being delivered, the morale of the staff, and the organization's image in the community. Transforming an organizational culture will provide a foundation for success and a framework for daily ethics-grounded operations in any organization. However, building an ethics-grounded organization is a challenging process requiring strong organization leadership and planning. Using a case study, the authors provide a multiyear, continuous step-by-step strategy consisting of identifying ethics culture gaps, establishing an ethics taskforce, clarifying and prioritizing the problems, developing strategy for change, implementing the strategy, and evaluating outcomes. This process will assist organizations in aligning its actions with its mission and values, to find success on all fronts. PMID:24776835

  18. Culturing conceptions: From first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Lee, Yew Jin; Hwang, Sungwon

    2008-07-01

    Over the past three decades, science educators have accumulated a vast amount of information on conceptions--variously defined as beliefs, ontologies, cognitive structures, mental models, or frameworks--that generally (at least initially) have been derived from interviews about certain topics. During the same time period, cultural studies has emerged as a field in which everyday social practices are interrogated with the objective to understand culture in all its complexity. Science educators have however yet to ask themselves what it would mean to consider the possession of conceptions as well as conceptual change from the perspective of cultural studies. The purpose of this article is thus to articulate in and through the analysis of an interview about natural phenomenon the first principles of such a cultural approach to scientific conceptions. Our bottom-up approach in fact leads us to develop the kind of analyses and theories that have become widespread in cultural studies. This promises to generate less presupposing and more parsimonious explanations of this core issue within science education than if conceptions are supposed to be structures inhabiting the human mind.

  19. Sexual Hookup Culture: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Justin R.; Reiber, Chris; Massey, Sean G.; Merriwether, Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    “Hookups,” or uncommitted sexual encounters, are becoming progressively more engrained in popular culture, reflecting both evolved sexual predilections and changing social and sexual scripts. Hook-up activities may include a wide range of sexual behaviors, such as kissing, oral sex, and penetrative intercourse. However, these encounters often transpire without any promise of, or desire for, a more traditional romantic relationship. A review of the literature suggests that these encounters are becoming increasingly normative among adolescents and young adults in North America, representing a marked shift in openness and acceptance of uncommitted sex. We reviewed the current literature on sexual hookups and considered the multiple forces influencing hookup culture, using examples from popular culture to place hooking up in context. We argue that contemporary hookup culture is best understood as the convergence of evolutionary and social forces during the developmental period of emerging adulthood. We suggest that researchers must consider both evolutionary mechanisms and social processes, and be considerate of the contemporary popular cultural climate in which hookups occur, in order to provide a comprehensive and synergistic biopsychosocial view of “casual sex” among emerging adults today. PMID:23559846

  20. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  1. Algal culture studies for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radmer, R.; Behrens, P.; Arnett, K.; Gladue, R.; Cox, J.; Lieberman, D.

    1987-01-01

    Microalgae are well-suited as a component of a Closed Environmental Life Support System (CELSS), since they can couple the closely related functions of food production and atmospheric regeneration. The objective was to provide a basis for predicting the response of CELSS algal cultures, and thus the food supply and air regeneration system, to changes in the culture parameters. Scenedesmus growth was measured as a function of light intensity, and the spectral dependence of light absorption by the algae as well as algal respiration in the light were determined as a function of cell concentration. These results were used to test and confirm a mathematical model that describes the productivity of an algal culture in terms of the competing processes of photosynthesis and respiration. The relationship of algal productivity to cell concentration was determined at different carbon dioxide concentrations, temperatures, and light intensities. The maximum productivity achieved by an air-grown culture was found to be within 10% of the computed maximum productivity, indicating that CO2 was very efficiently removed from the gas stream by the algal culture. Measurements of biomass productivity as a function of cell concentration at different light intensities indicated that both the productivity and efficiency of light utilization were greater at higher light intensities.

  2. Culturalizing Achievement Goal Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zusho, Akane; Clayton, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article is primarily designed to provide a cultural analysis of the literature on achievement goals. First, an overview of the four dominant approaches to the study of culture--namely, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology, indigenous psychology, and psychological anthropology--is offered. Second, we analyze the extant body of…

  3. 21 CFR 131.112 - Cultured milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cultured milk. 131.112 Section 131.112 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.112 Cultured milk. (a) Description. Cultured milk is the food produced by culturing one or more of the optional dairy...

  4. 21 CFR 131.112 - Cultured milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cultured milk. 131.112 Section 131.112 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.112 Cultured milk. (a) Description. Cultured milk is the food produced by culturing one or more of the optional dairy...

  5. 21 CFR 131.112 - Cultured milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cultured milk. 131.112 Section 131.112 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.112 Cultured milk. (a) Description. Cultured milk is the food produced by culturing one or more of the optional dairy...

