These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Fruit Juice Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry challenge, learners work to figure out which of four juices are real, and which is just food coloring and sugar. Learners add vinegar (an acid) and washing soda solution (a base) to grape juice, cranberry juice, blueberry juice, and a fake juice mixture. The real juices will change color as an acid or base is added, while the fake will not. Background information briefly discusses how the colored chemicals in fruits are often themselves weak acids and bases, and how many plants have been used as sources of acid/base indicators. This activity requires adult supervision.

Sciencenter

2014-08-27

2

Sugar Content, Acidity and Effect on Plaque pH of Fruit Juices, Fruit Drinks, Carbonated Beverages and Sport Drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of fructose, glucose and sucrose, the pH and the titratable amount of acid were analyzed in the following groups of soft drinks (8–11 samples per group): (1) fruit juices, (2) fruit drinks, (3) carbonated beverages and (4) sport drinks. Moreover, the effect of representative products on pH changes of dental plaque was studied in two groups of teenagers

D. Birkhed

1984-01-01

3

The Intehaction of Aqueous Solutions of Chlorine with Malic Acid, Tartaric Acid, and Various Fruit Juices: A Source of Mutagens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions of aqueous solutions of chlorine with some fruit acids (citric acid, DL-malic acid, arid L-tartaric acid) at different pH values were studied. Diethyl ether extraction followed by GC\\/MS analysis indicated that a number of mutagens (certain chlorinated propanones and chloral hydrate) are present as major products in some of these samples. A number of fruit juices (orange, grape,

Tak-Lung Chang; Robert P. Streicher; Hans Zimmer; J. W. Munch

1988-01-01

4

Utilization of fluorogenic assay for rapid detection of Escherichia coli in acidic fruit juice.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate interference by acids commonly found in fruit juice in Escherichia coli assays involving the use of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) as a fluorogenic substrate for enzyme reaction. Fluorescence intensity was negatively correlated (P < 0.001) with the volume of fresh citrus juice tested by the lauryl tryptose broth (LST)-MUG assay, and the permissible sample sizes were limited to 0.3 and 0.5 ml for fresh citrus juices with pHs of 3.3 and 3.9, respectively. In addition, false-negative results were visually observed under UV light when the E*Colite assay was used to test large volumes (5 to 10 ml per test) of fresh citrus juice or when the test broth used for the LST-MUG assay was supplemented with citric, malic, or tartaric acid at 2 to 4 g/liter. These results suggest that the size and pH of acidic samples should be controlled in MUG-based fluorogenic assays. The inhibitory effect on fluorescence was due to high acidity, which reduces fluorescence from 4-methylumbelliferone. Buffering improved the assays. When sodium bicarbonate was incorporated in the enrichment broth at 10 g/liter, the permissible sample sizes for fresh grapefruit juice (pH 3.1) increased from 0.3 to 1 ml for the LST-MUG (with 9.9 ml of broth) assay and from 3 to 10 ml for the E*Colite (with 99 ml of broth) assay. PMID:12495014

Pao, Steven; Davis, Craig L; Friedrich, Loretta M; Parish, Mickey E

2002-12-01

5

Discrimination of fresh fruit juices by a fluorescent sensor array for carboxylic acids based on molecularly imprinted titania.  

PubMed

Design of chemical sensor arrays that can discriminate real-world samples has been highly attractive in recent years. Herein a fluorescent indicator-displacement sensor array for discrimination of fresh fruit juices was developed. By coupling the unique high affinity of titania to electron-donating anions and the cross-reactivity of molecularly imprinted materials to structurally similar species, a small array was fabricated using only one rhodamine-based fluorescent dye and three synthesized materials. Citric, malic, succinic and tartaric acids were chosen as indices. The recognition mechanism was investigated by spectrofluorimetric titration using a non-linear Langmuir-type adsorption model. The proposed method was applied to discriminate thirteen fruit juices through their carboxylic acid contents. Principal component analysis of the data clearly grouped the thirteen juices with the first principal component owning 98.2% of the total variation. The comparison of the sensor array with HPLC determination of the carboxylic acids was finally made. PMID:25038646

Tan, Jin; Li, Rong; Jiang, Zi-Tao

2014-12-15

6

21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...percent and more than 0 percent fruit or vegetable juice, the common or usual...juice in a blend of two other fruit juices.”) (d) In...modification (e.g., “acid-reduced cranberry juice...the juice, then the source fruits or vegetables from which...

2012-04-01

7

21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...percent and more than 0 percent fruit or vegetable juice, the common or usual...juice in a blend of two other fruit juices.”) (d) In...modification (e.g., “acid-reduced cranberry juice...the juice, then the source fruits or vegetables from which...

2013-04-01

8

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or by the water infusion of the dried fruit. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of fruit juice in this...

2010-04-01

9

HIGHLY SELECTIVE FLOW-INJECTION SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF ASCORBIC ACID IN FRUIT JUICES AND PHARMACEUTICALS USING PYROGALLOL RED-IODATE SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbic acid present in pharmaceuticals and fruit juice was rapidly determined by the spectrophotometric method in association with flow injection analysis. The method is based on the inhibitory effect of ascorbic acid on the oxidation of pyrogallol red by iodate in sulfuric acid media. The calibration graph is linear in the range of 2.0 × 10 M up to 1.0 ×

Ali A. Ensafi; B. Rezaei; M. Beglari

2002-01-01

10

The colligative properties of fruit juices by photopyroelectric calorimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photopyroelectric method was used to study the depression of freezing point in juices prepared from selected apple and orange juice concentrates. By using the models for real solutions, the effective molecular weight of the dissolved solids was obtained. The acids concentration in the fruit juice is reflected both in the equivalent molecular weight (by lowering it) and in the interaction coefficients b and C. Using the data for the molecular weight and the characteristic coefficients, prediction curves for the samples investigated can be used in practice. Freezing point depression can also be used as an indicator of the degree of spoilage of fruit juices.

Frandas, A.; Surducan, V.; Nagy, G.; Bicanic, D.

1999-03-01

11

Vinamilk: Fruit Juice for Kids in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case starts as brand manager Mr Nguyen Trong Tan, sets out to launch a new line of fruit juice for children in Vietnam. Vinamilk, the largest diary company in Vietnam, had identified this as a potential market and was interested in launching the new line under their minor fruit juice product line. The company, while relatively new to the

Adel Fawzi DIMIAN; Kevin Sproule

2012-01-01

12

Thermal death rate of ascospores of Neosartorya fischeri ATCC 200957 in the presence of organic acids and preservatives in fruit juices.  

PubMed

Heat-resistant molds, including Neosartorya fischeri, are known to spoil thermally processed fruit products. The control measures required for such problems must not cause an appreciable loss of the organoleptic qualities of the final products. In the present study we determined the thermal death rates of ascospores of N. fischeri ATCC 200957 in fruit juices containing organic acids and preservatives. The ascospores were able to survive for more than 6 h of heating at 75 degrees C, 5 h at 80 degrees C, and 3 to 4 h at 85 degrees C in mango or grape juice. Of the four organic acids tested, citric acid exhibited the maximal destruction of ascospores in mango juice at 85 degrees C (1/k = 27.22 min), and tartaric acid the least (1/k = 61.73 min). The effect of common preservatives on the thermal death rates of ascospores at .85 degrees C in mango and grape juices was studied. Almost similar effects on thermal inactivation of ascospores were noted when potassium sorbate (1/k = 29.38 min) or sodium benzoate (1/k = 27.64 min) or the combination of both (1/k = 27.53 min) was used in mango juice. In grape juice, potassium sorbate (1/k = 25.07 min) was more effective than sodium benzoate (1/k = 50.08 min) or the combination of both (1/k = 40.79 min) in inactivation of ascospores of the mold. The thermal death rate (1/k) values in mango and grape juices in the absence of any preservative were 63.51 and 69.27 min respectively. PMID:9798155

Rajashekhara, E; Suresh, E R; Ethiraj, S

1998-10-01

13

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...as safe and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Fruit juice may be safely used for the coloring of foods generally, in amounts consistent with good...

2011-04-01

14

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

...as safe and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Fruit juice may be safely used for the coloring of foods generally, in amounts consistent with good...

2014-04-01

15

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...as safe and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Fruit juice may be safely used for the coloring of foods generally, in amounts consistent with good...

2012-04-01

16

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...as safe and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Fruit juice may be safely used for the coloring of foods generally, in amounts consistent with good...

2013-04-01

17

Bolus consumption of a specifically designed fruit juice rich in anthocyanins and ascorbic acid did not influence markers of antioxidative defense in healthy humans.  

PubMed

Exotic fruits such as açai, camu-camu, and blackberries rich in natural antioxidants (ascorbic acid, anthocyanins) are marketed as "functional" foods supporting a pro-/antioxidant balance. Confirming data from human studies are lacking. Within a randomized controlled crossover trial, 12 healthy nonsmokers ingested 400 mL of a blended juice of these fruits or a sugar solution (control). Blood was drawn before and afterward to determine antioxidants in plasma, markers of antioxidant capacity [trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity, total oxidant scavenging capacity (TOSC)] and oxidative stress [isoprostane, DNA strand breaks in leukocytes in vivo], and their resistance versus H?O?-induced strand breaks. Compared with sugar solution, juice consumption increased plasma ascorbic acid and maintained TOSC and partly Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity (both P values < 0.05). Strand breaks in vivo increased after ingestion of both beverages (P < 0.001), probably due to postprandial and/or circadian effects. This anthocyanin-rich fruit juice may stabilize the pro-/antioxidant balance in healthy nonsmokers without affecting markers of oxidative stress. PMID:23072538

Ellinger, Sabine; Gordon, André; Kürten, Mira; Jungfer, Elvira; Zimmermann, Benno F; Zur, Berndt; Ellinger, Jörg; Marx, Friedhelm; Stehle, Peter

2012-11-14

18

Acute oxalate nephropathy due to 'Averrhoa bilimbi' fruit juice ingestion.  

PubMed

Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi) is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF) by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON) due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patients from five hospitals in the State of Kerala who developed ARF after intake of I. puli fruit juice. Seven patients needed hemodialysis whereas the other three improved with conservative management. PMID:23960349

Bakul, G; Unni, V N; Seethaleksmy, N V; Mathew, A; Rajesh, R; Kurien, G; Rajesh, J; Jayaraj, P M; Kishore, D S; Jose, P P

2013-07-01

19

Acute oxalate nephropathy due to ‘Averrhoa bilimbi’ fruit juice ingestion  

PubMed Central

Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi) is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF) by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON) due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patients from five hospitals in the State of Kerala who developed ARF after intake of I. puli fruit juice. Seven patients needed hemodialysis whereas the other three improved with conservative management. PMID:23960349

Bakul, G.; Unni, V. N.; Seethaleksmy, N. V.; Mathew, A.; Rajesh, R.; Kurien, G.; Rajesh, J.; Jayaraj, P. M.; Kishore, D. S.; Jose, P. P.

2013-01-01

20

Dissolvable layered double hydroxide coated magnetic nanoparticles for extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of phenolic acids in fruit juices.  

PubMed

A magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide coated on magnetic nanoparticles was synthesized and used as a sorbent to extract some phenolic acids including p-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid from fruit juices. After extraction, the elution step was performed through dissolving double hydroxide layers containing the analytes by changing the solution pH. The extracted phenolic acids were separated and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection. Experimental parameters such as sorbent amount, solution pH, desorption solvent volume and extraction time were studied and optimized. The linearity range of the method was between 2 and 500?gL(-1) with the determination coefficient (r(2)) higher than 0.991. Relative standard deviations for intra- and inter-day precision for the analytes at 100?gL(-1) were in the range of 4.3-9.2% and 4.9-8.6%, respectively. Batch-to-batch reproducibility at 100?gL(-1) concentration level was in the range of 7.8-11% (n=3). The limits of detection were between 0.44 and 1.3?gL(-1). Relative recoveries higher than 81% with RSDs in the range of 4.2-9.7% were obtained in the analysis of fruit juice samples. PMID:25260344

Saraji, Mohammad; Ghani, Milad

2014-10-31

21

Fruit Juice Intake Is Not Related to Children's Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Excessive fruit juice intake (>12 ounces\\/day) has been reported to be associated with short stature and obesity in preschool children. Objective. To confirm whether excess fruit juice in- take was associated with short stature and obesity in preschool children, we assessed growth parameters and fruit juice intake in 105 white children, ages 24 to 36 months. Methodology. Mothers were

Jean D. Skinner; Betty Ruth Carruth; James Moran III; Kelly Houck; Frances Coletta

1999-01-01

22

Emerging preservation techniques for controlling spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in fruit juices.  

PubMed

Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed. PMID:25332721

Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

2014-01-01

23

Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices  

PubMed Central

Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed. PMID:25332721

Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

2014-01-01

24

A quick method for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid and sorbic acid in fruit juices by capillary zone electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of quickly determining ascorbic acid and sorbic acid by capillary zone electrophoresis with ultraviolet detection was developed. The choice of background electrolyte, wavelength, injection time and applied voltage were discussed. Ascorbic acid and sorbic acid were well separated in 80mmolL?1 boric acid–5mmolL?1borax (pH = 8.0) in 5min at the detecting wavelength of 270nm. Under the optimum condition, the

Yajun Tang; Mingjia Wu

2005-01-01

25

Acid adaptation and temperature effect on the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in acidic fruit juice and lactic fermented milk product  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, two strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7, (ATCC 43889 and ATCC 43895) were acid adapted at pH 5.0 in tryptic soy broth (TSB) for 4 h. Commercial products of mango juice (pH 3.2), asparagus juice (pH 3.6), Yakult—a diluted milk fermented drink (pH 3.6), and low-fat yoghurt (pH 3.9) were inoculated with acid-adapted or nonadapted cells of E.

Cheng Hsin-Yi; Cheng-Chun Chou

2001-01-01

26

Reverse osmosis as a potential technique to improve antioxidant properties of fruit juices used for functional beverages.  

PubMed

Reverse osmosis (RO) as a potential technique to improve the antioxidant properties of cranberry, blueberry and apple juices was evaluated for the formulation of a functional beverage. The effects of temperature (20-40 °C) and trans-membrane pressure (25-35 bars) on physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of fruit juices were evaluated to optimize the operating parameters for each fruit juice. There was no significant effect on any quality parameters of fruit juices under studied operating parameters of RO. However, total soluble solid, total acidity and colour (a(?)) of the concentrated juices increased in proportion to their volumetric concentrations. Antioxidant capacity measured by FRAP assay of concentrated apple, blueberry and cranberry juice was increased by 40%, 34%, and 30%, respectively. LDL oxidation inhibition by concentrated blueberry and cranberry juice was increased up to 41% and 45%, respectively. The results suggest that RO can be used for enhancing the health promoting properties of fruit juices. PMID:24262566

Gunathilake, K D P P; Yu, Li Juan; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

2014-04-01

27

Characterization of juice in fruits of different Chaenomeles species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The juice in fruits of 21 genotypes of Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica), 1 genotype of Chinese quince (C. cathayensis), 1 genotype of flowering quince (C. speciosa) and 1 genotype of a hybrid taxon (C. ×superba), representing plant breeding material, was extracted and characterized. The content of juice in the fruits varied between 41% and 52%, on fresh weight basis. The

J. M. Ros; J. Laencina; P. Hell??n; M. J. Jordán; R. Vila; K. Rumpunen

2004-01-01

28

Effect of alpha-cyclodextrin-cinnamic acid inclusion complexes on populations of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in fruit juices.  

PubMed

Cinnamic acid (CA), a naturally occurring organic acid found in fruits and spices, has antimicrobial activity against spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, but low aqueous solubility limits its use. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of solubility-enhancing alpha-cyclodextrin-CA inclusion complexes against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovars suspended in apple cider or orange juice at two different incubation temperatures (4 and 26 degrees Celsius). Two concentrations (400 and 1,000 mg/liter) of alpha-cyclodextrin-CA inclusion complex were aseptically added to apple cider inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (7 log CFU/ml) and orange juice inoculated with a cocktail of six Salmonella enterica serovars (7 log CFU/ml). Samples were extracted at 0 min, at 2 min, and at 24-h intervals for 7 days, serially diluted in 0.1 % peptone, spread plated in duplicate onto tryptic soy agar, and incubated at 35 degrees Celsius for 24 h. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 in apple cider were significantly reduced (P < or = 0.05) during the 7-day sampling period in all solutions regardless of temperature. Compared with the controls, populations were significantly reduced by the addition of 400 and 1,000 mg/liter inclusion complex, but reductions were not significantly different (P > or = 0.05) between the two treatment groups (400 and 1,000 mg/liter). Salmonella was significantly reduced in all solutions regardless of temperature. There were significant differences between the control and each inclusion complex concentration at 4 and 26 degrees Celsius. Coupled with additional processing steps, alpha-cyclodextrin-CA inclusion complexes may provide an alternative to traditional heat processes. PMID:20051210

Truong, Vy T; Boyer, Renee R; McKinney, Julie M; O'Keefe, Sean F; Williams, Robert C

2010-01-01

29

Influence of fruit and vegetable juices on the endogenous formation of N-nitrosoproline and N-nitrosothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid in humans on controlled diets.  

PubMed

Water, green pepper, pineapple, tomato, strawberry, carrot, and celery juices were made 46 mg/100 ml in ascorbic acid by the addition of distilled water or ascorbate. The ability of each juice to inhibit endogenous formation of N-nitrosoamino acids (NAA) in humans was determined in controlled experiments. Sixteen men consumed a standard diet low in nitrate and ascorbic acid for 18 consecutive days. Nitrate (5.24 mmol) and L-proline (4.35 mmol) were given orally on days 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17 and 18. On days 3 and 18, L-proline was immediately followed by 100 ml distilled water (positive control). On days 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15 and 17, L-proline was immediately followed by 100 ml juice or 46 mg ascorbate in 100 ml distilled water (treatment). Only diet was given in between dosing days to ensure baseline levels of NAA excretion. Urine was collected for 24 h following treatments and analyzed for NAA. Green pepper, pineapple, tomato, strawberry and carrot treatments significantly inhibited N-nitrosoproline (NPRO) formation relative to the positive control. Also, green pepper, pineapple and tomato juices significantly inhibited NPRO formation relative to ascorbic acid alone. Green pepper significantly inhibited N-nitrosothiazolidine-carboxylic acid formation relative to ascorbic acid alone. These data demonstrate that green pepper, tomato, pineapple, strawberry and carrot juice have greater ability to inhibit endogenous nitrosation than would be expected based solely on their ascorbate content. PMID:1473234

Helser, M A; Hotchkiss, J H; Roe, D A

1992-12-01

30

Hydrolysis of terpenyl glycosides in grape juice and other fruit juices: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of monoterpenes on varietal flavour of must and other fruit juices has been reviewed. These compounds were mainly found linked to sugar moieties in grape juice and wines, showing no olfactory characteristics. In this way, analytical techniques developed to study these compounds, in both free or glycosidically forms, are discussed. Mechanisms to liberate terpenes were studied, making a

Sergi Maicas; José Juan Mateo

2005-01-01

31

Stability of enterocin AS-48 in fruit and vegetable juices.  

PubMed

Enterocin AS-48 is a candidate bacteriocin for food biopreservation. Before addressing application of AS-48 to vegetable-based foods, the interaction between AS-48 and vegetable food components and the stability of AS-48 were studied. Enterocin AS-48 had variable interactions with fruit and vegetable juices, with complete, partial, or negligible loss of activity. For some juices, loss of activity was ameliorated by increasing the bacteriocin concentration, diluting the juice, or applying a heat pretreatment. In juices obtained from cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, green beans, celery, and avocado, AS-48 was very stable for the first 24 to 48 h of storage under refrigeration, and decay of activity was markedly influenced by storage temperature. In fresh-made fruit juices (orange, apple, grapefruit, pear, pineapple, and kiwi) and juice mixtures, AS-48 was very stable for at least 15 days at 4 degrees C, and bacteriocin activity was still detectable after 30 days of storage. Gradual and variable loss of activity occurred in juices stored at 15 and 28 degrees C; inactivation was faster at higher temperatures. In commercial fruit juices (orange, apple, peach, and pineapple) stored at 4 degrees C, the bacteriocin was completely stable for up to 120 days, and over 60% of initial activity was still present in juices stored at 15 degrees C for the same period. Commercial fruit juices stored at 28 degrees C for 120 days retained between 31.5% (apple) and 67.71% (peach) of their initial bacteriocin activity. Solutions of AS-48 in sterile distilled water were stable (120 days at 4 to 28 degrees C). Limited loss of activity was observed after mixing AS-48 with some food-grade dyes and thickening agents. Enterocin AS-48 added to lettuce juice incubated at 15 degrees C reduced viable counts of Listeria monocytogenes CECT 4032 and Bacillus cereus LWL1 to below detection limits and markedly reduced viable counts of Staphylococcus aureus CECT 976. PMID:16245711

Grande, Maria J; Lucas, Rosario; Valdivia, Eva; Abriouel, Hikmate; Maqueda, Mercedes; Omar, Nabil Ben; Martínez-Cañamero, Magdalena; Gálvezi, Antonio

2005-10-01

32

Recovery of alicyclobacillus from inhibitory fruit juice concentrates.  

PubMed

Growth of Alicyclobacillus in low-pH fruit juices may result in off-odors and off-flavors due to the production of compounds such as guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol). An important step in preventing Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juices is the screening of incoming ingredients. Many fruit juice concentrates contain compounds that inhibit Alicyclobacillus growth, but beverages produced from the concentrates may not contain sufficient amounts of the active component to prevent spoilage. Therefore, accurate screening of juice concentrates is essential to prevent false-negative test results and product spoilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate isolation methods for detection of Alicyclobacillus in inhibitory juice concentrates. Recovery of Alicyclobacillus spores from inoculated and naturally contaminated concentrates was compared by using pour plate, spread plate, and filtration methods. Pour plates consistently recovered the lowest number of spores from inoculated concentrates. Spread plating was the most effective method used to recover spores from inoculated apple and pomegranate juice concentrates, while filtration resulted in the highest recovery from cranberry concentrate. When tested on naturally contaminated concentrates, the pour plate method failed to detect Alicyclobacillus in many samples. Filtration was much more effective. The filtration method increased the likelihood of detecting Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juice concentrates containing inhibitory compounds. PMID:21819669

McNamara, Christopher J; Wiebe, Deborah; Gomez, Margarita

2011-08-01

33

Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Aronia melanocarpa Fruit Juice in Rats Fed a High-Cholesterol Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aronia melanocrpa fruit juice (AMFJ) used in our experiment was very rich in phenolic substances (709.3 mg gallic acid equivalents\\/100 ml juice).\\u000a Anthocyanins (106.8 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents\\/100 ml juice) were the main flavonoid group. The aim of this study\\u000a was to assess the influence of AMFJ on plasma lipids and lipoprotein profile, and histopathology of liver and aorta in rats\\u000a with dietary-induced hyperlipidemia. AMFJ

S. VALCHEVA-KUZMANOVA; K. KUZMANOV; V. MIHOVA; I. KRASNALIEV; P. BORISOVA; A. BELCHEVA

2007-01-01

34

Reducing childhood obesity by eliminating 100% fruit juice.  

PubMed

The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 presents an opportunity to change the nutritional quality of foods served in low-income childcare centers, including Head Start centers. Excessive fruit juice consumption is associated with increased risk for obesity. Moreover, there is recent scientific evidence that sucrose consumption without the corresponding fiber, as is commonly present in fruit juice, is associated with the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, and obesity. Given the increasing risk of obesity among preschool children, we recommend that the US Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Food Care Program, which manages the meal patterns in childcare centers such as Head Start, promote the elimination of fruit juice in favor of whole fruit for children. PMID:22813423

Wojcicki, Janet M; Heyman, Melvin B

2012-09-01

35

Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to “cellulose-like” EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical “sugar-like“ spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation.

Aleksieva, K. I.; Dimov, K. G.; Yordanov, N. D.

2014-10-01

36

The Presence of Dialkylphosphates in Fresh Fruit Juices: Implication For Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure and Risk Assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to determine whether dialkylphosphates (DAPs) are present in fresh fruit juices, as a result of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides degradation. Fresh conventional and organic fruit (apple and orange) juices were purchased from local grocery stores. DAPs were found in both conventional and organic juices, and the original levels were higher, for both apple and orange juices, in

C. Lu; R. Bravo; L. M. Caltabiano; R. M. Irish; G. Weerasekera; D. B. Barr

2005-01-01

37

Development of an orange juice in-house reference material and its application to guarantee the quality of vitamin C determination in fruits, juices and fruit pulps.  

PubMed

Reference materials are useful for the quality control of analytical procedures and to evaluate the performance of laboratories. There are few and expensive certified reference materials commercially available for vitamin C or ascorbic acid analysis in food matrices. In this study, the preparation and the suitability assessment of an orange juice in-house reference material (RM) for vitamin C analysis in fruits, juices and in fruit pulps is described. This RM was used for the development and full validation of an HPLC method. The results showed excellent linearity (r(2)=0.9995), good accuracy (96.6-97.3%) and precision, as relative standard deviation, ranged from 0.70% to 3.67%. The in-house RM was homogenous and stable at storage conditions (-80°C) during 12 months. According to our results, this in-house RM is an excellent tool to use in quality control and method verification purposes for vitamin C analysis of fruits, juices and fruit pulps matrices. Furthermore, a stabilization solution with perchloric and metaphosphoric acids was developed which prevents degradation of ascorbic acid for a period of 12 months at -80°C. PMID:24518317

Valente, A; Sanches-Silva, A; Albuquerque, T G; Costa, H S

2014-07-01

38

The Flame Spectrometric Determination of Calcium in Fruit Juice by Standard Addition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides procedures to measure the calcium concentration in fruit juice by atomic absorption. Fruit juice is used because: (1) it is an important consumer product; (2) large samples are available; and (3) calcium exists in fruit juice at concentrations that do not require excessive dilution or preconcentration prior to measurement. (JN)

Strohl, Arthur N.

1985-01-01

39

Metabolite profiling of jaboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) and other dark-colored fruit juices.  

PubMed

Many dark-colored fruit juices, rich in anthocyanins, are thought to be important for human health. Joboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) fruits, native to Brazil, have phenolics including anthocyanins and are processed into juice and other products. The phenolic constituents in the fruits of jaboticaba were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Twenty-two compounds were identified or tentatively determined by detailed analysis of their mass spectral fragmentation patterns; 11 compounds including 7 gallotannins, 2 ellagic acid derivatives, syringin, and its glucoside were detected for the first time in the fruit. The compositional differences among the fruit extracts and their commercial products were also compared by principal component analysis; two anthocyanins, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, as well as two depsides, jaboticabin and 2-O-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-2,4,6-trihydroxyphenylacetic acid, present in the fruit extracts were not detected unexpectedly in commercial jaboticaba juice or jam. Therefore, the stability of anthocyanins in jaboticaba fresh fruits and products has been compared directly with that of other dark-colored fruit products made from blueberry and Concord grape, and the same trend of decreasing amounts of anthocyanins was observed in all tested products. The antioxidant activities (DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+)) of jaboticaba fresh fruit extract and commercial samples were also compared. Principal component analysis proved to be a useful way to discern changes between fresh and processed fruits. Jaboticaba is a promising fruit with antioxidant capacity similar to those of other so-called superfruits; however, during processing the levels of some of anthocyanins and other polyphenols decrease significantly, and therefore the capacity of these products to affect human health may vary significantly from that of the fresh fruit. PMID:22809264

Wu, Shi-Biao; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Long, Chunlin; Kennelly, Edward J

2012-08-01

40

1997 Economic Census - Frozen Fruit, Juice, and Vegetable Manufacturing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 39-page report from the Census Bureau gives the economic status of frozen fruit, juice, and vegetable manufacturing in the United States. Seven tables include Produce Statistics 1997 and 1992, Industry Statistics by Employment Size: 1997, and Industry Statistics for Selected States: 1997.

41

Investigating the transport dynamics of anthocyanins from unprocessed fruit and processed fruit juice from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) across intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Anthocyanins can contribute to human health through preventing a variety of diseases. The uptake of these compounds from food and the parameters determining uptake efficiency within the human body are still poorly understood. Here we have employed a Caco-2 cell based system to investigate the transport of key antioxidant food components from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) across the intestinal epithelial barrier. Anthocyanins and (-)-epicatechin were supplied in three contrasting matrices: fruit, processed fruit cherry juice, and polyphenolic fractions obtained by solid-phase extraction. Results show that both compound types behave differently. Fruit or juice matrices display comparable transport across the epithelial cell layer. The juice supplements sucrose and citric acid, which are regularly added to processed foods, have a positive effect on stability and transport. Polyphenolic fractions display a lower transport efficiency, relative to that of the fruit or juice, indicating the importance of food matrix components for intestinal absorption of polyphenols. PMID:24191680

Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra; van der Meer, Ingrid M; Tomassen, Monic M M; Hall, Robert D; Mes, Jurriaan J; Beekwilder, Jules

2013-11-27

42

The Level of Organic Acids in Some Nigerian Fruits and their Effect on Mineral Availability in Composite Diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pH, ascorbic, citric and total organic acid content of some local fruits in Nigeria were determined. The mineral content of the fruits, amaranthus vegetable and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) were also determined. Orange juice had the highest level of ascorbic acid but low in citric acid while lime juice is very rich in citric acid. Pine apple juice

2003-01-01

43

Metabolic Responses of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains during Fermentation and Storage of Vegetable and Fruit Juices  

PubMed Central

Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were grown and stored in cherry (ChJ), pineapple (PJ), carrot (CJ), and tomato (TJ) juices to mimic the chemical composition of the respective matrices. Wheat flour hydrolysate (WFH), whey milk (W), and MRS broth were also used as representatives of other ecosystems. The growth rates and cell densities of L. plantarum strains during fermentation (24 h at 30°C) and storage (21 days at 4°C) differed only in part, being mainly influenced by the matrix. ChJ and PJ were the most stressful juices for growth and survival. Overall, the growth in juices was negatively correlated with the initial concentration of malic acid and carbohydrates. The consumption of malic acid was noticeable for all juices, but mainly during fermentation and storage of ChJ. Decreases of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA)—with the concomitant increase of their respective branched alcohols—and His and increases of Glu and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were the main traits of the catabolism of free amino acids (FAA), which were mainly evident under less acidic conditions (CJ and TJ). The increase of Tyr was found only during storage of ChJ. Some aldehydes (e.g., 3-methyl-butanal) were reduced to the corresponding alcohols (e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol). After both fermentation and storage, acetic acid increased in all fermented juices, which implied the activation of the acetate kinase route. Diacetyl was the ketone found at the highest level, and butyric acid increased in almost all fermented juices. Data were processed through multidimensional statistical analyses. Except for CJ, the juices (mainly ChJ) seemed to induce specific metabolic traits, which differed in part among the strains. This study provided more in-depth knowledge on the metabolic mechanisms of growth and maintenance of L. plantarum in vegetable and fruit habitats, which also provided helpful information to select the most suitable starters for fermentation of targeted matrices. PMID:24487533

Filannino, P.; Cardinali, G.; Rizzello, C. G.; Buchin, S.; De Angelis, M.; Gobbetti, M.

2014-01-01

44

Metabolic responses of Lactobacillus plantarum strains during fermentation and storage of vegetable and fruit juices.  

PubMed

Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were grown and stored in cherry (ChJ), pineapple (PJ), carrot (CJ), and tomato (TJ) juices to mimic the chemical composition of the respective matrices. Wheat flour hydrolysate (WFH), whey milk (W), and MRS broth were also used as representatives of other ecosystems. The growth rates and cell densities of L. plantarum strains during fermentation (24 h at 30°C) and storage (21 days at 4°C) differed only in part, being mainly influenced by the matrix. ChJ and PJ were the most stressful juices for growth and survival. Overall, the growth in juices was negatively correlated with the initial concentration of malic acid and carbohydrates. The consumption of malic acid was noticeable for all juices, but mainly during fermentation and storage of ChJ. Decreases of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA)-with the concomitant increase of their respective branched alcohols-and His and increases of Glu and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were the main traits of the catabolism of free amino acids (FAA), which were mainly evident under less acidic conditions (CJ and TJ). The increase of Tyr was found only during storage of ChJ. Some aldehydes (e.g., 3-methyl-butanal) were reduced to the corresponding alcohols (e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol). After both fermentation and storage, acetic acid increased in all fermented juices, which implied the activation of the acetate kinase route. Diacetyl was the ketone found at the highest level, and butyric acid increased in almost all fermented juices. Data were processed through multidimensional statistical analyses. Except for CJ, the juices (mainly ChJ) seemed to induce specific metabolic traits, which differed in part among the strains. This study provided more in-depth knowledge on the metabolic mechanisms of growth and maintenance of L. plantarum in vegetable and fruit habitats, which also provided helpful information to select the most suitable starters for fermentation of targeted matrices. PMID:24487533

Filannino, P; Cardinali, G; Rizzello, C G; Buchin, S; De Angelis, M; Gobbetti, M; Di Cagno, R

2014-04-01

45

The ORAC/kcal ratio qualifies nutritional and functional properties of fruit juices, nectars, and fruit drinks.  

PubMed

Fruit beverages are source of antioxidants, but their sugar content plays an important role in the epidemic of obesity. In this study, we considered 32 fruit beverages consumed in Italy (13 fruit juices, 11 nectars, and 8 fruit drinks), which were analyzed for caloric intake, total phenols (TP), ascorbic acid, and antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method). Results showed that the caloric intake was almost completely provided by the sugar content, ranging from 5.5 to 19%. The ORAC/kcal ratio was taken as an indicator of the antioxidant performance of fruit beverages. Fruit juices containing berries, red orange, and goji showed the best performances, together with berries or pears nectars and fruit drinks made with rose hips or tea extracts. The 95% of antioxidant capacity was provided by TP, which showed a significant linear correlation with the net ORAC values. Overall, the results indicate that the ORAC/kcal ratio is a suitable parameter to rank the quality of fruit beverages. PMID:24840207

Ninfali, Paolino; Chiarabini, Andrea; Angelino, Donato

2014-09-01

46

21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...is used as a flavor (e.g., raspberry-flavored apple and pear juice drink). In accordance with...represented juice is not the only juice present (e.g., “Apple blend; apple juice in a blend of two other fruit...

2011-04-01

47

21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...is used as a flavor (e.g., raspberry-flavored apple and pear juice drink). In accordance with...represented juice is not the only juice present (e.g., “Apple blend; apple juice in a blend of two other fruit...

2010-04-01

48

Topographic and radiographic profile assessment of dental erosion. Part II: effect of citrus fruit juices on human dentition.  

PubMed

This study sought to monitor changes in the topography, morphology, and radiographic profiles of human permanent teeth that had been exposed to citrus fruit juices. The effect of long-term exposure was monitored for a prolonged duration of 20 weeks according to set criteria. Topographic and morphologic changes were observed at weekly intervals following challenge by test fluids (orange, lemon, and grapefruit juices) and compared with control fluids (acetic acid and water). The qualitative changes in the specimens' topography and the morphology of citrus fruit juices and control fluids are described as a function of time, in specific details. The digitized radiographic images obtained at four-week intervals were analyzed and the changes were assessed. The results indicated that orange juice specimens demonstrated the mildest changes, while lemon juice specimens displayed the most severe damage to the coronal segments of the teeth. This damage manifested as loss of cusp height, cervical enamel, and coronal radius, as well as reduction of enamel cap height. Of the tested and control fluids, lemon juice displayed the most eros ion, followed by acetic acid, grapefruit juice, orange juice, and water, which had no effect. Continued immersion in the four acidic fluids led to varying degrees of enamel loss progression. PMID:18348369

Bassiouny, Mohamed A; Yang, Jie; Kuroda, Shuntaro

2008-01-01

49

Determination of traces of silicone defoamer in fruit juices by solvent extraction/atomic absorption spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Silicone defoamers are used to control foam during the processing of fruit juices. Residual silicones in fruit juices can be separated from the naturally occurring siliceous materials in fruit products and selectively recovered by solvent extraction, after suitable pretreatment. The recovered silicone is measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Silicone concentrations as low as about 1 ppm can be measured. The juices are accurately spiked for recovery studies by the addition of silicone dispersed in D-sorbitol. PMID:8318853

Gooch, E G

1993-01-01

50

Electron spin resonance measurement of radical scavenging activity of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice  

PubMed Central

Background: The fruits of Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot contain large amounts of phenolic substances, mainly procyanidins, anthocyanins and other flavonoids, and phenolic acids. The ability of phenolic substances to act as antioxidants has been well established. Objective: In this study, we investigated the radical scavenging activity of A. melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ). Materials and Methods: The method used was electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The galvinoxyl free radical was used as a scavenging object. AMFJ was added to the galvinoxyl free radical solution. The measure of the radical scavenging activity was the decrease of signal intensity. Results: AMFJ showed a potent antiradical activity causing a strong and rapid decrease of signal intensity as a function of time and juice concentration. This effect of AMFJ was probably due to the activity of its phenolic constituents. Conclusion: The ESR measurements in this study showed a pronounced radical scavenging effect of AMFJ, an important mechanism of its antioxidant activity. PMID:22701293

Valcheva-Kuzmanova, Stefka; Blagovic, Branka; Valic, Srecko

2012-01-01

51

Fruit and Vegetable Juices and Alzheimer's Disease: The Kame Project  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Growing evidence suggests that oxidative damage caused by the ?-amyloid peptide in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease may be hydrogen peroxide mediated. Many polyphenols, the most abundant dietary antioxidants, possess stronger neuroprotection against hydrogen peroxide than antioxidant vitamins. METHODS We tested whether consumption of fruit and vegetable juices, containing a high concentration of polyphenols, decreases the risk of incident probable Alzheimer’s disease in the Kame Project cohort, a population-based prospective study of 1836 Japanese Americans in King County, Washington, who were dementia-free at baseline (1992–1994) and were followed through 2001. RESULTS After adjustment for potential confounders, the hazard ratio for probable Alzheimer’s disease was 0.24 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09–0.61) comparing subjects who drank juices at least 3 times per week with those who drank less often than once per week with a hazard ratio of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.31–2.29) for those drinking juices 1 to 2 times per week (P for trend < .01). This inverse association tended to be more pronounced among those with an apolipoprotein E?-4 allele and those who were not physically active. Conversely, no association was observed for dietary intake of vitamins E, C, or ?- carotene or tea consumption. CONCLUSIONS Fruit and vegetable juices may play an important role in delaying the onset of Alzheimer’s disease, particularly among those who are at high risk for the disease. These results may lead to a new avenue of inquiry in the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:16945610

Dai, Qi; Borenstein, Amy R.; Wu, Yougui; Jackson, James C.; Larson, Eric B.

2008-01-01

52

A Comparison of Children's Fruit Juice Intake at Ages 48 and 72 Months  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare fruit juice intakes of young children before and after media reports in 1997 that related “excessive” (? 12 oz\\/day) fruit juice intake to short stature and obesity. These reports were based on one research study that has been refuted by a subsequent 1999 study. As part of an on-going longitudinal study of

J. D. Skinner; B. R. Carruth

1999-01-01

53

Lactic acid fermented vegetable juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermented foods are food substrates that are invaded or overgrown by edible microorganisms whose en- zymes, particularly amylases, proteases and lipases, hy- drolyse polysaccharides, proteins and lipids to non-toxic products with flavours, aromas and textures pleasant and attractive to the human consumer (STEINKRAUS 1997). The lactic acid fermentation of vegetable products, applied as a preservation method for the production of

J. KAROVI?OVÁ; Z. KOHAJDOVÁ

54

Achieving fruit, juice, and vegetable recipe preparation goals influences consumption by 4th grade students  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Including children in food preparation activities has long been recommended as a method to encourage children's consumption, but has not been evaluated. Goal setting is also a common component of behavior change programs. This study assessed the impact of attaining goals to prepare fruit-juice or vegetable recipes on student fruit and vegetable consumption as part of a 10-week fruit

Karen W Cullen; Kathy B Watson; Issa Zakeri; Tom Baranowski; Janice H Baranowski

2007-01-01

55

Biofilm inhibition of spoilage bacteria by argentinean fruit juices with antihypertensive activity.  

PubMed

Argentinean juices have been studied for their antihypertensive activity, the inhibition of bacteria biofilm formation and the effect on the viability of wine yeast. The influence of phenolic compounds on these activities was evaluated. These studies are the first step for the development of a new type of wine that includes grape must supplement with fruit juices with antihypertensive effect. All juices posses a high antihypertensive activity, higher than 50%. Strawberry juices and eureka lemon showed the highest activity, whereas clarified juices posses the lowest activity. All studied juices produce a high inhibition of bacteria biofilm formation, and the strawberry, orange and mandarin varieties not affect the growth or viability of yeast. Our results permit to conclude that it could be possible the use of these juices in a new type of wine or as a source of new antihypertensive agents for pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24372267

Vallejo, Claudia V; Aredes-Fernández, Pedro A; Farías, Marta E; Rodríguez-Vaquero, María J

2013-01-01

56

Influence of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of fruit juices enriched with pine bark extract on intestinal microflora.  

PubMed

The selective antimicrobial effect of fruit juices enriched with pine bark extract (PBE) (0.5 g/L) has been studied before and after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. PBE (a concentrate of water-soluble bioflavonoids, mainly including phenolic compounds) has been proven to have high stability to the digestion process. Pure phenolic compounds such as gallic acid had a high antimicrobial effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, maintaining the lactic acid bacteria population (?100%). Otherwise, E. coli O157:H7 only growth 50% when PBE was added to the culture media, while a slight increase on the growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria was observed after exposition to the bark extract. Fresh fruit juices enriched with PBE showed the highest inhibitory effect on pathogenic intestinal bacterial growth, mainly E. coli and Enterococcus faecalis. The in vitro digestion process reduced the antibacterial effect of juices against most pathogenic bacteria in approximately 10%. However, the beneficial effect of fruit juices enriched with PBE (0.5 g/L) on gut microbiota is still considerable after digestion. PMID:24679746

López-Nicolás, Rubén; González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Frontela-Saseta, Carmen

2014-08-15

57

Role of pomegranate and citrus fruit juices in colon cancer prevention  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer. PMID:24782614

Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko

2014-01-01

58

Nisin based stabilization of novel fruit and vegetable functional juices containing bacterial cellulose at ambient temperature.  

PubMed

The current study reports the preparation and stabilization of novel functional drinks based on fruit and vegetable juices incorporating bacterial cellulose from Acetobacter xylinum. Pineapple, musk melon, carrot, tomato, beet root and a blend juice containing 20 % each of carrot and tomato juice with 60 % beet root juice has been studied. These juices have been stabilized over a storage period of 90 days at 28 °C, by the use of nisin and maintaining a low pH circumventing the need for any chemical preservatives or refrigeration. Instrumental color values have been correlated with the pigment concentrations present in the fresh as well as stored juices. There was 36, 72 and 60 % loss of total carotenoids in the case of carrot, pineapple and musk melon juices respectively while the lycopene content remained unchanged after 90 days of storage. The betanin content decreased 37 % in the case of beetroot juice and 25 % in the case of beetroot juice blended with carrot and tomato juices. Sensory analysis has revealed a clear preference for the beetroot blended mixed juice. PMID:24876660

Jagannath, A; Kumar, Manoranjan; Raju, P S; Batra, H V

2014-06-01

59

Fruit juice inhibition of uptake transport: a new type of food-drug interaction.  

PubMed

A new type of interaction in which fruit juices diminish oral drug bioavailability through inhibition of uptake transport is the focus of this review. The discovery was based on an opposite to anticipated finding when assessing the possibility of grapefruit juice increasing oral fexofenadine bioavailability in humans through inhibition of intestinal MDR1-mediated efflux transport. In follow-up investigations, grapefruit or orange juice at low concentrations potentially and selectively inhibited in vitro OATP1A2-mediated uptake compared with MDR1-caused efflux substrate transport. These juices at high volume dramatically depressed oral fexofenadine bioavailability. Grapefruit was the representative juice to characterize the interaction subsequently. A volume-effect relationship study using a normal juice amount halved average fexofenadine absorption. Individual variability and reproducibility data indicated the clinical interaction involved direct inhibition of intestinal OATP1A2. Naringin was a major causal component suggesting that other flavonoids in fruits and vegetables might also produce the effect. Duration of juice clinical inhibition of fexofenadine absorption lasted more than 2?h but less than 4?h indicating the interaction was avoidable with appropriate interval of time between juice and drug consumption. Grapefruit juice lowered the oral bioavailability of several medications transported by OATP1A2 (acebutolol, celiprolol, fexofenadine, talinolol, L-thyroxine) while orange juice did the same for others (atenolol, celiprolol, ciprofloxacin, fexofenadine). Juice clinical inhibition of OATP2B1 was unresolved while that of OATP1B1 seemed unlikely. The interaction between grapefruit juice and etoposide also seemed relevant. Knowledge of both affected uptake transporter and drug hydrophilicity assisted prediction of the clinical interaction with grapefruit or orange juice. PMID:21039758

Bailey, David G

2010-11-01

60

Rapid determination of main constituents of packed juices by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography: an insight in to commercial fruit drinks.  

PubMed

The present work reports the compositional analysis of thirteen different packed fruit juices using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Vitamin C, organic acids (citric and malic) and sugars (fructose, glucose and sucrose) were separated, analyzed and quantified using different reverse phase methods. A new rapid reverse phase HPLC method was developed for routine analysis of vitamin C in fruit juices. The precision results of the methods showed that the relative standard deviations of the repeatability and reproducibility were <0.05 and <0.1 respectively. Correlation coefficient of the calibration models developed was found to be higher than 0.99 in each case. It has been found that the content of Vitamin C was less variable amongst different varieties involved in the study. It is also observed that in comparison to fresh juices, the packed juices contain lesser amounts of vitamin C. Citric acid was found as the major organic acids present in packed juices while maximum portion of sugars was of sucrose. Comparison of the amount of vitamin C, organic acids and sugars in same fruit juice of different commercial brands is also reported. PMID:24587522

Tyagi, Gunjan; Jangir, Deepak Kumar; Singh, Parul; Mehrotra, Ranjana; Ganesan, R; Gopal, E S R

2014-03-01

61

Interactive neonatal gastrointestinal magnetic resonance imaging using fruit juice as an oral contrast media  

PubMed Central

Background The objective was to evaluate the use of fruit juice with an interactive inversion recovery (IR) MR pulse sequence to visualise the gastrointestinal tract. Methods We investigated the relaxation properties of 12 different natural fruit juices in vitro, to identify which could be used as oral contrast. We then describe our initial experience using an interactive MR pulse sequence to allow optimal visualisation after administering pineapple juice orally, and suppressing pre-existing bowel fluid contents, with variable TI in three adult and one child volunteer. Results Pineapple juice (PJ) had both the shortest T1 (243 ms) and shortest T2 (48 ms) of the fruit juices tested. Optimal signal differentiation between pre-existing bowel contents and oral PJ administration was obtained with TIs of between 900 and 1100 ms. Conclusion The use of an inversion recovery preparation allowed long T1 pre-existing bowel contents to be suppressed whilst the short T1 of fruit juice acts as a positive contrast medium. Pineapple juice could be used as oral contrast agent for neonatal gastrointestinal magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25245815

2014-01-01

62

Integrating Introductory Biology and Chemistry Laboratories: Human Metabolism of Vitamin C and Fruit Juice Analysis: An Example  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This protocol is part of a three and a half week module called the Examination of Vitamin C(ascorbic acid), its Sources, Properties, and Metabolism. it provides anobvious connection between the disciplines of Biology and Chemistry. Presented here are protocolsfor the module components Analysis of Vitamin C in Fruit Juices and Human Metabolism of VitaminC. It includes student outlines, instructor's notes, and suggested questions for laboratory reports.

Elizabeth Godrick (Boston University;); Patricia Samuel (Boston University;)

1997-01-01

63

Sequential injection fluorimetric determination of Sn in juices of canned fruits.  

