These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Fruit Juice Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry challenge, learners work to figure out which of four juices are real, and which is just food coloring and sugar. Learners add vinegar (an acid) and washing soda solution (a base) to grape juice, cranberry juice, blueberry juice, and a fake juice mixture. The real juices will change color as an acid or base is added, while the fake will not. Background information briefly discusses how the colored chemicals in fruits are often themselves weak acids and bases, and how many plants have been used as sources of acid/base indicators. This activity requires adult supervision.

2014-08-27

2

Haloacetic acids content of fruit juices and soft drinks.  

PubMed

Water used in a food factory is frequently disinfected with chlorine, which originates disinfection by-products: haloacetic acids (HAAs) make up the second most prevalent class of these products. In this paper we propose the first static HS-GC-MS method developed for direct HAA determination in beverages; the method has higher sensitivity, simplicity and reliability than the only alternative available in the literature. From 150 beverages analysed, it is possible to conclude that at least 2 HAAs (dichloro- and trichloroacetic acids, DCAA and TCAA) are always present in beverages prepared with treated water, which remains constant for 2 or 3 months in the beverages. Moreover, beverages of 100% fruit juices and soft drinks prepared with mineral water (free of HAAs) do not contain any HAA at significant values. Therefore, DCAA and TCAA may indicate of the presence of treated water in beverages. PMID:25466077

Cardador, María José; Gallego, Mercedes

2015-04-15

3

Amino Acid Profile as a Feasible Tool for Determination of the Authenticity of Fruit Juices  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Fruit juice is a nutrient rich food product with a direct connection to public health. The purpose of this research was to determine the amino acid profile of juices and provide a quick and accurate indicator for determining their authenticity. Methods: The method of analysis was HPLC with fluorescence detector and pre-column derivatization by orthophtaldialdehyde (OPA). Sixty-six samples of fruit juices were analyzed, and fourteen amino acids were identified and determined in the sampled fruit juices. The fruit samples used for this analysis were apples, oranges, cherry, pineapple, mango, apricot, pomegranate, peach and grapes. Results: The results showed that 32% of samples tested in this study had a lower concentrate percentage as compared to that of their labels and/or other possible authenticity problems in the manufacturing process. The following samples showed probable adulteration: four cherry juice samples, two pomegranate juice samples, one mango, three grape, four peach, seven orange, two apple and one apricot juice samples. Conclusion: In general, determining the amount of amino acids and comparing sample amino acids profiles with the standard values seems to be an indicator for quality control. This method can provide the regulatory agencies with a tool, to help produce a healthier juice. The aim of this study is the analytical control of the fruit juice composition is becoming an important issue, and HPLC can provide an important and essential tool for more accurate research as well as for routine analysis. PMID:25436191

Asadpoor, Mostafa; Ansarin, Masoud; Nemati, Mahboob

2014-01-01

4

Momordica charantia fruit juice stimulates glucose and amino acid uptakes in L6 myotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruit of Momordica charantia (family: Cucurbitacea) is used widely as a hypoglycaemic agent to treat diabetes mellitus (DM). The mechanism of the hypoglycaemic action of M. charantia in vitro is not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of M. charantia juice on either 3H-2-deoxyglucose or N-methyl-amino-a-isobutyric acid (14C-Me-AIB) uptake in L6 rat muscle cells cultured to the myotube

