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Background and Purpose Knowledge of the citric acid content of beverages may be useful in nutrition therapy for calcium urolithiasis, especially among patients with hypocitraturia. Citrate is a naturally-occurring inhibitor of urinary crystallization; achieving therapeutic urinary citrate concentration is one clinical target in the medical management of calcium urolithiasis. When provided as fluids, beverages containing citric acid add to the total volume of urine, reducing its saturation of calcium and other crystals, and may enhance urinary citrate excretion. Information on the citric acid content of fruitjuices and commercially-available formulations is not widely known. We evaluated the citric acid concentration of various fruitjuices. Materials and Methods The citric acid content of 21 commercially-available juices and juice concentrates and the juice of three types of fruits was analyzed using ion chromatography. Results Lemon juice and lime juice are rich sources of citric acid, containing 1.44 and 1.38 g/oz, respectively. Lemon and lime juice concentrates contain 1.10 and 1.06 g/oz, respectively. The citric acid content of commercially available lemonade and other juice products varies widely, ranging from 0.03 to 0.22 g/oz. Conclusions Lemon and lime juice, both from the fresh fruit and from juice concentrates, provide more citric acid per liter than ready-to-consume grapefruit juice, ready-to-consume orange juice, and orange juice squeezed from the fruit. Ready-to-consume lemonade formulations and those requiring mixing with water contain ?6 times the citric acid, on an ounce-for-ounce basis, of lemon and lime juice.
PENNISTON, KRISTINA L.; NAKADA, STEPHEN Y.; HOLMES, ROSS P.; ASSIMOS, DEAN G.
A gradient ion chromatographic method to separate and determine main organic acids in fruitjuices was developed. The method allows the separation of organic anions on Dionex OMNI PAC PAX-500 column by NaOH gradient elution and conductometric detection. The main organic acids of fruitjuices (citric, malic, tartaric) were separated together with other less abundant acids. More than 500 samples
G. Saccani; S. Gherardi; A. Trifirò; C. Soresi Bordini; M. Calza; C. Freddi
A method for the quantitative determination of 11 organic acids (oxalic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, ascorbic acid, lactic acid, succinic acid, formic acid, acetic acid, glutaric acid and fumaric acid) in fruitjuice was developed successfully. It was based on an ion exclusion chromatographic separation under the conditions of isocratic elution with 17 mmol/L sulphuric acid solution with the ICE-ION-300 ion exclusion column, and the UV detection at 210 nm. The precision of the method was investigated and the relative standard deviations were from 1.5% to 9.8% (n = 10). PMID:12541818
A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of ascorbic acid in fruits, vegetables and juices. Samples were homogenized with 0.2 M phosphate buffer pH 2.0 and extracted with 3% metaphosphoric acid. Ascorbic acid was analyzed on a polymer C18 column (RLRP-S 100A) with UV detection at 244 nm. The mobile phase was 1.8% tetrahydrofuran and 0.3%
R. J. Bushway; J. M. King; B. Perkins; M. Krishnan
A reversed phase HPLC method for separation and determination of organic acids in fruitjuices and nectars is presented. The method is based on the reaction of free organic acids with O-(4 nitrobenzyl)-N,N'-diisopropylisourea (PNBDI) in presence of dioxane. Excess of reagent was removed with a strong cation-exchange resin. The p-nitrobenzyl esters were separated on a C18 reversed phase column using
Sara C. Cunha; José O. Fernandes; Isabel M. Ferreira
Organic acid analysis plays a fundamental role in the testing of authenticity of fruitjuices. Analytical methods used routinely for organic acids suffer from poor reproducibility, often give false positives/negatives for tartaric acid, and do not offer the possibility of analyte confirmation. There are conflicting reports in the literature on the presence/absence of tartaric acid in pomegranate juice, a potential indicator of adulteration with grape juice. In this work, a method based on stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is described for citric, malic, quinic, and tartaric acid in fruitjuices. Validation data including precision and recovery in six types of juice are presented. Tartaric and quinic acids were confirmed in pomegranate juice at concentrations of 1-5 and ?1 mg/L, respectively. These concentrations are much lower than those resulting from adulteration with grape juice and apple juice, respectively, at the 5% level. A separate method for isocitric acid in orange juice based on the single standard addition method is also described. PMID:21361392
Cryptosporidium parvum has historically been associated with waterborne outbreaks of diarrheal illness. Foodborne cryptosporidiosis has been associated with unpasteurized apple cider. Infectious oocysts are shed in the feces of common ruminants like cattle and deer in and near orchards. In this study, the ability of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) added to fruitjuice to inhibit the survival of C. parvum was analyzed. Oocyst viability was analyzed by a cell culture infectivity assay with the use of a human ileocecal cell line (HCT-8) whose infectivity pattern is similar to that for human oral infectivity. Cell monolayers were infected with 10(6) treated oocysts or a series of 10-fold dilutions. Parasitic life stages were visualized through immunohistochemistry with 100 microscope fields per monolayer being counted. In vitro excystation assays were also used to evaluate these treatments. Organic acids and H2O2 were added to apple cider, orange juice, and grape juices on a weight/volume basis. Malic, citric, and tartaric acids at concentrations of 1 to 5% inhibited C. parvum's infectivity of HCT-8 cells by up to 88%. Concentrations ranging from 0.025 to 3% H2O2 were evaluated. The addition of 0.025% H2O2 to each juice resulted in a >5-log reduction of C. parvum infectivity as determined with a most-probable-number-based cell culture infectivity assay. As observed with differential interference contrast and scanning electron microscopy, reduced infectivity may be mediated through effects on the oocyst wall that are caused by the action of H2O2 or related oxygen radicals. The addition of low concentrations of H2O2 can represent a valuable alternative to pasteurization. PMID:14503720
Kniel, Kalmia E; Sumner, Susan S; Lindsay, David S; Hackney, Cameron R; Pierson, Merle D; Zajac, Anne M; Golden, David A; Fayer, Ronald
A procedure in which anionic analytes, trapped on ion exchange resin, are simultaneously methylated and released using methyl iodide in either supercritical carbon dioxide or acetonitrile has been extended to polyfunctional organic acids. The combined SFE methylation of fruitjuiceacids trapped onto ion exchange resin proceeds in good yield producing the methyl esters of fumaric, succinic, malic, tartaric, isocitric
Timothy J. Barden; Marguerite Y. Croft; E. John Murby; Robert J. Wells
Fruitjuices are widely consumed in tropical countries as part of habitual diet. The concentrations of several minerals in these beverages were evaluated. Four commercially available brands of juices were analyzed for cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, aluminum, iron, chromium, manganese, and molybdenum. The levels ranged from 0.02 to 0.08 mg/L for copper, from 0.05 to 0.23 mg/L for zinc, from 0.1 to 0.4 mg/L for aluminum, from 0.02 to 0.45 mg/L for iron, and from 0.01 to 0.22 mg/L for manganese. The levels of cadmium, lead, and chromium in all samples were very low or undetectable. The metal contents of fruitjuices depend on a number of factors, including the soil composition, the external conditions during fruit growing and fruit harvesting, as well as on details of the fruitjuice manufacturing processes employed. The concentrations of none of the metals in juice samples analyzed exceeded the limits imposed by local legislation. PMID:22068730
Bragança, Victor Luiz Cordoba; Melnikov, Petr; Zanoni, Lourdes Z
The photopyroelectric method was used to study the depression of freezing point in juices prepared from selected apple and orange juice concentrates. By using the models for real solutions, the effective molecular weight of the dissolved solids was obtained. The acids concentration in the fruitjuice is reflected both in the equivalent molecular weight (by lowering it) and in the
Liquid and syrupy dietary saps and juices of plant origin, characterized by the presence of large quantities of saccharides (glucose, fructose, or sucrose) and containing amino acids, were analyzed for the presence of D-amino acids using enantioselective gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. D-amino acids were detected in processed saps and juices of trees (maple, palm, birch), fruits (grape, apple, pear, pomegranate, date), and various other plants (agave, beetroot, sugar cane, carob). D-Ala was detected in all plant products and amounted to approximately 34% D-Ala (relative to L-Ala + D-Ala) in Canadian maple syrups, to approximately 13% in palm saps, and to 48 and 13% D-Ala, respectively, in concentrated grape juices (Spanish Arrope and Turkish Pekmez). Varying amounts and kinds of other D-amino acids were also detected. To test the hypothesis that racemization, that is, partial conversion of L-amino acids into their corresponding D-enantiomers, occurs at reversible stages of the Maillard reaction, the Amadori compound fructose-L-phenylalanine was synthesized. On heating at 200 degrees C for 5 (20) min, release of 10.8% (24.2%) D-Phe was detected. From the data it is concluded that the Amadori compounds formed in the course of the Maillard reaction are pecursors of D-amino acids in foodstuffs. PMID:16332121
Thirty-eight fruit salad samples including cantaloupe, citrus fruits, honeydew, pineapple, cut strawberries and mixed fruit salads, and 65 pasteurized fruitjuice samples (apple, carrot, grapefruit, grape and orange juices, apple cider, and soy milk) were purchased from local supermarkets in the Washington, DC area and tested for fungal contamination. The majority of fruit salad samples (97%) were contaminated with yeasts
A procedure in which anionic analytes, trapped on ion exchange resin, are simultaneously methylated and released using methyl iodide in either supercritical carbon dioxide or acetonitrile has been extended to polyfunctional organic acids. The combined SFE methylation of fruitjuiceacids trapped onto ion exchange resin proceeds in good yield producing the methyl esters of fumaric, succinic, malic, tartaric, isocitric and citric acids which are readily separated by GC. Using this procedure low concentrations of one acid can be detected and quantitated in the presence of very high concentrations of another. This new method detects tartaric acid at levels of 10 ppm in juices containing 10,000 ppm citric acid. Quantitation was performed either by using GC-FID with triethyl citrate or diethyl tartrate as internal standards or with the element specific calibration capability of the GC-AED. A simple new technique for the determination of citric/isocitric acid ratio is now available. Also, in contrast to HPLC methods, the identity of an analyte is readily confirmed by GC-MS. PMID:9409006
Concentration of aqueous foods such as fruitjuices, milk, beer, wine, coffee, and tea, is a major unit operation in the food industry. Technically feasible processes that are commercially available for the concentration of liquid foods include evaporation, freeze concentration, reverse osmosis, and ultrafiltration. Evaporation is considered to be the most economical and most widely used method of concentration. However, it is not suited for food products with very delicate flavors. Commercial processes for the concentration of such products by membrane separation techniques are not yet available. As compared to the conventional evaporation processes, concentration by freezing is potentially a superior and economic process for aroma-rich liquid foods. In the past, the process, however, was seldom used because of the investment cost and the considerable loss of concentrate in the withdrawn ice, and hence, the quality. Recent technological developments have minimized these two drawbacks associated with the earlier freeze concentration processes. In the coming decade, freeze concentration is seen as a potentially attractive method for the concentration of aroma-rich liquid foods, including fruitjuices, coffee, tea, and selected alcoholic beverages. In this article, several aspects of the theoretical considerations behind freeze concentration of fruitjuices, the development of new and cheaper designs, and commercially available freeze concentration processes are reviewed. The economics of the process and its application to several other areas of the food industry are also discussed. PMID:6383717
Deshpande, S S; Cheryan, M; Sathe, S K; Salunkhe, D K
The photopyroelectric method was used to study the depression of freezing point in juices prepared from selected apple and orange juice concentrates. By using the models for real solutions, the effective molecular weight of the dissolved solids was obtained. The acids concentration in the fruitjuice is reflected both in the equivalent molecular weight (by lowering it) and in the interaction coefficients b and C. Using the data for the molecular weight and the characteristic coefficients, prediction curves for the samples investigated can be used in practice. Freezing point depression can also be used as an indicator of the degree of spoilage of fruitjuices.
The present work used International Federation of Fruit-Juice Producers (IFU) Method No. 71 with minor modifications for the analysis of anthocyanins, betacyanins, synthetic red pigments, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids and catechins present in red fruit and vegetable juices and red-purple soft-drinks. The proposed HPLC method has been implemented with simultaneous UV–Visible and fluorescence detection and offers unambiguous composition results for
Determination of free anthocyanins by liquid chromatography has been investigated to improve a method for quality control of these natural products found in eight red fruitjuices, concentrated juices and syrups (black currant, elderberry, sour cherry, strawberry, grape, blueberry, raspberry, and red currant). Among the various experimental possibilities, an isocratic simple method using water, acetonitrile and formic acid as eluting
The case starts as brand manager Mr Nguyen Trong Tan, sets out to launch a new line of fruitjuice for children in Vietnam. Vinamilk, the largest diary company in Vietnam, had identified this as a potential market and was interested in launching the new line under their minor fruitjuice product line. The company, while relatively new to the
A sensitive and reliable method was developed for the determination of folic acid (FA) in vitamin-fortified fruitjuices and fruit drinks. After solid-phase extraction clean-up with strong-anion-exchange material, FA was determined by ion-pair reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were 0.04 and 0.06 mg\\/l, respectively. Average recoveries at two fortified levels (0.5 and
The effects of food components on blood fluidity were studied by in vitro assay using a dedicated microchannel instrument for model capillaries. We found that the fruit-juice concentrate of the Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc), a traditional Japanese food, markedly improved the fluidity of human blood. Using HPLC, we isolated the active compounds and characterized them using UV, MS, IR, and NMR. They included a novel compound, 1-[5-(2-formylfuryl)methyl] dihydrogen 2-hydroxypropane-1,2, 3-tricarboxylate (mumefural), and a related compound, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF). Mumefural markedly improved blood fluidity in all subjects, while HMF worked differently in different individuals. The flow rate of blood spiked with mumefural or HMF was compared to that of the two predominant organic acids in the fruit. Citric acid, malic acid, and furfuryl alcohol also improved fluidity in all subjects. The activity of P. mume is derived from not only artifacts produced during thermal processing, such as mumefural, but also from endogenous organic acids. PMID:10552374
Chuda, Y; Ono, H; Ohnishi-Kameyama, M; Matsumoto, K; Nagata, T; Kikuchi, Y
Acid and heat inactivation in orange and apple juices of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Colección Española de Cultivos Tipo (i.e., Spanish Type Culture Collection) 443 (CECT 443) (Salmonella Typhimurium) and S. enterica serovar Senftenberg CECT 4384 (Salmonella Senftenberg) grown in buffered brain heart infusion (pH 7.0) and acidified brain heart infusion up to pH 4.5 with acetic, citric, lactic, and hydrochloric acids was evaluated. Acid adaptation induced an adaptive response that increased the subsequent resistance to extreme pH conditions (pH 2.5) and to heat, although the magnitude of these responses differed between the two isolates and fruitjuices. The acid resistance in orange juice for acid-adapted cells (D-values of 28.3-34.5 min for Salmonella Senftenberg and 30.0-39.2 min for Salmonella Typhimurium) resulted to be about two to three times higher than that corresponding to non-acid-adapted cells. In apple juice, acid-adapted Salmonella Senftenberg cells survived better than those of Salmonella Typhimurium, obtaining mean D-values of 114.8 +/- 12.3 and 41.9 +/- 2.5 min, respectively. The thermotolerance of non-acid-adapted Salmonella Typhimurium in orange (D(58)-value: 0.028 min) and apple juices (D(58)-value: 0.10 min) was approximately double for acid-adapted cells. This cross-protection to heat was more strongly expressed in Salmonella Senftenberg. D(58)-values obtained for non-acid-adapted cells in orange (0.11 min) and apple juices (0.19 min) increased approximately 10 and 5 times, respectively, after their growth in acidified media. The conditions prevailing during bacterial growth and heat treatment did not significantly influence the z-values observed (6.0 +/- 0.3 degrees C for Salmonella Typhimurium and 7.0 +/- 0.3 degrees C for Salmonella Senftenberg). The enhanced acid resistance found for both isolates could enable them to survive for prolonged time periods in the gastrointestinal tract, increasing the risk of illness. Further, it should be taken into account that microbial growth in acidified media also induces a cross-protection response against heat that should also be considered for the design of pasteurization processes for acid foods. PMID:19694554
The interactions of aqueous solutions of chlorine with some fruitacids (citric acid, DL-malic acid, and L-tartaric acid) at different pH values were studied. Diethyl ether extraction followed by GC/MS analysis indicated that a number of mutagens (certain...
Effects of high intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) (35 kV\\/cm with 4 ?s bipolar pulses at 200 Hz for 800 and 1400 ?s) or thermal (90 °C for 60 s) treatments on fatty acid and mineral profiles of a fruitjuice-soymilk (FJ–SM) beverage during storage (56 days) at 4 °C were evaluated, having the just prepared beverage as a reference. Linoleic, oleic, linolenic, palmitic and stearic acids
M. Morales-de la Peña; L. Salvia-Trujillo; M. A. Rojas-Graü; O. Martín-Belloso
Two spray dryers were tested to obtain powders from concentrated juices of blackcurrant, apricot, raspberry, with different maltodextrins as drying-aid agents. Composition of fruitjuices and dextrose equivalent for maltodextrin are considered. Best results were obtained for a ratio juice to maltodextrin DE6 of 65\\/35 for blackcurrant, of 60\\/40 for apricot and 55\\/45 for raspberry, and low air temperatures (160–90°C).
B. R. Bhandari; A. Senoussi; E. D. Dumoulin; A. Lebert
To elucidate the effect of different postharvest temperatures on the accumulation of sugars, organic acids, and amino acids and to determine the best temperature to minimize their postharvest change, their content after harvest was investigated at 5, 10, 20, and 30 °C for 14 days in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Aoshima-unshiu) fruit. In all sugars, the changes were negligible at all temperatures. Organic acids decreased slightly at all temperatures, with the exception of malic acid at 30 °C, which increased slightly. Two amino acids, ornithine and glutamine, increased at 5 °C, but they did not increase at other temperatures. In 11 amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, isoleucine, leucine, valine, threonine, lysine, methionine, histidine, and ?-amino butyric acid), the content was higher at 20 and 30 °C than at other temperatures. Thus, the content of amino acids was more variable than that of sugars and organic acids in response to temperatures. Moreover, amino acids responded to temperature differently: two amino acids were cold responsive, and 11 were heat-responsive. The best temperature to minimize the postharvest changes in amino acid profiles in the juice sacs of Aoshima-unshiu was 10 °C. The responsiveness to temperatures in two cold-responsive (ornithine and glutamine) and five heat-responsive (phenylalanine, tryptophan, valine, lysine, and histidine) amino acids was conserved among three different Satsuma mandarin cultivars, Aoshima-unshiu (late-maturing cultivar), Silverhill (midmaturing cultivar), and Miyagawa-wase (early-maturing cultivar). The metabolic responsiveness to temperature stress was discussed on the basis of the changes in the amino acid profile. PMID:22950419
Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi) is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF) by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON) due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patients from five hospitals in the State of Kerala who developed ARF after intake of I. puli fruitjuice. Seven patients needed hemodialysis whereas the other three improved with conservative management.
Bakul, G.; Unni, V. N.; Seethaleksmy, N. V.; Mathew, A.; Rajesh, R.; Kurien, G.; Rajesh, J.; Jayaraj, P. M.; Kishore, D. S.; Jose, P. P.
Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi) is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF) by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON) due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patients from five hospitals in the State of Kerala who developed ARF after intake of I. puli fruitjuice. Seven patients needed hemodialysis whereas the other three improved with conservative management. PMID:23960349
Bakul, G; Unni, V N; Seethaleksmy, N V; Mathew, A; Rajesh, R; Kurien, G; Rajesh, J; Jayaraj, P M; Kishore, D S; Jose, P P
Exotic fruits such as açai, camu-camu, and blackberries rich in natural antioxidants (ascorbic acid, anthocyanins) are marketed as "functional" foods supporting a pro-/antioxidant balance. Confirming data from human studies are lacking. Within a randomized controlled crossover trial, 12 healthy nonsmokers ingested 400 mL of a blended juice of these fruits or a sugar solution (control). Blood was drawn before and afterward to determine antioxidants in plasma, markers of antioxidant capacity [trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity, total oxidant scavenging capacity (TOSC)] and oxidative stress [isoprostane, DNA strand breaks in leukocytes in vivo], and their resistance versus H?O?-induced strand breaks. Compared with sugar solution, juice consumption increased plasma ascorbic acid and maintained TOSC and partly Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity (both P values < 0.05). Strand breaks in vivo increased after ingestion of both beverages (P < 0.001), probably due to postprandial and/or circadian effects. This anthocyanin-rich fruitjuice may stabilize the pro-/antioxidant balance in healthy nonsmokers without affecting markers of oxidative stress. PMID:23072538
Capillary zone electrophoresis was applied to the determination of ascorbic and isoascorbic acid, analysing the various parameters of influence such as the separation voltage, the buffer pH and concentration, the type of separation capillary or the loading conditions. Both analytes could be adequately determined within 5 min. The proposed method uses a 20 cm x 25 microns i.d. coated column, 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 5.0, 8 kV separation voltage and light absorption detection at 265 nm. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the 0-1 mg mi-1 range, with detection limits of 0.5 micrograms ml-1. This method proved to be very rapid, simple and practical for the qualitative and quantitative determination of ascorbic acid in lemon and orange juices, as well as in a commercially available pharmaceutical formulation. PMID:1298373
Lin Ling, B; Baeyens, W R; Van Acker, P; Dewaele, C
Thirty-eight fruit salad samples including cantaloupe, citrus fruits, honeydew, pineapple, cut strawberries and mixed fruit salads, and 65 pasteurized fruitjuice samples (apple, carrot, grapefruit, grape and orange juices, apple cider, and soy milk) were purchased from local supermarkets in the Washington, DC area and tested for fungal contamination. The majority of fruit salad samples (97%) were contaminated with yeasts at levels ranging from <2.0 to 9.72 log10 of colony forming units per gram (cfu/g). Frequently encountered yeasts were Pichia spp., Candida pulcherrima, C. lambica, C. sake, Rhodotorula spp., and Debaryomyces polymorphus. Low numbers of Penicillium spp. were found in pineapple salads, whereas Cladosporium spp. were present in mixed fruit and cut strawberry salads. Twenty-two per cent of the fruitjuice samples tested showed fungal contamination. Yeasts were the predominant contaminants ranging from <1.0 to 6.83 log10 cfu/ml. Yeasts commonly found in fruitjuices were C. lambica, C. sake, and Rhodotorula rubra. Geotrichum spp. and low numbers of Penicillium and Fusarium spp. (1.70 and 1.60 log10 cfu/ml, respectively) were present in grapefruit juice. PMID:16943069
The content of ?-hydroxy acids and their enantiomers can be used to distinguish authentic and adulterated fruitjuices. Here, we investigated the use of ligand exchange CE with two kinds of central metal ion in a BGE for the simultaneous determination of enantiomers of dl-malic, dl-tartaric and dl-isocitric acids, and citric acid. Ligand exchange CE with 100 mM d-quinic acid as a chiral selector ligand and 10 mM Cu(II) ion as a central metal ion could enantioseparate dl-tartaric acid but not dl-malic acid or dl-isocitric acid. Addition of 1.8 mM Sc(III) ion to the BGE with 10 mM Cu(II) ion to create a dual central metal ion system permitted the simultaneous determination of these ?-hydroxy acid enantiomers and citric acid. The proposed ligand exchange CE was thus well suited for detecting adulteration of fruitjuices. PMID:23423790
The Agency Impact Analysis examines the aggregate effects of FDA activities on the fruitjuice industry. It is based on the perceptions, opinions, and experiences reported by fruitjuice company executives from ten firms. During meetings with FDA research...
Methanol contents of fresh squeezed juices from 10 fruits and 5 vegetables were determined and the relation of methanol release from stored juices on the physico-chemical properties including degree of esterification (DE), total pectin content, pH value, titratable acidity and the hydrolytic activities of pectinesterase (PE), polygalacturonase (PG), cellulase (CE) and pectate lyase (PAL) of fresh squeezed juices were investigated.
Background. Excessive fruitjuice intake (>12 ounces\\/day) has been reported to be associated with short stature and obesity in preschool children. Objective. To confirm whether excess fruitjuice in- take was associated with short stature and obesity in preschool children, we assessed growth parameters and fruitjuice intake in 105 white children, ages 24 to 36 months. Methodology. Mothers were
Jean D. Skinner; Betty Ruth Carruth; James Moran III; Kelly Houck; Frances Coletta
Fruitjuices are becoming an important part of the modern diet in many communities. Data regarding the microbiological quality of foods, particularly fruitjuices, sold in Libya and the neighboring North African countries are few if not lacking. Using standard microbiological procedures, 146 fruitjuice samples sold in Tripoli were examined. Total bacterial counts (TBC) of samples examined ranged between
Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh; Khalifa Belhaj; Widad B. El-Amin; Saleha E. El-Nefathi; Ali Zalmum
Research suggests phytonutrients, specifically phenolic compounds, within fruit may be responsible for the putatively positive antioxidant benefits derived from fruit. Given the prominence of fruitjuice in the American diet, the purpose of this research was to assess the antioxidant density of fresh fruit and 100% fruitjuice for five commonly consumed fruits and juices and to compare the adequacy of 100% juice as a dietary equivalent to whole fruit in providing beneficial antioxidants. Antioxidant density was measured using an oxygen radical absorbance capacity method on six samples assayed in triplicate for each fruit (grape, apple, orange, grapefruit, pineapple), name-brand 100% juice, and store-brand 100% juice. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference or Student t test were used to assess significance (P<0.05). Antioxidant density (mmol TE/100 g) of apple, orange, and grapefruit was 23% to 54% higher than the mean antioxidant density of name-brand and store-brand juices for each fruit; however, only apple and grapefruit exhibited significantly greater (P<0.05) antioxidant density than either of their name-brand or store-brand juices. In contrast, the mean antioxidant density of name-brand grape and pineapple juice was higher than fresh grape or pineapple fruit; however, both fresh grapes and commercial grape juice contained significantly more (P<0.05) antioxidants than store-brand grape juice. Regardless of the convenience of fruitjuice, results support the recommendations of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for increasing fruit servings in the whole fruit form due to their provision of beneficial antioxidants and fiber with approximately 35% less sugar. PMID:23810279
More than 90% of oranges in Florida are processed, and since Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been rumored to affect fruit flavor, chemical and physical analyses were conducted on fruit and juice from healthy (Las -) and diseased (Las +) trees on three juice processing varieties over two seasons, and in some cases several harvests. Fruit, both asymptomatic and symptomatic for the disease, were used, and fresh squeezed and processed/pasteurized juices were evaluated. Fruit and juice characteristics measured included color, size, solids, acids, sugars, aroma volatiles, ascorbic acid, secondary metabolites, pectin, pectin-demethylating enzymes, and juice cloud. Results showed that asymptomatic fruit from symptomatic trees were similar to healthy fruit for many of the quality factors measured, but that juice from asymptomatic and especially symptomatic fruits were often higher in the bitter compounds limonin and nomilin. However, values were generally below reported taste threshold levels, and only symptomatic fruit seemed likely to cause flavor problems. There was variation due to harvest date, which was often greater than that due to disease. It is likely that the detrimental flavor attributes of symptomatic fruit (which often drop off the tree) will be largely diluted in commercial juice blends that include juice from fruit of several varieties, locations, and seasons. PMID:20030384
Rapid and quantitative determination of sodium monofluoroacetate in diluted fruitjuices (dilution 1:9 v/v in deionized water) and tap water was performed by microchip CE, using contactless conductivity detection. A separation buffer consisting of 20 mM citric acid and histidine at pH 3.5 enabled the detection of the monofluoroacetate (MFA) anion in diluted apple juice, cranberry juice, and orange juice without lengthy sample pretreatments. The analyte was very well separated from interfering anionic species present in juices and tap water. LODs in diluted juices and tap water were determined to be 125, 167, 138, and 173 microg/L for tap water, apple juice, cranberry juice, and orange juice, respectively, based upon an S/N of 3:1. Taking into account the dilution factor, the LODs for juice samples range from 1 to 2 mg/L, which is adequate for monitoring the toxicity of MFA in these juice beverages and tap water. The calibration curves for MFA in diluted fruitjuices were linear over the range of 500 microg/L to 80 mg/L. The total analysis time for detecting the MFA anion in fruitjuices was less than 5 min, which represents a considerable reduction in analysis time compared to other analytical methods currently used in food analysis. PMID:17768724
Fruitjuices are popular soft drinks with an important role in human nutrition. Fruitjuices are often infested by yeast species that can survive different storage conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of yeast contamination of freshly squeezed juices in three large supermarkets in Zagreb, Croatia. The analysis included 84 juice samples obtained from freshly squeezed orange, lemon, grapefruit, and apples. Their acidity varied between pH 2.1 and pH 4.9. Juice samples were plated directly on Sabouraud 4 % glucose Agar (Merck, 1.05438) and processed according to standardised methods (HRN ISO 7954:2002). Yeasts were isolated in all 84 samples and ranged between 0.005 x 103 and 23 x 103 colony forming units per mL (CFU mL-1). The most common yeasts identified using the API 20C AUX yeast kit included Candida guillermondii, C. krusei, C. famata, C. spherica, C. colliculosa, C. albicans, Trichosporon mucoides, Kloeckera spp. and yeast-like fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. C. guillermondii prevailed in 55.95 % of all samples. PMID:20061245
A method using capillary isotachophoresis (ITP) was developed and applied for the determination of the anionic profile of orange juices with the aim to obtain some useful information on the authenticity or adulteration of imported and native beverage products. An EA 100 electrophoretic analyser (Villa-LABECO, Slovak Republic) was used for capillary isotachophoretic determination of anions in tested samples. More systems of leading and terminating electrolytes were used. Detection conductivity and UV detection at 254 nm were used. Sample injection volume was 30 microl. These systems allow one to determinate inorganic anions, organic acids and some additives--adulterants in anionic forms in orange juices. By capillary isotachophoretic determination the lengths or areas of characteristic zones were established and compared to authentic orange juices of different species and origin and with RSK reference values (Code of Practice). Special emphasis was placed on D-isocitric acid ITP determination as a reliable fruitjuice authentication marker. The presented multicomponent analysis of orange juice authenticity according to ITP anionic profiles obtained by capillary isotachophoresis presents an alternative information source necessary for deciding about authenticity of the products. PMID:11382290
Six pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars belonging to the ‘Mollar’ group were evaluated under homogeneus growing conditions. Chemical parameters, such as sugars, organic acids, and anthocyanin contents, and other quality parameters, including fruit weight, pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, and colour, were evaluated. Fruit weight was not significantly affected by cultivar. The highest TSS content was detected in juice
P. Legua; P. Melgarejo; J. J. Martínez; R. Martínez; F. Hernández
Six pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars belonging to the ‘Mollar’ group were evaluated under homogeneus growing conditions. Chemical parameters, such as sugars, organic acids, anthocyanin contents and other quality parameters including fruit weight, pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity and colour were evaluated. Fruit weight was not significantly affected by cultivar. The highest TSS content was detected in juice from
P. Legua; P. Melgarejo; J. J. Martínez; R. Martínez; F. Hernandez
The total phenolic content of 13 commercially available fruitjuices and juice drinks, selected to represent the most popular juice flavors in the United Kingdom, were analyzed using the Folin- Ciocalteu assay. Individual phenolic compounds were identified and quantified using HPLC-PDA- MS2. The catechin content and degree of polymerization of proanthocyanidins were also analyzed. Purple grape juice contained the largest
Non-thermal pasteurization of fruitjuices, such as orange juice using electrical pulses is gaining momentum due to their attractive attributes, such as less heating and more retention of taste, flavor and color. Using electrical pusles of suitable intensity (V\\/cm) and duration or pulsewidth (milli\\/micro\\/nano seconds), it is possible to pasteurize the juices to enhance their longevity (at room temperatures). This
R. Sundararajan; D. Campbell; J. Harper; Funian Xiao; Rui Ma; K. Otto
The importance of monoterpenes on varietal flavour of must and other fruitjuices has been reviewed. These compounds were mainly found linked to sugar moieties in grape juice and wines, showing no olfactory characteristics. In this way, analytical techniques developed to study these compounds, in both free or glycosidically forms, are discussed. Mechanisms to liberate terpenes were studied, making a
A study was done to determine survival and growth characteristics of acid-adapted, acid-shocked, and control cells of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated into tryptic soy broth (TSB) acidified with organic acids and three commercial brands of apple cider and orange juice. The three types of cells behaved similarly in TSB acidified with acetic acid; however, in TSB (pH 3.9) acidified with lactic acid, acid-adapted cells were more tolerant than acid-shocked cells which, in turn, were more tolerant than control cells. The ability of the three types of cells to grow after inoculation into acidified TSB, then plated on tryptic soy agar containing sodium chloride was determined. Tolerance of acid-adapted cells and, less markedly, acid-shocked cells to sodium chloride was diminished, compared to control cells. The pathogen showed extraordinary tolerance to the low pH of apple cider and orange juice held at 5 or 25 degrees C for up to 42 days. Growth occurred in one brand of apple cider (pH 3.98) incubated at 25 degrees C. Regardless of test parameters, there was no indication that cell types differed in tolerance to the acidic environment in apple cider or orange juice. Survival of control, acid-adapted, and acid-shocked cells heated in apple cider and orange juice was studied. Within each apple cider or orange juice, D(52 degrees C)-values of acid-adapted cells were considerably higher than those of acid-shocked or control cells, which indicates that heat tolerance can be substantially enhanced by acid adaptation compared to acid shock. PMID:9926995
Fortification of selected fruitjuice beverages (Pineapple, Mango and Orange juice) with fructooligosaccharides (FOSs), a low calorie prebiotic has been discussed. Results indicated that sucrose which is usually used as a sweetener in fruitjuice beverages can be partially substituted with FOS without significantly affecting the overall quality. The fruitjuice beverages were evaluated for physicochemical and sensory changes during
B. Renuka; S. G. Kulkarni; P. Vijayanand; S. G. Prapulla
Growth of Alicyclobacillus in low-pH fruitjuices may result in off-odors and off-flavors due to the production of compounds such as guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol). An important step in preventing Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruitjuices is the screening of incoming ingredients. Many fruitjuice concentrates contain compounds that inhibit Alicyclobacillus growth, but beverages produced from the concentrates may not contain sufficient amounts of the active component to prevent spoilage. Therefore, accurate screening of juice concentrates is essential to prevent false-negative test results and product spoilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate isolation methods for detection of Alicyclobacillus in inhibitory juice concentrates. Recovery of Alicyclobacillus spores from inoculated and naturally contaminated concentrates was compared by using pour plate, spread plate, and filtration methods. Pour plates consistently recovered the lowest number of spores from inoculated concentrates. Spread plating was the most effective method used to recover spores from inoculated apple and pomegranate juice concentrates, while filtration resulted in the highest recovery from cranberry concentrate. When tested on naturally contaminated concentrates, the pour plate method failed to detect Alicyclobacillus in many samples. Filtration was much more effective. The filtration method increased the likelihood of detecting Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruitjuice concentrates containing inhibitory compounds. PMID:21819669
McNamara, Christopher J; Wiebe, Deborah; Gomez, Margarita
A study was done to determine survival and growth characteristics of acid-adapted, acid-shocked, and control cells of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated into tryptic soy broth (TSB) acidified with organic acids and three commercial brands of apple cider and orange juice. The three types of cells behaved similarly in TSB acidified with acetic acid; however, in TSB (pH 3.9) acidified with
Membrane technology for the processing of fruitjuices and beverages has been applied mainly for clarification using ultrafiltration and microfiltration, and for concentration using reverse osmosis. The effects of product preparation, membrane selection, and operating parameters are important factors influencing filtration rate and product quality. Technological advances related to the development of new membranes, improvement in process engineering, and better understanding of fruit beverage constituents have expanded the range of membrane separation processes. Developments in novel membrane processes, including electrodialysis and pervaporation, increased the array of applications in combination with other technologies for alternate uses in fruitjuices and beverages. PMID:10890454
Membrane technology for the processing of fruitjuices and beverages has been applied mainly for clarification using ultrafiltration and microfiltration, and for concentration using reverse osmosis. The effects of product preparation, membrane selection, and operating parameters are important factors influencing filtration rate and product quality. Technological advances related to the development of new membranes, improvement in process engineering, and better understanding of fruit beverage constituents have expanded the range of membrane separation processes. Developments in novel membrane processes, including electrodialysis and pervaporation, increased the array of applications in combination with other technologies for alternate uses in fruitjuices and beverages. PMID:10770272
The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 presents an opportunity to change the nutritional quality of foods served in low-income childcare centers, including Head Start centers. Excessive fruitjuice consumption is associated with increased risk for obesity. Moreover, there is recent scientific evidence that sucrose consumption without the corresponding fiber, as is commonly present in fruitjuice, is associated with the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, and obesity. Given the increasing risk of obesity among preschool children, we recommend that the US Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Food Care Program, which manages the meal patterns in childcare centers such as Head Start, promote the elimination of fruitjuice in favor of whole fruit for children. PMID:22813423
The presence of Alicyclobacillus in fruitjuices and concentrates poses a serious problem for the juice industry. This study was undertaken to determine the (i) prevalence, concentration, and species of Alicyclobacillus in tropical and subtropical concentrates; (ii) efficacy of aqueous chlorine dioxide in reducing Alicyclobacillus spp. spores on tropical and subtropical fruit surfaces; and (iii) fate of and off-flavor production by Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in mango and pineapple juices. One hundred and eighty tropical and subtropical juice concentrates were screened for the presence and concentration of Alicyclobacillus spp. If found, the species of Alicyclobacillus was determined by 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis with NCI BLAST. Of these samples, 6.1% were positive for Alicyclobacillus, and nine A. acidoterrestris strains and two Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius strains were identified. A five-strain cocktail of Alicyclobacillus spp. was inoculated onto the surface of fruits (grapefruit, guava, limes, mangoes, oranges and pineapple), which were then washed with 0, 50, or 100 ppm aqueous chlorine dioxide. Significant reductions due to chlorine dioxide were only seen on citrus fruits. A five-strain cocktail of A. acidoterrestris was inoculated into mango and pineapple juices. Microbial populations were enumerated over a 16-day period. Aroma compounds in the juice were analyzed by GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and confirmed using GC-MS. GC-O of mango juice identified previously reported medicinal/antiseptic compounds. GC-O of pineapple juice revealed an unexpected "cheese" off-aroma associated with 2-methylbutyric acid and 3-methylbutyric acid. PMID:21356453
Danyluk, Michelle D; Friedrich, Loretta M; Jouquand, Celine; Goodrich-Schneider, Renee; Parish, Mickey E; Rouseff, Russell
The effect of combining high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) with citric acid or cinnamon bark oil, as antimicrobial substances, on the microbiological shelf life of strawberry, orange, apple, pear and tomato juices was evaluated in addition to the sensory properties of these products. An extension of the microbiological shelf life of fruitjuices treated by HIPEF with or without antimicrobial
Jonathan Mosqueda-Melgar; Rosa M. Raybaudi-Massilia; Olga Martín-Belloso
The present invention relates to the preservation of raw fruit and vegetable juices. More particularly, the present invention relates to the use of cyclodextrins and compositions thereof, to control enzymatic browning in raw fruit and vegetable juices.