PubMed

The present work describes the development of a fast and robust sequential injection fluorimetric procedure for the determination of Sn in juices of canned fruits. The developed automatic methodology is based on the complexation of Sn with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (HQSA) to form a fluorimetric product (lambda(exc)=354 nm; lambda(em)=510 nm). The influence of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) on the sensitivity of the fluorimetric determination was evaluated. Linear calibration plots were obtained for Sn concentrations between 1 and 10 mg L(-1), with a detection limit of 0.38 mg L(-1). In each analytical cycle 0.006 mg of HQSA and 0.47 mg of CPB were consumed and 1.5 mL of effluent was generated. The developed methodology was applied to the determination of Sn in juices of canned fruits and the results complied with those furnished by an electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry comparison procedure, with relative deviations lower than 5.2%. The automatic procedure exhibited good precision (R.S.D.<1.4%) and the sampling rate was about 70 determinations per hour. PMID:19615516

Morte, Elane S Boa; Korn, Maria Graças A; Saraiva, M Lúcia M F S; Lima, José L F C; Pinto, Paula C A G

2009-09-15

64

Determination of the total phenolic and anthocyanin contents and antimicrobial activity of Viburnum opulus fruit juice.  

PubMed

Viburnum opulus is a plant with fruits that are rich in biologically active substances, making it valuable to the food and pharmaceutical industries. Here, we present our study of the total phenolic and anthocyanin contents and antimicrobial activity in the fruit juice of six V. opulus L. accessions. The cultivar 'Krasnaya Grozd' was notable for its exceptionally large amount of total phenolics, 1168 mg/100 g, with anthocyanins comprising 3-5 % of the total phenolic content. The evaluation of the antimicrobial properties confirmed that the juice of V. opulus fruits strongly inhibited the growth of a wide range of human pathogenic bacteria, both Gram-negative (Salmonella typhimurium and S. agona) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Lysteria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis) organisms. Conversely, the yeasts Debaryomyces hansenii and Torulaspora delbrueckii showed complete resistance to the fruit juice, whereas a low sensitivity was demonstrated by Trichosporon cutaneum, Kluyveromyces marxianus var. lactis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. cerevisiae 12R, and Candida parapsilosis. PMID:22865031

Cesonien?, Laima; Daubaras, Remigijus; Viškelis, Pranas; Sarkinas, Antanas

2012-09-01

65

Purification and characterisation of an acidic pectin lyase produced by Aspergillus ficuum strain MTCC 7591 suitable for clarification of fruit juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

An acidic pectin lyase (E.C. 4.2.2.10) produced byAspergillus ficuum MTCC 7591 of molecular weight 31.6 kD was purified to apparent homogeneity by ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography.\\u000a Eighty-six fold purification with 60% yield and a specific activity of 7.8 U\\/mg protein was obtained. The Km and calculated turnover number (kcat) of the purified enzyme were found to be 0.60

Sangeeta Yadav; Pramod Kumar Yadav; Dinesh Yadav; Kapil Deo Singh Yadav

2008-01-01

66

Goal Setting is Differentially Related to Change in Fruit, Juice, and Vegetable Consumption Among Fourth-Grade Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of goal attainment in a dietary change program to increase fruit, 100% juice, and vegetable consumption was assessed among fourth-grade students. At each session, the students were given goals related to increasing fruit, juice, and vegetable consumption. Baseline consumption and postconsumption were assessed with up to 4 days of computerized dietary recalls. Analyses included regression models predicting postconsumption

Karen Weber Cullen; Issa Zakeri; Erin W. Pryor; Tom Baranowski; Janice Baranowski; Kathy Watson

2004-01-01

67

Can pure fruit and vegetable juices protect against cancer and cardiovascular disease too? A review of the evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

While it is widely accepted that fruit and vegetables (F&V) lower the risk of cancer, and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the role of pure fruit and vegetable (PFV) juices is often downplayed. This review poses two questions: Are the protective benefits of F&V dependent upon constituents lacking in PFV juices (e.g. fibre)? Do PFV juices impact on disease risk when considered

Carrie H. S. Ruxton; Elaine J. Gardner; Drew Walker

2006-01-01

68

Production of D-lactic acid from sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice by Lactobacillus delbrueckii.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus delbrueckii was grown on sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice in batch fermentation at pH 6 and at 40 degrees C. After 72 h, the lactic acid from 13% (w/v) sugarcane molasses (119 g total sugar l(-1)) and sugarcane juice (133 g total sugar l(-1)) was 107 g l(-1) and 120 g l(-1), respectively. With 10% (w/v) sugar beet juice (105 g total sugar l(-1)), 84 g lactic acid l(-1) was produced. The optical purities of D: -lactic acid from the feedstocks ranged from 97.2 to 98.3%. PMID:17541505

Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Tokiwa, Yutaka

2007-09-01

69

Fruit Juice (Orange, Pineapple, Cranberry, Apple and Grapefruit) 1.20  

E-print Network

Beverage Selection Fruit Juice (Orange, Pineapple, Cranberry, Apple and Grapefruit) £1.20 Fairtrade Vegetables and Cous Cous £4.95 A spinach flavoured wrap filled with basil infused tofu, roasted vegetables and tomatoes, wrapped in a soft flour tortilla. Falafel Wrap £3.10 A spinach wrap filled with spiced chickpea

Dixon, Peter

70

Organic versus conventional – a comparative study on quality and nutritional value of fruit and vegetable juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study presents a comparison of some nutritional values of juices made from organic and conventional apple, pear, blackcurrant, carrot, beetroot and celery. Higher soluble solids content (SSC) for organic juices than for conventional ones was recorded for blackcurrant (14.9% and 12.5%, respectively) and beetroot (12.3% versus 8.3%). The highest organic acids content was noted for blackcurrant (3.7 g malic acid

M. G?sto?; I. Domaga?a-?wi?tkiewicz; M. Kro?niak

2011-01-01

71

Preparation of resveratrol-enriched grape juice from ultrasonication treated grape fruits.  

PubMed

Grape (Vitis spp.) is a major source of resveratrol that can be eaten directly or after making jam, jelly, wine and juice. Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) has a profound positive influence on human health, including anti-carcinogenic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-ageing effects and the ability to lower blood sugar. During industrial production of grape juice, resveratrol is lost because of the use of clarifying agents and filtration; therefore, commercial grape juice contains very low amounts of resveratrol. In this study, we investigated the accumulation of resveratrol in grape juice prepared from three varieties of grape, viz. Campbell Early, Muscat Bailey A (MBA) and Kyoho, following post-harvest ultrasonication cleaning for 5 min and 6h of incubation in the dark at 25 °C. This process resulted in the amounts of resveratrol increasing by 1.53, 1.15 and 1.24 times in juice prepared from Campbell Early, MBA and Kyoho, respectively, without changing the amounts of total soluble solids. Overall, our results indicate that ultrasonication treatment of post-harvested grape fruits can be an effective method for producing resveratrol-enriched grape juice as well as cleaning grapes thoroughly. PMID:24041855

Hasan, Md Mohidul; Yun, Hae-Keun; Kwak, Eun-Jung; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

2014-03-01

72

Organic acid, phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of fruit flesh and seed of Viburnum opulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viburnum opulus L., belonging to the plant family of Caprifoliaceae, is known as “gilaburu” in Turkey and “Guelder rose” in Europe. Fruits and fruit juice of V. opulus began to be sold in the markets of Turkey recently. Due to the lack of information in the literature, major organic acids, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC),

M. Cam; Y. Hisil; A. Kuscu

2007-01-01

73

A novel small heat shock protein gene, vis1, contributes to pectin depolymerization and juice viscosity in tomato fruit.  

PubMed

We have characterized a novel small heat shock protein gene, viscosity 1 (vis1) from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and provide evidence that it plays a role in pectin depolymerization and juice viscosity in ripening fruits. Expression of vis1 is negatively associated with juice viscosity in diverse tomato genotypes. vis1 exhibits DNA polymorphism among tomato genotypes, and the alleles vis1-hta (high-transcript accumulator; accession no. AY128101) and vis1-lta (low transcript accumulator; accession no. AY128102) are associated with thinner and thicker juice, respectively. Segregation of tomato lines heterogeneous for vis1 alleles indicates that vis1 influences pectin depolymerization and juice viscosity in ripening fruits. vis1 is regulated by fruit ripening and high temperature and exhibits a typical heat shock protein chaperone function when expressed in bacterial cells. We propose that VIS1 contributes to physiochemical properties of juice, including pectin depolymerization, by reducing thermal denaturation of depolymerizing enzymes during daytime elevated temperatures. PMID:12586896

Ramakrishna, Wusirika; Deng, Zhiping; Ding, Chang-Kui; Handa, Avtar K; Ozminkowski, Richard H

2003-02-01

74

Production of d -lactic acid from sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice by Lactobacillus delbrueckii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus delbrueckii was grown on sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice in batch fermentation at pH 6 and at 40?C. After 72 h,\\u000a the lactic acid from 13% (w\\/v) sugarcane molasses (119 g total sugar l?1) and sugarcane juice (133 g total sugar l?1) was 107 g l?1 and 120 g l?1, respectively. With 10% (w\\/v) sugar beet juice (105 g total sugar l?1), 84 g lactic

Buenaventurada P. Calabia; Yutaka Tokiwa

2007-01-01

75

Effect of Helicobacter pylori and its eradication on gastric juice ascorbic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of ascorbic acid in gastric juice may protect against gastric carcinoma and peptic ulceration. This study examined the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) on the secretion of ascorbic acid into gastric juice by measuring fasting plasma and gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations in patients with and without the infection and also before and after its eradication. Gastric

S. Banerjee; C. Hawksby; S. Miller; S. Dahill; A D Beattie; K E McColl

1994-01-01

76

Evaluation of the anti-proliferative and cytostatic effect of Citrus sinensis (orange) fruit juice  

PubMed Central

Aim: This work has been designed to evaluate the anti-proliferative and cytostatic effects of Citrus sinensis (orange) fruit juice on rapidly proliferating cells. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on the seeds of Sorghum bicolor for 72 h. The mean radicle length (mm) of the seeds was taken at 48 and 72 h. Result: The result showed that when compared with the control, methotrexate, the standard drug showed a significant (P < 0.001) anti-proliferative effect throughout the experiment. The inhibition of the radicle growth was more after 72 h (87.42%). At a dose of 5% (v/v), the juice showed a slightly significant (P < 0.05) effect affect after 72 h; however, there was no significant effect at 48 h. The juice at doses of 10% and 20% (v/v) showed a highly significant (P < 0.001) anti-proliferative effect throughout the experiment; however, the percentage inhibitions were higher at 72 h. At 72 h, the percentage inhibition for juice at 10% (v/v) was 72.37% and at 20% (v/v) was 91.96%. The concentrations of 40% and 60% (v/v) showed cytostatic effects as no appreciable growth of the radicles of the seeds was observed throughout the experiment. The percentage inhibition for 40% (v/v) was 100% and 99.72% for 48 and 72 h, respectively, while that for the juice concentration of 60% (v/v) was 100% throughout the study. Conclusion: The experiment has shown that C. sinensis fruit juice has a potential for causing both anti-proliferative and cytostatic effects on fast proliferating cells and hence cancerous cells.

Chinedu, Enegide; Arome, David; Ameh, Solomon F; Ameh, Gift E

2014-01-01

77

Development and application of recombinant antibody-based immunoassays to tetraconazole residue analysis in fruit juices.  

PubMed

Tetraconazole is currently used as a fungicide in fruit and vegetables. The aim of this work was the development of immunochemical techniques based on recombinant antibodies for the screening of tetraconazole residues in fruit juices. Recombinant antibodies were produced from a hybridoma cell line secreting a monoclonal antibody specific for tetraconazole and from lymphocytes of mice hyperimmunised with tetraconazole haptens conjugated to bovine serum albumin. From these antibodies, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in the conjugate-coated format were developed, which were able to detect tetraconazole standards down to 1ng/mL. From recovery studies with spiked samples, these immunoassays determined tetraconazole in orange and apple juices with acceptable reproducibility (coefficients of variation below 25%) and recoveries (ranging from 78% to 145%) for a screening technique. The analytical performance of RAb-based immunoassays was fairly similar to that of the MAb-based immunoassays. Due to their simplicity and high sample throughput, the developed recombinant-based immunoassays can be valuable analytical tools for the screening of tetraconazole residues in fruit juices at regulatory levels. PMID:24054232

Plana, Emma; Moreno, Maria-José; Montoya, Ángel; Manclús, Juan J

2014-01-15

78

Influence of storage temperature and time on the physicochemical and bioactive properties of roselle-fruit juice blends in plastic bottle.  

PubMed

Roselle-fruit juice blends were made from roselle extract and mango, papaya, and guava juices at the ratio of 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80, % roselle: fruit juice, respectively. The blends were pasteurized at 82.5°C for 20 min and stored in 100 mL plastic bottles at 28 and 4°C for 6 months. The effects of storage time and temperature on physicochemical and bioactive properties were evaluated. Total soluble solids, pH, and reducing sugars increased significantly (P < 0.05) in some blends while titratable acidity decrease with increasing storage time. Vitamin C, total monomeric anthocyanins (TMA), total phenols (TPC), and antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, FRAP) in all roselle-fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased significantly (P < 0.05) at 28 and 4°C as storage progressed. Vitamin C in all roselle-fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased from 58-55% to 43-42% when stored at 28 and 4°C, respectively. TMA losses were 86-65% at 28°C and 75-53% at 4°C while TPC losses were 66-58% at 28°C and 51-22% at 4°C. Loss of antioxidant capacity (FRAP) was 18-46% at 28°C and 17-35% at 4°C. A principal component analysis (PCA) differentiated roselle-juice fruit blends into two clusters with two principle components PC1 and PC2, which explained 97 and 3% (blends stored at ambient temperature) and 96 and 4% (blends stored at refrigerated temperature) of the variation, respectively. PC1 differentiated roselle-guava juice blends which were characterized by vitamin C, TPC, FRAP, and pH, while PC2 from another cluster of roselle-mango and roselle-papaya juice blends and was characterized by TSS, RS, and color parameters (L* a* b*). However, TMA was the main variable with the highest effect on all roselle-fruit juice blends regardless of the storage time and temperature. PMID:24804077

Mgaya-Kilima, Beatrice; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Chove, Bernard Elias; Wicklund, Trude

2014-03-01

79

Sample preparation bias in carbon stable isotope ratio analysis of fruit juices and sweeteners.  

PubMed

Two sample preparation methods are commonly used for carbon stable isotope ratio analysis (SIRA). One involves combustion of the sample with oxygen at 850 degrees C; the other involves combustion of the sample with CuO in an evacuated glass tube at 550 degrees C. I observed in our laboratory that these 2 methods yield different results for sugar-based products such as fruit juices, sweeteners, and vanillin. The CuO method yields results approximately 1%. more positive than the oxygen combustion method. This bias is also observed in other laboratories, as shown in an analysis of the results of the AOAC collaborative studies of carbon SIRA of maple syrup, orange juice, honey, and honey protein. The oxygen combustion method is the AOAC method for honey, apple juice, and orange juice; both methods are incorporated into the AOAC method for maple syrup. I recommend that data generated by the CuO combustion method be appropriately corrected to yield results concordant with the official oxygen combustion method. PMID:8471867

Krueger, D A

1993-01-01

80

Flavorings as new sources of contamination by deteriogenic Alicyclobacillus of fruit juices and beverages.  

PubMed

This study aimed to report the incidence of Alicyclobacillus and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in apple and pear flavorings (n=42) and to assess the effect of guaiacol-producing A. acidoterrestris strains on apple flavorings stored at 4, 20 and 45 °C. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was used for simultaneous confirmation of alicyclobacilli. A total of six isolates were identified as A. acidoterrestris, and only one strain was not able to produce guaiacol. The storage of apple flavoring at the optimum growth temperature of A. acidoterrestris (45 °C) resulted in the reduction in the spores' counts within 30 days of storage. On the other hand, during chilling (4 °C) and ambient storage conditions (20 °C) the counts of spores that remained stable for up to 60 days. An A. acidoterrestris strain inoculated in flavoring and further added to apple juice was able to grow and produce guaiacol in high amounts between 1-7 days of storage at 30 °C. In the current study it was shown that flavorings may be contaminated by deteriogenic A. acidoterrestris strains that are able to survive during storage in a wide range of temperature for long periods and further contaminate and spoil formulated fruit juices and beverages. A novel potential source of fruit juices and beverages contamination by deteriogenic Alicyclobacillus was shown. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first report on the incidence and fate of Alicyclobacillus and A. acidoterrestris in flavorings. PMID:24370970

Oteiza, Juan Martin; Soto, Silvina; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Giannuzzi, Leda

2014-02-17

81

Antioxidant and ?-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of 40 Tropical Juices from Malaysia and Identification of Phenolics from the Bioactive Fruit Juices of Barringtonia racemosa and Phyllanthus acidus.  

PubMed

The present study compared pH, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of 40 fresh juices. The juice of Baccaurea polyneura showed the highest yield (74.17 ± 1.44%) and total soluble solids (32.83 ± 0.27 °Brix). The highest and lowest pH values were respectively measured from the juices of Dimocarpus longan (6.87 ± 0.01) and Averrhoa bilimbi (1.67 ± 0.67). The juice of Psidium guajava gave the highest total phenolic (857.24 ± 12.65 ?g GAE/g sample) and vitamin C contents (590.31 ± 7.44 ?g AAE/g sample). The juice of Phyllanthus acidus with moderate contents of total phenolics and vitamin C was found to exhibit the greatest scavenging (613.71 ± 2.59 ?g VCEAC/g sample), reducing (2784.89 ± 3.93 ?g TEAC/g sample), and ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities (95.37 ± 0.15%). The juice of Barringtonia racemosa was ranked second in the activities and total phenolic content. Gallic and ellagic acids, which were quantified as the major phenolics of the respective juices, are suggested to be the main contributors to the antioxidant activities. The ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the juices could be derived from myricetin and quercetin (that were previously reported as potent ?-glucosidase inhibitors) in the hydrolyzed juice extracts. The juice of Syzygium samarangense, which was found to be highest in metal chelating activity (82.28 ± 0.10%), also was found to have these phenolics. PMID:25198055

Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Ooi, Kheng Leong

2014-10-01

82

Expression of the H+ATPase AHA10 proton pump is associated with citric acid accumulation in lemon juice sac cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sour taste of lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) is determined by the amount of citric acid in vacuoles of juice sac cells. Faris is a “sweet” lemon variety since\\u000a it accumulates low levels of citric acid. The University of California Riverside Citrus Variety Collection includes a Faris\\u000a tree that produces sweet (Faris non-acid; FNA) and sour fruit (Faris acid;

Alessio Aprile; Claire Federici; Timothy J. Close; Luigi De Bellis; Luigi Cattivelli; Mikeal L. Roose

83

Comparative Analysis of the Volatile Fraction of Fruit Juice from Different Citrus Species  

PubMed Central

The volatile composition of fruit from four Citrus varieties (Powell Navel orange, Clemenules mandarine, and Fortune mandarine and Chandler pummelo) covering four different species has been studied. Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standards. The differences in the volatile profile among juices of these varieties were essentially quantitative and only a few compounds were found exclusively in a single variety, mainly in Chandler. The volatile profile however was able to differentiate all four varieties and revealed complex interactions between them including the participation in the same biosynthetic pathway. Some compounds (6 esters, 2 ketones, 1 furan and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons) had never been reported earlier in Citrus juices. This volatile profiling platform for Citrus juice by HS-SPME-GC-MS and the interrelationship detected among the volatiles can be used as a roadmap for future breeding or biotechnological applications. PMID:21818287

Alamar, M. Carmen; Gutierrez, Abelardo; Granell, Antonio

2011-01-01

84

Safety evaluation of an açai-fortified fruit and berry functional juice beverage (MonaVie Active ®)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety of an açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp enriched fruit and berry juice, MonaVie Active®, fortified with the functional ingredient, glucosamine, was studied. The beverage was found not to be mutagenic, clastogenic, cytotoxic, or genotoxic, as determined by the bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosomal aberration assay, mouse micronucleus assay, and mammalian cell gene mutation (L5178Y) assay. The single dose

Alexander G. Schauss; Amy Clewell; Lajos Balogh; Ilona Pasics Szakonyi; Istvan Financsek; János Horváth; Julianna Thuroczy; Erzsébet Béres; Adél Vértesi; Gabor Hirka

2010-01-01

85

PLS-NIR determination of total sugar, glucose, fructose and sucrose in aqueous solutions of fruit juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical procedure has been developed for the direct determination of sugars in fruit juice samples. The method is based on the partial least-squares (PLS) treatment of first derivative near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic data obtained between 1200 and 2450 nm, using 1 mm pathlength cell and a multicomponent calibration set, including seven binary mixtures and 10 ternary mixtures of glucose,

F. J. Rambla; S. Garrigues; M. de la Guardia

1997-01-01

86

Microdiffusion-based UV-LED spectrometric setup for determining low levels of ethanol in fruit juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel setup is described in which we combined the separation of a volatile substance from a sample with a complex matrix on the basis of a microdiffusion process with a kinetic on-line spectrometric monitoring of the reaction in the receptive medium at 365nm. The fruit juice was selected as a model for testing the performance of the setup in

Nataša Gros

87

Inhibition of the mutagenicity of 2-nitrofluorene, 3-nitrofluoranthene and 1-nitropyrene by vitamins, porphyrins and related compounds, and vegetable and fruit juices and solvent extracts.  

PubMed

When 21 vitamins including related compounds haemin, chlorophyllin, chlorophyll, biliverdin and bilirubin, as well as juices from five fruits and 25 vegetables and solvent extracts from the residues of fruits and vegetables were tested for their antimutagenic potencies with respect to mutagenicity induced by 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF), 3-nitrofluoranthene (3-NFA) and 1-nitropyrene(1-NP) in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 the following results were obtained. The tetracyclic nitroarenes 3-NFA and 1-NP were in general more effectively antagonized by potent antimutagenic compounds than the tricyclic 2-NF. beta-Carotene, retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, retinol palmitate, riboflavin 5'-phosphate, alpha-tocopherol, vitamins B12, C, K1 and K3 as well as biliverdin, bilirubin, chlorophyll, chlorophyllin and haemin exerted antimutagenicity against the nitroarenes cited previously. All other vitamins were inactive. While part of the juices were inactive, juices from cauliflower, carrots, chives, radishes and spinach exerted weak antimutagenic activities. However, weak to moderate co-mutagenic effects were seen with grapes, kiwi, pineapple, eggplant, celeriac, chicory greens, fennel leaves and radishes and strong effects with peppers which were not caused by the presence of growth-promoting factors. Most solvent fractions were inactive but fractions containing chlorophyll exerted antimutagenicity. PMID:9207899

Tang, X; Edenharder, R

1997-01-01

88

Antimutagenic and antirecombinagenic activities of noni fruit juice in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Noni, a Hawaiian name for the fruit of Morinda citrifolia L., is a traditional medicinal plant from Polynesia widely used for the treatment of many diseases including arthritis, diabetes, asthma, hypertension and cancer. Here, a commercial noni juice (TNJ) was evaluated for its protective activities against the lesions induced by mitomycin C (MMC) and doxorrubicin (DXR) using the Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster. Three-day-old larvae, trans-heterozygous for two genetic markers (mwh and flr3 ), were co-treated with TNJ plus MMC or DXR. We have observed a reduction in genotoxic effects of MMC and DXR caused by the juice. TNJ provoked a marked decrease in all kinds of MMC- and DXR-induced mutant spots, mainly due to its antirecombinagenic activity. The TNJ protective effects were concentration-dependent, indicating a dose-response correlation, that can be attributed to a powerful antioxidant and/or free radical scavenger ability of TNJ. PMID:23828338

Franchi, Leonardo P; Guimarães, Nilza N; De Andrade, Laise R; De Andrade, Heloísa H R; Lehmann, Maurício; Dihl, Rafael R; Cunha, Kênya S

2013-01-01

89

Microdiffusion-based UV-LED spectrometric setup for determining low levels of ethanol in fruit juice.  

PubMed

A novel setup is described in which we combined the separation of a volatile substance from a sample with a complex matrix on the basis of a microdiffusion process with a kinetic on-line spectrometric monitoring of the reaction in the receptive medium at 365 nm. The fruit juice was selected as a model for testing the performance of the setup in real-life applications. The ethanol content in fruit juice can be considered as an indicator of the fruit-juice quality and should not exceed the regulatory limiting values. After optimising the microdiffusion process, blackcurrant, orange and two varieties of apple juice were analysed. The sample analysis lasted 15 min at 35°C. The ethanol concentrations were found to be between 0.9 and 4.0 mmol/L, and were comparable to the results obtained using the SIST:ISO 2448:1998 standard method, which is time consuming, labour intensive and requires high sample volumes. The setup can easily be adapted for determining other volatile substances in low concentrations in complicated samples of different types by introducing different chemistry and replacing the light source if the light of a different wavelength is required. The measuring characteristics of the setup were critically assessed, the main sources of uncertainty recognised and the possibilities for further improvements of the setup and the procedure considered. PMID:22099665

Gros, Nataša

2011-12-15

90

Ultra performance liquid chromatography analysis to study the changes in the carotenoid profile of commercial monovarietal fruit juices.  

PubMed

We have developed an analytical method that allows the simultaneous determination of epoxycarotenoids, hydroxycarotenoids and carotenes in monovarietal fresh homemade and industrially processed fruit products. Analyses were carried out using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). The extraction method was optimized using methanol as the first extraction solvent for lyophilized samples followed by a saponification step. Recoveries ranged between 75% and 104% depending on the compound. Repeatability was better than 10% for all compounds (%RSD, n=3). The chromatographic analysis takes less than 17min. In this short period, up to 27 carotenoids were identified in apple, peach and pear products. The developed method allowed us to differentiate juice from six varieties of apple by their carotenoid profile. Moreover, the methodology allows us to differentiate the carotenoid profiles from commercial juices and homemade fresh peach and pear juices, as well as to study the rearrangements of 5,6- to 5,8-epoxycarotenoids. PMID:24503121

Delpino-Rius, Antoni; Eras, Jordi; Marsol-Vall, Alexis; Vilaró, Francisca; Balcells, Mercè; Canela-Garayoa, Ramon

2014-02-28

91

Evaluation of Different Sample Preparation Procedures Using Chemometrics: Comparison Among Photo-Fenton Reaction, Microwave Irradiation, and Direct Determination of Minerals in Fruit Juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, an exploratory study about the mineral characteristic of some fruit juice (passion fruit, pineapple, orange,\\u000a and grape) applying chemometric tools was made. The juices analyzed were separated in different groups by principal components\\u000a analysis and hierarchical components analysis in accordance with their minerals contents. Barium, C, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, Na, and\\u000a Sr were determined by inductively

Caio Fernando Gromboni; Rodolfo Carapelli; Edenir Rodrigues Pereira-Filho; Ana Rita Araujo Nogueira

2010-01-01

92

Ascorbic Acid Determination in Natural Orange Juice: As a Teaching Tool of Coulometry and Polarography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment designed to determine ascorbic acid concentrations in natural orange juice. The experiment is used with undergraduate pharmacy students to allow understanding of the principles of operation of the coulometer and polarograph. (DDR)

Bertotti, Mauro; And Others

1995-01-01

93

Effect of sample preparation procedure for the determination of As, Sb and Se in fruit juices by HG-ICP-OES.  

PubMed

Various sample preparation procedures for the simultaneous determination of As, Sb and Se in fruit juices by hydride generation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (HG-ICP-OES) were examined. Applicability of total wet digestion with HNO3/H2O2, partial decomposition (solubilisation in aqua regia), 1:1 dilution with 2% (v/v) HNO3 and direct analysis were evaluated. Hydrides were generated in the reaction of an acidified sample with NaBH4 after pre-reduction with KI-ascorbic acid for total As and Sb, and boiling with HCl for total Se. Best results, i.e. limits of detection (LODs) of 0.51-0.73 ng mL(-1), precision (RSD) within 1.7-3.6% and recoveries for spiked samples between 101% and 106% were found using aqua regia treatment. This procedure simplifying and improving sample preparation step prior to As, Sb and Se measurements in fruit juices by HG-ICP-OES, thus could be adequate for the routine analysis in terms of the quality control of these drinks. PMID:24767075

Welna, Maja; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna

2014-09-15

94

Ultrasound-assisted extraction of isoflavones from soy beverages blended with fruit juices.  

PubMed

A new method for the fast determination of isoflavones from soy beverages blended with fruit juices without the need of freeze-drying the sample was developed. During the method development, several parameters were studied: solvent (methanol and ethanol), sample:solvent ratio (5:1 to 0.2:1), temperature (10-60 degrees C) and extraction time (5-30 min). The most important parameter for the extraction of isoflavones from soy drinks was the sample:solvent ratio. The optimized method consists of extracting the sample with ethanol with a sample:solvent ratio of 0.2:1 on an ultrasound bath at 45 degrees C during 20 min. Also, samples were freeze-dried, extracted using conventional method and compared with the optimized method and no significant difference was observed on total and individual isoflavone concentration. The most representative samples from the Spanish market, with a wide variation of isoflavone concentration were analyzed using the optimized method. Differences between manufacturers reached an almost 10 times fold variation. Overall isoflavone concentration ranged from 6.7 to 58.2 mg L(-1). PMID:17683738

Rostagno, Mauricio A; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G

2007-08-01

95

Determination of D-malic acid in apple juice by liquid chromatography: collaborative study.  

PubMed

Eleven laboratories collaboratively studied a liquid chromatographic (LC) method for determination of D-malic acid in apple juice. The mobile phase consisted of mM L-valine and 8 mM copper acetate adjusted to pH 5.5 with NaOH. The UV detector was set at 330 nm, and a single reversed-phase LC column was used. Seven paired samples containing various amounts of D-malic acid ranging from 0 to 188 mg/100 mL of 12 Brix pasteurized apple juice were tested by each collaborator. Repeatability and reproducibility coefficients of variation ranged from 1.0 to 3.5% and 7.7 to 11.7%, respectively, within the range of 26 to 188 mg D-malic acid/100 mL of 12 Brix apple juice. The collaborative study results demonstrated that the method could quantitate the economic adulteration of apple juice with DL-malic acid at lower levels than those reported with previous methods. The LC method for determination of D-malic acid in apple juice has been adopted first action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL. PMID:8620111

Eisele, T A

1996-01-01

96

Partial Purification of a Growth Factor from Orange Juice Which Affects Citrus Tissue Culture and Its Replacement by Citric Acid  

PubMed Central

Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) tissue cultures required a supply of orange juice to the medium for their vigorous growth. The growth-promoting activity of juice seemed to involve both cell division and cell enlargement. Juice had no promotive activity in bioassays for auxins, gibberellins, and cytokinins. The growth promoting activity of juice was mostly transferred into 1-butanol upon partition at pH 2. Gas chromatographic analysis of this acid 1-butanol fraction revealed large amounts of citric acid and negligible amounts of other organic acids. Supply of pure citric acid to the medium, alone or in combination with different concentrations of juice, indicated that citric acid replaces most of the requirement for juice. It seems that citric acid, which is a natural component of citrus juice, is responsible for the major part of the growth-promoting activity of the juice. The significance of citric acid as a growth factor in tissue cultures and the reasons for the dependence of citrus tissue cultures on external supply of citric acid are discussed. Images PMID:16659287

Erner, Yair; Reuveni, Oded; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E.

1975-01-01

97

Determination of the 13C/12C ratio of ethanol derived from fruit juices and maple syrup by isotope ratio mass spectrometry: collaborative study.  

PubMed

A collaborative study of the carbon-13 isotope ratio mass spectrometry (13C-IRMS) method based on fermentation ethanol for detecting some sugar additions in fruit juices and maple syrup is reported. This method is complementary to the site-specific natural isotope fractionation by nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method for detecting added beet sugar in the same products (AOAC Official Methods 995.17 and 2000.19), and uses the same initial steps to recover pure ethanol. The fruit juices or maple syrups are completely fermented with yeast, and the alcohol is distilled with a quantitative yield (>96%). The carbon-13 deviation (delta13C) of ethanol is then determined by IRMS. This parameter becomes less negative when exogenous sugar derived from plants exhibiting a C4 metabolism (e.g., corn or cane) is added to a juice obtained from plants exhibiting a C3 metabolism (most common fruits except pineapple) or to maple syrup. Conversely, the delta13C of ethanol becomes more negative when exogenous sugar derived from C3 plants (e.g., beet, wheat, rice) is added to pineapple products. Twelve laboratories analyzed 2 materials (orange juice and pure cane sugar) in blind duplicate and 4 sugar-adulterated materials (orange juice, maple syrup, pineapple juice, and apple juice) as Youden pairs. The precision of that method for measuring delta13C was similar to that of other methods applied to wine ethanol or extracted sugars in juices. The within-laboratory (Sr) values ranged from 0.06 to 0.16%o (r = 0.17 to 0.46 percent per thousand), and the among-laboratories (SR) values ranged from 0.17 to 0.26 percent per thousand (R = 0.49 to 0.73 percent per thousand). The Study Directors recommend that the method be adopted as First Action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL. PMID:15287660

Jamin, Eric; Martin, Frédérique; Martin, Gilles G

2004-01-01

98

Non-thermal pasteurization of fruit juices by combining high-intensity pulsed electric fields with natural antimicrobials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) on the Salmonella Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations inoculated in apple, pear, orange and strawberry juices as influenced by treatment time and pulse frequency was investigated. Combinations of HIPEF (35 kV\\/cm, 4 ?s pulse length in bipolar mode without exceeding 40 °C) with citric acid or cinnamon bark oil against these pathogenic microorganisms in

Jonathan Mosqueda-Melgar; Rosa Martina Raybaudi-Massilia; Olga Martín-Belloso

2008-01-01

99

Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry combined with single-drop liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction for the rapid analysis of multiple phytohormones in fruit juice.  

PubMed

A rapid, simple, and efficient method for the fast determination of multiple phytohormones was developed in this work, based on single-drop liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (SD-LLLME) combined with direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART-MS). Six phytohormones--indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), abscisic acid (ABA), and gibberellin A(3) (GA(3))--were analyzed simultaneously using this method, and the conditions employed for DART-MS and SD-LLLME were optimized systematically. Satisfactory results were obtained in terms of linearity (R (2) values for all phytohormones were 0.991-0.996), sensitivity (limits of detection were 0.65-72 ng/mL), and repeatability (RSD values were 6.9-14%). In addition, the proposed method was applied to determine the endogenous phytohormones in three kinds of fruit juice. Different concentrations of phytohormones were detected with satisfactory recoveries, and the whole analytical procedure took no more than 30 min. Therefore, this combination of SD-LLLME and DART-MS was shown to be a suitable and effective approach for the fast analysis of targets present at trace level concentrations in complex matrices. PMID:22331051

Bai, Yu; Zhang, Jialing; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

2012-06-01

100

Survival of probiotic bacteria during lactic acid fermentation of vegetable juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general objective of this research was to perform the lactic acid fermentative processes using different probiotic bacteria species unspecific to epiphytic microbiota of vegetables, with a view to achieve new knowledge concerning the possibility of developing and preservation their viability in vegetable juices. The carrots and the red beet were evaluated as potential substrat for the production of probiotic

Carmen Leane Nicolescu; Daniela Avram; Magda Gabriela; Bratu Iuliana Manea

101

Degradation of folic acid in fortified vitamin juices during long term storage.  

PubMed

Folic acid (FA) concentrations of nine fortified vitamin juices were determined with the aim to study the FA degradation and to investigate the deviation from the declared label value. The juices were received shortly after bottling and were analyzed monthly during controlled storage conditions (light and dark) over one year. The analyses were performed by HPLC-MS/MS, which included a fast "dilute and shoot" sample preparation. Average decreases in FA concentration of 46% were observed after one year. Fresh juices (shortly after bottling) showed the highest deviations from the declared label value (up to+89%). Label values did not reflect the actual concentration of FA in these products, making it difficult to determine the intake of this vitamin. PMID:24767034

Frommherz, Lara; Martiniak, Yvonne; Heuer, Thorsten; Roth, Alexander; Kulling, Sabine E; Hoffmann, Ingrid

2014-09-15

102

21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section...Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative is the food...

2010-04-01

103

Inhibition of the mutagenicity of 2-nitrofluorene, 3-nitrofluoranthene and 1-nitropyrene by vitamins, porphyrins and related compounds, and vegetable and fruit juices and solvent extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

When 21 vitamins including related compounds haemin, chlorophyllin, chlorophyll, biliverdin and bilirubin, as well as juices from five fruits and 25 vegetables and solvent extracts from the residues of fruits and vegetables were tested for their antimutagenic potencies with respect to mutagenicity induced by 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF), 3-nitrofluoranthene (3-NFA) and l-nitropyrene(1-NP) in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 the following results were obtained. The

X. Tang; R. Edenharder

1997-01-01

104

Quantitative analysis of bayberry juice acidity based on visible and near-infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visible and near-infrared (Vis/NIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been investigated for its ability to nondestructively detect acidity in bayberry juice. What we believe to be a new, better mathematic model is put forward, which we have named principal component analysis-stepwise regression analysis-backpropagation neural network (PCA-SRA-BPNN), to build a correlation between the spectral reflectivity data and the acidity of bayberry juice. In this model, the optimum network parameters, such as the number of input nodes, hidden nodes, learning rate, and momentum, are chosen by the value of root-mean-square (rms) error. The results show that its prediction statistical parameters are correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9451 and root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.1168. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression is also established to compare with this model. Before doing this, the influences of various spectral pretreatments (standard normal variate, multiplicative scatter correction, S. Golay first derivative, and wavelet package transform) are compared. The PLS approach with wavelet package transform preprocessing spectra is found to provide the best results, and its prediction statistical parameters are correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9061 and RMSEP of 0.1564. Hence, these two models are both desirable to analyze the data from Vis/NIR spectroscopy and to solve the problem of the acidity prediction of bayberry juice. This supplies basal research to ultimately realize the online measurements of the juice's internal quality through this Vis/NIR spectroscopy technique.

Shao, Yongni; He, Yong; Mao, Jingyuan

2007-09-01

105

Effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on consumer acceptance of fruit juices with different concentrations of açaí ( Euterpe oleracea Mart.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on the acceptance of two unfamiliar açaí fruit juices that have a low (40% açaí) versus a high (4% açaí) a priori overall liking. Hedonic and sensory measures as well as health- and nutrition-related attribute perceptions and purchase intention were rated before and after health information was presented.

Sara Sabbe; Wim Verbeke; Rosires Deliza; Virginia Matta; Patrick Van Damme

2009-01-01

106

Effects of prebiotics on the quality of lactic acid fermented vegetable juices  

E-print Network

Abstract The comparative evaluation of lactic acid fermentation of carrots and red beet juices inoculated with bifidobacteria and supplemented of commercial prebiotics containing inulin was performed. Some recommendations referring to the interval of time for interruption the fermentation with the aim to obtain the desirable characteristics of products were made. The inoculation of juices was accomplished after the epiphytic microbiota inactivation, in the optimum conditions of temperature. According the results obtained through phisico-chemical analysis (pH, titrable acidity, volatile acidity, reducing sugars content), the objective of this paper was to prepare suitable substrates regarding the consumer’s perception and the practical possibilities of application the probiotic cultures. In each experiment was established the final point of the fermentation, with the aim to avoid first the undesirable action of the environment acidity on the strain viability.

Lavinia Buruleanu; Iuliana Manea; Magda Gabriela Bratu; Daniela Avram; Carmen Leane Nicolescu

107

The choice of strains of Lactobacillus species for the lactic acid fermentation of vegetable juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reasons for using lactic acid bacteria are to make food durable, to improve its taste and to maintain the nutritive,\\u000a physiological and hygienic value of the fermentation products. Sixteen strains of the genus Lactobacillus were tested on samples of white fresh cabbage and of a sterilized cabbage and carrot juice mixture. After 7 days of lactic\\u000a acid fermentation at

J. Karovi?ová; Milan Drdák; Gabriel Greif; Eva Hybenová

1999-01-01

108

Inhibition of aconitase in citrus fruit callus results in a metabolic shift towards amino acid biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Citrate, a major determinant of citrus fruit quality, accumulates early in fruit development and declines towards maturation. The isomerization of citrate to isocitrate, catalyzed by aconitase is a key step in acid metabolism. Inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase activity early in fruit development contributes to acid accumulation, whereas increased cytosolic activity of aconitase causes citrate decline. It was previously hypothesized that the block in mitochondrial aconitase activity, inducing acid accumulation, is caused by citramalate. Here, we investigated the effect of citramalate and of another aconitase inhibitor, oxalomalate, on aconitase activity and regulation in callus originated from juice sacs. These compounds significantly increased citrate content and reduced the enzyme's activity, while slightly inducing its protein level. Citramalate inhibited the mitochondrial, but not cytosolic form of the enzyme. Its external application to mandarin fruits resulted in inhibition of aconitase activity, with a transient increase in fruit acidity detected a few weeks later. The endogenous level of citramalate was analyzed in five citrus varieties: its pattern of accumulation challenged the notion of its action as an endogenous inhibitor of mitochondrial aconitase. Metabolite profiling of oxalomalate-treated cells showed significant increases in a few amino acids and organic acids. The activities of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and aspartate kinase, as well as these of two ?-aminobutyrate (GABA)-shunt enzymes, succinic semialdehyde reductase (SSAR) and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSAD) were significantly induced in oxalomalate-treated cells. It is suggested that the increase in citrate, caused by aconitase inhibition, induces amino acid synthesis and the GABA shunt, in accordance with the suggested fate of citrate during the acid decline stage in citrus fruit. PMID:21528417

Degu, Asfaw; Hatew, Bayissa; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Shlizerman, Ludmila; Zur, Naftali; Katz, Ehud; Fernie, Alisdair R; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

2011-09-01

109

Relationship between Apparent Viscosity and Line-Spread Test Measurement of Thickened Fruit Juices Prepared with a Xanthan Gum-based Thickener  

PubMed Central

The flow behaviors of three thickened fruit juices (orange, apple, and grape juice) prepared with a commercial instant xanthan gum (XG)-based thickener that is marketed in Korea were investigated at different thickener concentrations (1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, 2.5%, 3.0%, and 3.5%) and setting times (5 and 30 min) using a rheometer and a line-spread measurement method. The flow distance values measured by the line-spread test (LST) were compared with the apparent viscosity (?a,50) values measured with a sophisticated computer-controlled rheometer. The ?a,50 values of the juices increased as thickener concentration increased, whereas their flow distances decreased. The ?a,50 values at the 30-min setting time were much higher than those at the 5-min setting time, indicating that the setting time before serving or consuming thickened juices can affect viscosity values. Plots comparing ?a,50 values to LST flow distances revealed strong exponential relationships between the two measures (R2=0.989 and R2=0.987 for the 5- and 30-min setting times, respectively). These results indicate that the LST can be a suitable instrument for evaluating the viscosity of thickened fruit juices prepared with different XG-based thickener concentrations and setting times for the dysphagia diet. PMID:25320723

Kim, Sung-Gun; Yoo, Whachun; Yoo, Byoungseung

2014-01-01

110

Hybrid model based on Genetic Algorithms and SVM applied to variable selection within fruit juice classification.  

PubMed

Given the background of the use of Neural Networks in problems of apple juice classification, this paper aim at implementing a newly developed method in the field of machine learning: the Support Vector Machines (SVM). Therefore, a hybrid model that combines genetic algorithms and support vector machines is suggested in such a way that, when using SVM as a fitness function of the Genetic Algorithm (GA), the most representative variables for a specific classification problem can be selected. PMID:24453933

Fernandez-Lozano, C; Canto, C; Gestal, M; Andrade-Garda, J M; Rabuñal, J R; Dorado, J; Pazos, A

2013-01-01

111

A fatally mistaken fruit juice drink: an unordinary way of cocaine intoxication.  

PubMed

Cocaine is one of the drugs of abuse more frequently consumed in Spain. Furthermore, Spain due to its geographical position is used by trafficker's organizations as the port of entrance of cocaine in the European Union. We present here a case of a fatal intoxication caused by a mistake in the cocaine distribution net in our country. Cocaine was concealed in a tropical juice only sold by the Internet. PMID:21056879

García-Repetto, R; Giménez, M P; Martinez, M C; Soria, M L

2010-11-01

112

Delayed ripening of banana fruit by salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid treatment has been found to delay the ripening of banana fruits (Musa acuminata). Fruit softening, pulp:peel ratio, reducing sugar content, invertase and respiration rate have been found to decrease in salicylic acid treated fruits as compared with control ones. The activities of major cell wall degrading enzymes, viz. cellulase, polygalacturonase and xylanase were found to be decreased in

Manoj K Srivastava; Upendra N Dwivedi

2000-01-01

113

Rapid determination of nineteen chlorophenols in wood, paper, cardboard, fruits, and fruit juices by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Although the use of pentachlorophenol (PCP) is prohibited in most countries, it is still widely found in the wood of pallets, containers, crates and in cardboard, paper, etc. Such material may contain not only PCP but other chlorophenols as well. Wooden crates and cardboard boxes are often used to store and transport fresh fruits. Consequently, chlorophenols present in the wood may contaminate the stored fruits by migration. To ascertain that packaging, storage material, and fruit raw materials are free from chlorophenol residues, we developed a rapid and sensitive method for the detection of 19 chlorophenols by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The test portions are directly extracted and acetylated in a solution of sodium carbonate in the presence of acetic anhydride and hexane. The hexane layer is analyzed, without further purification, by GC/MS in the selective-ion monitoring mode. The method allows the analysis of >40 samples/day with detection limits of <20 microg/kg for chlorophenols in wood, cardboard, and paper, and <2 microg/kg for chlorophenols in fruits. Typical recoveries of all chlorophenols were 94% from paper, 115% from cardboard, 51% from wood (depending on the size of the chips or shavings), and 93% from fruit puree. PMID:11417649

Diserens, J M

2001-01-01

114

Flavonoids and phenolic acids from cranberry juice are bioavailable and bioactive in healthy older adults.  

PubMed

Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) are a rich source of phenolic phytochemicals, which likely contribute to their putative health benefits. A single-dose pharmacokinetic trial was conducted in 10 healthy adults ?50y to evaluate the acute (24-h) absorption and excretion of flavonoids, phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins (PACs) from a low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail (54% juice). Inter-individual variability was observed in the Cmax and Tmax of many of these compounds in both plasma and urine. The sum total concentration of phenolics detected in plasma reached a peak of 34.2?g/ml between 8 and 10h, while in urine this peak was 269.8?g/mg creatinine, and appeared 2-4h earlier. The presence of PAC-A2 dimers in human urine has not previously been reported. After cranberry juice consumption, plasma total antioxidant capacity assessed using ORAC and TAP assays correlated with individual metabolites. Our results show phenolic compounds in cranberry juice are bioavailable and exert antioxidant actions in healthy older adults. PMID:25172705

McKay, Diane L; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Zampariello, Carly A; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

2015-02-01

115

Effects of naphthaleneacetic acid on fruit in 'Jiefangzhong' loquat  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Effects of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on fruit quality of 'Jiefangzhong' loquat were studied. NAA at different concentrations was sprayed at the full-bloom stage and young fruit stage, respectively. The results showed that the fruit quality was improved by spraying 20 mg\\/l naphthaleneacetic acid at full-bloom stage, and there was no significant effect on fruit quality when treated with

J. Wu; S. Lin

116

Pineapple organic acid metabolism and accumulation during fruit development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental changes in pineapple (Ananas Comosus (L.) Merrill) fruit acidity was determined for a ‘Smooth Cayenne’ high acid clone PRI#36-21 and a low acid clone PRI#63-555. The high acid clone gradually increased in fruit acidity from 1.4meq\\/100ml 6 weeks from flowering, and peaked a week before harvest at ca 10meq\\/100ml. In contrast, the low acid clone increased in acidity 6

Parson Saradhuldhat; Robert E. Paull

2007-01-01

117

High concentrations of D-amino acids in human gastric juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  The concentrations of free D- and L-amino acids were determined in the gastric juice from four groups: patients suffering\\u000a from early gastric carcinoma with or without Helicobacter pylori infection, and patients without carcinoma but with peptic ulcers, duodenal ulcers or chronic gastritis with or without H. pylori infection. H. pylori is a bacterium associated with gastric inflammation and peptic ulcers

Y. Nagata; T. Sato; N. Enomoto; Y. Ishii; K. Sasaki; T. Yamada

2007-01-01

118

Temporal Variations of Organic Acids in Sumac Fruit  

SciTech Connect

Extracts from staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) fruits were obtained from fresh fruits obtained from June to October in two successive years. Total acidity, pH, and concentrations of malic and succinic acids determined using liquid chromatography were measured for each extract. Acidity and acid concentrations reached their maxima in late July, and declined slowly thereafter. Malic and succinic acid concentrations in the extracts reached maxima of about 4 and 0.2% (expressed per unit weight of fruit), respectively. Malic and succinic acids were the only organic acids observed in the extracts, and mass balance determinations indicate that these acids are most likely the only ones present in appreciable amounts.