  6. Globalized E-Learning Cultural Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Andrea, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Globalized E-Learning Cultural Challenges" explores the issues educators, administrators, and instructional designers face when transferring knowledge and skills to other cultures through e-learning. Most e-learning courses have been designed in Western cultures, but the largest and fastest-growing consumer groups live in Eastern cultures.…

  7. Understanding Grief within a Cultural Context

    MedlinePlus

    ... their loved ones who are coping with loss. Culture and the meaning of death Every culture has its own worldview. It has a core ... the same religion, religious beliefs significantly shape the culture's worldview. Each culture's worldview includes beliefs about the ...

  8. Political Culture as Context for Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter; Schwandt, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    One way to understand the context of evaluation is in terms of its interaction with political culture. That culture includes citizens' views of the role of government and of evaluation and the history of the polity. This chapter illustrates the relationship of political culture and evaluation by means of two accounts of Danish political culture.…

  9. Social Studies: Selected Cultures. Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Marshall R.

    This revised teachers guide attempts to facilitate the study of selected cultures through a conceptual approach and multimedia instruction in a spiral curriculum. There are six units: 1) Cultures and Archaeology --cultural factors, cultural study, artifacts, fossils, archaeological sites and evidence; 2) Food Gathering Complex --life styles,…

  10. The Cultural Content of Business Spanish Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Christine Uber; Uber, David

    A study examined eight business Spanish textbooks for cultural content by looking at commonly appearing cultural topics and themes, presentation of cultural information, activities and techniques used to promote cultural understanding, and incorporation of authentic materials. The texts were evenly divided among beginning, intermediate, and…

  11. Culture and Influence in Multisite Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkhart, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the influence of multisite evaluation requires careful consideration of cultural context. The author illustrates dimensions of influence and culture with excerpts from four National Science Foundation evaluation case studies and summarizes what influence teaches everyone about culture and what culture teaches everyone about…

  12. Cultural Framing: Foreign Correspondents and Their Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starck, Kenneth; Villanueva, Estela

    With the notion of cultural framing as a theoretical backdrop, a study examined the role of culture in the work of foreign correspondents. The aim was to explore cultural aspects of international news reporting that may suggest avenues for more systematic inquiry into the role of culture in the work of the foreign correspondent. Of 75 examined…

  13. Is There Cultural Safety in Australian Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochecouste, Judith; Oliver, Rhonda; Bennell, Debra

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the cultural safety offered to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students within their university environments. In the context of this paper, cultural safety includes cultural competency, as recently subscribed by Universities Australia, and "extends beyond (to) cultural awareness and cultural…

  14. Culture: The Missing Link to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Nathan; Howard, Kathleen; Pearson, Carl

    2013-01-01

    A high functioning school and district culture is an essential underpinning to all improvement efforts. Yet school and district culture can be difficult to assess. Culture is the cornerstone of all good districts and schools. It is the foundation for all school improvement efforts. As one looks deeper into the culture of a school or district, one…

  15. Application of Tissue Culture in Ornamental Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant tissue culture can be broadly defined as the culture of plant cells, tissues, or organs under sterile or aseptic conditions. To most growers, micropropagation is the term that perhaps best describes plant tissue culture. However, plant tissue culture plays an important role through its many ap...

  16. Going to Teach in Prisons: Culture Shock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Randall

    2005-01-01

    Novice prison teachers experience confusion and disorientation--culture shock--when they go to teach in prison because teaching and prison cultures collide. The stages of acculturation associated with culture shock are predictable and so are the identities and experiences of teachers who are positioned by the cultural dynamics of prison teaching.…

  17. Culture and Social Psychology: Converging Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimaggio, Paul; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2010-01-01

    Views of culture in psychology and sociology have converged markedly in the past two decades. Both have rejected what Adams and Markus (2004) refer to as the "entity" conception of culture--the view that culture is coherent, stable, and located in the heads of collectivities' members--in favor of more supple and dynamic constructs. Culture, in…

  18. Culturing and Using Protozoans in the Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummer, Paul J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Provides instructions for teachers and students to culture protozoans for use in science laboratories. Sections include setting up a culture area, basic culture media, amoeba culture technique, powdered milk-wheat-rice medium, alfalfa medium, and uses of the protozoa in the laboratory. (PR)

  19. The Cultural Context of Infant Caregiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhavnagri, Navaz Peshotan; Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Describes the significance of culture in infant care. Questions the universality of child development theory and research findings. Discusses cultural issues related to sleeping routines, including co-sleeping arrangements, the role of cultural elders or expert specialists, consequences of co-sleeping, and using an evolutionary, cross-cultural,…

  20. Research into Practice: Cultural and Intercultural Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Will

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the role of cultural awareness (CA) and intercultural awareness (ICA) in classroom theory and practice. CA and ICA can be roughly characterised as an awareness of the role of culture in communication with CA focused on national cultures and ICA on more dynamic and flexible relationships between languages and cultures. There…