The aim of this work was to find sensory suitable combinations of not commonly used vegetables, that is, cabbage, celeriac and parsnip, into mixed fruit–vegetable juices, two-species vegetable juices and vegetable juices with whey. These juices might have the potential to offer consumers new, interesting, tasty and nutritional products. Another interesting variation could be preparation of vegetable juices in combination
Dana Gabrovská; Jarmila Ouhrabková; Jana Rysová; Ivana Laknerová; Vlasta Fiedlerová; Marie Holasová; Renata Winterová; Ji?ina Pr?chová; Jan Strohalm; Milan Houška; Aleš Landfeld; Vladimír Erban; Eva Eichlerová; Irena N?me?ková; Marie Kejmarová; Pavlína Bo?ková
The protective effects of the juice of Opuntia ficus indica fruit (prickly pear) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatotoxicity were examined in rats. The animals were treated orally with the juice (3 mL/rat) 2 h after administration of the hepatotoxic agent. Preventive effects were studied by giving the juice (3 mL/rat) for 9 consecutive days. On day 9 the rats received the hepatotoxic agent. Morphological and biochemical evaluations were carried out 24, 48 and 72 h after induction of the hepatic damage. Data show that O. ficus indica fruitjuice administration exerts protective and curative effects against the CCl(4)-induced degenerative process in rat liver. Histology evaluation revealed a normal hepatic parenchyma at 48 h; the injury was fully restored after 72 h. Moreover, a significant reduction in CCl(4)-induced increase of GOT and GPT plasma levels is evident; these data are in agreement with the functional improvement of hepatocytes. O. ficus indica fruitjuice contains many phenol compounds, ascorbic acid, betalains, betacyanins, and a flavonoid fraction, which consists mainly of rutin and isorhamnetin derivatives. Hepatoprotection may be related to the flavonoid fraction of the juice, but other compounds, such as vitamin C and betalains could, synergistically, counteract many degenerative processes by means of their antioxidant activity. PMID:16220574
Galati, E M; Mondello, M R; Lauriano, E R; Taviano, M F; Galluzzo, M; Miceli, N
|Provides procedures to measure the calcium concentration in fruitjuice by atomic absorption. Fruitjuice is used because: (1) it is an important consumer product; (2) large samples are available; and (3) calcium exists in fruitjuice at concentrations that do not require excessive dilution or preconcentration prior to measurement. (JN)|
Provides procedures to measure the calcium concentration in fruitjuice by atomic absorption. Fruitjuice is used because: (1) it is an important consumer product; (2) large samples are available; and (3) calcium exists in fruitjuice at concentrations that do not require excessive dilution or preconcentration prior to measurement. (JN)
...unconcentrated natural fruitjuices in the trade and commerce...imports of concentrated fruitjuices, using the procedure set forth...20, HTSUS: Kind of fruitjuice Average Brix value (degrees...0 Naranjilla 10.5 Orange 11.8 Papaya 10.2...
Many dark-colored fruitjuices, rich in anthocyanins, are thought to be important for human health. Joboticaba ( Myrciaria cauliflora ) fruits, native to Brazil, have phenolics including anthocyanins and are processed into juice and other products. The phenolic constituents in the fruits of jaboticaba were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Twenty-two compounds were identified or tentatively determined by detailed analysis of their mass spectral fragmentation patterns; 11 compounds including 7 gallotannins, 2 ellagic acid derivatives, syringin, and its glucoside were detected for the first time in the fruit. The compositional differences among the fruit extracts and their commercial products were also compared by principal component analysis; two anthocyanins, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, as well as two depsides, jaboticabin and 2-O-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-2,4,6-trihydroxyphenylacetic acid, present in the fruit extracts were not detected unexpectedly in commercial jaboticaba juice or jam. Therefore, the stability of anthocyanins in jaboticaba fresh fruits and products has been compared directly with that of other dark-colored fruit products made from blueberry and Concord grape, and the same trend of decreasing amounts of anthocyanins was observed in all tested products. The antioxidant activities (DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+)) of jaboticaba fresh fruit extract and commercial samples were also compared. Principal component analysis proved to be a useful way to discern changes between fresh and processed fruits. Jaboticaba is a promising fruit with antioxidant capacity similar to those of other so-called superfruits; however, during processing the levels of some of anthocyanins and other polyphenols decrease significantly, and therefore the capacity of these products to affect human health may vary significantly from that of the fresh fruit. PMID:22809264
Wu, Shi-Biao; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Long, Chunlin; Kennelly, Edward J
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that oxidative damage caused by the -amyloid peptide in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease may be hydrogen peroxide mediated. Many polyphenols, the most abundant dietary antioxidants, possess stronger neuroprotection against hydrogen peroxide than antioxi- dant vitamins. METHODS: We tested whether consumption of fruit and vegetable juices, containing a high concentra- tion of polyphenols, decreases the risk
Qi Dai; Amy R. Borenstein; Yougui Wu; James C. Jackson; Eric B. Larson
This 39-page report from the Census Bureau gives the economic status of frozen fruit, juice, and vegetable manufacturing in the United States. Seven tables include Produce Statistics 1997 and 1992, Industry Statistics by Employment Size: 1997, and Industry Statistics for Selected States: 1997.
Grapefruit juice is widely recognized to cause important drug interactions via inhibition of CYP3A4, and a wider variety of fruitjuices have been shown to inhibit influx transporters in enterocytes known as organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs). Fruitjuice coadministration significantly reduces the oral bioavailability of numerous important medicines relying on this anion transporter pathway for absorption. This article reviews the current literature on interactions between clinically used OATP substrates and fruitjuice consumption. PMID:23033114
Physiconutritional qualities of fruits viz. apple, lime, pome- granate, Perlette grape, and Pusa Navrang grape were analyzed and compared with those of Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.). Indian gooseberry juice contained the highest vitamin C (478.56 mg\\/100 ml). Hence, when gooseberry juice was blended with other fruits’ juice for the preparation of ready-to-serve (RTS) beverages, it boosted their nutritional quality
The post-harvest shelf life of maximum of fruits and vegetables is very limited due to their perishable nature. In India more then 20-25 percent of fruits and vegetables are spoiled before utilization. Despite being the world's second largest producer of fruits and vegetables, in India only 1.5 percent of the total fruits and vegetables produced are processed. Maximum amounts of fruit and vegetable juices turn bitter after extraction due to conversion of chemical compounds. In spite of being under utilized, the utilization of highly nutritive fruits and vegetables is very limited due to high acidity, astringency, bitterness, and some other factors. While improving flavor, palatability, and nutritive and medicinal value of various fruitjuices such as aonla, mango, papaya, pineapple, citrus, ber, pear, apple, watermelon, and vegetables including bottle gourd, carrot, beet root, bitter gourd, medicinal plants like aloe vera and spices can also be used for juice blending. All these natural products are valued very highly for their refreshing juice, nutritional value, pleasant flavor, and medicinal properties. Fruits and vegetables are also a rich source of sugars, vitamins, and minerals. However, some fruits and vegetables have an off flavor and bitterness although they are an excellent source of vitamins, enzymes, and minerals. Therefore, blending of two or more fruit and vegetable juices with spices extract for the preparation of nutritive ready-to-serve (RTS), beverages is thought to be a convenient and economic alternative for utilization of these fruits and vegetables. Moreover, one could think of a new product development through blending in the form of a natural health drink, which may also serve as an appetizer. The present review focuses on the blending of fruits, under-utilized fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, and spices in appropriate proportions for the preparation of natural fruit and vegetable based nutritive beverages. PMID:21929332
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the antioxidant and antiproliferative effect of fruitjuices enriched with Pycnogenol® (0.5?g/L) on a colon carcinoma cell line (Caco-2). The total phenolic concentration (TPC), antioxidant activity and inhibition cell growth were studied in fresh and digested pineapple juice and red fruitsjuice (both enriched with pine bark extract and not). After in vitro digestion the level of detectable phenolic compounds (expressed as gallic acid equivalent) was higher in both pineapple and red fruitsjuices enriched with Pycnogenol® than in non-enriched commercial juices (155.6?mg/100?mL vs 94.6?mg/100?mL and 478.5?mg/100?mL vs 406.9?mg/100?mL, respectively). Increased antioxidant activity (measured by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC) methods) was observed in digested enriched juices with respect to the same samples before digestion. Pycnogenol® enrichment led to a high antiproliferative effect between 24 and 72?h of incubation with undigested pineapple juice compared with the non-enriched juice. It can be concluded that enrichment of fruitjuices with Pycnogenol® provides a source of phenolic compounds with high stability to in vitro gastrointestinal conditions; however, the antioxidant properties of fruitjuices were affected to a different extent. PMID:21887808
This paper reviews the efficacy of ozone an emerging non-thermal food preservation technique for fruitjuices and highlights changes in key microbial, quality and nutritional parameters. Ozonation of fruitjuices has been identified as a potential technology to meet the United States Food and Drug Administration's requirement of a 5 log reduction in pertinent microorganisms found in juices. This review
P. J. Cullen; V. P. Valdramidis; B. K. Tiwari; S. Patil; P. Bourke; C. P. ODonnell
The total phenolic content of 13 commercially available fruitjuices and juice drinks, selected to represent the most popular juice flavors in the United Kingdom, were analyzed using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Individual phenolic compounds were identified and quantified using HPLC-PDA-MS2. The catechin content and degree of polymerization of proanthocyanidins were also analyzed. Purple grape juice contained the largest number of individual phenolic compounds and also the highest concentration of total phenolics. The main components were flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins, and hydroxycinnamates, which accounted for 93% of the total phenolic content. In contrast, white grape juice, which contained principally hydroxycinnamates, had the lowest total phenolic content. Antioxidant activity was measured using the ORAC and FRAP assays, and the data obtained were in broad agreement with total phenol content. In view of the recent findings of the Kame project indicating that long-term fruitjuice consumption can provide protection against Alzheimer's disease (Dai et al. Am. J. Med. 2006, 379, 464-475), it is suggested that the protective effects may be enhanced by consumption of a combination of juices rich in phenolics and containing a diverse variety of individual phenolic compounds, namely, juices derived from purple grapes, grapefruit, cranberries, and apples. PMID:17362029
This study sought to monitor changes in the topography, morphology, and radiographic profiles of human permanent teeth that had been exposed to citrus fruitjuices. The effect of long-term exposure was monitored for a prolonged duration of 20 weeks according to set criteria. Topographic and morphologic changes were observed at weekly intervals following challenge by test fluids (orange, lemon, and grapefruit juices) and compared with control fluids (acetic acid and water). The qualitative changes in the specimens' topography and the morphology of citrus fruitjuices and control fluids are described as a function of time, in specific details. The digitized radiographic images obtained at four-week intervals were analyzed and the changes were assessed. The results indicated that orange juice specimens demonstrated the mildest changes, while lemon juice specimens displayed the most severe damage to the coronal segments of the teeth. This damage manifested as loss of cusp height, cervical enamel, and coronal radius, as well as reduction of enamel cap height. Of the tested and control fluids, lemon juice displayed the most eros ion, followed by acetic acid, grapefruit juice, orange juice, and water, which had no effect. Continued immersion in the four acidic fluids led to varying degrees of enamel loss progression. PMID:18348369
The juice of whole fruits of Sicilian cultivars of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.) was investigated, and the contents of ascorbic acid, total polyphenols, and flavonoids were determined. In the juice, ferulic acid was the chief derivative of hydroxycinnamic acid and the mean concentration of total phenolic compounds was 746 microg/mL. The flavonoid fraction, analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection, consisted of rutin and isorhamnetin derivatives. The juice showed antioxidant activity in the DPPH(*) test, probably due to the phenolic compounds that are effective radical scavengers. The preventive administration of the juice inhibited the ulcerogenic activity of ethanol in rat. Light microscopy observations showed an increase in mucus production and the restoration of the normal mucosal architecture. The juice is nutritionally interesting, and its dietary intake could provide protection against oxidative damage. PMID:12903943
Galati, Enza Maria; Mondello, Maria Rita; Giuffrida, Daniele; Dugo, Giacomo; Miceli, Natalizia; Pergolizzi, Simona; Taviano, Maria Fernanda
Aims and Objective: The purpose of this study is to measure the initial pH of various commonly used beverages and to determine their ability to maintain a low pH by measuring their buffering capacities. Materials and Methods: Twelve commercially available drinks were taken and divided into four groups (preserved fruitjuices, tea, mineral water and carbonated drinks. Each group comprised of three drinks. Their initial pH were measured with pH meter and their buffering capacities were measured by adding 1M NaOH in the increments of 0.2 ml into 100 ml of each drink till the pH raised to 5.5 and 7 respectively. Statistical Analysis: The volume of NaOH required to raise the pH to 5.5 and 7 were recorded in all the groups. This data was subjected to statistical analysis using Mann- Whitney tests. Results: Total titratable acidity measurement shows that among all the drinks, there was no significant difference between carbonated drinks and preserved fruitjuices while a significant difference was present between carbonated drinks, preserved fruitjuices and tea. Conclusion: In this in vitro study, it was found that packaged apple juice had the most buffering capacity with maximum erosive potential whereas green tea had the least.
The practicability of usage of electric pulses to influence the microflora of liquid media is justified. The regime parameters\\u000a at which it is possible to obtain the nonthermal effect of pasteurization (inactivation of the vegetative microorganism cells\\u000a in the media) are presented. The minimization of the ohmic heating effect inevitably occurring at current passage through\\u000a fruitjuices is the essence
To obtain clarified passion fruitjuice, crossflow microfiltration after enzymatic liquefaction was studied using ceramic membranes with 0.2 ?m pore size. The effect of a high-rate enzymatic treatment for the degradation of suspended solids was assessed, resulting in the selection of a commercial enzymatic preparation. Partial enzymatic liquefaction of cell-wall polysaccharides prior to microfiltration provided an unusual pattern of flux
F. Vaillant; P. Millan; G. O’Brien; M. Dornier; M. Decloux; M. Reynes
Morinda citrifolia L. (noni), family Rubiaceae, has been used in Polynesia for over 2000 years for its reputed health benefits, one of which is its therapeutic effects on gout (langa e hokotanga hui). However, its healing mechanism has not been elucidated. This study showed that in an in vitro bioassay that Tahitian Noni Juice (TNJ) inhibited xanthine oxidase (XO) concentration dependently. Concentrations of 1, 5 and 10 mg/mL of TNJ inhibited XO by 11%, 113% and 148%, respectively, with an IC50 of 3.8 mg compared with an IC50 of 2.4 microm for allopurinol. Noni fruitjuice concentrate (NFJC) also inhibited XO concentration dependently. Concentrations of 1 and 5 mg/mL NFJC inhibited XO in vitro by 184% and 159%, respectively. A 0.1 mg/mL methanol extract (NFJME) from the fractionation of noni fruit puree inhibited XO by 64%. It was elucidated that the noni fruitjuice inhibitory effect on XO enzymes is the mechanism by which noni ameliorates gout and gout-like diseases. Further, the results also support the traditional usage of noni in the treatment of gout. PMID:19434757
Potable water, fruitjuices and soft drinks are some of the most widespread beverages in the habitual diet, and they can contribute to chromium dietary intake. We determined the concentration of chromium in 90 different samples of beverages widely consumed in Spain. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used to analyze samples processed with a HNO3-V2O5 acid digestion pretreatment. In
E. M. Garc??a; C. Cabrera; J. Sánchez; M. L. Lorenzo; M. C. López
The aim of the work was to study the survival of Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 in model solutions and develop a mathematical model describing its dependence on pH, citric acid and ascorbic acid. A Central Composite Design (CCD) was developed studying each of the three factors at five levels within the following ranges, i.e., pH (3.0-4.2), citric acid (6-40 g/L), and ascorbic acid (100-1000 mg/L). In total, 17 experimental runs were carried out. The initial cell concentration in the model solutions was approximately 1 × 10(8)CFU/mL; the solutions were stored at 4°C for 6 weeks. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the stepwise regression demonstrated that a second order polynomial model fits well the data. The results demonstrated that high pH and citric acid concentration enhanced cell survival; one the other hand, ascorbic acid did not have an effect. Cell survival during storage was also investigated in various types of juices, including orange, grapefruit, blackcurrant, pineapple, pomegranate, cranberry and lemon juice. The model predicted well the cell survival in orange, blackcurrant and pineapple, however it failed to predict cell survival in grapefruit and pomegranate, indicating the influence of additional factors, besides pH and citric acid, on cell survival. Very good cell survival (less than 0.4 log decrease) was observed after 6 weeks of storage in orange, blackcurrant and pineapple juice, all of which had a pH of about 3.8. Cell survival in cranberry and pomegranate decreased very quickly, whereas in the case of lemon juice, the cell concentration decreased approximately 1.1 logs after 6 weeks of storage, albeit the fact that lemon juice had the lowest pH (pH~2.5) among all the juices tested. Taking into account the results from the compositional analysis of the juices and the model, it was deduced that in certain juices, other compounds seemed to protect the cells during storage; these were likely to be proteins and dietary fibre In contrast, in certain juices, such as pomegranate, cell survival was much lower than expected; this could be due to the presence of antimicrobial compounds, such as phenolic compounds. PMID:21411170
Adulteration of fruitjuices--by the addition of sugar or other less expensive fruitjuices as well as preservatives, artificial sweeteners and colours--was tested for by using a developed screening method. The method employs hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) using electrospray ionisation in the negative mode and ultraviolet light detection. Different fruitjuices can be differentiated by the content of marker compounds like sorbitol, certain phenolic molecules and their saccharide profile. This method was used to test 46 fruitjuice samples from the retail market as well as 12 control samples. The study focused on the main types of fruitjuices consumed on the South African market including apple, orange, grape and blends of these juices with other fruits like mango, pear and guava. Overall, the 46 samples tested mostly agreed with label claims. One grape juice sample was adulterated, probably with apple juice. Natamycin above the legal limits was found in two samples. In addition, two samples contained natamycin and one sample benzoate without it being indicated on the label. The method is well suited as a quick screening method for fruitjuice adulteration and if used routinely would reduce fruitjuice adulteration without the cost of the current array of tests needed for authenticity testing. PMID:23859722
Stander, Marietjie A; Kühn, Wernich; Hiten, Nicholas F
The invention relates to the preservation of raw fruits, vegetables and their juices. More particularly, the invention relates to the use of certain ascorbic acid esters, and compositions thereof, to control enzymatic browning in raw fruit and vegetable p...
The present invention relates to the preservation of raw fruits, vegetables and their juices. More particularly, the present invention relates to the use of certain ascorbic acid esters, and compositions thereof, to control enzymatic browning in raw fruit...
Fruitjuices are popular worldwide with children of all ages as they are sweet and perceived to be healthful. This in vitro study was sought to measure pH of 10 different fruitjuices, to find out possible erosive effects on human dental enamel of 40 extracted sound premolars and also to measure fluoride and trace elements of these juices. The estimation of pH of fruitjuices was done by using Systronic upH 362 pH meter. The erosive effects of fruitjuices were tested by using polarized light microscope. Orion electrode was used to measure fluoride. The trace elements were estimated by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer No. 6501F. The pH values in different juices were observed at different levels, and pH values of these juices were more acidic than baseline after 24 hours. As the time increased, the erosion effect became more in pineapple; grape and sugarcane juices, and they had more cariogenic trace elements like selenium, iron and manganese. So, these juices were found to be cariogenic. To conclude, orange, mousambi, mango, pomegranate, apple, chikku and watermelon juices had no erosive effect on the human enamel, with the presence of highest amount of trace elements like fluoride and phosphorous which are considered as strongly cariostatic. PMID:21985876
A spectrophotometric method was developed for ascorbic acid present in various fruits, commercial fruitjuices and sprouted food grains. The method involves the oxidation of ascorbic acid with excess manganese(III) following reduction of unreacted manganese(III) with diphenylamine or barium diphenylamine sulphonate forming a product ?(max) 570 nm the system 1 or 540 nm the system 2 and decrease in the colour intensity is proportional to the concentration of vitamin C with quantification range 0.3-3.0 ?g ml(-1). The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity values of the system 1 and the system 2 were 1.829 × 10(4) and 1.813 × 10(4)mol(-1)cm(-1) and 0.0096 and 0.0097 ?g cm(-2) respectively. The stoichiometry was 4:1 between manganese(III) and diphenylamine. The ascorbic acid contents of the same samples were determined separately following the procedures of the developed method as well as the reference method and the results were comparable. PMID:23411340
Foods have been identified as a potential target for bioterrorism due to their essential nature and global distribution. Foods produced in bulk have the potential to have large batches of product intentionally contaminated, which could affect hundreds or thousands of individuals. Bacillus anthracis spores are one potential bioterrorism agent that may survive pasteurization and remain viable throughout the shelf life of fruitjuices and cause disease if consumed. This project examined B. anthracis spore survival in orange, apple, and grape juices, as well as wine. Samples of beverages were inoculated with spores of two nonpathogenic B. anthracis strains at approximately 10(6) CFU/ml, and the spore count was determined periodically during storage for 30 days at 4°C. After this time, the counts of survival spores never declined more than 1 log CFU/ml in any of the beverage types. These results indicate that spores can survive, with little to no loss in viability, for at least a month in fruitjuices and wine. PMID:20828478
Leishman, Oriana N; Johnson, Miranda J; Labuza, Theodore P; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco
The relationships among home fruit (F), 100% fruitjuice (J), and vegetable (V) availability and accessibility separately, as reported by 225 fourth- through sixth-grade children and their parents (n = 88), separately, and FJV preferences to child-reported FJV consumption were assessed. For girls, child-reported FJV availability and accessibility accounted for 35% of the variability in FJV consumption. Child-reported availability and
Karen Weber Cullen; Tom Baranowski; Emiel Owens; Tara Marsh; Latroy Rittenberry; Carl de Moor
Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by several fungal species of the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus, but principally by Penicillium expansum on fruit such as apples. The occurrence of patulin as a natural contaminant of apple juice is a worldwide problem and international recommendations and regulations have been made for maximum levels permitted in consumer products. This paper reviews currently available
The aqueous juice of bittergourd fruit (BF) (Momordica charantia L.) of the family Cucurbitaceae has been shown to possess hypoglycemic activity. However, the mechanism of its action is not known. Hence in vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out to study the role of BF juice on the diabetic status. The activity of BF juice was tested on STZ
Sandhya L Sitasawad; Yogita Shewade; Ramesh Bhonde
Fruitjuices are an important part of the diet of all age groups due to the associated health benefits. Fresh squeezed juices of pineapple, sweet lime and vegetable juices sold by street vendors in Nagpur city were analysed for their microbiological quality. The samples were randomly collected from local vendors in the city. A total of 38 samples were analysed
The invention relates to the inhibition of enzymatic browning of raw fruitjuice and/or raw vegetable juice by treating juice with an effective anti-browning amount of at least one sulfated polysaccharide to inhibit browning. A promoter selected from the ...
Frozen highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) were processed into juice, and the influence was studied of a steam blanching step, applied to fruit before milling, on the recovery of anthocyanin pigments and total cinnamates, in relation to the radical-scavenging properties of blueberry juices. Inactivation of PPO induced a significant recovery increase of anthocyanin and cinnamate contents. Furthermore juice from blanched
Margherita Rossi; Elena Giussani; Roberto Morelli; Roberto Lo Scalzo; Renato C. Nani; Danila Torreggiani
BACKGROUND Growing evidence suggests that oxidative damage caused by the ?-amyloid peptide in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease may be hydrogen peroxide mediated. Many polyphenols, the most abundant dietary antioxidants, possess stronger neuroprotection against hydrogen peroxide than antioxidant vitamins. METHODS We tested whether consumption of fruit and vegetable juices, containing a high concentration of polyphenols, decreases the risk of incident probable Alzheimer’s disease in the Kame Project cohort, a population-based prospective study of 1836 Japanese Americans in King County, Washington, who were dementia-free at baseline (1992–1994) and were followed through 2001. RESULTS After adjustment for potential confounders, the hazard ratio for probable Alzheimer’s disease was 0.24 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09–0.61) comparing subjects who drank juices at least 3 times per week with those who drank less often than once per week with a hazard ratio of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.31–2.29) for those drinking juices 1 to 2 times per week (P for trend < .01). This inverse association tended to be more pronounced among those with an apolipoprotein E?-4 allele and those who were not physically active. Conversely, no association was observed for dietary intake of vitamins E, C, or ?- carotene or tea consumption. CONCLUSIONS Fruit and vegetable juices may play an important role in delaying the onset of Alzheimer’s disease, particularly among those who are at high risk for the disease. These results may lead to a new avenue of inquiry in the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease.
Dai, Qi; Borenstein, Amy R.; Wu, Yougui; Jackson, James C.; Larson, Eric B.
An ethanol-insoluble, high molecular weight fraction was collected from the juice of Morinda citrifolia fruit grown in Viet Nam. The fraction is composed primarily of carbohydrate (67% (w\\/w)). The polysaccharide fraction consists predominantly of GalAp (53.6mol%), Araf (13.6mol%), Galp (17.9mol%) and Rhap (9.5mol%). Glycosyl linkage analysis suggests the polysaccharide fraction contains mostly the pectic polysaccharides, homogalacturonan (4-GalAp), rhamnogalacturonan I (4-GalAp,
The purpose of this study was to compare fruitjuice intakes of young children before and after media reports in 1997 that related “excessive” (? 12 oz\\/day) fruitjuice intake to short stature and obesity. These reports were based on one research study that has been refuted by a subsequent 1999 study. As part of an on-going longitudinal study of
PURPOSE. The pharmacologic activity of compounds isolated from Physalis peruviana has been demonstrated. The use of this fruitjuice for treating pterygium has been reported in Colombian traditional medicine. However, studies demonstrat- ing the fruitjuice's pharmacologic activity when used in this disease have not been published to date. In the present study the anti-inflammatory and cytostatic activities of P.
Juan Manuel Pardo; Marta Raquel Fontanilla; Luis Fernando Ospina; Lady Espinosa
Pomegranate fruit and pomegranate juices (PJs) have taken great attention for their health benefits in the last years. The purpose of this study is to analyse the antioxidant activities, along with the organic acid and sugar contents of pomegranate juices sold in the Turkish markets. In the present study, we evaluated total phenolics (TPs), free radical scavenging capacity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl
It is known that the fruitjuice of Morinda citrifolia (M. citrifolia, Noni, Rubiaceae) has various pharmacological effects such as antioxidant or anti-inflammatory activities, which may help the inhibition of ischemic neuronal damage. Here, we examined the effect of the fruitjuice of M. citrifolia (Noni juice) on the brain damage caused by ischemic stress in mice. Noni juice was obtained from the mature fruit grown in Okinawa (about 1.5 l/4 kg of fruit; 100% Okinawa Noni juice (ONJ). Male ddY mice were supplied with 3% or 10% juice in the drinking water for 7 d, and compared to the control group. On the 7th day, mice were subjected to 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Interestingly, the intake of juice reduced the infarct volume as analyzed by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining on the 3rd day of MCAO when compared to the control group. Furthermore, we found that the neurological deficit scores (NDS) were decreased after the reperfusion in the juice-supplied mice. On the other hand, the intake of juice did not affect the expression levels of antioxidant such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. The present study suggests that Noni juice may have a preventive effect against cerebral ischemic stress, while further studies are needed to explain the detailed mechanism. PMID:19252286
This article reports on the bioactivities of citrus extracts (citrus extract, lemon extract, and neroli) toward Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Pichia membranifaciens, and Rhodotorula bacarum. The bioactivities of the extracts (from 10 to 100 ppm) were evaluated through a microdilution method; thereafter, citrus extracts (0 to 80 ppm) were tested in combination with either pH (3.0 to 5.0) or temperature (5 to 25°C). Finally, a confirmatory experiment was run in a commercial drink (referred to as red fruitjuice) containing citrus extract (40 ppm) that was inoculated with either S. cerevisiae or Z. bailii (5 log CFU/ml) and stored at 4 and 25°C. Yeasts increased to 7 log CFU/ml (Z. bailii) or 8 log CFU/ml (S. cerevisiae) in the control at 25°C, but the citrus extract addition controlled yeast growth for at least 3 days; under refrigeration, the effect was significant for 10 days. PMID:24112576
Peroxidases have turned out to be potential biocatalyst for a variety of organic reactions. The research work reported in this communication was done with the objective of finding a convenient rich source of peroxidase which could be used as a biocatalyst for organic synthetic reactions. The studies made have shown that Luffa aegyptiaca (gourd) fruitjuice contains peroxidase activity of the order of 180 enzyme unit/mL. The K(m) values of this peroxidase for the substrates guaiacol and hydrogen peroxide were 2.0 and 0.2?mM, respectively. The pH and temperature optima were 6.5 and 60°C, respectively. Like other peroxidases, it followed double displacement type mechanism. Sodium azide inhibited the enzyme competitively with K(i) value of 3.35?mM. PMID:21804936
In this study, the population of Alicyclobacillus spp. was estimated in pasteurized exotic Brazilian fruitjuices using the most probable number (MPN) technique followed by biochemical tests. Pasteurized passion fruit (n = 57) and pineapple (n = 50) juices were taken directly from Brazilian manufacturers. While Alicyclobacillus spp. was isolated from passion fruitjuice, the microorganism was not found in any pineapple juice samples. A higher incidence of Alicyclobacillus was observed in samples taken in June and July (dry months in Brazil) in comparison to the other months (March, April, May and August), and the highest Alicyclobacillus counts were recovered from these samples(>23 MNP/100 mL). Sixteen (n = 16) Alicyclobacillus strains were typed using the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA method (RAPD-PCR). RAPD-PCR revealed great genetic similarity between the passion fruitjuice strains and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris DSM 2498. The heat resistance of three isolates was determined, and the mean D(95°) (1.7 min) and z (7.6 °C) values in the passion fruitjuice were not significantly different (p > 0.05) from those obtained for the DSM 2498 strain (D(95°) = 1.5 min and z = 7.1 °C). This is the first report on the isolation of A. acidoterrestris from exotic fruitjuices such as passion fruitjuice. It is worth pointing out the importance of applying good agricultural practices in the field and applying controls for the fruit selection and washing steps, as well as controlling the time/temperature conditions for pasteurization so as to reduce the incidence and chances of A. acidoterrestris spoilage in these juices. PMID:20832679
McKnight, I C; Eiroa, M N U; Sant'Ana, A S; Massaguer, P R
The high pressure pasteurisation is capable to preserve the nutritional substances in juices such as sulforaphane in broccoli juice. This paper deals with the procedures how to maintain the highest content of this compound and other nutritional substances and how to prepare the consumer acceptable form of this juice. The final product—the apple–broccoli juice functional food (food supplement) was experimentally
Milan Houška; Jan Strohalm; Kate?ina Kocurová; Ji?í Totušek; Danuše Lefnerová; Jan T?íska; Nad?žda Vrchotová; Vlasta Fiedrleová; Maria Holasova; Dana Gabrovská; Ivana Paulí?ková
BACKGROUND: Including children in food preparation activities has long been recommended as a method to encourage children's consumption, but has not been evaluated. Goal setting is also a common component of behavior change programs. This study assessed the impact of attaining goals to prepare fruit-juice or vegetable recipes on student fruit and vegetable consumption as part of a 10-week fruit
Karen W Cullen; Kathy B Watson; Issa Zakeri; Tom Baranowski; Janice H Baranowski
Overall liking, flavor, and perceived healthiness of one newly developed fruitjuice with high açaí content (40% açaí) and 5 commercially available fruitjuices with lower (4% to 20%) açaí concentrations were evaluated by consumers in Belgium. General trends for the overall sample were examined by means of analysis of variance, whereas individual consumer preferences were evaluated using internal preference mapping and hierarchical cluster analysis. The relative contribution of flavor and perceived health benefits as predictors of consumers' overall liking of the 6 açaí-based fruitjuices was estimated through linear regression analysis. The results showed a negative relationship between the juices' overall liking and their açaí concentrations. Although the vast majority of consumers preferred the juices having a low açaí content (4% to 5% açaí), a small consumer segment liked the juice with 40% açaí. Flavor or taste experience superseded consumers' perceived health benefits as the primary determinant of the fruitjuices' overall liking. The impact of perceived health benefits on the overall liking of the açaí juices decreased with higher taste dissatisfaction. PMID:19646053
Sabbe, Sara; Verbeke, Wim; Deliza, Rosires; Matta, Virginia M; Van Damme, Patrick
Electrical conductivity can be used to monitor important changes in a food product during pulsed electric field (PEF) processing. Electrical conductivities of selected fruitjuices (namely apple, orange, and pineapple juices) and liquid egg products (namely whole egg, yolk, and egg white) were determined online during a PEF treatment. The property was measured at broad processing temperatures ranging from 5
Malek Amiali; Michael O. Ngadi; Vijaya G. S. Raghavan; D. H. Nguyen
The present study is focused on the characteristics of juice made from transgenic strawberry fruits with a 90% reduction on pectate lyase mRNA expression. No differences of soluble solids, pH or solid volume fraction were found between control and transgenic juices. Total sugar content of the serum fraction was also similar but a slightly higher content of large molecular mass
R. Sesmero; J. R. Mitchell; J. A. Mercado; M. A. Quesada
Osmotic evaporation to concentrate clarified passion fruitjuice was tried out on an industrial scale. A pilot plant that was equipped with a module containing 10.2 m2 of polypropylene hollow fibres was used to concentrate passion fruitjuice up to a total soluble solids (TSS) content higher than 60 g\\/100 g at 30°C. Tangential velocity, temperature and concentration of solutions
F Vaillant; E Jeanton; M Dornier; G. M O’Brien; M Reynes; M Decloux
The inactivation ofByssochlamys fulvaconidiospores andNeosartoria fischeriascospores suspended in different fruitjuices by high pulsed electric fields (PEF) was studied. A continuous coaxial treatment chamber was used to apply the treatments. The molds were exposed to exponential decay pulses (2 Hz) of different duration periods (2–3.3?s) depending on the type of fruitjuice. The inactivation ofB. fulvaconidiospores depended on the treatment
Javier Raso; Mar??a Luisa Calderón; Marcela Góngora; Gustavo Barbosa-Cánovas; Barry G Swanson
Fermented foods are food substrates that are invaded or overgrown by edible microorganisms whose en- zymes, particularly amylases, proteases and lipases, hy- drolyse polysaccharides, proteins and lipids to non-toxic products with flavours, aromas and textures pleasant and attractive to the human consumer (STEINKRAUS 1997). The lactic acid fermentation of vegetable products, applied as a preservation method for the production of
This protocol is part of a three and a half week module called the Examination of Vitamin C(ascorbic acid), its Sources, Properties, and Metabolism. it provides anobvious connection between the disciplines of Biology and Chemistry. Presented here are protocolsfor the module components Analysis of Vitamin C in FruitJuices and Human Metabolism of VitaminC. It includes student outlines, instructor's notes, and suggested questions for laboratory reports.