Robbins, C. (Univ. of Pittsburgh at Bradford, PA); Mulcahy, F. (Univ. of Pittsburgh at Bradford, PA); Somayajula, K. (Coca-Cola Co., Atlanta, GA); Edenborn, H.M.

2006-10-01

119

Fermentation of Agave tequilana juice by Kloeckera africana: influence of amino-acid supplementations.  

PubMed

This study aimed to improve the fermentation efficiency of Kloeckera africana K1, in tequila fermentations. We investigated organic and inorganic nitrogen source requirements in continuous K. africana fermentations fed with Agave tequilana juice. The addition of a mixture of 20 amino-acids greatly improved the fermentation efficiency of this yeast, increasing the consumption of reducing sugars and production of ethanol, compared with fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. The preference of K. africana for each of the 20 amino-acids was further determined in batch fermentations and we found that asparagine supplementation increased K. africana biomass production, reducing sugar consumption and ethanol production (by 30, 36.7 and 45%, respectively) over fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. Therefore, asparagine appears to overcome K. africana nutritional limitation in Agave juice. Surprisingly, K. africana produced a high concentration of ethanol. This contrasts to poor ethanol productivities reported for other non-Saccharomyces yeasts indicating a relatively high ethanol tolerance for the K. africana K1 strain. Kloeckera spp. strains are known to synthesize a wide variety of volatile compounds and we have shown that amino-acid supplements influenced the synthesis by K. africana of important metabolites involved in the bouquet of tequila. The findings of this study have revealed important nutritional limitations of non-Saccharomyces yeasts fermenting Agave tequilana juice, and have highlighted the potential of K. africana in tequila production processes. PMID:21761236

Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Hernández-Cortés, Guillermo; Córdova, Jesús; Estarrón-Espinosa, Mirna; Díaz-Montaño, Dulce María

2012-02-01

120

Effect of a health claim on consumer acceptance of exotic Brazilian fruit juices: Açaí ( Euterpe oleracea Mart.), Camu-camu ( Myrciaria dubia), Cajá ( Spondias lutea L.) and Umbu ( Spondias tuberosa Arruda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the influence of information on the health benefits for acceptance of four exotic tropical fruit juices: açaí, camu-camu, cajá and umbu. One hundred and six evaluators participated in the tests and sensory acceptability of the four juices in relation to the overall impression was assessed using a hedonic scale of nine points. Testing was conducted in three

Márcia C. T. R. Vidigal; Valéria P. R. Minim; Naiara B. Carvalho; Maria Patrícia Milagres; Aline C. A. Gonçalves

2011-01-01

121

Effect of processing of dates into date juice concentrate and appraisal of its quality characteristics.  

PubMed

Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is widely cultivated in Kutch district of Gujarat and the fruits are harvested at immature stage before the onset of monsoon to prevent spoilage. The immature date fruits with less commercial value were used for processing into date juice concentrate. Immature dates were crushed and treated with 0.1% pectinase enzyme for 120 min to obtain maximum juice. Date juice was found to be rich in reducing sugars (16.1%) and total sugars (18.3%). Juice was pasteurized at 85°C to inactivate the enzyme, cooled and centrifuged at 3000 rpm to get clear juice. The juice was concentrated in a thin film evaporator to a total soluble solids (TSS) of 76°Brix in 2 passes. Chemical composition of date juice during different stages of concentration was determined. Date juice concentrate was packed in low density polyethylene bags of size (22 cm × 14 cm) and frozen in blast freezer at -40°C and stored at -20°C. Storage of date juice concentrate at -20°C for 6 months indicated no significant changes in TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, total sugars and pH. Hunter colour lightness L, and redness a values of date juice concentrate decreased whereas b values increased during storage. Date juice concentrate was stable during 6 months storage could be reconstituted for preparing ready-to-serve beverages with acceptable sensory quality. PMID:23572618

Kulkarni, S G; Vijayanand, P; Shubha, L

2010-03-01

122

Quantitative analysis of bayberry juice acidity based on visible and near-infrared spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Visible and near-infrared (Vis/NIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been investigated for its ability to nondestructively detect acidity in bayberry juice. What we believe to be a new, better mathematic model is put forward, which we have named principal component analysis-stepwise regression analysis-backpropagation neural network (PCA-SRA-BPNN), to build a correlation between the spectral reflectivity data and the acidity of bayberry juice. In this model, the optimum network parameters, such as the number of input nodes, hidden nodes, learning rate, and momentum, are chosen by the value of root-mean-square (rms) error. The results show that its prediction statistical parameters are correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9451 and root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.1168. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression is also established to compare with this model. Before doing this, the influences of various spectral pretreatments (standard normal variate, multiplicative scatter correction, S. Golay first derivative, and wavelet package transform) are compared. The PLS approach with wavelet package transform preprocessing spectra is found to provide the best results, and its prediction statistical parameters are correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9061 and RMSEP of 0.1564. Hence, these two models are both desirable to analyze the data from Vis/NIR spectroscopy and to solve the problem of the acidity prediction of bayberry juice. This supplies basal research to ultimately realize the online measurements of the juice's internal quality through this Vis/NIR spectroscopy technique. PMID:17805379

Shao, Yongni; He, Yong; Mao, Jingyuan

2007-09-01

123

Safety evaluation of an açai-fortified fruit and berry functional juice beverage (MonaVie Active(®)).  

PubMed

The safety of an açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp enriched fruit and berry juice, MonaVie Active®, fortified with the functional ingredient, glucosamine, was studied. The beverage was found not to be mutagenic, clastogenic, cytotoxic, or genotoxic, as determined by the bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosomal aberration assay, mouse micronucleus assay, and mammalian cell gene mutation (L5178Y) assay. The single dose LD50 based on a 14-day acute oral toxicity study is greater than 20,000 mg/kg bw, the highest dose tested. In a repeat dose 90-day oral subchronic toxicity study by gavage, 220 animals were randomly assigned to a control group, an untreated group, or one of three experimental groups (10, 20 and 40 g/kg bw). No treatment-related significant changes in body weight, food and water consumption, ophthalmology, organ weights, urinanalysis, hematological and clinical chemistry, or gross pathology, were observed in surviving animals compared to the control groups. Three animals died midway through the observation period (male, 20 g/kg bw/day; male 40 g/kg bw/day; and, female, 10 g/kg bw/day). These animals died without preceding clinical symptoms, histopathological lesions, or evidence of injury to tissue or organs except for signs of suffocation/aspiration congestion, which was concluded to be due to problems with the gavage administration of the fluid test article, and not due to the test article itself. The NOEAL was determined to be 40 g/kg bw/day for male and female rats, which was the highest dose tested. Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) content averaged 21.7 ?g/100 g, comparable to amounts found in iceberg lettuce. In conclusion, the results provide additional experimental evidence that MonaVie Active® juice is non-toxic. PMID:20452390

Schauss, Alexander G; Clewell, Amy; Balogh, Lajos; Szakonyi, Ilona Pasics; Financsek, Istvan; Horváth, János; Thuroczy, Julianna; Béres, Erzsébet; Vértesi, Adél; Hirka, Gabor

2010-11-28

124

Detection of viable Zygosaccharomyces bailii in fruit juices using ethidium monoazide bromide and real-time PCR.  

PubMed

In this study, we use ethidium monoazide (EMA) a dye commonly used to differentiate viable and nonviable populations of bacteria in real-time PCR (QPCR) assays to eliminate the nonviable cells from the Z. bailii population. Thus we are able to determine the viable Z. bailii population using QPCR plus EMA. To do this we first, optimized the EMA exposure conditions; EMA concentration of 50 microg/ml with an incubation at 30 degrees C in the dark for 5 min. Followed by light exposure on ice, for 5 min using a 500 W halogen lamp at a distance of 12 cm. Using these optimized conditions, we determined that the assay could detect as few as 12.5 viable Z. bailii cells in the presence of 10(5) CFU/ml of heat killed-cells. The EMA assay was also more consistent at determining viable cell counts when compared to plating than fluorescent microscopy viable cell counts. Finally, we used the assay to determine the viable population in heat-treated (72 degrees C, 2 min), ethanol-treated and raspberry cranberry juice Z. bailii cultures. When examining Z. bailii cells treated with 70% ethanol the QPCR assay with EMA (1.22 x 10(2)) showed a better correlation with plating (4.5 x 10(1) CFU/ml) compared to the QPCR assay without EMA (5.31 x 10(6) CFU/ml) and this was also seen in the other two injured populations. Thus we feel that we have designed an assay which will be useful for the detection of viable spoilage yeasts in various fruit juices. PMID:19243848

Rawsthorne, Helen; Phister, Trevor G

2009-05-31

125

Pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) fruit juice and two major constituents thereof exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in human gingival and oral gum epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Pitanga, Eugenia uniflora L., is a tropical fruit, which may be consumed as juice. While beneficial health effects of Eugenia uniflora L. leaf extracts have extensively been studied, limited data are available on an anti-inflammatory potential of pitanga juice. The aim of the presented study was to investigate anti-inflammatory properties of pitanga juice with regards to a prevention of inflammation-related periodontal diseases. For this purpose, six healthy volunteers swirled pitanga juice, containing 35% pitanga pulp, for 10 min. Thereafter, oral gum epithelial cells were harvested using a sterile brush and stimulated with lipopolysaccharides from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG-LPS) for 6 h. Furthermore, human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) were used to elucidate the anti-inflammatory potential of pitanga juice constituents, cyanidin-3-glucoside and oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one, in juice representative concentrations of 119 ?g ml(-1) and 30 ?g ml(-1), respectively. For the first time, an anti-inflammatory impact of pitanga juice on gingival epithelial cells was shown by means of an attenuation of IL-8 release by 55 ± 8.2% and 52 ± 11% in non-stimulated and PG-LPS-stimulated cells, respectively. In addition, both cyanidin-3-glucoside and oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one reduced the LPS-stimulated CXCL8 mRNA expression by 50 ± 15% and 37 ± 18% and IL-8 release by 52 ± 9.9% and 45 ± 3.7% in HGF-1 cells, when concomitantly incubated with 10 ?g ml(-1)PG-LPS for 6 h, revealing an anti-inflammatory potential of the volatile compound oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one for the first time. PMID:25228206

Josino Soares, Denise; Walker, Jessica; Pignitter, Marc; Walker, Joel Michael; Imboeck, Julia Maria; Ehrnhoefer-Ressler, Miriam Margit; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella; Somoza, Veronika

2014-10-22

126

Mumefural and related HMF derivatives from Japanese apricot fruit juice concentrate show multiple inhibitory effects on pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit-juice concentrate of Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) has been shown to be effective against influenza A infection in MDCK cells. In this study, we isolated five components from the fruit-juice concentrate of Japanese apricot, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-formylfuran (HMF), 1-[5-(2-formylfuryl)methyl]dihydrogen 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate (mumefural, MF), 2-[5-(2-formylfuryl)methyl]dihydrogen 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate (MF‘), 1-[5-(2-formylfuryl)methyl]hydrogen 1-hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylate (MA1) and 2-[5-(2-formylfuryl)methyl]hydrogen 1-hydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylate (MA2), and investigated their inhibitory activities against the

Nongluk Sriwilaijaroen; Akio Kadowaki; Yuriko Onishi; Nobuki Gato; Makoto Ujike; Takato Odagiri; Masato Tashiro; Yasuo Suzuki

2011-01-01

127

Component tissues of different morphological types of tomato fruit and their qualitative and quantitative effects on quality of processed product  

E-print Network

fruit were evaluated for surface color, pigment content, pH, sugar con- tent, and titratable acidity. These data were related with the same attributes of tomato juice prepared from the whole fruit. The contribution of the particular tissues... area has the greater titratable acidity. There is a significant, negative correlation between pH and titratable acidity; while a significant, positive correlation exists between 'Brix and titratable acidity of the juice. Of the fruit types evaluated...

Wagner, Alfred Bernhart

2012-06-07

128

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes as efficient solid-phase extraction materials of organophosphorus pesticides from apple, grape, orange and pineapple fruit juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been used for the first time as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents for the extraction of eight organophosphorus pesticides (i.e. ethoprophos, diazinon, chlorpyriphos-methyl, fenitrothion, malathion, chlorpyriphos, fenamiphos and buprofezin) from different commercial fruit juices (i.e. apple, grape, orange and pineapple). The developed method, which involves SPE and direct gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection analysis, is

Lidia M. Ravelo-Pérez; Javier Hernández-Borges; Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-Delgado

2008-01-01

129

Treatment of fruit-juice industry wastewater in a two-stage anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor system followed by a sequencing batch reactor (SBR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has been carried out to assess the performance of a combined system consisting of an anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor followed by a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for treatment of fruit-juice industry wastewater at a temperature of 26 °C. Three experimental runs were conducted in this investigation. In the first experiment, a single-stage AH reactor was operated at a hydraulic

A. Tawfik; H. El-Kamah

2012-01-01

130

Treatment of fruit-juice industry wastewater in a two-stage anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor system followed by a sequencing batch reactor (SBR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has been carried out to assess the performance of a combined system consisting of an anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor followed by a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for treatment of fruit-juice industry wastewater at a temperature of 26 °C. Three experimental runs were conducted in this investigation. In the first experiment, a single-stage AH reactor was operated at a hydraulic

A. Tawfik; H. El-Kamah

2011-01-01

131

Antitumour potential of a polysaccharide-rich substance from the fruit juice ofMorinda citrifolia (Noni) on sarcoma 180 ascites tumour in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immunomodulatory polysaccharide-rich substance (Noni-ppt) from the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia has been found to possess both prophylactic and therapeutic potentials against the immunomodulator sensitive Sarcoma 180 tumour system. The antitumour activity of Noni-ppt produced a cure rate of 25%-45% in allogeneic mice and its activity was completely abolished by the concomitant administration of specific inhi- bitors of macrophages

Eiichi Furusawa; Anne Hirazumi; Stephen Story; Jarakae Jensen

2003-01-01

132

Essential fatty acids of pitaya (dragon fruit) seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hylocereus undatus and Hylocereus polyrhizus are two varieties of the commonly called pitaya fruits. The seeds were separated and the oil was extracted and analysed. Essential fatty acids, namely, linoleic acid and linolenic acid form a significant percentage of the unsaturated fatty acids of the seed oil extract. Both pitaya varieties exhibit two oleic acid isomers. Essential fatty acids are

Abdul Azis Ariffin; Jamilah Bakar; Chin Ping Tan; Russly Abdul Rahman; Roselina Karim; Chia Chun Loi

2009-01-01

133

Juice matrix composition and ascorbic acid fortification effects on the phytochemical, antioxidant and pigment stability of açai ( Euterpe oleracea Mart.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of juice matrix composition on the phytochemical stability of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) were evaluated by contrasting natural clarified juice systems with isolated polyphenolic and anthocyanin fractions, in the presence or absence of ascorbic acid (500mg\\/l) under accelerated storage conditions (37°C). Polyphenolic (anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin polyphenolics) and anthocyanin fractions were isolated using C18 Sep-Pak columns and then re-dissolved

Lisbeth A. Pacheco-palencia; Palo Hawken; Stephen T. Talcott

2007-01-01

134

The influence of high pressure processing on antimutagenic activities of fruit and vegetable juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In model experiments using the Salmonella\\/reversion assay (Ames test) and the carcinogen 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), antimutagenic activities against IQ had been detected in about 70% of 62 fruit and vegetable species [Edenharder, Kurz, John, Burgard and Seeger (1994) Fd Chem. Toxic. 32, 443–459]. However, thermal stability of the antimutagenic factors varied considerably. As hydrostatic pressure is an alternative to heat in

P. Butz; R. Edenharder; H. Fister; B. Tauscher

1997-01-01

135

Original article Development of spray dried orange juice blended  

E-print Network

acid con- tent of the juice. However, an increase in the acidity had no negative effect on the thermal of Agricultural Sciences, Hebbal, Bangalore-560 024, India Abstract ­ The contemporary problem faced by the fruit are required to explore the feasibil- ity of vitamin C enrichment of milk, which could be effectively achieved

Boyer, Edmond

136

Finding of pesticides in fashionable fruit juices by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

Products labelled as containing extracts from two mushrooms (cordyceps plus reishi) and the juices from açaí, goji, mangosteen, noni, pomegranate, and sea buckthorn have been analysed for 174 different pesticides, using the validated QuEChERS method for sample preparation and electrospray LC-MS/MS in the positive ion mode for analysis. Pesticides were found in 10 of the 21 samples analysed. Most pesticides found were below the tolerance levels (1-6 ?g/g, depending on the pesticide), but some were not. This included boscalid, dimethomorph, iprovalicarb, pyridaben, pyrimethanil, and imazalil, for which there is no tolerance reported or zero tolerance in any fruit. However, genuine açaí that was harvested in the state of Pará and lyophilised in Rio de Janeiro had no detectable pesticides, when analysed by both LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS, which can detect 213 more pesticides and industrial chemicals. Likewise no pesticides were found in one sample each of cordyceps plus reishi, sea buckthorn and noni. PMID:23442701

Tran, Kevin; Eide, David; Nickols, Susan M; Cromer, Michele R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando; Smith, Robert E

2012-10-15

137

Multivariate optimization by exploratory analysis applied to the determination of microelements in fruit juice by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for the direct determination (without sample pre-digestion) of microelements in fruit juice by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry has been developed. The method has been optimized by a 2 3 factorial design, which evaluated the plasma conditions (nebulization gas flow rate, applied power, and sample flow rate). A 1:1 diluted juice sample with 2% HNO 3 (Tetra Packed, peach flavor) and spiked with 0.5 mg L - 1 of Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn was employed in the optimization. The results of the factorial design were evaluated by exploratory analysis (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, HCA, and Principal Component Analysis, PCA) to determine the optimum analytical conditions for all elements. Central point condition differentiation (0.75 L min - 1 , 1.3 kW, and 1.25 mL min - 1 ) was observed for both methods, Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, with higher analytical signal values, suggesting that these are the optimal analytical conditions. F and t-student tests were used to compare the slopes of the calibration curves for aqueous and matrix-matched standards. No significant differences were observed at 95% confidence level. The correlation coefficient was higher than 0.99 for all the elements evaluated. The limits of quantification were: Al 253, Cu 3.6, Fe 84, Mn 0.4, Zn 71, Ni 67, Cd 69, Pb 129, Sn 206, Cr 79, Co 24, and Ba 2.1 µg L - 1 . The spiking experiments with fruit juice samples resulted in recoveries between 80 and 120%, except for Co and Sn. Al, Cd, Pb, Sn and Cr could not be quantified in any of the samples investigated. The method was applied to the determination of several elements in fruit juice samples commercialized in Brazil.

Froes, Roberta Eliane Santos; Neto, Waldomiro Borges; Silva, Nilton Oliveira Couto e.; Naveira, Rita Lopes Pereira; Nascentes, Clésia Cristina; da Silva, José Bento Borba

2009-06-01

138

Changes in physical and chemical properties during pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) fruit maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physicochemical studies of pomegranate fruits (Punica granatum) variety Taifi, including total seed juice extracted from unripe, half-ripe and full-ripe stages are reported. Edible portion of pomegranate (57.51% of total fruit wt.) comprised 63.58% of juice and 36.21% of seeds. Fresh juice contained 84.57% moisture, 14.1% sugar, 1.05% protein and 0.33% ash. Total protein, ascorbic acid, fat and phenolic compounds in

Salah A Al-Maiman; Dilshad Ahmad

2002-01-01

139

EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN ON FRUIT CROPS  

EPA Science Inventory

Because of climatic restrictions, fruit production is concentrated in a relatively few states in the U.S. Among the factors presenting increasing challenges to fruit growers is air pollution. In contrast to herbaceous annual agricultural crops, woody perennial fruit plants are su...

140

Detection of the sour-rot pathogen Geotrichum candidum in tomato fruit and juice by using a highly specific monoclonal antibody-based ELISA.  

PubMed

Geotrichum candidum is a common soil-borne fungus that causes sour-rot of tomatoes, citrus fruits and vegetables, and is a major contaminant on tomato processing equipment. The aim of this work was to produce a monoclonal antibody and diagnostic assay for its detection in tomato fruit and juice. Using hybridoma technology, a cell line (FE10) was generated that produced a monoclonal antibody belonging to the immunoglobulin class M (IgM) that was specific to G. candidum and the closely related teleomorphic species Galactomyces geotrichum and anamorphic species Geotrichum europaeum and Geotrichum pseudocandidum in the G. geotrichum/G. candidum complex. The MAb did not cross-react with a wide range of unrelated fungi, including some likely to be encountered during crop production and processing. The MAb binds to an immunodominant high molecular mass (> 200 kDa) extracellular polysaccharide antigen that is present on the surface of arthroconidia and hyphae of G. candidum. The MAb was used in a highly specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to accurately detect the fungus in infected tomato fruit and juice. Specificity of the ELISA was confirmed by sequencing of the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) 1-5.8S-ITS2 rRNA-encoding regions of fungi isolated from naturally-infected tomatoes. PMID:20850192

Thornton, Christopher R; Slaughter, David C; Davis, R Michael

2010-10-15

141

Folic acid in diet  

MedlinePLUS

... leafy vegetables Dried beans and peas (legumes) Citrus fruits and juices Fortified means that vitamins have been added to the food. Many foods are now fortified with folic acid, including enriched breads, cereals, flours, cornmeals, pastas, rice, ...

142

Diet quality is positively associated with 100% fruit juice consumption in children and adults in the United States: NHANES 2003-2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  One hundred percent fruit juice (100% FJ) has been viewed by some as a sweetened beverage with concerns about its effect on\\u000a weight. Little regard has been given to the contribution of 100% FJ to diet quality.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In this study data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to examine the association\\u000a of 100% FJ consumption

Carol E O’Neil; Theresa A Nicklas; Michael Zanovec; Victor L Fulgoni

2011-01-01

143

Which juice is ‘healthier’? A consumer study of probiotic non-dairy juice drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated consumer acceptance for the appearance, aroma, texture and flavour of probiotic fruit juices. Novel blackcurrant juices containing probiotic cultures (Lactobacillus plantarum 299v) were compared with conventional blackcurrant juices by descriptive analysis. The probiotic juices were found to contain aromas (‘perfumey’, ‘dairy’) and flavours (‘sour’, ‘savoury’) characteristic of functional ingredients. Subsequent testing took place in a local shopping

T. Luckow; C. Delahunty

2004-01-01

144

Phenotypic and fine genetic characterization of the D locus controlling fruit acidity in peach  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Acidity is an essential component of the organoleptic quality of fleshy fruits. However, in these fruits, the physiological and molecular mechanisms that control fruit acidity remain unclear. In peach the D locus controls fruit acidity; low-acidity is determined by the dominant allele. Using a peach progeny of 208 F2 trees, the D locus was mapped to the proximal end

Karima Boudehri; Abdelhafid Bendahmane; Gaëlle Cardinet; Christelle Troadec; Annick Moing; Elisabeth Dirlewanger

2009-01-01

145

Enantiomeric purity determination of malic acid in apple juices by multi-beam circular dichroism detection.  

PubMed

A multi-beam circular dichroism (CD) detector which is easily constructed by inserting inexpensive optics into a conventional photo-diode array detector has an advantage of simultaneous detection of the absorbance and CD. The enantiomeric purity determination of malic acid in beverages was performed by this detection system. Malic acid when complexed with Cu(II) was found to have an absorbance maximum at around 750 nm. The L-malic acid-Cu(II) complex showed a positive Cotton effect in its absorbance band and its anisotropy factor (delta epsilon/epsilon) was relatively large at about 1/170. This complex was retained on a reversed-phase column with the addition of racemic 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid to the mobile phase as the ligand. A plot of the relative peak areas between the CD and the absorption (delta abs/abs) versus optical purity showed good linearity with a correlation coefficient of 0.999, and the precision expressed as the relative standard deviation of the errors from the regression line was +/-2.7% (2sigma). The accuracy of the proposed method was assessed by capillary electrophoresis. Eight commercially available juice products were analyzed using this method. Five of them were thought to be adulterated with synthetic malic acid. PMID:11587331

Yamamoto, A; Akiba, N; Kodama, S; Matsunaga, A; Kato, K; Nakazawa, H

2001-09-14

146

Amino acid sources in the adult diet do not affect life span and fecundity in the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana  

PubMed Central

1. In tropical forests, the adults of many butterfly species feed on fruits rather than nectar from flowers and have long life spans. Rotting fruit and nectar differ from each other in many respects, including sources of amino acids and microbial life. If amino acids in the adult diet can be used for reproduction, this may have facilitated the evolution of extended life spans in this guild. 2. This issue was addressed by investigating effects of banana, yeast, and amino acids in the adult diet of the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera) on longevity and female reproductive output in two experiments. 3. Results showed that in the fruit-feeding butterfly B. anynana: (i) banana juice, but not sliced banana or added amino acids extend life span compared with a sugar solution of similar composition; (ii) compared with this sugar solution, other cohorts (banana juice-amino acid enriched) did not have significantly higher reproductive outputs; (iii) yeast does not represent a valuable source of nutrients; (iv) caloric restriction may cause decreased life span and rate of reproduction; and (v) increased rates of reproduction have a life span cost. PMID:19081752

Molleman, Freerk; Ding, Jimin; Wang, Jane-Ling; Brakefield, Paul M.; Carey, James R.; Zwaan, Bas J.

2008-01-01

147

Vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of furfurals and patulin in fruit juices.  

PubMed

A fast and simple solvent microextraction technique using salting out-vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (salting out-VALLME) was developed for the extraction of furfurals (2-furfural (2-F), 3-furfural (3-F), 5-methylfurfural (5-MF) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF)) and patulin (PAT) in fruit juice samples. The optimum extraction conditions for 5 mL sample were: extraction solvent, 1-hexanol; volume of extractant, 200 µL; vortex time, 45 s; salt addition, 20%. The simultaneous determination of the furfurals and PAT were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The separation was performed using ODS Hypersil C18 column (4.6 mm i.d × 250 mm, 5 ?m) under gradient elution. The detection wavelengths used for all compounds were 280 nm except for 3-F (210 nm). The furfurals and PAT were successfully separated in less than 9 min. Good linearities (r(2)>0.99) were obtained within the range 1-5000 ?g L(-1) for all compounds except for 3-F (10-5000 µg L(-1)) and PAT (0.5-100 ?g L(-1)). The limits of detection (0.28-3.2 µg L(-1)) were estimated at S/N ratio of 3. The validated salting out-VALLME-HPLC method was applied for the analysis of furfurals and PAT in fruit juice samples (apple, mango and grape). PMID:24468341

Abu-Bakar, Nur-Bahiyah; Makahleh, Ahmad; Saad, Bahruddin

2014-03-01

148

Furfural Production from Fruit Shells by Acid-Catalyzed Hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pentosans are hydrolyzed to pentoses by dilute mineral acid hydrolysis. The main source of pentosans is hemicelluloses. Furfural can be produced by the acid hydrolysis of pentosan from fruit shells such as hazelnut, sunflower, walnut, and almond of agricultural wastes. Further dehydration reactions of the pentoses yield furfural. The hydrolysis of each shell sample was carried out in dilute sulfuric

Ayhan Demirbas

2006-01-01

149

Regulation of Growth and Fruit Maturation with 2-Chloroethanephosphonic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE new growth regulator, 2-chloroethanephosphonic acid (CEP), is active in forcing flowering of pineapple1, as a fruit ripening agent2, for promoting petiole and fruit abscission3 and inducing swelling of pea stems4. (CEP had been released as G-996 in a formulation identified as Amchem 66-329. Previous published reports have referred to it with these designations.) It has been suggested that the

L. J. Edgerton; G. D. Blanpied

1968-01-01

150

Pain reduction and improvement in range of motion after daily consumption of an açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp-fortified polyphenolic-rich fruit and berry juice blend.  

PubMed

Dietary interventions involving antioxidants are of interest for reducing inflammation, improving joint motion, and altering pain perception. We evaluated the effect of oral consumption of a fruit and berry blend on pain and range of motion (ROM). This open-label clinical pilot study involved 14 study participants with limitations in ROM that was associated with pain and affected daily living. Participants included but were not limited to those with age-related osteoarthritis. Study participants consumed 120 mL MonaVie Active® fruit juice, predominantly containing açai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and other fruit concentrates, daily for 12 weeks. Study participants were assessed at baseline and 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks by structured nurse interviews, pain and activities of daily living (ADL) questionnaires, blood samples, and ROM assessment. Pain was scored by using a visual analogue scale. ROM was assessed by using dual digital inclinometry as recommended by American Medical Association guidelines. Consumption of the juice resulted in significant pain reduction, improved ROM measures, and improvement in ADLs. Serum antioxidant status, as monitored by the cell-based antioxidant protection in erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay, was improved within 2 weeks and continued to improve throughout the 12 weeks of study participation (P<.01). The inflammatory marker C-reactive protein was reduced at 12 weeks, but this change did not reach statistical significance. Lipid peroxidation decreased mildly at 12 weeks. The antioxidant status, as measured by the CAP-e bioassay, showed the best correlation with improvements in physical well-being (pain, ROM, and ADL). The significant association among increased antioxidant status, improved ROM, and pain reduction warrants further study. PMID:21470042

Jensen, Gitte S; Ager, David M; Redman, Kimberlee A; Mitzner, Marcie A; Benson, Kathleen F; Schauss, Alexander G

2011-01-01

151

Pain Reduction and Improvement in Range of Motion After Daily Consumption of an Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Pulp–Fortified Polyphenolic-Rich Fruit and Berry Juice Blend  

PubMed Central

Abstract Dietary interventions involving antioxidants are of interest for reducing inflammation, improving joint motion, and altering pain perception. We evaluated the effect of oral consumption of a fruit and berry blend on pain and range of motion (ROM). This open-label clinical pilot study involved 14 study participants with limitations in ROM that was associated with pain and affected daily living. Participants included but were not limited to those with age-related osteoarthritis. Study participants consumed 120?mL MonaVie Active® fruit juice, predominantly containing açai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and other fruit concentrates, daily for 12 weeks. Study participants were assessed at baseline and 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks by structured nurse interviews, pain and activities of daily living (ADL) questionnaires, blood samples, and ROM assessment. Pain was scored by using a visual analogue scale. ROM was assessed by using dual digital inclinometry as recommended by American Medical Association guidelines. Consumption of the juice resulted in significant pain reduction, improved ROM measures, and improvement in ADLs. Serum antioxidant status, as monitored by the cell-based antioxidant protection in erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay, was improved within 2 weeks and continued to improve throughout the 12 weeks of study participation (P<.01). The inflammatory marker C-reactive protein was reduced at 12 weeks, but this change did not reach statistical significance. Lipid peroxidation decreased mildly at 12 weeks. The antioxidant status, as measured by the CAP-e bioassay, showed the best correlation with improvements in physical well-being (pain, ROM, and ADL). The significant association among increased antioxidant status, improved ROM, and pain reduction warrants further study. PMID:21470042

Ager, David M.; Redman, Kimberlee A.; Mitzner, Marcie A.; Benson, Kathleen F.; Schauss, Alexander G.

2011-01-01

152

Increased Antioxidant Capacity and Inhibition of Lipid Peroxidation in Healthy Adults Consuming an Açai (Euterpe oleracea) Fruit-Based Juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro and in vivo properties of an açai based juice blend (MonaVie Active®, Salt Lake City, UT) were evaluated. Initially, a phenolic profile was determined for the beverage, and a cell-based antioxidant protection (CAP-e) assay (Honzel et al., 2008) was performed, which showed that the antioxidants in the beverage could penetrate erythrocytes and significantly protect the cells from

A. G. Schauss; Xianli Wu

153

[Rapid measurement of citric acids in orange juice using visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy].  

PubMed

Visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (Vis/NIRS) as a new method was proposed for the rapid and nondestructive measurement of citric acids in orange juice. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference method for the spectral analysis of citric acids. The original spectral data were preprocessed by the smoothing method with five smoothing points in order to eliminate the noise. Before modeling, large spectral data were compressed by wavelet transform (WT) in Matlab7.01 with the edited program to reduce the dimensions and modeling time, and then the new variables after being compressed were used to build PLS calibration in spectral software Unscrambler 9.5. Considering the effect of different wavelet functions and decomposed scales on the data compressed, the optimal wavelet function Db4 and decomposed scale 5 were determined by predictive residual error sum of squares (PRESS). A total of forty samples were used in our experiment, including thirty samples for the calibration model and ten unknown samples for the prediction. The quality of the calibration model was evaluated by the correlation coefficients (r) and standard error of calibration (SEC), and the prediction results were assessed by correlation coefficients (r) and standard error of prediction (SEP). Comparing WT-PLS model with PLS model, the result of WT-PLS model was r of 0.901 and SEP of 0.937, while the result of PLS model was r of 0.849 and SEP of 1.662, indicating that the prediction result from PLS model with wavelet transform was better than that from PLS model. PMID:18051520

Cen, Hai-Yan; He, Yong; Zhang, Hui; Feng, Feng-Qin

2007-09-01

154

Multisensory flavor perception: Assessing the influence of fruit acids and color cues on the perception of fruit-flavored beverages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a study designed to investigate the influence of fruit acids (in particular, citric and malic acid) on people’s perception of the identity and the intensity of a variety of different fruit-flavored solutions. Participants had to identify the flavor of fruit-flavored drinks that were colored yellow, grey, orange, red, or else were presented as colorless solutions. The participants also

Massimiliano Zampini; Emma Wantling; Nicola Phillips; Charles Spence

2008-01-01

155

Effect of consumption of tomato juice enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the lipid profile, antioxidant biomarker status, and cardiovascular disease risk in healthy women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  We compared the effects of consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-enriched tomato juice versus plain tomato\\u000a juice on the serum lipid profile and levels of biomarkers related to antioxidant status and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk\\u000a in women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Eighteen healthy women participated in a 2-week intervention trial involving the daily intake of 500 mL of n-3 PUFA-enriched\\u000a juice (n = 11) or plain

F. J. García-Alonso; V. Jorge-Vidal; G. Ros; M. J. Periago

156

Growth and Metabolic Activity of Lemon Juice Vesicle Explants in Vitro1  

PubMed Central

Actively growing juice-vesicle explants, established from small lemon (Citrus limon L. Burm. f. var. `Eureka') fruits, were cultured in vitro on defined media. The juice vesicles continued to enlarge in culture for several months, without callus proliferation, and their initial growth was promoted by indoleacetic acid, gibberellic acid, and N6-benzyladenine. The metabolic competence of the explants, and its relevance to whole fruit development, was further investigated. Juice vesicles continued to accumulate protein on all media, for at least 16 days, but sugars did not change much during culture. Acid invertase increased dramatically during the first days of culture, and its specific activity was markedly promoted by indoleacetic acid, and to a lesser degree by gibberellic acid. Total peroxidase of juice vesicles increased progressively up to the 11th day of culture, and its specific activity was promoted by all three hormones, especially by N6-benzyladenine. Explant growth was accompanied by appearance of several cathodic and anodic isoperoxidases. The results suggest that the study of this unique juice vesicle system may contribute to a better understanding of fruit development. Images PMID:16662136

Altman, Arie; Gulsen, Yucel; Goren, Raphael

1982-01-01

157

Effect of Calcium Nitrate and Boric Acid Sprays on Fruit Set, Yield and Fruit Quality of cv. Amhat Date Palm  

E-print Network

Abstract: The objective of the present study is to investigate the impact of spraying boric acid and/or calcium nitrate on fruit set, yield and fruit of cv. Amhat date palm. The present study was carried out during 2011/2012 growing seasons. Palms were sprayed with boric acid at 250 and 500 ppm and calcium nitrate at 1 and 2 % as individual application or in a combination between boric acid and calcium nitrate concentrations treatments. In general, results indicated that spraying date palm inflorescence with both boric acid and/or calcium nitrate had a significant effect on fruit set, yield and fruit physical and chemical characteristics of Amhat date palm. The superior treatment concerning yield and fruit quality was spraying boric acid at 500 ppm combined with calcium nitrate at 2 % in the two experimental seasons. Key words: Date palm Fruit set Yield Fruit quality Boric acid Calcium nitrate INTRODUCTION synthesis, transport of sugars and carbohydrate metabolism [12]. Calcium is conceder as one of the most Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is concerned as important minerals determining the quality of fruit since it one of the important crops in arid and semi-arid regions of is required for cell elongation and cell division [13]. Till the world. Date palm is one of the ancient domestic fruit now, a little attention have been paid towards nutrient

S. M. A. Sarrwy; E. G. Gadalla; E. A. M. Mostafa

158

Phenolic acids and flavonoids of fig fruit ( Ficus carica L.) in the northern Mediterranean region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolics are an important constituent of fruit quality because of their contribution to the taste, colour and nutritional properties of fruit. We have tried to evaluate the phenolic profile of fig fruit, since only limited information on that topic is available in the literature. With the HPLC-PDA system, we have identified the following phenolics: gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, syringic acid,

Robert Veberic; Mateja Colaric; Franci Stampar

2008-01-01

159

Oxalic acid alleviates chilling injury in peach fruit by regulating energy metabolism and fatty acid contents.  

PubMed

The effects of postharvest oxalic acid (OA) treatment on chilling injury, energy metabolism and membrane fatty acid content in 'Baifeng' peach fruit stored at 0°C were investigated. Internal browning was significantly reduced by OA treatment in peaches. OA treatment markedly inhibited the increase of ion leakage and the accumulation of malondialdehyde. Meanwhile, OA significantly increased the contents of adenosine triphosphate and energy charge in peach fruit. Enzyme activities of energy metabolism including H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase, Ca(2+)-adenosine triphosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase and cytochrome C oxidase were markedly enhanced by OA treatment. The ratio of unsaturated/saturated fatty acid in OA-treated fruit was significantly higher than that in control fruit. These results suggest that the alleviation in chilling injury by OA may be due to enhanced enzyme activities related to energy metabolism and higher levels of energy status and unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio. PMID:24837925

Jin, Peng; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Lei; Shan, Timin; Zheng, Yonghua

2014-10-15

160

Orange Juice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A boy named Ben learns that the processing behind fresh-squeezed orange juice is simpler—and more environmentally friendly—than that of bottled orange juice, in this animated video from LOOP SCOOPS.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-11-30

161

Purification, characterization and kinetic properties of pepper fruit acidic peroxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A soluble acidic peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) was purified about 300-fold from the pericarp of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruits by ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by chromatography in columns of Sephadex G-100, Q-Sepharose and Superose 12 PC 3.2\\/30. The purified enzyme has a pI of 3.8 and a Mr, determined by gel filtration, of 50 k. The enzyme was stable in

Federico Pomar; M. Angeles Bernal; José Díaz; Fuencisla Merino

1997-01-01

162

Purification and characterization of banana fruit acid phosphatase  

Microsoft Academic Search

An acid phosphatase (APase, EC 3.1.3.2) from ripened banana (Musa cavendishii L. cv. Cavendish) fruit has been purified 1,876-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity and a final p-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP)-hydrolyzing specific activity of 745 µmol Pi produced (mg protein)-1 min-1. Non-denaturing PAGE of the final preparation resolved a single protein-staining band that co-migrated with APase activity. SDS-PAGE and analytical gel filtration demonstrated that

William L. Turner; William C. Plaxton

2001-01-01

163

Regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in strawberry fruits  

PubMed Central

Plants have several L-ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthetic pathways, but the contribution of each one to the synthesis of AsA varyies between different species, organs, and developmental stages. Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) fruits are rich in AsA. The pathway that uses D-galacturonate as the initial substrate is functional in ripe fruits, but the contribution of other pathways to AsA biosynthesis has not been studied. The transcription of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes such as D-galacturonate reductase (FaGalUR) and myo-inositol oxygenase (FaMIOX), and the AsA recycling enzyme monodehydroascorbate reductase (FaMDHAR) were positively correlated with the increase in AsA during fruit ripening. Fruit storage for 72 h in a cold room reduced the AsA content by 30%. Under an ozone atmosphere, this reduction was 15%. Ozone treatment increased the expression of the FaGalUR, FaMIOX, and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (FaGIPP) genes, and transcription of the L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (FaGLDH) and FAMDHAR genes was higher in the ozone-stored than in the air-stored fruits. Analysis of AsA content in a segregating population from two strawberry cultivars showed high variability, which did not correlate with the transcription of any of the genes studied. Study of GalUR protein in diverse cultivars of strawberry and different Fragaria species showed that a correlation between GalUR and AsA content was apparent in most cases, but it was not general. Three alleles were identified in strawberry, but any sequence effect on the AsA variability was eliminated by analysis of the allele-specific expression. Taken together, these results indicate that FaGalUR shares the control of AsA levels with other enzymes and regulatory elements in strawberry fruit. PMID:21561953

Cruz-Rus, Eduardo; Amaya, Iraida; Sanchez-Sevilla, Jose F.; Botella, Miguel A.; Valpuesta, Victoriano

2011-01-01

164

Development of magnetic octadecylsilane particles as solid-phase extraction adsorbent for the determination of fat-soluble vitamins in fruit juice-milk beverage by capillary liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

A sensitive, fast and simple method based on magnetic octadecylsilane particles was developed for the extraction of three fat-soluble vitamins followed by capillary LC (CLC) analysis with UV detection. Magnetic octadecylsilane particles were prepared based on three-step reactions including co-precipitation, sol-gel polymerization and alkylation. The characterization of the prepared product was studied by scanning electron microscope and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry. The particles were used as magnetic SPE adsorbent for the extraction of fat-soluble vitamins in fruit juice-milk beverage. The extraction condition and efficiency of the particles for fat-soluble vitamins were investigated. By coupling magnetic SPE with capillary LC with UV detection, low concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in fruit juice-milk beverage can be detected without the interference from other substances in the sample matrix. PMID:20533343

Hu, Chaofan; Jia, Li; Liu, Qingqing; Zhang, Sheng

2010-07-01

165

Amino acid sequence of a carboxypeptidase inhibitor from tomato fruit.  

PubMed

The amino acid sequence of a 37 residue carboxypeptidase inhibitor from tomato fruit has been determined. The amino terminus was shown to be 2-oxopyrrolidine-5-carboxylic acid by digestion of reduced and S-carboxymethylated inhibitor with pyroglutamate aminopeptidase. The remainder of the sequence was assigned by analysis of peptides which had been generated by specific cleavage at the Asp4-Pro5 bond under acid conditions and by treatment with trypsin. The amino acid sequence of this inhibitor is identical with that of an analogous inhibitor from potatoes in 26 positions, and two of the replacements are highly conservative. The identification of the nonconservative replacements has been used to better define regions of the inhibitor which are not believed to contribute significantly to the free energy of association of the enzyme-inhibitor complex. PMID:7236596

Hass, G M; Hermodson, M A

1981-04-14

166

Effect of Gibberellic Acid on Fruit Set and Berry Enlargement in Seedless Grapes of Vitis vinifera  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALTHOUGH an increased set of fruit as a result of gibberellic acid or related compounds has been observed in tomatoes1, there are insufficient data concerning the effect of this chemical on enlargement of fruit in any plant.

Robert J. Weaver

1958-01-01

167

Suppression of Monilinia fructicolacutinase production by peach fruit surface phenolic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorogenic and caffeic acids are major phenolic acids in the epidermis and subtending cell layers of peach fruit (Prunus persica). Their concentrations are especially high in peach genotypes with a high level of resistance to the brown rot fungus,Monilinia fructicola, and decline as fruit mature with a corresponding increase in disease susceptibility. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid at concentrations up

R. M. Bostock; S. M. Wilcox; G. Wang; J. E. Adaskaveg

1999-01-01

168

Differential effects of abscisic acid and ethylene on the fruit maturation of Litchi chinensis Sonn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two litchi cultivars, a well-coloured ‘Nuomici’ and a poorly coloured ‘Feizixiao’, were used to investigate changes in endogenous\\u000a abscisic acid (ABA) concentration and ethylene production during fruit maturation and to test the effects of exogenous growth\\u000a regulators on litchi fruit maturation. Abscisic acid concentration in both the aril and pericarp increased with fruit maturation.\\u000a Transfusion of ABA into the fruit

Huicong Wang; Huibai Huang; Xuming Huang

2007-01-01

169

Anti-genotoxic activity of Vitis coignetiae Pulliat towards heterocyclic amines and isolation and identification of caftaric acid as an antimutagenic component from the juice.  

PubMed

Our study demonstrated that the formation of DNA adducts in liver, lungs, colon and kidneys of mice given a carcinogenic heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), in the diet significantly decreased following the administration of the juice of Vitis coignetiae, purple berries from a vine tree. The juice of V. coignetiae significantly inhibited the clastogenicity and mutagenicity of heterocyclic amines in the micronucleus assay and the Ames test, and was an effective inhibitor of the activities of phase I enzymes (cytochrome P450 1A1 and cytochrome P450 1A2) and enhancer of the activities of phase II enzymes (uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase and glutathione S-transferase). We investigated the purification and isolation of an active compound in the juice of V. coignetiae using antimutagenicity as a separation marker. Caftaric acid, a polyphenolic compound, was identified as a component responsible for antimutagenicity in the juice of V. coignetiae towards the carcinogenic heterocyclic amine 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-2). This is the first report of antimutagenicity of caftaric acid. Caftaric acid was reported as an inhibitor of the protein-protein interactions mediated by the Src-family kinases. The impact of the juice of V. coignetiae and its constituents on tumor initiation and promotion thus warrants further study. PMID:21601008

Zhang, Xiaomeng; Ishida, Rie; Yuhara, Yuta; Kamiya, Tomonori; Hatano, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Goro; Arimoto-Kobayashi, Sakae

2011-08-16

170

Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota from masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits and their fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

Masau are Zimbabwean wild fruits, which are usually eaten raw and/ or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu and jam. Yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits collected from Muzarabani district in Zimbabwe were isolated and identified using physiological and molecular methods. The predominant species were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia fabianii and Aureobasidium pullulans. A. pullulans was the dominant species on the unripe fruits but was not isolated from the fermented fruit pulp. S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis were predominant in the fermented fruit pulp but were not detected in the unripe fruits. S. cerevisiae, I. orientalis, P. fabianii and S. fibuligera are fermentative yeasts and these might be used in the future development of starter cultures to produce better quality fermented products from masau fruit. Lactic acid bacteria were preliminary identified and the predominant strains found were Lactobacillus agilis and L. plantarum. Other species identified included L. bifermentans, L. minor, L. divergens, L. confusus, L. hilgardii, L. fructosus, L. fermentum and Streptococcus spp. Some of the strains of LAB could also potentially be used in a mixed-starter culture with yeasts and might contribute positively in the production of fermented masau fruit products. PMID:17904237

Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Gadaga, Tendekayi H; Theelen, Bart; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

2007-11-30

171

Reduction of non-enzymatic browning of orange juice and semi-concentrates by removal of reaction substrate.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to standardize the technology for the removal of amino acids (one of the browning reaction substrates) from sweet orange cv. Malta Common juice to reduce colour and quality deterioration in single strength juice and during subsequent concentration. Juice of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) cv. Malta Common fruits was extracted by screw type juice extractor, preserved in 500 ppm SO2 and clarified by using "Pectinase CCM" enzyme (0.2% for 2 h at 50?±?2 °C). For removal of amino acids juice was passed under gravity through a glass column packed with an acidic cation exchange resin (CER), Dowex-50 W and quantity to be treated in one lot was standardized. The CER treated and untreated juices were concentrated to 15 and 30°Brix in a rotary vacuum evaporator. Results indicate that 121 ml of orange juice when passed through a glass column (5 cm internal diameter) packed with cation exchange resin (Dowex-50 W) upto a height of 8 cm, could remove about 98.4% of the amino acids with minimum losses in other juice constituents. With cation exchange resin treatment, the non-enzymatic browning and colour deterioration of orange juice semi-concentrates was reduced to about 3 folds in comparison to untreated counterparts. The retention of vitamin C and sugars was also better in semi-concentrates prepared from cation exchange resin treated juice. Thus, cation exchange resin treatment of orange juice prior to concentration and storage is highly beneficial in reduction of non-enzymatic browning, colour deterioration and retention of nutritional, sensory quality of product during preparation and storage. PMID:24966423

Sharma, Satish K; Juyal, Shashibala; Rao, V K; Yadav, V K; Dixit, A K

2014-07-01

172

Identification of candidate amino acids involved in the formation of pink-red pigments in onion (Allium cepa L.) juice and separation by HPLC.  