E. Cummings; H. S. Hundal; H. Wackerhage; M. Hope; M. Belle; E. Adeghate; J. Singh

2004-01-01

5

Effect of acid fruit juices combined with electric or sonic toothbrushing on root dentin permeability--an in vitro study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this in vitro study was to quantify the alterations on human root dentin permeability after exposure to different acid fruit juices and to evaluate the effect of toothbrushing with electric or sonic toothbrush after acid exposure. The root dentin of 50 extracted third molars was exposed with a high speed bur. Crowns were sectioned above the cementoenamel junction and root fragments were used to prepare dentin specimens. Specimens were randomly assigned to 5 groups according to the fruit juice (kiwifruit, starfruit, green apple, pineapple and acerolla). Each specimen was connected to a hydraulic pressure apparatus to measure root dentin permeability using fluid filtration method after the following sequential steps: I) conditioning with 37% phosphoric acid for 30 s, II) root scaling, III) exposure to acid fruit juices for 5 min and IV) electric or sonic toothbrushing without dentifrice for 3 min. Data were analyzed statistically by the Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests at 5% significance level. All fruit juices promoted a significant increase of dentin permeability while toothbrushing decreased it significantly (p<0.05). It may be concluded that all acid fruit juices increased root dentin permeability, while toothbrushing without dentifrice after acid exposure decreased the permeability. The toothbrush mechanism (electric or sonic) had no influence on the decrease of root dentin permeability. PMID:23338258

Batitucci, Roberta Grasselli; Zandim, Daniela Leal; Rocha, Fernanda Regina Godoy; Pinheiro, Michele Carolina; Fontanari, Lucas Amaral; Sampaio, José Eduardo Cezar

2012-01-01

6

Discrimination of fresh fruit juices by a fluorescent sensor array for carboxylic acids based on molecularly imprinted titania.  

PubMed

Design of chemical sensor arrays that can discriminate real-world samples has been highly attractive in recent years. Herein a fluorescent indicator-displacement sensor array for discrimination of fresh fruit juices was developed. By coupling the unique high affinity of titania to electron-donating anions and the cross-reactivity of molecularly imprinted materials to structurally similar species, a small array was fabricated using only one rhodamine-based fluorescent dye and three synthesized materials. Citric, malic, succinic and tartaric acids were chosen as indices. The recognition mechanism was investigated by spectrofluorimetric titration using a non-linear Langmuir-type adsorption model. The proposed method was applied to discriminate thirteen fruit juices through their carboxylic acid contents. Principal component analysis of the data clearly grouped the thirteen juices with the first principal component owning 98.2% of the total variation. The comparison of the sensor array with HPLC determination of the carboxylic acids was finally made. PMID:25038646

Tan, Jin; Li, Rong; Jiang, Zi-Tao

2014-12-15

7

Usual Intake of Fruit juice  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Fruit juice Table A5. Fruit juice: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 0.7 (0.05) 0.1

8

27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol...237 Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added...

2010-04-01

9

Optimization of the determination of organic acids and sugars in fruit juices by ion-exclusion liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

An HPLC method for the determination of the main organic acids and sugars in fruit juices is proposed. Nine acids (including oxalic, citric, malic, quinic, galacturonic, ascorbic, succinic, and fumaric acid) and three sugars (sucrose, glucose and fructose) were separated by ion-exclusion chromatography using a resin-based Aminex HPX 87H column after a sample clean-up with Sax cartridges. In spite of

Fabio Chinnici; Umberto Spinabelli; Claudio Riponi; Aureliano Amati

2005-01-01

10

Deacidification of clarified tropical fruit juices by electrodialysis. Part II. Characteristics of the deacidified juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrodialysis (ED) process was investigated to reduce the acidity of four tropical fruit juices, passion fruit, castilla mulberry, najanrilla and araza. In this part of the study, the results of physico-chemical and sensory analyses of juices treated were collected and compared to fresh juices. Low differences (

Edwin Vera; Jacqueline Sandeaux; Françoise Persin; Gérald Pourcelly; Manuel Dornier; Georges Piombo; Jenny Ruales

2007-01-01

11

An acidic pectin lyase from Aspergillus niger with favourable efficiency in fruit juice clarification.  

PubMed

The pectin lyase gene pnl-zj5a from Aspergillus niger ZJ5 was identified and expressed in Pichia pastoris. PNL-ZJ5A was purified by ultrafiltration, anion exchange and gel chromatography. The Km and Vmax values determined using citrus pectin were 0.66 mg ml(-1) and 32.6 ?mol min(-1) mg(-1) , respectively. PNL-ZJ5A exhibited optimal activity at 43°C and retained activity over 25-50°C. PNL-ZJ5A was optimally active at pH 5 and effective in apple juice clarification. Compared with controls, PNL-ZJ5A increased the fruit juice yield significantly. Furthermore, PNL-ZJ5A reduced the viscosity of apple juice by 38.8% and increased its transmittance by 86.3%. PNL-ZJ5A combined with a commercial pectin esterase resulted in higher juice volume. PMID:25382689

Xu, S X; Qin, X; Liu, B; Zhang, D Q; Zhang, W; Wu, K; Zhang, Y H

2015-02-01

12

Trace elements in fruit juices.  