Elizabeth Godrick (Boston University;); Patricia Samuel (Boston University;)
Fruitjuices each have very distinct organic acids profiles that can be used as fingerprints for establishing authenticity. A method has been developed, optimised and validated for measuring by capillary electrophoresis citric, isocitric, malic and tartaric acids as authenticity markers in orange juices, without any sample treatment other than dilution and filtration. Final conditions were phosphate buffer 200 mM, pH
Application of pulsed electric fields (PEF) can lead to longer shelf life of fruitjuices with minimal product quality loss\\u000a and good retention of fresh-like flavour. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PEF and conventional pasteurization\\u000a (90 °C, 20 s) on ascorbic acid content of orange juice, and to assess modifications in ascorbic acid concentration of orange
Cutin and suberin polymers from various anatomical regions of grapefruit were analyzed chemically and ultrastructurally. The leaf, fruit peel and juice-sac showed an amorphous cuticular layer. The cutin in the leaf was composed of 10,16-dihydroxy C16 acid and its positional isomers as the major monomers whereas 16-hydroxy-10-oxo C16 acid was a major component in the fruit peel. Juice-sac cutin, on
Karl E. Espelie; Ronald W. Davis; P. E. Kolattukudy
Children tend to eat more fruit and vegetables when more are available in the home. We proposed and tested a model that predicts the availability at home (hereinafter termed "home availability") of fruit, 100% juice, and vegetables, using new measures of frequency of food shopping, purchase, and com...
We investigated the effects of granulation on organic acid metabolism and its relation to mineral elements in 'Guanximiyou' pummelo (Citrus grandis) juice sacs. Granulated juice sacs had decreased concentrations of citrate and isocitrate, thus lowering juice sac acidity. By contrast, malate concentration was higher in granulated juice sacs than in normal ones. The reduction in citrate concentration might be caused by increased degradation, as indicated by enhanced aconitase activity, whilst the increase in malate concentration might be caused by increased biosynthesis, as indicated by enhanced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC). Real time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that the activities of most acid-metabolizing enzymes were regulated at the transcriptional level, whilst post-translational modifications might influence the PEPC activity. Granulation led to increased accumulation of mineral elements (especially phosphorus, magnesium, sulphur, zinc and copper) in juice sacs, which might be involved in the incidence of granulation in pummelo fruits. PMID:24128573
Red beets were evaluated as a potential substrate for the production of probiotic beet juice by four species of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus plantarum). All the lactic cultures were found capable of rapidly utilizing beet juice for cell synthesis and lactic acid production. However, L. acidophilus and L. plantarum produced a greater amount of
Fruitjuices have been traditionally concentrated by multi-stage vacuum evaporation, resulting in a loss of fresh juice flavors, color degradation and a “cooked” taste due to the thermal effects. The promising alternative is reverse osmosis concentration. However, it cannot reach concentrations larger than 25–30°Brix with a single-stage RO system due to high osmotic pressure limitation, which is quite below the
Electric field enhanced ultrafiltration of pectin–sucrose mixture (synthetic juice) and mosambi (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) fruitjuice using 50,000 (MWCO) polyerthersulfon membrane is studied in a cross-flow cell. Pectin, completely rejected by the membrane, forms a gel type layer over the membrane surface. Under the application of an external dc electric field across the membrane, gel-layer formation is restricted leading
The influence of temperature (10–45°C), feed flow rate (300–500L\\/h) and sweeping gas flow rate (1.2–2m3\\/h) on the recovery of berry fruitjuice aroma compounds by sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) was examined on an aroma model solution and on black currant juice in a lab scale membrane distillation set up. The data were compared to recovery of the aroma compounds
Rico Bagger-Jørgensen; Anne S. Meyer; Manuel Pinelo; Camilla Varming; Gunnar Jonsson
The food safety issues of the high pressure pasteurized fruit\\/vegetable juices are the focus of this paper. The development of Hazard analysis and critical control points system for production of carrot, red beet and apple\\/broccoli\\/orange juice is given together with results of analysis of samples, challenge testing and storage tests. The anti-mutagenic activity in vitro tests are also presented. Procedures
M. Houska; J. Strohalm; J. Totusek; J. Triska; N. Vrchotova; D. Gabrovska; B. Otova; P. Gresova
Fruitjuices and purees are defined as fermentable, but unfermented, products obtained by mechanical processing of fresh fruits. The presence of undesired metabolites derived from microbial growth can arise from the use of unsuitable fruit or from defects in the production line or subsequent contamination. This involves a loss in the overall quality that cannot be resolved by thermal treatment following the start of fermentation. With these considerations, together with microbiological control, the analysis of different metabolites, which can be considered as microbial growth markers, such as alcohols (i.e. ethanol, etc.), acids (i.e. acetic, fumaric, lactic, etc.) is fundamental in order to achieve a better evaluation of product quality. Enzymatic determination and other single-component analytical techniques are often used for the determination of these metabolites. When the microbial spoilage is not well known, this results in a long and cumbersome procedure. A versatile technique that is capable of determining many metabolites in one analysis could be helpful in improving routine quality control. For this purpose, an ion chromatographic technique, such as ion exclusion, for separation, and diode array spectrophotometry and conductivity, for detection, were evaluated. Both different industrial samples and inoculated samples were analyzed. PMID:9203364
Trifirò, A; Saccani, G; Gherardi, S; Vicini, E; Spotti, E; Previdi, M P; Ndagijimana, M; Cavalli, S; Reschiotto, C
With SGF Profiling™ we introduce an NMR-based screening method for the quality control of fruitjuices. This method has been developed in a joint effort by Bruker BioSpin GmbH and SGF International e.V. The system is fully automated with respect to sample transfer, measurement, data analysis and reporting and is set up on an Avance 400 MHz flow-injection NMR spectrometer. For each fruitjuice a multitude of parameters related to quality and authenticity are evaluated simultaneously from a single data set acquired within a few minutes. This multimarker/multi-aspect NMR screening approach features low cost-per-sample and is highly competitive with conventional and targeted fruitjuice quality control methods.
|The impact of goal attainment in a dietary change program to increase fruit, 100% juice, and vegetable consumption was assessed among fourth-grade students. At each session, the students were given goals related to increasing fruit, juice, and vegetable consumption. Baseline consumption and postconsumption were assessed with up to 4 days of…
...beverage the appearance and taste of containing a fruit or...beverage the appearance and taste of containing a fruit or vegetable juice...sweet 20.0 Cherry, red, sour 14.0 Crabapple 15...contains a juice whose color, taste, or other...
...beverage the appearance and taste of containing a fruit or...beverage the appearance and taste of containing a fruit or vegetable juice...sweet 20.0 Cherry, red, sour 14.0 Crabapple 15...contains a juice whose color, taste, or other...
While it is widely accepted that fruit and vegetables (F&V) lower the risk of cancer, and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the role of pure fruit and vegetable (PFV) juices is often downplayed. This review poses two questions: Are the protective benefits of F&V dependent upon constituents lacking in PFV juices (e.g. fibre)? Do PFV juices impact on disease risk when considered
Carrie H. S. Ruxton; Elaine J. Gardner; Drew Walker
Beverages especially mineral waters are considered as one of the best nutritional sources of silicon. The aim of this work was to determine the silicon content in bottled mineral and spring waters, as well as in orange, apple, grapefruit and mixed fruitjuices available on the market. The electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) was used for the silicon determination. The silicon levels in mineral waters ranged from 3.33 - 30.05 mg Si/dm3, in spring waters ranged from 3.66- 11.23 mg/dm3, and in fruitjuices ranged from 0.21- 1.93 mg/100g. PMID:22171519
An experimental investigation of electric field assisted clarification of synthetic juice (a mixture of pectin and sucrose) and mosambi (Citrus Sinensis (L.) Osbeck) juice using a 30kDa molecular weight cut-off membrane in cross-flow ultrafiltration mode under laminar flow regime is reported herein. Electric field is applied in both continuous as well as pulse mode. Application of d.c. electric field has
Context Dietary guidance for children emphasizes fruit over fruitjuices but little is known about the potential nutritional and economic impact of substituting fruit for juice. Objective To estimate the nutritional and economic effects of substituting whole fruit for juice in the diets of children in the US. Design Secondary analyses using the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and a national food price database. Energy, nutrient intakes and diet cost were estimated before and after fruitjuices were completely replaced with fruit in three models that emphasized fruits that were fresh, low-cost, and widely-consumed and a fourth model that partially replaced juice with fruit, capping juice at recommended levels. Setting A nationwide, representative sample of children in the US. Participants 7,023 children ages 3-18. Main Outcome Measures Difference in energy, nutrient intakes and diet cost between observed and modeled diets. Results For children who consumed juice, replacement of all juice servings with fresh, whole fruit led to a projected reduction in dietary energy of 233 kJ/day (?2.6% [95% CI ?5.1, ?0.1%]), an increase in fiber of 4.3 grams/day (+31.1% [95% CI 26.4, 35.9%]) and an increase in diet cost of $0.54/day (+13.3% [95% CI 8.8, 17.8%]). Conclusions Substitution of juice with fresh fruit has the potential to reduce energy intake and improve the adequacy of fiber intake in children’s diets. This would likely increase costs for schools, childcare providers and families. Cost impacts could be minimized by selecting processed fruits but fewer nutritional gains would be achieved.
Cherry laurel fruit and its concentrated juice (pekmez) were examined for their antioxidant activities using different free-radical scavenging activity tests [hydrogen peroxide, superoxide radical, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical], together with reducing power and inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. On a fresh weight basis, pekmez exhibited a significantly (P<0.01) higher antioxidant activity than that of cherry laurel fruit
Viburnum opulus L., belonging to the plant family of Caprifoliaceae, is known as “gilaburu” in Turkey and “Guelder rose” in Europe. Fruits and fruitjuice of V. opulus began to be sold in the markets of Turkey recently. Due to the lack of information in the literature, major organic acids, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC),
Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed for simultaneous analysis of the effects of enzymatic treatment conditions of incubation time, incubation temperature and enzyme concentration on physical characteristics such as turbidity, clarity, viscosity, and color. In this study, a two-factor central composite design was used to establish the optimum conditions for the enzymatic treatment for clarification of carambola fruitjuice. Carambola
A. G. Liew Abdullah; N. M. Sulaiman; M. K. Aroua; M. J. Megat Mohd Noor
Including children in food preparation activities has long been recommended as a method to encourage children's consumption, but has not been evaluated. Goal setting is also a common component of behavior change programs. This study assessed the impact of attaining goals to prepare fruit-juice or ve...
A novel electroanalytical procedure for detecting the paraquat herbicide in natural water and citric fruitjuice samples using gold microelectrodes and square wave voltammetry at high frequencies is proposed. The results obtained showed two reversible peaks for the reduction of paraquat, the first peak associated with the reduction of the paraquat molecule in solution, with subsequent adsorption of the intermediate
The objectives of this intervention were to determine whether middle school student consumption of fruit, juice, and vegetables (FJV) during school lunch would be increased by: 1) increasing FJV availability and accessibility in the middle school school lunch snack bar/a la carte line; and 2) combin...
The effects of homogenisation, stabiliser (Mexpectin) and amylase individually and in two-factor combinations on the mean cloudiness during storage of sweetened, pasteurised passion fruitjuice were investigated. Addition of stabiliser alone (?0.3%) or in combination with amylase gave higher cloudiness than that of the control sample. Cloudiness increased with increase in stabiliser level. Homogenisation and addition of amylase, individually or
A method using capillary isotachophoresis (ITP) was developed and applied for the determination of the anionic profile of orange juices with the aim to obtain some useful information on the authenticity or adulteration of imported and native beverage products. An EA 100 electrophoretic analyser (Villa-LABECO, Slovak Republic) was used for capillary isotachophoretic determination of anions in tested samples. More systems
The cashew apple is native to Brazil, but there is insufficient information regarding the nutritional properties of this fruit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of high pressure processing (HPP) at room temperature (25 °C) on phenolic compound and ascorbic acid contents and antioxidant capacity of cashew apple juice. This study showed that HPP at 250 or
C. Queiroz; C. F. F. Moreira; F. C. Lavinas; M. L. M. Lopes; E. Fialho; V. L. Valente-Mesquita
Background: Ellagic acid (EA) and hydrolyzable ellagitannins (ETs) are dietary polyphenols found in fruits and nuts and implicated with potent antioxidant, anticancer and antiatherosclerotic biological properties. Unfortunately, there are no reports on the bioavailability studies of EA or ETs in the human body. We conducted in vivo studies whereby a human subject consumed pomegranate juice (PJ) (180 ml) containing EA
Background: Ellagic acid (EA) and hydrolyzable ellagitannins (ETs) are dietary polyphenols found in fruits and nuts and implicated with potent antioxidant, anticancer and antiatherosclerotic biological properties. Unfortunately, there are no reports on the bioavailability studies of EA or ETs in the human body. We conducted in vivo studies whereby a human subject consumed pomegranate juice (PJ) (180 ml) containing EA
The study presents a comparison of some nutritional values of juices made from organic and conventional apple, pear, blackcurrant, carrot, beetroot and celery. Higher soluble solids content (SSC) for organic juices than for conventional ones was recorded for blackcurrant (14.9% and 12.5%, respectively) and beetroot (12.3% versus 8.3%). The highest organic acids content was noted for blackcurrant (3.7 g malic acid
Conclusion Judging from some observations made in vitro it seems probable that one need not worry about giving orange juice to patients\\u000a who have peptic ulcer. If the orange juice should remain in the stomach long enough to have any effect on the acidity of the\\u000a gastric content, this effect almost certainly would have to be a lowering one because orange
Charles Dimmler; Marschelle H. Power; Walter C. Alvarez
We have characterized a novel small heat shock protein gene, viscosity 1 (vis1) from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and provide evidence that it plays a role in pectin depolymerization and juice viscosity in ripening fruits. Expression of vis1 is negatively associated with juice viscosity in diverse tomato genotypes. vis1 exhibits DNA polymorphism among tomato genotypes, and the alleles vis1-hta (high-transcript accumulator; accession no. AY128101) and vis1-lta (low transcript accumulator; accession no. AY128102) are associated with thinner and thicker juice, respectively. Segregation of tomato lines heterogeneous for vis1 alleles indicates that vis1 influences pectin depolymerization and juice viscosity in ripening fruits. vis1 is regulated by fruit ripening and high temperature and exhibits a typical heat shock protein chaperone function when expressed in bacterial cells. We propose that VIS1 contributes to physiochemical properties of juice, including pectin depolymerization, by reducing thermal denaturation of depolymerizing enzymes during daytime elevated temperatures.
Ramakrishna, Wusirika; Deng, Zhiping; Ding, Chang-Kui; Handa, Avtar K.; Ozminkowski, Richard H.
Lactobacillus delbrueckii was grown on sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice in batch fermentation at pH 6 and at 40 degrees C. After 72 h, the lactic acid from 13% (w/v) sugarcane molasses (119 g total sugar l(-1)) and sugarcane juice (133 g total sugar l(-1)) was 107 g l(-1) and 120 g l(-1), respectively. With 10% (w/v) sugar beet juice (105 g total sugar l(-1)), 84 g lactic acid l(-1) was produced. The optical purities of D: -lactic acid from the feedstocks ranged from 97.2 to 98.3%. PMID:17541505
Psychosocial and demographic correlates of fruit, juice, and vegetable (FJV) consumption were investigated to guide how to increase FJV intake. Experimental design consisted of hierarchical multiple regression analysis of FJV consumption on demographics and psychosocial variables. Subjects were boys...
Pasteurisation of fruitjuices is normally carried out by thermal means. Heat treatment is an efficient technology for pasteurisation,\\u000a but may also cause impairment of nutritive and sensory attributes. High-voltage pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment is a\\u000a promising non-thermal processing method for pasteurisation of liquid foods. Sensory quality of fruitjuices is important for\\u000a consumers. PEF lends itself to be
The antioxidant activity (free radical scavenging ability and lipid oxidation inhibitory activity) and the activity in cell\\u000a culture [influence on HT-29 human colon cancer cell viability and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) activation] of natural fruit\\u000a juices from red grape, strawberry, cherry and sour cherry were investigated in vitro. Analysis of polyphenolic composition\\u000a of fruitjuices showed the dominant presence
Tea Kulisic-Bilusic; Kerstin Schnäbele; Ingrid Schmöller; Verica Dragovic-Uzelac; Anita Krisko; Branka Dejanovic; Mladen Milos; Greta Pifat
Ascorbic acid degradation kinetics of sonicated orange juice during storage were determined and compared to thermally pasteurised samples. Acoustic energy densities (AED) ranging from 0.30 to 0.81W\\/mL and treatment times of 2–10min were investigated. The degradation kinetics of sonicated samples followed first-order kinetics (R2?0.91) during processing. During storage ascorbic acid degradation of sonicated samples followed the Weibull model (R2?0.97) with
B. K. Tiwari; C. P. O' Donnell; K. Muthukumarappan; P. J. Cullen
Normalization of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress is an important objective in preventing diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction. The present study investigated the effects of the fruitjuice obtained from Emblica officinalis on myocardial dysfunction in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ), and the rats were treated with E officinalis fruitjuice for eight weeks. Injection of STZ produced loss of body weight, polydypsia, polyphagia, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and dyslipidemia. It also produced hypertension, bradycardia, hypertrophy and myocardial functional alterations associated with an increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase-MB levels. Treatment with the fruitjuice not only prevented STZ-induced loss of body weight, increases in water and food intake, increases in serum glucose levels and disturbed lipid profile, but also an increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase-MB levels, and increased myocardial hypertrophy and cardiomyopathy. There was an increase in the area under the curve (AUC) for glucose, and a decrease in AUCinsulin was observed in diabetic rats; treatment decreased AUCglucose but not AUCinsulin or hyperinsulinemia. There was a decrease in antioxidant enzyme levels (in superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase) in diabetic hearts, which could be improved by treatment with fruitjuice. The present data suggest that fruitjuice may be beneficial for the treatment of myocardial damage associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The activity of E officinalis fruitjuice can be attributed to the concentration of polyphenol present.
Normalization of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress is an important objective in preventing diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction. The present study investigated the effects of the fruitjuice obtained from Emblica officinalis on myocardial dysfunction in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ), and the rats were treated with E officinalis fruitjuice for eight weeks. Injection of STZ produced loss of body weight, polydypsia, polyphagia, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and dyslipidemia. It also produced hypertension, bradycardia, hypertrophy and myocardial functional alterations associated with an increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase-MB levels. Treatment with the fruitjuice not only prevented STZ-induced loss of body weight, increases in water and food intake, increases in serum glucose levels and disturbed lipid profile, but also an increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase-MB levels, and increased myocardial hypertrophy and cardiomyopathy. There was an increase in the area under the curve (AUC) for glucose, and a decrease in AUC(insulin) was observed in diabetic rats; treatment decreased AUC(glucose) but not AUC(insulin) or hyperinsulinemia. There was a decrease in antioxidant enzyme levels (in superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase) in diabetic hearts, which could be improved by treatment with fruitjuice. The present data suggest that fruitjuice may be beneficial for the treatment of myocardial damage associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The activity of E officinalis fruitjuice can be attributed to the concentration of polyphenol present. PMID:22065939
Potato fruitjuice as a by-product of the starch industry contains proteins with interesting functionalities such as protease inhibitors or patatin with its high nutritional value. Due to their functional properties, these proteins are principally of industrial interest. A drawback for the application of these potato proteins is the separation and isolation under maintenance of the biological activity. So far, there are no methods in literature, which are satisfying concerning the costs or the separation performance. In this study, we show a chromatographic approach using natural clay minerals as cation exchangers to separate two protein fractions in potato fruitjuice. Additionally, the content of glycoalkaloids naturally occurring in potatoes is significantly reduced in a single step together with the separation of the patatins and the protease inhibitors. PMID:22761137
The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of Alicyclobacillus spp. in fruit\\/vegetable juices (concentrated pulps and clarified and non-clarified juices) marketed in Argentina between 1996 and 2009.The presence of Alicyclobacillus was determined in a total of 8556 samples of fruit and vegetable juices (apple, pear, grape, peach, blend of juices, tangerine, pineapple, orange, mango, plum, guava, apricot,
Juan Martìn Oteiza; Gastón Ares; Anderson S. Sant'Ana; Silvina Soto; Leda Giannuzzi
This study presents a structural factor analysis approach to measure the impact of advertising on consumer demand. It is assumed that advertising affects the latent perception of consumers, which in turn influences their purchasing behavior. This study investigates the relationship between consumer purchases and retail store advertising (i.e., newspaper advertising, in-store display, and point-of-purchase display) of three fruitjuices using
A new method for the fast determination of isoflavones from soy beverages blended with fruitjuices without the need of freeze-drying the sample was developed. During the method development, several parameters were studied: solvent (methanol and ethanol), sample:solvent ratio (5:1 to 0.2:1), temperature (10–60°C) and extraction time (5–30min). The most important parameter for the extraction of isoflavones from soy drinks
Mauricio A. Rostagno; Miguel Palma; Carmelo G. Barroso
High-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) treatment is a nonthermal technology that has been studied in the last few years as an alternative to heat treatments. It consists of applying pulses of high electric field (kV\\/cm) during a short time (?sec or msec) at low or moderate temperature.Because of their properties, fruitjuices are appropriate products to be processed by HIPEF.
Alexandre Espachs-Barroso; Gustavo V. Barbosa-Cánovas; Olga Martín-Belloso
The authors investigated the relation between children's pulmonary function and intake of fruits, vegetables, juices, and vitamins A, C, and E by examining cross-sectional data from 2,566 children in the Children's Health Study collected during 1997-1998. Low total vitamin C intake (?10th percentile) was associated with deficits in forced vital capacity for both boys and girls and with deficits in
Frank D. Gilliland; Kiros T. Berhane; Yu-Fen Li; W. James Gauderman; Rob McConnell; John Peters
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that oxidative damage,caused by the,-amyloid peptide in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease may be hydrogen peroxide mediated. Many polyphenols, the most abundant dietary antioxidants, possess stronger neuroprotection against hydrogen peroxide than antioxi- dant vitamins. METHODS: We tested whether consumption of fruit and vegetable juices, containing a high concentra- tion of polyphenols, decreases the risk of
Qi Dai; Amy R. Borenstein; Yougui Wu; James C. Jackson; Eric B. Larson
Absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are two fundamental optical properties for turbid biological materials. This paper presents the technique and method of using hyperspectral diffuse reflectance for fast determination of the optical properties of fruit and vegetable juices and milks. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance over the spectral region between 530 and 900 nm from a variety of fruit and vegetable juices (citrus, grapefruit, orange, and vegetable) and milks with different fat levels (full, skim and mixed). The system collected diffuse reflectance in the source-detector separation range from 1.1 to 10.0 mm. The hyperspectral reflectance data were analyzed by using a diffusion theory model for semi-infinite homogeneous media. The absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the fruit and vegetable juices and milks were extracted by inverse algorithms from the scattering profiles for wavelengths of 530-900 nm. Values of the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient at 650 nm were highly correlated to the fat content of the milk samples with the correlation coefficient of 0.990 and 0.989, respectively. The hyperspectral imaging technique can be extended to the measurement of other liquid and solid foods in which light scattering is dominant.
Tetraconazole is currently used as a fungicide in fruit and vegetables. The aim of this work was the development of immunochemical techniques based on recombinant antibodies for the screening of tetraconazole residues in fruitjuices. Recombinant antibodies were produced from a hybridoma cell line secreting a monoclonal antibody specific for tetraconazole and from lymphocytes of mice hyperimmunised with tetraconazole haptens conjugated to bovine serum albumin. From these antibodies, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in the conjugate-coated format were developed, which were able to detect tetraconazole standards down to 1ng/mL. From recovery studies with spiked samples, these immunoassays determined tetraconazole in orange and apple juices with acceptable reproducibility (coefficients of variation below 25%) and recoveries (ranging from 78% to 145%) for a screening technique. The analytical performance of RAb-based immunoassays was fairly similar to that of the MAb-based immunoassays. Due to their simplicity and high sample throughput, the developed recombinant-based immunoassays can be valuable analytical tools for the screening of tetraconazole residues in fruitjuices at regulatory levels. PMID:24054232
Plana, Emma; Moreno, Maria-José; Montoya, Angel; Manclús, Juan J
Clarity of fruitjuices is desirable to maintain an aesthetically pleasing quality and international standards. The most commonly used enzymes in juice industries are pectinases. A partially-purified pectinmethylesterase from tomato was entrapped in calcium alginate beads and used for juice clarification. The activity yield was maximum at 1 % (w/v) CaCl2 and 2.5 % (w/v) alginate. The immobilized enzyme retained ~55 % of its initial activity (5.7 × 10(-2) units) after more than ten successive batch reactions. The Km, pH and temperature optima were increased after immobilization. The most effective clarification of fruitjuice (%T620 ~60 %) by the immobilized enzyme was at 4 °C with a holding time of 20 min. The viscosity dropped by 56 % and the filterability increased by 260 %. The juice remains clear after 2 months of storage at 4 °C. PMID:23881317
The effects of high intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) (35kV\\/cm with 4?s bipolar pulses at 200Hz for 800 or 1400?s) or thermal (90°C, 60s) treatments over phenolic and carotenoid compounds of a fruitjuice–soymilk (FJ–SM) beverage stored at 4°C were evaluated and compared, having the untreated beverage as a reference. Coumaric acid, narirutin and hesperidin were the most abundant phenolic
M. Morales-de la Peña; L. Salvia-Trujillo; M. A. Rojas-Graü; O. Martín-Belloso
The in vitro erosive capacity of different fruitjuices and soft or low alcoholic strength beverages (n = 50) on human teeth was examined. The end-point was the amount of calcium and phosphate released into the medium following incubation with the test substance. Overall, the erosive capacity rose as the pH of the products fell. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the dissolving effect and pH or the modulating action in the presence of acids (r = -0.69282 and -0.63708 respectively; p = 0.0000). Conversely, there was no association between erosive capacity and concentrations of calcium, phosphate or fluoride. Considered overall, sport drinks exhibited the greatest demineralizing effect. Beer had the lowest dissolving action. Most of the drinks manufactured with grapefruit, lime or lemon/lime proved to be more erosive than those prepared with apple or peach. Susceptibility to erosion was virtually the same for all types of teeth and dental surfaces. The cervical portion which harbours the anatomical neck underwent dissolution more readily than the coronary portion (p < 0.001). The erosive capacity of the fruitjuices and beverages tested is related to their pH. However, a strict relation between free H+ and demineralizing action was not found, probably due to the influence of other factors not considered in the present study. PMID:11885455
Lissera, R G; Luna Maldonado, E R; Battellino, L J
Lactobacillus delbrueckii was grown on sugarcane molasses, sugarcane juice and sugar beet juice in batch fermentation at pH 6 and at 40?C. After 72 h,\\u000a the lactic acid from 13% (w\\/v) sugarcane molasses (119 g total sugar l?1) and sugarcane juice (133 g total sugar l?1) was 107 g l?1 and 120 g l?1, respectively. With 10% (w\\/v) sugar beet juice (105 g total sugar l?1), 84 g lactic
In this research, production of probiotic pomegranate juice through its fermentation by four strains of lactic acid bacteria:\\u000a Lactobacillus plantarum, L. delbruekii, L. paracasei, L. acidophilus was examined. Fermentation was carried out at 30°C for 72 h under microaerophilic conditions. Microbial population, pH, titrable\\u000a acidity, sugar and organic acid metabolism were measured during the fermentation period and the viability of all
Z. E. Mousavi; S. M. Mousavi; S. H. Razavi; Z. Emam-Djomeh; H. Kiani
The daily consumption of fruits and vegetables is a common dietary recommendation to support good health. We hypothesized that a commercially available encapsulated fruit and vegetable juice powder concentrate (FVJC) could support functional indices of health due to increased intake of various phytonutrients. This was a double-blind, ran- domized, placebo-controlled investigation of 59 healthy law students who consumed either FVJC
Meri P. Nantz; Cheryl A. Rowe; Carmelo Nieves; Susan S. Percival
Schizandra chinensis Baillon, or omija, is a fruit native to northeast Asia that is cultivated in South Korea and China. Fresh omija fruit has been used in beverages, traditional East Asian medicine and cosmetics because of its complex flavor and pharmacological effectiveness. The objective of this study was to analyze residue levels of 33 kinds of pesticides on fresh omija fruits and in omija juices produced in South Korea. A risk assessment of the pesticides in omija juice was conducted by calculating EDI and ADI. Most of the pesticide levels were below the LOD in fresh omija fruits. Among the detected compounds, the most frequently detected pesticide was ethoprophos. The EDIs of ethoprophos, pendimethalin and hexaconazole were 5.89E-03, 7.08E-04 and 4.73E-05, respectively. The percent of EDI to ADI of ethoprophos, pendimethalin and hexaconazole was 28.0%, 13.6% and 4.5%, respectively. The results of this research concluded that the detected pesticides are not harmful to human beings. PMID:22079148
This work was focused on the analysis of the change of the free amino acid (AA) composition of peach juice concentrate (PJC) as a result of Maillard reactions, which damage the product quality. In particular, the effect of the storage at 15, 30 and 37°C over 6 weeks was investigated, since these are the conditions likely to be found in
Conclusions \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a We have shown that a test meal of orange juice stimulates a high free gastric acidity which reaches its acme one hour following\\u000a ingestion.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a We have shown that orange juice remains in the stomach on an average of one hour and forty-five minutes following its ingestion.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a We do not yet know what would happen to gastric
Frank W. Claytor; William L. Smith; Edward L. Turner
Apples from Michigan, Washington, Argentina, Mexico, and New Zealand were processed into juice; the 8 samples included Golden Delicious, Jonathan, Granny Smith, and McIntosh varieties. Liquid chromatography was used for quantitation of sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol), nonvolatile acids (malic, quinic, citric, shikimic, and fumaric), and phenolics (chlorogenic acid and hydroxymethylfurfural [HMF]). Other determinations included pH, 0Brix, and L-malic acid. A number of compositional indices for these authentic juices, e.g., chlorogenic acid content, total malic - L-malic difference, and the HMF:chlorogenic ratio, were at variance with recommended standards. The phenolic profile was shown to be particularly influenced by gelatin fining, with peak areas decreasing by as much as 50%. The L-malic:total malic ratio serves as a better index for presence of synthetic malic acid than does the difference between the 2 determinations. No apparent differences in chemical composition could be attributed to geographic origin. PMID:3417603
The aim of the work was to study the survival of Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 in model solutions and develop a mathematical model describing its dependence on pH, citric acid and ascorbic acid. A Central Composite Design (CCD) was developed studying each of the three factors at five levels within the following ranges, i.e., pH (3.0–4.2), citric acid (6–40g\\/L), and
... Recommendations on Fresh Juice National Advisory Committee on Microbiological ... and Growth Of Human Pathogens within Fruits and Vegetables; ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/haccp
Using a plaque reduction assay, treatment of human influenza A viruses with the fruit-juice concentrate of Japanese plum (Prunus mume SIEB. et ZUCC) showed strong in vitro anti-influenza activity against human influenza A viruses before viral adsorption, but not after viral adsorption, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus, A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2) virus and A/Memphis/1/71 (H3N2) virus of 6.35+/-0.17, 2.84+/-1.98 and 0.53+/-0.10 microg/ml, respectively. The plum-juice concentrate exhibited hemagglutination activity toward guinea pig erythrocytes. Its hemagglutination activity was inhibited by the monosaccharide N-acetylneuraminic acid and a sialoglycoprotein (fetuin), but not by the other tested monosaccharides (mannose, galactose, glucose and N-acetylglucosamine), suggesting the presence of a lectin-like molecule(s) in the Japanese plum-juice concentrate. Our findings suggest that the fruit-juice concentrate of Japanese plum may prevent and reduce infection with human influenza A virus, possibly via inhibition of viral hemagglutinin attachment to host cell surfaces by its lectin-like activity. PMID:18310920
Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an agonist of the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR35, which is predominantly expressed in gastrointestinal tissues. The aim of this study was to determine the content of KYNA in gastric juice, bile and pancreatic juice and intestinal content. KYNA was determined by means of high performance liquid chromatography. The mean concentrations of KYNA in human gastric juice is 9.91 +/- 0.71 nM in contrast to human bile (832.5 +/- 204.1 and 306.8 +/- 35.2 nM) obtained from patients with cholecystolithiasis and obstructive jaundice, respectively. In pigs, the KYNA levels in bile and pancreatic juice are 1,113.3 +/- 63.34 and 757.0 +/- 394.4 nM, respectively. The KYNA concentration increases along the digestive system, reaching 1,638 nM in the colon content. We suggest that the liver and pancreas affect the content of kynurenic acid in the lumen of the digestive tract. PMID:18836681
Paluszkiewicz, Piotr; Zgrajka, Wojciech; Saran, Tomasz; Schabowski, Janusz; Piedra, Jose L Valverde; Fedkiv, Olexandr; Rengman, Sofia; Pierzynowski, Stefan G; Turski, Waldemar A
Organically and integrated produced orange (Citrus sinensis (l.) Osbeck cv. Salustiana) fruits were assayed in terms of fruit characteristics and juice phytochemicals over a period of two years. Fruit size and juice volume were higher under organic farming system. There were not any significant differences concerning either the carbohydrates’ or organic acids’ concentrations of the juice. Similar results were obtained
Blood orange juice samples with two different levels of ascorbic acid content were placed in HDPE plastic bottles, pasteurized, and stored at 4.5 °C. The influence of ascorbic acid retention on color stability of blood orange juice was investigated using CIE L*a*b*, hue, chroma, polymeric color, and browning index during the storage period. Changes in monomeric anthocyanin pigments, total carotenoid contents,
Thirteen anthocyanins were identified in the purple-fleshed sweet potato cultivar Jihei No. 1. The main anthocyanins were 3-sophoroside-5-glucoside derivatives from cyanidin and peonidin, acylated with p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, or caffeic acid. A unique anthocyanin, delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside was also found. The thermal stability of purple-fleshed sweet potato anthocyanins (PSPAs) followed a first-order kinetics model. Aqueous solutions with various pH (2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) and fruitjuices (apple, pear, grapefruit, orange, tangerine, kiwifruit, and lemon) were coloured with PSPAs. The enrichment and degradation kinetics of anthocyanins in these matrices were investigated at 80, 90, and 100°C. A higher stability of anthocyanins was obtained in aqueous solutions with pH 3 and 4 and in apple and pear juices. Moreover, the activation energies for PSPA degradation in aqueous solutions with various pH and fruitjuices ranged from 66.56 kJ/mol to 111.57 kJ/mol and 46.76 kJ/mol to 75.68 kJ/mol, respectively. PMID:23194545
A standard curve for the quantification of L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was established, and the quantification of ascorbic acid and total ascorbic acid in fruits (lemon, Sunkist, and pineapple) and spinach were performed using D-isoascorbic acid (D-IAA) as an internal standard. The minimum detection limits (MDLs) for L-AA and D-IAA were determined to be 1 and 2 microg/mL, respectively, at 265 nm. Dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA) in fruits and spinach was quantified in the presence of DL-homocysteine. The recoveries for L-AA in these juices were between 95 and 105%. PMID:11386660
Liao, T; Jiang, C M; Wu, M C; Hwang, J Y; Chang, H M
The physico-chemical properties of some tropical fruits (pineapple, orange, grape, mango and lemon) were analyzed and compared\\u000a with those of cashew apple. Cashew apple juice was found to contain the highest amount of vitamin C (203.5?mg\\/100?ml) of edible\\u000a portion. Orange, grape, pineapple, mango and lemon contained average values of 54.7?mg, 45.0?mg, 14.70?mg, 30.9?mg and 33.7?mg\\u000a vitamin C per 100?ml of
The antioxidant activity of some commercially available fruit and vegetable juices was evaluated with regard to their radical\\u000a scavenging activity against the stable free radical 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-l-piperidinyloxy (TEMPOL) monitored by electron\\u000a paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. TEMPOL is a stable nitroxide free radical characterized by a well-defined EPR spectrum\\u000a consisting of three peaks. The integral intensity of the EPR spectra of TEMPOL
Evaggelia D. Tzika; Vassiliki Papadimitriou; Theodore G. Sotiroudis; Aristotelis Xenakis
A single strand hollow fiber membrane (SSHFM) was developed for the on-line sample preparation for the flow based colorimetric determination of free iron levels in fruitjuices. The SSHFM, as used, could separate Fe2+ from some spectrophotometric interfering agents in the fruitjuice, such as pigments, solid suspensions and polysaccharides. The screening process was likely to have been primarily based
Aim: Present study was undertaken for detection, isolation, characterization of the possible sources of faecal coliforms in street vended fresh fruitjuices sold along the road sides of Bellary city, India and assessed its safety for human consumption. Materials and Methods: The samples of orange fruitjuices were collected from the four different public hot spot areas of the city
Uma Reddy B; Chandrakanth N; Indu Priya S; Venkata Nagalakshmi R; Usha K. B; B UMA REDDY
Fruit and vegetable consumption has been inversely associated with the risk of chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular disease, with the beneficial effects attributed to a variety of protective antioxidants, carote- noids and phytonutrients. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of supplementation with dehydrated concentrates from mixed fruit and vegetable juices (Juice Plus+®) on serum
Akira Kawashima; Takeo Madarame; Hiroto Koike; Yasuhiro Komatsu; John A Wise
The report on processing and marketing of tropical fruitjuice concentrate in Jamaica covers: (1) project background; (2) present processing sector for fruit; supply and raw material; (3) market; financial aspects; (4) international market for tropical pu...