PubMed

The formation of pink-red pigments ("pinking") by various amino acids was investigated by reacting amino acids with compounds present in onion juice. The unknown pink-red pigments were generated and separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a diode array detector (DAD) in the range of 200 to 700 nm. To generate pink-red pigments, we developed several reaction systems using garlic alliinase, purified 1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (1-PeCSO), onion thiosulfinate, natural onion juice, and 21 free amino acids. The compound 1-PeCSO was a key compound associated with pinking in the presence of both the alliinase and amino acids. Numerous naturally occurring pink-red pigments were detected and separated from pink onion juice using the HPLC-DAD system at 515 nm. Most free amino acids, with the exceptions of histidine, serine, and cysteine, formed various pink-red pigments when reacted with onion thiosulfinate. This observation indicated that onion pinking is caused not by a single pigment, but by many. Furthermore, more than one color compound could be produced from a single amino acid; this explains, in part, why there were many pink-red compound peaks in the chromatogram of discolored natural onion juice. We presumed that the complexity of the pink-red pigments was due to the involvement of more than 21 natural amino acids as well as several derivatives of the color products produced from each amino acid. We observed that the pinking process in onion juice is very similar to that of the greening process in crushed garlic, emphasizing that both thiosulfinate from flavor precursors and free amino acids are absolutely required for the discoloration. PMID:21535486

Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

2010-10-01

173

Antimicrobial efficacy of emulsified essential oil components against weak acid-adapted spoilage yeasts in clear and cloudy apple juice.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity of oil-in-water emulsions containing dual combinations of the essential oil components cinnamaldehyde, perillaldehyde, and citral was examined against two acid-resistant yeast strains (Zygosaccharomyces bailii) in beverage systems composed of diluted clear or cloudy apple juice and in a Sabouraud dextrose broth model. Antimicrobial properties of an encapsulated oil-in-water emulsion and of essential oil components dissolved in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide were compared using plate counts and turbidity measurements. Growth curves were modulated to qualitatively assess differences in antimicrobial efficacy. The impact of the presence of a beverage emulsion without essential oils (unloaded; 5% oil and 1% modified starch, pH 3.0) on the antimicrobial efficacy also was investigated. Dual combinations of essential oil components were sufficient to completely inhibit and/or kill yeast cells in diluted apple juice and Sabouraud dextrose broth systems at very low concentrations (100 to 200 ?g/ml). However, the combination of perillaldehyde and citral had the weakest antimicrobial effect; a concentration of 400 ?g/ml was necessary to prevent yeast growth in beverages, and up to 800 ?g/ml was required in systems to which an unloaded emulsion had been added. The antimicrobial activity of essential oil components did not differ in diluted clear and cloudy apple juices and was not affected by being added in emulsified form or dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide as long as there was no unloaded emulsion also present. These results indicate that formulations of essential oil combinations encapsulated together in emulsions are highly effective for inhibiting and/or killing microorganisms in real beverage systems. PMID:25198593

Loeffler, Myriam; Beiser, Sophia; Suriyarak, Sarisa; Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

2014-08-01

174

Analysis of the apple fruit acid\\/low-acid trait by SSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is necessary to find out the genetic characteristics of malic acid in the course of apple genomic research and breeding.\\u000a In this study, the SSR marker linked to the acid\\/low-acid trait in apple fruit was identified from 140 SSR primer pairs, using\\u000a 91 F1 population hybrids from the intra-specific cross between apple cultivar ‘Dongguang’ and ‘Fuji’ as the experimental

Yuxin Yao; Heng Zhai; Lingling Zhao; Kai Yi; Zhi Liu; Ye Song

2008-01-01

175

Ascorbic acid metabolism during bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) fruit development.  

PubMed

Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) possesses a high antioxidant capacity in berries due to the presence of anthocyanins and ascorbic acid (AsA). Accumulation of AsA and the expression of the genes encoding the enzymes of the main AsA biosynthetic route and of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, as well as the activities of the enzymes involved in AsA oxidation and recycling were investigated for the first time during the development and ripening of bilberry fruit. The results showed that the AsA level remained relatively stable during fruit maturation. The expression of the genes encoding the key enzymes in the AsA main biosynthetic route showed consistent trends with each other as well as with AsA levels, especially during the first stages of fruit ripening. The expression of genes and activities of the enzyme involved in the AsA oxidation and recycling route showed more prominent developmental stage-dependent changes during the ripening process. Different patterns of activity were found among the studied enzymes and the results were, for some enzymes, in accordance with AsA levels. In fully ripe berries, both AsA content and gene expression were significantly higher in skin than in pulp. PMID:22608079

Cocetta, Giacomo; Karppinen, Katja; Suokas, Marko; Hohtola, Anja; Häggman, Hely; Spinardi, Anna; Mignani, Ilaria; Jaakola, Laura

2012-07-15

176

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

Vegetable broth Canned, jarred or packaged fruit Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes.) Peanut or other nut butters Seeds (pumpkin, sunflower, sesame) Grains: Dry cereal (boxed or bagged

O'Toole, Alice J.

177

Candidate Genes and Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Fruit Ascorbic Acid Content in Three Tomato Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh fruit and vegetables are a major source of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), an important antioxidant for the human diet and also for plants. Ascorbic acid content in fruit exhibits a quantitative inheritance. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for ascorbic acid content have been mapped in three tomato populations derived from crosses between cultivated tomato varieties (Solanum lycopersicum accessions) and three

Rebecca Stevens; Michel Buret; Philippe Duffe; C. Garchery; P. Baldet; C. Rothan; M. Causse

2007-01-01

178

Effect of oxalic acid on control of postharvest browning of litchi fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit, cv. Huaizhi, was treated with 2 and 4mM oxalic acid and stored at room temperature to investigate the effect of oxalic acid on pericarp browning. The results showed that the pericarp browning indices of the fruit, treated with both oxalic acid concentrations, were significantly lower than that of the control, due to increase of membrane

Xiaolin Zheng; Shiping Tian

2006-01-01

179

The hydroxycinnamic acid content of barley and brewers' spent grain (BSG) and the potential to incorporate phenolic extracts of BSG as antioxidants into fruit beverages.  

PubMed

The hydroxycinnamic acid (HA) content of starting barley for brewers' spent grains (BSG), whole BSG and phenolic extracts from BSG was measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and correlated with antioxidant potential. The effect of BSG phenolic extracts on antioxidant activity of fruit beverages was also assessed (using the total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays). The concentration of HA present in barley extract and BSG was in the order of ferulic acid (FA), p-coumaric acid (p-CA) derivatives, FA derivatives, p-CA, caffeic acid (CA) and CA derivatives. Results suggested that brewing and roasting decreased the HA content. Antioxidant activity was significantly (P<0.05) correlated with caffeic acid (R(2)=0.8309) and total HA (R(2)=0.3942) concentrations. Addition of extracts to fruit beverages resulted in a significant (P<0.05) increase in antioxidant activity of cranberry juice, measured by the FRAP assay. In vitro digestion significantly (P<0.05) reduced TPC, DPPH and FRAP activity of the fruit beverages. PMID:23870996

McCarthy, Aoife L; O'Callaghan, Yvonne C; Neugart, Susanne; Piggott, Charles O; Connolly, Alan; Jansen, Marcel A K; Krumbein, Angelika; Schreiner, Monika; FitzGerald, Richard J; O'Brien, Nora M

2013-12-01

180

Localization of 9- and 13-oxo-octadecadienoic acids in tomato fruit.  

PubMed

We previously reported that the two peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonists, 9- and 13-oxo-octadecadienoic acids (oxo-ODAs), were found in the tomato fruit. However, their localization remains unknown. Herein, we showed that oxo-ODAs localize primarily in the fruit peel and their amount increases after the homogenization of the tomato fruit. PMID:25060034

Takahashi, Haruya; Kamakari, Kosuke; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Mohri, Shinsuke; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Matsumura, Yasuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Kawada, Teruo

2014-10-01

181

Browning control, shelf life extension and quality maintenance of frozen litchi fruit by hydrochloric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Litchi fruit can be stored at ?18 °C without obvious adverse effects on the aril, but the pericarp darkens and browns when they are frozen or thawed. Experiments were conducted to test effects of hydrochloric acid on browning inhibition of litchi fruit pericarp for displacement of sulphur application. Litchi fruit were soaked in 0.5%, 1% and 2% HCl for 2–10

Yueming Jiang; Yuebiao Li; Jianrong Li

2004-01-01

182

The PH gene determines fruit acidity and contributes to the evolution of sweet melons.  

PubMed

Taste has been the subject of human selection in the evolution of agricultural crops, and acidity is one of the three major components of fleshy fruit taste, together with sugars and volatile flavour compounds. We identify a family of plant-specific genes with a major effect on fruit acidity by map-based cloning of C. melo PH gene (CmPH) from melon, Cucumis melo taking advantage of the novel natural genetic variation for both high and low fruit acidity in this species. Functional silencing of orthologous PH genes in two distantly related plant families, cucumber and tomato, produced low-acid, bland tasting fruit, showing that PH genes control fruit acidity across plant families. A four amino-acid duplication in CmPH distinguishes between primitive acidic varieties and modern dessert melons. This fortuitous mutation served as a preadaptive antecedent to the development of sweet melon cultigens in Central Asia over 1,000 years ago. PMID:24898284

Cohen, Shahar; Itkin, Maxim; Yeselson, Yelena; Tzuri, Galil; Portnoy, Vitaly; Harel-Baja, Rotem; Lev, Shery; Sa'ar, Uzi; Davidovitz-Rikanati, Rachel; Baranes, Nadine; Bar, Einat; Wolf, Dalia; Petreikov, Marina; Shen, Shmuel; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Ast, Tslil; Schuldiner, Maya; Belausov, Eduard; Eshed, Ravit; Ophir, Ron; Sherman, Amir; Frei, Benedikt; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Xu, Yimin; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, Jim; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Yaakov; Paris, Harry S; Katzir, Nurit; Burger, Yosef; Schaffer, Arthur A

2014-01-01

183

Effect of Abscisic Acid on Banana Fruit Ripening in Relation to the Role of Ethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of abscisic acid (ABA) in banana fruit ripening was examined with the ethylene binding inhibitor, 1-methylcyclopropene\\u000a (1-MCP). ABA (0, 10?5, 10?4, or 10?3 mol\\/L) was applied by vacuum infiltration into fruit. 1-MCP (1 ?L\\/L) was applied by injecting a measured volume of stock\\u000a gas into sealed glass jars containing fruit. Fruit ripening, as judged by ethylene evolution and

Yueming Jiang; Daryl C. Joyce; Andrew J. Macnish

2000-01-01

184

[Determination of ten photoinitiators in fruit juices and tea beverages by solid-phase micro-extraction coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

A method for the determination of ten photoinitiators (PIs), benzophenone, ethyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate, 1-hydroxycyclohexyl-phenylketone, 4-methylbenzophenone, 2-ethylhexyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate, 4-chlorobenzophenone, 2-chlorothioxanthone, 2-isopropylthio-xanthone, 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone, methyl 2-benzoylbenzoate, in 13 kinds of fruit juice and 3 kinds of tea beverage has been established, using solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) combined with chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). At first, the major factors of SPME, extraction time and temperature, were studied through orthogonal experiment. Then the optimal operation conditions were obtained via the refinement of various factors. After the sample was extracted by SPME, it was desorbed for target analytes in sampling inlet for 3 min, and separated on an HP-5MS column, then detected by MS in selected ion monitoring mode, and quantified through calibration curve. The working curves were obtained using sample matrix in order to eliminate the matrix interference. The linear range was from 0.3 microg/L to 60 microg/L and the detection limit range was from 3 ng/L to 16 ng/L. The samples were determined five times with four different spiked levels individually and the relative standard deviations of all the samples were less than 14.5%. This determination method was applied in 16 kinds of packed beverages with different brands and different species. Benzophenone had been detected from all the samples. 4-Methylbenzophenone, 2-ethylhexyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate, 2-isopropylthioxanthone, 1-hydroxycyclohexyl-phenylketone and 2-chlorothioxanthone had been detected from a portion of samples. Simultaneous determination was achieved for the ten PIs. These results provide a reference to determine the PIs migrated from packing materials in beverage. This method is simple, high sensitive and non-polluting. PMID:24669718

Liu, Pengyan; Chen, Yanjie; Zhao, Chunxia; Tian, Lei

2013-12-01

185

Effects of orange juice on the pharmacokinetics of atenolol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Fruit juices can significantly change the pharmacokinetics of several drugs. Our objective was to investigate the effect of orange juice on the pharmacokinetics of the beta-blocking agent atenolol. Methods: In a randomized cross-over study with two phases and a washout of 2 weeks, ten healthy volunteers took either 200 ml orange juice or water thrice daily for 3 days

J. J. Lilja; K. Raaska; P. J. Neuvonen

2005-01-01

186

[The reaction of cyclohexylsulphamic acid (Cyclamate) with nitrous acid in aqueous HCl-solution, isolated human gastric juice and urine (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The pH dependence of the formation and decomposition of the N-nitroso derivative, which is produced by the reaction of cyclohexylsulphamic acid with nitrous acid, was investigated by means of continuous photometric measurement of the changes in absorbance. Reaction at pH 2.45 resulted in an optimal yield of the N-nitroso derivative. The half-life of the decomposition reaction (the reactants cyclohexylsulphamic acid/sodium nitrite being in a molar ratio of 1:1.11) at pH 2.61 was 13.6 min. The N-nitroso derivative showed a relatively high stability at pH 4.5. The reaction in isolated human gastric juice and urine showed the same pH dependency as in aqueous HCl solution. PMID:670904

Kinawi, A; Kia, H

1978-06-01

187

Inhibition of aconitase in citrus fruit callus results in a metabolic shift towards amino acid biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrate, a major determinant of citrus fruit quality, accumulates early in fruit development and declines towards maturation.\\u000a The isomerization of citrate to isocitrate, catalyzed by aconitase is a key step in acid metabolism. Inhibition of mitochondrial\\u000a aconitase activity early in fruit development contributes to acid accumulation, whereas increased cytosolic activity of aconitase\\u000a causes citrate decline. It was previously hypothesized that

Asfaw Degu; Bayissa Hatew; Adriano Nunes-Nesi; Ludmila Shlizerman; Naftali Zur; Ehud Katz; Alisdair R. Fernie; Eduardo Blumwald; Avi Sadka

2011-01-01

188

Original article Optimisation of pectin acid extraction from passion fruit peel  

E-print Network

Original article Optimisation of pectin acid extraction from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis; Accepted in revised form 1 April 2008) Summary Pectin was extracted from passion fruit peel using three different acids (citric, hydrochloric or nitric) at different temperatures (40­90 °C), pH (1

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

189

Effect of ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) on the fruit ripening characters of rabbiteye blueberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) application on rabbiteye blueberry fruit quality during the growth period was investigated. Ethephon treatment stimulated the decrement of titratable acidity, anthocyanin accumulation and fruit softening 4 days after treatment and the promoting effects continued through the investigation period. The ripening promotion effect of ethephon on total soluble solids content was observed only 8 days after

Takuya Ban; Mihoko Kugishima; Tsuneo Ogata; Shuji Shiozaki; Shosaku Horiuchi; Hisafumi Ueda

2007-01-01

190

Mixed-mode solid-phase extraction and cleanup procedures for the liquid chromatographic determination of thiabendazole and carbendazim in fruit juices.  

PubMed

Solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedures were developed for rapid cleanup and determination of thiabendazole and carbendazim in orange, apple, and grape juices. Samples were prepared by using an SPE cartridge containing a mixed-mode sorbent with both reversed-phase and strong cation-exchange chemistries. Analysis was by liquid chromatography with photodiode-array UV detection. Orange juice was analyzed by mixed-mode cation-exchange extraction with reversed-phase cleanup; the other juices were analyzed by reversed-phase extraction with cation-exchange cleanup. Recoveries >80% for carbendazim and >90% for thiabendazole. Quantitation limits were 20 microg/L for both analytes. PMID:11324625

Young, M S; Phillips, D J; Iraneta, P C; Krol, J

2001-01-01

191

Effect of Acid Adaptation and Acid Shock on Thermal Tolerance and Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and O111 in Apple Juice.  

PubMed

Gradual exposure to moderate acidic environments may enhance the thermal tolerance and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in acid and acidified foods. Limited studies comparing methodologies to induce this phenomenon have been performed. The effects of strain and physiological state on thermal tolerance and survival of E. coli in apple juice were studied. The decimal reduction time (D-value) at 56°C [D56°C] was determined for E. coli O157:H7 strains C7927 and ATCC 43895 and E. coli O111 at four physiological states: unadapted, acid-shocked (two methodologies used), and acid-adapted cells. The effect of acidulant was also evaluated by determining the D56°C for the O157:H7 strains subjected to acid shock during 18 h in Trypticase soy broth (TSB), with pH 5 adjusted with hydrochloric, lactic, and malic acids. Survival of the three strains at four physiological states was determined at 1 ± 1°C and 24 ± 2°C. Experiments were performed in triplicate. For thermal inactivation, a significant interaction was found between strain and physiological state (P < 0.0001). Highest thermal tolerance was observed for the 43895 strain subjected to acid shock during 18 h in TSB acidified with HCl (D56°C of 3.0 ± 0.1 min) and the lowest for the acid-shocked C7927 strain treated for 4 h in TSB acidified with HCl (D56°C of 0.45 ± 0.06 min). Acidulants did not alter the heat tolerance of strain C7927 (D56°C of 1.9 ± 0.1 min; P > 0.05) but significantly affected strain 43895 (P < 0.05), showing the greatest tolerance when malic acid was used (D56°C of 3.7 ± 0.3 min). A significant interaction between strain, storage temperature, and physiological state was noted during the survival experiments (P < 0.05). E. coli O111 was the most resistant strain, surviving 6 and 23 days at 24 and 1°C, respectively. Our findings may assist in designing challenge studies for juices and other pH-controlled products, where Shiga toxin-producing E. coli represents the pathogen of concern. PMID:25285481

Usaga, Jessie; Worobo, Randy W; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I

2014-10-01

192

The salicylic acid-induced protection of non-climacteric unripe pepper fruit against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is similar to the resistance of ripe fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides deleteriously affects unripe pepper fruit, but not ripe fruit. Here, we show that the induction of local acquired resistance\\u000a (LAR) by salicylic acid (SA), 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid, or benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester\\u000a pretreatment protects unripe pepper fruit against the fungus, while jasmonic acid (JA) does not. The SA-mediated LAR in the\\u000a unripe fruit inhibited the fungal

Sanghyeob Lee; Jong-Chan Hong; Woong Bae Jeon; Young-Soo Chung; Soonkee Sung; Doil Choi; Young Hee Joung; Boung-Jun Oh

2009-01-01

193

A New Hydroxy-acid in the Peel of Apple Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING the examination of paper chromatograms of extracts from whole mature Edward VII apples, a faint acid spot appeared which did not correspond in position with any of the usual fruit acids. On chromatograms of extracts of peel tissue only, the unknown acid appeared to be present in an amount approximately one-quarter that of the malic acid present (the chief

A. C. Hulme

1953-01-01

194

Effect of different tetra pack juices on microhardness of direct tooth colored-restorative materials  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the effect of apple and orange juices on the surface hardness of direct tooth-colored restorative materials. Materials and methods The materials included resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer 3M™ ESPE™ Core buildup restorative) and composite resin (Filtek™ 3M™ ESPE™ Z350). A total of 45 disks of each restorative material were prepared. The disks were divided into groups of 15, which were immersed for 7 days in deionized water (G1/G4, control group), apple juice (G2/G5), or orange juice (G3/G6). The pH of the apple juice was approximately 4.8 and the pH of the orange juice was approximately 4.9. Surface hardness tests were performed before immersion and at various times following immersion. Statistical analysis included two-way ANOVA with repeated measurement and Tukey’s test. Results Exposure to juices significantly reduced the hardness of both materials (p < 0.05), while deionized water did not affect the surface hardness of either material. The ionomer cement experienced a greater reduction than the composite resin (p = 0.000). There was no significant difference in the effect of apple and orange juices. Conclusion Juice box-type fruit juices reduced the hardness of direct tooth-colored restorative materials. Material selection should be considered when planning restorations in patients who have experienced tooth surface loss. In terms of the materials evaluated in this study, the composite material provides greater durability under acidic conditions. PMID:23960552

Fatima, Nazish; Abidi, Syed Yawar Ali; Qazi, Fazal-Ur-Rehaman; Jat, Shahbaz Ahmed

2012-01-01

195

Potential of Spanish sour-sweet pomegranates (cultivar C25) for the juice industry.  

PubMed

Commercial juices of sweet pomegranates and fresh juices of sour-sweet pomegranates were analysed for organic acids, sugars, antioxidant activity, volatile composition, sensory profile and consumer liking. Organic acids and sugars were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography, while volatiles were extracted using hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector. Malic acid was predominant in sweet juices while citric acid in sour-sweet samples. Fructose and glucose were found as the predominant sugars in all juices. A total of 18 compounds were found in pomegranate aroma profile, including monoterpenes, aldehydes, alcohols, monoterpenoids and linear hydrocarbons; the most abundant compounds were 3-carene, ?-terpinene and ?-terpineol. The total concentration of volatiles ranged from 2.0 up to 5.1?mg/L, with commercial samples presenting higher total concentrations due to the presence of peel volatiles. The high potential of sour-sweet pomegranate fruits for the juice industry was supported by (a) the high values of positive attributes, such as colour and fresh pomegranate flavour and (b) the high overall liking of consumers. PMID:22414932

Carbonell-Barrachina, A A; Calín-Sánchez, A; Bagatar, B; Hernández, F; Legua, P; Martínez-Font, R; Melgarejo, P

2012-04-01

196

Effect of salicylic acid (SA) on delaying fruit senescence of Huang Kum pear  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was undertaken to explore the effect of salicylic acid (SA) at different concentrations on regulating fruit\\u000a senescence of Huang Kum pear. Through dipping fruits and fruit discs for a series of hours in SA solution, enzyme activities\\u000a and physiological characteristics of Huang Kum pear were determined. The results revealed that SA enhanced the activity of\\u000a superoxide dismutase (SOD)

Hassan Imran; Yuxing Zhang; Guoqiang Du; Guoying Wang; Jianghong Zhang

2007-01-01

197

Effects of Cultivar, Fruit Number and Reflected Photosynthetically Active Radiation on Fragaria x ananassa Productivity and Fruit Ellagic Acid and Ascorbic Acid Concentrations  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims A number of strawberry varieties were surveyed for their total ellagic acid concentration, and attempts were made to determine if ellagic acid and ascorbic acid concentrations of two strawberry cultivars could be increased by polythene reflective mulches. • Methods After adjusting crop yields and cultivation using polythene mulches with two different PAR reflective capacities, field- and polytunnel-grown strawberries were analysed for ellagic acid and ascorbic acid concentrations by HPLC. Comparative measurements of yield and fruit quality were determined along with plant developmental changes. • Key Results Ellagic acid concentration varied widely with strawberry cultivar (60–341?µg g?1 frozen weight), as did the ratio of conjugated ellagic acid?:?free ellagic acid. Also, there was significant year-to-year variation in total ellagic acid concentration with some cultivars. Mulches with different reflective capacities impacted on strawberry production; highly reflective mulches significantly increased growth and yield, the latter due to increases in fruit size and number. • Conclusions Highly reflective mulches significantly increased total concentrations of ellagic acid and ascorbic acid relative to control in fruit of different cultivars. The potential of agronomic practices to enhance the concentration and amounts of these important dietary bioactive compounds is discussed. PMID:16423867

ATKINSON, C. J.; DODDS, P. A. A.; FORD, Y. Y.; LE MIERE, J.; TAYLOR, J. M.; BLAKE, P. S.; PAUL, N.

2006-01-01

198

Concentrated grape juice (G8000™) reduces immunoexpression of iNOS, TNF-alpha, COX-2 and DNA damage on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced-colitis.  

PubMed

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder characterized by alternating periods of remission and active intestinal inflammation. Flavonoids exert several biological activities, which are mainly related to their ability to inhibit inflammatory process and/or to their antioxidant properties, and are able to regulate the immune response. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether phenolic compounds present in grape juice could reduce the inflammatory effects induced by experimental colitis. A total of 41 male Wistar rats were randomized into seven groups, as follows: G1--Sham group: sham induced-colitis rats; G2--(2,4,6-rinitrobenzenesulfonic acid) TNBS group: nontreated induced-colitis; G3--2% grape juice control group; G4--1% grape juice 24h after TNBS colitis induction; G5--1% grape juice on day 7 after colitis induction; G6--2% grape juice 24h after colitis induction; G7--2% grape juice on day 7 after colitis induction. Genotoxicity was evaluated by comet assay. Immunohistochemistry was determined using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method being analyzed in control (normal tissue) and "hot spot" areas i.e., presenting inflammatory process being graded as 1 (weak), 2 (moderate), or 3 (strong). Both parameters were evaluated in the cytoplasm of epithelial or inflammatory cells. TNF-immunoexpression and iNOS were reduced after drinking grape juice 24 h or after 7 days for all doses tested. COX-2 was reduced in the groups exposed to 1% grape juice 24 h or 7 days of exposure. The grape juice at 1% dose in the last 7 days of treatment as well as grape juice at 2% dose decreased the peripheral blood genotoxicity. Taken together, the grape juice mainly at 1% dose exerts anti-inflammatory effects in chronic colitis caused by TNBS as a result of down regulation in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduction of genotoxicity in peripheral blood cells. PMID:24637249

Marchi, Patrícia; Paiotti, Ana Paula Ribeiro; Artigiani Neto, Ricardo; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

2014-03-01

199

Usual Intake of Fruit juice  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

200

Effect of salicylic acid treatment on alleviating postharvest chilling injury of ‘Qingnai’ plum fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of salicylic acid (SA) treatment on chilling injury, disease incidence, electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, respiration rate and ethylene production, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities, and polyamine (PA) content of ‘Qingnai’ plum fruit were examined. Chilling injury, disease incidence, electrolyte leakage, MDA content, respiration and ethylene production of control fruit increased after about 15–30days cold storage.

Zisheng Luo; Chun Chen; Jing Xie

2011-01-01

201

Effect of Processing, Post-Harvest Irradiation, and Production System on the Cytotoxicity and Mutagenicity of Vitis labrusca L. Juices in HTC Cells  

PubMed Central

The juices of grapes (Vitis labrusca L.) are similar to the fruit itself because the main constituents of the fruit are present in the juice. However, their quality characteristics may be modified by the harsh technological processes used for the production of integral food, such as production systems of raw materials and post-harvest treatment of grapes with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Therefore, the present study analyzed juices produced naturally (by liquefying the fruit) or by the technological process of extraction by steam distillation (90°C) of grapes from organic and conventional production systems that were untreated or treated with UV type C (65.6 J/m2 for 10 minutes). Using cultures of Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC) in vitro, cytotoxic effects were assayed by the MTT test and by calculating the cytokinesis blocked proliferation index (CBPI), and mutagenic effects were measured by the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay. The results of the MTT assay and the CBPIs indicated that none of the juices were cytotoxic, including those that induced cell proliferation. The results of the micronucleus assay showed that none of the juices were mutagenic. However, the average number of micronuclei was lower in the juices produced from organic grapes, and cell proliferation, soluble acids and phenolic compounds were significantly higher. Compared with the natural juices, the integral juices of conventional grapes showed a higher average number of micronuclei as well as lower stimulation of cell proliferation and lower levels of bioactive compounds. The results demonstrate a beneficial effect of UV-C irradiation of post-harvest grapes in stimulating the synthesis of nutraceutical compounds without generating cytotoxic or mutagenic substances. Taken together, our findings support the consumption of grape juice and the application of food production techniques that enhance its nutritional value and promote its production, marketing and consumption. PMID:25244067

Düsman, Elisângela; de Almeida, Igor Vivian; Lucchetta, Luciano; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

2014-01-01

202

Effect of Processing, Post-Harvest Irradiation, and Production System on the Cytotoxicity and Mutagenicity of Vitis labrusca L. Juices in HTC Cells.  

PubMed

The juices of grapes (Vitis labrusca L.) are similar to the fruit itself because the main constituents of the fruit are present in the juice. However, their quality characteristics may be modified by the harsh technological processes used for the production of integral food, such as production systems of raw materials and post-harvest treatment of grapes with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Therefore, the present study analyzed juices produced naturally (by liquefying the fruit) or by the technological process of extraction by steam distillation (90°C) of grapes from organic and conventional production systems that were untreated or treated with UV type C (65.6 J/m2 for 10 minutes). Using cultures of Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC) in vitro, cytotoxic effects were assayed by the MTT test and by calculating the cytokinesis blocked proliferation index (CBPI), and mutagenic effects were measured by the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay. The results of the MTT assay and the CBPIs indicated that none of the juices were cytotoxic, including those that induced cell proliferation. The results of the micronucleus assay showed that none of the juices were mutagenic. However, the average number of micronuclei was lower in the juices produced from organic grapes, and cell proliferation, soluble acids and phenolic compounds were significantly higher. Compared with the natural juices, the integral juices of conventional grapes showed a higher average number of micronuclei as well as lower stimulation of cell proliferation and lower levels of bioactive compounds. The results demonstrate a beneficial effect of UV-C irradiation of post-harvest grapes in stimulating the synthesis of nutraceutical compounds without generating cytotoxic or mutagenic substances. Taken together, our findings support the consumption of grape juice and the application of food production techniques that enhance its nutritional value and promote its production, marketing and consumption. PMID:25244067

Düsman, Elisângela; Almeida, Igor Vivian de; Lucchetta, Luciano; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

2014-01-01

203

Developmental changes in pulp organic acid concentration and activities of acid-metabolising enzymes during the fruit development of two loquat ( Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) cultivars differing in fruit acidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in organic acid concentration and related enzyme activities in loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) pulp were studied, using low-acid ‘Changhong 3’ and high-acid ‘Jiefangzhong’ cultivars. Both titratable acidity (TA) and malic acid concentration increased during the early stages of fruit development and decreased at the later stages. The difference in TA between the two cultivars could be explained by the

Fa-Xing Chen; Xing-Hui Liu; Li-Song Chen

2009-01-01

204

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

bean/chick peas Dried/Canned Lentils Kidney or Black beans Soy Products (shelf-stable tofu, canned or Instant potatoes Vegetable broth Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes, Nuts: Garbanzo

O'Toole, Alice J.

205

Alleviation of postharvest chilling injury of tomato fruit by salicylic acid treatment.  

PubMed

Tomato fruit at the mature green stage were treated with salicylic acid at different concentration (0, 1 and 2 mM) and analyzed for chilling injury (CI), electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline contents and phospholipase D (PLD) and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities during cold storage. PLD and LOX activities were significantly reduced by salicylic acid treatment. Compared with the control fruit, salicylic acid treatment alleviated chilling injury, reduced electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content and increased proline content. Our result suggest that the reduce activity of PLD and LOX, by salicylic acid may be a chilling tolerance strategy in tomato fruit. Inhibition of PLD and LOX activity during low temperature storage could ameliorate chilling injury and oxidation damage and enhance membrane integrity in tomato fruit. PMID:25328231

Aghdam, Morteza Soleimani; Asghari, Mohammadreza; Khorsandi, Orojali; Mohayeji, Mehdi

2014-10-01

206

Modulation of organic acids and sugar content in tomato fruits by an abscisic acid-regulated transcription factor.  

PubMed

Growing evidence suggests that the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a role in fruit development. ABA signaling components of developmental programs and responses to stress conditions include the group of basic leucine zipper transcriptional activators known as ABA-response element binding factors (AREBs/ABFs). AREB transcription factors mediate ABA-regulated gene expression involved in desiccation tolerance and are expressed mainly in seeds and in vegetative tissues under stress; however, they are also expressed in some fruits such as tomato. In order to get an insight into the role of ABA signaling in fruit development, the expression of two AREB-like factors were investigated during different developmental stages. In addition, tomato transgenic lines that overexpress and downregulate one AREB-like transcription factor, SlAREB1, were used to determine its effect on the levels of some metabolites determining fruit quality. Higher levels of citric acid, malic acid, glutamic acid, glucose and fructose were observed in SlAREB1-overexpressing lines compared with those in antisense suppression lines in red mature fruit pericarp. The higher hexose concentration correlated with increased expression of genes encoding a vacuolar invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) and a sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13). No significant changes were found in ethylene content which agrees with the normal ripening phenotype observed in transgenic fruits. These results suggest that an AREB-mediated ABA signal affects the metabolism of these compounds during the fruit developmental program. PMID:21128945

Bastías, Adriana; López-Climent, María; Valcárcel, Mercedes; Rosello, Salvador; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Casaretto, José A

2011-03-01

207

Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment designed to confirm that newly purchased commercial orange juice contains sufficient ascorbic acid to meet government standards, and to establish the rate of aerial oxidation of this ascorbic acid when the juice is stored in a refrigerator. (MLH)

Haddad, Paul

1977-01-01

208

Two new antioxidant malonated caffeoylquinic acid isomers in fruits of wild eggplant relatives.  

PubMed

Fruits of the cultivated eggplant species Solanum melongena and its wild relative Solanum incanum have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates, which are implicated in the human health benefits of various fruits and vegetables. Monocaffeoylquinic acid esters, in particular 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid, are usually predominant in solanaceous fruits and tubers. Two closely related caffeoylquinic acid derivatives with longer C(18) HPLC retention times than those of monocaffeoylquinic acids are minor constituents in cultivated eggplant fruit. In a prior study, the two compounds were tentatively identified as 3-O-acetyl- and 4-O-acetyl-5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acids and composed ?2% of the total hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates in fruit of most S. melongena accessions. It was recently found that the pair of these caffeoylquinic acid derivatives can compose 15-25% of the total hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates in fruits of S. incanum and wild S. melongena. This facilitated C(18) HPLC isolation and structural elucidation using (1)H and (13)C NMR techniques and HR-ToF-MS. The isomeric compounds were identified as 3-O-malonyl-5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid (isomer 1) and 4-O-(E)-caffeoyl-5-O-malonylquinic acid (isomer 2). Both exhibited free radical scavenging activity, albeit about 4-fold lower than that of the flavonol quercetin dihydrate. By contrast, the iron chelation activities of isomers 1 and 2, respectively, were about 3- and 6-fold greater than that of quercetin dihydrate. Reports of malonylhydroxycinnamoylquinic acids are rare, and only a few of these compounds have been structurally elucidated using both NMR and MS techniques. To the authors' knowledge, these two malonylcaffeoylquinic acid isomers have not previously been reported. PMID:21800866

Ma, Chunhui; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Whitaker, Bruce D; Kennelly, Edward J

2011-09-14

209

Phenotypic and fine genetic characterization of the D locus controlling fruit acidity in peach  

PubMed Central

Background Acidity is an essential component of the organoleptic quality of fleshy fruits. However, in these fruits, the physiological and molecular mechanisms that control fruit acidity remain unclear. In peach the D locus controls fruit acidity; low-acidity is determined by the dominant allele. Using a peach progeny of 208 F2 trees, the D locus was mapped to the proximal end of linkage group 5 and co-localized with major QTLs involved in the control of fruit pH, titratable acidity and organic acid concentration and small QTLs for sugar concentration. To investigate the molecular basis of fruit acidity in peach we initiated the map-based cloning of the D locus. Results In order to generate a high-resolution linkage map in the vicinity of the D locus, 1,024 AFLP primer combinations were screened using DNA of bulked acid and low-acid segregants. We also screened a segregating population of 1,718 individuals for chromosomal recombination events linked to the D locus and identified 308 individuals with recombination events close to D. Using these recombinant individuals we delimited the D locus to a genetic interval of 0.4 cM. We also constructed a peach BAC library of 52,000 clones with a mean insert size of 90 kb. The screening of the BAC library with markers tightly linked to D locus indicated that 1 cM corresponds to 250 kb at the vicinity of the D locus. Conclusion In the present work we presented the first high-resolution genetic map of D locus in peach. We also constructed a peach BAC library of approximately 15× genome equivalent. This fine genetic and physical characterization of the D locus is the first step towards the isolation of the gene(s) underlying fruit acidity in peach. PMID:19445673

2009-01-01

210

Fermentative behavior of Saccharomyces strains during microvinification of raspberry juice ( Rubus idaeus L. )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus were evaluated in the production of raspberry fruit wine. Raspberry juice sugar concentrations were adjusted to 16°Brix with a sucrose solution, and batch fermentations were performed at 22°C. Various kinetic parameters, such as the conversion factors of the substrates into ethanol (Yp\\/s), biomass (Yx\\/s), glycerol (Yg\\/s) and acetic acid (Yac\\/s), the

Whasley F. Duarte; Giuliano Dragone; Disney R. Dias; José M. Oliveira; José A. Teixeira; João B. Almeida e Silva; Rosane F. Schwan

2010-01-01

211

Antioxidant activities and fatty acid composition of wild grown myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) fruits  

PubMed Central

The fruits of eight myrtles, Myrtus communis L. accessions from the Mediterranean region of Turkey were evaluated for their antioxidant activities and fatty acid contents. The antioxidant activities of the fruit extracts were determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ?-carotene-linoleic acid assays. The fatty acid contents of fruits were determined by using gas chromatography. The methanol extracts of fruits exhibited a high level of free radical scavenging activity. There was a wide range (74.51-91.65%) of antioxidant activity among the accessions in the ?-carotene-linoleic acid assay. The amount of total phenolics (TP) was determined to be between 44.41-74.44 ?g Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/mg, on a dry weight basis. Oleic acid was the dominant fatty acid (67.07%), followed by palmitic (10.24%), and stearic acid (8.19%), respectively. These results suggest the future utilization of myrtle fruit extracts as food additives or in chemoprevention studies. PMID:20548930

Serce, Sedat; Ercisli, Sezai; Sengul, Memnune; Gunduz, Kazim; Orhan, Emine

2010-01-01

212

Antioxidant enzymes and fatty acid composition as related to disease resistance in postharvest loquat fruit.  

PubMed

Two cultivars of loquat fruit were stored at 20°C for 10days to investigate the relationship between disease resistance, and fatty acid composition and activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that decay incidence increased with storage time in both cultivars. A significantly lower disease incidence was observed in 'Qingzhong' fruit than in 'Fuyang', suggesting 'Qingzhong' had increased disease resistance. Meanwhile, 'Qingzhong' fruit also had lower levels of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide, and lower lipoxygenase activity, but higher levels of linolenic and linoleic acids and higher activities of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) compared with 'Fuyang'. These results suggest that the higher levels of linolenic and linoleic acids and the higher activity of CAT and APX have a role in disease resistance of postharvest loquat fruit. PMID:24912701

Cao, Shifeng; Yang, Zhenfeng; Cai, Yuting; Zheng, Yonghua

2014-11-15

213

Fruit acids do not enhance sodium lauryl sulphate-induced cumulative irritant contact dermatitis in vivo.  

PubMed

Combined exposure to different irritants in the workplace may lead to irritant contact dermatitis, which is the main type of occupational dermatitis among bakers and confectioners. Following previous work on "tandem irritation", a panel of healthy volunteers was exposed twice daily for 4 days to the organic fruit acids: citric, malic, and lactic acid, either alone or in tandem application with 0.5% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) in a repetitive irritation test. Irritant cutaneous reactions were quantified by visual scoring and non-invasive measurement of transepidermal water loss and skin colour reflectance. Twice daily application of either citric or malic acid alone did not induce a significant irritant reaction. Combined exposure to one of the fruit acids and SLS caused marked barrier disturbance, but the latter irritant effect was smaller than that obtained by combined exposure to SLS and water. Thus, combined exposure to the above-mentioned fruit acids and SLS did not enhance cumulative skin irritation. PMID:16040403

Schliemann-Willers, Sibylle; Fuchs, Silke; Kleesz, Peter; Grieshaber, Romano; Elsner, Peter

2005-01-01

214

California Fruit & Vegetable Intake Calibration Study  

E-print Network

FRUIT JUICE/PAPAYA/ SPINACH FRUIT JUICE/PASSION FRUIT/MANGOSPINACH/TOMATO ON SANDWICH SPROUTS SPROUTS ON SANDWICH SQUASH STRAWBERRY STRAWBERRY JUICEJUICE TOMATO/LETTUCE TOMATO/LETTUCE ON SANDWICH TOMATO/MUSHROOM ON SANDWICH TOMATO/ONION TOMATO/ONION ON SANDWICH TOMATO/SPINACH

DiSogra, Charles; Hudes, Mark

2005-01-01

215

Characteristics of organic acids in the fruit of different pumpkin species.  

PubMed

The aim of the research was to determine the composition of organic acids in fruit of different cultivars of three pumpkin species. The amount of acids immediately after fruit harvest and after 3 months of storage was compared. The content of organic acids in the examined pumpkin cultivars was assayed using the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Three organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, and fumaric acid) were identified in the cultivars, whose content considerably varied depending on a cultivar. Three-month storage resulted in decreased content of the acids in the case of cultivars belonging to Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita pepo species, while a slight increase was recorded for Cucurbita moschata species. PMID:24262577

Nawirska-Olsza?ska, Agnieszka; Biesiada, Anita; Sokó?-??towska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z

2014-04-01

216

????? gibberellic acid ???????????????? ???????????????????????????? Effect of Gibberellic Acid on Fruit Quality of Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus undatus) cv. While aril  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five-year old dragon fruit trees cv. Vietnam were treated with GA3 by spraying at 0,10,20 ppm 1 day before blooming and 7 days after blooming. The experiment was conducted at a private orchard in Warin Chamrap district, Ubon Ratchathani province during the period from January to October 2005. The results showed a significant difference in length of fruits, weight of

Ratchadaporn Janthasri; Umaporn Rajun; Satin Pasuvitayakun

217

The effect of addition of chokeberry, flowering quince fruits and rhubarb juice to strawberry jams on their polyphenol content, antioxidant activity and colour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to establish whether the addition of berries (flowering quince, chokeberry) and rhubarb juice during\\u000a jam processing improves its colour and enriches jams in polyphenol compounds other than those found in strawberries. The sum\\u000a of phenolic compounds determined by HPLC was distributed in a wide concentration range depending on the cultivar. Jams prepared\\u000a from Elkat

Aneta Wojdy?o; Jan Oszmia?ski; Irena Bober

2008-01-01

218

Ionic liquid-assisted liquid-phase microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic droplets combined with high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of benzoylurea insecticide in fruit juice.  

PubMed

A green, simple, and efficient method, ionic liquid-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic droplets (ILSFOD-LLME) collected via a bell-shaped collection device (BSCD) coupled to high performance liquid chromatography with a variable-wavelength detector, was developed for the preconcentration and analysis of seven benzoylurea insecticides (BUs) in fruit juice. In the proposed method, the low-density solvent 1-dodecanol and the ionic liquid trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate ([P14, 6, 6, 6]PF6) were used as extractant. The extraction solvent droplet was easily collected and separated by the BSCD without centrifugation. The experimental parameters were optimized by the one-factor-at-a-time approach and were followed using an orthogonal array design. The results indicated the different effects of each parameter for extraction efficiency. Under the optimal conditions in the water model, the limits of detection for the analytes varied from 0.03 to 0.28?gL(-1). The enrichment factors ranged from 160 to 246. Linearities were achieved for hexaflumuron and flufenoxuron in the range of 0.5-500?gL(-1), for triflumuron, lufenuron and diafenthiuron in the range of 1-500?gL(-1), and for diflubenzuron and chlorfluazuron in the range of 5-500?gL(-1); the correlation coefficients for the BUs ranged from 0.9960 to 0.9990 with recoveries of 75.6-113.9%. Finally, the developed technique was successfully applied to real fruit juice with acceptable results. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the seven BUs at two spiked levels (50 and 200?gL(-1)) varied between 0.1% and 7.3%. PMID:25124227

Yang, Miyi; Zhang, Panjie; Hu, Lu; Lu, Runhua; Zhou, Wenfeng; Zhang, Sanbing; Gao, Haixiang

2014-09-19

219

Effect of gibberellic acid and (2-chloroethane) phosphonic acid on glochid abscission in cactus pear fruit ( Opuntia amyclaea Tenore)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glochids (small spines) of cactus pear negatively affect harvest operations, and the quality and acceptance of this fruit. Different treatments for pre-harvest removal of glochids were evaluated. Gibberellic acid (GA3, 100 ppm) was sprayed over flower buds in six consecutive applications (every 7 days) during their development. Also, solutions of (2-chloroethane) phosphonic acid or ethephon (‘Ethrel’®) at 500, 600, 700,

Joel Corrales-Garc??a; Pablo González-Mart??nez

2001-01-01

220

Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality  

SciTech Connect

Mature 'McIntosh', 'Empire', and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and in 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0 and pH 3.5. Apple foliage had no acid rain lesions at any of the pH levels tested. Pollen germination was reduced at ph 2.5 in 'Empire'. Slight fruit set reduction at pH 2.5 was observed in 'McIntosh'. The incidence of russetting on 'Golden Delicious' fruits was ameliorated by the presence of rain-exclusion chambers but was not affected by acid rain. With season-long sprays at pH 2.75, there was a slight delay in maturity and lower weight of 'McIntosh' apples. Even at the lowest pH levels no detrimental effects of simulated acid rain were found on apple tree productivity and fruit quality when measured as fruit set, seed number per fruit, and fruit size and appearance.

Forsline, P.L. (Cornell Univ., Geneva, NY); Musselman, R.C.; Kender, W.J.; Dee, R.J.