PubMed

Fruit juices are widely consumed in tropical countries as part of habitual diet. The concentrations of several minerals in these beverages were evaluated. Four commercially available brands of juices were analyzed for cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, aluminum, iron, chromium, manganese, and molybdenum. The levels ranged from 0.02 to 0.08 mg/L for copper, from 0.05 to 0.23 mg/L for zinc, from 0.1 to 0.4 mg/L for aluminum, from 0.02 to 0.45 mg/L for iron, and from 0.01 to 0.22 mg/L for manganese. The levels of cadmium, lead, and chromium in all samples were very low or undetectable. The metal contents of fruit juices depend on a number of factors, including the soil composition, the external conditions during fruit growing and fruit harvesting, as well as on details of the fruit juice manufacturing processes employed. The concentrations of none of the metals in juice samples analyzed exceeded the limits imposed by local legislation. PMID:22068730

Bragança, Victor Luiz Cordoba; Melnikov, Petr; Zanoni, Lourdes Z

2012-05-01

13

Deacidification of passion fruit juice by electrodialysis with bipolar membrane after different pretreatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction of acidity of passion fruit juice was investigated by electrodialysis (ED) with bipolar membranes (BM) at the laboratory and pre-industrial scale. Four states of juice were tested: initial pulpy juice, juice clarified by tangential microfiltration, twice-concentrated clarified juice, centrifuged juice. The ED performances were compared in terms of deacidification rate, current efficiency, and energy consumption. The deacidification was

Edwin Vera; Jacqueline Sandeaux; Françoise Persin; Gérald Pourcelly; Manuel Dornier; Jenny Ruales

2009-01-01

14

Mass spectrometric detection and formation of D-amino acids in processed plant saps, syrups, and fruit juice concentrates.  

PubMed

Liquid and syrupy dietary saps and juices of plant origin, characterized by the presence of large quantities of saccharides (glucose, fructose, or sucrose) and containing amino acids, were analyzed for the presence of D-amino acids using enantioselective gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. D-amino acids were detected in processed saps and juices of trees (maple, palm, birch), fruits (grape, apple, pear, pomegranate, date), and various other plants (agave, beetroot, sugar cane, carob). D-Ala was detected in all plant products and amounted to approximately 34% D-Ala (relative to L-Ala + D-Ala) in Canadian maple syrups, to approximately 13% in palm saps, and to 48 and 13% D-Ala, respectively, in concentrated grape juices (Spanish Arrope and Turkish Pekmez). Varying amounts and kinds of other D-amino acids were also detected. To test the hypothesis that racemization, that is, partial conversion of L-amino acids into their corresponding D-enantiomers, occurs at reversible stages of the Maillard reaction, the Amadori compound fructose-L-phenylalanine was synthesized. On heating at 200 degrees C for 5 (20) min, release of 10.8% (24.2%) D-Phe was detected. From the data it is concluded that the Amadori compounds formed in the course of the Maillard reaction are pecursors of D-amino acids in foodstuffs. PMID:16332121

Pätzold, Ralf; Brückner, Hans

2005-12-14

15

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food...FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing...

2010-04-01

16

Freeze concentration of fruit juices.  