...concentrated orange juice is the food that...frozen concentrated orange juice by Â§ 146.146...used to reduce the acidity of the food so...per 100 grams of juice is not less than...frozen concentrated orange juiceâ....
...concentrated orange juice is the food that...frozen concentrated orange juice by Â§ 146.146...used to reduce the acidity of the food so...per 100 grams of juice is not less than...frozen concentrated orange juiceâ....
...concentrated orange juice is the food that...frozen concentrated orange juice by Â§ 146.146...used to reduce the acidity of the food so...per 100 grams of juice is not less than...frozen concentrated orange juiceâ....
A total of 250 samples-including fruits, fruitjuices, and baby foods (50 samples each), vegetables (70 samples), and cereals (30 samples)-were collected from Lucknow, India, and analyzed for the presence of imidacloprid residues. The QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method of extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis were carried out, and imidacloprid residues were qualitatively confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Imidacloprid was not detected in samples of fruitjuices and baby foods. It was, however, detected in 38 samples of fruits, vegetables, and cereals, which is about 15.20% of the total samples. Of samples of fruits, 22% showed the presence of imidacloprid, and 2% of samples showed residues above the maximal residue limit. Although imidacloprid was detected in 24% of vegetable samples, only 5.71% showed the presence of imidacloprid above the maximal residue limit. However, 33% of cereal samples showed the presence of imidacloprid, and about 3% of samples were above the maximal residue limit. The calculated estimated daily intake ranged between 0.004 and 0.131?µg/kg body weight, and the hazard indices ranged from 0.007 to 0.218 for these food commodities. It is therefore indicated that lifetime consumption of vegetables, fruits, fruitjuices, baby foods, wheat, rice, and pulses may not pose a health hazard for the population of Lucknow because the hazard indices for imidacloprid residues were below one. PMID:23258764
Kapoor, Upasana; Srivastava, M K; Srivastava, Ashutosh Kumar; Patel, D K; Garg, Veena; Srivastava, L P
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on monoclonal antibodies for the detection of triazole fungicides have been developed. With this aim, hapten-protein conjugates, containing the common triazole and chlorinated aromatic moieties, were prepared. From mice immunized with these conjugates, several monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with the ability to sensitively bind several triazoles with different specificity were obtained. Both analyte- and class-specific ELISAs were developed. The hexaconazole-specific immunoassay can determine this fungicide with a limit of detection of 0.3 mug/L in standard buffer. The so-called triazole-specific immunoassay allowed for the detection of tetraconazole, penconazole, cyproconazole, and myclobutanil, with limits of detection in the 0.1-0.7 mug/L range. These immunoassays were applied to the determination of triazoles in spiked fruitjuices. Samples were adequately diluted to minimize the matrix effects. Coefficients of variation were below 30%, and recoveries ranged from 62 to 135%. Therefore, the developed immunoassays can determine triazole fungicides in fruitjuices down to the maximum residue limits currently legislated, without any sample treatment other than dilution. PMID:18783243
Manclús, Juan J; Moreno, María J; Plana, Emma; Montoya, Angel
A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunoassay for on-line detection of the strobilurin fungicide pyraclostrobin in untreated fruitjuices is presented. The analysis of pyraclostrobin residues is accomplished in apple, grape, and cranberry samples by monitoring the recognition events occurring separately in a two-channel home-made SPR biosensor. Covalent coupling of the analyte derivative results in a reversible method, enabling more than 80 measurements on the same sensor surface. Optimization of the immunoassay conditions provides limits of detection as low as 0.16 ?g L(-1). The selectivity and reproducibility of the analysis is ensured by studying both non-specific interactions with unrelated compounds and inter-assay coefficients of variation. Excellent recovery ranging from 98 to 103% was achieved by a simple 1:5 dilution of fruitjuice with assay buffer before the analysis. The lack of previous cleaning and homogenization procedures reduces the analysis time of a single food sample to only 25 min, including the regeneration cycle. PMID:22918534
Mauriz, E; García-Fernández, C; Mercader, J V; Abad-Fuentes, A; Escuela, A M; Lechuga, L M
The sour taste of lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) is determined by the amount of citric acid in vacuoles of juice sac cells. Faris is a “sweet” lemon variety since\\u000a it accumulates low levels of citric acid. The University of California Riverside Citrus Variety Collection includes a Faris\\u000a tree that produces sweet (Faris non-acid; FNA) and sour fruit (Faris acid;
Alessio Aprile; Claire Federici; Timothy J. Close; Luigi De Bellis; Luigi Cattivelli; Mikeal L. Roose
Fruitjuice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni juice) is a well-known health drink and has various pharmacological properties including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We have hitherto found the protective effect of Noni juice on brain damage caused by ischemic stress in mice. In addition, we also recently reported that regulation of post-ischemic glucose intolerance might be important for good prognosis. Here, we focused on the effect of Noni juice on the development of the post-ischemic glucose intolerance as a cerebral protective mechanism. Noni juice was obtained from the mature fruit grown in Okinawa (about 1.5 L/4 kg of fruit; 100% ONJ). Male ddY mice were given 10% ONJ in drinking water for 7 days. Then, mice were subjected to 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Ingestion of 10% ONJ suppressed the development of neuronal damage after MCAO. Interestingly, glucose intolerance observed on the 1st day after MCAO completely disappeared after 10% ONJ administration. Furthermore, ONJ treatment significantly increased serum insulin levels much further than the control group on the 1st day, while serum adiponectin levels were not affected at all. These results suggest that ONJ could facilitate insulin secretion after ischemic stress and may attenuate the development of glucose intolerance. These mechanisms may contribute to the neuronal protective effect of ONJ against ischemic stress. PMID:20574728
Fruitjuices each have very distinct organic acids profiles that can be used as fingerprints for establishing authenticity. A method has been developed, optimised and validated for measuring by capillary electrophoresis citric, isocitric, malic and tartaric acids as authenticity markers in orange juices, without any sample treatment other than dilution and filtration. Final conditions were phosphate buffer 200 mM, pH 7.50, -14 kV as applied potential, and 57 cm length neutral capillary. Detection was direct UV at 200 nm. Different kinds and marks of orange juice, chosen from the great variety existent in the market, were analysed and clear differences could be found between them and just pressed orange juice. PMID:10905722
Rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II), a small complex pectic polysaccharide, is released from apple (Malus domestica), carrot (Daucus carota), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) by treatment with two commercial liquefying enzyme preparations. RG-II was isolated by size-exclusion chromatography from apple, tomato, and carrot juices obtained by enzymic liquefaction. All the RG-IIs contained the diagnostic sugars, apiose, 2-O-methyl-l-fucose, 2-O-methyl-d-xylose, aceric acid, Kdo and Dha.
This study evaluates the effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on the acceptance of two unfamiliar açaí fruitjuices that have a low (40% açaí) versus a high (4% açaí) a priori overall liking. Hedonic and sensory measures as well as health- and nutrition-related attribute perceptions and purchase intention were rated before and after health information was presented. Differences in information effects due to interactions with juice type, consumer background attitudes and socio-demographics were investigated. Providing health information yielded a positive, though rather small increase, in overall liking, perceived healthiness and perceived nutritional value of both juices, as well as in their purchase intention. Sensory experiences remained predominant in the acceptance of the fruitjuices, although the health claim had a stronger effect on the perceived healthiness and nutritional value of the least-liked juice. Background attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics influenced consumers' acceptance of both unfamiliar fruitjuices. Health-oriented consumers were more likely to compromise on taste for an eventual health benefit, though they still preferred the best tasting juice. Consumers with a high food neophobia reported a lower liking for both unfamiliar fruitjuices. Older respondents and women were more likely to accept fruitjuices that claim a particular health benefit. PMID:19467277
Sabbe, Sara; Verbeke, Wim; Deliza, Rosires; Matta, Virginia; Van Damme, Patrick
The fruits of Aronia melanocarpa are rich in anthocyanins — plant pigments with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. We studied the effect of the natural fruitjuice from A. melanocarpa (NFJAM) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver damage in rats. Histopathological changes such as necrosis, fatty change, ballooning degeneration and inflammatory infiltration of lymphocytes around the central veins occurred in rats
S. Valcheva-Kuzmanova; P. Borisova; B. Galunska; I. Krasnaliev; A. Belcheva
Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, studies conducted on Hispanic adults are scarce. To determine the association between beverages consumed by Hispanic adults and MetS and its components, data were analyzed in 1872 Costa Rican adults who served as controls of a population-based, case-control study of coronary heart disease. Multivariate-adjusted means were calculated for components of MetS by servings (never, ? 1/wk; 2-6/wk, ? 1/d) of 2 traditional fruit-based beverages ("fresco" and freshly-squeezed homemade fruitjuice, separately) and 2 SSB (instant drinks and regular sodas, separately and combined). The prevalence ratio (PR) of MetS was calculated for each beverage and the OR was calculated by substituting one serving of homemade fruitjuice or water for one of SSB. Significant positive trends were observed for increasing servings of instant drinks with plasma TG and waist circumference and for regular soda with waist circumference (all P-trend < 0.001). Increasing servings of homemade fruitjuice were positively associated with HDL cholesterol (P-trend = 0.033). Consuming ?1 serving/d of instant drinks was associated with a higher PR of MetS [1.42 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.83)] compared with no consumption. Substituting one serving of homemade fruitjuice for instant drink was associated with 29% (95% CI: 7, 47%) lower odds of MetS and for regular soda with 30% (95% CI: 1, 50%) lower odds. Substituting water for combined SSB was marginally significant (OR = 0.86 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.00). In conclusion, reducing the consumption of SSB and substituting them with homemade fruitjuices in moderation may be a culturally appropriate approach to lower MetS among Hispanic adults. PMID:22551801
Mattei, Josiemer; Malik, Vasanti; Hu, Frank B; Campos, Hannia
Concentrated fruitjuice industries use a wide volume of water for washing and fruit processing, generating a large volume of wastewater. This work studied the combination of an aerobic biological process with a chemical coagulation/flocculation step to treat a high concentrated fruitjuice wastewater. This wastewater presents a good biodegradability (BOD(5)/COD = 0.66) allowing a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal above 90% in most reactors. The best results in aerobic biological treatment were obtained in reactors initially loaded with 2 g VSS L(-1) of biomass concentration and 20 g COD L(-1) of organic matter concentration. Three different kinetic models were evaluated (Monod, Haldane and Contois). The Haldane-inhibition model was the one that best fitted the COD biodegradation. AQUASIM software allowed calculate the following kinetic constants ranges for aerobic biodegradation: K (s): 6-20 g COD L(-1); v (max): 2.0-5.1 g COD g(-1) VSS day(-1) and K (i) values: 0.10-0.50 g COD L(-1). These constants corresponds to maximum removal rates (v*) between 0.11 and 0.26 g COD g(-1) VSS day(-1) for substrate concentrations (S*) from 0.77 to 3.16 g COD L(-1). A tertiary coagulation/flocculation process improved the efficiency of the biological pre-treatment. Ferric chloride was selected as best compromise to treat this wastewater. Optimal conditions were 0.44 g L(-1) of coagulant at pH = 5.5, achieving 94.4% and 99.6% on turbidity and COD removal, respectively. PMID:22755528
Amor, Carlos; Lucas, Marco S; Pirra, António J; Peres, José A
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits are widely consumed as juice (PJ). The potent antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic activities of PJ are attributed to its polyphenols including punicalagin, the major fruit ellagitannin, and ellagic acid (EA). Punicalagin is the major antioxidant polyphenol ingredient in PJ. Punicalagin, EA, a standardized total pomegranate tannin (TPT) extract and PJ were evaluated for in vitro antiproliferative,
Navindra P. Seeram; Lynn S. Adams; Susanne M. Henning; Yantao Niu; Yanjun Zhang; Muraleedharan G. Nair; David Heber
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits are widely consumed as juice (PJ). The potent antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic activities of PJ are attributed to its polyphenols including punicalagin, the major fruit ellagitannin, and ellagic acid (EA). Punicalagin is the major antioxidant polyphenol ingredient in PJ. Punicalagin, EA, a standardized total pomegranate tannin (TPT) extract and PJ were evaluated for in vitro antiproliferative,
Navindra P. Seeram; Lynn S. Adams; Susanne M. Henning; Yantao Niu; Muraleedharan G. Nair; David Heber
The safety of an açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp enriched fruit and berry juice, MonaVie Active®, fortified with the functional ingredient, glucosamine, was studied. The beverage was found not to be mutagenic, clastogenic, cytotoxic, or genotoxic, as determined by the bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosomal aberration assay, mouse micronucleus assay, and mammalian cell gene mutation (L5178Y) assay. The single dose
Alexander G. Schauss; Amy Clewell; Lajos Balogh; Ilona Pasics Szakonyi; Istvan Financsek; János Horváth; Julianna Thuroczy; Erzsébet Béres; Adél Vértesi; Gabor Hirka
A method has been developed for the determination of iron, tin and lead in fruitjuices using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. These metals can be determined by direct aspiration of the sample after suitable dilution with water. It is not necessary to treat the sample prior to analysis.
When 21 vitamins including related compounds haemin, chlorophyllin, chlorophyll, biliverdin and bilirubin, as well as juices from five fruits and 25 vegetables and solvent extracts from the residues of fruits and vegetables were tested for their antimutagenic potencies with respect to mutagenicity induced by 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF), 3-nitrofluoranthene (3-NFA) and 1-nitropyrene(1-NP) in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 the following results were obtained. The tetracyclic nitroarenes 3-NFA and 1-NP were in general more effectively antagonized by potent antimutagenic compounds than the tricyclic 2-NF. beta-Carotene, retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, retinol palmitate, riboflavin 5'-phosphate, alpha-tocopherol, vitamins B12, C, K1 and K3 as well as biliverdin, bilirubin, chlorophyll, chlorophyllin and haemin exerted antimutagenicity against the nitroarenes cited previously. All other vitamins were inactive. While part of the juices were inactive, juices from cauliflower, carrots, chives, radishes and spinach exerted weak antimutagenic activities. However, weak to moderate co-mutagenic effects were seen with grapes, kiwi, pineapple, eggplant, celeriac, chicory greens, fennel leaves and radishes and strong effects with peppers which were not caused by the presence of growth-promoting factors. Most solvent fractions were inactive but fractions containing chlorophyll exerted antimutagenicity. PMID:9207899
Morinda citrifolia is a medicinal plant used to treat diabetes and liver diseases. The fermented fruitjuice of the M. Citrifolia (optical density?=?1.25) was used to study the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective properties in diabetes-induced rats. The rats were randomly distributed into 4 groups (control, diabetic experimental, diabetic standard, and diabetic untreated) of 6 each. Diabetes was induced by administering Streptozotocin (50?mg/kg body weight). Fasting blood glucose, body mass, liver tissue glycogen content, and the extent of liver degeneration were assessed. Diabetic experimental animals were treated with M. citrifolia juice (2?ml/kg, twice a day) and diabetic standard with reference hypoglycemic drug, glibenclamide orally for 20 days. Both the groups exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose level of 150?mg/dl ±15.88 and 125?mg/dl ±3.89, respectively, as compared to diabetic untreated with FBS?=?360.0?mg/dl ±15.81, (P < .003). On 10th day of experiment, diabetic experimental animals exhibited a decrease in body mass (10.2?g, 5.11%) which increased significantly by the 20th day (6?g, 3.0%, P < .022). Histological study of liver tissue obtained from untreated diabetic animals revealed significant fatty degeneration as compared to other three groups. The data of this study proved the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective activity of M. citrifolia. PMID:20981320
Nayak, B Shivananda; Marshall, Julien R; Isitor, Godwin; Adogwa, Andrew
Noni, a Hawaiian name for the fruit of Morinda citrifolia L., is a traditional medicinal plant from Polynesia widely used for the treatment of many diseases including arthritis, diabetes, asthma, hypertension and cancer. Here, a commercial noni juice (TNJ) was evaluated for its protective activities against the lesions induced by mitomycin C (MMC) and doxorrubicin (DXR) using the Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster. Three-day-old larvae, trans-heterozygous for two genetic markers (mwh and flr3 ), were co-treated with TNJ plus MMC or DXR. We have observed a reduction in genotoxic effects of MMC and DXR caused by the juice. TNJ provoked a marked decrease in all kinds of MMC- and DXR-induced mutant spots, mainly due to its antirecombinagenic activity. The TNJ protective effects were concentration-dependent, indicating a dose-response correlation, that can be attributed to a powerful antioxidant and/or free radical scavenger ability of TNJ. PMID:23828338
Franchi, Leonardo P; Guimarães, Nilza N; De Andrade, Laise R; De Andrade, Heloísa H R; Lehmann, Maurício; Dihl, Rafael R; Cunha, Kênya S
The vitamin C and provitamin A carotenoids contents of 25 commercially available Spanish orange juices were studied. Large differences in the levels of these compounds were found. On average, ultrafrozen orange juices (UFOJ) and orange juices from the ecological agriculture (OJFEA) showed the highest ascorbic acid contents (518 and 412mg\\/l respectively) among the different kinds of orange juices studied. Some
Antonio J. Meléndez-Martínez; Isabel M. Vicario; Francisco J. Heredia
The aims of this study were to evaluate the microbiological quality of fresh-squeezed orange juice and to reduce the microbial population by using various chemical and physical fruit surface decontamination methods. In the first step of the study, polyethylene-bottled fresh-squeezed orange juice samples purchased in Ankara, Turkey, were examined. The average aerobic plate count (APC) and coliform count (CC) varied within the ranges of 3 to 5 log CFU/ml and 1 to 4 log MPN/ml, respectively. Ten of 60 samples contained various levels of Escherichia coli, while Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 were not detected in any of the samples. Comparing the efficacy of various fruit surface decontamination methods on microbial population of oranges, the best results were obtained following two applications of submersion in boiling water and 5% H(2)O(2) solution for both the uninoculated and inoculated samples. Orange juice samples obtained from surface-inoculated and decontaminated oranges were also examined. We showed that about 17.4% of the E. coli population was transferred to orange juice after extraction, indicating the separation of microbial contaminants from fruit peel during extraction. Finally, the levels of microbial contamination occurred throughout the extraction process on the inner surfaces of a commercial juice extractor at one of the sale points investigated. Significant (P < 0.05) increases in the APC and CC were determined in surface samples of the extractor after the extraction. Surface decontamination and extraction are critical steps in fresh juice production for preventing microbial contamination. Immersion in boiling water for 0.5 min, without using any chemicals, can be offered as an effective method to reduce microbial population on orange surfaces. PMID:21819649
A novel setup is described in which we combined the separation of a volatile substance from a sample with a complex matrix on the basis of a microdiffusion process with a kinetic on-line spectrometric monitoring of the reaction in the receptive medium at 365 nm. The fruitjuice was selected as a model for testing the performance of the setup in real-life applications. The ethanol content in fruitjuice can be considered as an indicator of the fruit-juice quality and should not exceed the regulatory limiting values. After optimising the microdiffusion process, blackcurrant, orange and two varieties of apple juice were analysed. The sample analysis lasted 15 min at 35°C. The ethanol concentrations were found to be between 0.9 and 4.0 mmol/L, and were comparable to the results obtained using the SIST:ISO 2448:1998 standard method, which is time consuming, labour intensive and requires high sample volumes. The setup can easily be adapted for determining other volatile substances in low concentrations in complicated samples of different types by introducing different chemistry and replacing the light source if the light of a different wavelength is required. The measuring characteristics of the setup were critically assessed, the main sources of uncertainty recognised and the possibilities for further improvements of the setup and the procedure considered. PMID:22099665
Attractive color is one of the main sensory characteristics of fruit and berry products. Unfortunately, the color of red juices is unstable and easily susceptible to degradation, leading to a dull and weak juice color. This study was designed to investigate the color stability and copigmentation of four different berry juices enhanced by phenolic acids and commercial color enhancers. Phenolic acid enrichment improved and stabilized the color of the berry juices during storage. The commercial color enhancers immediately produced an intensive color to the juices, which, however, was not very stable. The color enhancement was intensive in strawberry and raspberry juices and effective in lingonberry and cranberry juices. Sinapic acid induced the strongest color in strawberry juice. Ferulic and sinapic acids improved raspberry juice color equally. Rosmarinic acid enhanced the color of lingonberry and cranberry juices the most. The addition of the simple cinnamic acids produced novel peaks to the end of the high-performance liquid chromatography chromatogram, indicating a formation of new compounds. It can be assumed that sinapic and ferulic acids formed new intramolecular copigmentation compounds with berry anthocyanins whereas rosmarinic acid stabilized anthocyanins intermolecularly. PMID:15137861
The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of Alicyclobacillus spp. in fruit/vegetable juices (concentrated pulps and clarified and non-clarified juices) marketed in Argentina between 1996 and 2009. The presence of Alicyclobacillus was determined in a total of 8556 samples of fruit and vegetable juices (apple, pear, grape, peach, blend of juices, tangerine, pineapple, orange, mango, plum, guava, apricot, lemon, banana, kiwi, carrot, strawberry, grapefruit, and beetroot) collected in seven Argentinean provinces. Multiple factor analysis (MFA) was carried out on a data matrix that contained the percentage of positive samples, type of juice, raw material and production year. Except for kiwi and orange, Alicyclobacillus was found in juices from all the evaluated raw materials. The highest percentage of positive samples was found for beetroot, strawberry, banana, peach, mango, carrot and plum juices. The percentage of positive samples for these juices ranged from 100% to 24%. Furthermore, the application of multivariate techniques provided an insight on the relationship between the incidence of Alicyclobacillus and production variables. This approach enabled the identification of the most relevant variables that increased the percentage of positive samples among the juices, which could help in developing strategies to avoid the incidence of this bacterium. By means of hierarchical cluster analysis seven groups (clusters) of juices which showed different percentages of positive samples for Alicyclobacillus spp. were identified. This analysis showed that pineapple, peach, strawberry, mango and beetroot juices had higher rates of positivity for Alicyclobacillus than the rest of the evaluated juices. MFA analysis also showed that some clear relationships could be highlighted between the percentage of samples positive for Alicyclobacillus and five types of fruitjuices (strawberry, beetroot, grapefruit, pineapple and mango). It was observed that a large proportion of juices produced in 2000, 2005 and 2008 were located in clusters with higher incidence of Alicyclobacillus spp., whereas a larger proportion of clarified concentrate juice and concentrate pulp samples showed higher probability of incidence of Alicyclobacillus in these products. Data presented in this study brings a contribution to the ecology of Alicyclobacillus in fruit/vegetable juices marketed in Argentina. This information would be useful to enhance the microbiological stability of fruitjuices regarding the presence of Alicyclobacillus spp. PMID:21962940
Oteiza, Juan Martìn; Ares, Gastón; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Soto, Silvina; Giannuzzi, Leda
Ascorbic acid oxidizes in refrigerated orange juice, but the physiological relevance of this deterioration is unknown. We compared changes in plasma vitamin C and total lipid peroxides (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS) in the 2-hour period following consumption of commercial orange juices on day 1 vs day 8 of storage (4°C). The ascorbic acid content decreased significantly after storage in juice
The configurations of free amino acids (AAs) in orange juice beverages (commercial products of satisfactory and unsatisfactory quality), an orange juice concentrate (bulk product suspected of being adulterated), and in an orange juice that has been contaminated by addition ofLactobacillus plantarum as a model for microbial spoilage, were determined, after derivatization, by means of gas-liquid chromatography (GC) using fused-silica capillary
The growing interest in new functional foods with special characteristics and health properties has led to the development of new beverages based on fruitjuice–skim milk mixtures. The proliferation of ready-to-drink beverages has caused the market to focus its interest on these products. Commercial conventionally pasteurized or sterilized beverages based on a mixture of fruitjuice and skim milk were
Ana Zulueta; María J. Esteve; Isabel Frasquet; Ana Frígola
Two inter-laboratory comparison studies were organised by a working group of the technical committee for the analysis of fruit and vegetable juices of the European Commission of Standardization (CEN\\/TC 174) on oxygen-18 and on deuterium determinations in fruitjuice water. The oxygen-18 study was carried out by fifteen laboratories in six European countries. For this comparison, each laboratory received two
The aim of this study is to investigate associations of family-related factors with children's fruit drink/juice and soft drink consumption. A cross-sectional survey among 10- to 12-year-old children and their parents in eight European countries was conducted to gather this data. Key variables of interest were children's self-reported fruit drink/juice and soft drink intake per day (outcome) and family-related factors (based on parents' report) related to these two behaviors (modeling, automaticity, availability, monitoring, permissiveness, negotiating, communicating health beliefs, avoid negative modeling, self-efficacy, rewarding, and family consumption). 7915 Children (52% girls; mean age=11.7 ± 0.8 years) and 6512 parents (83% women; mean age=41.4 ± 5.3 years) completed the questionnaire. Multilevel regression analyses were used to examine the aforementioned associations. Three of the 11 family-related factors (modeling, availability, and family consumption) were positively associated with children's fruit drink/juice and soft drink intake. Additionally, three family-related factors (permissiveness, monitoring, and self-efficacy) were solely associated with soft drink intake and one family-related factor (communicating health beliefs) was related to fruit drink/juice intake. Future interventions targeting children's fruit drink/juice and soft drink intake should focus on the home environment, parents and their practices, especially on parents' fruit drink/juice and soft drink intake and availability of these beverages at home. PMID:23154218
Van Lippevelde, Wendy; te Velde, Saskia J; Verloigne, Maïté; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Manios, Yannis; Bere, Elling; Jan, Nataša; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Kovacs, Eva; Brug, Johannes; Maes, Lea
Consumer demands for 'freshness' in processed foods has been given increasing attention by food processing industries by searching for minimally processed products. Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO) mediated browning is a major cause of undesirable flavors and nutritional losses in fruitjuices. Here the anti-browning efficiency of glutathione (GSH, reduced form) and cinnamic acid (CA) in apple juice is evaluated. It was observed that the rate of the browning reaction could be efficiently delayed using GSH and CA, which act as inhibitors of PPO. Kinetic studies confirm that GSH and CA are non-competitive and competitive inhibitors of PPO respectively. PMID:15449733
A new technique of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for the analysis of conjugated bile acids in gastric juice. The assay is rapid, sensitive, and highly specific for bile acid conjugates over the range 30-10,000 mumol/l and is not affected by the presence of food. Ten patients with a variety of common upper gastrointestinal disorders underwent continuous gastric aspiration for 16 hours, including a fasting, post-prandial, and nocturnal period, and aliquots of aspirates were analysed every two hours by the HPLC technique for the six most prevalent bile acid conjugates present in human hepatic bile. Intragastric bile acid concentrations were lowest in the post-prandial period and highest in the early hours of the morning. Conjugated bile acid proportions, or profiles, varied considerably from patient to patient, but tended to remain uniform over time in individual patients. It is concluded that HPLC is superior to enzymatic techniques for the analysis of conjugated bile acids in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Images
A simple and sensitive method for the determination of patulin in fruitjuice and dried fruit samples was developed using a fully automated method consisting of in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Patulin was separated within 5 min by high-performance liquid chromatography using a Synergi MAX-RP 80A column and water/acetonitrile (80/20, v/v) as the mobile phase. Electrospray ionization conditions in the negative ion mode were optimized for MS detection of patulin. The pseudo-molecular ion [M-H](-) was used to detect patulin in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The optimum in-tube SPME conditions were 25 draw/eject cycles of 40 microL of sample using a Carboxen 1006 PLOT capillary column as an extraction device. The extracted patulin was readily desorbed from the capillary by passage of the mobile phase, and no carry-over was observed. Using the in-tube SPME LC-MS with SIM method, good linearity of the calibration curve (r=0.9996) was obtained in the concentration range of 0.5-20 ng/mL using (13)C(3)-patulin as an internal standard, and the detection limit (S/N=3) of patulin was 23.5 pg/mL. The in-tube SPME method showed >83-fold higher sensitivity than the direct injection method (10 microL injection volume). The within-day and between-day precision (relative standard deviations) were below 0.8% and 5.0% (n=6), respectively. This method was applied successfully for the analysis of fruitjuice and dried fruit samples without interference peaks. The recoveries of patulin spiked into apple juice were >92%, and the relative standard deviations were <4.5%. Patulin was detected at ng/mL levels in various commercial apple juice samples. PMID:19306997
This review covers two important techniques, high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS), used to characterize food products and detect possible adulteration of wine, fruitjuices, and olive oil, all important products of the Mediterranean Basin. Emphasis is placed on the complementary use of SNIF-NMR (site-specific natural isotopic fractionation nuclear magnetic resonance) and IRMS (isotope-ratio mass
N. Ogrinc; I. J. Košir; J. E. Spangenberg; J. Kidri?
The fruitjuice of Morinda citrifolia (noni) contains a polysaccharide-rich substance (noni-ppt) with anti- tumour activity in the Lewis lung (LLC) peritoneal carcinomatosis model. Therapeutic administration of noni-ppt significantly enhanced the duration of survival of inbred syngeneic LLC tumour bearing mice. It did not exert significant cytotoxic effects in an adapted culture of LLC cells, LLC1, but could activate peritoneal
A fruitjuice-soymilk (FJ-SM) beverage was treated by high intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) (35kV\\/cm with 4?s bipolar pulses at 200Hz for 800 or 1400?s) or heated (90°C, 60s) in order to evaluate and compare the effects of both technologies on the isoflavone profile along the storage at 4°C. Total isoflavone content was determined by quantification of aglycone and glucoside
M. Morales-de la Peña; L. Salvia-Trujillo; M. A. Rojas-Graü; O. Martín-Belloso
A capillary isotachophoresis method was developed and applied for determination of glutamic acid and aspartic acid in tomato juice samples. The leading electrolyte was 10 mmol L L-histidine monohydrochloride including 1% poly (vinylpyrrolidone) adjusted with histidine to pH 5.5. The terminating electrolyte was 5 mmol L 2-morpholineethanesulfonic acid adjusted to pH 6.0 with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane. It was proved that the developed
A capillary isotachophoresis method was developed and applied for determination of glutamic acid and aspartic acid in tomato juice samples. The leading electrolyte was 10 mmol L L-histidine monohydrochloride including 1% poly (vinylpyrrolidone) adjusted with histidine to pH 5.5. The terminating electrolyte was 5 mmol L 2-morpholineethanesulfonic acid adjusted to pH 6.0 with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane. It was proved that the developed
A study of the effect of temperature and concentration of soluble solids on density of depectined and clarified peach juice and orange juice and a study of the effect of the temperature on density of apple and quince purees are reported.The densities of the peach and orange juices were determined at concentrations of between 10 and 60 °Brix and temperatures
The purpose of this study was to investigate the comparative clarification techniques in apple juice processing and their effects on the patulin content and some other quality parameters including phenolic compounds and organic acids. The clarification techniques varied significantly in their effects for the removal of patulin from apple juice. Conventional clarification using gelatin, bentonite, and activated charcoal was found
Lacto-juices processed by lactic acid fermentation bring about a change in the beverage assortment for their high nutritive\\u000a value, vitamins and minerals which are beneficial to human health when consumed. Sweet potato roots (non-boiled\\/ fully-boiled)\\u000a were fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1407 at 28 ? 2?C for 48 h to make lacto- juice. During fermentation both analytical [pH, titratable acidity, lactic\\u000a acid, starch,
The food industry is playing an increasing role in the development and marketing of new products although little is known regarding the bioavailability of the phytochemicals they contain. Our aim was to assess the effect of the presence of absorption modifiers (milk and iron) on the in vitro bioaccessibility and the serum response in vivo of carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol from fruitjuices. Thirty-two young women participated in a three-period (21 d each) supplementation study with a 2-week wash-out in between. Subjects consumed consecutively 2 x 250 ml/d vitamin C-fortified juices supplied as fruitjuice, fruitjuice containing milk and fruitjuice containing milk and iron. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after each supplementation period. In vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol was assessed by a static digestion model. Vitamin E and carotenoids from both studies were determined by HPLC. In vitro, xanthophyll ester hydrolysis and transference of free xanthophylls and alpha-tocopherol into the micellar phase were higher in the presence of absorption modifiers. In vivo, consumption of the fruitjuices provoked significant increments (within-subject) of alpha-tocopherol and some carotenoids in serum. Dose-adjusted increments in serum of some carotenoids were higher when subjects consumed juices with milk and milk plus iron, although differences did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, the presence of milk and milk plus iron do not influence the bioavailability of carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol from fruitjuices in vivo. Our results support the use of in vitro models to assess food-related factors affecting bioavailability of carotenoids and tocopherols from foods. PMID:18616839
Granado-Lorencio, F; Herrero-Barbudo, C; Blanco-Navarro, I; Pérez-Sacristán, B; Olmedilla-Alonso, B
Objective To compare the vitamin C content of reconstituted frozen orange juice concentrates at preparation to that of ready-to-drink orange juices purchased 4 to 5 weeks from expiration.Design Juices were unsealed and analyzed for reduced and oxidized vitamin C content at the time of purchase and reanalyzed 3 times weekly for 4 to 5 weeks. Same-lot samples of the ready-to-drink
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is rapidly gaining importance in mixture analysis, originally driven by the pharmaceutical and nowadays also by clinical applications within metabonomics. Quality control of food-related material has very similar requirements, as it also deals with mixtures, and many of the compounds found in body fluids are analyzed as well. NMR allows analysis in two ways within one experiment: namely, targeted and untargeted. Targeted stands for the safe identification and consequent quantification of individual compounds, whereas untargeted means the detection of all deviations visible by NMR using statistical analysis based on normality models. Very important is the stability and reproducibility of the NMR instrumentation used, and this means inherent minimized system internal variance. NMR is especially suited for such requirements, as it allows detection of the smallest concentration changes of many metabolites simultaneously. High-throughput flow-injection NMR as the basis for fruitjuice screening allows low cost per sample and delivers substantially more relevant information than any other method and is probably the only method to produce such results. PMID:19899106
Patatin from potato fruitjuice was purified by a combination of ultrafiltration and chromatographic techniques. The in vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activity against mouse melanoma B16 cells of patatin were investigated. The results showed that the monosaccharide composition of patatin included rhamnose, mannose, glucose, and galactose with a molar ratio of 41?:?30?:?21?:?8, and patatin consisted of (1 ? 3) linked ?-mannose, (1 ? 4) linked ?-galactose, (1 ? 4) linked ?-glucose, and (1 ? 2) linked ?-rhamnose. Furthermore, patatin possessed significant antioxidant activities measured by scavenging of the DPPH and superoxide free radicals, notable reducing power, protective effects against hydroxyl radical-induced oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation inhibitory. Moreover, patatin was identified as a potent antiproliferative agent against mouse melanoma B16 cells, causing cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. Assays of apoptotic cells also showed that patatin treatment at concentrations of 20 mg mL(-1) resulted in a marked reduction of viable cells. These results obtained in in vitro models suggested that patatin may have potential application as a cancer chemopreventive agent and food ingredient. PMID:24056776
The contents of soluble and total phenolic acids were analyzed in samples of 29 berries and berry products, 24 fruits and fruit peels, and 12 beverages. Variation of phenolic acids in berries was also studied. Soluble phenolic acids were extracted with methanolic acetic acid, and a tentative quantification was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total phenolic acid content was determined by HPLC after alkaline and acid hydrolyses. The content of total phenolic acids as aglycones in the above samples varied from 0 (pear cider) to 103 mg/100 g fresh weight (rowanberry). Besides rowanberry, the best phenolic acid sources among berries were chokeberry (96 mg/100 g), blueberry (85 mg/100 g), sweet rowanberry (75 mg/100 g), and saskatoon berry (59 mg/100 g). Among fruits, the highest contents (28 mg/100 g) were determined in dark plum, cherry, and one apple variety (Valkea Kuulas). Coffee (97 mg/100 g) as well as green and black teas (30-36 mg/100 g) were the best sources among beverages. Caffeic acid dominated in all of these samples except in tea brews. Variation in the phenolic acid contents of the berries was either small or moderate. PMID:16968082
Describes an experiment designed to determine ascorbic acid concentrations in natural orange juice. The experiment is used with undergraduate pharmacy students to allow understanding of the principles of operation of the coulometer and polarograph. (DDR)
The fruits of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Euphorbiaceae), also known as amla in Ayurveda, are considered to be a rich source of ascorbic acid. However, the antioxidant activities exhibited by E. officinalis extract are superior to those of ascorbic acid itself. Low molecular hydrolyzable tannins emblicanins A and B have been suggested in the earlier literature to be the contributory antioxidant molecules in the extract. This work finds no evidence for the presence of emblicanins A and B in the extract. In addition, the high content of ascorbic acid is also questionable due to previous nonidentification of coeluting mucic acid gallates. This paper reports a new HPLC method to detect even trace amounts of ascorbic acid in E. officinalis fruitjuice or extract. PMID:19063633
Objective Soluble fiber and the physical state of fruits/vegetables affect plasma ß-carotene concentrations; however, most of this research was conducted in laboratory-based settings. These analyses investigated the relationship between soluble fiber and juiced vs. whole fruits/vegetables to plasma ß-carotene concentrations in a free-living population. Method This cross-sectional analysis used 12-month follow-up data from the Women’s Healthy Eating & Living Study (WHEL) (1995-2006), a study to improve diet in breast cancer survivors in the Western United States. The dietary nutrients considered in this analysis included intake of soluble fiber (g), ß-carotene from fruit/vegetable juice (mg), and ß-carotene from whole fruits/vegetables (mg). A linear regression model was used to assess the relationship of the variables to plasma ß-carotene concentrations. Results Out of 3,088 women enrolled in WHEL 2,397 women had complete data (mean age=54). The final model accounted for approximately 49% of the explained variance in plasma ß-carotene concentrations. Fruit/vegetable juice had the largest, positive relation to plasma ß-carotene concentrations (standardized parameter estimate=0.23, p < 0.01) followed by whole fruits/vegetables (standardized parameter estimate=0.09, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Soluble fiber may inhibit ß-carotene absorption; therefore, consumption of juice may increase plasma ß-carotene concentrations more than whole fruits/vegetables in free-living populations.