1983-01-01

221

Linking ascorbic acid production in Ribes nigrum with fruit development and changes in sources and sinks  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Understanding the synthesis of ascorbic acid (l-AsA) in green tissues in model species has advanced considerably; here we focus on its production and accumulation in fruit. In particular, our aim is to understand the links between organs which may be sources of l-AsA (leaves) and those which accumulate it (fruits). The work presented here tests the idea that changes in leaf and fruit number influence the accumulation of l-AsA. The aim was to understand the importance of leaf tissue in the production of l-AsA and to determine how this might provide routes for the manipulation of fruit tissue l-AsA. Methods The experiments used Ribes nigrum (blackcurrant), predominantly in field experiments, where the source–sink relationship was manipulated to alter potential leaf l-AsA production and fruit growth and accumulation of l-AsA. These manipulations included reductions in reproductive capacity, by raceme removal, and the availability of assimilates by leaf removal and branch phloem girdling. Natural variation in fruit growth and fruit abscission is also described as this influences subsequent experimental design and the interpretation of l-AsA data. Key Results Results show that fruit l-AsA concentration is conserved but total yield of l-AsA per plant is dependent on a number of innate factors many of which relate to raceme attributes. Leaf removal and phloem girdling reduced fruit weight, and a combination of both reduced fruit yields further. It appears that around 50 % of assimilates utilized for fruit growth came from apical leaves, while between 20 and 30 % came from raceme leaves, with the remainder from ‘storage’. Conclusions Despite being able to manipulate leaf area and therefore assimilate availability and stored carbohydrates, along with fruit yields, rarely were effects on fruit l-AsA concentration seen, indicating fruit l-AsA production in Ribes was not directly coupled to assimilate supply. There was no supporting evidence that l-AsA production occurred predominantly in green leaf tissue followed by its transfer to developing fruits. It is concluded that l-AsA production occurs predominantly in the fruit of Ribes nigrum. PMID:23419248

Atkinson, Christopher J.; Davies, Michael J.; Taylor, June M.; Longbottom, Helen

2013-01-01

222

Utilisation of fruits waste for citric acid production by solid state fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid state fermentation method was used to utilise pineapple, mixed fruit and maosmi waste as substrates for citric acid production using Aspergillus niger DS 1. Experiments were carried out in the presence and absence of methanol at different moisture levels. In the absence of methanol the maximum citric acid was obtained at 60% moisture level whereas in the presence

D. Kumar; V. K. Jain; G. Shanker; A. Srivastava

2003-01-01

223

Effects of acid irrigation and liming on the production of fruit bodies by ectomycorrhizal fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to examine the effects of an increase in acid rain upon community diversity and productivity of the ectomycorrhizal fungi in a Norway spruce stand and the possible amelioratory effects of liming. No obvious adverse effects on either the diversity or productivity were found. Acid irrigation appeared to enhance the fruiting of Russula ochroleuca, as

R. Agerer; A. F. S. Taylor; R. Treu

1998-01-01

224

Effects of pre-harvest gibberellic acid spraying on gene transcript accumulation during peach fruit development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand early molecular events associated with increase in fruit size and woolliness prevention induced by\\u000a pre-harvest gibberellic acid (GA3) spraying, differential transcript accumulation of genes encoding proteins putatively involved in protein folding and protection,\\u000a cell wall metabolism, and endomembrane transport was studied during fruit development of ‘Chiripá’ peach. Woolliness occurrence\\u000a reached 100% in untreated peach, was reduced

Camila Pegoraro; Fábio Clasen Chaves; Joceani Dal Cero; César Luís Girardi; Cesar Valmor Rombaldi

225

Evaluation of Surface Free Energy of Various Fruit Epicarps Using Acid–Base and Zisman Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface free energy (SFE; ?\\u000a SV) of 16 fruit epicarps present on the Chilean market was calculated by two approaches: the acid–base and Zisman. The results\\u000a show that the fruit epicarps were low surface energy since the magnitude of ?\\u000a SV falls within a narrow range, between 37 and 44 mJ m???2. Zisman approach gave a critical surface tension values, ?\\u000a cr

Patricia Velásquez; Olivier Skurtys; Javier Enrione; Fernando Osorio

226

Postharvest control of Monilinia laxa and Rhizopus stolonifer in stone fruit by peracetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peracetic acid (PAA) treatment of stone fruit (sweet cherry, apricot, peach and nectarine) reduced the incidence of brown rot caused by Monilinia laxa and soft rot caused by Rhizopus stolonifer. The efficacy of the treatment depended on the length of time. Fruit, neither wounded nor inoculated and dipped for 1min in a 125mgL?1 PAA solution, showed a significant reduction of

M Mari; R Gregori; I Donati

2004-01-01

227

Identification of phenolic compositions and the antioxidant capacity of mandarin juices and wines.  

PubMed

This research was undertaken to determine the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of juices and wines obtained from Robinson, Fremont and Satsuma mandarins. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection was used for identifying and quantifying phenolic compounds. The total amount of phenolic compounds ranged from 36.6 to 132.6 mg/L for the mandarin juice, and from 14.1 to 54.5 mg/L for the wines. In the juices and wines, the major hydroxybenzoic acid was vanillic acid; the major hydroxycinnamic acid was ferulic acid; and the major flavanone was hesperidin. The antioxidant activity was measured using the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays, and the antioxidant capacity of mandarin juices was found to be higher than that of wines. Results of this study indicated that these mandarin wines had a composition similar to other beverages, thus demonstrating that these fruits have the potential to be used to produce fermented beverages. PMID:24876641

Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

2014-06-01

228

The effect of gibberellic acid on fruit and seed set in crosses of garden and winter hardy Rosa accessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of gibberellic acid (GA3) was studied on a wide range of crosses between various garden roses and two hardy breeding lines. Although there were fewer seeds per fruit, fruit set was higher in most crosses when GA3 was applied to the stigma at the rate of 250 ppm ten days after pollination. However, higher fruit set did not

Ian Ogilvie; Daniel Cloutier; Neville Arnold; Perry Y. Jui

1991-01-01

229

Liking of anthocyanin-rich juices by children and adolescents.  

PubMed

There is evidence that a diet rich in plant foods is protective against cardiovascular disease and cancer, partly attributable to secondary plant metabolites such as anthocyanins, a colourful group of flavonoids. As at present children and adolescents do not consume the recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables, one possible way of increasing intake, and particularly intake of anthocyanins, may be an anthocyanin-rich juice, since fruit juice is popular with young Germans. We produced eight different fruit products (six juices, two smoothies), and conducted hedonic tests with participants from the DONALD Study. Paired comparisons showed that most subjects preferred apple to apple-bilberry juice, but grape vs. grape-bilberry juice was liked equally frequently. Rated on a hedonic scale the grape-bilberry mixture was preferred to apple-bilberry, both as juice and as smoothie. With regard to viscosity, juices were preferred to smoothies, both as grape-bilberry and as apple-bilberry. Internal Preference Mapping revealed however consumer subgroups with different preferences, raising the question which product should be promoted in order to reach a large target group. The product richest in anthocyanins, grape-bilberry juice, was accepted very well and may therefore be suitable for promotion to children, although the high sugar content of this juice must be taken into account. PMID:22248708

Drossard, Claudia; Fröhling, Bettina; Bolzenius, Katja; Dietrich, Helmut; Kunz, Clemens; Kersting, Mathilde

2012-04-01

230

On line characterization of 58 phenolic compounds in Citrus fruit juices from Spanish cultivars by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection coupled to electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Polyphenol profile of Citrus juices of sweet orange, tangerine, lemon and grapefruit from Spanish cultivars was obtained by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array Detection coupled to Electrospray ionization and Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry. Fifty eight phenolic compounds of five different classes were identified in these Citrus juices. Flavanone: O-dihexoside of naringenin; flavones: apigenin-7-O-rutinoside-4'-O-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-neohesperidoside-4'-O-glucoside, luteolin-6-C-glucoside, 6,8-di-C-acylhexosides of chrysoeriol and diosmetin, 6C- and 8C-glucoside-O-pentoside of apigenin, apigenin-6-C-hexoside-O-hexoside and apigenin-8-C-hexoside-O-acylrhamnoside; flavonols: 7-O-rutinosides of quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and tamarixetin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside, tamarixetin-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-hexoside-7-O-rhamnosylhexoside, 3-O-rhamnoside-7-O-rhamnosylhexoside of quercetin and isorhamnetin and kaempferol-3-O-rhamnosylhexoside-7-O-rhamnoside; hydroxycinnamic acids: O-hexoside of ferulic and sinapic acid; and, coumarins: O-hexoside and O-rhamnosylhexoside of scopoletin, had not previously been reported in Citrus juices to our knowledge. Structures have been assigned on the basis of the complementary information obtained from retention time, UV-visible spectra, scan mode MS spectra, and fragmentation patterns in MS(2) spectra obtained using different collision energies. A structure diagnosis scheme is provided for the identification of different phenolic compounds. PMID:22967544

Abad-García, Beatriz; Garmón-Lobato, Sergio; Berrueta, Luis A; Gallo, Blanca; Vicente, Francisca

2012-09-15

231

Euterpe oleracea juice as a functional pigment for yogurt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The juice of Euterpe oleracea Mart. fruit (Arecaceae), known as Açai in the Brazilian Amazon region, is dark purple with a high anthocyanin and phenolic content. The antioxidant and anti-radical properties of E. oleracea juice are well known; the chemical characterisation of its phenolic composition as well as its potential use as food ingredient and natural pigment have been previously

J. D. Coïsson; F. Travaglia; G. Piana; M. Capasso; M. Arlorio

2005-01-01

232

Content variations of triterpenic acid, nucleoside, nucleobase, and sugar in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit during ripening.  

PubMed

Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit is widely consumed as food and traditional Chinese medicine in Asian countries due to its potential effects for human health. To facilitate selection of the maturity stage providing optimum health benefits, jujube fruits were analysed at six stages of growth (S1-6) for triterpenic acids, nucleosides, nucleobases, and sugars by UHPLC-MS/MS or HPLC-ELSD methods. The content levels of most triterpenic acids and sugars increased with ripening, and reached the highest at S5 and S6, respectively. The accumulation of the cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) was mainly in the later stage of ripening (S5-6). Therefore, if taking triterpenic acids as the major quality indicator, S5 should be the ideal time to harvest jujube fruit, and the full ripen stage (S6) maybe the best choice when taking sugars and cyclic nucleotides as the most important components. PMID:25149013

Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Wu, Dawei; Su, Shulan; Wang, Hanqing; Zhao, Yunan

2015-01-15

233

Vitamin C and the role of citrus juices as functional food.  

PubMed

The literature on the content and stability of vitamin C (ascorbic acid, AA) in citrus juices in relation to industrial practices is reviewed. The role of vitamin C from citrus juices in human diet is also reviewed. Citrus fruits and juices are rich in several types of bioactive compounds. Their antioxidant activity and related benefits derive not only from vitamin C but also from other phytochemicals, mainly flavonoids. During juice processing, temperature and oxygen are the main factors responsible for vitamin C losses. Non-thermal processed juices retain higher levels of vitamin C, but economic factors apparently delay the use of such methods in the citrus industry. Regarding packing material, vitamin C in fruit juice is quite stable when stored in metal or glass containers, whereas juice stored in plastic bottles has a much shorter shelf-life. The limiting step for vitamin C absorption in humans is transcellular active transport across the intestinal wall where AA may be oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA), which is easily transported across the cell membrane and immediately reduced back to AA by two major pathways. AA bioavailability in the presence of flavonoids has yielded controversial results. Whereas flavonoids seem to inhibit intestinal absorption of AA, some studies have shown that AA in citrus extract was more available than synthetic ascorbic acid alone. DHAA is reported to possess equivalent biological activity to AA, so recent studies often consider the vitamin C activity in the diet as the sum of AA plus DHAA. However, this claimed equivalence should be carefully reexamined. Humans are one of the few species lacking the enzyme (L-gulonolactone oxidase, GLO) to convert glucose to vitamin C. It has been suggested that this is due to a mutation that provided a survival advantage to early primates, since GLO produces toxic H2O2. Furthermore, the high concentration of AA (and DHAA) in neural tissues could have been the key factor that caused primates (vertebrates with relative big brain) to lose the capacity to synthesize vitamin C. Oxidative damage has many pathological implications in human health, and AA may play a central role in maintaining the metabolic antioxidant response. The abundance of citrus juices in the Mediterranean diet may provide the main dietary source for natural vitamin C. PMID:19445318

Martí, Nuria; Mena, Pedro; Cánovas, Jose Antonio; Micol, Vicente; Saura, Domingo

2009-05-01

234

Gold package menu -Week 3 This menu is served with fresh fruit, Fair-trade tea/coffee and herbal infusions, and a selection of Frobisher's juices.  

E-print Network

Gold package menu - Week 3 This menu is served with fresh fruit, Fair-trade tea/coffee and herbal and balsamic vinegar (v) Ramekins Meat- Tempura pork balls, fragrant rice with hot and sour sauce Fish- Green

Sussex, University of

235

Bell pepper fruit fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase is a cytochrome P450 (CYP74B)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid hydroperoxide lyases cleave a C?C bond adjacent to a hydroperoxide group in lipoxygenase derived lipid hydroperoxides to form short-chain aldehydes and oxo-acids. Previously, we showed that fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase from bell pepper fruits is a heme protein whose spectrophotometric properties greatly resemble a cytochrome P450. In order to ascertain the relationship of it to the P450 gene

Kenji Matsui; Mizuyoshi Shibutani; Toshiharu Hase; Tadahiko Kajiwara

1996-01-01

236

Inheritance and selection of some fruit characters of apple. I. Inheritance of low and high acidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit acidity as such appears to be gouverned by a single major gene, low acidity being a recessive character. The additional genetic variation is explainable by the additive gene action model. This mode of inheritance causes the pH distribution of seedlings in progenies to shift with a higher mid-parent pH towards more low-acid cum sweet (pH = 3.8) and fewer

T. Visser; J. J. Verhaegh

1978-01-01

237

Physicochemical changes in Mazafati date fruits incubated in hot acetic acid for accelerated ripening to prevent diseases and decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed and optimized for the accelerated ripening of date fruits of cultivar ‘Mazafati’ to prevent diseases and decay. The date fruits were incubated in hot acetic acid solution 0.5% at 40+1°C for 72h. During the process some physicochemical changes in the fruits were studied and were found to be comparable with the changes in the fruits that

Asgar Farahnaky; Hassan Afshari-Jouybari

2011-01-01

238

Total phenolic contents in selected fruit and vegetable juices exhibit a positive correlation with interferon- ?, interleukin-5, and interleukin-2 secretions using primary mouse splenocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesized that some fruits and vegetables have an immuno-modulatory potential on T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokine secretions. Therefore, Th1 cytokines including interleukin (IL)-2, and interferon (IFN)-?, and Th2 cytokines including IL-4 and IL-5, produced by mouse splenocytes administrated with 13 selected fruits and vegetables were determined. The results showed that low dose (10?g\\/ml) administration with oriental

Jin-Yuarn Lin; Ching-Yin Tang

2008-01-01

239

Exogenous gibberellic acid increases the fruit weight of ‘Comte de Paris’ pineapple by enlarging flesh cells without negative effects on fruit quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mainland China, the most popular pineapple cultivar is ‘Comte de Paris’. Gibberellic acids have been widely applied to\\u000a enhance fruit growth in various species. To evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3) on ‘Comte de Paris’ pineapple production and quality, pineapple fruits were sprayed with GA3 at concentrations of 5, 20, 50, or 100 mg l?1 at both 0 and 15 days

Yun-He LiYong-Jie; Yong-Jie Wu; Bei Wu; Ming-Hong Zou; Zhi Zhang; Guang-Ming Sun

240

Antiulcerative properties of crude polyphenols and juice of apple, and Chinese quince extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of Chinese quince extract, apple juice, semi-purified phenolics and soluble pectin from these fruits on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats were investigated. In rats given Chinese quince extract or apple juice, ulcer induction was strongly suppressed, and the effect was stronger for Chinese quince extract than for apple juice. Myeloperoxidase activity in gastric mucosa showed a similar tendency. The

Yasunori Hamauzu; Miho Irie; Makoto Kondo; Tomoyuki Fujita

2008-01-01

241

Acetaldehyde stimulation of net gluconeogenic carbon movement from applied malic acid in tomato fruit pericarp tissue  

SciTech Connect

Applied acetaldehyde is known to lead to sugar accumulation in fruit including tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) presumably due to stimulation of gluconeogenesis. This conjecture was examined using tomato fruit pericarp discs as a test system and applied l-(U-{sup 14}C)malic acid as the source for gluconeogenic carbon mobilization. Results indicate that malic and perhaps other organic acids are carbon sources for gluconeogenesis occurring normally in ripening tomatoes. The process is stimulated by acetaldehyde apparently by attenuating the fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels. The mode of the acetaldehyde regulation of fructose-2,6-biphosphate metabolism awaits clarification.

Halinska, A.; Frenkel, C. (Rutgers, The State Univ. of New Jersey, New Brunswick (United States))

1991-03-01

242

?-Aminobutyric acid induces resistance against Penicillium expansum by priming of defence responses in pear fruit.  

PubMed

The results from this study showed that treatment with ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), at 100-1000 ?g/ml, induced strong resistance against blue mould rot caused by Penicillium expansum in pear fruit. Moreover, the activities of five defence-related enzymes (including chitinase, ?-1,3-glucanase, phenylalnine ammonialyase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase) and the expression of these corresponding genes were markedly and/or promptly enhanced in the treatment with GABA and inoculation with P. expansum compared with those that were treated with GABA or inoculated with pathogen alone. In addition, the treatment of pear with GABA had little adverse effect on the edible quality of the fruit. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that GABA can effectively reduce fungal disease of harvested fruit. Its mechanisms may be closely correlated with the induction of fruit resistance by priming activation and expression of defence-related enzymes and genes upon challenge with pathogen. PMID:24767023

Yu, Chen; Zeng, Lizhen; Sheng, Kuang; Chen, Fangxia; Zhou, Tao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yu, Ting

2014-09-15

243

Fruit acid extracts, a fresh approach to skin renewal.  

PubMed

Synopsis Alpha-hydroxy acids are a common class of naturally occurring chemicals that have become increasingly popular for cosmetic use. Currently alpha-hydroxy acids from both natural and synthetic sources are being used in skincare products. From lactic acid to complex natural blends, several different approaches have been adopted for the use of alpha-hydroxy acids. This paper reviews the history of alpha-hydroxy acids use in cosmetics and gives new data showing the increased rate of cell renewal by topical application. PMID:19250482

Scholz, D; Brooks, G J; Parish, D F; Burmeister, F

1994-12-01

244

Phenolics of Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae) fruits: identification of anthocyanins and gallic acid derivatives.  

PubMed

Arbutus unedo L., the strawberry tree (Ericaceae family), is an evergreen shrub or small tree, typical of the Mediterranean fringe and climate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the profile of the phenolic constituents of A. unedo fruits. Seven compounds were purified by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography of the MeOH extract followed by HPLC and were characterized as arbutin, beta-D-glucogalline, gallic acid 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-galloylquinic acid, 5-O-galloylquinic acid, 3-O-galloylshikimic acid, and 5-O-galloylshikimic acid, by means of NMR and ESI-MS analyses. Moreover, LC-PDA-MS analysis of the red pigment of A. unedo fruits revealed the presence of three anthocyanins recognized as cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside, delphinidin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-arabinopyranoside. These pigments were also quantified. PMID:17177565

Pawlowska, Agata Maria; De Leo, Marinella; Braca, Alessandra

2006-12-27

245

Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality  

SciTech Connect

Mature McIntosh, Empire, and Golden Delicious apple trees (Malus domestica) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0 and 3.5. Apple foliage had no acid rain lesions at any of the pH levels tested. Pollen germination was reduced at pH 2.5 in Empire. Slight fruit set reduction at pH 2.5 was observed in McIntosh. Even at the lowest pH levels no detrimental effects of simulated acid rain were found on apple tree productivity and fruit quality when measured as fruit set, seed number per fruit, and fruit size and appearance.

Forsline, P.L.; Musselman, R.C.; Kender, W.J.; Dee, R.J.

1983-01-01

246

Accumulation of wound-inducible ACC synthase transcript in tomato fruit is inhibited by salicylic acid and polyamines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation of wound-inducible 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase expression was studied in tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Pik-Red). A 70 base oligonucleotide probe homologous to published ACC synthase cDNA sequences was successfully used to identify and analyze regulation of a wound-inducible transcript. The 1.8 kb ACC synthase transcript increased upon wounding the fruit as well as during fruit ripening. Salicylic acid,

Ning Li; Barbara L. Parsons; Derong Liu; Autar K. Mattoo

1992-01-01

247

Physiological and biochemical response of harvested plum fruit to oxalic acid during ripening or shelf-life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of oxalic acid application on plum fruit (Prunus salicina cv. ‘Damili’) ripening properties during storage or shelf-life was determined. The fruits were dipped for 3min in solutions containing 5mmol\\/L oxalic acid and then were packed into polyethylene bags and stored at 25°C for 12days, or at 2°C for 20days and subsequently at 25°C for 12days. Ethylene production, fruit

Fuwang Wu; Dandan Zhang; Haiyan Zhang; Guoqiang Jiang; Xinguo Su; Hongxia Qu; Yueming Jiang; Xuewu Duan

2011-01-01

248

Cabbage Juice Indicator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry activity, learners make indicator solution from red cabbage. Then, learners test everyday foods and household substances using the cabbage juice indicator. Learners will record the color change, approximate pH (using the pH scale), and identify if it is an acid or base. As an extension, learners can make pH paper strips to conduct an "at home" pH test of other household items. The indicator solution can be frozen in ice trays and when mixed with alcohol, can last for months. For safety reasons, adult supervision is recommended.

House, The S.

2014-01-28

249

HPLC method for the simultaneous quantification of the major organic acids in Angeleno plum fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method was developed to profile major organic acids in Angeleno fruit by high performance liquid chromatography. Organic acids in plum were extracted by water with ultra- sonication at 50°C for 30 min. The extracts were chromatographed on Waters Atlantis T3 C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 ?m) with 0.01mol/L sulfuric acid and water as mobile phase, and flow rate was 0.5 ml/min. The column temperature was 40C, and chromatography was monitored by a diode array detector at 210 nm. The result showed that malic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid, pyruvic acid, acetic acid, succinic acid in Angeleno plum, and the malic acid was the major organic acids. The coefficient of determination of the standard calibration curve is R2 > 0.999. The organic acids recovery ranged from 99.11% for Malic acid to 106.70% for Oxalic acid, and CV (n=6) ranged from 0.95% for Malic acid to 6.23% for Oxalic acid, respectively. The method was accurate, sensitive and feasible in analyzing the organic acids in Angeleno plum.

Wang, Yanwei; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Wei; Zhao, Zhilei; Cao, Jiankang

2014-08-01

250

Determination and stereochemistry of proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic amino acids in Saudi Arabian date fruits.  

PubMed

Whereas an abundance of literature is available on the occurrence of common proteinogenic amino acids (AAs) in edible fruits of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), recent reports on non-proteinogenic (non-coded) AAs and amino components are scarce. With emphasis on these components we have analyzed total hydrolysates of twelve cultivars of date fruits using automated ion-exchange chromatography, HPLC employing a fluorescent aminoquinolyl label, and GC-MS of total hydrolysates using the chiral stationary phases Chirasil(®)-L-Val and Lipodex(®) E. Besides common proteinogenic AAs, relatively large amounts of the following non-proteinogenic amino acids were detected: (2S,5R)-5-hydroxypipecolic acid (1.4-4.0 g/kg dry matter, DM), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (1.3-2.6 g/kg DM), ?-amino-n-butyric acid (0.5-1.2 g/kg DM), (2S,4R)-4-hydroxyproline (130-230 mg/kg DM), L-pipecolic acid (40-140 mg/kg DM), and 2-aminoethanol (40-160 mg/kg DM) as well as low or trace amounts (<70 mg/kg DM) of L-ornithine, 5-hydroxylysine, ?-alanine, and in some samples (<20 mg/kg DM) of (S)-?-aminoisobutyric acid and (<10 mg/kg DM) L-allo-isoleucine. In one date fruit, traces of ?-aminoadipic acid could be determined. Enantiomeric analysis of 6 M DCl/D2O hydrolysates of AAs using chiral capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of very low amounts of D-Ala, D-Asp, D-Glu, D-Ser and D-Phe (1.2-0.4%, relative to the corresponding L-enantiomers), besides traces (0.2-1%) of other D-AAs. The possible relevance of non-proteinogenic amino acids in date fruits is briefly addressed. PMID:24938763

Ali, Hatem Salama Mohamed; Alhaj, Omar Amin; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman Saleh; Brückner, Hans

2014-09-01

251

Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products.  

PubMed

Date fruit has served as a staple food in the Arab world for centuries. Worldwide production of date fruit has increased almost threefold over the last 40 years, reaching 7.68 million tons in 2010. Date fruit can provide many essential nutrients and potential health benefits to the consumer. Date fruit goes through four ripening stages named kimri, khalal, rutab and tamer. The main chemical components of date fruit include carbohydrates, dietary fibre, enzymes, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids and carotenoids. The chemical composition of date fruit varies according to ripening stage, cultivar, growing environment, postharvest conditions, etc. The nutritional and medicinal activities of date fruit are related to its chemical composition. Many studies have shown that date fruit has antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer and immunostimulant activities. Various date fruit-based products such as date syrup, date paste, date juice and their derived products are available. Date by-products can be used as raw materials for the production of value-added products such as organic acids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics, date-flavoured probiotic-fermented dairy produce, bakery yeasts, etc. In this paper the chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal values of date fruit as well as date fruit-based products are reviewed. PMID:23553505

Tang, Zhen-Xing; Shi, Lu-E; Aleid, Salah M

2013-08-15

252

Citric acid esters from fruit of Lonicera caerulea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compound (I) could be formed from the corresponding acid by methylation with diazomethane. The native nature of (I)was confirmed by its isolation from the initial unmethylated fraction after the elimination of citric acid from it with the use of AV-17 ion-exchange resin. The isolation of 7-oxologanin from plants of the genus Lonicera has not been reported previously.

E. V. Anikina; A. L. Vereshchagin; A. I. Syrchina; F. Larin; A. A. Semenov

1988-01-01

253

Use of organic acids and salts to control postharvest diseases of lemon fruits in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postharvest diseases caused by Geotricum candidum (sour rot), Penicillium digitatum (green mould), and P. italicum (blue mould) are the most important negative factors affecting handling and marketing of citrus fruits in Egypt. The effect of organic acids (ascorbic, benzoic, citric and sorbic) as well as organic salts (potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate) were evaluated on the growth of causal agents

Nehal S. El-Mougy; Nadia G. El-Gamal; F. Abd-El-Kareem

2008-01-01

254

Ascorbic acid content in exotic fruits: A contribution to produce quality data for food composition databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbic acid (AA) is a water-soluble vitamin mainly present in fruits and vegetables. Food Composition Databases (FCDB) provide detailed information on nutritionally important components in foods. However, in some FCDB there is a significant lack of information on vitamin C content. The aim of this study is to produce new data for FCDB by measuring the AA content in 26

Ana Valente; Tânia Gonçalves Albuquerque; Ana Sanches-Silva; Helena S. Costa

2011-01-01

255

Physiological and biochemical responses in peach fruit to oxalic acid treatment during storage at room temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological and biochemical responses in peach fruit (Prunus persica L.) cv. ‘Bayuecui’ to two concentrations (1 and 5mM) of oxalic acid treatment were studied during storage at room temperature (25°C). Slower relative leakage rate, higher flesh firmness, lower respiration, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; peroxidase, POD; catalase, CAT; ascorbate peroxidase, APX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and a

Xiaolin Zheng; Shiping Tian; Xianghong Meng; Boqiang Li

2007-01-01

256

Fruit Acids do not Enhance Sodium Lauryl Sulphate-induced Cumulative Irritant Contact Dermatitis In vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industry and the Catering Trade (BGN), Mannheim, Germany Combined exposure to different irritants in the workplace may lead to irritant contact dermatitis, which is the main type of occupational dermatitis among bakers and confectioners. Following previous work on 'tandem irritation', a panel of healthy volunteers was exposed twice daily for 4 days to the organic fruit acids: citric, malic, and

Sibylle Schliemann-Willers; Silke Fuchs; Peter Kleesz; Romano Grieshaber; Peter Elsner

2005-01-01

257

Determination of Tartaric Acid of Fruit Vinegars Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was investigated for the determination of tartaric acid of fruit vinegars. A total of 180 samples were prepared, and 135 samples were selected for the calibration set, whereas the remaining 45 samples for the validation set. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis was the calibration method as well as extraction method for latent variables

Fei Liu; Li Wang; Yong He

2008-01-01

258

Evidence for Light-Stimulated Fatty Acid Synthesis in Soybean Fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

In leaves, the light reactions of photosynthesis support fatty acid synthesis but disagreement exists as to whether this occurs in green oilseeds. To address this question, simultaneous measurements of the rates of CO2 and O2 exchange (CER and OER, respectively) were made in soybean (Glycine max L.) fruits. The imbalance between CER and OER was used to estimate the diverted

Jennifer R. Willms; Christophe Salon; David B. Layzell

1999-01-01

259

Gold package menu -Week 2 This menu is served with fresh fruit, Fair-trade tea/coffee and herbal infusions, and a selection of Frobisher's juices.  

E-print Network

Gold package menu - Week 2 This menu is served with fresh fruit, Fair-trade tea/coffee and herbal-Thai vegetable green curry with sticky rice (v) Jerk chicken skewer Warm butternut squash, Swiss cheese & basil and mustard dressing (v) Green bean, puy lentil, tomato and olive (v) Dessert Chocolate tart Chef's bread

Sussex, University of

260

Gold package menu -Week 1 This menu is served with fresh fruit, Fair-trade tea/coffee and herbal infusions, and a selection of Frobisher's juices.  

E-print Network

Gold package menu - Week 1 This menu is served with fresh fruit, Fair-trade tea/coffee and herbal) Seasonal leaves with honey and mustard dressing (v) Green bean, tomato, black onion and puy lentil salad (v sour sauce Fish-Green korma marinated salmon, saffron rice with mango chutney Veg- Mushroom carbonara

Sussex, University of

261

Fatty Acid, Tocopherol and Sterol Compositions of Canadian Prairie Fruit Seed Lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seeds of four prairie fruits—chokecherry (Prunus virginiana), thorny buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea), Woods’ rose (Rosa woodsii) and hawthorn (Crataegus × mordenensis)—from Southern Alberta were investigated. The lipid contents of the seeds were found to be 10.4, 11.5, 3.7 and 3.4%, respectively.\\u000a The tested seed lipids contained mainly linoleic acid in the range from 27.9 to 65.6% and oleic acid from 19.7 to

Farooq Anwar; Roman Przybylski; Magdalena Rudzinska; Eliza Gruczynska; John Bain

2008-01-01

262

Controlling grey and blue mould diseases of apple fruits using acetic acid vapours  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of acetic acid vapours at three application times on grey and blue moulds on the incidence of apple fruits was studied. Acetic acid vapour at 6 µl\\/l caused complete inhibition of linear growth and spore germination of Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium sp. The most effective concentration was AA at 4 µl\\/l, which reduced spore germination and linear growth by more

Yehia Omar Fotouh

2009-01-01

263

Determination of organic acids in fruits and vegetables by liquid chromatography with tandem-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem-mass spectrometry (LC–MS\\/MS) with triple quadrupole in selective reaction monitoring mode was developed to determine organic acids (glutamic, tartaric, quinic, malonic, malic, shikimic, ?-ketoglutaric, pyruvic, citric, succinic and fumaric acids) in fruits (melon, grape, peach, orange, lemon) and vegetables (green and red pepper, tomato, lettuce and lamb’s lettuce). The negative ion mode of

Pilar Flores; Pilar Hellín; José Fenoll

264

Effects of acidity of simulated rain on the fruiting of Summerred' apple trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of rain acidity on field-grown Summered apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh) under natural conditions were investigated. One group of four trees was exposed to ambient rainfall. Four other groups were covered with rainshields and received water, pH 5.6, 4, and 3, respectively, as simulated rain. Simulated acid rain, particularly at pH 3, adversely affected fruit production in terms

Rinallo

2009-01-01

265

Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS  

SciTech Connect

A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15mx0.25mm, 0.25{mu}m film thickness, in a temperature program from 50 deg. C for 1 min, then ramped at 15 deg. C/min to 300 deg. C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

Culea, M. [Faculty of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

2007-04-23

266

The role of abscisic acid in regulating cucumber fruit development and ripening and its transcriptional regulation.  

PubMed

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a kind of fruit usually harvested at the immature green stage, belongs to non-climacteric fruit. To investigate the contribution of abscisic acid (ABA) to cucumber fruit development and ripening, variation in ABA level was investigated and a peak in ABA level was found in pulp before fruit get fully ripe. To clarify this point further, exogenous ABA was applied to cucumber fruits at two different development stages. Results showed that ABA application at the turning stage promotes cucumber fruit ripening, while application at the immature green stage had inconspicuous effects. In addition, with the purpose of understanding the transcriptional regulation of ABA, two partial cDNAs of CsNCED1 and CsNCED2 encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a key enzyme in ABA biosynthetic pathway; one partial cDNA of CsCYP707A1 for 8'-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA and two partial cDNAs of CsBG1 and CsBG2 for ?-glucosidase (BG) that hydrolyzes ABA glucose ester (ABA-GE) to release active ABA were cloned from cucumber. The DNA and deduced amino acid sequences of these obtained genes respectively showed high similarities to their homologous genes in other plants. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that ABA content may be regulated by its biosynthesis (CsNCEDs), catabolism (CsCYP707A1) and reactivation genes (CsBGs) at the transcriptional level during cucumber fruit development and ripening, in response to ABA application, dehydration and pollination, among which CsNCED1, CsCYP707A1 and CsBG1 were highly expressed in pulp and may play more important roles in regulating ABA metabolism. PMID:23376370

Wang, Yanping; Wang, Ya; Ji, Kai; Dai, Shengjie; Hu, Ying; Sun, Liang; Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Sun, Yufei; Duan, Chaorui; Wu, Yan; Luo, Hao; Zhang, Dian; Guo, Yangdong; Leng, Ping

2013-03-01

267

PROTECTION OF ASCORBIC ACID FROM COPPER(II)–CATALYZED OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION IN THE PRESENCE OF FRUIT ACIDS: CITRIC, OXALIC, TARTARIC, MALIC, MALONIC AND FUMARIC ACIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid: AA) is sensitive to oxygen and heat, and can be degraded during unsuitable conditions of cooking and preservation methods of food. The nutritional quality of food may be adversely affected due to transition metal?catalyzed oxidative degradation of AA. The effect of Cu(II) complexes formed with protective organic acids widely found in fruits on the autoxidation of

Tu?ba Akb?y?k; ?nci Sönmezo?lu; Kubilay Güçlü; ?zzet Tor; Re?at Apak

2011-01-01

268

Free and bound cinnamic acid derivatives in corsica sweet blond oranges.  

PubMed

Total determination of cinnamic acids (CA), including hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives is generally not accurate since, during hydrolysis, a possible degradation of dihydroxy CA such as caffeic acid could occur. Evaluations of CA (ferulic, p-coumaric, sinapic, cinnamic and caffeic acids) before and after hydrolysis have been undertaken using standards and either with or without addition of ascorbic acid and EDTA. The method was then applied to the determination of free and bound CA in five blond cultivars (Navelina, Washington navel, Pera, Salustiana and Valencia late) of sweet oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.]. Four parts of the fruits (peel juice, flavedo, albedo and juice) have been investigated. Results show that CA are mainly bound (86% up to 92%) in the four fruit parts. The mean of total CA contents was found to be higher in peel juice (1.5 g kg(-1)) in comparison with flavedo (0.7 g kg(-1)), albedo (0.1 g kg(-1)) and juice (0.6 g kg(-1)). Free and bound ferulic acid represented 55-70% of CA in juices, followed by p-coumaric acid (20%), sinapic acid (10%) and caffeic acid (9%). Total contents of each CA in the four fruit parts are discussed and show the potential interest in orange peel wastes. PMID:20420324

Carrera, Eric; El Kebir, Mohamed Vall Ould; Jacquemond, Camille; Luro, François; Lozano, Yves; Gaydou, Emile M

2010-03-01

269

Chlorophenoxyacetic acid and chloropyridylphenylurea accelerate translocation of photoassimilates to parthenocarpic and seeded fruits of muskmelon (Cucumis melo).  

PubMed

We compared the effect of p-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (p-CPA) and 1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea (CPPU) on parthenocarpic and seeded muskmelon (Cucumis melo) fruits in regards to fruit development and the transport of photoassimilates from leaves exposed to ¹?CO? to the developing fruits. Ten days after anthesis (DAA), the fresh weight, total ¹?C-radioactivity and contents of ¹?C-sucrose and ¹?C-fructose were higher in the CPPU-induced parthenocarpic fruits than in seeded fruits. However, at 35 DAA, fresh weight and sucrose content in mesocarp, placenta and empty seeds of the parthenocarpic fruits were lower than in seeded fruits. Also, total ¹?C-radioactivity and ¹?C-sugar content of the parthenocarpic fruits were lower as well as the translocation rate of ¹?C-photoassimilates into these fruits. Application of p-CPA to the parthenocarpic fruits at 10 and 25 DAA increased fresh weight and sugar content. Moreover, these treatments elevated the total ¹?C-radioactivity, ¹?C-sucrose content and the translocation rate of ¹?C-photoassimilates. The ¹?C-radioactivity along the translocation pathway from leaf to petiole, stem, lateral shoot and peduncle showed a declining pattern but dramatically increased again in the fruits. These results suggest that the fruit's sink strength was regulated by the seed and enhanced by the application of p-CPA. PMID:21168241

Li, Xin-Xian; Kobayashi, Fumiyuki; Ikeura, Hiromi; Hayata, Yasuyoshi

2011-06-15

270

Dynamics of fatty-acid composition of neutral acylglycerols in maturing euonymus fruits.  

PubMed

The dynamics of the fatty-acid (FA) composition of neutral acylglycerols (NAGs) composed of 1,2,3-triacyl-sn-glycerols (TAGs) and 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols (acDAGs) was determined in the fruit seeds and arils of three Euonymus L. species at three stages of their maturity. The NAG composition comprised 29 FAs, linoleic, oleic, palmitic, and ?-linolenic acids being predominant. Noticeable amounts of other FAs, such as lauric, myristic, hexadec-9-enoic, stearic, (Z)-vaccenic, and arachidic acid, etc., could also be present. In the course of maturation, the qualitative composition of major FAs remained nearly unchanged, while the unsaturation index of FAs in seeds and in TAGs, as well as, but to a lesser extent, in arils and in acDAGs, respectively, always decreased. This decline was brought about by a sharp fall of the ?-linolenate level, a decrease of the linoleate content, and a corresponding rise in the oleate content. It is suggested that, in both seeds and arils, both classes of NAGs were formed at the expense of the same FA pool; the quantitative composition of this pool was characteristic of a given fruit part and strongly changed during maturation. The accumulation of TAGs in E. europaeus fruits was accompanied by a conversion of hexadec-9-enoic acid into (Z)-vaccenic acid via the C2 -elongation reaction. PMID:24706628

Sidorov, Roman A; Zhukov, Anatoly V; Pchelkin, Vasily P; Vereshchagin, Andrei G; Tsydendambaev, Vladimir D

2014-04-01

271

Expression and regulation of pear 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase gene (PpACS1a) during fruit ripening, under salicylic acid and indole-3-acetic acid treatment, and in diseased fruit.  

PubMed

In plants, the level of ethylene is determined by the activity of the key enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS). A gene encoding an ACC synthase protein was isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia). This gene designated PpACS1a (GenBank accession no. KC632526) was 1488 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 495 amino acids that shared high similarity with other pear ACC synthase proteins. The PpACS1a was grouped into type-1 subfamily of plant ACS based on its conserved domain and phylogenetic status. Real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PpACS1a was differentially expressed in pear tissues and predominantly expressed in anthers. The expression signal of PpACS1a was also detected in fruit and leaves, but no signal was detected in shoots and petals. Furthermore, the PpACS1a expression was regulated during fruit ripening. In addition, the PpACS1a gene expression was regulated by salicylic acid (SA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in fruit. Moreover, the expression of the PpACS1a was up-regulated in diseased pear fruit. These results indicated that PpACS1a might be involved in fruit ripening and response to SA, IAA and disease. PMID:24562629

Shi, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Xing

2014-06-01

272

Rapid determination of fungicides in fruit juices by micellar electrokinetic chromatography: use of organic modifiers to enhance selectivity and on-column high-salt stacking to improve sensitivity.  

PubMed

A rapid, reliable method for the multiresidue analysis of eight commonly used fungicides by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) was developed. Excellent separation of the eight fungicides (carbendazim, metalaxyl, captan, procymidone, folpet, captafol, vinclozolin and iprodione) is achieved within about 10 min by using optimized electrophoretic conditions that include the addition of a mixture of organic modifiers to the running buffer for improved resolution. The sensitivity of the method is enhanced by using an enrichment step that involves on-column high-salt stacking. Limits of detection in the microgram-per-liter region and relative standard deviations from 2.1 to 5.9% are thus obtained for the fungicides without detracting from peak resolution. These results reveal that the high-salt stacking method provides highly improved sensitivity and enables highly flexible adjustment of the selectivity of the separation method. Also, the method surpasses other stacking alternatives used in MEKC and affords routine analyses of fruit juice containing fungicides at trace levels following a straightforward sample treatment. The robustness of the high-salt stacking method as demonstrated in this work makes MEKC methods involving stacking procedures an attractive choice for routine analyses. PMID:11271480

Molina, M; Silva, M

2000-11-01

273

Supplemental Foliar Potassium Applications during Muskmelon Fruit Development Can Improve Fruit Quality, Ascorbic Acid, and Beta-carotene Contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. (Reticulatus Group)) fruit sugar content is directly related to potassium (K)- mediated phloem transport of sucrose into the fruit. However, during fruit growth and maturation, soil fertilization alone is often inadequate (due to poor root uptake and competitive uptake inhibition from calcium and magnesium) to satisfy the numerous K-dependent processes, such as photosynthesis, phloem transport, and

Gene E. Lester; John L. Jifon; Gordon Rogers

274

[Star fruit as a cause of acute kidney injury].  

PubMed

The star fruit belongs to the family Oxalidacea, species Averrhoa carambola. It is rich in minerals, vitamin A, C, B complex vitamins and oxalic acid. Recent studies show that the toxicity of the fruit differs between the patients and may be explained by single biological responses, age, and the intake quantity of the neurotoxin in each fruit in addition to glomerular filtration rate given by each patient. Additionally, the nephrotoxicity caused by the fruit is dose-dependent and may lead to the deposition of crystals of calcium oxalate intratubular, as well as by direct injury to the renal tubular epithelium, leading to apoptosis of the same. We report the case of a patient who after ingestion of the juice and fresh fruit, developed acute renal failure requiring dialysis, evolving with favourable outcome and recovery of renal function. PMID:25055366

Scaranello, Karilla Lany; Alvares, Valeria Regina de Cristo; Carneiro, Daniely Maria Queiroz; Barros, Flávio Henrique Soares; Gentil, Thais Marques Sanches; Thomaz, Myriam José; Pereira, Benedito Jorge; Pereira, Mariana Batista; Leme, Graziella Malzoni; Diz, Mary Carla Esteves; Laranja, Sandra Maria Rodrigues

2014-01-01

275

Dietary fiber, organic acids and minerals in selected wild edible fruits of Mozambique.  

PubMed

The harvesting, utilization and marketing of indigenous fruits and nuts have been central to the livelihoods of the majority of rural communities in African countries. In this study we report on the content of dietary fiber, minerals and selected organic acids in the pulps and kernels of the wild fruits most commonly consumed in southern Mozambique. The content of soluble fiber in the pulps ranged from 4.3 to 65.6?g/100?g and insoluble fiber from 2.6 to 45.8?g/100?g. In the kernels the content of soluble fiber ranged from 8.4 to 42.6?g/100?g and insoluble fiber from 14.7 to 20.9?g/100?g. Citric acid was found in all fruits up to 25.7?g/kg. The kernels of Adansonia digitata and Sclerocarya birrea were shown to be rich in calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc. The data may be useful in selecting wild fruit species appropriate for incorporation into diets. PMID:23539474

Magaia, Telma; Uamusse, Amália; Sjöholm, Ingegerd; Skog, Kerstin

2013-12-01

276

Purification, properties and partial amino-acid sequence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase from apple fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme which converts 1-aminocyclo-propane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) into ethylene, ACC oxidase, has been isolated from apple fruits (Malus x domestica Borkh. cv. Golden Delicious), and for the first time stabilized in vitro by 1,10-phenanthroline and purified 170-fold to homogeneity in a five-step procedure. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-denatured and native proteins have similar molecular weights (approx. 40 kDa) indicating that the

Eve Dupille; César Rombaldi; Jean-Marc Lelièvre; Jean-Claude Cleyet-Marel; Jean-Claude Pech; Alain Latché

1993-01-01

277

Effects of Fermented Fruits on Growth Performance, Shedding of Enterobacteriaceae and Lactic Acid Bacteria and Plasma Cholesterol in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermented fruits (FF), a product of fruits undergo a process of fermentation using lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of FF as additive on production performance, faecal Enterobacteriaceae and LAB counts and plasma cholesterol in rats. A total of 30 Sprague-Dawley (4 weeks of age) male rats were assigned

2003-01-01

278

Effect of fruit on net acid and urinary calcium excretion in an acute feeding trial of women  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveConsumption of fruits and vegetables has been implicated in lowering net acid excretion (NAE), but few studies have directly examined NAE and urinary calcium effects. Further, there is no evidence that only fresh fruits and vegetables must be consumed for a beneficial effect on bone.

Janet Amy Bell; Susan Joyce Whiting

2004-01-01

279

Regulation of fruit ascorbic acid concentrations during ripening in high and low vitamin C tomato cultivars  

PubMed Central

Background To gain insight into the regulation of fruit ascorbic acid (AsA) pool in tomatoes, a combination of metabolite analyses, non-labelled and radiolabelled substrate feeding experiments, enzyme activity measurements and gene expression studies were carried out in fruits of the ‘low-’ and ‘high-AsA’ tomato cultivars ‘Ailsa Craig’ and ‘Santorini’ respectively. Results The two cultivars exhibited different profiles of total AsA (totAsA, AsA + dehydroascorbate) and AsA accumulation during ripening, but both displayed a characteristic peak in concentrations at the breaker stage. Substrate feeding experiments demonstrated that the L-galactose pathway is the main AsA biosynthetic route in tomato fruits, but that substrates from alternative pathways can increase the AsA pool at specific developmental stages. In addition, we show that young fruits display a higher AsA biosynthetic capacity than mature ones, but this does not lead to higher AsA concentrations due to either enhanced rates of AsA breakdown (‘Ailsa Craig’) or decreased rates of AsA recycling (‘Santorini’), depending on the cultivar. In the later stages of ripening, differences in fruit totAsA-AsA concentrations of the two cultivars can be explained by differences in the rate of AsA recycling activities. Analysis of the expression of AsA metabolic genes showed that only the expression of one orthologue of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (SlGGP1), and of two monodehydroascorbate reductases (SlMDHAR1 and SlMDHAR3) correlated with the changes in fruit totAsA-AsA concentrations during fruit ripening in ‘Ailsa Craig’, and that only the expression of SlGGP1 was linked to the high AsA concentrations found in red ripe ‘Santorini’ fruits. Conclusions Results indicate that ‘Ailsa Craig’ and ‘Santorini’ use complementary mechanisms to maintain the fruit AsA pool. In the low-AsA cultivar (‘Ailsa Craig’), alternative routes of AsA biosynthesis may supplement biosynthesis via L-galactose, while in the high-AsA cultivar (‘Santorini’), enhanced AsA recycling activities appear to be responsible for AsA accumulation in the later stages of ripening. Gene expression studies indicate that expression of SlGGP1 and two orthologues of SlMDHAR are closely correlated with totAsA-AsA concentrations during ripening and are potentially good candidates for marker development for breeding and selection. PMID:23245200

2012-01-01

280

Variation in the contents of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and three quercetin glycosides in leaves and fruits of Rowan (Sorbus) species and varieties from collections in Lithuania.  