PubMed

Concentration of aqueous foods such as fruit juices, milk, beer, wine, coffee, and tea, is a major unit operation in the food industry. Technically feasible processes that are commercially available for the concentration of liquid foods include evaporation, freeze concentration, reverse osmosis, and ultrafiltration. Evaporation is considered to be the most economical and most widely used method of concentration. However, it is not suited for food products with very delicate flavors. Commercial processes for the concentration of such products by membrane separation techniques are not yet available. As compared to the conventional evaporation processes, concentration by freezing is potentially a superior and economic process for aroma-rich liquid foods. In the past, the process, however, was seldom used because of the investment cost and the considerable loss of concentrate in the withdrawn ice, and hence, the quality. Recent technological developments have minimized these two drawbacks associated with the earlier freeze concentration processes. In the coming decade, freeze concentration is seen as a potentially attractive method for the concentration of aroma-rich liquid foods, including fruit juices, coffee, tea, and selected alcoholic beverages. In this article, several aspects of the theoretical considerations behind freeze concentration of fruit juices, the development of new and cheaper designs, and commercially available freeze concentration processes are reviewed. The economics of the process and its application to several other areas of the food industry are also discussed. PMID:6383717

Deshpande, S S; Cheryan, M; Sathe, S K; Salunkhe, D K

1984-01-01

17

Acid adaptation and temperature effect on the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in acidic fruit juice and lactic fermented milk product.  

PubMed

In this study, two strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7, (ATCC 43889 and ATCC 43895) were acid adapted at pH 5.0 in tryptic soy broth (TSB) for 4 h. Commercial products of mango juice (pH 3.2), asparagus juice (pH 3.6), Yakult--a diluted milk fermented drink (pH 3.6), and low-fat yoghurt (pH 3.9) were inoculated with acid-adapted or nonadapted cells of E. coli O157:H7. Survival of the inoculated E. coli O157:H7 in these commercial food products during storage at 25 or 7 degrees C was examined. It was found that although survival of the acid-adapted and nonadapted E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895 in asparagus juice during storage at 7 degrees C did not show marked difference, in general, acid adaptation and low temperature enhanced the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in both the commercial fruit juices tested. On the contrary, acid adaptation reduced the survival of both the strains of the test organism in Yakult and low-fat yoghurt stored at 7 degrees C. Besides, E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895 survived longer than ATCC 43889 in all the products examined, regardless of the storage temperature and acid adaptation. PMID:11759757

Hsin-Yi, C; Chou, C C

2001-10-22

18

Efficient determination of protocatechuic acid in fruit juices by selective and rapid magnetic molecular imprinted solid phase extraction coupled with HPLC.  

PubMed

Magnetic molecular imprinted polymers (MMIPs) have been prepared as solid phase material to selectively extract protocatechuic acid (PCA) from fruit juices with high capacity and fast binding kinetics. The resulting MMIPs were characterized by TEM, FT-IR, TGA, and VSM. The adsorption process between PCA and MMIPs followed Langumuir adsorption isotherm with maximum adsorption capacity at 7.5 mg/g and pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics with fast binding kinetics (equilibrium time at 40 min). In addition, the prepared MMIPs showed rapid magnetic separation (10 s) and reusability (retained 94.9% after six cycles). Subsequently, MMIPs were successfully applied for selective enrichment and determination of PCA from fruit juices (0.45 ?g/mL in grape juice but not detected in apple juice, pineapple juice, orange juice, and peach juice) with satisfactory recoveries (92-107%). The results indicated that synthesized MMIPs can be used for efficient and selective extraction of PCA from complex matrices. PMID:25075753

Xie, Lianwu; Guo, Junfang; Zhang, Yuping; Shi, Shuyun

2014-08-13

19

Pomegranate juice: a heart-healthy fruit juice.  

PubMed

Pomegranate juice is a polyphenol-rich fruit juice with high antioxidant capacity. In limited studies in human and murine models, pomegranate juice has been shown to exert significant antiatherogenic, antioxidant, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory effects. Pomegranate juice significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion areas in immune-deficient mice and intima media thickness in cardiac patients on medications. It also decreased lipid peroxidation in patients with type 2 diabetes, and systolic blood pressure and serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity in hypertensive patients. Thus, the potential cardioprotective benefits of pomegranate juice deserve further clinical investigation, and evidence to date suggests it may be prudent to include this fruit juice in a heart-healthy diet. PMID:19146506

Basu, Arpita; Penugonda, Kavitha

2009-01-01

20

INTERACTION OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF CHLORINE WITH MALIC ACID, TARTARIC ACID, AND VARIOUS FRUIT JUICES, A SOURCE OF MUTAGENS  

EPA Science Inventory

The interactions of aqueous solutions of chlorine with some fruit acids (citric acid, DL-malic acid, and L-tartaric acid) at different pH values were studied. iethyl ether extraction followed by GC/MS analysis indicated that a number of mutagens (certain chlorinated propanones an...