Kolodziejczyk, Julia K.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Natarajan, Loki; Patterson, Ruth; Pierce, John P.; Norman, Gregory J.
A new type of evaporator (Refractance Window® (RW) evaporator) has been developed that operates at atmospheric conditions and uses thermal energy from hot water to concentrate foods. The influence of product temperature and dissolved solids on vitamin C in blueberry juice and color of cranberry juice was evaluated in this new evaporation method in comparison with conventional falling film multi-effect
The lipid lowering and antiatherosclerotic effects of Emblica officinalis (Amla) fresh juice were evaluated in cholesterol-fed rabbits (rendered hyperlipidaemic by atherogenic diet and cholesterol feeding). E. officinalis fresh juice was administered at a dose of 5 ml\\/kg body weight per rabbit per day for 60 days. Serum cholesterol, TG, phospholipid and LDL levels were lowered by 82%, 66%, 77% and
...juice reduced with water to its original density, or to 22 degrees...between its original density and 22 degrees...juice reduced with water to not less than...further reduced with water to any degree of...between its original density and 22...
...the presence of added natural flavors is not required to be declared...before the addition of the added flavors. (c) If a diluted...named juice is present as a flavor or flavoring (e.g., âRaspcranberry...that contains a juice whose color, taste, or other...
In contrast to earlier reports high levels of taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) were found in fruitjuices of three cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Whereas the occurrence of taurine in plant tissue was thought to be restricted to algae, fungi, and the endosperm of some higher plants, prickly pear proved to be a rich source of dietary taurine. Using L-taurine as the amino compound, a new betaxanthin was synthesized by partial synthesis. On the basis of chemical and spectral evidence its structure was determined to be the taurine-immonium-conjugate of betalamic acid. Also betalamic acid could be detected in yellow and orange coloured cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica for the first time. In spite of the high levels of L-taurine accompanied by the occurrence of betalamic acid, the corresponding betaxanthin could not be detected in the fruit tissue. PMID:17260288
This study is focused on the search for targets and criteria for the design of pasteurization processes for high-acid shelf-stable fruit products, such as juices, nectars, pastes, purees, concentrates, jams, jellies, etc. First, an overview of pasteurization is presented and then, frequently used targets for pasteurization processes are reviewed Enzymes naturally present in fruits, in decreasing order of heat resistance, were pectinesterase, peroxidase, and polyphenoloxidase, and they may be used as pasteurization targets. The heat resistance of each enzyme is strongly dependent on its fruit origin. The most heat resistant micro-organisms capable of spoiling high acidfruit products include ascospores of Neosartorya fischeri, Byssochlamys nivea, Talaromyces flavus, Eupenicillium javanicum, and Byssochlamys fulva moulds, as well as bacterial spores of Clostridium butyricum, Bacillus coagulans, and Bacillus megaterium. These micro-organisms, spores, and enzymes were, in general, less heat resistant than the spores of a particular spoilage micro-organism named Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, which has been causing problems in the fruit industry. Therefore, the use of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores as a reference micro-organism in the design of pasteurization processes for high-acid shelf-stable fruit products is suggested. PMID:15540648
The stability of anthocyanins (Cy3Gl) and ascorbic acid (AA) of high pressure processed blood orange juice during storage was investigated. Blood orange juice was processed at pressure levels of 400, 500, 600MPa for a constant treatment time of 15min. During processing >99% and 94.5% retention of Cy3Gl and AA content was observed for all pressure treated samples. The degradation kinetics
B. Torres; B. K. Tiwari; A. Patras; P. J. Cullen; N. Brunton; C. P. O'Donnell
This work approaches the possibility of combining mild heat treatments with citrus fruit essential oils (EOs) to improve the effectiveness of heat treatments and thus to reduce treatment intensity. Concentrations between 10 and 200 ?L/L of lemon, mandarin, or orange EO were tested at 54 °C for 10 min in laboratory media, determining that 200 ?L/L of each EO was necessary to achieve a 5 log(10) reduction of the initial Escherichia coli O157:H7 concentration. A relationship could be established between sublethally injured cells after the heat treatment and inactivated cells after the combined process. In apple juice, the synergism in the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 when adding 200 ?L/L of lemon EO might suppose a reduction in the treatment temperature (of 4.5 °C) or in the treatment time (by 5.7 times) within the range of temperature assayed (54-60 °C). Addition of 75 ?L/L of lemon EO was determined to achieve the same synergistic effect of the combined treatment when the initial inoculum was reduced from 3×10(7) to 3×10(4) CFU/mL. Since the addition of lemon EO did not decrease the hedonic acceptability of apple juice, the proposed combined treatment could be further studied and optimized for the production of new minimally processed juices. PMID:22906601
The data set composed by phenolic compound profiles of 83 Citrus juices (determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS) was evaluated by chemometrics to differentiate them according to Citrus species (sweet orange, tangerine, lemon, and grapefruit). Cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed natural sample grouping among Citrus species and even the Citrus subclass. Most of the information contained in the full data set can be captured if only 15 phenolic compounds (concentration ?10 mg/L), which can be quantified with fast and accurate methods in real samples, are introduced in the models; a good classification which allows the confirmation of the authenticity of juices is achieved by linear discriminant analysis. Using this reduced data set, fast and routine methods have been developed for predicting the percentage of grapefruit in adulterated sweet orange juices using principal component regression (PCR) and partial least-squares regression (PLS). The PLS model has provided suitable estimation errors. PMID:22423971
In the last years, a growing number of research articles detailing the use of natural abundance light stable isotopes variations and trace metal elements concentration as geographic ``tracers'' to determine the provenance of food have been published. These investigations exploit the systematic global variations of stable hydrogen, oxygen and carbon isotope ratios in (combination) relation with trace metal element concentrations. The trace metal elements content of plants and also their light stable isotopic ratios are mainly related to the geological and pedoclimatic characteristics of the site of growth. The interpretation of such analysis requires an important number of data for authentic natural juices regarding the same seasonal and regional origin, because the isotopic analysis parameters of fruitjuices show remarkable variability depending on climatologically factors. In this work was mesured H, C, O stable isotope ratios and the concentrations of 16 elements (P, K, Mg, Na, Ca, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb, Co, As, Cd, Mn, Fe and Hg) from 12 single strength juices. The natural variations that appear due to different environmental and climatic conditions are presented and discussed.
Magdas, D. A.; Dehelean, A.; Puscas, R.; Cristea, G.; Tusa, F.; Voica, C.
New methods are presented for measuring total vitamin C and the ascorbic acid/dehydroascorbic acid ratio in gastric juice. Extracts are prepared from a gastric juice which are suitable for direct injection onto a Waters Nova-pak C18 Radial-pak cartridge for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using ultraviolet absorbance at 270 nm for detection. Both enable removal of interfering mucus and mucopolysaccharide breakdown products in a novel way. The first uses mini-columns of Sephadex G-50, run in acidic conditions to remove large molecular weight material while maintaining the ascorbic acid/dehydroascorbic acid ratio as it was in the fresh sample. Addition of dithiothreitol converts the dehydroascorbic acid quantitatively to ascorbic acid, thus enabling measurement of both components. The second method converts all the dehydroascorbic acid to ascorbic acid at the outset. A perchloric acid extract is neutralized and passed through a Sep-Pak C18. A new internal standard, reductic acid, is introduced for ascorbic acid analysis which behaves identically on Sep-Pak C18. Samples are analysed by ion-pair chromatography using 0.02 M NH4H2PO4 buffer (pH 7.1): methanol (80:20 v/v) containing 0.62 g/L tetrapentylammonium bromide. The detection limit was 1 ng ascorbic acid, and chromatography was completed in 5 min. The values obtained by the two independent HPLC methods were in good agreement with each other and with those obtained by the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine colorimetric method. PMID:3507237
The anti-yeast activity of mentha oil and vapours was evaluated against 8 food spoiling yeasts through disc diffusion, disc volatilisation and micro broth dilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) varied from 0.28 to 2.25 and 1.13 to 4.5 mg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the anti-yeast efficacy of mentha oil alone and in combination with thermal treatment was evaluated in a real food system i.e. mixed fruitjuices. The samples treated with a combination of mentha oil at the MIC, ½ MIC and ¼ MIC levels and thermal treatment enhanced the reduction viability. Chemical characterisation of mentha oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that the dominant compounds were cis-menthone (27.43%), menthol (24.3%), trans-menthone (9.23%), limonene (5.84%), menthofuran (4.44%) and isomenthol (3.21%). Present results established the superior performance of integrated treatment over individual exposure for fruitjuice preservation. PMID:23199997
Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Gottardi, Davide; Malik, Anushree; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta
Browning decreases the commercial value of apple juice, and therefore colour preservation during processing and storage is the main objective of manufacturers. In this study, the efficacy of phytic acid as a browning inhibitor for use on apple juice was investigated. Browning of apple juice treated with phytic acid was monitored during processing and storage. 0.1 mM Phytic acid inhibited the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from the apple juice by 99.2%. Consequently, the apple juice treated with phytic acid had significantly lower browning formation during processing and after 6 months of storage at room temperature compared with the control (p<0.05). Results indicate that this is a promising way to inhibit browning in apple juice. PMID:22868131
In this study, 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 g/l amounts of activated charcoal (AC) were added into apple juice with a patulin content of 62.3 ppb obtained from a well-established manufacturing company. Apple juice samples were then mixed for 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min, respectively. Considerable reduction in the patulin and HMF values was found while there is a dramatic improvement in the colour and clearness of apple juice. However, AC did not cause a significant decrease in the fumaric acid level of apple juice. The best result was obtained at 3.0 g/l AC mixed for 5 min. In addition, a negligible reduction in brix and pH values of samples was observed. PMID:11890052
Orange juice was submitted to electroreduction and electro-oxidation treatments prior to pasteurization and compared to a control juice for oxido-reduction potential (ORP), dissolved oxygen and ascorbic acid contents. Evolution of non-enzymatic browning reactions and ascorbic acid degradation was evaluated at 4, 21 and 37°C storage temperatures. Electroreduction treatment of the juice at 6V (cell length of 1.58cm) created a substantial
Patrick Fustier; François St-Germain; François Lamarche; Martin Mondor
Salicylic acid treatment has been found to delay the ripening of banana fruits (Musa acuminata). Fruit softening, pulp:peel ratio, reducing sugar content, invertase and respiration rate have been found to decrease in salicylic acid treated fruits as compared with control ones. The activities of major cell wall degrading enzymes, viz. cellulase, polygalacturonase and xylanase were found to be decreased in
The effect of high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) on the Salmonella Enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations inoculated in apple, pear, orange and strawberry juices as influenced by treatment time and pulse frequency was investigated. Combinations of HIPEF (35 kV\\/cm, 4 ?s pulse length in bipolar mode without exceeding 40 °C) with citric acid or cinnamon bark oil against these pathogenic microorganisms in
Jonathan Mosqueda-Melgar; Rosa Martina Raybaudi-Massilia; Olga Martín-Belloso
When 21 vitamins including related compounds haemin, chlorophyllin, chlorophyll, biliverdin and bilirubin, as well as juices from five fruits and 25 vegetables and solvent extracts from the residues of fruits and vegetables were tested for their antimutagenic potencies with respect to mutagenicity induced by 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF), 3-nitrofluoranthene (3-NFA) and l-nitropyrene(1-NP) in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 the following results were obtained. The
Patients infected with Helicobacter pylori have abnormally low ascorbic acid concentration in gastric juice. Low vitamin C intake and Helicobacter pylori infection have been related to an increased risk of gastric carcinoma. This report examines the association between ascorbic acid and Helicobacter pylori in patients referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Elevated gastric pH and the damage to the gastric surface
Jennifer Carlton Rood; Bernardo Ruiz; Elizabeth T. H. Fontham; Gray T. Malcom; Fred M. Hunter; Mahboob Sobhan; William D. Johnson; Pelayo Correa
The aim of this work was to recover lactic acid in undissociated form from grass silage juice. For this aim, chromatographic separation using neutral polymeric resin Amberlite XAD1600 was investigated. Up to now, there is no hint in the literatures about using neutral polymeric resin for lactic acid separation from a mixture. Important factors (flow-rate, concentration of feed and loaded
The influence of externally added ascorbic acid (AA) on the deterioration of carotenoid pattern and colour of orange juices has been assessed. Regardless of the enrichment of the samples with ascorbic acid, the changes in their carotenoid profile were analogous and involved mainly the epoxycarotenoids. The decreases in the levels of the two major carotenoids, namely (9Z)-violaxanthin and (9Z)- or
Antonio J. Meléndez-Martínez; Isabel M. Vicario; Francisco J. Heredia
A safety study of TAHITIAN NONI Juice from Tahiti was conducted with ninety-six healthy volunteers. For 28 days, participants consumed one of four daily quantities of noni juice: 0 mL (placebo), 30 mL, 300 mL, or 750 mL. All daily dose formulations were standardized to 750 mL by making up any volume differences with the placebo. Hematology, biochemistry, urinalysis, vital signs, and adverse events measurements were made at 0 (baseline), 2, and 4 weeks, as well as during a two-week follow up (week 6). Electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements were also made for each volunteer during the pre-study screen and at week 6. During the trial, those in the noni groups experienced 20 to 50% fewer total adverse events than those in the placebo group. A marginally significant (P<0.1) reduction in the number of constant adverse events experienced by the volunteers was also found in the 300 mL noni juice group. A similar trend was observed in the other noni juice groups, as well. No other clinically significant differences between any of the groups were noted in the parameters and measurements of this study, nor was there evidence suggesting any adverse dose-related effects. The results of this study indicate that drinking up to 750 mL TAHITIAN NONI Juice per day is safe. PMID:20443518
West, Brett J; White, Leland D; Jensen, C Jarakae; Palu, Afa K
Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection was applied for the determination of six pyrethroids (tetramethrin, fenpropathrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate and permethrin) in various fruitjuices including apple, red grape, orange, kiwi, passion fruit, pomegranate and guava juice. Six pyrethroids were separated within 30 min using a Waters Atlantis T3 column under an isocratic elution of acetonitrile-water (72:28). The parameters affecting extraction efficiency of the DLLME method such as type of disperser and extraction solvent, volume of disperser and extraction solvent and centrifugation time were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, 5.00 mL of sample solution, 300 ?L of chloroform as extraction solvent and 1.25 mL of methanol as dispersive solvent gave high enrichment factor in the range of 62-84. Good linearity was obtained from 2 to 1,500 ?g/L (r(2)>0.995). The mean recoveries of the pyrethroids evaluated by fortification of real samples were in the range of 84-94%. The limits of detection ranging from 2 to 5 ?g/L are sufficient to analyze pyrethroid residues at the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the European Union (EU) in fruitjuices. The proposed method can be applied to direct determination of pyrethroid residues in fruitjuices. PMID:22265489
This study evaluates the effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on the acceptance of two unfamiliar açaí fruitjuices that have a low (40% açaí) versus a high (4% açaí) a priori overall liking. Hedonic and sensory measures as well as health- and nutrition-related attribute perceptions and purchase intention were rated before and after health information was presented.
Sara Sabbe; Wim Verbeke; Rosires Deliza; Virginia Matta; Patrick Van Damme
The goal of the study was to examine the contribution of 100% fruitjuice consumption to dietary adequacy of shortfall nutrients by children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study and used data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Participants were...
... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section...FruitJuices and Beverages Â§ 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food prepared...
... 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146...FruitJuices and Beverages Â§ 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared...
... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section 146...FruitJuices and Beverages Â§ 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food prepared...
High performance liquid chromatography linked to isotope ratio mass spectrometry via an interface allowing the chemical oxidation of organic matter (HPLC-co-IRMS) was used to simultaneously determine carbon 13 isotope ratio (?(13)C) of organic acids, glucose and fructose in lime and lemon juices. Because of the significant difference between organic acids and sugars concentrations, the experimental protocol was optimised by applying a "current jump" to the IRMS device. The filament current is increased of 300?A during elution in order to enhance IRMS sensitivity. Then, analysis were performed on 35 lemon and lime fruits from various geographical origins and squeezed in the laboratory. An overall average ?(13)C values of -25.40±1.62‰, -23.83±1.82‰ and -25.67±1.72‰ is found for organic acids mixture mainly made up of citric acid, glucose and fructose, respectively. These authentic samples allowed the definition of a confidence domain to which have been confronted 30 commercial juices (24 "pure juices" and 6 coming from concentrate). Among these 30 samples, 10 present ?(13)C values outside the defined range revealing an added "C4" type organic acids or sugars, addition not specified on the label that is not in agreement with EU regulation. PMID:24176310
...Canned FruitJuices and Beverages Â§ 146.114 Lemon...manufacture of lemon juice from concentrate. (iii) Preservatives...unconcentrated, undiluted liquid extracted from mature... ) âLemon juice from concentrateâ or âreconstituted...
...Canned FruitJuices and Beverages Â§ 146.114 Lemon...manufacture of lemon juice from concentrate. (iii) Preservatives...unconcentrated, undiluted liquid extracted from mature... ) âLemon juice from concentrateâ or âreconstituted...
...CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUITJUICES ...juice, intended for direct consumption, obtained by mechanical...juice (exclusive of added sugars) without added water shall...content (exclusive of added sugars) shall be not less than...
A stable isotope liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed for the quantitative determination of 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid (5-MTHFA) and folic acid in a variety of commercial citrus juices. Folates were extracted from juices, and the polyglutamyl side chain of 5-MTHFA was cleaved to the monoglutamate form using rat plasma conjugase. The folates were purified on a Bond-Elut column and analyzed by LC-MS with electrospray ionization. The analytes were quantified using the (13)C(5) analogues of 5-MTHFA and folic acid as internal standards. The relative standard error of the method was 3.35% based on replicate analyses (n = 4). This method was then applied to the determination of 5-MTHFA and folic acid in a variety of citrus juices obtained from local supermarkets. It was observed that although both "store" brands and "national" brands of fresh (nonfrozen) juices contained similar concentrations of 5-MTHFA, the "store" brands of fresh juices had on average >5-fold the amount of folic acid compared to the "national" brands. In addition, the "total" folate concentrations were generally below values listed on the food label. PMID:12590471
Thomas, Paul M; Flanagan, Vincent P; Pawlosky, Robert J
The objective of this study was to compare high pressure resistance of Listeria monocytogenes strains at 25°C and 50°C at 350 MPa and to use high pressure (250 MPa and 350 MPa) at 30°C and 40°C for the inactivation of the relatively most pressure resistant strain inoculated in pasteurized apple, apricot, cherry and orange juices. L. monocytogenes CA was found
Extracts from staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) fruits were obtained from fresh fruits obtained from June to October in two successive years. Total acidity, pH, and concentrations of malic and succinic acids determined using liquid chromatography were measured for each extract. Acidity and acid concentrations reached their maxima in late July, and declined slowly thereafter. Malic and succinic acid concentrations in the extracts reached maxima of about 4 and 0.2% (expressed per unit weight of fruit), respectively. Malic and succinic acids were the only organic acids observed in the extracts, and mass balance determinations indicate that these acids are most likely the only ones present in appreciable amounts.
Robbins, C. (Univ. of Pittsburgh at Bradford, PA); Mulcahy, F. (Univ. of Pittsburgh at Bradford, PA); Somayajula, K. (Coca-Cola Co., Atlanta, GA); Edenborn, H.M.
Objective: We investigated whether ingestion of polyphenols from fruitjuices or a fruit-vegetable-concentrate affects lymphocyte proliferation and apoptosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive (HIV+) and HIV-seronegative (HIV?) subjects.Design: Randomized, prospective pilot intervention study.Setting: University of Bonn, Department of General Internal Medicine.Subjects: A total of 23 HIV+ subjects from the HIV outpatient clinic, 18 HIV? controls.Interventions: Subjects ingested either 1 l
P Winkler; S Ellinger; A M Boetzer; B M Arendt; H K Berthold; J K Rockstroh; U Spengler; R Goerlich
Tomatoes are grown for fresh consumption or for processing of the fruit. Some ripening-associated processes of the fruit can either contribute to or degrade attributes associated with both fresh and processing quality. For example, cell wall disassembly is associated with loss of fresh fruit firmness as well as with loss of processed tomato product viscosity. Several enzymes contribute to cell wall polysaccharide disassembly. Polygalacturonase (PG, poly[1,4-alpha-d-galactouronide] glucanohydrolase, EC 18.104.22.168) is among the most abundant polysaccharide hydrolases in ripening tomato fruit and is the major contributor to pectin depolymerization. Expansin (LeExp1) is also abundant in ripening fruit and is proposed to contribute to cell wall disassembly by nonhydrolytic activity, possibly by increasing substrate accessibility to other enzymes. Suppression of either LePG or LeExp1 expression alone results in altered softening and/or shelf life characteristics. To test whether simultaneous suppression of both LePG and LeExp1 expression influences fruit texture in additive or synergistic ways, transgenic Lycopersicon esculentum var. Ailsa Craig lines with reduced expression of either LePG or LeExp1 were crossed. Fruits from the third generation of progeny, homozygous for both transgenic constructs, were analyzed for firmness and other quality traits during ripening on or off the vine. In field-grown transgenic tomato fruit, suppression of LeExp1 or LePG alone did not significantly increase fruit firmness. However, fruits suppressed for both LePG and LeExp1 expression were significantly firmer throughout ripening and were less susceptible to deterioration during long-term storage. Juice prepared from the transgenic tomato fruit with reduced LePG and LeExp1 expression was more viscous than juice prepared from control fruit. PMID:14640598
Powell, Ann L T; Kalamaki, Mary S; Kurien, Philip A; Gurrieri, Sergio; Bennett, Alan B
Two strains (POM1 and C2) or LP09 of Lactobacillus plantarum, which were previously isolated from tomatoes and carrots, and another commercial strain of L. plantarum (LP09), were selected to singly ferment (30 °C for 120 h) pomegranate juice (PJ) under standardized protocol. PJs were further stored at 4 °C for 30 days. Filtered PJ, not added of starters (unstarted PJ), was used as the control. After fermentation, all starters grew to ca. 9.0 Log CFU/mL. Viable cells of strain LP09 sharply decreased during storage. The other two strains survived to ca. 7.0 and 8.0 Log CFU/mL. Lactic acid bacteria consumed glucose, fructose, malic acid, and branched chain and aromatic amino acids. The concentration of free fatty acids increased for all started PJs. Compared to unstarted PJ, color and browning indexes of fermented PJs were preferable. The concentration of total polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were the highest for started PJs, with some differences that depended on the starter used. Fermentation increased the concentration of ellagic acid, and enhanced the antimicrobial activity. Fermented PJs scavenged the reactive oxygen species generated by H2O2 and modulated the synthesis of immune-mediators from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Unstarted and fermented PJs inhibited the growth of K562 tumor cells. The sensory attributes of fermented PJs were preferred. The fermentation of pomegranate juice would represent a novel technology option, which joins health-promoting, sensory and preservative features to exploit the potential of pomegranate fruits. PMID:23562695
Filannino, Pasquale; Azzi, Loubna; Cavoski, Ivana; Vincentini, Olimpia; Rizzello, Carlo G; Gobbetti, Marco; Di Cagno, Raffaella
Ascorbic acid contents of some common local fruits and vegetables was determined. The ascorbic acid contents of the fruits ranged from 21.8 to 98.0 mg per 100 g sample while that of vegetables ranged from 21.3 to 98.8 mg per 100 g sample. The traditional processing of some of the fruits resulted in losses of ascorbic acid of between 43
The exotic tropical fruits are adequate for the increasing market of fruitjuices and based fruit drinks by their diversity of aromas and flavours and by their nutritional value. In such group, acerola appears as potentially attractive due to its high ascorbic acid content. The objective of this work was to develop a process for obtaining clarified and concentrated acerola
The reduction of the nitrate content in vegetable juices has an important effect on the total intake of nitrate by humans. Carrot puree containing 500 mg\\/1 nitrate was treated with immobilized cells of Halomonas spec, at 6°C. The nitrate was reduced within five hours quantitatively to nitrous oxide.Lactic acid fermentation by Leuconostoc mesenteroides performed after completion of the denitrification process
J. Emig; C. Meisel; G. Wolf; K. Gierschner; W. P. Hammes
The general objective of this research was to perform the lactic acid fermentative processes using different probiotic bacteria species unspecific to epiphytic microbiota of vegetables, with a view to achieve new knowledge concerning the possibility of developing and preservation their viability in vegetable juices. The carrots and the red beet were evaluated as potential substrat for the production of probiotic
Carmen Leane Nicolescu; Daniela Avram; Magda Gabriela; Bratu Iuliana Manea
The major dietary source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is fish, which is not widely consumed by children. There is concern, therefore, that children may not receive adequate DHA and so might benefit from dietary supplementation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of providing a supplement of microencapsulated algal DHA in juice. We assessed the effects
Keli M. Hawthorne; Steven A. Abrams; William C. Heird
We have created transgenic tomato fruits with over a 10-fold reduction in pectin methylesterase (PME) activity by expressing a PME antisense gene. Reduction in PME activity does not interfere with the fruit ripening and vegetative growth of plants, but is associated with increases in soluble and total solids, mol. wt. and methyl esterification of pectins, and modifies accumulation and partitioning
A. K. Handa; D. M. Tieman; K. K. Mishra; B. R. Thakur; R. K. Singh
The anti-yeast activities of four essential oils (EOs) from clary sage, juniper, lemon and marjoram against wild-type isolates of the food-related yeasts Geotrichum candidum, Pichia anomala, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe in malt extract (ME) medium, apple juice and milk were investigated. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for the EOs and their main components were determined and the checkerboard method was
Rentsenkhand Tserennadmid; Miklós Takó; László Galgóczy; Tamás Papp; Miklós Pesti; Csaba Vágvölgyi; Katalin Almássy; Judit Krisch
Cocaine is one of the drugs of abuse more frequently consumed in Spain. Furthermore, Spain due to its geographical position is used by trafficker's organizations as the port of entrance of cocaine in the European Union. We present here a case of a fatal intoxication caused by a mistake in the cocaine distribution net in our country. Cocaine was concealed in a tropical juice only sold by the Internet. PMID:21056879
García-Repetto, R; Giménez, M P; Martinez, M C; Soria, M L
Labetalol hydrochloride (HCl) is an effective antihypertensive drug. It is available in a tablet dosage form, which may be difficult to administer to geriatric and pediatric patients. The tablets can be suspended in various liquid vehicles, but its stability under these conditions is unknown. The objective of our study was to determine the stability of labetalol HCl in five liquid vehicles, in both plastic and glass prescription bottles, over a four-week period at room temperature and under refrigeration. Labetalol HCl tablets (Trandate, Glaxo) were triturated, and suspended in distilled water, simple syrup, apple juice, grape juice, and orange juice to approximate concentrations of 7-10 mg/mL. After filtration, the liquids were stored in five amber, plastic prescription bottles, and five amber, glass prescription bottles at 4 degrees C and 23 degrees C. The samples were collected at 0, 24, and 72 hours, and 1, 2, and 4 weeks after initiation of the study. Labetalol HCl was measured by an HPLC method. Because there was no substantial change in labetalol HCl concentration during the study period, the tablet dosage from can be reformulated, stored, and administered to elderly or pediatric patients as a liquid dosage form. PMID:2068828
... 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and Drugs...Canned FruitJuices and Beverages Â§ 146.135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from...
The composition of phenolic acids in various parts of mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana) was determined by GC and MS. The total content of phenolic acids, identified by GC-FID ranged from 265.7±12.7 (aril) to 5027.7±188.0 (peel) mg per kg of dry matter of sample. Ten phenolic acids were identified in mangosteen fruit. Of these, protocatechuic acid was the major phenolic acid
Ryszard Zadernowski; Sylwester Czaplicki; Marian Naczk
Polyphenol oxidase activities of lulo, mangosteen, Castilla blackberry, mango, apple guava, tree tomato, papaya, soursop,\\u000a banana passionfruit, giant granadilla, sweet granadilla, and passion fruit were determined and related to their physicochemical\\u000a properties. Mangosteen and lulo showed the highest activities (0.1435 and 0.1298 U?mL?1, respectively), while passion fruit and banana passionfruit had the lowest ones (0.0101 and 0.0093 U?mL?1). The two fruits with
Víctor Falguera; Andrea Milena Sánchez-Riaño; Juan Pablo Quintero-Cerón; Carlos Antonio Rivera-Barrero; Jonh Jairo Méndez-Arteaga; Albert Ibarz
This study evaluates the influence of information on the health benefits for acceptance of four exotic tropical fruitjuices: açaí, camu-camu, cajá and umbu. One hundred and six evaluators participated in the tests and sensory acceptability of the four juices in relation to the overall impression was assessed using a hedonic scale of nine points. Testing was conducted in three
Márcia C. T. R. Vidigal; Valéria P. R. Minim; Naiara B. Carvalho; Maria Patrícia Milagres; Aline C. A. Gonçalves
A total of 34 species belonging to 21 genera of fungi were recorded on passion fruits of both pure and hybrid origin in Uganda, however, the pure type exhibited wider spectrum (28 species and 16 genera) than the hybrid type (21 & 15). Also, yeasts (unidentified and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa) were also encountered in high numbers. Moreover, the mean count of all mycobiota obtained from the pure type was higher than that of hybrid, despite the bigger size of the later. Members of yeasts and Cladosporium followed by Phoma, Penicillium, Fusarium and Alternaria species dominated on passion fruits of pure origin, while only C. cladosporioides, F. solani and yeasts dominated on the hybrid type. Treatment with Na-hypochlorite exhibited inhibitory effects on the total mycobiotic propagules as well as the dominant species from fruits of both types. The current results, therefore, suggest the use of Na-hypochlorite to control the post-harvest mycobiota associated with passion fruits. Regarding the mycobiota contaminating passion juice, yeasts were found to be the major contaminants with Candida parapsilosis being the most common. Moulds constituted only a minor proportion with Acremonium strictum followed by Fusarium chlamydosporum, F. moniliforme, F. acuminatum and F. solani as the most dominant species. In the heat-treated juice samples, the counts of the most commonly encountered mycobiota (both yeasts and molds) were significantly inhibited or completely eliminated. Some unidentified Bacillus species were also recovered from the juice, however, their counts in the heated samples were increased but insignificantly. PMID:24039477
A total of 34 species belonging to 21 genera of fungi were recorded on passion fruits of both pure and hybrid origin in Uganda, however, the pure type exhibited wider spectrum (28 species and 16 genera) than the hybrid type (21 & 15). Also, yeasts (unidentified and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa) were also encountered in high numbers. Moreover, the mean count of all mycobiota obtained from the pure type was higher than that of hybrid, despite the bigger size of the later. Members of yeasts and Cladosporium followed by Phoma, Penicillium, Fusarium and Alternaria species dominated on passion fruits of pure origin, while only C. cladosporioides, F. solani and yeasts dominated on the hybrid type. Treatment with Na-hypochlorite exhibited inhibitory effects on the total mycobiotic propagules as well as the dominant species from fruits of both types. The current results, therefore, suggest the use of Na-hypochlorite to control the post-harvest mycobiota associated with passion fruits. Regarding the mycobiota contaminating passion juice, yeasts were found to be the major contaminants with Candida parapsilosis being the most common. Moulds constituted only a minor proportion with Acremonium strictum followed by Fusarium chlamydosporum, F. moniliforme, F. acuminatum and F. solani as the most dominant species. In the heat-treated juice samples, the counts of the most commonly encountered mycobiota (both yeasts and molds) were significantly inhibited or completely eliminated. Some unidentified Bacillus species were also recovered from the juice, however, their counts in the heated samples were increased but insignificantly.
...proportion of volatile fruit-flavor concentrate of the original juice or must from which the wine was... Juice, concentrated fruitjuice, or must processed at a concentrate plant is considered to be pure juice, concentrated fruit...