PubMed

Our research aim was to investigate the quantitative composition of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, rutin, hyperoside and isoquercitrin in leaves and fruit of introduced rowan plants to Lithuania using a HPLC method. In leaf and fruit samples, quantitative estimation of neochlorogenic acid (in leaf samples 1.11-11.49 mg/g, in fruit samples 0.93-5.43 mg/g), chlorogenic acid (in leaf samples 2.74-21.91 mg/g, in fruit samples 0.55-7.50 mg/g), rutin (in leaf samples 0.03-4.88 mg/g, in fruit samples 0.02-0.39 mg/g), hyperoside (in leaf samples 0.15-7.44 mg/g, in fruit samples 0.02-1.19 mg/g) and isoquercitrin (in leaf samples 0.75-5.24 mg/g, in fruit samples 0.02-0.65 mg/g) was performed. In leaf samples, the total content of identified phenolic compounds ranged from 7.18 to 35.74 mg/g. In fruit, raw material total content of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid and identified flavonoids varied from 2.24 to 11.19 mg/g. Comparison of raw material samples of Sorbus species according to their quantitative composition of identified phenolic compounds using cluster analysis singularized S. commixta leaf and fruit samples. These contained the highest contents of chlorogenic acid, hyperoside and isoquercitrin, but also the lowest contents of neochlorogenic acid and rutin. The highest contents of neochlorogenic acid were recorded for S. lancifolia leaves, and of rutin for S. anglica leaves. PMID:24079179

Gaivelyte, Kristina; Jakstas, Valdas; Razukas, Almantas; Janulis, Valdimaras

2013-08-01

281

Evidence for 1-(Malonylamino)cyclopropane-1Carboxylic Acid Being the Major Conjugate of Aminocyclopropane-1- Carboxylic Acid in Tomato Fruit1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller) fruit discs fed with (2,3-14C)1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) formed 1-malonyl-ACC (MACC) as the major conjugate of ACC in fruit throughout all ripening stages, from immature-green through the red-ripe stage. Another conjugate of ACC, g-glutamyl-ACC (GACC), was formed only in mature-green fruit in an amount about 10% of that of MACC; conjugation of ACC into GACC was not

Galen Peiser; Shang Fa Yang

282

Immunocytolocalization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase in tomato and apple fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subcellular localization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACC oxidase), an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of ethylene, has been studied in ripening fruits of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.). Two types of antibody have been raised against (i) a synthetic peptide derived from the reconstructed pTOM13 clone (pRC13), a tomato cDNA encoding ACC oxidase, and considered as a suitable epitope by

Cesar Rombaldi; Jean-Marc Lelièvre; Alain Latché; Michel Petitprez; Mondher Bouzayen; Jean-Claude Pech

1994-01-01

283

Flowering and fruiting in ‘Patterson’ apricot ( Prunus armeniaca) in response to postharvest application of gibberellic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In July or August of 1988 and 1989 which was approximately 2 or 6 weeks, respectively, after fruit harvest, cultivar ‘Patterson’ apricot (Prunus armeniaca) trees were sprayed with a single spray of either 10, 50 or 100 p.p.m. gibberellic acid (gibberellin A3, GA). GA sprays of 100 p.p.m. applied in early July reduced flower number per centimeter of limb length

Stephen M. Southwick; James T. Yeager; Hong Zhou

1995-01-01

284

Flavonoids, sugars and fruit acids of alpine bearberry ( Arctostaphylos alpina) from Finnish Lapland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpine bearberry (Arctostaphylos alpina L.) is a special circumpolar edible berry primarily used for household purposes but with greater potential in commercial applications than utilized thus far. In this study, the flavonoids of alpine bearberry were investigated with HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS, and the sugars and fruit acids as trimethylsilyl derivates with GC-FID. The most abundant anthocyanin was cyanidin-3-O-galactoside accounting for

Kaisa Linderborg; Oskar Laaksonen; Heikki Kallio; Baoru Yang

2011-01-01

285

Soluble Solids, Acidity, Canopy Fruit Distribution, and Disease Susceptibility of Selected Grape Cultivars in Quebec  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty grapevine genotypes (‘Chancellor’, ‘Delisle’, ‘ES-6–12–28’, ‘ES-4–7–25’, ‘GR-7’, ‘Hibernal’, ‘Sabrevois’, ‘Kay Gray’, ‘Lucie Kuhlmann’, ‘Michurinetz’, ‘Okanagan Riesling’, ‘Prairie Star’, ‘St. Croix’, ‘St. Pepin’, ‘Seyval Noir’, ‘Seyval Blanc’, ‘SV-18–307’, ‘Vandal-Cliche’, ‘Vidal Blanc’, and ‘Siegerrebe’) were evaluated under different winter protection methods in Frelighsburg, Quebec, Canada. The effects of these methods on soluble solids, acidity, fruit canopy distribution, and susceptibility to diseases

Shahrokh Khanizadeh; Djamila Rekika; Laetitia Porgès; Audrey Levasseur; Yvon Groleau; Helen Fisher

2008-01-01

286

New 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in fruit of the wild eggplant relative Solanum viarum.  

PubMed

Fruit of the cultivated eggplant species Solanum melongena, Solanum aethiopicum, and Solanum macrocarpon, and wild relatives including Solanum anguivi and Solanum incanum, have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates with potential human health benefits. Typically, caffeoylquinic acid esters predominate, and in particular 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid. By contrast, fruit from accession PI 319855 in the USDA eggplant core collection, unambiguously identified as Solanum viarum by morphological characters, were found to include several major, closely related hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates with much longer C18-HPLC retention times than those of 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid and other monocaffeoylquinic acid isomers. Four of these compounds were isolated from methanolic extracts of lyophilized fruit tissues by C18-HPLC, and structurally elucidated using (1)H and (13)C NMR techniques and HR-TOF-MS. Isomeric compounds 1 and 2 are composed of 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid with a malonyl group on the 3- or 4-hydroxyl of quinic acid, respectively, plus a 6-O-sinapoylglucose group 1-O-?-D linked with the 4-hydroxyl on the phenyl ring of the caffeoyl moiety (1?,4?-dihydroxy-3?-carboxyacetoxy- and 1?,3?-dihydroxy-4?-carboxyacetoxy-5?-[[3-[4-[1?-(6-O-(E)-sinapoyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-3-hydroxyphenyl]-(E)-1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy]cyclohexanecarboxylic acid). Compound 3 has the same structure as 1 and 2 without malonation of quinic acid (1?,3?,4?-trihydroxy-5?-[[3-[4-[1?-(6-O-(E)-sinapoyl-?-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-3-hydroxyphenyl]-(E)-1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy]cyclohexanecarboxylic acid). Compound 4 differs from 3 by methylation of the carboxyl group on quinic acid (methyl 1?,3?,4?-trihydroxy-5?-[[3-[4-[1?-(6-O-(E)-sinapoyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-3-hydroxyphenyl]-(E)-1-oxo-2-propenyl]oxy]cyclohexanecarboxylate). Some features of these four new compounds, such as malonation and the specific linkages between caffeoyl, glucosyl, and sinapoyl moieties, are common in acylated and glycosylated phenylpropanoids, but have not previously been reported in complex derivatives of 5-O-(E)-caffeoylquinic acid. PMID:20886887

Ma, Chunhui; Whitaker, Bruce D; Kennelly, Edward J

2010-10-27

287

Fatty acids, sterols, phenols and antioxidant activity of Phoenix theophrasti fruits growing in Crete, Greece.  

PubMed

In the present study we report the chemical composition of the Cretan Phoenix theophrasti Gr. fruits, in comparison with dates, from its close relative Phoenix dactylifera L. for their nutritional value and their potential exploitation as a source of bioactive components such as phytosterols, lipids and polyphenols. The non polar dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) extract of the fruits was analysed by several techniques (TLC, CC, GC and GC-MS) and was found to consist mainly from fatty acids, hydrocarbons and phytosterols. Palmitic acid was the most abundant fatty acid, 12.49% of total saponifiables, while beta-sitosterol was the most prevalent phytosterol, 29.46% of total unsaponifiable lipid fraction. The polar methanolic extract was examined for its total phenolic content, by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, as well as for its antioxidant activity through DPPH assay, in comparison with previous studies on the fruits of several Phoenix dactylifera varieties. This fraction was found to possess strong antioxidant activity despite its lower content of phenolic compounds in comparison with previously studied Phoenix dactylifera specimens. PMID:19030994

Liolios, C C; Sotiroudis, G T; Chinou, I

2009-03-01

288

Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars  

PubMed Central

The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars (“Lefan,” “Katirbasi,” “Cekirdeksiz-IV,” and “Asinar”) was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. “Lefan” displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested. PMID:21716925

Gozlekci, Sadiye; Saracoglu, Onur; Onursal, Ebru; Ozgen, Mustafa

2011-01-01

289

Beverages of lemon juice and exotic noni and papaya with potential for anticholinergic effects.  

PubMed

Lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.) juice beverages enriched either with noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) (LN) or papaya (Carica papaya L.) (LP), were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n), the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by (DPPH), superoxide (O2(-)), hydroxyl radicals (OH) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) assays, and their potential as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors was also assessed. The fruits are rich in a wide range of bioactive phenolics. Regarding DPPH, OH and HOCl assays, the LP displayed strong activity, and LN was the most active against O2(-). Concerning cholinesterases, LP was the most active, mainly due to lemon juice contribution. The effect on the cholinesterases was not as strong as in previous reports on purified extracts, but the bioactive-rich beverages offer the possibility of dietary coadjutants for daily consumption of health-promoting substances by adults with aging-related cognitive or physical disorders. PMID:25306312

Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

2015-03-01

290

A novel gene, screened by cDNA-AFLP approach, contributes to lowering the acidity of fruit in apple  

Microsoft Academic Search

cDNA-AFLP, coupled with bulked segregant analysis (BSA), was used to screen genes expressed differently between low- and high-acid apple fruits from hybrids of ‘Toko’בFuji’ (Malus×domestica Borkh.). Sixty-four combinations of AFLP primers produced 2240 fragments, of which only one showed different expression between low- and high-acid fruits. The specific fragment was cloned and sequenced, and the complete cDNA was achieved by

Yu-Xin Yao; Ming Li; Zhi Liu; Yu-Jin Hao; Heng Zhai

2007-01-01

291

Optimization of extraction of high-ester pectin from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa) with citric acid by using  

E-print Network

Optimization of extraction of high-ester pectin from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa) with citric acid by using response surface methodology Eloi´sa Rovaris Pinheiro a , Iolanda M to optimize the extraction of pectin with citric acid. The independent variables were citric acid

Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

292

The genetic architecture of branched-chain amino acid accumulation in tomato fruits  

PubMed Central

Previous studies of the genetic architecture of fruit metabolic composition have allowed us to identify four strongly conserved co-ordinate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). This study has been extended here to encompass the other 23 enzymes described to be involved in the pathways of BCAA synthesis and degradation. On coarse mapping the chromosomal location of these enzymes, it was possible to define the map position of 24 genes. Of these genes eight co-localized, or mapped close to BCAA QTL including those encoding ketol-acid reductoisomerase (KARI), dihydroxy-acid dehydratase (DHAD), and isopropylmalate dehydratase (IPMD). Quantitative evaluation of the expression levels of these genes revealed that the S. pennellii allele of IPMD demonstrated changes in the expression level of this gene, whereas those of KARI and DHAD were invariant across the genotypes. Whilst the antisense inhibition of IPMD resulted in increased BCAA, the antisense inhibition of neither KARI nor DHAD produced a clear effect in fruit BCAA contents. The results are discussed both with respect to the roles of these specific enzymes within plant amino acid metabolism and within the context of current understanding of the regulation of plant branched-chain amino acid metabolism. PMID:21436187

Kochevenko, Andrej; Fernie, Alisdair R.

2011-01-01

293

Circulating salicylic acid and metabolic and inflammatory responses after fruit ingestion.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that fruit ingestion provides measurable amounts of salicylic acid (SA) and produces different metabolic and inflammatory responses compared to mere fruit sugars. In a randomized-crossover study, 26 healthy subjects received a peach shake meal (PSM) (SA: 0,06?±?0,001 mg/100 g) and a mixed sugar meal (MSM), consisting in an aqueous solution with the same sugars found in the peach shake. In order to control for the SA contribution from meals in the previous day, 16 subjects (Group 1) abstained from fruits and vegetables consumption the evening before trials, and 10 subjects (Group 2) maintained their usual diet. Circulating SA, glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, and interleukin-6 were determined. Basal SA was lower in Group 1 than in Group 2 (0.09?±?0.02 vs. 0.30?±?0.03 ?mol/l, p?acids decreased more (p?fruit intake increases the concentration of SA in vivo, and provides non-nutrients capable to modulate the inflammatory and metabolic responses to carbohydrates. PMID:22392497

Rinelli, Samuele; Spadafranca, Angela; Fiorillo, Giovanni; Cocucci, Maurizio; Bertoli, Simona; Battezzati, Alberto

2012-03-01

294

Effect of Acetic Acid on the Oxidation of Ascorbic Acid in Fruits and Vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT has been established by earlier investigators that acetic acid has a destructive effect on the ascorbic acid in raw cabbage. This effect is somewhat surprising, since the lower the pH in the medium, the more stable is the ascorbic acid and, therefore, one would expect the acetic acid to have a preservative effect on the ascorbic acid in cabbage.

F. Alm

1952-01-01

295

In vitro effect of vegetable and fruit juices on the mutagenicity of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline.  

PubMed

The antimutagenic potencies of the juices of 28 fruits and 34 vegetables commonly consumed in Germany were investigated with respect to the mutagenic activities induced by 2-amino-3-methyl[4,5-f]-quinoline (IQ), and in part by 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ) or 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. With IQ, weak to strong antimutagenic activities were found in 68% of the fruits and 73% of the vegetables that were tested. In fruits, strong antimutagenic activities were detected in bananas, blackberries, blueberries, sweet and sour cherries, blackcurrants and redcurrants, pineapple and watermelon. Moderate antimutagenic activities were detected in greengage, kiwi, mangos, honeydew melons and plums. Weak antimutagenic activities were detected in apple, apricot, mirabelle, pears, peaches and strawberries, whereas white and red grapes and raspberries were inactive, and gooseberries and citrus fruits in general possessed marginal or no antimutagenic activities. In vegetables, strong to moderate antimutagenic activities were found for all cruciferous vegetables, except Chinese cabbage, which had only weak antimutagenic activity. Other vegetables with strong antimutagenic activities were beets, chives, horseradish, onions, rhubarb and spinach. Moderate antimutagenic activities were found with green beans and tomatoes, weak activities in eggplant, garden cress, many lettuces, leeks, mangold, cucumber, pumpkin, radish and summer squash. Asparagus, carrots, fennel leaves, parsley, green peppers and radishes were inactive. When fruit and vegetable juices were heated, a considerable reduction of antimutagenic potencies was seen with apple, apricot, kiwi, pineapple, beets, cabbage (Chinese, Savoy, red and white), cauliflower, leafy lettuce, cucumber, onions, radish and rhubarb. Antimutagenic factors in blackberries, blueberries, sweet and sour cherries, honeydew melons, mirabelle, plums, strawberries, Brussels sprouts, chicory greens, eggplant, garden cress, mangold, pumpkin, lamb's lettuce and spinach were, however, remarkably heat stable. Antimutagenic potencies in bananas, blackcurrants and redcurrants, greengages, gooseberries, mangos, watermelon, green beans, kohlrabi, horseradish, tomatoes and chives were partially reduced. Antimutagenic activities in the juices of eight apple cultivars were moderate in two, weak in four, and marginal or absent in two. No major differences, however, were detected in five batches of oranges and three batches each of grapefruits, asparagus, green beans, broccoli, cauliflower, spinach and tomatoes. No (or only minor) differences were seen between IQ, MeIQ and MeIQx and tester strains TA98 and TA100. Pineapple and celeriac juices inhibited the enzymatic system responsible for the activation of IQ, but had no desmutagenic activity. Peroxidase activity found to be present in broccoli, cauliflower, green beans and tomatoes may contribute to antimutagenic activities in these vegetables. PMID:8206443

Edenharder, R; Kurz, P; John, K; Burgard, S; Seeger, K

1994-05-01

296

Combination of ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction with stopped-flow spectrofluorometry for the pre-concentration and determination of aluminum in natural waters, fruit juice and food samples.  

PubMed

In this research, we combined ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (IL-based DLLME) with stopped-flow spectrofluorometry (SFS) to evaluate the concentration of aluminum in different real samples at trace level. 1-Hexylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate [Hpy][PF(6)] ionic liquid and 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine), which forms a highly fluorescent complex with Al(3+), were chosen as the extraction solvent and chelating agent, respectively. The hydrophobic Al-oxine complex was extracted into the [Hpy][PF(6)] and separated from the aqueous phase. Then, the concentration of the enriched aluminum in the sediment phase was determined by SFS. Some effective parameters that influence the SFS signals and the micro-extraction efficiency, such as the suction and sending time, the concentration of the chelating agent, pH, the amount of the ionic liquid, the type of disperser solvent and diluting agent, ionic strength, extraction time, equilibration temperature and centrifugation time were investigated and optimized. In the optimum experimental conditions, the limit of detection (3s) and enrichment factor were 0.05microgL(-1) and 100, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for six replicate determinations of 6microgL(-1) Al was 1.7%. The calibration graph using the pre-concentration system was linear in the range of 0.06-15microgL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9989. The developed method was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials and applied successfully to the determination of aluminum in several water, fruit juice and food samples. PMID:20298853

Abdolmohammad-Zadeh, H; Sadeghi, G H

2010-05-15

297

Biosynthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and ethylene from delta-aminolevulinic acid in ripening tomato fruits  

SciTech Connect

A new pathway for ethylene (C/sub 2/H/sub 4/) biosynthesis, which utilizes delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) as a precursor of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the immediate precursor of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, is presented. ALA enhanced ACC accumulation to 410% and C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production to 232% of the control. The C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production rate varied with the ALA concentration and the stage of tomato fruit development. As the ALA concentration increased from zero to 40 mM, the C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production rate increased. Both treated and untreated pericarp discs from fruits at the pink stage of development yielded the largest C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production rate. Radioactivity from (2,3-/sup 3/H)ALA was detected in both ACC and C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, and radioactivity from (4-/sup 14/C)ALA was detected in ACC and CO/sub 2/ but not in C/sub 2/H/sub 4/. However, radioactivity from (5-/sup 14/C)ALA was detected in CO/sub 2/, and its amount was greater than that obtained from (4-/sup 14/C)ALA. Neither ACC nor C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ showed any radioactivity when (5-/sup 14/C)ALA was supplied to the fruit discs. In addition, when (2,3-/sup 3/H)ALA or (4-/sup 14/C)ALA was supplied to the fruit discs, radioactivity was detected in other metabolites such as fumarate, succinate, malate, glutamate, glutamine, ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate, and methionine, but the amount of radioactivity was insignificant as compared with the amount of radioactivity found in C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and ACC.

El-Rayes, D.E.D.A.

1987-01-01

298

Isolation, identification and typification of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius strains from orchard soil and the fruit processing environment in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are thermo-acidophilic, non-pathogenic, spore-forming bacteria that can survive the typical heat processing of fruit juices and concentrates. Bacterial endospores then germinate, grow and cause spoilage of acid food products. Species of Alicyclobacillus were isolated from orchard soil and a fruit concentrate production factory in South Africa. Preliminary identification of the isolates was based on morphological,

Willem H. Groenewald; Pieter A. Gouws; R. Corli Witthuhn

2009-01-01

299

Antimutagenic activity of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale Sapindales, Anacardiaceae) fresh juice and processed juice (cajuína) against methyl methanesulfonate, 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide and benzo(a)pyrene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cashew apple juice (CAJ), produced from the native Brazilian cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale), and has been reported to have antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor, antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. Both the fresh unpro- cessed juice and the processed juice (cajuína in Portuguese) has been shown to consist of a complex mixture con- taining high concentrations of anacardic and ascorbic acids plus several carotenoids,

Ana Amelia Melo Cavalcante; Jaqueline Nascimento Picada; Gabriel Rubensam; João Antonio Pêgas Henriques

2008-01-01

300

Assimilation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and /sup 14/C sucrose by citrus fruit tissues  

SciTech Connect

Assimilation and metabolism of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was compared to that of (U-/sup 14/C) sucrose in young grapefruit (ca 25 mm diameter) to determine their respective roles in fruit growth. Fixation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ by isolated fruit tissues during 10 min in light exceeded that in dark by 2- to 30-fold depending on tissue content of chlorophyll. Greatest apparent photosynthesis occurred in outer green peel, but green juice tissues assimilated more than did adjoining inner peel tissue. In the dark, juice tissues incorporated 2.5-fold more /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ than any other tissue. Neutral sugars accounted for a smaller proportion and organic acids, a greater proportion, of the /sup 14/C-assimilates in interior peel and juice tissues. These data suggest more extensive production of organic acids from /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ in tissues isolated from the fruit interior. In contrast, little difference among tissues was evident in extent of organic- and amino-acid production from exogenous (U-/sup 14/C) sucrose. A small area of cuticle on whole fruit was replaced by a filter disc impregnated with radiolabeled sucrose and incubated for 16 h. Thus, carbon derived from CO/sub 2/ assimilation by fruit appears to be partitioned differently than that derived from sucrose.

Tomlinson, P.T.; Koch, K.E.

1987-04-01

301

Co-mapping studies of QTLs for fruit acidity and candidate genes of organic acid metabolism and proton transport in sweet melon (Cucumis melo L.).  

PubMed

Sweet melon cultivars contain a low level of organic acids and, therefore, the quality and flavor of sweet melon fruit is determined almost exclusively by fruit sugar content. However, genetic variability for fruit acid levels in the Cucumis melo species exists and sour fruit accessions are characterized by acidic fruit pH of <5, compared to the sweet cultivars that are generally characterized by mature fruit pH values of >6. In this paper, we report results from a mapping population based on recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between the non-sour 'Dulce' variety and the sour PI 414323 accession. Results show that a single major QTL for pH co-localizes with major QTLs for the two predominant organic acids in melon fruit, citric and malic, together with an additional metabolite which we identified as uridine. While the acidic recombinants were characterized by higher citric and malic acid levels, the non-acidic recombinants had a higher uridine content than did the acidic recombinants. Additional minor QTLs for pH, citric acid and malic acid were also identified and for these the increased acidity was unexpectedly contributed by the non-sour parent. To test for co-localization of these QTLs with genes encoding organic acid metabolism and transport, we mapped the genes encoding structural enzymes and proteins involved in organic acid metabolism, transport and vacuolar H+ pumps. None of these genes co-localized with the major pH QTL, indicating that the gene determining melon fruit pH is not one of the candidate genes encoding this primary metabolic pathway. Linked markers were tested in two additional inter-varietal populations and shown to be linked to the pH trait. The presence of the same QTL in such diverse segregating populations suggests that the trait is determined throughout the species by variability in the same gene and is indicative of a major role of the evolution of this gene in determining the important domestication trait of fruit acidity within the species. PMID:22406955

Cohen, S; Tzuri, G; Harel-Beja, R; Itkin, M; Portnoy, V; Sa'ar, U; Lev, S; Yeselson, L; Petrikov, M; Rogachev, I; Aharoni, A; Ophir, R; Tadmor, Y; Lewinsohn, E; Burger, Y; Katzir, N; Schaffer, A A

2012-07-01

302

Fruit load induces changes in global gene expression and in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) homeostasis in citrus buds  

PubMed Central

Many fruit trees undergo cycles of heavy fruit load (ON-Crop) in one year, followed by low fruit load (OFF-Crop) the following year, a phenomenon known as alternate bearing (AB). The mechanism by which fruit load affects flowering induction during the following year (return bloom) is still unclear. Although not proven, it is commonly accepted that the fruit or an organ which senses fruit presence generates an inhibitory signal that moves into the bud and inhibits apical meristem transition. Indeed, fruit removal from ON-Crop trees (de-fruiting) induces return bloom. Identification of regulatory or metabolic processes modified in the bud in association with altered fruit load might shed light on the nature of the AB signalling process. The bud transcriptome of de-fruited citrus trees was compared with those of ON- and OFF-Crop trees. Fruit removal resulted in relatively rapid changes in global gene expression, including induction of photosynthetic genes and proteins. Altered regulatory mechanisms included abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and auxin polar transport. Genes of ABA biosynthesis were induced; however, hormone analyses showed that the ABA level was reduced in OFF-Crop buds and in buds shortly following fruit removal. Additionally, genes associated with Ca2+-dependent auxin polar transport were remarkably induced in buds of OFF-Crop and de-fruited trees. Hormone analyses showed that auxin levels were reduced in these buds as compared with ON-Crop buds. In view of the auxin transport autoinhibition theory, the possibility that auxin distribution plays a role in determining bud fate is discussed. PMID:24706719

Shalom, Liron; Samuels, Sivan; Zur, Naftali; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

2014-01-01

303

Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit.  

PubMed

Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2-4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4-6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4-10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4-6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and ?-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit. PMID:25180109

Sweetman, C; Sadras, V O; Hancock, R D; Soole, K L; Ford, C M

2014-11-01

304

Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit  

PubMed Central

Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2–4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4–6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4–10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4–6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and ?-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit. PMID:25180109

Sweetman, C.; Sadras, V. O.; Hancock, R. D.; Soole, K. L.; Ford, C. M.

2014-01-01

305

Treatments with acetic acid followed by curing reduce postharvest decay on Citrus fruit.  

PubMed

Citrus fruit are susceptible to many postharvest diseases and disorders, but Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum are the most common and serious pathogens during storage and marketing. The continuous employ in packing houses of synthetic fungicides such as imazalil (IMZ) or thiabendazote for the control of these pathogens is promoting the selection of resistant biotypes. These considerations together with an increased attention for human health and the environment have multiplied the studies on new ecological technologies. In recent years researchers studies focused on alternatives to the chemical control of post-harvest decay, such as the utilization of GRAS compounds as well as physical methods. In the present study is reported the sequential use of acetic acid (AAC) followed by curing. The lemon variety "Verna" and the orange variety "Jaffa", naturally inoculated, were treated with vapours of AAC performed at three different concentration (15, 25 and 50 microL/L) for 15 minutes, after an incubation period of 24 hours at 27 degrees C and 90% relative humidity (RH). After treatments fruits were cured at 36 degrees C for 36 hours with 90% RH and subsequently stored at 8 degrees C and 90% of RH for eight weeks. Both citrus varieties were also treated with IMZ at a concentration of 200 mL/HL. At the end of the experiment decay and weight loss were evaluated. After 8 weeks of storage, in the lemon variety, the lowest percentage of infected wounds was 1.5% for both the fruit treated with IMZ or with AAC at 25 microL/L. Fruit treated with 15 mciroL/L or untreated (control) showed similar results with 13.6% and 16.6% of rotted fruit respectively. Different results were obtained with the orange variety, in this case the synthetic fungicide was the most effective at the end of the storage period, with 18.0% of decay. AAC treatments were not a successful as on lemons, the best result was achieved even in this case with AAC performed at 25 pL/L, but with 39.9% of decay. In both species the weight loss was not affected by the treatments. These results show that a good control of postharvest decay could be achieved, on lemon fruit, by combining the effect of a GRAS compound such as AAC with curing. Conversely the results obtained, by applying this control method to the orange variety were not so promising. Further researches are needed to shed light on the different behaviour between the two species. PMID:20222556

Venditti, T; Angiolino, C; Dore, A; Molinu, M G; Petretto, A; D'Hallewin, G

2009-01-01

306

Biochemical properties of the fresh and frozen black currants and juices.  

PubMed

Thirteen black currant varieties (Ribes nigrum L.) cultured in Serbia were characterized for their pomological properties and chemical composition (total phenolics, total anthocyanins, anthocyanin aglycones, sugars, and vitamin C). The average amount of vitamin C varied from 122.4 to 193.2 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW), while concentration of invert sugars ranged from 6.3% to 11.1%. The highest amounts of total phenolics and anthocyanins were detected in variety Ometa (278.9 mg of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of FW [mg GAE/100 g FW] and 135.4 mg/100 g, respectively). Quantitative analyses of anthocyanin aglycones in berries were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography, and delphinidin was found to be dominant compound in 11 varieties. Total phenolics and anthocyanins contents decreased during the processing of berry fruits to juices, and the reduction of anthocyanins was more pronounced, 12%-80%. The radical scavenging activity of black currant juices was investigated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, and the IC(50) value ranged from 1.9 to 4.0 mg/mL. Our results also showed that freezing as a way of preservation and storage could save important phytochemicals and health benefits of berries and berry juices. The amount of total phenolics in berries increased during 1 year of storage by 46.09%-171.76% and in juices by even 107.58%, while the amount of total anthocyanins in berries and juices decrease by 5.63%-52.76% and 13.04%-36.82%, respectively. PMID:23256443

Djordjevi?, Boban; Šavikin, Katarina; Zduni?, Gordana; Jankovi?, Teodora; Vuli?, Todor; Pljevljakuši?, Dejan; Oparnica, Cedo

2013-01-01

307

Sensory quality, volatile compounds and color of pear juice treated with ?-cyclodextrin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the addition of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD), the most used of natural CDs, on the pear juice quality was studied.\\u000a Several properties of this fruit juice, such as color, odor and aroma have been evaluated in both the absence and presence\\u000a of ?-CD for the first time. A study of the aroma profile of pear juice showed that esters,

Antonio J. Andreu-Sevilla; Ángel A. Carbonell-Barrachina; José M. López-Nicolás; Francisco García-Carmona

308

The arbuscular mycorrhizal status has an impact on the transcriptome profile and amino acid composition of tomato fruit  

PubMed Central

Background Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is the most widespread association between plant roots and fungi in natural and agricultural ecosystems. This work investigated the influence of mycorrhization on the economically relevant part of the tomato plant, by analyzing its impact on the physiology of the fruit. To this aim, a combination of phenological observations, transcriptomics (Microarrays and qRT-PCR) and biochemical analyses was used to unravel the changes that occur on fruits from Micro-Tom tomato plants colonized by the AM fungus Glomus mosseae. Results Mycorrhization accelerated the flowering and fruit development and increased the fruit yield. Eleven transcripts were differentially regulated in the fruit upon mycorrhization, and the mycorrhiza-responsive genes resulted to be involved in nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolism as well as in regulation and signal transduction. Mycorrhization has increased the amino acid abundance in the fruit from mycorrhizal plants, with glutamine and asparagine being the most responsive amino acids. Conclusions The obtained results offer novel data on the systemic changes that are induced by the establishment of AM symbiosis in the plant, and confirm the work hypothesis that AM fungi may extend their influence from the root to the fruit. PMID:22452950

2012-01-01

309

Production of succinic acid from oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose using Actinobacillus succinogenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Succinic acid is a common metabolite in plants, animals and microorganisms. It has been used widely in agricultural, food and pharmaceutical industries. Enzymatic hydrolysate glucose from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) cellulose was used as a substrate for succinic acid production using Actinobacillus succinogenes. Using cellulose extraction from OPEFB can enhance the production of glucose as a main substrate for succinic acid production. The highest concentration of glucose produced from enzymatic hydrolysis is 167 mg/mL and the sugar recovery is 0.73 g/g of OPEFB. By optimizing the culture medium for succinic acid fermentation with enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose, the nitrogen sources could be reduced to just only 2.5 g yeast extract and 2.5 g corn step liquor. Batch fermentation was carried out using enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose with yeast extract, corn steep liquor and the salts mixture, 23.5 g/L succinic acid was obtained with consumption of 72 g/L glucose in enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose at 38 hours and 37°C. This study suggests that enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose maybe an alternative substrate for the efficient production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

Pasma, Satriani Aga; Daik, Rusli; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof

2013-11-01

310

Spatial and temporal variations in mango colour, acidity, and sweetness in relation to temperature and ethylene gradients within the fruit.  

PubMed

Managing fruit quality is complex because many different attributes have to be taken into account, which are themselves subjected to spatial and temporal variations. Heterogeneous fruit quality has been assumed to be partly related to temperature and maturity gradients within the fruit. To test this assumption, we measured the spatial variability of certain mango fruit quality traits: colour of the peel and of the flesh, and sourness and sweetness, at different stages of fruit maturity using destructive methods as well as vis-NIR reflectance. The spatial variability of mango quality traits was compared to internal variations in thermal time, simulated by a physical model, and to internal variations in maturity, using ethylene content as an indicator. All the fruit quality indicators analysed showed significant spatial and temporal variations, regardless of the measurement method used. The heterogeneity of internal fruit quality traits was not correlated with the marked internal temperature gradient we modelled. However, variations in ethylene content revealed a strong internal maturity gradient which was correlated with the spatial variations in measured mango quality traits. Nonetheless, alone, the internal maturity gradient did not explain the variability of fruit quality traits, suggesting that other factors, such as gas, abscisic acid and water gradients, are also involved. PMID:25151123

Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Génard, Michel; Joas, Jacques

2014-11-01

311

Influence of 1-aminoethoxyvinylglycine hydrochloride and ?-naphthalene acetic acid on fruit retention, quality, evolved ethylene, and respiration in apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of 1-aminoethoxyvinylglycine hydrochloride (AVG or Aviglycine HCl or ReTain) and ?- naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) on fruit retention, fruit quality, eveloved ethylene, and respiration in 'Rome Beauty' and three 'Delicious' apple cultivars (Malus domestica Borkh.) were studied. The experimental trees were treated with either AVG, applied at 120 g a.i. per 935 L. ha-1 or NAA, applied at the

E. Fallahi

312

Efficacy of ozone against Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores in apple juice.  

PubMed

Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris survives during the typical pasteurization process and can cause the spoilage of fruit juices thanks to its spore forming and thermo-acidophilic nature. In recent years, A. acidoterrestris has become a major concern to the fruit juices industry worldwide. This study was undertaken to evaluate ozone for the reducing number of A. acidoterrestris spores in apple juice. Apple juice inoculated with A. acidoterrestris spores was bubbled with continuous stream of two different constant concentrations (2.8 and 5.3mg/L) of ozone at 4 and 22 °C up to 40 min. Level of A. acidoterrestris spores in juice decreased by 2.2 and 2.8 log after 40 min of ozonation at 4 °C with concentrations of 2.8 and 5.3mg/L, respectively. Treatments at 22 °C for 40 min with 2.8 and 5.3 mg/L ozone resulted in 1.8 and 2.4 log reductions of spore viability, respectively. At the ozone concentration of 5.3 mg/L, significant (P<0.05) reductions were observed in total phenolic content of juice at both temperature levels. However, treatments performed at 2.8 mg/L were observed to have no significant (P>0.05) effect on total phenolic content. The results presented in this study indicate that over the 2 log reduction in the count of A. acidoterrestris spores in apple juice can be achieved by bubbling ozonation at 4 °C without causing a significant decrease in total phenolic content of product. Therefore, it can be suggested that bubbling ozonation is a promising method for the control of A. acidoterrestris in fruit juices. PMID:24361826

Torlak, Emrah

2014-02-17

313

Carbon and water relations for developing fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, including effects of drought and gibberellic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth, gas exchange rates, and carbohydrate content were studied for developing fruits of the cul- tivated cactus Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, includ- ing effects of drought and exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3). Fruit development required 110 d from the time of bud differentiation to ripening at 80 d after anthesis, when the fruit mass averaged 67 g. Stomatal conductance and net

Erick De la Barrera; Park S. Nobel

2010-01-01

314

Effects of Fruit Ellagitannin Extracts, Ellagic Acid, and Their Colonic Metabolite, Urolithin A, on Wnt Signaling  

PubMed Central

Recent data suggest that ellagitannins (ETs), a class of hydrolyzable tannins found in some fruits and nuts, may have beneficial effects against colon cancer. In the stomach and gut, ETs hydrolyze to release ellagic acid (EA) and are converted by gut microbiota to urolithin-A (UA; 3,8-dihydroxy-6H-dibenzopyran-6-one) type metabolites which may persist in the colon through enterohepatic circulation. However, little is known about the mechanisms of action of either the native compounds or their metabolites on colon carcinogenesis. Components of Wnt signaling pathways are known to play a pivotal role in human colon carcinogenesis and inappropriate activation of the signaling cascade is observed in 90% of colorectal cancers. Here we investigated the effects of UA, EA, and ET rich fruit extracts on Wnt signaling in a human 293T cell line using a luciferase reporter of canonical Wnt pathway-mediated transcriptional activation. The ET extracts were obtained from strawberry (Fragaria annassa), Jamun berry (Eugenia jambolana), and pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit and were all standardized to phenolic content (as gallic acid equivalents, GAEs, by the Folin Ciocalteau method) and to EA content (by high performance liquid chromatography methods): strawberry=20.5% GAE, 5.0% EA; Jamun berry= 20.5% GAE, 4.2% EA; pomegranate= 55% GAE, 3.5% EA. The ET-extracts (IC50=28.0-30.0 ?g/mL), EA (IC50=19.0 ?g/mL; 63 ?M) and UA (IC50=9.0 ?g/mL; 39 ?M) inhibited Wnt signaling suggesting that ET-rich foods have potential against colon carcinogenesis and that urolithins are relevant bioactive constituents in the colon. PMID:20014760

Sharma, Meenakshi; Li, Liya; Celver, Jeremy; Killian, Caroline; Kovoor, Abraham; Seeram, Navindra P.

2010-01-01

315

Enhancement of Postharvest Disease Resistance in Ya Li Pear ( Pyrus bretschneideri ) Fruit by Salicylic Acid Sprays on the Trees during Fruit Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ya Li pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) trees were sprayed three times with 2.5 mM salicylic acid (SA) around 30, 60 and 90 days after full flowering. The fruit\\u000a were harvested at commercial maturity (about 120 days after full flowering), inoculated with Penicillium expansum, and incubated at 20 °C, 95–100% RH. The results showed that resistance to the pathogen of the

Jiankang Cao; Kaifang Zeng; Weibo Jiang

2006-01-01

316

Health-Promoting Components of Fruits and Vegetables in the Diet12  

PubMed Central

Regular consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods has been negatively correlated with the risk of the development of chronic diseases. There is a huge gap between the average consumption of fruits and vegetables in Americans and the amount recommended by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The key is to encourage consumers to increase the total amount to 9 to 13 servings of fruits and vegetables in all forms available. Fresh, processed fruits and vegetables including frozen and canned, cooked, 100% fruit juices and 100% vegetable juices, as well as dry fruits are all considered as servings of fruits and vegetables per day. A wide variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods provide a range of nutrients and different bioactive compounds including phytochemicals, vitamins, minerals, and fibers. Potatoes serve as one of the low-fat foods with unique nutrients and phytochemical profiles, particularly rich in vitamin C, vitamin B-6, potassium, manganese, and dietary fibers. Potatoes provide 25% of vegetable phenolics in the American diet, the largest contributors among the 27 vegetables commonly consumed in the United States, including flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol), phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid), and carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin). More and more evidence suggests that the health benefits of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods are attributed to the synergy or interactions of bioactive compounds and other nutrients in whole foods. Therefore, consumers should obtain their nutrients, antioxidants, bioactive compounds, and phytochemicals from a balanced diet with a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods for optimal nutrition, health, and well-being, not from dietary supplements. PMID:23674808

Liu, Rui Hai

2013-01-01

317

Health-promoting components of fruits and vegetables in the diet.  

PubMed

Regular consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods has been negatively correlated with the risk of the development of chronic diseases. There is a huge gap between the average consumption of fruits and vegetables in Americans and the amount recommended by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The key is to encourage consumers to increase the total amount to 9 to 13 servings of fruits and vegetables in all forms available. Fresh, processed fruits and vegetables including frozen and canned, cooked, 100% fruit juices and 100% vegetable juices, as well as dry fruits are all considered as servings of fruits and vegetables per day. A wide variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods provide a range of nutrients and different bioactive compounds including phytochemicals, vitamins, minerals, and fibers. Potatoes serve as one of the low-fat foods with unique nutrients and phytochemical profiles, particularly rich in vitamin C, vitamin B-6, potassium, manganese, and dietary fibers. Potatoes provide 25% of vegetable phenolics in the American diet, the largest contributors among the 27 vegetables commonly consumed in the United States, including flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol), phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid), and carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin). More and more evidence suggests that the health benefits of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods are attributed to the synergy or interactions of bioactive compounds and other nutrients in whole foods. Therefore, consumers should obtain their nutrients, antioxidants, bioactive compounds, and phytochemicals from a balanced diet with a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods for optimal nutrition, health, and well-being, not from dietary supplements. PMID:23674808

Liu, Rui Hai

2013-05-01

318

Modulating polyphenolic composition and organoleptic properties of apple juices by manipulating the pressing conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial crushing and pressing operations have a major influence on the polyphenolic composition of apple juice, therefore, we have tested the impact of variations of this step using three cider apple cultivars of contrasting polyphenolic composition: Guillevic, Kermerrien and Dous Moen. Under inert atmosphere, increased temperature (between 5°C and 24°C), increased the extraction of procyanidins from fruit to juice. The

Catherine M. G. C. Renard; J.-M. Le Quéré; R. Bauduin; R. Symoneaux; C. Le Bourvellec; A. Baron

2011-01-01

319

Sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in wild Chinese sea buckthorn ( Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. sinensis) with special reference to influence of latitude and altitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild berries of Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. sinensis were collected from nine natural growth sites in China in three consecutive years in order to get an overall profile of the sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid, and especially of the influence of the latitude and altitude of the growth place on these components. The contents of fructose, glucose, and

Jie Zheng; Heikki Kallio; Kaisa Linderborg; Baoru Yang

2011-01-01

320

Acute Helicobacter pylori infection: clinical features, local and systemic immune response, gastric mucosal histology, and gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The symptomatology of a case of acute infection with Helicobacter pylori is described, together with the accompanying changes in gastric mucosal histology, local and systemic humoral immune response, and gastric ascorbic acid concentration. The patient was an endoscopist, previously negative for the carbon-14 urea breath test, who had a week of epigastric pain and then became asymptomatic. H pylori was

G M Sobala; J E Crabtree; M F Dixon; C J Schorah; J D Taylor; B J Rathbone; R V Heatley; A T Axon

1991-01-01

321

Orange juice and cancer chemoprevention.  

PubMed

Orange juice (OJ) is among the most consumed fruit juices worldwide, and its chemopreventive action is fairly addressed in the literature. This review critically presents the available evidence linking OJ with cancer chemoprevention and on discussing the putative mechanisms and negative health effects. The chemopreventive action of OJ is related to its effect on metabolic enzymes and its antiinflammatory, cytoprotective/apoptotic, hormonal, cell signaling-modulating, antioxidant, and antigenotoxic effects. Most studies on OJ are in vitro, and few are conducted in vivo. Results from in vitro studies must be interpreted carefully because these findings do not consider in vivo bioavailability. However, such results are useful for studying the impact of different processing and storage methods on OJ's chemopreventive effect. Evidence of OJ's chemoprevention in humans is limited. OJ is antimutagenic in bacteria and antigenotoxic in humans and rodents. Studies using rodent cancer models showed that OJ is cancer chemopreventive, influencing either the induction stage or the promotion stage. The composition and, therefore, the chemopreventive action of OJ might be influenced by different cultivars, climates, extraction methods, packaging, storage temperatures, and shelf lives, among other factors. Epidemiological studies and randomized controlled intervention studies in humans evaluating the chemopreventive effect of OJ, taking into consideration variability in OJ composition, are needed. PMID:23919376

Franke, Silvia Isabel Rech; Guecheva, Temenouga Nikolova; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas; Prá, Daniel

2013-01-01

322

New beverages of lemon juice enriched with the exotic berries maqui, aça??, and blackthorn: bioactive components and in vitro biological properties.  

PubMed

Following previous research on lemon juice enriched with berries, the aim of this work was to design new blends based on lemon juice mixed with different edible berries of exotic and national origin: maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz), aça?? ( Euterpe oleracea Mart.), and blackthorn ( Prunus spinosa L.). The phytochemical characterization of controls and blends was performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n). Their antioxidant capacity against DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals and hypochlorous acid and their potential to inhibit cholinesterases were also assessed. The profiling of the red fruits and lemon revealed a wide range of bioactive phenolics. The novel beverage based on lemon juice and maqui berry (LM) was the most interesting blend in terms of antioxidant capacity. Berry control samples displayed reduced effects on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, the lemon juice control being always the most active. This activity was also remarkable for lemon-blackthorn (LB) and lemon-aça?? (LA) blends, the last being the most effective inhibitor of cholinesterases among all samples. The results suggested that lemon juice enriched with berries could be of potential interest in the design of new drinks with a nutritive related function on health for chronic diseases. PMID:22642537

Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Moreno, Diego A; Ferreres, Federico; García-Viguera, Cristina; Andrade, Paula B

2012-07-01

323

Analysis of Citric Acid in Beverages: Use of an Indicator Displacement Assay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of an indicator displacement assay permits the visualization of binding events between host and guest molecules. An undergraduate laboratory experiment is described to demonstrate the technique in the determination of citric acid content in commercially available beverages such as soda pop and fruit juices. Through the technique, students…

Umali, Alona P.; Anslyn, Eric V.; Wright, Aaron T.; Blieden, Clifford R.; Smith, Carolyne K.; Tian, Tian; Truong, Jennifer A.; Crumm, Caitlin E.; Garcia, Jorge E.; Lee, Soal; Mosier, Meredith; Nguyen, Chester P.

2010-01-01

324

Effects of raspberry fruit extracts and ellagic acid on respiratory burst in murine macrophages.  

PubMed

The mechanism of action of polyphenolic compounds is attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties and their effects on subcellular signal transduction, cell cycle impairment and apoptosis. A raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit extract contains various antioxidant active compounds, particularly ellagic acid (EA); however the exact intracellular mechanism of their action is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of raspberry extracts, and that of ellagic acid by assessment of the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by murine macrophage J774 cells. Raspberry extracts and their active compound EA did not affect or had very minor effects on cell viability. No significant difference in the ROS generation in arachidonic acid stimulated macrophages was determined for raspberry extracts and EA whereas in the phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate model ROS generation was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. Our observation that raspberry pomace extracts in vitro reduce ROS production in a J774 macrophage culture suggests that raspberry extract and ellagic acid mediated antioxidant effects may be due to the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity. PMID:24699912

Raudone, Lina; Bobinaite, Ramune; Janulis, Valdimaras; Viskelis, Pranas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata

2014-06-01

325

Healing Effect of Pistacia Atlantica Fruit Oil Extract in Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Considering the anti-oxidant properties of Pistacia atlantica and lack of data regarding its efficacy in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, this study aims at investigating the effect of the Pistacia atlantica fruit extract in treating experimentally induced colitis in a rat model. Methods: Seventy male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 220±20 g) were used. All rats fasted 24 hours before the experimental procedure. The rats were randomly divided into 7 groups, each containing 10 induced colitis with 2ml acetic acid (3%). Group 1 (Asacol), group 2 (base gel) and group 7 (without treatment) were assigned as control groups. Group 3 (300 mg/ml) and group 4 (600 mg/ml) received Pistacia atlantica fruit orally. Group 5 (10% gel) and group 6 (20% gel) received Pistacia atlantica in the form of gel as enema. Macroscopic, histopathological examination and MDA measurement were carried out. Results: All groups revealed significant macroscopic healing in comparison with group 7 (P<0.001). Regarding microscopic findings in the treatment groups compared with group 7, the latter group differed significantly with groups 1, 2, 4 and 6 (P<0.001). There was a significant statistical difference in MDA scores of the seven treatment groups (F(5,54)=76.61, P<0.001). Post-hoc comparisons indicated that the mean±SD score of Asacol treated group (1.57±0.045) was not significantly different from groups 4 (1.62±0.024) and 6 (1.58±0.028). Conclusion: Our study showed that a high dose of Pistacia atlantica fruit oil extract, administered orally and rectally can improve colitis physiologically and pathologically in a rat model, and may be efficient for ulcerative colitis.