Hylocereus undatus and Hylocereus polyrhizus are two varieties of the commonly called pitaya fruits. The seeds were separated and the oil was extracted and analysed. Essential fatty acids, namely, linoleic acid and linolenic acid form a significant percentage of the unsaturated fatty acids of the seed oil extract. Both pitaya varieties exhibit two oleic acid isomers. Essential fatty acids are
Abdul Azis Ariffin; Jamilah Bakar; Chin Ping Tan; Russly Abdul Rahman; Roselina Karim; Chia Chun Loi
The aim of this work was to study the growth\\/survival of acid-adapted cells of Listeria monocytogenes, in orange juice and in minimally processed orange slices. The L. monocytogenes OML 45 behaviour into TSB (Tryptic Soy Broth) medium was evaluated at different pH values (between 3.7 and 6.7). The acid-adapted cells were obtained maintaining L. monocytogenes in TSB at pH 5.7
The use of visible and near infrared spectroscopy (Vis\\/NIRS) was explored as a tool to detect the citric acid and tartaric acid in orange juice. Calibration models were developed from high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as a reference method and Vis\\/NIRS data using partial least squares (PLS) regression with cross-validation. “Fingerprint” was investigated based on PLS loadings and regression coefficients,
The reasons for using lactic acid bacteria are to make food durable, to improve its taste and to maintain the nutritive,\\u000a physiological and hygienic value of the fermentation products. Sixteen strains of the genus Lactobacillus were tested on samples of white fresh cabbage and of a sterilized cabbage and carrot juice mixture. After 7 days of lactic\\u000a acid fermentation at
J. Karovi?ová; Milan Drdák; Gabriel Greif; Eva Hybenová
The colour of orange juices is one of the main factors related to their acceptability. Their colour is mainly due to carotenoids,\\u000a with the particularity that the major ones, the epoxycarotenoids, can isomerise into differently coloured isomers in the presence\\u000a of acid. Since acidity is one of the main characteristics of citrus, we have carried out a simple experiment to
Antonio J. Meléndez-Martínez; M. Luisa Escudero-Gilete; Isabel M. Vicario; Francisco J. Heredia
The effects of four fruitjuices, processed vegetable juice, orange peel, green tea and low dose vitamin C on endogenous N-nitrosation in 86 subjects from a high-risk area for gastric cancer in Moping County, China were studied using urinary excretion of N-nitrosoproline (NPRO) as an indicator. After ingestion of 300 mg L-proline, urinary excretion of NPRO was significantly increased from a baseline of 2.5 +/- 1.6 micrograms/day to 8.7 +/- 6.2 micrograms/day. (P < 0.001). Vitamin C (75 mg) administration significantly reduced NPRO formation (62.3%, P < 0.002) although NPRO excretion remained higher than the baseline level (4.2 +/- 1.3 vs 2.2 +/- 1.2 micrograms/day, P < 0.001). Intake of fruitjuices and green tea extracts (containing 75 mg vitamin C) or of orange peel powder (containing 3 mg vitamin C) together with 300 mg L-proline inhibited NPRO formation effectively to the baseline level or to levels significantly lower than the baseline level (P < 0.05-0.005). A processed juice of a number of vegetables (300 ml) significantly catalysed endogenous nitrosation (14.7 +/- 11.8 vs 9.4 +/- 4.7 micrograms/day, P < 0.05). Endogenous N-nitrosation was unaffected by the presence of intragastric lesions. The present study shows that endogenous nitrosation in this population is profoundly affected by environmental factors and that inhibitors, such as vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol and other non-nutritive compounds in the foods do inhibit endogenous nitrosation either synergistically or in an additive manner. The significance of fruits and vegetables in prevention of human cancers is discussed. PMID:8358285
Seventeen microbial species including 10 fungal taxa, two yeasts and five bacteria, were isolated from freshly prepared orange, guava and banana juices kept in open bottles at room temperature for 7 days. Eight different essential oils, from local herbs, were tested for their antimicrobial activity against these test organisms. The essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum and Origanum majorana were found to be highly effective against these microorganisms. Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the most prevalent microorganisms in juice, showed the highest resistance against these essential oils. GC-MS analysis showed that while e-citral, a'-myrcene, and z-citral represent the major components (75.1%) of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus; bezynen,1-methyl-4-(2-propenyl), 1,8-cineole and trans-a'-bisabolene were the main components (90.6%) of Ocimum basilicum; whereas 3-cyclohexen-1-01,4-methyl-1(1-methylethyl)-(CAS), c-terpinene and trans-caryophyllene represent the major components (65.1%) of Origanum majorana. These three essential oils were introduced into juices by two techniques namely, fumigation and direct contact. The former technique showed more fungicidal effect than the latter one against A. flavus, A. niger, and S. cerevisiae. The essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus by comparison to other test oils showed the strongest effect against these fungi with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1.5 µl/ml medium and a sublethal concentration of 1.0 µl/ml. The antimicrobial activity of this oil is thermostable at 121? for 30 min.
Sarhan, M. M.; Abu Shahla, A. N. K.; Abou El-Khair, E. K.
The use of pulsed high hydrostatic pressure was investigated as a possible approach to stabilize foodstuffs. The objective of this article was to investigate the effect of the main processing variables (pressure [150 to 300 MPa], temperature levels [25 to 50 degrees C], and pulse number [1 to 10]) on the sanitation of nonpasteurized clear Annurca apple juice as well as freshly-squeezed clear orange juice. The aim of the article was the optimization of the process parameters in step-wise pressure treatment (pressure holding time of each pulse: 60 s, compression rate: 10.5 MPa/s, decompression time: 2 to 5s). The shelf life of the samples, processed at optimized conditions, was evaluated in terms of microbiological stability and quality retention. According to our experimental results, the efficiency of pulsed high pressure processes depends on the combination of pulse holding time and number of pulses. The pulsed high pressure cycles have no additive or synergetic effect on microbial count. The efficacy of the single pulses decreases with the increase of the pulse number and pressure level. Therefore the first pulse cycle is more effective than the following ones. By coupling moderate heating to high pressure, the lethality of the process increases but thermal degradation of the products can be detected. The optimization of the process condition thus results in a compromise between the reduction of the pressure value, due to the synergetic temperature action, and the achievement of quality of the final production. The juices processed under optimal processing conditions show a minimum shelf life of 21 d at a storage temperature of 4 degrees C. PMID:20492291
A high performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) and a gas chromatography with a mass spectrometer (GC-MSD) are described for the determination of patulin (PAT) in apple juice. The limits of detection (DL) and quantification (QL) for the HPLC-DAD and GC-MSD method were found to be (DL=0.23?gkg?1 QL=1.2?gkg?1) and (DL=5.8?gkg?1 and QL=13.8?gkg?1), respectively. The recovery factors for HPLC-DAD
Fleshy fruitacidity is an important component of fruit organoleptic quality and is mainly due to the presence of malic and citric acids, the main organic acids found in most ripe fruits. The accumulation of these two acids in fruit cells is the result of several interlinked processes that take place in different compartments of the cell and appear to be under the control of many factors. This review combines analyses of transcriptomic, metabolomic, and proteomic data, and fruit process-based simulation models of the accumulation of citric and malic acids, to further our understanding of the physiological mechanisms likely to control the accumulation of these two acids during fruit development. The effects of agro-environmental factors, such as the source:sink ratio, water supply, mineral nutrition, and temperature, on citric and malic acid accumulation in fruit cells have been reported in several agronomic studies. This review sheds light on the interactions between these factors and the metabolism and storage of organic acids in the cell. PMID:23408829
Etienne, A; Génard, M; Lobit, P; Mbeguié-A-Mbéguié, D; Bugaud, C
A miniature thermal dissociation atmospheric chemical ionization (TDCI) source, coupled with LTQ-MS, has been developed for rapid trace detection of pesticide residues such as dimethoate in highly viscous fruitjuice samples. Instead of toxic organic solvents and the high electric field used in the conventional ionizations, an ionic liquid, a "green solvent", was employed to directly generate reagent ions in the TDCI process, followed by the proton or charge transfer with the analytes prior to the LTQ instrument for mass analysis. Trace amounts of dimethoate in fresh orange juices have been quantitatively detected, without any sample pretreatment or aid of high-pressure gas. A low limit of detection (LOD = 8.76 × 10(-11) g mL(-1)), acceptable relative standard deviation (RSD = 3.1-10.0%), and reasonable recoveries (91.2-102.8%) were achieved with this method for direct detection of dimethoate in highly viscous orange juice samples. The average analysis time for each single sample was less than 30 seconds. These experimental results showed that the miniature TDCI developed here is a powerful tool for the fast trace detection of pesticide residues in complex viscous fruitjuices, with the advantage of high sensitivity, high speed, and high-throughput, ease of operation, and so on. Because of no chemical contamination and high voltage damage to the analytes and the environment, the technique has promising applications for online quality monitoring in the area of food safety. PMID:23181260
The safety of an açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp enriched fruit and berry juice, MonaVie Active®, fortified with the functional ingredient, glucosamine, was studied. The beverage was found not to be mutagenic, clastogenic, cytotoxic, or genotoxic, as determined by the bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosomal aberration assay, mouse micronucleus assay, and mammalian cell gene mutation (L5178Y) assay. The single dose LD50 based on a 14-day acute oral toxicity study is greater than 20,000 mg/kg bw, the highest dose tested. In a repeat dose 90-day oral subchronic toxicity study by gavage, 220 animals were randomly assigned to a control group, an untreated group, or one of three experimental groups (10, 20 and 40 g/kg bw). No treatment-related significant changes in body weight, food and water consumption, ophthalmology, organ weights, urinanalysis, hematological and clinical chemistry, or gross pathology, were observed in surviving animals compared to the control groups. Three animals died midway through the observation period (male, 20 g/kg bw/day; male 40 g/kg bw/day; and, female, 10 g/kg bw/day). These animals died without preceding clinical symptoms, histopathological lesions, or evidence of injury to tissue or organs except for signs of suffocation/aspiration congestion, which was concluded to be due to problems with the gavage administration of the fluid test article, and not due to the test article itself. The NOEAL was determined to be 40 g/kg bw/day for male and female rats, which was the highest dose tested. Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) content averaged 21.7 ?g/100 g, comparable to amounts found in iceberg lettuce. In conclusion, the results provide additional experimental evidence that MonaVie Active® juice is non-toxic. PMID:20452390
Pyraclostrobin belongs to a new generation of fungicides widely used to preserve high valuable crops. In the present study, three monoclonal antibodies with different affinities to this modern strobilurin have been evaluated for their usefulness in the production of immunoaffinity columns suitable for the solid-phase extraction, concentration, and clean-up of residues from food commodities. Different immunosorbents were produced and characterized in terms of antibody immobilization efficiency, immunosorbent binding capacity, optimum elution conditions, and reusability. Covalent coupling of the antibodies to Sepharose-CNBr gel took place with high yield (over 90%), whereas the immunosorbent efficacy to retain the analyte (from 28 to 68%) was shown to depend on the amount and type of antibody immobilized on the support. As a matter of fact, columns prepared with the monoclonal antibody PYs5#14 were able to selectively bound up to 53 ?g of pyraclostrobin per gram of beads. Acetonitrile solutions were preferred over methanolic ones for analyte elution, and some immunosorbents could be reused at least 4-6 times provided that the amount of pyraclostrobin and the volume of sample did not overload the column. Effectiveness of the selected immunoaffinity column was evidenced by the development of an extraction procedure for pyraclostrobin residues from fruitjuices and further determination by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. A concentration factor of 50 times was achieved with the developed immunoaffinity column, which eventually resulted in a limit of quantification of 0.01 mg L(-1). Finally, quantitative recoveries were obtained on apple juice and red grape must samples spiked with pyraclostrobin from 0.01 to 1 mg L(-1). PMID:21477805
Human urine was collected over a 24 h period after the consumption of 250 mL of (i) water, (ii) orange juice, and (iii) orange juice plus 150 mL of full fat natural yoghurt. The orange juice contained 168 micromol of hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside and 18 micromol of naringenin-7-O-rutinoside. GC-MS analysis of the urine identified nine phenolic acids, five of which, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylhydracrylic acid, dihydroferulic acid, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylhydracrylic acid and 3-hydroxyhippuric acid, were associated with orange juice consumption indicating that they were derived from colonic catabolism of hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside. The overall 0-24 h excretion of the five phenolic acids was 6.7 +/- 1.8 micromol after drinking water and this increased significantly (p < 0.05) to 62 +/- 18 micromol, equivalent to 37% of the ingested flavanones, following orange juice consumption. When the orange juice was ingested with yoghurt excretion fell back markedly to 9.3 +/- 4.4 micromol. This was not due to a difference in mouth to caecum transit time, as measured with breath hydrogen production, though possibly there may have been a slowing of the bulk of the meal reaching the large intestine which may then have altered the catabolism of the flavanones to phenolic acids by the colonic microbiota. PMID:19415668
Roowi, Suri; Mullen, William; Edwards, Christine A; Crozier, Alan
Because of climatic restrictions, fruit production is concentrated in a relatively few states in the U.S. Among the factors presenting increasing challenges to fruit growers is air pollution. In contrast to herbaceous annual agricultural crops, woody perennial fruit plants are su...
An enrichment method has been modified for the determination of Al in animal milk and fruitjuices by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The samples were digested by wet ashing. 8-Hydroxyquinoline and cupferron were used as complexing reagents for adsorption of the Al complexes on activated carbon. The pH values for maximum recovery of Al were in the ranges 4.4–6.0
An immunomodulatory polysaccharide-rich substance (Noni-ppt) from the fruitjuice of Morinda citrifolia has been found to possess both prophylactic and therapeutic potentials against the immunomodulator sensitive Sarcoma 180 tumour system. The antitumour activity of Noni-ppt produced a cure rate of 25%-45% in allogeneic mice and its activity was completely abolished by the concomitant administration of specific inhi- bitors of macrophages
Eiichi Furusawa; Anne Hirazumi; Stephen Story; Jarakae Jensen
The influence of high intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) treatment (35 kV\\/cm, bipolar 4 ?s square wave pulses at 200 Hz) on the inactivation of Listeria innocua in fruitjuice–whole (FJ–WM) or skim milk (FJ–SM) beverages was assessed. As well, the effects of HIPEF or conventional thermal (90 °C 60 s) processing in terms of microbial and enzymatic stability and changes on physicochemical parameters of
Laura Salvia-Trujillo; Mariana Morales-de la Peña; M. Alejandra Rojas-Graü; Olga Martín-Belloso
The effects of high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) treatment (35 kV\\/cm, 4 ?s bipolar pulses at 200 Hz for 800 or 1400 ?s) on the microbial stability, quality parameters and antioxidant properties of a fruitjuice–soymilk (FJ–SM) beverage along the storage time at 4 °C were compared to those obtained by thermal pasteurization (90 °C, 60 s). HIPEF processing for 800 ?s ensured the microbial stability of the
M. Morales-de la Peña; L. Salvia-Trujillo; M. A. Rojas-Graü; O. Martín-Belloso
The determination of organophosphate (paraoxon, chlorpyrifos, diazinon) and carbamate (carbaryl, carbofuran) pesticides in spiked drinking water and fruitjuices was carried out using a photothermal biosensor. The biosensor consists of a cartridge containing immobilised enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) placed in a flow-injection analysis (FIA) manifold and a photothermal detector based on thermal lens spectrometry. With this approach, 0.2 ng\\/ml of paraoxon
Spoilage yeasts, identified asCandida pelliculosaandKloeckera apis, were isolated from fermented pasteurized pineapple juice, guava and passion fruit nectars, and studied for their heat resistance in relation to the pasteurization process of the beverages. The decimal reduction times (DT) obtained between 55 and 60°C forK. apisvaried from 1.41 to 2.49 min, and those forC. pelliculosaobtained between 60 and 75°C varied from
J Tchango Tchango; R Tailliez; P Eb; T Njine; J. P Hornez
Physicochemical studies of pomegranate fruits (Punica granatum) variety Taifi, including total seed juice extracted from unripe, half-ripe and full-ripe stages are reported. Edible portion of pomegranate (57.51% of total fruit wt.) comprised 63.58% of juice and 36.21% of seeds. Fresh juice contained 84.57% moisture, 14.1% sugar, 1.05% protein and 0.33% ash. Total protein, ascorbic acid, fat and phenolic compounds in
Objective: Epidemiological studies have shown that low plasma levels of antioxidant micronutrients, which are commonly found in fruit and vegetables, are associated with increased risk for diseases such as heart disease, cancer, metabolic disorders and the like. The aim of this study was to monitor the dietary habits of a group of healthy, middle-aged, men and women and to assess
Ingrid Kiefer; Peter Prock; Catherine Lawrence; John Wise; Wilfried Bieger; Peter Bayer; Michael Kunze; Anita Rieder
In this study, the effect of different anti-browning agents on the enzymatic browning in the cloudy apple juice from Amasya cultivar was compared by considering colour changes. For this purpose, l-cysteine, kojic acid and 4-hexylresorcinol were used at different concentrations in the apple juice (0–4 mM). They were found as effective inhibitors. The combination of l-cysteine, kojic acid and 4-hexylresorcinol
It has been suggested that some food components, such as bioflavonoids, affect the bioavailability of ascorbic acid in humans. Since little is known in Japan about the effective intake of this dietary requirement, we tested young Japanese males after the ingestion of commercial ascorbic acid or acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) juice to compare the quantities absorbed and excreted. Healthy Japanese subjects received a single oral dose of ascorbic acid solution (50, 100, 200 or 500 mg) and received distilled water as a reference at intervals of 14 d or longer. All subjects were collected blood and urine until 6 h after ingestion and evaluated for time-dependent changes in plasma and urinary ascorbic acid levels. Predictably, the area under the curve (AUC) values in plasma and urine after ingestion increased dose-dependently. Next, each subject received diluted acerola juice containing 50 mg ascorbic acid. Likewise, their plasma and urinary ascorbic acid concentrations were measured. In plasma, the AUC value of ascorbic acid after ingestion of acerola juice tended to be higher than that from ascorbic acid alone. In contrast, the urinary excretion of ascorbic acid at 1, 2 and 5 h after ingestion of acerola juice were significantly less than that of ascorbic acid. These results indicate that some component of acerola juice favorably affected the absorption and excretion of ascorbic acid. PMID:22040889
A newly isolated sucrose-tolerant, lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus sp. strain FCP2, was grown on sugar-cane juice (125 g sucrose l?1, 8 g glucose l?1 and 6 g fructose l?1) for 5 days and produced 104 g lactic acid l?1 with 90% yield. A higher yield (96%) and productivity (2.8 g l?1 h?1) were obtained when strain FCP2 was cultured on 3% w\\/v (25 g sucrose l?1, 2 g glucose l?1 and 1 g fructose l?1) sugar-cane juice for 10 h. Various cheap nitrogen sources such as
In model experiments using the Salmonella\\/reversion assay (Ames test) and the carcinogen 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), antimutagenic activities against IQ had been detected in about 70% of 62 fruit and vegetable species [Edenharder, Kurz, John, Burgard and Seeger (1994) Fd Chem. Toxic. 32, 443–459]. However, thermal stability of the antimutagenic factors varied considerably. As hydrostatic pressure is an alternative to heat in
Products labelled as containing extracts from two mushrooms (cordyceps plus reishi) and the juices from açaí, goji, mangosteen, noni, pomegranate, and sea buckthorn have been analysed for 174 different pesticides, using the validated QuEChERS method for sample preparation and electrospray LC-MS/MS in the positive ion mode for analysis. Pesticides were found in 10 of the 21 samples analysed. Most pesticides found were below the tolerance levels (1-6 ?g/g, depending on the pesticide), but some were not. This included boscalid, dimethomorph, iprovalicarb, pyridaben, pyrimethanil, and imazalil, for which there is no tolerance reported or zero tolerance in any fruit. However, genuine açaí that was harvested in the state of Pará and lyophilised in Rio de Janeiro had no detectable pesticides, when analysed by both LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS, which can detect 213 more pesticides and industrial chemicals. Likewise no pesticides were found in one sample each of cordyceps plus reishi, sea buckthorn and noni. PMID:23442701
Tran, Kevin; Eide, David; Nickols, Susan M; Cromer, Michele R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando; Smith, Robert E
In the present work, thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (TS-FF-AAS) was employed for Cu and Zn determination in bovine milk and fruitjuice samples without any pretreatment. TS-FF-AAS system was optimized and a sample volume of 300mul was injected into the carrier stream (0.014moll(-1) HNO(3) at a flow rate of 0.4mlmin(-1)), and it was introduced into a hot Ni tube. The detection limits obtained for Cu and Zn in aqueous solution were 2.2 and 0.91mugl(-1), respectively, and 3.2mugl(-1) for Cu in a medium containing water-soluble tertiary amines. The relative standard deviations varied from 2.7 to 4.2% (n=12). Sample preparation was carried out by simple dilution in water or in water-soluble tertiary amines medium. Accuracy was checked by performing addition-recovery experiments as well as by using reference materials (whole milk powder, non-fat milk powder, and infant formula). Recoveries varied from 97.7 to 105.3% for Cu and Zn. All results obtained for reference materials were in agreement with certified values at a 95% confidence level. PMID:18969689
Nascentes, Clésia C; Arruda, Marco A Z; Nogueira, Ana Rita A; Nóbrega, Joaquim A
The diffusion properties of garcinia fruitacids (Garcinia atroviridis) were investigated in a batch reactor. The influences of two variables were studied: material thickness and extraction temperature. Stirring was continuous to assure turbulent flow inside the vessel. Garcinia fruits were sliced into infinite slabs of two different thicknesses, 2.5 and 4.0 mm. Each group of a given thickness was then
A second-order derivative UV spectrophotometric method for determination of vitamin C [ascorbic acid (AA)] content in a variety of natural samples is described. The method is based on the measurement of a peak–baseline amplitude in the second derivative of the AA spectrum at 267.5 nm. The following corresponding regression equation was obtained within the concentration range 2×10 -5 to 1×10 -4 M
Lidija B. Pfendt; Vesna L. Vukašinovic; Nada Z. Blagojevic; Mirjana P. Radojevic
A single strand hollow fiber membrane (SSHFM) was developed for the on-line sample preparation for the flow based colorimetric determination of free iron levels in fruitjuices. The SSHFM, as used, could separate Fe(2+) from some spectrophotometric interfering agents in the fruitjuice, such as pigments, solid suspensions and polysaccharides. The screening process was likely to have been primarily based on dialysis, wherein only ions or molecules that are smaller than the pores of the membrane can diffuse through while relatively larger molecules or particles could not. Two flow modes, a continuous and stopped flow, were studied. Factors that influenced the sensitivity (%dialysis) of the method, such as the flow rate, sample volume, flow direction and stopped flow time, were optimized. The stopped flow mode was found to be relatively more sensitive than the continuous flow mode and displayed a linear range of 1-30 mg L(-1) Fe(2+), a limit of detection of 0.5 mg L(-1), and a % relative standard deviation of less than 2% (n=8) for the analysis of 10 mg L(-1) Fe(2+) spiked grape juice samples. A sample throughput of 24 samples h(-1), was attained without any further sample treatment. PMID:21641442
The major dietary source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is fish, which is not widely consumed by children. There is concern, therefore, that children may not receive adequate DHA and so might benefit from dietary supplementation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of providing a supplement of microencapsulated algal DHA in juice. We assessed the effects of two levels of DHA supplementation on the plasma phospholipid DHA content of healthy 4- to 6-year-old and 7- to 12-year-old children who were randomly assigned to consume 180 mL juice containing either 50 mg (lower dose) or 100 mg (higher dose) DHA daily for 6 weeks. Plasma phospholipid DHA content (mole % of total fatty acids) was measured before and after 6 weeks of daily juice consumption. Because there are no data for plasma phospholipid DHA content in healthy children, data were compared to that of breastfed infants. At baseline, plasma phospholipid DHA content was lower in both age groups and dose groups than observed in breastfed infants. It increased significantly in both dose groups, but more so in the higher dose group of both age groups (P<0.05, overall mean+/-standard deviation: 3.72+/-0.66 vs 4.64+/-0.77); reaching levels similar to or greater than content of breastfed infants. Thus, DHA supplementation of juice at either 50 mg/day or 100 mg/day for 6 weeks was effective in increasing plasma phospholipid DHA contents of children. PMID:19328267
Hawthorne, Keli M; Abrams, Steven A; Heird, William C
The effects of heat treatment (evaporation and excessive heating), and microbial contamination (Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium expansum and Lactobacillus plantarum) as sources of fumaric acid formation in apple juice concentrates were investigated. Fumaric acid formed in apple juice did not exceed 1.0 mg l(-1) during both commercial-scale evaporation and laboratory-scale excessive heat treatment, indicating that malic dehydration is not the primary source of fumaric acid formation. However, R. stolonifer and L. plantarum produced 18.23 +/- 0.82 and 5.39 +/- 0.31 mg l(-1) fumaric acid as determined in the raw juice obtained from contaminated apples after 5 days of incubation. The mean fumaric acid content of apple juice concentrates manufactured in 2000, 2001 and 2002 were determined as 4.9 +/- 1.9, 5.7 +/- 2.8 and 4.1 +/- 2.6 mg l(-1), respectively. The overall results suggest that the primary source of fumaric acid in apple juice concentrate is the use of apples decayed by certain microorganisms capable of producing fumaric acid. PMID:15370835
The effects of juice matrix composition on the phytochemical stability of açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) were evaluated by contrasting natural clarified juice systems with isolated polyphenolic and anthocyanin fractions, in the presence or absence of ascorbic acid (500mg\\/l) under accelerated storage conditions (37°C). Polyphenolic (anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin polyphenolics) and anthocyanin fractions were isolated using C18 Sep-Pak columns and then re-dissolved
Lisbeth A. Pacheco-palencia; Palo Hawken; Stephen T. Talcott
In previous studies, we demonstrated the feasibility of using electrodialysis with a bipolar–anionic configuration to quickly inactivate the enzyme polyphenol oxidases and prevent the enzymatic browning of cloudy apple juice. The approach consisted of reducing temporarily the pH of cloudy apple juice to 2.0 then adjusting back to its initial value. However, losses in malic acid (19.8%) and sugars (9.7%)
Anh Lam Quoc; Martin Mondor; François Lamarche; Joseph Makhlouf
The objective of this study was to evaluate the acid resistance of Salmonella spp. adapted in juices stored under refrigeration and room temperatures to simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 1.5). Five Salmonella serovars, Agona, Gaminara, Michigan, Montevideo, and Poona were used in this study. Apple, orange, and tomato juices inoculated with five serovars were stored at refrigeration (7°C) and room
The objective of this study was to develop a deterministic modelling approach for non-enzymatic browning (NEB) and ascorbic acid (AA) degradation in orange juice during ultrasound processing. Freshly squeezed orange juice was sonicated using a 1500W ultrasonic processor at a constant frequency of 20kHz and processing variables of amplitude level (24.4–61.0?m), temperature (5–30°C) and time (0–10min). The rate constants of
Vasilis Valdramidis; Patrick Cullen; Brijesh Tiwari; Colm O’Donnell
The quantitative fate of chlorogenic acid (ChA) during enzymatic browning of potato juice was investigated. Potato juice was prepared in water without the use of any antibrowning agent (OX treatment). As a control, a potato juice was prepared in the presence of NaHSO(3) (S control). To study the composition of phenolic compounds in potato in their native states, also a potato extract was made with 50% (v/v) methanol containing 0.5% (v/v) acetic acid (MeOH control). Water-soluble low molecular weight fractions (LMWFs) and high molecular weight fractions (HMWFs) from S and OX extracts were obtained by ultrafiltration and dialysis, respectively. Pellets obtained after the OX treatment and the S and MeOH controls were also analyzed for ChA content. Whereas in the S-LMWF all ChA was converted to sulfonic acid adducts, no free ChA was found in the OX-LMWF, indicating its high reactivity upon enzymatic browning. Analysis of protein in the HMWFs showed a higher content of "reacted" ChA in OX (49.8 ± 7.1 mg ChA/100 g potato DW) than in S (14.4 ± 1.5 mg ChA/100 g potato DW), as evidenced by quinic acid release upon alkaline hydrolysis. The presence of quinic acid in S-HMWF was unexpected, but a mass balance incorporating the ChA content of LMWF, HMWF, and pellet for the three extractions suggested that ChA might have been attached to polymeric material, soluble in the aqueous environment of S but not in that of MeOH. Size exclusion chromatography, combined with proteolysis, revealed that ChA reacted with patatin and protease inhibitors to produce brown soluble complexes. PMID:23360289
Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Gruppen, Harry
...Specific Standardized Canned FruitJuices and Beverages Â§ 146.187 Canned prune juice. (a) Canned prune juice is the food prepared from a water...prune solids may be adjusted by the concentration, dilution, or both,...
...Specific Standardized Canned FruitJuices and Beverages Â§ 146.187 Canned prune juice. (a) Canned prune juice is the food prepared from a water...prune solids may be adjusted by the concentration, dilution, or both,...
...2009-01-01 false Method of juice extraction. 51.1179 Section 51...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION...51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The juice used in the...
...2010-01-01 false Method of juice extraction. 51.1179 Section 51...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION...51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The juice used in the...
Soursop (Annona muricata L.) is a typical fruit of the Brazilian Northeast states; the fruit has a green skin and an aromatic white pulp, and is principally consumed as a juice. It is also used for preparation of beverages, syrups, shakes and ice creams. The knowledge of the thermal properties of soursop juice is essential for the food industries, especially
1. In tropical forests, the adults of many butterfly species feed on fruits rather than nectar from flowers and have long life spans. Rotting fruit and nectar differ from each other in many respects, including sources of amino acids and microbial life. If amino acids in the adult diet can be used for reproduction, this may have facilitated the evolution of extended life spans in this guild. 2. This issue was addressed by investigating effects of banana, yeast, and amino acids in the adult diet of the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera) on longevity and female reproductive output in two experiments. 3. Results showed that in the fruit-feeding butterfly B. anynana: (i) banana juice, but not sliced banana or added amino acids extend life span compared with a sugar solution of similar composition; (ii) compared with this sugar solution, other cohorts (banana juice-amino acid enriched) did not have significantly higher reproductive outputs; (iii) yeast does not represent a valuable source of nutrients; (iv) caloric restriction may cause decreased life span and rate of reproduction; and (v) increased rates of reproduction have a life span cost.
Molleman, Freerk; Ding, Jimin; Wang, Jane-Ling; Brakefield, Paul M.; Carey, James R.; Zwaan, Bas J.
Dietary supplements have been suggested in the prevention of the common cold, but previous investigations have been inconsistent. The present study was designed to determine the preventive effect of a dietary supplement from fruits and vegetables on common cold symptoms. In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, healthcare professionals (mainly nursing staff aged 18-65 years) from a university hospital in Berlin, Germany, were randomised to four capsules of dietary supplement (Juice Plus+®) or matching placebo daily for 8 months, including a 2-month run-in period. The number of days with moderate or severe common cold symptoms within 6 months (primary outcome) was assessed by diary self-reports. We determined means and 95 % CI, and differences between the two groups were analysed by ANOVA. A total of 529 subjects were included into the primary analysis (Juice Plus+®: 263, placebo: 266). The mean age of the participants was 39·9 (sd 10·3) years, and 80 % of the participants were female. The mean number of days with moderate or severe common cold symptoms was 7·6 (95 % CI 6·5, 8·8) in the Juice Plus+® group and 9·5 (8·4, 10·6) in the placebo group (P = 0·023). The mean number of total days with any common cold symptoms was similar in the Juice Plus+® and in the placebo groups (29·4 (25·8, 33·0) v. 30·7 (27·1, 34·3), P = 0·616). Intake of a dietary supplement from fruits and vegetables was associated with a 20 % reduction of moderate or severe common cold symptom days in healthcare professionals particularly exposed to patient contact. PMID:20727236
Aim A double-blind randomized controlled trial to determine whether dietary supplementation with fruit/vegetable/berry juice powder concentrates, simultaneously with non-surgical periodontal therapy, improved 2-month treatment outcomes. Methods Volunteers with chronic periodontitis were randomly assigned to one of three groups: fruit/vegetable (FV), fruit/vegetable/berry (FVB) or placebo. Supplements were taken daily during non-surgical debridement and maintenance and outcomes assessed at 2, 5 and 8 months after completion. Primary outcomes were mean probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment gain, % sites bleeding on probing (% BOP) at 2 months. Adherence and plasma ?-carotene were determined. Results Sixty-one nutritionally replete (by serum biochemistry) volunteers enrolled and 60 (n = 20 per arm) completed the 2-month review. Clinical outcomes improved in all groups at 2 months, with additional improvement in PPD versus placebo for FV (p < 0.03). Gingival crevicular fluid volumes diminished more in supplement groups than placebo (FVB; p < 0.05) at 2 months, but not at later times. The % BOP (5 months) and cumulative plaque scores (8 months) were lowered more in the FV group (p < 0.05). Conclusions Adjunctive juice powder concentrates appear to improve initial pocket depth reductions in nutritionally replete patients, where plasma micronutrient bioavailability is attainable. Definitive multicentre studies in untreated and treated patients are required to ascertain the clinical significance of such changes.
Chapple, Iain L C; Milward, Michael R; Ling-Mountford, Nicola; Weston, Paul; Carter, Kevin; Askey, Keeley; Dallal, Gerard E; De Spirt, Silke; Sies, Helmut; Patel, Dina; Matthews, John B
This study has been carried out to assess the performance of a combined system consisting of an anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor followed by a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for treatment of fruit-juice industry wastewater at a temperature of 26 degrees C. Three experimental runs were conducted in this investigation. In the first experiment, a single-stage AH reactor was operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10.2 h and organic loading rate (OLR) of 11.8 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). The reactor achieved a removal efficiency of 42% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 50.8% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), 50.3% for volatile fatty acids (VFA) and 56.4% for total suspended solids (TSS). In the second experiment, two AH reactors connected in series achieved a higher removal efficiency for COD (67.4%), BOD5 (77%), and TSS (71.5%) at a total HRT of 20 h and an OLR of 5.9 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). For removal of the remaining portions of COD, BOD5 and TSS from the effluent of the two-stage AH system, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated as a post-treatment unit. The reactor achieved a substantial reduction in total COD, resulting in an average effluent concentration of 50 mg L(-1) at an HRT of 11 h and OLR of 5.3 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). Almost complete removal of total BOD5 and oil and grease was achieved, i.e. 10 mg L(-1) and 1.2 mg L(-1), respectively, remained in the final effluent of the SBR. PMID:22629614
Twenty protein ?-amino acids have been used to detect adulterations in orange juices from Spanish oranges. An analytical method based on the use of normal-phase liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry has been performed for detection and quantification of these compounds in this complex matrix. MS and MS\\/MS parameters were optimized and most abundant product ion of each amino acid
J. L. Gómez-Ariza; M. J. Villegas-Portero; V. Bernal-Daza
Two cultivars (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck PO 51 and PO 52) of Malaysian pomelo juices were studied by examining their physicochemical properties (i.e. pH, °Brix and titratable acidity), volatile and non-volatile components (sugars and organic acids). Using solvent extraction and headspace solid-phase microextraction, 49 and 65 volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer/flame ionisation detector, respectively. Compared to pink pomelo juice (cultivar PO 52), white pomelo juice (cultivar PO 51) contained lower amount of total volatiles but higher terpenoids. Descriptive sensory evaluation indicated that white pomelo juice was milder in taste especially acidity. Furthermore, principal component analysis and partial least square regression revealed a strong correlation in pomelo juices between their chemical components and some flavour attributes (i.e. acidic, fresh, peely and sweet). Hence, this research enabled a deeper insight into the flavour of this unique citrus fruit. PMID:22980835
Cheong, Mun Wai; Liu, Shao Quan; Zhou, Weibiao; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin
...combination of fruitjuice ingredients is extracted from apple, crabapple, pineapple, or two or all of such fruits. (9) Cinnamon flavoring, other than artificial flavoring, and artificial red coloring in case the fruitjuice ingredient or...
Fruitjuices are among the top 10 products occupying grocery store shelf space. They are also one of the top five consumption patterns of fruits and vegetables. There is a strong potential for growth in blended juices and juice-based beverages. A study was conducted to evaluate the potential for mayhaw and muscadine juices to compete in this growing market. Mayhaws
...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen orange juice. 146.137 Section 146.137 Food and...FruitJuices and Beverages Â§ 146.137 Frozen orange juice. (a) Frozen orange juice is orange juice as defined in Â§ 146.135,...
...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food and...FruitJuices and Beverages Â§ 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as...
...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food and...FruitJuices and Beverages Â§ 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice as...
The use of date juice as a substrate for lactic acid production was investigated. Various nitrogen sources were compared with yeast extract for efficient lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus. Among different nitrogen sources added to date juice (yeast extract, ammonium sulfate, tryptic soy, urea, peptone, and casein hydrolysate), yeast extract was the most efficient. The effect of
Aicha Nancib; Nabil Nancib; Djalal Meziane-Cherif; Abdelhafid Boubendir; Michel Fick; Joseph Boudrant
In the present study, the stability of patulin in an aqueous juice-like model system was investigated. At acidic pH, the presence of ascorbic acid reduced the stability of patulin. After 34 days, patulin was reduced to 30% of its initial concentration in the presence of ascorbic acid compared to 68–71% in samples without ascorbic acid. Conditions during storage (presence of
Resistance to the antibiotic nalidixic acid has been used as a selective marker for studies of pathogen-inoculated fruits and vegetables. However, resistance to this antibiotic has been shown to influence the sensitivity of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to ionizing radiation. To determine the ubiquity of...
In this study, ionic liquid (IL) supported magnetic dispersive solid-phase microextraction was developed and a systematic investigation was conducted on imidazolium ILs for their extraction performance. This nano-based pretreatment procedure was then applied for the determination of acaricides in fruitjuice samples for the first time. A feature of this technique is that the commonly laborious chemical modification of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was skillfully circumvented. Because of the combination of ILs, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, and dispersive MNP solid-phase microextraction, the extraction efficiency can be significantly improved using commercial MNPs. Parameters of the extraction method were investigated by one-factor-at-a-time approach. The optimal experimental conditions were as follows: emulsification for 2 min by sonication with the addition of 50 ?L [C6 MIM][NTf2 ] in the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction step and vortexing for 90 s after adding 40 mg spherical barium ferrite nanoparticles (20 nm). The desorption time was 2 min. Good linearity (0.5-500 ng/mL) and detection limits within the range of 0.05-0.53 ng/mL were achieved. The application of the proposed method was demonstrated by the analysis of real fruitjuice samples, in which recoveries between 85.1 and 99.6% were obtained. PMID:23894018
This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of a juice blend (JB), MonaVie Active, containing a mixture of fruits and berries with known antioxidant activity, including acai, a palm fruit, as the predominant ingredient. The phytochemical antioxidants in the JB are primarily in the form of anthocyanins, predominantly cyanidin 3-rutoside, cyanidin 3-diglycoside, and cyanidin
Gitte S. Jensen; Xianli Wu; Kelly M. Patterson; Janelle Barnes; Steve G. Carter; Larry Scherwitz; Robert Beaman; John R. Endres; Alexander G. Schauss
Prices and their margins for 24 processed fruit and vegetable products sold in selected major cities are examined. Retail prices, processor prices, farm values, the wholesaler and retailer margins and the processor margins of most processed fruits and veg...
Kinetics of the loss of ascorbic acid (AA) in local lemon juice of 9° and 50° Brix stored at 25, 35, and 45°C for 4 months have been investigated. The results indicate that increases of concentrations and temperatures increase the rate of AA degradation. The calculated values of activation energies (E?) and frequency factors (A) at different Brix imply that
Dietary interventions involving antioxidants are of interest for reducing inflammation, improving joint motion, and altering pain perception. We evaluated the effect of oral consumption of a fruit and berry blend on pain and range of motion (ROM). This open-label clinical pilot study involved 14 study participants with limitations in ROM that was associated with pain and affected daily living. Participants included but were not limited to those with age-related osteoarthritis. Study participants consumed 120 mL MonaVie Active® fruitjuice, predominantly containing açai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and other fruit concentrates, daily for 12 weeks. Study participants were assessed at baseline and 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks by structured nurse interviews, pain and activities of daily living (ADL) questionnaires, blood samples, and ROM assessment. Pain was scored by using a visual analogue scale. ROM was assessed by using dual digital inclinometry as recommended by American Medical Association guidelines. Consumption of the juice resulted in significant pain reduction, improved ROM measures, and improvement in ADLs. Serum antioxidant status, as monitored by the cell-based antioxidant protection in erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay, was improved within 2 weeks and continued to improve throughout the 12 weeks of study participation (P<.01). The inflammatory marker C-reactive protein was reduced at 12 weeks, but this change did not reach statistical significance. Lipid peroxidation decreased mildly at 12 weeks. The antioxidant status, as measured by the CAP-e bioassay, showed the best correlation with improvements in physical well-being (pain, ROM, and ADL). The significant association among increased antioxidant status, improved ROM, and pain reduction warrants further study. PMID:21470042
Jensen, Gitte S; Ager, David M; Redman, Kimberlee A; Mitzner, Marcie A; Benson, Kathleen F; Schauss, Alexander G
The liquid-liquid microextraction (LLME) was developed for extracting sudan dyes from red wine and fruitjuice. Room temperature ionic liquid was used as the extraction solvent. The target analytes were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The extraction parameters were optimized. The optimal conditions are as follows: volume of [C(6)MIM][PF(6)] 50 ?L; the extraction time 10 min; pH value of the sample solution 7.0; NaCl concentration in sample solution 5%. The extraction recoveries for the analytes in red wine and fruit samples are 86.79-108.28 and 68.54-85.66%, whereas RSDs are 1.42-5.12 and 1.43-6.19%, respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.428 and 1.426 ng/mL for sudan I, 0.938 and 3.127 ng/mL for sudan II, 1.334 and 4.445 ng/mL for sudan III, 1.454 and 4.846 ng/mL for sudan IV, respectively. Compared with conventional liquid-liquid extraction (CLLE) and ultrasonic extraction (UE), when LLME was applied, the sample amount was less (LLME: 4 mL; CLLE: 10 mL; UE: 10 mL), the extraction time was shorter (LLME: 15 min; CLLE: 110 min; UE: 50 min) and the extraction solvent amount was less (LLME: 0.05 mL IL; CLLE: 15 mL hexane; UE: 20 mL hexane). The proposed method offers a simple, rapid and efficient sample preparation for determining sudan dyes in red wine and fruitjuice samples. PMID:21656676
Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is an important factor in human gastric disorders, including chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcers, intestinal metaplasia and cancer. Since epidemiologic studies overwhelmingly agree on a protective influence of fruits and vegetables in reducing the risk of gastric neoplasia and processed foods made from Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. (Japanese apricot or "Ume" in Japanese) are traditionally known for their miscellaneous medical effects, in the present study we investigated the efficacy of a fruit-juice concentrate of Japanese apricot (CJA) in the glandular stomach of Hp-infected Mongolian gerbils. Hp-inoculated gerbils were given CJA in their drinking water at concentrations of 1 and 3% for 10 weeks. The microscopic scores for gastritis and mucosal hyperplasia in the CJA groups were significantly lower than in the Hp-inoculated control group, with dose-dependence. Real-time PCR was performed to quantitate Hp by demonstrating urease A gene amount using gerbils glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene as an internal control. Average relative urease A gene dosage in the glandular stomach in the 1 and 3% CJA and Hp-inoculated control groups was 26.6 +/- 11.6% (average +/- SE), 30.3 +/- 10.5%, 100 +/- 40.9%, respectively, the fruit-juice concentrate causing significant lowering (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively, with 1 and 3%). These findings suggest that suppressive effects on gastric cancer development might also be expected as a result of decreased numbers of Hp and improvement of Hp-induced chronic active gastritis on administration of CJA. PMID:16235996
Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC) was developed to estimate dietary intake in a school meal intervention study among 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The present study validates self-reported fruit, juice and vegetable (FJV) intakes in 8- to 11-year-old children by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported their diet, the children's school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self-reported food and FJV consumption at school lunch was measured in terms of matches, intrusion, omission and faults, when compared with images and weights of lunch intake. Self-reported intake of FJV was significantly correlated with the total carotenoid concentration (0·58) (P< 0·01). Fruit and juice consumption showed higher correlations than vegetables with plasma carotenoid concentration (0·38 and 0·42 v. 0·33) (P< 0·01). A total of 82 % of the participants fell into the same or adjacent quartiles when cross-classified by FJV intake and carotenoids biomarkers. WebDASC attained 82 % reporting matches overall and a higher percentage match for reporting fruits compared with beverages. The present study indicated that WebDASC can be used to rank 8- to 11-year-old Danish children according to their intake of FJV overall and at school meals. PMID:23181984
Citrus fruits of different species and cultivars, (“Red blush” grapefruit, “Palazzelli” mandarin-type fruit, “Minneola” tangelo and “Salustiana” and “Shamouti” orange) were minimally processed as segments or juices and cold-stored for up to 12 or 15 days, respectively. The flavanone glycosides, ascorbic acid (AA) content and antioxidant capacity were determined during storage. Minimal processing had almost no effect on the main
Alessandra Del Caro; Antonio Piga; Vincenzo Vacca; Mario Agabbio
We report a study designed to investigate the influence of fruitacids (in particular, citric and malic acid) on people’s perception of the identity and the intensity of a variety of different fruit-flavored solutions. Participants had to identify the flavor of fruit-flavored drinks that were colored yellow, grey, orange, red, or else were presented as colorless solutions. The participants also
Massimiliano Zampini; Emma Wantling; Nicola Phillips; Charles Spence
The cashew fruit (Anacardium occidentale L.) has been used as a promising agricultural resource for the production of low-molecular weight (M(W)) hyaluronic acid (HA) (10(4)-10(5) Da). The cashew juice is a rich source of vitamin C containing, 1.2-2.0 g L(-1). This work explores the effects of the initial concentration of the ascorbate on the solid fermentation of the juice-moisturized bagasse from the cashew apple fruit. The results show that the M(W) reduction of HA is proportional to the initial ascorbate concentration. The presence of ascorbate did not influence the Streptococcus zooepidemicus metabolism. However, the HA productivity was increased from 0.18 to 0.28 mg g(-1) h(-1) when the ascorbate concentration ranged from 1.7 to 10 mg mL(-1). These findings contribute to the controlled production of HA in a low M(W) range, which is important in cell signalization, angiogenesis and nanoparticles production. PMID:22806044
de Macedo, André Casimiro; Santana, Maria Helena Andrade
Numerous compounds, many of them osmolytes, were quantified in natural juices and in frozen concentrate juices from fruits of plants of the Citrus genus. L-proline, N-methyl-L-proline (hygric acid), N,N-dimethyl-L-proline (stachydrine), 4-hydroxy-L-prolinebetaine (betonicine), 4-hydroxy-L-proline, ?-aminobutyric acid (Gaba), 3-carboxypropyltrimethylammonium (GabaBet), N-methylnicotinic acid (trigonelline), and choline in the fruitjuices of yellow orange, blood orange, lemon, mandarin, bitter orange (Citrus aurantium), chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia), and grapefruit were analyzed by sensitive HPLC-ESI-tandem mass spectrometry procedure. It was found that the most represented osmolytes in the juices, that is, L-proline, stachydrine, and betonicine, can be quantified with minimal sample preparation and short analysis time (about 1 min) also by flow injection analysis (FIA) ESI-MS/MS with the same results as obtained by HPLC ESI-MS/MS. In all of the juices, discrete amounts of choline and trigonelline were present. Conversely, GabaBet was always below detection limits. Notably, N-methyl-L-proline and 4-hydroxy-L-prolinebetaine, which were discovered for the first time in the juice of bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poit), are also present in all of the citrus juices examined. PMID:21838291
In this study mango juice fermentation at laboratory scale with controlled inoculation using selected yeast strain was performed (Saccharomyces cerevisiae 101). Effect of fermentation conditions (temperature, pH, SO2 and aeration) on wine fermentation was evaluated based on yeast growth, duration, fermentation rate and volatile composition. The composition of the major volatile compounds with low boiling points was determined by gas
The effects of externally applied electric field during cross-flow ultrafiltration of synthetic juice (mixture of sucrose and pectin) are studied and the gel thicknesses are measured optically. The introduction of the electric field is found to be quite effective in enhancing the permeate flux due to the electrophoresis of the gel forming pectin molecules away from the membrane surface. A
...vegetable, or the product contains color and flavor that gives the beverage...vegetable juice, but the labeling or color and flavor of the beverage represents...vegetable, or the product contains color and flavor that give the beverage the appearance and...
Global apple production is forecast up 8 percent, while trade is forecast 5 percent higher on strong demand from the European Union (EU). Global apple juice concentrate (AJC) exports are expected to tumble 25 percent as China plans to slash its production...
This study was designed to determine whether a soluble dietary fiber supplement containing gum arabic and pectin in apple juice would lower serum lipids in 110 hypercholesterolemic men and women. Subjects were stabilized on an American Heart Association Phase I Diet for 8 wk. Those with elevated low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, despite dietary modification, continued to follow the diet
Michael H. Davidson; Lynn D. Dugan; Jill Stocki; Mary R. Dicklin; Kevin C. Maki; Frances Coletta; Richard Cotter; Max McLeod; Kenneth Hoersten
A Gram-positive, endospore-forming, lactic acid bacterium was isolated from spoiled orange juice. The organism, strain QC81-06(T), grew microaerobically or anaerobically at 30-45 degrees C (optimum 35 degrees C) and pH 3.5-5.5 (optimum pH 4.5), and produced acid from various sugars. D-Lactic acid was produced. It contained menaquinone-7 as the major isoprenoid quinone. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 47.5 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids of the strain were iso-C(16 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(17 : 0). Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene and gyrB gene (DNA gyrase B subunit gene) revealed that strain QC81-06(T) clustered with Sporolactobacillus species but the strain was clearly distinct from other Sporolactobacillus species with significant bootstrap values. The levels of 16S rRNA gene and gyrB gene sequence similarities between strain QC81-06(T) and the other strains of the cluster were 96.0-97.0 % and 75.1-77.2 %, respectively. On the basis of these results, strain QC81-06(T) should be classified as a novel Sporolactobacillus species for which the name Sporolactobacillus putidus is proposed. The type strain is strain QC81-06(T) (=DSM 21265(T)=JCM 15325(T)). PMID:19684317
\\u000aOrange juice inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes strains ATCC 7644, NCTC 11994 and Listeria innocua NCTC 11288 (106?CFU\\/ml) as challenge microorganisms was treated with direct ozone at 0.098?mg\\/min\\/ml for different time periods (0-8?min) using an ozone bubble column. Ozone treatment of mild acid stressed and mild acid stress-habituated (pH 5.5) cells of L. monocytogenes resulted in higher inactivation times compared to
Sonal Patil; Vasilis Valdramidis; P. J. Cullen; J. M. Frias; Paula Bourke
The degradation of ascorbic acid was determined in a ready-to-drink orange juice–milk beverage treated by high intensity pulsed electric fields (PEF). The effects of PEF treatment were compared to those of heat pasteurization (90ºC, 20s). Four electric field strengths (15, 25, 35, 40kV\\/cm) and six treatment times for each field (from 40µs to 700µs) were studied. Ascorbic acid degradation was
Supported liquid membrane (SLM) extraction was optimised for trace extraction and enrichment of selected triazine herbicides from a variety of agro-processed fruitjuices and Ethiopian honey wine (Tej) samples. In the extraction process, a 1:1 mixture of n-undecane and di-n-hexylether was immobilised in a thin porous PTFE membrane that forms a barrier between two aqueous phases (the donor and acceptor phases) in a flow system. The extracts constitute the selectively enriched analytes collected from the acceptor phase and were analysed by transferring to a HPLC-UV system using a diode array detector at 235?nm. High enrichment factors were obtained with very good repeatability of results, and the detection limit was lower than 3.00?µg l?¹ for ametryn in apple juice. The optimised method showed very good linearity of over 50-500?µg l?¹ with a correlation coefficient of >0.990 or better for triplicate analysis. All chromatograms gave well resolved peaks with no interfering peaks at the retention times of the selected triazines, showing high selectivity of the SLM extraction method in combination with HPLC-UV for the selected matrices. The optimised method can be used as an alternative solventless extraction method for microgram-level extraction of other triazine herbicides and a variety of pesticides from liquid and semi-liquid environmental, biological and food matrices. PMID:22324905
Fruit from Red Delicious apple trees treated with the growth retardant succinic acid 2,2-dimethylhydrazide contained more N-malonyl-d-tryptophan than control fruit. When succinic acid 2,2-dimethylhydrazide and tryptophan were injected into immature fruits, more N-methyl-d-tryptophan was produced than when dl-tryptophan was injected alone. Our results suggest that succinic acid 2,2-dimethylhydrazide may control fruit and vegetative growth by interfering with auxin production.
The distribution of sorbic and benzoic acids in the different phases of table olives was studied. To a large extent, these preservatives accumulated in the oil phase of fruits stored in acid conditions, as well as in juice and other tissue components. Thus, around 20–30% of the benzoic acid in olives was found in the juice phase, 30–50% in the
Manuel Brenes; Concepción Romero; Pedro García; Antonio Garrido
Plants have several L-ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthetic pathways, but the contribution of each one to the synthesis of AsA varyies between different species, organs, and developmental stages. Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) fruits are rich in AsA. The pathway that uses D-galacturonate as the initial substrate is functional in ripe fruits, but the contribution of other pathways to AsA biosynthesis has not been studied. The transcription of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes such as D-galacturonate reductase (FaGalUR) and myo-inositol oxygenase (FaMIOX), and the AsA recycling enzyme monodehydroascorbate reductase (FaMDHAR) were positively correlated with the increase in AsA during fruit ripening. Fruit storage for 72 h in a cold room reduced the AsA content by 30%. Under an ozone atmosphere, this reduction was 15%. Ozone treatment increased the expression of the FaGalUR, FaMIOX, and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (FaGIPP) genes, and transcription of the L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (FaGLDH) and FAMDHAR genes was higher in the ozone-stored than in the air-stored fruits. Analysis of AsA content in a segregating population from two strawberry cultivars showed high variability, which did not correlate with the transcription of any of the genes studied. Study of GalUR protein in diverse cultivars of strawberry and different Fragaria species showed that a correlation between GalUR and AsA content was apparent in most cases, but it was not general. Three alleles were identified in strawberry, but any sequence effect on the AsA variability was eliminated by analysis of the allele-specific expression. Taken together, these results indicate that FaGalUR shares the control of AsA levels with other enzymes and regulatory elements in strawberry fruit.
Cruz-Rus, Eduardo; Amaya, Iraida; Sanchez-Sevilla, Jose F.; Botella, Miguel A.; Valpuesta, Victoriano
The in vitro and in vivo properties of an açai based juice blend (MonaVie Active®, Salt Lake City, UT) were evaluated. Initially, a phenolic profile was determined for the beverage, and a cell-based antioxidant protection (CAP-e) assay (Honzel et al., 2008) was performed, which showed that the antioxidants in the beverage could penetrate erythrocytes and significantly protect the cells from
This study examined the sensory impact of functional ingredients (e.g., probiotics, prebiotics, vitamins, and minerals) on the aroma and taste of orange fruitjuices. A trained panel (n=10) performed a descriptive sensory analysis on four functional orange juices and seven conventional orange juices. The functional juices were described as possessing perceptible “dairy”, “medicinal” and “dirty” flavours, distinguishing them from the
Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for development of several obesity-related diseases. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates energy metabolism. Previously, we reported that 9-oxo-10,12-octadecadienoic acid (9-oxo-ODA) is presented in fresh tomato fruits and acts as a PPAR? agonist. In addition to 9-oxo-ODA, we developed that 13-oxo-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (13-oxo-ODA), which is an isomer of 9-oxo-ODA, is present only in tomato juice. In this study, we explored the possibility that 13-oxo-ODA acts as a PPAR? agonist in vitro and whether its effect ameliorates dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis in vivo. In vitro luciferase assay experiments revealed that 13-oxo-ODA significantly induced PPAR? activation; moreover, the luciferase activity of 13-oxo-ODA was stronger than that of 9-oxo-ODA and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which is a precursor of 13-oxo-ODA and is well-known as a potent PPAR? activator. In addition to in vitro experiment, treatment with 13-oxo-ODA decreased the levels of plasma and hepatic triglycerides in obese KK-Ay mice fed a high-fat diet. In conclusion, our findings indicate that 13-oxo-ODA act as a potent PPAR? agonist, suggesting a possibility to improve obesity-induced dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis.
An unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph derived from the oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus and named UfaM3 was defective in the conversion of stearic to oleic acid. It was cultivated on diluted (25%) prickly-pear juice in batch culture. The carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N ratio) of the juice (44% glucose and 56% fructose content) was about 50 g\\/g. Differential utilization of glucose
Mainul Hassan; Philippe J. Blanc; Alain Pareilleux; Gérard Goma
...CANNED FRUITJUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned FruitJuices and...The orange juice is so treated by heat as to reduce substantially the enzymatic...sweetenerâ may be used in lieu of the specific name or names of the sweetening...
The fragmentation patterns and quantitation possibilities of three anthocyanidins (pelargonidin, cyanidin, malvidin), one flavonol (quercetin), two flavones (apigenin, luteolin) and two flavanones (naringenin, hesperetin) have been investigated as trimethylsilyl and as trimethylsilyl (oxime) derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results proved that anthocyanidins and flavanones form trimethylsilyl (oximes), while flavonol and flavones provide simple trimethylsilyl derivatives. In all cases, characteristic fragments of high masses are formed proper for quantitation purposes. Hydrolysis conditions for naringin, hesperidin and rutin have been optimized, resulting in the quantitative release of naringenin, hesperetin and quercetin together with their corresponding saccharides. These basic studies made possible the identification and quantification of the flavonoid, carboxylic-/amino acid and sugar constituents of citrus fruitjuices and albedos, without any extraction/enrichment procedure. In total 33 compounds have been determined in hydrolyzed samples, such as 2 flavonoids (naringenin and hesperetin), 6 phenolic acids (trimethoxybenzoic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, quinic, chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids), 3 aliphatic carboxylic acids (levulinic, malic, citric acids), phosphoric acid, 4 amino acids (aspartic, glutamic acids, alanine, proline), 9 monosaccharides (xylose, arabinose, rhamnose, fucose, fructose, galactose, glucose, galacturonic acid, sedoheptulose), inositol, sugarphosphate, 5 disaccharides and tocopherol. Measurements were carried out as the trimethylsilyl (oxime) ether/ester derivatives of constituents, in the concentration range of 2 x 10(-3) to 49.9%. Identification level of samples varied between 26.4 and 77.5%, expressed in dry matter content of juices and albedos. PMID:17289064
The aim of this paper was to study the effect of both redox potential (Eh) and pasteurization of orange juice on stability of color and ascorbic acid, and growth recovery of microorganisms during storage at 15 °C for 7 weeks. Three conditions of Eh, +360 mV (ungassed), +240 mV (gassed with N2), and ?180 mV (gassed with N2–H2) were applied
Duried Alwazeer; Carole Delbeau; Charles Divies; Rémy Cachon
A simple ion?interaction C18 reverse?phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous determination of nitrite, nitrate and ascorbic acid in canned vegetable juices. The method makes use of 0.010 m octylammonium ortho?phosphate as the ion interacting reagent and 20% (v\\/v) aqueous methanol as the mobile phase. The content of nitrite, nitrate (expressed as nitrite ion and nitrate ion,
Summary Ethanol production from the inulin of Jerusalem artichoke byZ. mobilis was studied in batch and continuous fermentations. Both acid or enzymatic hydrolysis were used. In continuous cultures enzymatic hydrolysis showed better results. Ethanol productivities of 17.7 and 29.0 g\\/l.h were obtained at output concentrationsca 35 g\\/l (% of conversion 99 and 83; ethanol yield 0.45 g\\/g). The hydrolysed juice
I. Toran-Diaz; V. K. Jain; J. J. Allais; J. Baratti
Organic acids, sugars, phenolic compositions and antioxidant capacities of orange juice and orange wine obtained from the cv. Kozan of Turkey were determined. High-performance liquid chromatographic methods were used to identify and quantify of these compounds. Three organic acids (citric, malic and ascorbic acids) and three sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) were determined. The major organic acid was found as
Hasim Kelebek; Serkan Selli; Ahmet Canbas; Turgut Cabaroglu
The sour taste of lemons (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.) is determined by the amount of citric acid in vacuoles of juice sac cells. Faris is a "sweet" lemon variety since it accumulates low levels of citric acid. The University of California Riverside Citrus Variety Collection includes a Faris tree that produces sweet (Faris non-acid; FNA) and sour fruit (Faris acid; FA) on different branches; it is apparently a graft chimera with layer L1 derived from Millsweet limetta and layer L2 from a standard lemon. The transcription profiles of Faris sweet lemon were compared with Faris acid lemon and Frost Lisbon (L), which is a standard sour lemon genetically indistinguishable from Faris in prior work with SSR markers. Analysis of microarray data revealed that the transcriptomes of the two sour lemon genotypes were nearly identical. In contrast, the transcriptome of Faris sweet lemon was very different from those of both sour lemons. Among about 1,000 FNA-specific, presumably pH-related genes, the homolog of Arabidopsis H(+)-ATPase proton pump AHA10 was not expressed in FNA, but highly expressed in FA and L. Since Arabidopsis AHA10 is involved in biosynthesis and acidification of vacuoles, the lack of expression of the AHA10 citrus homolog represents a very conspicuous molecular feature of the FNA sweet phenotype. In addition, high expression of several 2-oxoglutarate degradation-related genes in FNA suggests activation of the GABA shunt and degradation of valine and tyrosine as components of the mechanism that reduces the level of citric acid in sweet lemon. PMID:21556928
Aprile, Alessio; Federici, Claire; Close, Timothy J; De Bellis, Luigi; Cattivelli, Luigi; Roose, Mikeal L
The effect of high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) processing (35 kV\\/cm for 1,700 ?s in bipolar 4-?s pulses at 100 Hz)\\u000a on individual phenolic compounds (phenolic acids and flavonoids), vitamin C and antioxidant capacity of strawberry juice was\\u000a evaluated and compared to heat (90 °C for 60 or 30 s) and fresh juice as a reference. Although strawberry juice underwent\\u000a a substantial depletion of health-related
Isabel Odriozola-Serrano; Robert Soliva-Fortuny; Olga Martín-Belloso
Background: Grapefruit juice increases the bioavailability of several drugs known to be metabolized by CYP3A4. We wanted to investigate a possible interaction of grapefruit juice with lovastatin, a cholesterollowering agent that is partially metabolized by CYP3A4.Methods: An open, randomized, two-phase crossover study with an interval of 2 weeks between the phases was carried out. Ten healthy volunteers took either 200
Teemu Kantola; Kari T. Kivistö; Pertti J. Neuvonen
In this work, the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres with narrow particle size distributions and core-shell morphology by a two-step precipitation polymerization procedure is described. Polydivinylbenzene (poly DVB-80) core particles were used as seed particles in the production of molecularly imprinted polymer shells by copolymerization of divinylbenzene-80 with methacrylic acid in the presence of thiabendazole (TBZ) and an appropriate porogen. Thereafter, polymer particles were packed into refillable stainless steel HPLC columns used in the development of an inline molecularly imprinted SPE method for the determination of TBZ in citrus fruits and orange juice samples. Under optimized chromatographic conditions, recoveries of TBZ within the range 81.1-106.4%, depending upon the sample, were obtained, with RSDs lower than 10%. This novel method permits the unequivocal determination of TBZ in the samples under study, according to the maximum residue levels allowed within Europe, in less than 20 min and without any need for a clean-up step in the analytical protocol. PMID:21246728
Barahona, Francisco; Turiel, Esther; Cormack, Peter A G; Martín-Esteban, Antonio
Cyclic oligomers were identified in PET bottles used for mineral water and fruitjuice using MS and (1)H and (13)C NMR: a first series cyclic trimer, a first series cyclic tetramer, a first series cyclic dimmer and a second series cyclic trimer. An analytical method to determine first series cyclic trimer in these bottles was developed and validated, using HPLC. The first series cyclic trimer levels were 316-462 mg/100g of PET bottle. PMID:16298192
Nasser, A L M; Lopes, L M X; Eberlin, M N; Monteiro, M
Visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (Vis/NIRS) as a new method was proposed for the rapid and nondestructive measurement of citric acids in orange juice. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference method for the spectral analysis of citric acids. The original spectral data were preprocessed by the smoothing method with five smoothing points in order to eliminate the noise. Before modeling, large spectral data were compressed by wavelet transform (WT) in Matlab7.01 with the edited program to reduce the dimensions and modeling time, and then the new variables after being compressed were used to build PLS calibration in spectral software Unscrambler 9.5. Considering the effect of different wavelet functions and decomposed scales on the data compressed, the optimal wavelet function Db4 and decomposed scale 5 were determined by predictive residual error sum of squares (PRESS). A total of forty samples were used in our experiment, including thirty samples for the calibration model and ten unknown samples for the prediction. The quality of the calibration model was evaluated by the correlation coefficients (r) and standard error of calibration (SEC), and the prediction results were assessed by correlation coefficients (r) and standard error of prediction (SEP). Comparing WT-PLS model with PLS model, the result of WT-PLS model was r of 0.901 and SEP of 0.937, while the result of PLS model was r of 0.849 and SEP of 1.662, indicating that the prediction result from PLS model with wavelet transform was better than that from PLS model. PMID:18051520
Calcium (Ca) uptake into fruit and leaves is dependent on xylemic water movement, and hence presumably driven by transpiration and growth. High leaf transpiration is thought to restrict Ca movement to low-transpiring tomato fruit, which may increase fruit susceptibility to the Ca-deficiency disorder, blossom end rot (BER). The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of reduced leaf transpiration in abscisic acid (ABA)-treated plants on fruit and leaf Ca uptake and BER development. Tomato cultivars Ace 55 (Vf) and AB2 were grown in a greenhouse environment under Ca-deficit conditions and plants were treated weekly after pollination with water (control) or 500 mg l(-1) ABA. BER incidence was completely prevented in the ABA-treated plants and reached values of 30-45% in the water-treated controls. ABA-treated plants had higher stem water potential, lower leaf stomatal conductance, and lower whole-plant water loss than water-treated plants. ABA treatment increased total tissue and apoplastic water-soluble Ca concentrations in the fruit, and decreased Ca concentrations in leaves. In ABA-treated plants, fruit had a higher number of Safranin-O-stained xylem vessels at early stages of growth and development. ABA treatment reduced the phloem/xylem ratio of fruit sap uptake. The results indicate that ABA prevents BER development by increasing fruit Ca uptake, possibly by a combination of whole-plant and fruit-specific mechanisms. PMID:21282326
de Freitas, Sergio Tonetto; Shackel, Kenneth A; Mitcham, Elizabeth J
ObjectivesThere has been a monumental increase in the consumption of soft drinks, fruitjuices and sport drinks in the UK, the US, and many other countries. Previous investigations have demonstrated the erosive nature of these acidic soft drinks. The aim of this investigation was to determine the protective effects of an experimental fluoride-based toothpaste, containing sodium hexametaphosphate, against an erosive
S. M. Hooper; R. G. Newcombe; R. Faller; S. Eversole; M. Addy; N. X. West
Two cultivars of loquat fruit with contrasting chilling resistance were stored at 1°C for 35days to investigate the relationship between chilling injury and fatty acid composition and its antioxidant system. No symptoms of chilling injury occurred in the fruit of ‘Qingzhong’ cultivar during the whole storage, whereas in ‘Fuyang’ fruit, chilling injury increased sharply after 21days of storage at 1°C.
Emblica fruits have long been endowed with many pharmacological properties, which are attributable to their rich vitamin C content. A recent report that Emblica fruits do not contain ascorbic acid, but contain two hydrolysable low molecular weight tannins with antioxidant attributes, thus challenging the long-standing belief that amla fruits owe their potential pharmacological activity to their vitamin C content. The
The free amino acid content of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruits from cultivars Platense, Vollendung and Cherry were determined during ripening. It was found that glutamate markedly increased in red fruits of the three cultivars under study. At this stage, the cv Cherry had the highest relative glutamate molar content (52%) of all the analyzed tomato fruit cultivars. Measurements of
Silvana B. Boggio; Javier F. Palatnik; Hans W. Heldt; Estela M. Valle
Production of lactic acid from date juice by fermentation has been studied using Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus as the producer organism. The optimum substrate concentration, expressed in its glucose content, was 60 g l?1. Various nitrogen sources were compared with yeast extract in terms of their efficiency for lactic acid production. None of these nitrogen sources gave lactic acid concentrations
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on chilling injury (CI) in mango fruit. 2,4-D treatment at 150mgL?1 could significantly alleviate CI or disease incidence of mango fruit during 7 days storage at 4°C and an additional 14 days at 20°C (P<0.05). Fruit quality, including increased soluble solids, soluble sugar, fruit firmness, and
A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode-array spectrophotometry and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS) method for separation and determination of phenolic acids in ethyl acetate extracts from Chinese waxberry (Myrica Rubra) juice was developed. Total of 4 phenolic acids (ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, and salicylic acids) were identified by comparing their HPLC retention times, UV-Vis absorption spectra, and simultaneously recorded mass spectra with authentic standards. Quantitation was carried out by the peak area method. The calibration curves are linear over the concentration range studied with the correlation coefficients, R(2), greater than 0.99. The contents of ferulic, caffeic, sinapic, and salicylic acids in waxberry juice samples studied were 2.76, 3.58, 2.89, and 1.92 mg/L, respectively, and they occur mainly in bound forms. All relative standard deviations were less than 4%. The recoveries range from 83.6% to 95.8% for the 4 analytes. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first report for the identification of the sinapic and salicylic acids in Chinese waxberry products. PMID:22309143
A novel, totally organic solvent-free emulsification microextraction (TEME) technique using ionic liquids (ILs) is proposed in this study. Seven bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquids were synthesized. After comparing the physicochemical properties of the ionic liquids and their application to microextraction experiments, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C6MIM][NTf2]), which has moderate surface tension and viscosity, was selected as the extraction solvent. The dispersion of ILs and mass transfer were accelerated by ultrasound irradiation and temperature control processes. Therefore, no dispersive organic solvent was needed. Several variables, such as ionic liquid volume, duration of the ultrasound extraction, dispersion temperature, ionic strength and centrifugation time were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.1-600?gL(-1) for chlorfenapyr and fenpyroximate and 0.5-600?gL(-1) for spirodiclofen, with correlation coefficients of 0.9994-0.9999. The enrichment factors were between 261 and 285. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.02-0.06?gL(-1). Real fruitjuice samples (at fortified levels of 10?gL(-1) and 30?gL(-1)) were successfully analyzed using the proposed method. The relative recoveries and enrichment factors were in the range of 92-104%. PMID:24054632
A solid phase extraction method using antimony ion imprinted polymer (IIP) sorbent combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed for the extraction and speciation of antimony. The sorbent has been synthesised in the presence of Sb(III) and ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) using styrene as the monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross linker. The imprinted Sb(III) ions were removed by leaching with HCl (50%v/v) and the polymer was characterised by FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy. The maximum sorption capacity of the IIP for Sb(III) ions was found to be 6.7mgg(-1). With preconcentration of 60mL of sample, an enhancement factor of 232 and detection limit of 3.9ngL(-1) was obtained. Total antimony was determined after the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III). The method was successfully applied to the determination of antimony species in water samples and total antimony in fruitjuices. PMID:24128516
Shakerian, Farid; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Haji Shabani, Ali Mohammad; Nili Ahmad Abadi, Maryam
Invertase (beta-fructosidase, EC 22.214.171.124) hydrolyzes sucrose to hexose sugars and thus plays a fundamental role in the energy requirements for plant growth and maintenance. Transgenic plants with altered extracellular acid invertase have highly disturbed growth habits. We investigated the role of intracellular soluble acid invertase in plant and fruit development. Transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants expressing a constitutive antisense invertase transgene grew identically to wild-type plants. Several lines of transgenic fruit expressing a constitutive antisense invertase gene had increased sucrose and decreased hexose sugar concentrations. Each transgenic line with fruit that had increased sucrose concentrations also had greatly reduced levels of acid invertase in ripe fruit. Sucrose-accumulating fruit were approximately 30% smaller than control fruit, and this differential growth correlated with high rates of sugar accumulation during the last stage of development. These data suggest that soluble acid invertase controls sugar composition in tomato fruit and that this change in composition contributes to alterations in fruit size. In addition, sucrose-accumulating fruit have elevated rates of ethylene evolution relative to control fruit, perhaps as a result of the smaller fruit size of the sucrose-accumulating transgenic lines.
The effect of two extraction methods of pomegranate juice on its quality and stability was evaluated. The first method consisted of separation of the seeds from fruits and centrifugation. The second method consisted of squeezing fruit halves with an electric lemon squeezer. During a period of 72 hours of cold storage at 4°C, the juices were evaluated for the presence of sugars, organic acids, and anthocyanins. Delphinidin 3-glucoside was identified to be the major anthocyanin present at the level of 45–69?mg/L. Among the organic acids, oxalic and tartaric acids dominated. The major sugars detected in pomegranate juice were glucose and sucrose. No significant differences in the content of sugars, organic acids, or anthocyanins in juices obtained through application of the two different extraction methods were detected, with the exception of the drastic decrease of cyanidin 3,5-diglucoside level in juice obtained by seed centrifugation. The pH did not show differences between treatments. Titrable acidity and the level of sugars expressed as °Brix decreased after 32 and 15 hours after extraction, respectively, when juice was obtained by centrifuging the seeds.