Tanideh, Nader; Masoumi, Samira; Hosseinzadeh, Massood; Safarpour, Ali Reza; Erjaee, Hoda; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Rahimikazerooni, Salar

2014-01-01

326

Metabolic Engineering of Tomato Fruit Organic Acid Content Guided by Biochemical Analysis of an Introgression Line1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Organic acid content is regarded as one of the most important quality traits of fresh tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). However, the complexity of carboxylic acid metabolism and storage means that it is difficult to predict the best way to engineer altered carboxylic acid levels. Here, we used a biochemical analysis of a tomato introgression line with increased levels of fruit citrate and malate at breaker stage to identify a metabolic engineering target that was subsequently tested in transgenic plants. Increased carboxylic acid levels in introgression line 2-5 were not accompanied by changes in the pattern of carbohydrate oxidation by pericarp discs or the catalytic capacity of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes measured in isolated mitochondria. However, there was a significant decrease in the maximum catalytic activity of aconitase in total tissue extracts, suggesting that a cytosolic isoform of aconitase was affected. To test the role of cytosolic aconitase in controlling fruit citrate levels, we analyzed fruit of transgenic lines expressing an antisense construct against SlAco3b, one of the two tomato genes encoding aconitase. A green fluorescent protein fusion of SlAco3b was dual targeted to cytosol and mitochondria, while the other aconitase, SlAco3a, was exclusively mitochondrial when transiently expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves. Both aconitase transcripts were decreased in fruit from transgenic lines, and aconitase activity was reduced by about 30% in the transgenic lines. Other measured enzymes of carboxylic acid metabolism were not significantly altered. Both citrate and malate levels were increased in ripe fruit of the transgenic plants, and as a consequence, total carboxylic acid content was increased by 50% at maturity. PMID:23166354

Morgan, Megan J.; Osorio, Sonia; Gehl, Bernadette; Baxter, Charles J.; Kruger, Nicholas J.; Ratcliffe, R. George; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Sweetlove, Lee J.

2013-01-01

327

Hepatotoxicity and subchronic toxicity tests of Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit.  

PubMed

Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit juice has been approved as a safe food in many nations. A few cases of hepatitis in people who had been drinking noni juice have been reported, even though no causal link could be established between the liver injury and ingestion of the juice. To more fully evaluate the hepatotoxic potential of noni fruit juice, in vitro hepatotoxicity tests were conducted in human liver cells, HepG2 cell line. A subchronic oral toxicity test of noni fruit was also performed in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to provide benchmark data for understanding the safety of noni juice, without the potential confounding variables associated with many commercial noni juice products. Freeze-dried filtered noni fruit puree did not decrease HepG2 cell viability or induce neutral lipid accumulation and phospholipidosis. There were no histopathological changes or evidence of dose-responses in hematological and clinical chemistry measurements, including liver function tests. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for freeze-dried noni fruit puree is greater than 6.86 g/kg body weight, equivalent to approximately 90 ml of noni fruit juice/kg. These findings corroborate previous conclusions that consumption of noni fruit juice is unlikely to induce adverse liver effects. PMID:19797868

West, Brett J; Su, Chen X; Jensen, C Jarakae

2009-10-01

328

Study on swelling behaviour of hydrogel based on acrylic acid and pectin from dragon fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biocompatible hydrogel based on acrylic acid (AA) and pectin was synthesized using gamma irradiation technique. AA was grafted onto pectin backbone that was extracted from dragon fruit under pH 3.5 and extracts and ethanol ratios (ER) 1:0.5. The optimum hydrogel system with high swelling capacity was obtained by varying the dose of radiation and ratio of pectin:AA. FTIR-ATR spectroscopy was used to verify the interaction while thermal properties were analyzed by TGA and DSC. Swelling studies was carried out in aqueous solutions with different pH values as to determine the pH sensitivity. The results show that the hydrogel with a ratio of 2:3 (pectin:AA) and 30 kGy radiation dose has the highest swelling properties at pH of 10.

Abdullah, Mohd Fadzlanor; Lazim, Azwani Mat

2014-09-01

329

Linked dominant alleles or inter-locus interaction results in a major shift in pomegranate fruit acidity of ‘Ganesh’ × ‘Kabul Yellow’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Inheritance of fruit acidity in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) was studied in 3 sweet or low acid (‘Ganesh’, ‘Ruby’ and ‘Kabul Yellow’) and 3 sour or high acid (‘Nana’, ‘Daru’ and\\u000a ‘Double Flower’) varieties and their progenies. The F1 and F2 data of ‘Ganesh’ × ‘Nana’ showed that fruit acidity is monogenically controlled and the sour nature is dominant over sweet.\\u000a Further,

S. H. Jalikop

2007-01-01

330

Enhanced xylose recovery from oil palm empty fruit bunch by efficient acid hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) is abundantly available in Malaysia and it is a potential source of xylose for the production of high-value added products. This study aimed to optimize the hydrolysis of EFB using dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) via response surface methodology for maximum xylose recovery. Hydrolysis was carried out in an autoclave. An optimum xylose yield of 91.2 % was obtained at 116 °C using 2.0 % (v/v) H2SO4, a solid/liquid ratio of 1:5 and a hydrolysis time of 20 min. A lower optimum xylose yield of 24.0 % was observed for dilute H3PO4 hydrolysis at 116 °C using 2.4 % (v/v) H3PO4, a solid/liquid ratio of 1:5 and a hydrolysis time of 20 min. The optimized hydrolysis conditions suggested that EFB hydrolysis by H2SO4 resulted in a higher xylose yield at a lower acid concentration as compared to H3PO4. PMID:23709290

Tan, Hooi Teng; Dykes, Gary A; Wu, Ta Yeong; Siow, Lee Fong

2013-08-01

331

Abscisic Acid Plays an Important Role in the Regulation of Strawberry Fruit Ripening1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been suggested to play a role in fruit development, but supporting genetic evidence has been lacking. Here, we report that ABA promotes strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) fruit ripening. Using a newly established Tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing technique in strawberry fruit, the expression of a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase gene (FaNCED1), which is key to ABA biosynthesis, was down-regulated, resulting in a significant decrease in ABA levels and uncolored fruits. Interestingly, a similar uncolored phenotype was observed in the transgenic RNA interference (RNAi) fruits, in which the expression of a putative ABA receptor gene encoding the magnesium chelatase H subunit (FaCHLH/ABAR) was down-regulated by virus-induced gene silencing. More importantly, the uncolored phenotype of the FaNCED1-down-regulated RNAi fruits could be rescued by exogenous ABA, but the ABA treatment could not reverse the uncolored phenotype of the FaCHLH/ABAR-down-regulated RNAi fruits. We observed that down-regulation of the FaCHLH/ABAR gene in the RNAi fruit altered both ABA levels and sugar content as well as a set of ABA- and/or sugar-responsive genes. Additionally, we showed that exogenous sugars, particularly sucrose, can significantly promote ripening while stimulating ABA accumulation. These data provide evidence that ABA is a signal molecule that promotes strawberry ripening and that the putative ABA receptor, FaCHLH/ABAR, is a positive regulator of ripening in response to ABA. PMID:21734113

Jia, Hai-Feng; Chai, Ye-Mao; Li, Chun-Li; Lu, Dong; Luo, Jing-Jing; Qin, Ling; Shen, Yuan-Yue

2011-01-01

332

Compositional Variation in Sugars and Organic Acids at Different Maturity Stages in Selected Small Fruits from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Selected soluble sugars and organic acids were analyzed in strawberry, sweet cherry, and mulberry fruits at different ripening stages by HPLC. The amounts of fructose, glucose and sucrose were found to be: strawberry (1.79–2.86, 1.79–2.25 and 0.01–0.25 g/100 g FW), sweet cherry (0.76–2.35, 0.22–3.39 and 0.03–0.13 g/100 g) and mulberry (3.07–9.41, 1.53–4.95 and 0.01–0.25 g/100 g) at un-ripened to fully-ripened stages, respectively. The strawberry, sweet cherry and mulberry mainly contained tartaric, citric and ascorbic acids in the range of 16–55, 70–1934 and 11–132 mg/100 g; 2–8, 2–10 and 10–17 mg/100 g; 2–118, 139–987 and 2–305 mg/100 g at un-ripened to fully-ripened stages, respectively. Fructose and glucose were established to be the major sugars in all the tested fruit while citric and ascorbic acid were the predominant organic acids in strawberry and mulberry while tartaric acid was mainly present in sweet cherry. The tested fruits mostly showed an increase in the concentration of sugars and organic acids with ripening. PMID:22408396

Mahmood, Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Abbas, Mateen; Boyce, Mary C.; Saari, Nazamid

2012-01-01

333

The biosynthetic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid changes during tomato fruit development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytohormone metabolism during fruit ripening is critical to the controlof this developmental process, yet we know little about pathways for theproduction of many of these signaling compounds. Using stable isotope labelingin both an in vitro aseptic tomato fruit culture systemanddetached greenhouse-grown tomato fruit, we have shown by mass spectral analysisthat tomato uses the tryptophan-independent pathway to produce IAA fromanthranilate or

Ephraim Epstein; Jerry D. Cohen; Janet P. Slovin

2002-01-01

334

Fermentation characteristics of yeasts isolated from traditionally fermented masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits.  

PubMed

Yeast strains were characterized to select potential starter cultures for the production of masau fermented beverages. The yeast species originally isolated from Ziziphus mauritiana (masau) fruits and their traditionally fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe were examined for their ability to ferment glucose and fructose using standard broth under aerated and non-aerated conditions. Most Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were superior to other species in ethanol production. The best ethanol producing S. cerevisiae strains, and strains of the species Pichia kudriavzevii, Pichia fabianii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera were tested for production of flavor compounds during fermentation of masau fruit juice. Significant differences in the production of ethanol and other volatile compounds during fermentation of masau juice were observed among and within the four tested species. Alcohols and esters were the major volatiles detected in the fermented juice. Trace amounts of organic acids and carbonyl compounds were detected. Ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate were produced in highest amounts as compared to the other volatile compounds. S. cerevisiae strains produced higher amounts of ethanol and flavor compounds as compared to the other species, especially fatty acid ethyl esters that provide the major aroma impact of freshly fermented wines. The developed library of characteristics can help in the design of mixtures of strains to obtain a specific melange of product functionalities. PMID:24029027

Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

2013-09-16

335

Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in single-strength lemon and lime juices.  

PubMed

Survival of a five-strain mixture of stationary phase (nonadapted) and acid-adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 in single-strength lemon and lime juices was evaluated at room temperature (22 degrees C). The juices were reconstituted from concentrates that contained no preservatives and intrinsic pH values of 2.5 to 2.6 and titratable acidities of 4.51 to 4.53% (wt/vol, citric acid). A greater than 5-log reduction of stationary-phase cells was achieved in both lemon and lime juices after 72 h of incubation. Similar log reductions were obtained when the reconstituted juices were adjusted to pH 2.7, which is above the highest value normally observed in juice processing plants during the reconstitution of single-strength lemon or lime juice from concentrates. Lemon juice had a significantly higher inhibitory effect (P < 0.05) on E. coli O157:H7 than did lime juice. Validation tests with commercially produced shelf-stable lemon and lime juices confirmed that storage of the juices at room temperature (22 degrees C) for 3 days may be an alternative to heat treatment to ensure the 5-log reduction of vegetative pathogens of concern required for the products under the U.S. Food and Drug Administration juice hazard analysis and critical control point regulations. PMID:19350967

Enache, Elena; Chen, Yuhuan; Elliott, Philip H

2009-02-01

336

Postprandial glycemic response to orange juice and nondiet cola: is there a difference?  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of unsweetened fruit juice and regular, decaffeinated soda on postprandial serum glucose levels in individuals with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) when these liquids are ingested separately as part of mixed meals. Eighteen individuals with NIDDM consumed three test breakfasts calculated using the diabetic exchange meal-planning system. Foods were identical in each of the breakfasts except for foods in the fruit exchange. Carbohydrate-equivalent amounts of fresh orange slices, unsweetened orange juice, and regular, decaffeinated Coke were consumed in breakfasts 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Serum glucose samples were drawn at fasting and 1, 2, and 3 hours postprandially. No difference was found in the postprandial serum glucose response when Coke versus orange juice was consumed in the breakfast. These findings question the appropriateness of using unsweetened fruit juices in routine meal planning for individuals with NIDDM. PMID:2049981

Sullivan, M J; Scott, R L

1991-01-01

337

Quality Attributes of Cupua?u Juice in Response to Treatment with Crude Enzyme Extract Produced by Aspergillus japonicus 586  

PubMed Central

Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum) is an Amazonian Basin native fruit whose fruit pulp is consumed as a juice which presents high density, viscosity, and turbidity. Pectic enzymes, usually yielded by microorganisms, are used to reduce the juice viscosity and turbidity. The present study aims to evaluate the use of pectic enzymes when processing cupuaçu juice. The cupuaçu juice was obtained by using Aspergillus japonicus 586 crude enzyme extract and incubation at 50°C with agitation (140?rpm) for one hour. Enzyme activities were determined, and the juices were evaluated as to their yield, turbidity, viscosity, and chemical composition. The juice produced by using crude enzyme extract presented higher soluble solids, reducing sugars, and lower viscosity and turbidity. PMID:22114735

Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas; Andrade, Jerusa Souza; Fernandes, Ormezinda Celeste Cristo; Duran, Nelson; de Lima Filho, Jose Luiz

2011-01-01

338

Effect of ultrasound on different quality parameters of apple juice.  

PubMed

Fresh apple juice treated with ultrasound (for 0, 30, 60 and 90 min, at 20 °C, 25 kHz frequency) was evaluated for different physico-chemical, Hunter color values, cloud value, antioxidant capacity, scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and microbial characteristics. No significant effect of sonication was observed on pH, total soluble solids (°Brix) and titratable acidity of apple juice. Sonication significantly improved ascorbic acid, cloud value, phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and differences in Hunter color values. Moreover, significant reduction in microbial population was observed. Findings of the present study suggested that sonication treatment could improve the quality of apple juice. It may successfully be employed for the processing of apple juice with improved quality and safety from consumer's health point of view. PMID:23522904

Abid, Muhammad; Jabbar, Saqib; Wu, Tao; Hashim, Malik Muhammad; Hu, Bing; Lei, Shicheng; Zhang, Xin; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

2013-09-01

339

Effect of fruit load on 9,10-ketol-octadecadienoic acid (KODA), GA and jasmonic acid concentrations in apple buds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between 9,10-ketol-octadecadienoic acid (KODA), GAs and jasmonic acid (JA) and flower bud formation influenced by fruit load in apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) was investigated. The endogenous KODA and JA concentrations in apical buds in plants subjected to flower thinning treatment (FTT), under which all flowers were removed were higher than those in plants subjected to heavy crop treatment

M. Kittikorn; N. Shiraishi; K. Okawa; H. Ohara; M. Yokoyama; O. Ifuku; S. Yoshida; S. Kondo

2010-01-01

340

High-Speed Separation of Oleanolic acid and Ursolic acid from the Fruit of Ligustrum Lucidum ait and Crataegus by Cyclodextrin-Modified Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography (CD-MEKC) technique for determining oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in the fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait and Crataegus was developed. The two bio-active components were successfully separated within 4 minutes using a pH 8.5 sodium borate buffer containing 60mM SDS and 2mM ?-CD. The correlation coefficients of the linear calibration graphs for the analyses exceeded

Yanan Hu; Yiming Wang; Guoan Luo; Wei Wei

2000-01-01

341

Effects of low nitrogen supply on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit yield and quality with special emphasis on sugars, acids, ascorbate, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the impact of lowering nitrogen supply from 12 to 6 or 4 mM NO(3)(-) on tomato fruit yield and quality during the growing season. Lowering nitrogen supply had a low impact on fruit commercial yield (-7.5%), but it reduced plant vegetative growth and increased fruit dry matter content, improving consequently fruit quality. Fruit quality was improved due to lower acid (10-16%) and increased soluble sugar content (5-17%). The content of some phenolic compounds (rutin, a caffeic acid glycoside, and a caffeic acid derivate) and total ascorbic acid tended to be higher in fruit with the lowest nitrogen supply, but differences were significant in only a few cases (trusses). With regard to carotenoids, data did not show significant and univocal differences related to different levels of nitrogen supply. Thus, reducing nitrogen fertilization limited environmental pollution, on the one hand, and may improve, on the other hand, both growers' profits, by limiting nitrogen inputs, and fruit quality for consumers, by increasing tomato sugars content. It was concluded that primary and secondary metabolites could be affected as a result of a specific response to low nitrogen, combined with a lower degree of vegetative development, increasing fruit irradiance, and therefore modifying fruit composition. PMID:19348424

Bénard, Camille; Gautier, Hélène; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Grasselly, Dominique; Navez, Brigitte; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Weiss, Marie; Génard, Michel

2009-05-27

342

Effect of the maturation process on the phenolic fractions, fatty acids, and antioxidant activity of the Chétoui olive fruit cultivar.  

PubMed

Maturity is one of the most important factors associated with the quality evaluation of fruit and vegetables. This work aims to investigate the effect of the maturation process of the olive fruit on the phenolic fraction and fatty acid of irrigated Chétoui cultivar. The phenolic composition was studied by using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography followed by LC-MS and GC-MS analyses and fatty acids by GC. Oleuropein was the major phenolic compound at all stages of ripeness. Unexpectedly, both phenolic compounds hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein exhibited the same trends during maturation. Indeed, the oleuropein levels decreased during the ripening process and were not inversely correlated with the concentrations of hydroxytyrosol. The antioxidant capacity of olive extracts was evaluated by measuring the radical scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the beta-carotene linoleate model system. The IC 50 and AAC values of the olive extracts decreased from 3.68 to 1.61 microg/mL and from 645 to 431, respectively. There was a correlation between the antioxidant activity and the oleuropein concentration. The fatty acid composition was quantified in olive fruit during maturation and showed that fatty acids were characterized by the highest level of oleic acid, which reached 65.2%. PMID:18257524

Damak, Nahla; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Ayadi, Mohamed; Sayadi, Sami; Damak, Mohamed

2008-03-12

343

Preliminary in vitro antisickilng properties of crude juice extracts of Persia Americana, Citrus sinensis, Carica papaya and Ciklavit®.  

PubMed

The antisickling properties of crude juice extracts of the edible portions of three commonly consumed tropical fruits namely Persia americana, Citrus sinensis, and Carica papaya were investigated in vitro alongside a new drug preparation called Ciklavit® that has antisickling activity. Four different solvent extracts of the crude juice of each fruit including aqueous, acidic, alkaline and alcoholic extracts were prepared and their antisickling effects on sickle cell trait (HbAS) and sickle cell disease (HbSS) blood samples checked alongside Ciklavit®. Blood samples were stabilized using normal saline and the antisickling effects were checked by counting the number of sickle cells remaining after incubation of the blood samples with the crude fruit extracts and Ciklavit® for twenty-four hours. The results showed that Ciklavit® produced a sustained reduction in the number of sickle cells in both HbAS and HbSS blood samples. Also the alkaline and alcoholic extracts of P. americana and C. papaya produced significant reduction in the number of sickle cells. PMID:21304622

Iweala, E E J; Uhegbu, F O; Ogu, G N

2010-01-01

344

Calcium partitioning and allocation and blossom-end rot development in tomato plants in response to whole-plant and fruit-specific abscisic acid treatments  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms regulating Ca2+ partitioning and allocation in plants and fruit remain poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to determine Ca2+ partitioning and allocation in tomato plants and fruit in response to whole-plant and fruit-specific abscisic acid (ABA) treatments, as well as to analyse the effect of changes in Ca2+ partitioning and allocation on fruit susceptibility to the Ca2+ deficiency disorder blossom-end rot (BER) under water stress conditions. Tomato plants of the cultivar Ace 55 (Vf) were grown in a greenhouse and exposed to low Ca2+ conditions during fruit growth and development. Starting 1 day after pollination (DAP), the following treatments were initiated: (i) whole plants were sprayed weekly with deionized water (control) or (ii) with 500mg l?1 ABA; or fruit on each plant were dipped weekly (iii) in deionized water (control) or (iv) in 500mg l?1 ABA. At 15 DAP, BER was completely prevented by whole-plant or fruit-specific ABA treatments, whereas plants or fruit treated with water had 16–19% BER incidence. At 30 DAP, BER was prevented by the whole-plant ABA treatment, whereas fruit dipped in ABA had a 16% and water-treated plants or fruit had a 36–40% incidence of BER. The results showed that spraying the whole plant with ABA increases xylem sap flow and Ca2+ movement into the fruit, resulting in higher fruit tissue and water-soluble apoplastic Ca2+ concentrations that prevent BER development. Although fruit-specific ABA treatment had no effect on xylem sap flow rates or Ca2+ movement into the fruit, it increased fruit tissue water-soluble apoplastic Ca2+ concentrations and reduced fruit susceptibility to BER to a lesser extent. PMID:24220654

Tonetto de Freitas, Sergio

2014-01-01

345

Fermentative behavior of Saccharomyces strains during microvinification of raspberry juice (Rubus idaeus L.).  

PubMed

Sixteen different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus were evaluated in the production of raspberry fruit wine. Raspberry juice sugar concentrations were adjusted to 16° Brix with a sucrose solution, and batch fermentations were performed at 22 °C. Various kinetic parameters, such as the conversion factors of the substrates into ethanol (Y(p/s)), biomass (Y(x/s)), glycerol (Y(g/s)) and acetic acid (Y(ac/s)), the volumetric productivity of ethanol (Q(p)), the biomass productivity (P(x)), and the fermentation efficiency (E(f)) were calculated. Volatile compounds (alcohols, ethyl esters, acetates of higher alcohols and volatile fatty acids) were determined by gas chromatography (GC-FID). The highest values for the E(f), Y(p/s), Y(g/s), and Y(x/s) parameters were obtained when strains commonly used in the fuel ethanol industry (S. cerevisiae PE-2, BG, SA, CAT-1, and VR-1) were used to ferment raspberry juice. S. cerevisiae strain UFLA FW 15, isolated from fruit, displayed similar results. Twenty-one volatile compounds were identified in raspberry wines. The highest concentrations of total volatile compounds were found in wines produced with S. cerevisiae strains UFLA FW 15 (87,435 ?g/L), CAT-1 (80,317.01 ?g/L), VR-1 (67,573.99 ?g/L) and S. bayanus CBS 1505 (71,660.32 ?g/L). The highest concentrations of ethyl esters were 454.33 ?g/L, 440.33 ?g/L and 438 ?g/L for S. cerevisiae strains UFLA FW 15, VR-1 and BG, respectively. Similar to concentrations of ethyl esters, the highest concentrations of acetates (1927.67 ?g/L) and higher alcohols (83,996.33 ?g/L) were produced in raspberry wine from S. cerevisiae UFLA FW 15. The maximum concentration of volatile fatty acids was found in raspberry wine produced by S. cerevisiae strain VR-1. We conclude that S. cerevisiae strain UFLA FW 15 fermented raspberry juice and produced a fruit wine with low concentrations of acids and high concentrations of acetates, higher alcohols and ethyl esters. PMID:20828848

Duarte, Whasley F; Dragone, Giuliano; Dias, Disney R; Oliveira, José M; Teixeira, José A; Silva, João B Almeida E; Schwan, Rosane F

2010-10-15

346

Cinnamon Muffin 100% Apple Juice  

E-print Network

31 ½ Apple Cinnamon Muffin 100% Apple Juice 5oz Milk Chef Michele Pastorello Milk Choices: Whole White 4oz Juice Choices: 100% Apple 100% Orange NO SCHOOL May 17th SCHOOL CLOSED May 28th Updated 4 100% Orange Juice 5oz Milk Cream of Wheat Sliced Pears 5oz Milk Turkey Sausage Biscuit 100% Apple

Delgado, Mauricio

347

Anti-leukemic activity of Dillenia indica L. fruit extract and quantification of betulinic acid by HPLC.  

PubMed

The methanolic extract of Dillenia indica L. fruits showed significant anti-leukemic activity in human leukemic cell lines U937, HL60 and K562. This finding led to fractionation of the methanolic extract, on the basis of polarity, in which the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest anti-leukemic activity. A major compound, betulinic acid, was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction by silica gel column chromatography and was identified and characterized. Betulinic acid could explain the anti-leukemic activity of the methanolic extract and the ethyl acetate fraction. Hence the quantitative estimation of betulinic acid was approached in methanolic extract and fractions using HPLC. PMID:19679456

Kumar, Deepak; Mallick, Sumana; Vedasiromoni, Joseph R; Pal, Bikas C

2010-05-01

348

Sugar, Non-volatile and Phenolic Acids Composition of Strawberry Tree ( Arbutus unedo L. var. ellipsoidea ) Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using GC-MS, phenolic and non-volatile acids and soluble sugars were identified and quantified in strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) fruits. The phenolic acids quantified were gallic (10.7 mg\\/g dry weight), gentisic (1.9 mg\\/g), protocatechuic (0.6 mg\\/g), p -hydroxybenzoic (0.3 mg\\/g), vanillic (0.12 mg\\/g) and m -anisic (0.05 mg\\/g). From the group of non-volatile acids, fumaric (1.94 mg\\/g dry weight), lactic

F. A. Ayaz; M. Kucukislamoglu; M. Reunanen

2000-01-01

349

Antioxidant properties and polyphenolic compositions of fruits from different European cranberrybush (Viburnum opulus L.) genotypes.  

PubMed

Antioxidant properties of fruit juices of six Viburnum opulus genotypes were evaluated by DPPH, ABTS(+) radical scavenging capacity (RSC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and Folin-Ciocalteu total phenolic content (TPC) assays. TPC varied in the range of 5.4-10.6 mg gallic acid equivalents/g, RSC (ABTS(+)), FRAP and ORAC values were 31.9-109.8, 32.3-61.8 and 141.6-260.4 ?mol trolox equivalents/g, respectively. V. opulus var. sargentii fruit juice was a remarkably stronger antioxidant than the other five V. opulus genotypes. The content of chlorogenic acid (the main phenolic compound in berry juices) depending on plant cultivar varied in the range of 0.54-6.93 mg/ml. The RSC of individual constituents was measured by the on-line HPLC-UV-DPPH method: chlorogenic acid was the dominant radical scavenger in V. opulus P3 (74%), while epicatechin and catechin (the main antioxidants in V. opulus var. sargentii) contributed to 40% and 23% of the total RSC for the sargentii genotype. Nine constituents were identified in V. opulus juice by using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadruple and time-of-flight mass spectrometers (UPLC-QTOF-MS). In general, the study demonstrated that V. opulus var. sargentii followed by V. opulus P3 and V. opulus var. americanum possessed the highest antioxidant capacity. The obtained results may assist in selecting the most valuable V. opulus genotypes for the production of fruits possessing strong antioxidant capacity and containing beneficial phenolic constituents. PMID:23993538

Kraujalyt?, Vilma; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas; Pukalskas, Audrius; ?esonien?, Laima; Daubaras, Remigijus

2013-12-15

350

Uncoupling effect of anacardic acids from cashew nut shell oil on oxidative phosphorylation of rat liver mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anacardic acids are one of natural products found in not only the cashew nut shell oil but also the nut and fruit juice. The present study was conducted to investigate the uncoupling effect of anacardic acids on oxidative phosphorylation of rat liver mitochondria using succinate (plus rotenone) as a substrate. Four anacardic acids with C15:0, C15:1, C15:2 or C15:3 as

Masaaki Toyomizu; Katsuyuki Okamoto; Teru Ishibashi; Zhengqing Chen; Tetsuo Nakatsu

1999-01-01

351

OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY AT 5 YEARS OF AGE IN RELATION TO FRUIT AND VEGETABLE INTAKE OVER TIME  

E-print Network

common fruit and vegetable sources for children are 100% fruit juice and French fries, accounting for 38% of total fruit intake and 28% of total vegetable intake, respectively. Lorson and colleagues estimate 50.2% of 2 to 5- year-olds are not meeting... drank 100% fruit juice. Notably, more children consumed sweetened beverages, deserts, and snack foods than separate portions of vegetables or fruits in a day (16). As evidenced by the above references, American children consistently consume fewer...

Cody, Claire McCaslin

2012-12-31

352

Uptake and desorption of nickel(II) using polymerised tamarind fruit shell with acidic functional groups in aqueous environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption potential of formaldehyde polymerised tamarind fruit shell (FPTFS) containing acidic functional groups for the treatment of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solutions has been investigated. The adsorbent was characterised by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Operating parameters affecting Ni(II) adsorption were investigated by the batch technique. Maximum Ni(II) sorption was found to occur at an initial pH of

T. S. Anirudhan; P. G. Radhakrishnan

2010-01-01

353

The suitability of African bush mango juice for wine production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A good quality wine was produced from African bush mango (Irvingia var.gabonensis). Analysis of the African bush mango juice showed that it contained 3.6% total sugar, 1.09% protein, 4.2° Brix soluble solids (SS) 0.5% ash, 50.24% total solids (TS), 66.7 mg\\/100 ml ascorbic acid and pH 5.12. The juice ameliorated to 23° Brix was inoculated with 3% (w\\/v) Baker's yeast

P. I. Akubor

1996-01-01

354

Caffeic acid as active principle from the fruit of Xanthium strumarium to lower plasma glucose in diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The antihyperglycemic effect of caffeic acid, one of the phenolic compounds contained in the fruit of Xanthium strumarium, was investigated. After an intravenous injection of caffeic acid into diabetic rats of both streptozotocin-induced and insulin-resistant models, a dose-dependent decrease of plasma glucose was observed. However, a similar effect was not produced in normal rats. An insulin-independent action of caffeic acid can thus be considered. Otherwise, this compound reduced the elevation of plasma glucose level in insulin-resistant rats receiving a glucose challenge test. Also, glucose uptake into the isolated adipocytes was raised by caffeic acid in a concentration-dependent manner. Increase of glucose utilization by caffeic acid seems to be responsible for the lowering of plasma glucose. PMID:10821047

Hsu, F L; Chen, Y C; Cheng, J T

2000-04-01

355

Characterization of cell wall polysaccharides of cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Schattenmorelle) fruit and pomace.  

PubMed

The polysaccharide composition of cell wall of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Schattenmorelle) fruit and pomace was investigated. Furthermore, the alcohol insoluble solids composition of 'Kelleriis' and 'Dobreczyn Botermo' varieties were studied too. Yield of alcohol insoluble solids for fruits was lower than 10%, and for pomaces circa 50%. Uronic acid was the main pectin component of alcohol insoluble solids. Enzymes used as juice processing aids decreased the content of uronic acid. Araban and galactan side chains bonded tightly to cellulose presence was suggested by high content of arabinose and galactose in hemicellulose fraction. The process of drying at below 70 degrees C did not influence polysaccharide composition of sour cherry pomaces. Alcohol insoluble solids of fruits expressed higher hydration properties than of pomaces. PMID:19757068

Kosmala, Monika; Milala, Joanna; Ko?odziejczyk, Krzysztof; Markowski, Jaros?aw; Mieszczakowska, Monika; Ginies, Christian; Renard, Catherine M G C

2009-12-01

356

Effects of Cultivar, Fruit Number and Reflected Photosynthetically Active Radiation on Fragaria · ananassa Productivity and Fruit Ellagic Acid and Ascorbic Acid Concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Background and Aims A number of strawberry varieties were surveyed for their total ellagic acid concentration, and attempts were made to determine if ellagic acid and ascorbic acid concentrations of two strawberry cultivars could be increased by polythene reflective mulches. ? Methods After adjusting crop yields and cultivation using polythene mulches with two different PAR reflective capacities, field- and

C. J. ATKINSON; P. A. A. DODDS; Y. Y. FORD; J. LE MIERE; J. M. TAYLOR; P. S. BLAKE; N. PAUL

2006-01-01

357

Preparation of sup 2 H- and sup 3 H-labeled phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid as standards for determination of abscisic acid metabolites in tomato fruit  

SciTech Connect

There have been reports that the level of abscisic acid (ABA) increases during the cold storage of tomatoes. However, the important ABA metabolites, phaseic acid (PA) and dihydrophaseic acid (DPA) were never quantitatively determined in such a system. In order to obtain the labeled standards for quantitative determination of those compounds by GC-MS-SIM, we fed bean plants with 6,6,6-({sup 2}H{sub 3})-ABA (mean isotopic enrichment 60%) with addition of about 10{sup 5} Bq per mg of ({sup 3}H)-ABA. After 100 hours the plants were harvested and extracted with acetone. The extract were purified by solvent partitioning and, Prep-Sep amino column and on an HPLC C{sub 18} reverse phase column. Two major radioactive metabolites of ABA were obtained and identified by GC-MS as PA and DPA. Some results on the quantitation of ABA, PA and DPA in tomato fruit after cold storage will be presented.

Kubik, M.; Buta, J.G. (USDA, Beltsville, MD (USA))

1990-05-01

358

High performance liquid chromatography with on-line dual quantum cascade laser detection for the determination of carbohydrates, alcohols and organic acids in wine and grape juice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study the simultaneous use of two quantum cascade lasers (QC-lasers) was investigated for the on-line detection in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). An optical set-up based on three gold mirrors and a ZnSe beam splitter was used to direct the emitted laser light trough a liquid flow cell with an optical path length of 52 ?m onto a mercury-cadmium-telluride (MCT) detector. Using the separation of eight components of wine and grape juice as an example, on-line dual QC-laser detection in HPLC could be shown successfully for the first time.

Kuligowski, J.; Quintás, G.; Lendl, B.

2010-06-01

359

Effect of blanching, dehydration method and temperature on the ascorbic acid, colour, sliminess and other constituents of okra fruit.  

PubMed

Freshly harvested okra fruits were blanched in boiling water (with or without 0.2% sodium metablsulphite salt) and the effect of this treatment, dehydration methods and temperature on certain characteristics of okra investigated. Blanching resulted in the slight decrease in carbohydrate, fat, ash, colour components, ascorbic acid and viscosity. Besides this initial loss, blanching in sulphite solution led to the retention of more of the colour components and ascorbic acid during dehydration. All dehydrated okra samples had higher contents of carbohydrate, fat and ash but lesser contents of protein and ascorbic acid than fresh okra. Fresh okra fruits, on the other hand, had higher content of the colour pigments and were more viscous than all dehydrated products. Samples blanched prior to dehydration retained more of the colour components but were less viscous than unblanched samples. Vacuum dehydrated samples retained more ascorbic acid, colour pigment and mucilage at each of the dehydration temperatures than those from a hot air oven. High dehydration temperatures had negative effect on the colour, ascorbic acid and viscosity of okra. PMID:9713583

Inyang, U E; Ike, C I

1998-03-01

360

Effect of acidic solutions and acidic prochloraz on the control of postharvest decay caused by Alternaria alternata in mango and persimmon fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of treatments with hydrochloric acid (HCl), alone or in combination with prochloraz, in controlling quiescent infections of Alternaria alternata that cause alternaria rot in mango and persimmon fruit during storage, were compared. Spore germination and germ-tube elongation of A. alternata in vitro were inhibited by 95 and 65%, respectively, by exposure to 1.25mM HCl, and fungal germination was

D. Prusky; I. Kobiler; M. Akerman; I. Miyara

2006-01-01

361

Processing of fruit and vegetables: effect on carotenoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews the potential impact of processing procedures on carotenoid form and content. Fruit and vegetables, in particular, are abundant sources of carotenoids in the diet. Many fruit and vegetables are subjected to various types of processing prior to consumption. Fruit may be canned, dried or processed into juices, while vegetables may be blanched, dehydrated, frozen, canned and also processed into

Christopher Thane; Sheela Reddy

1997-01-01

362

Acetaldehyde Stimulation of Net Gluconeogenic Carbon Movement from Applied Malic Acid in Tomato Fruit Pericarp Tissue 12  

PubMed Central

Applied acetaldehyde is known to lead to sugar accumulation in fruit including tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) (O Paz, HW Janes, BA Prevost, C Frenkel [1982] J Food Sci 47: 270-274) presumably due to stimulation of gluconeogenesis. This conjecture was examined using tomato fruit pericarp discs as a test system and applied i-[U-14C]malic acid as the source for gluconeogenic carbon mobilization. The label from malate was recovered in respiratory CO2, in other organic acids, in ethanol insoluble material, and an appreciable amount in the ethanol soluble sugar fraction. In Rutgers tomatoes, the label recovery in the sugar fraction and an attendant label reduction in the organic acids fraction intensified with fruit ripening. In both Rutgers and in the nonripening tomato rin, these processes were markedly stimulated by 4000 ppm acetaldehyde. The onset of label apportioning from malic acids to sugars coincided with decreased levels of fructose-2,6-biphosphate, the gluconeogenesis inhibitor. In acetaldehyde-treated tissues, with enhanced label mobilization, this decline reached one-half to one third of the initial fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels. Application of 30 micromolar fructose-2,6-biphosphate or 2,5-anhydro-d-mannitol in turn led to a precipitous reduction in the label flow to sugars presumably due to inhibition of fructose-1,6-biphosphatase by the compounds. We conclude that malic and perhaps other organic acids are carbon sources for gluconeogenesis occurring normally in ripening tomatoes. The process is stimulated by acetaldehyde apparently by attenuating the fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels. The mode of the acetaldehyde regulation of fructose-2,6-biphosphate metabolism awaits clarification. PMID:16668078

Halinska, Anna; Frenkel, Chaim

1991-01-01

363

Juice Challenge Part 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity for high school or middle school students from the Florida Advanced Technological Education (FL-ATE) Center challenges students to "come up with a NEW appealing juice container, one that will help sell their product. During this lesson, students will use math, science and engineering to work through the constraints they are given." This is the first of a two-part activity, continued here. The page here gives all the background and supporting materials an educator needs: a Florida-based company overview, videos about manufacturing and a particular juice company, the lesson plan, a PowerPoint presentation (also available in printer-friendly PDF form), and the scenario which gives the context of the project and detailed instructions for students. This excellent resource has all the components to make it ready-to-use in the classroom.

2009-10-01

364

Juice Challenge Part 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity for high school or middle school students from the Florida Advanced Technological Education (FL-ATE) Center challenges students to "come up with a NEW appealing juice container, one that will help sell their product. During this lesson, students will use math, science and engineering to work through the constraints they are given." This is the second part of a two-part activity, begun here. The page here gives all the background and supporting materials an educator needs: a fictional company overview, videos about manufacturing and a particular juice company, the lesson plan, a PowerPoint presentation (also available in printer-friendly PDF form), and the scenario which gives the context of the project and detailed instructions for students. This excellent resource has all the components to make it ready-to-use in the classroom.

2009-10-01

365

Hormonal regulation of flowering and fruit development: Effect of gibberellic acid and ethrel on fruit setting and development of Momordica charantia L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit setting and development in a monoecious cucurbit,Momordica charantia L. could be regulated by the external application of gibberellin (GA3) and ethrel. Both GA3 and ethrel in lower concentrations promoted female flower production as well as fruit setting and development. Both growth\\u000a regulators improved the quality of theMomordica fruit by increasing length, breath and biomass of the fruits as well

S. Banerjee; P. S. Basu

1992-01-01

366

Drinking Juice (Illustrative Mathematics)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this assessment task, students are challenged to find a fractional part of a fractional part of a bottle of juice. This resource also provides helpful background information on problem solving with various types of fraction problems and standards alignment. It also provides illustrated solutions to the problem using an area model, number line, fractional computation, decimal computation, and Cuisenaire rods. Comments from two of the Common Core authors are also included.

Mathematics, Illustrative

2012-09-11

367

Anion and Cation Ionic Conductivity of Dragon Fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The separation of all ions in a synthetic solution was achieved with an anion eluent containing 0.3392 g Na2CO3 and 0.084 g NaHCO2 and the run around 20 min. Cation eluent containing 0.60 g Tartaric acid and 0.125 g Dipicolinic acid and the run around 16 min. This method was applied to dragon fruit juice with success and has shown sensitivity. Moreover, sample preparation was a simple 1:1, 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1000 ppm with 0.20 mm filtration and direct injection without prior sample clean-up. Due to the use of eluent generator, very low conductance background conductivity can be obtained and sensitivity of dragon fruit has been greatly improved. Under the experimental condition, several inorganic anions, such as F-, NO3-, NO2-, Br- and PO43- obtained from dragon fruit. For cation, inorganic ions that occurred during the experiment were NH3+, Ca+, and Mg+. Conductivity for anion of F-, NO3-, NO2-, Br- and PO43- were approximately 20, 17, 16, 16 and 20 ?S/cm, respectively. Concentration for F- is 1.57 mg/l, NO3- is 1.92 mg/l, NO2- is 0.30 mg/l, Br- is 0.45 mg/l and PO43- is 4.45 mg/l. Conductivity for cation of NH3+, Ca+, and Mg+ were approximately 537, 538 and 531 ?S/cm, respectively. Concentration for cation of NH3+ is 0.93 mg/l, Ca+ is 1.15 mg/l, and Mg+ 7.285 is mg/l. The method has successfully applied to the determination of inorganic ions in dragon fruit. An ion chromatography method is described for the simultaneous determination of ionic conductivity for dragon fruit juice using a selected anion and cation eluent. The detection of ionic conductivity in dragon fruit juice has been studied.

Hajar, Nadya; Asiah, M. N.; Abdullah, S.; Rusop, M.

2010-07-01

368

Classification of juices and fermented beverages made from unripe, ripe and senescent apples based on the aromatic profile using chemometrics.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess differences between apple juices and fermented apple beverages elaborated with fruits from different varieties and at different ripening stages in the aroma profile by using chemometrics. Ripening influenced the aroma composition of the apple juice and fermented apple. For all varieties, senescent fruits provided more aromatic fermented apple beverages. However, no significant difference was noticed in samples made of senescent or ripe fruits of the Lisgala variety. Regarding the juices, ripe Gala apple had the highest total aroma concentration. Ethanal was the major compound identified in all the samples, with values between 11.83mg/L (unripe Lisgala juice) and 81.05mg/L (ripe Gala juice). 3-Methyl-1-butanol was the major compound identified in the fermented juices. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were applied and classified the juices and fermented juices based on physicochemical and aroma profile, demonstrating their applicability as tools to monitor the quality of apple-based products. PMID:23790875

Braga, Cíntia Maia; Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Silva, Karolline Marques da; de Souza, Frederico Koch Fernandes; Pietrowski, Giovana de Arruda Moura; Couto, Marcelo; Granato, Daniel; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Nogueira, Alessandro

2013-11-15

369

Effect of gibberellic acid on ripening of strawberry fruits ( Fragaria annanassa Duch.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of GA3 on postharvest ripening in strawberry fruit was evaluated through different biochemical parameters. Strawberry slices at\\u000a different ripening stages were incubated with GA3. A significant decrease on respiratory activity depending on GA3 concentration was obtained. Also GA3 was applied to whole and deachened fruit at white and green ripening stages. Our results show that GA3 has an inhibitory

G. A. Martínez; A. R. Chaves; M. C. Añón

1994-01-01

370

21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...vegetable juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible vegetables, or by the water infusion of the dried vegetable. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of vegetable juice in this...

2010-04-01

371

Genetically modified lactic acid bacteria having modified diacetyl reductase activities  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Genetically modified lactic acid bacteria having a reduced or lacking or enhanced diacetyl reductase activity, acetoin reductase activity and/or butanediol dehydrogenase activity are provided. Such bacteria are used in starter cultures in the production of food products including dairy products where it is desired to have a high content of diacetyl and for reducing or completely removing diacetyl in beverages including beers, fruit juices and certain types of wine, where the presence of diacetyl is undesired.

2002-07-02

372

Liven Up Your Meals with Vegetables and Fruits  

MedlinePLUS

... 8be creative with your baked goods. Add apples, bananas, blueberries, or pears to your favorite muffin recipe ... dessert, blend strawberries, blueberries, or raspberries with frozen bananas and 100% fruit juice for a delicious frozen ...

373

Noni Juice Improves Serum Lipid Profiles and Other Risk Markers in Cigarette Smokers  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress leads to dyslipidemia and systemic inflammation. Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit juice has been found previously to have a significant antioxidant activity. One hundred thirty-two adult heavy smokers completed a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of noni juice on serum cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and homocysteine. Volunteers drank noni juice or a fruit juice placebo daily for one month. Drinking 29.5?mL to 188?mL of noni juice per day significantly reduced cholesterol levels, triglycerides, and hs-CRP. Decreases in LDL and homocysteine, as well increases in HDL, were also observed among noni juice drinkers. The placebo, which was devoid of iridoid glycosides, did not significantly influence blood lipid profiles or hs-CRP. Noni juice was able to mitigate cigarette smoke-induced dyslipidemia, an activity associated with the presence of iridoids. PMID:23097636

Wang, Mian-Ying; Peng, Lin; Weidenbacher-Hoper, Vicki; Deng, Shixin; Anderson, Gary; West, Brett J.

2012-01-01

374

The tenderisation of shin beef using a citrus juice marinade.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic) and a citrus juice marinade as tenderising agents in shin beef muscle was investigated. At 0.2 M, citric acid was more effective as a tenderising agent than acetic or lactic acid. Immersion of shin beef strips in citric acid (0-0.05 M) showed that a significant tenderising effect was obtained above a concentration of 0.013 M. When shin beef strips were immersed in the citrus juice marinade (31% orange juice, 31% lemon juice, 38% distilled water) mean pH decreased from 5.7 to 3.1 and mean sample weight increased by ?65%. The mean Warner-Bratzler shear force value decreased from 178 to 44 N cm(-2) following marination while mean sensory analysis scores for tenderness and juiciness increased following marination. A mean total collagen content of 1.4 g/100 g was recorded in shin beef of which 9% was soluble in unmarinated samples and 29% was soluble in marinated samples. The results indicated that the tenderisation of beef samples using a citrus juice marinade could be attributed to marinade uptake by muscle proteins and also to solubilisation of collagen. PMID:22062175

Burke, R M; Monahan, F J

2003-02-01

375

Voltammetric iodometric titration of ascorbic acid with dead-stop end-point detection in fresh vegetables and fruit samples.  

PubMed

The present work describes a method for determining ascorbic acid, which combines iodometry with a voltammetric technique to detect the end point of the titration. In addition, the validity of the method applied to natural vegetable or fruit samples was assessed. The results were compared with those obtained by an accurate method such as HPLC using UV detection. Similar values of ascorbic acid for different natural samples were obtained by means of this approach (p > 0.05). The limit of quantification was 0.1 mg. This technique presents the advantage of other electroanalytical methods such as avoiding filtration or ultracentrifugation steps, with the additional benefit of using the platinum electrodes, which are routinely used in the laboratory. These facts allow a rapid and efficient quantification of ascorbic acid with very low cost of reagents and equipment. PMID:10898627

Verdini, R A; Lagier, C M

2000-07-01

376

Chef Michele 100% Juice Served  

E-print Network

Garlic Bread Green Beans Fresh Fruit 8oz Milk Cheese-steak Fresh Broccoli Fresh Fruit 8oz Milk SCHOOL Broccoli Fresh Fruit 8oz Milk 1 2 3 4 MAY 2012 Chicken Patty Oven Fries Fresh Fruit 8oz Milk More Info Fresh Fruit 8oz.Milk Chicken Patty Fresh Broccoli Fresh Fruit 8oz Milk Early Dismissal Bagged Lunch

Delgado, Mauricio

377

Separation, characterization, and quantitation of phenolic acids in a little-known blueberry (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L.) fruit by HPLC-MS.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was the qualitative and quantitative determination of free, ester, glycoside, and ester-bound phenolic acids in the blueberry (Vaccinium arctostaphylos L.) fruit. A method for the determination of the profile of phenolic acids of four different phenolic fractions in the fruit was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Thirteen compounds (gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, m-hydroxybenzoic, gentisic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, syringic, sinapic, salicylic, and trans-cinnamic acids) were identified and quantified in the berry. These experimental results showed that the predominant phenolic acid in the fruit of V. arctostaphylos is caffeic acid in free and insoluble ester-bound forms and p-coumaric acid in soluble ester and glycoside forms. Seven phenolic acids were identified as hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives (HBAs) and four as hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (HCAs). Total content of HBAs and HCAs in the four phenolic fractions constituted 30.1 and 69.9% of the free, 27.9 and 72.1% of the ester, 24.7 and 75.3% of the glycoside, and 51.7 and 48.3% of the ester-bound forms, respectively. Total phenolics as the sum of individual phenolic acids identified is 698.5 ng/g of fresh weight (fw) for the free, 3399.2 ng/g of fw for the ester, 3522.1 ng/g of fw for the glycoside, and 3671.6 ng/g of fw for the ester-bound phenolic fractions. The present results were compared with reported levels of phenolic acids in the fruits of different Vaccinium species. These data suggest that the fruit can be considered as a potentially good dietary source of phenolic acids. PMID:16218652

Ayaz, Faik A; Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, Sema; Gruz, Jiri; Novak, Ondrej; Strnad, Miroslav

2005-10-19

378

Changes in the abscisic acid levels and related gene expression during fruit development and ripening in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.).  