This laboratory experiment was carried out at the Department of Agricultural Technology, Mahasarakham University, Northeast Thailand during June to October 2007. The experiment aimed to search for the most appropriate harvesting age of fruits of Santol orchard plants with respect to colour, tissue texture, total soluble solid content, titratable acidity and pH of Santol fruits. A Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications was used. Each replication consisted of 10 fruits, thus a total of 160 fruits were used. The Santol fruits were harvested at different ages, i.e., 100, 115, 130 and 145 days after full bloom of flowers and these harvested ages were used as treatments, i.e., 100 for T1 (Control), 115 for T2, 130 for T3 and 145 for T4. The results showed that the most appropriate harvesting date for high quality Santol fruits was found with T4, i.e., 145 days after full bloom of flowers where Santol fruits of T4 gave the highest mean values of fruit length, diameter, fresh weight fruit(-1) of 10.71 cm, 9.31 cm and 399.76 g, respectively. Yellowness of skin colour of fruits was evenly distributed. Total soluble solid content of pericarp, flesh tissue and seeds were highest for T4 with mean values of 13.93, 15.05 and 18.260 brix, respectively. Flesh texture density highly decreased with an increase in numbers of days after full bloom of flowers. Titratable acidity content in fruits was highly decreased with an increase in numbers of days after full bloom of flowers whereas a reverse was found with pH of fruitjuices. PMID:18817267
Ascorbic acid content in green and ripe fruits and zinc, copper, manganese, iron, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus content in dry fruits were found to vary significantly in different varieties of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.). Ascorbic acid content in ripe fruits of all of the eleven chilli varieties was higher than in the corresponding green fruits. Path coefficient analysis
Changes in fatty acids were studied during maturation of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) fruits cultivated in the North-East of Tunisia (Charfine). The fruits matured in 55 days after flowering (DAF). Oil and petroselinic acid synthesis proceeded at a steady rate up to 32 DAF. The first results showed a rapid oil accumulation started at newly formed fruits (9.6±0.2%) and continued
In tomato, free amino acids increase dramatically during fruit ripening and their abundance changed differentially. More evident\\u000a is l-glutamate which gives the characteristic “umami” flavor. Glutamate is the principal free amino acid of ripe fruits of cultivated\\u000a varieties. In this paper, we examined the capacity of tomato fruits to process endogenous as well as exogenous polypeptides\\u000a during the ripening transition,
Augusto Sorrequieta; Gisela Ferraro; Silvana B. Boggio; Estela M. Valle
Citrate, a major determinant of citrus fruit quality, accumulates early in fruit development and declines towards maturation.\\u000a The isomerization of citrate to isocitrate, catalyzed by aconitase is a key step in acid metabolism. Inhibition of mitochondrial\\u000a aconitase activity early in fruit development contributes to acid accumulation, whereas increased cytosolic activity of aconitase\\u000a causes citrate decline. It was previously hypothesized that
Asfaw Degu; Bayissa Hatew; Adriano Nunes-Nesi; Ludmila Shlizerman; Naftali Zur; Ehud Katz; Alisdair R. Fernie; Eduardo Blumwald; Avi Sadka
The fruitjuice of Morinda citrifolia (noni), a plant originally grown in the Hawaiian and Tahitian islands, has long been used by islanders to treat diseases, including cancer. Two novel glycosides, 6-O-(b-D-glucopy- ranosyl)-1-O-octanoyl-b-D-glucopyranose and asperulosidic acid, ex- tracted from the juice of noni fruits, were used to examine their effects on 12-O-tedtradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced AP-1 transactivation
The free amino acid content of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruits from cultivars Platense, Vollendung and Cherry were determined during ripening. It was found that glutamate markedly increased in red fruits of the three cultivars under study. At this stage, the cv Cherry had the highest relative glutamate molar content (52%) of all the analyzed tomato fruit cultivars. Measurements of nitrogen-assimilating enzyme activities of these fruits showed a decrease in glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 126.96.36.199) during fruit ripening and a concomitant increase in NADH-glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC 188.8.131.52) and aspartate aminotransferase (EC 184.108.40.206) activities. Western blot analysis of protein extracts revealed that while GS was principally present in green fruit extracts, GDH was almost exclusively observed in the extracts of red fruits. These results suggest a reciprocal pattern of induction between GS and GDH during tomato fruit ripening. PMID:11011100
The survival capacity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium acid adapted and non-acid adapted cells was monitored in pasteurized yogurt (pH 4.1) and orange juice (pH 3.6) during storage at different temperatures (4, 10, 25 and 37?). Acid adapted and non-acid adapted cells were obtained by means of their growth for 36?h in Brain Heart Infusion broth acidified at pH 4.8 with citric acid and buffered (pH 7.0) Brain Heart Infusion broth, respectively. S. typhimurium showed a great ability to survive in both foodstuffs and, especially, in yogurt, where both acid adapted and non-acid adapted populations suffered only a reduction of about 1.3-1.9?log10 cycles after 43 days of storage in the range of temperatures 4-25?. At 37? a higher bacterial inactivation was observed (4.0-4.4?log10 cycles). In orange juice, a different behaviour was observed for acid-adapted and non-acid adapted cells. Whereas non-acid adapted cells survived better than acid adapted cells at 4 and 10?, acid adapted cells showed enhanced survival abilities at higher temperatures (25 and 37?). Thus, the times required to achieve a 5 log10 cycles reduction for non-acid adapted and acid adapted cells were 10.2 and 6.0 (4?), 6.3 and 4.2 (10?), 0.6 and 1.0 (25?) and 0.10 and 0.15 (37?) days, respectively. Evidence found in this study demonstrates that refrigeration temperatures protect S. typhimurium from inactivation in acid foods and indicates that S. typhimurium acid tolerance response (ATR) is determined by storage temperature and food composition. PMID:23729421
An acid phosphatase (APase, EC 220.127.116.11) from ripened banana (Musa cavendishii L. cv. Cavendish) fruit has been purified 1,876-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity and a final p-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP)-hydrolyzing specific activity of 745 micromol Pi produced (mg protein)(-1) min(-1). Non-denaturing PAGE of the final preparation resolved a single protein-staining band that co-migrated with APase activity. SDS-PAGE and analytical gel filtration demonstrated that the purified enzyme exists as a 40-kDa monomer. That the enzyme is glycosylated was indicated by its tight absorption to Concanavalin A-Sepharose. Banana APase was relatively heat stable, displayed a symmetrical pH/activity profile with maximal activity at pH 5.8, and was activated 180% and 150% by 5 mM Mn2+ and Mg2+, respectively. The enzyme exhibited a broad substrate selectivity, with maximal specificity constants (Vmax/Km) obtained with pNPP, phosphoenolpyruvate, phenyl phosphate, and O-phospho-L-tyrosine. Potent inhibition by Pi, molybdate, vanadate, arsenate, and Zn2+ was observed. Putative metabolic functions of the APase are discussed in relation to maintaining significant Pi mobility during banana fruit ripening. PMID:11800388
Much attention recently has been paid to the possible he alth benefits of dietary phenolics that have antioxidant activities stronger than that of vitamin C. However, information concerning the antioxidant capacities of sour orange peel and juice is not available. So, the purpose of this research is to determine the organic acids, total phenolic content, total flavonoid cont ent, and
Blood orange juice is a typical Italian product whose red color is primarily associated with anthocyanin pigments. Two orange-based products are present on the market: pasteurized pure juice with 40 days of shelf life, and sterilized beverage containing minimum 12% of concentrated fruitjuice. The aim of the present paper is to verify the relationships between the antioxidant properties and the anthocyanins content in a sampling of pasteurized and sterilized commercial red orange juices. The anthocyanins composition was determined by HPLC-MS/MS, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the Briggs-Rauscher reaction, selected in order to acquire information at acid pH values, by three radical scavenging assays (DMPD, 2-2'-azinobis-(3-ethylenbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), DPPH), and by FRAP assay to monitor the ferric reducing power. Results showed that antioxidant activity, particularly when measured by ABTS method, is positively related to the content of anthocyanins and that the reduction of anthocyanins content, typical of commercial long-shelf life juices, leads to a remarkable loss of antioxidant power. PMID:16254888
Fiore, Alberto; La Fauci, Luca; Cervellati, Rinaldo; Guerra, Maria Clelia; Speroni, Ester; Costa, Stefano; Galvano, Giacomo; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Bacchelli, Vanessa; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Galvano, Fabio
In the present study, for the first time, a simplified miniaturized ultrasound-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (SM-USA-MSPD) method with a different application for liquid matrices was developed to extract different flavonoids (hesperidin, diosmin, eriocitrin, narirutin, naringin, hesperetin and naringenin) from citrus fruitjuice and human fluid samples prior to their determination using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Different effective parameters were studied and under the optimum conditions (including sample volume: 150?L; solid phase: silica-based C18, 200mg; eluting solvent: methanol, 500?L; pH: 4; and sonication: 6min; at room temperature), limits of detection and limits of quantification were ranged from 23.3 to 46.8ngmL(-1) and 74.8 to 141.5ngmL(-1), respectively. Once optimized, analytical performance of the method was studied in terms of linearity (0.074-198.5?gmL(-1), r(2)>0.991), accuracy (recovery=84.6-101.5%), and precision (repeatability: intra-day precision<5.9%, and inter-day precision<7.2%). At the end, SM-USA-MSPD method was successfully applied to estimate the levels of hesperetin and naringenin in plasma and urinary excretion -after ingestion of orange, grapefruit and lime juices- and the obtained results confirmed that these compounds could be used as good biomarkers of citrus fruitjuice intake. PMID:24011420
Barfi, Behruz; Asghari, Alireza; Rajabi, Maryam; Barfi, Azadeh; Saeidi, Iman
Fully riped cashew apples (yellow variety) were steamed for 7 minutes prior to juice extraction. The extracted juice was blended\\u000a with various proportions of sweet orange juice. Chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation were carried out on both\\u000a the blended and unblended juices. The ascorbic acid content of unsteamed cashew apple juice was 287 mg\\/100 ml. Steaming of\\u000a the cashew apple
Orange juice, a rich source of vitamin C, accounts for 60% of all fruitjuices and juice-based drinks consumed in western Europe. Orange juice preservation is currently accomplished by traditional pasteurization. Pulsed electric fields (PEF) have been studied as a nonthermal food preservation method. Food technology needs in the area of processing are driven by nutrition. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to assess the bioavailability of vitamin C from pulsed electric fields-treated orange juice in comparison with freshly squeezed orange juice and its impact on 8-epiPGF(2alpha) concentrations (biomarker of lipid peroxidation) in a healthy human population. Six subjects consumed 500 mL/day of pulsed electric fields-treated orange juice and six subjects consumed 500 mL/day of freshly squeezed orange juice for 14 days, corresponding to an intake of about 185 mg/day of ascorbic acid. On the first day of the study, subjects drank the juice in one dose, and on days 2-14 they consumed 250 mL in the morning and 250 mL in the afternoon. Blood was collected every hour for 6 hours on the first day and again on days 7 and 14. In the dose-response study, the maximum increase in plasma vitamin C occurred 4 hours postdose. Vitamin C remained significantly higher on days 7 and 14 in both orange juice groups. Plasma 8-epiPGF(2alpha) concentrations was lower at the end of the study (P < 0.001) in both groups. Plasma levels of vitamin C and 8-epiPGF(2alpha) were inversely correlated. Pulsed electric fields-preservation of orange juice retains the vitamin C bioavailability and antioxidant properties of fresh juice with a longer shelf-life. PMID:15542351
Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Cano, M Pilar; de Ancos, Begoña; Plaza, Lucía; Olmedilla, Begoña; Granado, Fernando; Elez-Martínez, Pedro; Martín-Belloso, Olga; Martín, Antonio
Several isotopic (13C\\/12C, 15N\\/14N, 18O\\/16O, 2H\\/1H, 34S\\/32S) and chemical–physical parameters (pH, fruit weight, juice yield, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, skin resistance, flesh firmness, colorimetric characteristics, weight loss after harvesting, antioxidant activity, earliness index, total nitrogen, ascorbic acid, synephrine, anthocyanins and polyphenols, citric acid, malic acid, sucrose, glucose and fructose content) were investigated as potential markers of organically cultivated oranges,
F. Camin; M. Perini; L. Bontempo; S. Fabroni; W. Faedi; S. Magnani; G. Baruzzi; M. Bonoli; M. R. Tabilio; S. Musmeci; A. Rossmann; S. D. Kelly; P. Rapisarda
The fruit of several Opuntia species (prickly pear) are a good source of calcium, potassium, and ascorbic acid and are consumed fresh or processed as juices or preserves. Plants of Opuntia may be grown in arid and semiarid environments on marginal soils. Various cultivars, particularly in the speci...
Melon juice obtained from fruits discarded by exporters was first clarified by crossflow microfiltration and then concentrated by osmotic evaporation (OE). The resulting clarified melon juice was highly similar to the initial juice, except for insoluble solids and carotenoids, which were concentrated in the retentate. Average permeation flux was relatively high (about 80 L h?1 m?2), with continuous extraction of
Fabrice Vaillant; Mady Cisse; Marco Chaverri; Ana Perez; Manuel Dornier; Floribeth Viquez; Claudie Dhuique-Mayer
Objective: Fruitjuices can significantly change the pharmacokinetics of several drugs. Our objective was to investigate the effect of orange juice on the pharmacokinetics of the beta-blocking agent atenolol. Methods: In a randomized cross-over study with two phases and a washout of 2 weeks, ten healthy volunteers took either 200 ml orange juice or water thrice daily for 3 days
The concentration of fruitjuices is industrially performed in order to reduce storage, packaging, handling and shipping costs. This paper describes the research efforts to develop and optimise an integrated membrane process, on laboratory scale, for the production of concentrated kiwifruit juice as alternative to the traditional vacuum evaporation. Fresh depectinated kiwifruit juice was previously clarified by ultrafiltration (UF) process.
The role of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in regulating an antioxidative defense response of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. cv. Hongdeng) fruit inoculated with Penicillium expansum was investigated by immunodetection of carbonylated proteins. After inoculation with P. expansum, carbonylated proteins accumulated to a lesser extent in SA-treated fruit than in control fruit, ranging from molecular mass 29–45kDa. Higher activities of
We hypothesised that adding sugars or acids to pulps derived from fruit of different genetic background, or of lower or higher carbohydrate status should give similar results until a threshold for sweetness or acidity perception in the pulp background was reached. Pulps made from fruit of Actinidia deliciosa ‘Hayward’—a fresh sweet-acid kiwifruit—and A. chinensis ‘Hort16A’—a sweet tropical flavoured kiwifruit, were
Ken B. Marsh; Ellen N. Friel; Anne Gunson; Cynthia Lund; Elspeth MacRae
The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the effects of administration various levels (400, 800 and 1,200 ppm)\\u000a of pomposia extracts as natural antioxidant in comparison with BHT as synthetic antioxidant on some biochemical activities\\u000a and histopathological examination of rats. Some of biochemical tests i.e. Alkaline phosphatase, transaminases]Aspartate transferase\\u000a (AST) and alanine transferase (ALT) [,bilirubin, urea and uric acid
The effects of low pH and human bile juice on Vibrio cholerae were investigated. A mild stress condition (exposure to acid shock at pH 5.5 or exposure to 3 mg of bile per ml for 20 min) slightly decreased (by < or = 1 log unit) V. cholerae cell viability. However, these treatments induced tolerance to subsequent exposures to more severe stress. In the O1 strain, four proteins were induced in response to acid shock (ca. 101, 94, 90, and 75 kDa), whereas only one protein (ca. 101 kDa) was induced in response to acid shock in the O139 strain. Eleven proteins were induced in response to bile shock in the O1 strain (ca. 106, 103, 101, 96, 88, 86, 84, 80, 66, 56, and 46 kDa), whereas only one protein was induced in response to bile shock in the O139 strain (ca. 88 kDa). V. cholerae O1 and O139 cells that had been preexposed to mild acid shock were twofold more resistant to pH 4.5 (with times required to inactivate 90% of the cell population [D-values] of 59 to 73 min) than were control cells (with D-values of 24 to 27 min). Likewise, cells that were preexposed to mild bile shock (3 mg/ml) were almost twofold more tolerant of severe bile shock (30 mg/ml; D-values, 68 to 87 min) than were control cells (with D-values of 37 to 43 min). These protective effects persisted for at least 1 h after the initial shock but were abolished when chloramphenicol was added to the culture during the shock. Cells preexposed to acid shock exhibited cross-protection against subsequent bile shock. However, cells preexposed to bile shock exhibited no changes in acid tolerance. Bile shock induced a modest reduction (0 to 20%) in enterotoxin production in V. cholerae, whereas acid shock had no effect on enterotoxin levels. Adaptation to acid and bile juice and protection against bile shock in response to preexposure to acid shock would be predicted to enhance the survival of V. cholerae in hosts and in foods. Thus, these adaptations may play an important role in the development of cholera disease. PMID:14672225
Methanolic extracts from ten fruits were examined for anthocyanin, flavonoids and phenolic acid constituents, and antioxidant capacity. The fruits included: mao luang (Antidesma bunius Linn.), mao khipla (Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn.), mulberry (Morus alba Linn.), wild grape (Tetrastigma quadrangulatum), red grape (Vitis vinifera), blueberry (Vaccinium myrtilus), strawberry (Fragaria ananassa), red raspberry (Rubus idaeus), cherry (Prunus avium), and black currant (Ribes nigrum).
An economically sustainable process was developed for propionic acid production by fermentation of glycerol using Propionibacterium acidipropionici and potato juice, a by-product of starch processing, as a nitrogen/vitamin source. The fermentation was done as high-cell-density sequential batches with cell recycle. Propionic acid production and glycerol consumption rates were dependent on initial biomass concentration, and reached a maximum of 1.42 and 2.30 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively, from 50 g L(-1) glycerol at initial cell density of 23.7 gCDW L(-1). Halving the concentration of nitrogen/vitamin source resulted in reduction of acetic and succinic acids yields by ~39% each. At glycerol concentrations of 85 and 120 g L(-1), respectively, 43.8 and 50.8 g L(-1) propionic acid were obtained at a rate of 0.88 and 0.29 g L(-1) h(-1) and yield of 84 and 78 mol%. Succinic acid was 13 g% of propionic acid and could represent a potential co-product covering the cost of nitrogen/vitamin source. PMID:23041117
An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of hydroxycinnamoyltartaric esters, such as caftaric acid, p-coutaric acid and fertaric acid in grape juice, peel and seed. The target analytes were separated on a Waters UPLC HSS T3 column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) at 35 degrees C with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The grape juice was freeze-centrifuged, the supernatant was diluted with 20% methanol. The grape peel and grape seed samples were extracted with 80% ethanol. The extract was cleaned-up on-line with the analytical column by valve switching technology. The mobile phases were water-acetonitrile (both containing 0.1% formic acid). The identification and quantification were achieved by MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via negative electrospray ionization. As lack of commercial standards, p-coutaric acid and fertaric acid were quantified by caftaric acid equivalent. The developed method showed a good linearity over the range of 25-2 000 microg/L with good correlation coefficient (r2 = 0.998 9). The limit of detection was 0.25 microg/L, and the limit of quantification was 25 microg/L. The average recoveries of caftaric acid were between 97.7%-99.5% and the precisions were within 2.5% at the spiked levels of 250, 750 and 1 200 microg/L. The working solutions were stable for 74 h at room temperature. The results showed that there are significant differences of hydroxycinnamoyltartaric esters distribution in grape juice, peel and seeds. Therefore, this method, owing to its simplicity, rapidity, good recovery, high sensitivity and accuracy, can be used for the analysis of caftaric acid, p-coutaric acid and fertaric acid in grape juice, peel and seeds. PMID:23697175
The effect of high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) or thermal processes and refrigerated storage on water-soluble vitamins and antioxidant capacity of beverages containing fruitjuices and whole (FJ-WM) or skim milk (FJ-SM) was assessed. Peroxidase (POD) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inactivation as well as color changes were also studied. High vitamin C retention was observed in HIPEF and thermally treated beverages, but a significant depletion of the vitamin during storage occurred, which was correlated with antioxidant capacity. HIPEF treatment did not affect the concentration of group B vitamins, which also remained constant over time, but thermally treated beverages showed lower riboflavin (vitamin B2) concentration. With regard to enzyme activity, thermal processing was more effective than HIPEF on POD and LOX inactivation. The color of the beverages was maintained after HIPEF processing and during storage. Consequently, HIPEF processing could be a feasible technology to attain beverages with fruitjuices and milk with high vitamin content and antioxidant potential. PMID:21846104
Salvia-Trujillo, Laura; Morales-de la Peña, Mariana; Rojas-Graü, Alejandra; Martín-Belloso, Olga
A novel method, ultrasound-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification microextraction with solidification of floating organic droplet (UASEME-SFOD), has been developed for the extraction of four strobilurin fungicides (kresoxim-methyl, picoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin) in fruitjuices. In the UASEME-SFOD technique, Tween 80 was used as emulsifier, and 1-undecanol was used as extraction solvent without using any organic dispersive solvent. Several parameters that affect the extraction efficiency, such as the kind and volume of extraction solvent, the type and concentration of the surfactant, extraction time, extraction temperature and salt addition were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum extraction condition, the method yields a linear calibration curve in the concentration range from 5 to 10,000 ng mL(-1) for the targeted analytes with the correlation coefficient ranging from 0.9991 to 0.9998. The enrichment factors were in the range between 95 and 135, and the limits of detection of the method were 2-4 ng mL(-1). The fruitjuice samples were successfully analyzed using the proposed method, and the relative recoveries at fortified levels of 50 and 100 ng mL(-1) were in the range of 82.6-97.5%. PMID:23545561
A method for the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) heads, juice, and pomace by HPLC with diode array and mass spectrometric detection was developed. Among the 22 major compounds, 11 caffeoylquinic acids and 8 flavonoids were detected. Quantification of individual compounds was carried out by external calibration. Apigenin 7-O-glucuronide was found to be the major flavonoid in all samples investigated. 1,5-Di-O-caffeoylquinic acid represented the major hydroxycinnamic acid, with 3890 mg/kg in artichoke heads and 3269 mg/kg in the pomace, whereas in the juice 1,3-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (cynarin) was predominant, due to the isomerization during processing. Total phenolic contents of approximately 12 g/kg on a dry matter basis revealed that artichoke pomace is a promising source of phenolic compounds that might be recovered and used as natural antioxidants or functional food ingredients. PMID:15212452
Schütz, Katrin; Kammerer, Dietmar; Carle, Reinhold; Schieber, Andreas
Fruit of cultivated eggplant (Solanum melongena) and several wild relatives (S. aethiopicum, S. macrocarpon, S. anguivi, and S. incanum) have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) conjugates. Typically, caffeoylquinic acid esters predominate, and in particular chlorogenic acid [5-O-(E)-caffeo...
The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty-acids, carotenoids, amino-acids as well as terpenes. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino- and a-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds be...
Outbreaks of diarrhoea, haemolytic uraemic syndrome and food poisoning have been associated with the consumption of (apple and orange ciders) and (apple and orange juices). The organisms implicated in these outbreaks have been Escherichia coli O157:H7 serotype and Salmonella typhi (a group D serotype), indicating the resistance of the serotypes of these organisms to acidic pH. The acid tolerance, the
The fruits of eight myrtles, Myrtus communis L. accessions from the Mediterranean region of Turkey were evaluated for their antioxidant activities and fatty acid contents. The antioxidant activities of the fruit extracts were determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ?-carotene-linoleic acid assays. The fatty acid contents of fruits were determined by using gas chromatography. The methanol extracts of fruits exhibited a high level of free radical scavenging activity. There was a wide range (74.51-91.65%) of antioxidant activity among the accessions in the ?-carotene-linoleic acid assay. The amount of total phenolics (TP) was determined to be between 44.41-74.44 ?g Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/mg, on a dry weight basis. Oleic acid was the dominant fatty acid (67.07%), followed by palmitic (10.24%), and stearic acid (8.19%), respectively. These results suggest the future utilization of myrtle fruit extracts as food additives or in chemoprevention studies.
Iron deficiency remains a serious problem in young children. Iron absorption is affected by other components of the diet, and may be increased by vitamin C. However, children generally prefer fruitjuices that contain low levels of vitamin C (e.g. apple juice)over those that contain more (e.g. oran...
A modified Salmonella mutagenicity assay and a cytotoxicity test were developed to. determine the concentration of sensorially inactive Maillard Intermediate Products (MIP) in fruitjuices. The formation of MIP is initiated by heat treatments necessary for pasteurization and thermal concentration. In industrial and laboratory prepared orange juices their concentration was seen to be related to the intensity of the heat
The effect of volatile absorption on flavor of reconstituted orange juice concentrates was examined for moderately high (0.23 mL\\/L), normal (0.16 mL\\/L) and low oil (0.09 mL\\/L) orange juices in contact with low density polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polyamide and ethylene (co)vinyl alcohol. For all oil and treatment variables, triangle tests were unable to distinguish flavor differences between juice samples in
The chemical composition of 30 samples of juices obtained from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso and Poit.) fruits is reported and compared to the genuineness parameters adopted by Association of the Industry of Juice and Nectars (AIJN) for lemon juice. It was found that the compositional differences between the two juices are distinguishable, although with difficulty. However, these differences are not strong enough to detect the fraudulent addition of bergamot juice to lemon juice. Instead, we found the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the flavanones naringin, neohesperidin, and neoeriocitrin, which are present in bergamot juice and practically absent in the lemon juice, is a convenient way to detect and quantify the fraudulent addition of bergamot juice. The method has been validated by calculating the detection and quantification limits according to Eurachem procedures. Employing neoeriocitrin (detection limit = 0.7 mg/L) and naringin (detection limit = 1 mg/L) as markers, it is possible to detect the addition of bergamot juice to lemon juice at the 1% level. When using neohesperidin as a marker (detection limit = 1 mg/L), the minimal percentage of detectable addition of bergamot juice was about 2%. Finally, it is reported that the pattern of flavonoid content of the bergamot juice is similar to those of chinotto (Citrus myrtifolia Raf) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) juices and that it is possible to distinguish the three kinds of juices by HPLC analysis. PMID:18557623
Cinnamic acid and cinnamic acid derivatives occur in plants and fruits, providing a natural protection against infections by pathogenic microorganisms. They may also inhibit wine fermentation and other fruitjuice fermentations by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and raise difficulties in the biological treatment of waste water from some food industries. In the present work, it is shown that cells of S. cerevisiae
Alexandra Chambel; Cristina A. Viegas; Isabel Sá-Correia
Radical scavenging capacity of a crude methanolic extract from the fruits of Phillyrea latifolia L., commonly known as green olive tree or mock privet, was investigated with reference to anthocyanin standards, as flavonoids, and phenolic acid standards, as phenylpropanoids. Characterization with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) indicated the presence of keracyanin, kuromanin, cyanidin, ferulic acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid at amounts of 289.1, 90.4, 191.4, 225.2, 221.2 and 190.1 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW) of fruits, respectively. Chlorogenic and p-coumaric acids were found to exist in lower amounts. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and IC(50) values of the plant extract were found to be 1.8 mM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g FW of fruits and 69.4 µg/mL, respectively, indicating the close radical scavenging activity of the extract to those of keracyanin and p-coumaric acid. The crude methanolic P. latifolia L. fruit extract was seen to be fairly potent in radical scavenging. Total phenolic content (TPC) of the plant extract was found to be 1652.9 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g FW of fruits. PMID:23364751
The antioxidant efficacy of heated garlic juice (HGJ) in liver was evaluated with that of ascorbic acid (AA) in rats exposed to acute dose of cadmium (4 mg kg(-1) bd. wt). The rats were either given HGJ (100 mg kg(-1) bd. wt) orally, daily for 4 weeks or AA (100 mg kg(-1) bd. wt) orally, daily for 4 weeks or both or cadmium (4 mg kg(-1) bd. wt) intraperitoneally for 3 days. Another group of rats was given cadmium (4 mg kg(-1) bd. wt) intraperitoneally for 3 days after pretreatment with either HGJ (100 mg kg(-1) bd. wt) or ascorbic acid (100 mg kg(-1) bd. wt) for 4 weeks and the liver excised. The results obtained show that AA and HGJ significantly reduced the level of liver malondialdehyde (MDA) induced by cadmium compared to control (p < 0.05) but AA tends to be more potent when compared with HGJ. The presence of either HGJ or AA also significantly reduced the levels of ROS in the presence of cadmium (Cd). The presence of either AA or HGJ pre-treatment produced significant increase in liver SOD and Catalase activities when compared with rats treated with Cd alone. There was no significant reduction in the activities of these enzymes in the presence of cadmium compared to control. Western blot shows that the expressions of Nrf2 and NQO1 in the liver were significantly increase by 3 and 1.7-fold respectively in the AA pretreated mice when compared with Cd. However no significant changes were seen in HGJ pretreated rats. The expression of HO-1 was not significantly increase in the AA pretreated rats. The results show that though both ascorbic acid and HGJ are efficient in preventing Cd-induced damage in the rat liver, ascorbic acid appeared to be a more powerful antioxidant than heated garlic juice in preventing cadmium-induced oxidative damage in liver and its action may be mediated in parts via Nrf2-keap1 pathway. PMID:22008531
Abstract Dietary interventions involving antioxidants are of interest for reducing inflammation, improving joint motion, and altering pain perception. We evaluated the effect of oral consumption of a fruit and berry blend on pain and range of motion (ROM). This open-label clinical pilot study involved 14 study participants with limitations in ROM that was associated with pain and affected daily living. Participants included but were not limited to those with age-related osteoarthritis. Study participants consumed 120?mL MonaVie Active® fruitjuice, predominantly containing açai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and other fruit concentrates, daily for 12 weeks. Study participants were assessed at baseline and 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks by structured nurse interviews, pain and activities of daily living (ADL) questionnaires, blood samples, and ROM assessment. Pain was scored by using a visual analogue scale. ROM was assessed by using dual digital inclinometry as recommended by American Medical Association guidelines. Consumption of the juice resulted in significant pain reduction, improved ROM measures, and improvement in ADLs. Serum antioxidant status, as monitored by the cell-based antioxidant protection in erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay, was improved within 2 weeks and continued to improve throughout the 12 weeks of study participation (P<.01). The inflammatory marker C-reactive protein was reduced at 12 weeks, but this change did not reach statistical significance. Lipid peroxidation decreased mildly at 12 weeks. The antioxidant status, as measured by the CAP-e bioassay, showed the best correlation with improvements in physical well-being (pain, ROM, and ADL). The significant association among increased antioxidant status, improved ROM, and pain reduction warrants further study.
Ager, David M.; Redman, Kimberlee A.; Mitzner, Marcie A.; Benson, Kathleen F.; Schauss, Alexander G.
Tomatoes are grown for fresh consumption or for processing of the fruit. Some ripening-associated processes of the fruit can either contribute to or degrade attributes associated with both fresh and processing quality. For example, cell wall disassembly is associated with loss of fresh fruit firmness as well as with loss of processed tomato product viscosity. Several enzymes contribute to cell
Ann L. T. Powell; Mary S. Kalamaki; Philip A. Kurien; Sergio Gurrieri; Alan B. Bennett
Mature 'McIntosh', 'Empire', and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and in 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0 and pH 3.5. Apple foliage had no acid rain lesions at any of the pH levels tested. Pollen germination was reduced at ph 2.5 in 'Empire'. Slight fruit set reduction at pH 2.5 was observed in 'McIntosh'. The incidence of russetting on 'Golden Delicious' fruits was ameliorated by the presence of rain-exclusion chambers but was not affected by acid rain. With season-long sprays at pH 2.75, there was a slight delay in maturity and lower weight of 'McIntosh' apples. Even at the lowest pH levels no detrimental effects of simulated acid rain were found on apple tree productivity and fruit quality when measured as fruit set, seed number per fruit, and fruit size and appearance.
Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) is a medicinal plant native to Brazil and also yields a nutritious fruitjuice. Its large pulpy pseudo-fruit, referred to as the cashew apple, contains high concentrations of vitamin C, carotenoids, phenolic compounds and minerals. Natural and processed cashew apple juice (CAJ\\/cajuina) are amongst the most popular juices in Brazil, especially in the north-east. Both juices have
Ana Amélia Melo Cavalcante; Gabriel Rübensam; Bernardo Erdtmann; Martin Brendel; João A. P. Henriques
A capillary liquid chromatography (cLC) method with gradient elution has been used to determine chlorophenoxy acid herbicides: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid, 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propanoic acid, 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid, 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)butanoic acid, 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)butanoic acid, 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)propanoic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic-1-methyl ester and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic-1-butyl ester in spiked apple juice samples with amounts between 0.025 and 0.150 mg kg(-1) of each herbicide. Clean-up and preconcentration of acid and esters were carried out in an Oasis MCX polymer. Detection limits obtained by cLC, between 0.005 and 0.018 mg kg(-1), allowed the determination of chlorophenoxy acids and their esters in apple juice samples around the levels permitted by the European Regulations, with recoveries in the range 84-99% and RSDs between 1 and 4%. PMID:15974090
Rosales-Conrado, N; León-González, M E; Pérez-Arribas, L V; Polo-Díez, L M
The amino acid content of fruit and fruit-derived foods is studied intensely because of the contribution to nutritional value, aroma, taste and health-promoting effects and their possible use as markers of origin and authenticity. In this review, based on 101 references, the most recent trends in the analysis of amino acids are presented: the most important techniques, the different sample treatment procedures (including derivatisation) and the most frequent applications are described and compared. Pertinent publications were retrieved from Scopus and Web of Knowledge database searches lastly performed in February 2012 with the keywords "amino acid", "analysis", "liquid chromatography", "gas chromatography", "electrophoresis", "fruit", and "vegetables"; the time limit was set from the year 2000 onwards. Although amino acids have been analysed in foods for decades, new technical possibilities and advancements have allowed ever-increasing accuracy and targeting of the methods in order to overcome the challenges posed by the complex plant matrices and their high intrinsic variability. PMID:23686004
Mandrioli, Roberto; Mercolini, Laura; Raggi, Maria Augusta
Mexican orange juice bottled without pasteurization and frozen, or orange juice that was pasteurized, bottled, and frozen or orange juice pasteurized and stored at 1°C in plastic bins was sampled monthly for eight months. Juice density, cloud, and fructose levels were all significantly (P<0.05) affected by the method of processing. Pasteurization reduced orange juice ascorbic acid concentrations. The concentrations of
E. R Farnworth; M Lagacé; R Couture; V Yaylayan; B Stewart
The electro-reduction of patulin mycotoxin and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural at glassy carbon electrodes in acetonitrile +0.1 mol L(-1) tetrabutylammonium perchlorate, in both the absence and the presence of different aliquots of trifluoroacetic acid is reported. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural is the most common interference in the determination of patulin in products derived from apples. The electrochemical techniques were cyclic and square wave voltammetries, and controlled potential bulk electrolysis. The number of electrons exchanged in the patulin electro-reduction of n=1 could be inferred from controlled potential bulk electrolysis measurements. Ultraviolet-visible and infrared spectroscopies were used to identify patulin electro-reduction product/s. A value of (2.1±0.1)×10(-5) cm(2) s(-1) for the patulin diffusion coefficient was calculated from convoluted cyclic voltammograms. A method based on square wave voltammetry was developed for the quantitative determination of patulin in both fresh, and commercial apple juices in the presence of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Calibration curves obtained from solutions of the commercial reagent, and commercial apple juices were linear in the range from 3.0×10(-7) to 2.2×10(-5) mol L(-1). The lowest concentration measured experimentally for a signal to noise ratio of 3:1 was 3×10(-7) mol L(-1) (45 ppb) and a recovery percent of 84% was determined for commercial apple juices. This electroanalytical methodology appears as a good screening method for the determination of patulin in apple juices. PMID:23622529
A capillary liquid chromatography (cLC) method with gradient elution has been used to determine chlorophenoxy acid herbicides: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid, 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propanoic acid, 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid, 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)butanoic acid, 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)butanoic acid, 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)propanoic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic-1-methyl ester and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic-1-butyl ester in spiked apple juice samples with amounts between 0.025 and 0.150mgkg?1 of each herbicide. Clean-up and preconcentration of acid and esters were carried out
N. Rosales-Conrado; M. E. León-González; L. V. Pérez-Arribas; L. M. Polo-Díez
The study focuses on the products which with regard to their total production value are the most important ones of the Baden-Wuerttemberg fruit and vegetable industry: - fruitjuice (mainly apple juice stored as clear or concentrated juice, apple juice bo...
Difference-from-control tests were run for “healthy” juice obtained from fruit harvested from 15 control non-Huanglongbing (HLB) symptomatic trees versus HLB juice from asymptomatic fruit harvested from 15 HLB-symptomatic trees within the same grove (~450 fruit for healthy and HLB). A trained panel ...
Major sugar and carboxylic acid components in apricot flesh fruits were detected and quantified. Fifty-one genotypes including\\u000a clones growing in France, Spain, Italy, Greece and USA, belonging to the INRA germ plasm collection has been evaluated. Principal\\u000a component analysis (PCA) has been performed to study correlation among fruit quality measurements and to interpret relationships\\u000a between genotypes as a tool for
Fabrizio Gurrieri; Jean-Marc Audergon; Guy Albagnac; Maryse Reich
Chairgulprasert, V., Krisornpornsan, B. and Hamad, A. Chemical constituents of the essential oil and organic acids from longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff.) fruits Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 2006, 28(2) : 321-326 The pulp of longkong fruits (Aglaia dookkoo Griff.), collected from Narathiwat province, was dried and extracted by steam distillation to obtain the essential oil in 0.48% yield. The GC-MS data
Four underutilized Georgia-grown fruit crops, namely loquat (Eriobotrya japonica), mayhaw (Crataegus sp.), fig (Ficus carica), and pawpaw (Asimina triloba), and their leaves were analysed for total polyphenols by Folin–Ciocalteau method, and antioxidant capacity by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Organic acids and phenolic compounds were identified by RP-HPLC. For lipid profile, fruits were separated into
Peach fruit were immersed in 5mM ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) solution for 10min at 20°C and then stored at 1°C for 5weeks to investigate the effect of GABA treatment on chilling injury (CI), antioxidant enzymes and energy status in peach fruit. The results showed that GABA treatment significantly inhibited CI incidence of peaches and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as