PubMed

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a natural plant hormone playing an important role in many physiological processes including fruit ripening and is also recently found to be potential for biomedical applications. This study was aimed to measure ABA levels and its biosynthesis in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), which is one of the best sources of anthocyanins. Five ABA biosynthetic genes were isolated from bilberry and their expression profiles were studied in bilberry tissues, particularly during berry development. The level of ABA highly increased at the onset of bilberry fruit ripening, at the stage when expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, chalcone synthase (VmCHS) and anthocyanidin synthase (VmANS), also increased. In fully ripe berries and leaves, ABA levels were lower but none was detected in bilberry stem or rhizome. The expression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (VmNCED1) and putative neoxanthin synthase (VmNSY) was high in berry tissues and their expression increased markedly at the onset of berry ripening along with the accumulation of ABA. In contrast, the expression of zeaxanthin epoxidase (VmZEP), short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (VmSDR/ABA2) and aldehyde oxidase (VmAO) were most highly associated with leaf tissues with no obvious relation to ABA content during berry development. The obtained results indicate that the ABA biosynthesis may play an important role in the regulation of ripening of non-climacteric bilberry fruits through transcriptional regulation of key ABA biosynthetic genes. PMID:23850079

Karppinen, Katja; Hirvelä, Elina; Nevala, Tiina; Sipari, Nina; Suokas, Marko; Jaakola, Laura

2013-11-01

379

Changes in the Level of Peptidase Activities in Pea Ovaries during Senescence and Fruit Set Induced by Gibberellic Acid 1  

PubMed Central

The activities and changes in the levels of exopeptidase and endopeptidase activities were characterized in unpollinated ovaries of Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska during senescence and early fruit development induced by gibberellic acid (GA3). Two aminopeptidases and one iminopeptidase were electrophoretically separated. These peptidases were sensitive to inhibitors of sulfhydryl proteases. Carboxypeptidase activity was inhibited by phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride. An azocasein-degrading endopeptidase, sensitive to thiol protease inhibitors, was also found. An increase in the specific activity of aminopeptidase during both fruit development and ovary senescence was observed. In contrast, the specific activity of carboxypeptidase and endopeptidase increased only during senescence of the ovary. Changes in exopeptidase activity in senescing ovaries could be mainly the consequence of a greater stability to proteolysis while the rise in endopeptidase activity appeared to be due to new or increased synthesis of the enzyme. These results suggest that endopeptidase, and not amino or carboxypeptidase, plays a key role in the senescence of pea ovaries and that the changes in unpollinated ovaries leading to ovary senescence or fruit development can be controlled by gibberellins. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667372

Carrasco, Pedro; Carbonell, Juan

1990-01-01

380

Non-extractable procyanidins and lignin are important factors in the bile acid binding and radical scavenging properties of cell wall material in some fruits.  

PubMed

The cell wall components and the food functions of alcohol-insoluble solids (AIS) of Chinese quince, quince, hawthorn, apple, pear and blueberry fruits were analyzed. Chinese quince contained characteristically high contents of cellulose, lignin, and non-extractable procyanidins (NEPCs). On the other hand, the quince AIS contained the highest proportion of NEPCs, the highest mean degree of polymerization (mDP), the strongest radical scavenging activity, and strong bile acid binding activity. In fruit AIS, the lignin and NEPC contents both showed positive correlations with the bile acid binding and radical scavenging activities. The value for mDP × NEPC content was a good index for the radical scavenging activity. The results suggest that highly polymerized NEPCs and lignin are important factors of cell wall components of fruits to having a high functionality, and Chinese quince and quince are interesting fruits from this view point. PMID:21243435

Hamauzu, Yasunori; Mizuno, Yukari

2011-03-01

381

Acute and Subchronic Toxic Effects of the Fruits of Physalis peruviana L.  

PubMed Central

The fruit of Physalis peruviana L. (PPL) has been traditionally used as antispasmodic, diuretic, antiseptic, sedative, and analgesic all over the world. We aimed to perform qualitative content analysis of the fruits of PPL and to clarify the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo acute and subchronic toxicity of the fruit. Lyophilized fruit juice does not induce genetic damage. In the acute toxicity studies, LD50 value of the fruit was found to be more than 5000?mg?kg?1 for both sexes. According to the subchronic toxicity studies, hepatic, renal, and hematological toxic effects were not induced in both sexes. Plasma troponin I (only in the group treated with 5000?mg?kg?1 of lyophilized fruit juice) and troponin T levels were significantly increased in male groups treated with lyophilized fruit juice compared to the control group. Furthermore, potassium level was significantly increased in the male group treated with 5000?mg?kg?1 of lyophilized fruit juice. These findings were considered to indicate the myocardial damage particularly in the male group treated with 5000?mg?kg?1 of lyophilized fruit juice. In conclusion, lyophilized fruit juice of PPL is shown to induce cardiac toxicity only at high doses and in male gender. PMID:24369482

Perk, Basak Ozlem; Ilgin, Sinem; Atli, Ozlem; Duymus, Hale Gamze; Sirmagul, Basar

2013-01-01

382

Interaction of Bismuth Subsalicylate with Fruit Juices, Ascorbic Acid, and Thiol-Containing Substrates To Produce Soluble Bismuth Products Active against Clostridium difficile  

PubMed Central

Bismuth subsalicylate (BSS), the active ingredient of Pepto-Bismol, has been used for many years to treat various disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Using mass spectrometry and the agar dilution method, we determined that insoluble BSS interacts with certain dietary components and organic substrates to produce water-soluble products with activity against Clostridium difficile. PMID:15616328

Mahony, D. E.; Woods, A.; Eelman, M. D.; Burford, N.; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S. J. O.

2005-01-01

383

Processing and storage effects on orange juice aroma: a review.  

PubMed

Freshly squeezed orange juice aroma is due to a complex mixture of volatile compounds as it lacks a specific character impact compound. Fresh hand-extracted juice is unstable, and thermal processing is required to reduce enzyme and microbial activity. Heating protocols range from the lightly heated not from concentrate, NFC, to the twice heated, reconstituted from concentrate, RFC, juices. Thermal processing profoundly effects aroma composition. Aroma volatiles are further altered by subsequent time-temperature storage conditions. Heating reduces levels of reactive aroma impact compounds such as neral and geranial, and creates off-flavors or their precursors from Maillard, Strecker, and acid catalyzed hydration reactions. Off-flavors such as 4-vinylguaiacol, p-cymene, and carvone are the products of chemical reactions. Other off-flavors such as butane-2,3-dione, guaiacol, and 2,6-dichlorophenol are indicators of microbial contaminations. Since most orange juice consumed worldwide is processed, the goal of this review is to summarize the widely scattered reports on orange juice aroma differences in the three major juice products and subsequent aroma changes due to packaging, storage, and microbial contamination with special emphasis on results from GC-O studies. PMID:18828595

Perez-Cacho, Pilar Ruiz; Rouseff, Russell

2008-11-12

384

Differential transcriptional regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in peel and pulp of citrus fruits during development and maturation.  

PubMed

Citrus fruits are an important source of ascorbic acid (AsA) for human nutrition, but the main pathways involved in its biosynthesis and their regulation are still not fully characterized. To study the transcriptional regulation of AsA accumulation, expression levels of 13 genes involved in AsA biosynthesis, 5 in recycling and 5 in degradation were analyzed in peel and pulp of fruit of two varieties with different AsA concentration: Navel orange (Citrus sinensis) and Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). AsA accumulation in peel and pulp correlated with the transcriptional profiling of the L-galactose pathway genes, and the myo-inositol pathway appeared to be also relevant in the peel of immature-green orange. Differences in AsA content between varieties were associated with differential gene expression of GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPP), myo-inositol oxygenase in peel, and GGP and GPP in pulp. Relative expressions of monodehydroascorbate reductase 3 (MDHAR3) and dehydroascorbate reductase1 (DHAR1) correlated with AsA accumulation during development and ripening in peel and pulp, respectively, and were more highly expressed in the variety with higher AsA contents. Collectively, results indicated a differential regulation of AsA concentration in peel and pulp of citrus fruits that may change during the different stages of fruit development. The L-galactose pathway appears to be predominant in both tissues, but AsA concentration is regulated by complex mechanisms in which degradation and recycling also play important roles. PMID:24567029

Alós, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, María J; Zacarías, Lorenzo

2014-05-01

385

Selective suppression of cervical cancer Hela cells by 2- O -?- d -glucopyranosyl- l -ascorbic acid isolated from the fruit of Lycium barbarum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lycium barbarum fruit has been used as a Chinese traditional medicine and dietary supplement for centuries. 2-O-?-d-Glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2?G), a novel stable vitamin C analog, is one of the main biologically active components of the fruit.\\u000a In this report, we investigated the cytotoxic and antiproliferative effect of AA-2?G against cancer cells in vitro and identified\\u000a the proteins with significantly differential

Zhiping Zhang; Xiaoming Liu; Tao Wu; Junhong Liu; Xu Zhang; Xueyun Yang; Michael J. Goodheart; John F. Engelhardt; Yujiong Wang

2011-01-01

386

Polygalacturonase, biomass, and ascospore production by byssochlamys fulva. I. Effects of acids found in fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polygalacturonase, biomass, and ascospore production by four strains of Byssochlamys fulva cultured in laboratory media supplemented with citric, malic, or tartaric acids was determined over a 20-day incubation period at 30°C. Polygalacturonase activity was higher in tartaric acid media than in malic or citric acid media, with 1 % acid supporting the greatest activity in media initially at pH 4

Stephen L. Rice; Larry R. Beuchat

1978-01-01

387

Cloning and functional analysis of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) genes encoding a key enzyme during abscisic acid biosynthesis from peach and grape fruits.  

PubMed

Ripening and senescence are generally controlled by ethylene in climacteric fruits like peaches, and the ripening process of grape, a non-climacteric fruit, may have some relationship to abscisic acid (ABA) function. In order to better understand the role of ABA in ripening and senescence of these two types of fruits, we cloned the 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) gene that encodes a key enzyme in ABA biosynthesis from peaches and grapes using an RT-PCR approach. The NCED gene fragments were cloned from peaches (PpNCED1and PpNCED2, each 740bp) and grapes (VVNCED1, 741bp) using degenerate primers designed based on the conserved amino acids sequence of NCEDs in other plants. PpNCED1 showed 78.54% homology with PpNCED2, 74.90% homology with VVNCED1, and both showed high homology to NCEDs from other plants. The expression patterns of PpNCED1 and VVNCED1 were very similar. Both were highly expressed at the beginning of ripening when ABA content becomes high. The maximum ABA preceded ethylene production in peach fruit. ABA in the grape gradually increased from the beginning of ripening and reached the highest level at 20d before the harvest stage. However, ethylene remained at low levels during the entire process of fruit development, including ripening and senescence. ABA content, and ripening and softening of both types of fruits, were promoted or delayed by exogenous ABA or Fluridone (or NDGA) treatment. The roles of ABA and ethylene in the later ripening of fruit are complex. Based on results obtained in this study, we concluded that PpNCED1 and VVNCED1 initiate ABA biosynthesis at the beginning of fruit ripening, and that ABA accumulation might play a key role in the regulation of ripeness and senescence of both peach and grape fruits. PMID:19307046

Zhang, Mei; Leng, Ping; Zhang, Guanglian; Li, Xiangxin

2009-08-15

388

Suppression of 9-cis-Epoxycarotenoid Dioxygenase, Which Encodes a Key Enzyme in Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis, Alters Fruit Texture in Transgenic Tomato1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Cell wall catabolism during fruit ripening is under complex control and is key for fruit quality and shelf life. To examine the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, we suppressed SlNCED1, which encodes 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ABA. To suppress SlNCED1 specifically in tomato fruits, and thus avoid the pleiotropic phenotypes associated with ABA deficiency, we used an RNA interference construct driven by the fruit-specific E8 promoter. ABA accumulation and SlNCED1 transcript levels in the transgenic fruit were down-regulated to between 20% and 50% of the levels measured in the control fruit. This significant reduction in NCED activity led to a down-regulation in the transcription of genes encoding major cell wall catabolic enzymes, specifically polygalacturonase (SlPG), pectin methyl esterase (SlPME), ?-galactosidase precursor mRNA (SlTBG), xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (SlXET), endo-1,4-?-cellulose (SlCels), and expansin (SlExp). This resulted in an increased accumulation of pectin during ripening. In turn, this led to a significant extension of the shelf life to 15 to 29 d compared with a shelf life of only 7 d for the control fruit and an enhancement of fruit firmness at the mature stage by 30% to 45%. In conclusion, ABA affects cell wall catabolism during tomato fruit ripening via down-regulation of the expression of major catabolic genes (SlPG, SlPME, SlTBG, SlXET, SlCels, and SlExp). PMID:22108525

Sun, Liang; Sun, Yufei; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Ling; Ren, Jie; Cui, Mengmeng; Wang, Yanping; Ji, Kai; Li, Ping; Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Dai, Shengjie; Duan, Chaorui; Wu, Yan; Leng, Ping

2012-01-01

389

Fruits of two seabuckthorn varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits of two varieties of Hippophae rhamnoides L. collected in Kyrgyzstan (I) and Uzbekistan (II) were investigated. Differences in their morphological and biochemical properties were demonstrated. Titrable acids, ascorbic acid, and protein dominated in the fruits of I. Pulp oil of II contained more free fatty acids (acid number 2.9 mg KOH) and carotinoids (419.3 mg%). The principal pulp acid

T. V. Chernenko; N. T. Ul’chenko; A. I. Glushenkova

2004-01-01

390

Viability of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' prolonged by addition of citrus juice to culture medium.  

PubMed

Huanglongbing, or citrus greening disease, is associated with infection by the phloem-limited bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. Infection with 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is incurable; therefore, knowledge regarding 'Ca. L. asiaticus' biology and pathogenesis is essential to develop a treatment. However, 'Ca. L. asiaticus' cannot currently be successfully cultured, limiting its study. To gain insight into the conditions conducive for growth of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in vitro, 'Ca. L. asiaticus' inoculum obtained from seed of fruit from infected pomelo trees (Citrus maxima 'Mato Buntan') was added to different media, and cell viability was monitored for up to 2 months using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in conjunction with ethidium monoazide. Media tested included one-third King's B (K), K with 50% juice from the infected fruit, K with 50% commercially available grapefruit juice, and 100% commercially available grapefruit juice. Results show that juice-containing media dramatically prolong viability compared with K in experiments reproduced during 2 years using different juice sources. Furthermore, biofilm formed at the air-liquid interface of juice cultures contained 'Ca. L. asiaticus' cells, though next-generation sequencing indicated that other bacterial genera were predominant. Chemical characterization of the media was conducted to discuss possible factors sustaining 'Ca. L. asiaticus' viability in vitro, which will contribute to future development of a culture medium for 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. PMID:23883155

Parker, Jennifer K; Wisotsky, Sarah R; Johnson, Evan G; Hijaz, Faraj M; Killiny, Nabil; Hilf, Mark E; De La Fuente, Leonardo

2014-01-01

391

Assay of phenolic compounds from four species of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L.) fruits: comparison of three base hydrolysis procedure for quantification of total phenolic acids.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to investigate the flavonoid profile in four species of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) fruit. The 12 flavonoids identified were quercetin 3-O-robinobioside, quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, quercetin 3'-O-galactoside, quercetin 3'-O-glucoside, quercetin 3'-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3'-O-pentosylhexoside, quercetin 3-O-6'malonylglucoside, quercetin 3'-O-malonylglucoside, luteolin 7-O-6'malonylglucoside, luteolin 7-O-malonylglucoside, myricetin 3-O-galactoside, and naringenin tri glycoside. This is the first report on extraction of nine additional flavonoids from the ber fruits. In addition, we also compared the impact of three different base hydrolysis techniques namely ultrasonic assisted base hydrolysis (UABH), microwave assisted base hydrolysis (MWABH), and pressurised liquid assisted base hydrolysis (PLABH) for the quantification of total phenolic acids. Nine phenolic acids, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, ortho- and para-coumaric acids, were identified and quantified. The three major phenolic acids identified in all four ber species were p-coumaric acid, vanillin and ferulic acids. Higher amounts (p<0.05) of total phenolic acids in all cultivars were obtained with the PLABH technique as compared to other two procedures (UABH and MWABH). PMID:23561136

Memon, Ayaz Ali; Memon, Najma; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Luthria, Devanand L

2013-08-15

392

Oxalate nephropathy due to 'juicing': case report and review.  

PubMed

A patient presented with oxalate-induced acute renal failure that was attributable to consumption of oxalate-rich fruit and vegetable juices obtained from juicing. We describe the case and also review the clinical presentation of 65 patients seen at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN) from 1985 through 2010 with renal failure and biopsy-proven renal calcium oxalate crystals. The cause of renal oxalosis was identified for all patients: a single cause for 36 patients and at least 2 causes for 29 patients. Three patients, including our index patient, had presumed diet-induced oxalate nephropathy in the context of chronic kidney disease. Identification of calcium oxalate crystals in a kidney biopsy should prompt an evaluation for causes of renal oxalosis, including a detailed dietary history. Clinicians should be aware that an oxalate-rich diet may potentially precipitate acute renal failure in patients with chronic kidney disease. Juicing followed by heavy consumption of oxalate-rich juices appears to be a potential cause of oxalate nephropathy and acute renal failure. PMID:23830537

Getting, Jane E; Gregoire, James R; Phul, Ashley; Kasten, Mary J

2013-09-01

393

Gastric juice protects against the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma in the rat.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The authors investigate the effects of gastric juice on tumorigenesis in a rat model of esophageal adenocarcinoma. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: In rats treated with the carcinogen methyl-n-amyl nitrosamine, squamous cancer of the esophagus develops in a time- and dose-dependent manner. When methyl-n-amyl nitrosamine treatment is preceded by an operation to induce reflux of duodenal and gastric juice into the esophagus, there is an increased yield of esophageal tumors, many of which are adenocarcinomas. When only gastric juice refluxes into the esophagus, the tumor yield is less and adenocarcinomas are not found. METHODS: Two hundred seventy 8-week old Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Twenty unoperated rats served as controls. The remaining rats underwent the following operations: esophagoduodenostomy with gastric and vagal preservation to induce duodenogastroesophageal reflux (n = 48); esophagoduodenostomy with antrectomy and Billroth 1 reconstruction to produce reflux of duodenogastric juice with the exclusion of the antrum (n = 53); esophagoduodenostomy with proximal gastrectomy to induce hypergastrinemia and reflux of duodenogastric juice with exclusion of the body and forestomach (n = 51); esophagoduodenostomy plus total gastrectomy to produce reflux of duodenal juice alone (n = 50); and esophagoduodenostomy with vagal and gastric preservation but with division of the duodenum just beyond the pylorus and reimplantation into the jejunum, 13 cm distal to the esophagoduodenostomy. This produced reflux of duodenal juice with gastric juice diverted downstream, (n = 48). At 10 weeks of age, all rats were given 4 weekly doses of carcinogen (methyl-n-amyl nitrosamine, 25 mg/kg intraperitoneally), and survivors were killed at 36 weeks of age. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of esophageal adenocarcinoma was 30% in rats with duodenogastroesophageal reflux and 87% in rats with reflux of duodenal juice alone. Fifty-six percent of rats with reflux of duodenogastric juice with exclusion of the antrum and 72% of rats with reflux of duodenogastric juice with the exclusion of the body and forestomach developed adenocarcinoma, showing a progression increase in the prevalence of adenocarcinoma as less gastric juice was permitted to reflux with duodenal juice into the esophagus. CONCLUSION: In this rat model, the presence of gastric juice in refluxed duodenal juice against the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. The protective effect appears to be due to acid secretion from the stomach. Continuous profound acid suppression therapy may be detrimental by encouraging esophageal metaplasia and tumorigenesis in patients with duodenogastroesophageal reflux. Images Figure 1. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 11. Figure 12. PMID:8813264

Ireland, A P; Peters, J H; Smyrk, T C; DeMeester, T R; Clark, G W; Mirvish, S S; Adrian, T E

1996-01-01

394

Apple juice concentrate prevents oxidative damage and impaired maze performance in aged mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative stress contributes to age-related cognitive decline. In some instances, consumption of fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidant can provide superior protection than supplementation with purified antioxidants. Our prior studies have shown that supplementation with apple juice concentrate (AJC) alleviates oxidative damage and cognitive decline in a transgenic murine model compromised in endogenous antioxidant potential when challenged with a vitamin-deficient,

Flaubert Tchantchou; Amy Chan; Lydia Kifle; Daniela Ortiz; Thomas B. Shea

2005-01-01

395

The influence of deck storage and initial processing on patulin levels in apple juice.  

PubMed

Patulin, a secondary metabolite produced by Penicillium expansum and some other fungal species, is a common contaminant of ripened apples used for the production of apple juice concentrates. The limited availability of suitable storage facilities may result in fruit being subjected to storage in the open ('deck storage') for extended periods of time, prior to processing. A study was conducted to determine the influence that deck storage and subsequent initial processing practices had on patulin levels in freshly pressed juice. Over the study period, triplicate samples were collected at four strategic processing points from individual consignments of Granny Smith apples deck-stored for 7, 15 and 33 days, respectively. Over the study period, mean patulin levels in non-processed fruit increased from 90 to 2445 ng/g, respectively, but decreased to between 75 and 695 ng/g, respectively, following a water wash step. Subsequent removal of rotten/damaged fruit decreased patulin levels further (to between 55 and 405 ng/g, respectively), although the numerical decreases between sampling points were not shown to be statistically significant (P > 0.05). However, patulin levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the rejected rotten/damaged fruit (mean levels ranged from 1120 to 6235 ng/g, respectively). P. expansum was the major patulin-producing fungus isolated from the juice samples. The mycological analyses tended to support the chemical data, in that removal of the rotten/damaged fractions significantly reduced total fungal counts in the juice samples. PMID:9328526

Sydenham, E W; Vismer, H F; Marasas, W F; Brown, N L; Schlechter, M; Rheeder, J P

1997-07-01

396

Effect of storage conditions on the chemical attributes of Ogbomoso mango juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mango juices were extracted from Ogbomoso variety using the method of Brekke et al. (1972). Mango juices were packaged in polyethylene films, polyethylene tetraphthalate (PET or plastic) bottles and transparent glass bottles and stored at 6 °C, 26 °C and 34 °C. Percentage ascorbic acid loss, browning index, titratable acidity, pH and soluble solids were evaluated at 2-week intervals for 8 weeks. Percentage ascorbic

O. O. Alaka; J. O. Aina; K. O. Falade

2003-01-01

397

Interplay between foraging behaviour, adult density and fruit ripeness determines the effectiveness of gibberellic acid and host-marking pheromone in reducing susceptibility of grapefruit to infestation by the Mexican fruit-fly, Anastrepha ludens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of gibberellic acid (GA3) and host-marking pheromone as management tools for control of Mexican fruit-fly (Anastrepha ludens) was evaluated in the field. Varying numbers of GA3-treated and untreated “Ruby Red” grapefruit were hung in branches of field-caged citrus trees and exposed to four different densities of gravid A. ludens females (1, 5, 15 and 30 individuals per cage)

Andrea Birke; Diana Pérez-Staples; Patrick Greany; Martín Aluja

2011-01-01

398

Effect of ultra-high pressure homogenisation processing on phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and anti-glucosidase of mulberry juice.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of ultra-high pressure homogenisation (UHPH) processing at 200 MPa for 1-3 successive passes (inlet temperatures at 4°C) were compared with pasteurisation (95°C, 1 min) processing on phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity (ORAC value) and anti-glucosidase of mulberry juice. Compared with thermal pasteurisation processing, the more reductions in the anthocyanins, phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids, and a unknown hydroxycinnamic acid) and quercetin aglycone contents, as well as ORAC value were observed during UHPH processing of mulberry juice, whereas all reductions above during UHPH processing could be inhibited by adding ascorbic acid to mulberry juice. Besides, no significant change (p>0.05) in the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity was observed during UHPH processing of mulberry juice, but showed a 14% reduction in mulberry juice processed by thermal pasteurisation. PMID:24491708

Yu, Yuanshan; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Xiao, Gengsheng; Fu, Mangqin; Zhang, Yousheng

2014-06-15

399

Enhanced expression of avfae1 encoding a long-chain fatty acid elongase during the induction of the antifungal diene in avocado fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preformed (Z,Z)-1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo-heneicosa-12,15-diene (AFD) is the most active antifungal compound in avocado; it affects the quiescence nature of infection of unripe fruit by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Fatty acid elongase was hypothesized to participate in the biosynthesis of AFD, therefore the enzymatic activity of avocado fatty acid elongase (AVFAE) and the expression pattern of one of the genes encoding this enzyme were

X. Wang; I. Kobiler; A. Lichter; A. Leikin-Frenkel; D. Prusky

2004-01-01

400

Simultaneous Purification of Limonin, Nomilin and Isoobacunoic Acid from Pomelo Fruit (Citrus grandis) Segment Membrane.  

PubMed

A method was established for purification of limonin, nomilin, and isoobacunoic acid simultaneously from segment membranes of pomelo (Citrus Grandis). This method includes 3 steps, removing most impurities by macroporous resin HZ-816, isolating limonin by High Speed Counter Current Chromatography (HSCCC), and isolating nomilin and isoobacunoic acid by semi-preparative HPLC. Naringin was partially purified as a by-product of this process using Sephadex LH-20. All limonoids purified through this method reached 95% purity. The purified limonin, nomilin and isoobacunoic acid were identified according to the retention time of the standard substances using HPLC and characteristic fragment ions of LC-MS/MS. PMID:25212475

Xiang, Yu; Cao, Jinping; Luo, Fenglei; Wang, Dengliang; Chen, Wei; Li, Xian; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

2014-10-01

401

White wine taste and mouthfeel as affected by juice extraction and processing.  

PubMed

The juice used to make white wine can be extracted using various physical processes that affect the amount and timing of contact of juice with skins. The influence of juice extraction processes on the mouthfeel and taste of white wine and their relationship to wine composition were determined. The amount and type of interaction of juice with skins affected both wine total phenolic concentration and phenolic composition. Wine pH strongly influenced perceived viscosity, astringency/drying, and acidity. Despite a 5-fold variation in total phenolics among wines, differences in bitter taste were small. Perceived viscosity was associated with higher phenolics but was not associated with either glycerol or polysaccharide concentration. Bitterness may be reduced by using juice extraction and handling processes that minimize phenolic concentration, but lowering phenolic concentration may also result in wines of lower perceived viscosity. PMID:25248855

Gawel, Richard; Day, Martin; Van Sluyter, Steven C; Holt, Helen; Waters, Elizabeth J; Smith, Paul A

2014-10-15

402

Identification of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase genes (XTHs) and their expression in persimmon fruit as influenced by 1-methylcyclopropene and gibberellic acid during storage at ambient temperature.  

PubMed

Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) is thought to contribute to fruit softening by degrading xyloglucan that is a predominant hemicellulose in the cell wall. In this study, two full-length XTH genes (DKXTH1 and DKXTH2) were identified from 'Fupingjianshi' persimmon fruit, and the expression level of both XTH genes was investigated during softening for 18-24 d using RT-qPCR. Sequence analysis showed that DKXTH1 and DKXTH2 contained a putative open reading frame of 861 and 876 bp encoding polypeptides of 287 and 292 amino acid residues, respectively, which contained the conserved DEIDFEFLG motif of XTH, a potential N-linked glycosylation signal site. RT-qPCR analysis showed that DKXTH1 and DKXTH2 in untreated fruit had different expression patterns during fruit softening, in which maximum expression occurred on days 3 and 12 of ripening, respectively. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and gibberellic acid (GA(3)) treatments delayed the softening and ethylene peak of persimmon fruit, as well as suppressed the expression of both XTH genes, especially DKXTH1. These results indicated that the expression of both XTH genes might be ethylene dependent action, and closely related to softening of persimmon in the early (DKXTH1) and later (DKXTH2) ripening stages. PMID:23265513

Zhu, Qinggang; Zhang, Zhengke; Rao, Jingping; Huber, Donald J; Lv, Jingyi; Hou, Yali; Song, Kanghua

2013-05-01

403

Pharmacokinetics of anthocyanins and antioxidant effects after the consumption of anthocyanin-rich acai juice and pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) in human healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

The acai berry is the fruit of the acai palm and is traditionally consumed in Brazil but has gained popularity abroad as a food and functional ingredient, yet little information exists on its health effect in humans. This study was performed as an acute four-way crossover clinical trial with acai pulp and clarified acai juice compared to applesauce and a non-antioxidant beverage as controls. Healthy volunteers (12) were dosed at 7 mL/kg of body weight after a washout phase and overnight fast, and plasma was repeatedly sampled over 12 h and urine over 24 h after consumption. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis of total anthocyanins quantified as cyanidin-3-O-glucoside showed Cmax values of 2321 and 1138 ng/L at t max times of 2.2 and 2.0 h, and AUC last values of 8568 and 3314 ng h L(-1) for pulp and juice, respectively. Nonlinear mixed effect modeling identified dose volume as a significant predictor of relative oral bioavailability in a negative nonlinear relationship for acai pulp and juice. Plasma antioxidant capacity was significantly increased by the acai pulp and applesauce. Individual increases in plasma antioxidant capacity of up to 2.3- and 3-fold for acai juice and pulp, respectively were observed. The antioxidant capacity in urine, generation of reactive oxygen species, and uric acid concentrations in plasma were not significantly altered by the treatments. Results demonstrate the absorption and antioxidant effects of anthocyanins in acai in plasma in an acute human consumption trial. PMID:18693743

Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U; Rios, Jolian; Jilma-Stohlawetz, Petra; Pacheco-Palencia, Lisbeth A; Meibohm, Bernd; Talcott, Stephen T; Derendorf, Hartmut

2008-09-10

404

Review article Tomato fruit quality in relation  

E-print Network

/ sugar concentration / acid concentration / BER / water status / fruit cracking Résumé ­ Qualité du fruit fruit / concentration en sucres / concentration en acide / nécrose apicale / BER / état hydriqueReview article Tomato fruit quality in relation to water and carbon fluxes Soraya GUICHARDa, Nadia

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

405

Protective effects of Aegle marmelos fruit pulp on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced experimental colitis  

PubMed Central

Background: Aegle marmelos (AM) fruit has been advocated in indigenous system of medicine for the treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders, fever, asthma, inflammations, febrile delirium, acute bronchitis, snakebite, epilepsy, leprosy, myalgia, smallpox, leucoderma, mental illnesses, sores, swelling, thirst, thyroid disorders, tumours and upper respiratory tract infections. Objective: The objective of this study was to study the curative effect of 50% ethanol extract of dried fruit pulp of AM (AME) against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced experimental colitis. Materials and Methods: AME (200 mg/kg) was administered orally, once daily for 14 days after TNBS-induced colitis. Rats were given intracolonic normal saline or TNBS alone or TNBS plus oral AME. AME was studied for its in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-negative intestinal bacteria and on TNBS-induced changes in colonic damage, weight and adhesions (macroscopic and microscopic), diarrhea, body weight and colonic levels of free radicals (nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation), antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione) and pro-inflammatory marker (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) in rats. Results: AME showed antibacterial activity against intestinal pathogens and decreased colonic mucosal damage and inflammation, diarrhea, colonic free radicals and MPO and enhanced body weight and colonic antioxidants level affected by TNBS. The effects of AME on the above parameters were comparable with sulfasalazine, a known colitis protective drug (100 mg/kg, oral). Conclusion: AME shows curative effects against TNBS-induced colitis by its antibacterial activity and promoting colonic antioxidants and reducing free radicals and MPO-induced colonic damage. PMID:24914296

Ghatule, Rohit R.; Gautam, Manish K.; Goel, Shalini; Singh, Amit; Joshi, Vinod K.; Goel, Raj K.

2014-01-01

406

Drinking orange juice increases total antioxidant status and decreases lipid peroxidation in adults.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the world and is the primary cause of mortality among Americans. One of the many reasons for the pathogenesis of CVD is attributed to eating diets high in saturated fat and refined carbohydrates and low in fruits and vegetables. Epidemiological evidence has supported a strong association between eating diets rich in fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular health. An experiment was conducted utilizing 24 adults with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia to evaluate the impact of drinking 20 fl oz of freshly squeezed orange juice daily for 90 days on blood pressure, lipid panels, plasma antioxidant capacity, metabolic hormones, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory markers. Except for addition of drinking orange juice, subjects did not modify their eating habits. The findings suggested that drinking orange juice does not affect (P>.1) blood pressure, lipid panels, metabolic hormones, body fat percentage, or inflammatory markers. However, total plasma antioxidant capacity was significantly increased (P<.05) and lipid peroxidation was significantly decreased (P<.05) after orange juice consumption. Drinking orange juice may protect the cardiovascular system by increasing total plasma antioxidant status and by lowering lipid peroxidation independent of other cardiovascular risk markers evaluated in this study. PMID:24476220

Foroudi, Shahrzad; Potter, Andrew S; Stamatikos, Alexis; Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Deyhim, Farzad

2014-05-01

407

Effect of sporulation medium on wet-heat resistance and structure of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris DSM 3922-type strain spores and modeling of the inactivation kinetics in apple juice.  

PubMed

Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is a spoilage bacterium in fruit juices leading to high economic losses. The present study evaluated the effect of sporulation medium on the thermal inactivation kinetics of A. acidoterrestris DSM 3922 spores in apple juice (pH3.82±0.01; 11.3±0.1 °Brix). Bacillus acidocaldarius agar (BAA), Bacillus acidoterrestris agar (BATA), malt extract agar (MEA), potato dextrose agar (PDA) and B. acidoterrestris broth (BATB) were used for sporulation. Inactivation kinetic parameters at 85, 87.5 and 90°C were obtained using the log-linear model. The decimal reduction times at 85°C (D85°C) were 41.7, 57.6, 76.8, 76.8 and 67.2min; D87.5°C-values were 22.4, 26.7, 32.9, 31.5, and 32.9min; and D90°C-values were 11.6, 9.9, 14.7, 11.9 and 14.1min for spores produced on PDA, MEA, BATA, BAA and BATB, respectively. The estimated z-values were 9.05, 6.60, 6.96, 6.15, and 7.46, respectively. The present study suggests that the sporulation medium affects the wet-heat resistance of A. acidoterrestris DSM 3922 spores. Also, the dipicolinic acid content (DPA) was found highest in heat resistant spores formed on mineral containing media. After wet-heat treatment, loss of internal volume due to the release of DPA from spore core was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Since, there is no standardized media for the sporulation of A. acidoterrestris, the results obtained from this study might be useful to determine and compare the thermal resistance characteristics of A. acidoterrestris spores in fruit juices. PMID:25129530

Molva, Celenk; Baysal, Ayse Handan

2014-10-17

408

Effect of washing and feedstock size of oil palm empty fruit bunches in acid hydrolysis studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water washing of raw samples was carried out to determine its effect on the acid hydrolysis process used for producing sugars from EFB. The results showed that sugar yield obtained from washed EFB is more reflective of the actual conversion rate compared to unwashed EFB. Sugar yields were 24.6 % for washed samples and 13 % for unwashed samples. Also

C. L. Sia; K. O. Lim; T. T. Teng

2009-01-01

409

[Study on experiment of fluorescence spectra detection of pesticide residue of imidacloprid in apple juices].  

PubMed

The fluorescence properties of imidacloprid was studied based on the basic theory that organic molecules can emit fluorescence as they are excited by rays. The fluorescence spectra were obtained under the condition of different content of imidacloprid in apple juices and pure apple juices respectively through fluorescence spectrometer, and the relation between their fluorescence intensity and content of imidacloprid was analyzed. The experiment results show that the most intensive fluorescence (373 nm) was found in the spectrum of imidacloprid, while the fluorescence was not found in the pure apple juices with 234 nm as the excitation wavelength. Then the imidacloprid solution was added to the fruit juices increasingly. The best prediction model was obtained for the contend of imidacloprid in the apple juices, the coefficient of determination is 0.99674, and the accuracy is higher than 90%. As a result, it is fast and feasible to carry out the detection and analysis of the pesticide residue of imidacloprid in the apple juices. PMID:23705429

Ji, Ren-Dong; Zhao, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Lin; Ji, Lei; Zhang, Ji-Hua; Shen, Ling-Bin; Lan, Xiru-Feng

2013-03-01

410

Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature 'McIntosh', 'Empire', and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and in 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at

P. L. Forsline; R. C. Musselman; W. J. Kender; R. J. Dee

1983-01-01

411

Arachidonic acid alters tomato HMG expression and fruit growth and induces 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase-independent lycopene accumulation  

SciTech Connect

Regulation of isoprenoid end-product synthesis required for normal growth and development in plants is not well understood. To investigate the extent to which specific genes for the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) are involved in end-product regulation, the authors manipulated expression of the HMG1 and HMG2 genes in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit using arachidonic acid (AA). In developing young fruit AA blocked fruit growth, inhibited HMG1, and activated HMG2 expression. These results are consistent with other reports indicating that HMG1 expression is closely correlated with growth processes requiring phytosterol production. In mature-green fruit AA strongly induced the expression of HMG2, PSY1 (the gene for phytoene synthase), and lycopene accumulation before the normal onset of carotenoid synthesis and ripening. The induction of lycopene synthesis was not blocked by inhibition of HMGR activity using mevinolin, suggesting that cytoplasmic HMGR is not required for carotenoid synthesis. Their results are consistent with the function of an alternative plastid isoprenoid pathway (the Rohmer pathway) that appears to direct the production of carotenoids during tomato fruit ripening.

Rodriguez-Concepcion, M.; Gruissem, W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology

1999-01-01

412

Cornelian cherry (cornus MAS L.) juice as a potential source of biological compounds.  

PubMed

Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.), apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cultivars Jonagold and Red Boskoop), pear (Pyrus communis cv. Conference), and plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Common Plum) juices were assayed for their quality, organic acids, polyphenol content, and antioxidant activity (determined as a ferric-reducing antioxidant power [FRAP]). Cornelian cherry juice revealed the highest titratable acidity-2.58 g malic acid/100 g. The highest polyphenol content was also noted for Cornelian cherry-45.6 mg gallic acid (GA)/g. The medium level of polyphenols was proved for Jonagold apple (22.8 mg GA1/g). The lowest level was recorded for Common Plum (9.60 mg GA/g), followed by Conference pear and Red Boskoop apple (12.3 and 21.3 mg GA/g, respectively). The FRAP values were 1.97 mmol Fe/L for Common Plum juice, 2.37 mmol Fe/L for Conference pear juice, and 3.92 mmol Fe/L for both Red Boskoop and Jonagold apple juices. However, the obtained data indicated outstanding antioxidant properties for Cornelian cherry juice. In this case, FRAP reached 23.5 mmol Fe/L. The calculated correlation coefficient FRAP versus polyphenols indicates that the antioxidant status for Cornelian cherry is not only correlated with polyphenols but also with other biological compounds. The obtained results indicated that Cornelian cherry is a valuable source of substances with a high antioxidant activity. PMID:23905648

G?sto?, Maciej; Kro?niak, Miros?aw; Derwisz, Ma?gorzata; Dobrowolska-Iwanek, Justyna

2013-08-01

413

Changes in free amino acid, protein, and flavonoid content in jujube (Ziziphus jujube) fruit during eight stages of growth and antioxidative and cancer cell inhibitory effects by extracts.  

PubMed

Jujube (Ziziphus jujube) was analyzed at eight stages of ripeness (S1-8) for protein, by HPLC and mass spectroscopy for free amino acids and flavonoids, and by colorimetry for total flavonoids and antioxidative activity. The ripe fruit had lower levels of protein, flavonoids, and antioxidative activity than that of the unripe fruit. Free amino acids levels peaked at S5, due mainly to an increase in free asparagine. Extracts were also tested against four cell lines using the MTT cell viability assay. All growth stages dose-dependently inhibited HeLa cervical cancer cells, whereas the inhibition of Hel299 normal lung and A549 lung cancer cells decreased as the fruit matured and was well correlated with the flavonoid content and antioxidative activity. Chang normal liver cells were inhibited by only the S5 extract. U937 lymphoma cells were unaffected by the extracts. These results show the effect of fruit maturity on nutritional and health-promoting components. PMID:23046062

Choi, Suk-Hyun; Ahn, Jun-Bae; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Im, Nam-Kyung; Kozukue, Nobuyuki; Levin, Carol E; Friedman, Mendel

2012-10-17

414

Functions of defense-related proteins and dehydrogenases in resistance response induced by salicylic acid in sweet cherry fruits at different maturity stages.  

PubMed

We report here a comparative analysis of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruits proteome induced by salicylic acid (SA) at different maturity stages. The results demonstrated that SA enhanced the resistance of sweet cherry fruits against Penicillium expansum, resulting in lower disease incidences and smaller lesion diameters, especially at earlier maturity stage. Based on proteomics analysis, 13 and 28 proteins were identified after SA treatment at earlier (A) and later (B) maturity stage, respectively. Seven antioxidant proteins and three pathogenesis related-proteins were identified at both A and B stages, while five heat shock proteins and four dehydrogenases were only detected at B stage. SA treatment also stimulated higher transcript levels of peroxidase, but repressed that of catalase. Moreover, some proteins regulated by SA at B maturity stage were identified as enzymes involved in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle. These findings indicated that younger sweet cherry fruits showed stronger resistance against pathogen invasion after SA treatment. It further indicated that antioxidant proteins were involved in the resistance response of fruits at every maturity stage, while heat shock proteins and dehydrogenases might potentially act as factors only at later maturity stages. PMID:18924108

Chan, Zhulong; Wang, Qing; Xu, Xiangbin; Meng, Xianghong; Qin, Guozheng; Li, Boqiang; Tian, Shiping

2008-11-01

415

An assay for ascorbic acid based on polyaniline-coated microplates.  

PubMed

A technique for modification of the microtiter reader plates well with a polyaniline (PANI) film sensitive for ascorbic acid is presented. The principle of the analyte detection is based on monitoring the changes in optical absorption of the PANI film resulting from the reduction process initiated by ascorbic acid. The detection limit for ascorbic acid is 1 mg/L. Testing with real samples (soft drinks, fruit juices) gave good correlation of the method with iodimetric titration. High sensitivity, stability, and good reproducibility of the measurements make the proposed system an attractive alternative to traditional assays, used in medicine, ecology, and biotechnology. PMID:11008763

Bossi, A; Piletsky, S A; Piletska, E V; Righetti, P G; Turner, A P

2000-09-15

416

Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature McIntosh, Empire, and Golden Delicious apple trees (Malus domestica) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0

P. L. Forsline; R. C. Musselman; W. J. Kender; R. J. Dee

1983-01-01

417

Protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice on testes against carbon tetrachloride intoxication in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Pomegranate fruit has been extensively used as a natural medicine in many cultures. The present study was aimed at evaluating the protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and testes injury in adult Wistar rats. Methods Twenty eight Wistar albino male rats were divided equally into 4 groups for the assessment of protective potential of pomegranate juice. Rats of group I (control) received only vehicles and had free access to food and water. Rats of groups II and IV were treated with CCl4 (2 ml/kg bwt) via the intraperitoneal route once a week for ten weeks. The pomegranate juice was supplemented via drinking water 2 weeks before and concurrent with CCl4 treatment to group IV. Group III was supplemented with pomegranate juice for twelve weeks. The protective effects of pomegranate on serum sex hormones, oxidative markers, activities of antioxidant enzymes and histopathology of testes were determined in CCl4-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. Results Pomegranate juice showed significant elevation in testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) those depleted by the injection of CCl4. Activity levels of endogenous testesticular antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione (GSH) contents were increased while lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) were decreased with pomegranate juice. Moreover, degeneration of germ and Leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis induced after CCl4 injections were restored with the treatment of pomegranate juice. Conclusion The results clearly demonstrated that pomegranate juice augments the antioxidant defense mechanism against carbon tetrachloride-induced reproductive toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases. PMID:24884677

2014-01-01

418

Metabolic profiling of phenolic acids and oxidative stress markers after consumption of Lonicera caerulea L. fruit.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of one-week consumption of 165 g/day fresh blue honeysuckle berries (208 mg/day anthocyanins) in 10 healthy volunteers. At the end of intervention, levels of benzoic (median 1782 vs 4156), protocatechuic (709 vs 2417), vanillic (2779 vs 4753), 3-hydroxycinnamic (143 vs 351), p-coumaric (182 vs 271), isoferulic (805 vs 1570), ferulic (1086 vs 2395), and hippuric (194833 vs 398711 ?g/mg creatinine) acids by LC/MS were significantly increased in the urine. Clinical chemistry safety markers were not altered. Oxidative stress markers, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (0.73 vs 0.88 U/g Hb) and catalase (2.5 vs 2.8 ?kat/g Hb) activities, and erythrocyte/plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (522 vs 612/33 vs 38 ?mol/g Hb/protein) levels were significantly increased, without change in plasma antioxidant status. Nonsignificant changes of advanced oxidation protein products and oxidized LDL were observed. The results provide a solid base for further study of metabolite excretion and antioxidant parameters after ingestion of anthocyanins. PMID:23581742

Heinrich, Jan; Valentová, Kate?ina; Vacek, Jan; Palíková, Irena; Zatloukalová, Martina; Kosina, Pavel; Ulrichová, Jitka; Vrbková, Jana; Šimánek, Vilím

2013-05-15

419

Identification and quantitation of flavonols in rowanberry ( Sorbus aucuparia L.) juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight flavonols were detected in rowanberry juice, six quercetin and two kaempferol glycosides which were identified as quercetin 3-O-galactoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, two quercetin 3-O-dihexosides, quercetin pentose-hexoside and quercetin hexose-pentoside and two kaempferol dihexosides. The total content of identified flavonols in the rowanberry juice was 291 mg L-1. Quercetin dihexosides contributed 78% to the flavonol content. However, chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acid

A. Gil-Izquierdo; A. Mellenthin

2001-01-01

420

Peach juice as an anti-corrosion inhibitor of mild steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to investigate peach juice as a cheap, raw, green and non-toxic anti-corrosion material for mild steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid at different temperatures. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1 M HCl solution in the presence of peach juice at temperature range of 30-60°C and concentration range of 5-50

Aprael S. Yaro; Anees A. Khadom; Hadeel F. Ibraheem

2011-01-01

421

Epicuticular changes and storage potential of cactus pear [ Opuntia ficus-indica Miller (L.)] fruit following gibberellic acid preharvest sprays and postharvest heat treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cactus pear [Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (L.) cv. Gialla] fruit were treated 10 weeks after the second induced-bloom flush with 10 ppm gibberellic acid (GA3) or were heated at 37°C for 30 h under saturated humidity after harvest. The two treatments were also combined before storage at 6°C for 45 days plus 4 additional days at 20°C to simulate a marketing

M. Schirra; G. D’hallewin; P. Inglese; T. La Mantia

1999-01-01

422