21

Deacidification of the clarified passion fruit juice ( P. edulis f. flavicarpa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high acidity of passion fruit limits its addition in food preparation and gives poor aroma and flavour products. The reduction of the acidity of the fruit juice can avoid this problem. Various methods such as calcium precipitation, ion-exchange resins and electrodialysis (ED) with homopolar and bipolar membranes (BMs) were investigated to deacidify yellow passion fruit juice. The pH of

Edwin Vera Calle; Jenny Ruales; Manuel Dornier; Jacqueline Sandeaux; Roger Sandeaux; Gérald Pourcelly

2002-01-01

22

Fruits, vegetables, 100% juices, and cognitive function.  

PubMed

Although reviews of the association between polyphenol intake and cognition exist, research examining the cognitive effects of fruit, vegetable, and juice consumption across epidemiological and intervention studies has not been previously examined. For the present review, critical inclusion criteria were human participants, a measure of fruit, vegetable, or 100% juice consumption, an objective measure of cognitive function, and a clinical diagnosis of neuropsychological disease. Studies were excluded if consumption of fruits, vegetables, or juice was not assessed in isolation from other food groups, or if there was no statistical control for education or IQ. Seventeen of 19 epidemiological studies and 3 of 6 intervention studies reported significant benefits of fruit, vegetable, or juice consumption for cognitive performance. The data suggest that chronic consumption of fruits, vegetables, and juices is beneficial for cognition in healthy older adults. The limited data from acute interventions indicate that consumption of fruit juices can have immediate benefits for memory function in adults with mild cognitive impairment; however, as of yet, acute benefits have not been observed in healthy adults. Conclusions regarding an optimum dietary intake for fruits, vegetables, and juices are difficult to quantify because of substantial heterogeneity in the categorization of consumption of these foods. PMID:25399992

Lamport, Daniel J; Saunders, Caroline; Butler, Laurie T; Spencer, Jeremy Pe

2014-12-01

23

SPRAY DRYING OF CONCENTRATED FRUIT JUICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two spray dryers were tested to obtain powders from concentrated juices of blackcurrant, apricot, raspberry, with different maltodextrins as drying-aid agents. Composition of fruit juices and dextrose equivalent for maltodextrin are considered. Best results were obtained for a ratio juice to maltodextrin DE6 of 65\\/35 for blackcurrant, of 60\\/40 for apricot and 55\\/45 for raspberry, and low air temperatures (160–90°C).

B. R. Bhandari; A. Senoussi; E. D. Dumoulin; A. Lebert

1993-01-01

24

21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...as safe and suitable in color additive mixtures for coloring foods. (b) Uses and restrictions. Fruit juice may be safely used for the coloring of foods generally, in amounts consistent with good...

2011-04-01

25

Comparison of the Effects of Blending and Juicing on the Phytochemicals Contents and Antioxidant Capacity of Typical Korean Kernel Fruit Juices  

PubMed Central

Four Korean kernel fruit (apple, pear, persimmon, and mandarin orange) juices were obtained by household processing techniques (i.e., blending, juicing). Whole and flesh fractions of each fruit were extracted by a blender or a juicer and then examined for phytochemical content (i.e., organic acids, polyphenol compounds). The antioxidant capacity of each juice was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Results revealed that juices that had been prepared by blending whole fruits had stronger antioxidant activities and contained larger amounts of phenolic compounds than juices that had been prepared by juicing the flesh fraction of the fruit. However, the concentration of ascorbic acid in apple, pear, and mandarin orange juices was significantly (P<0.05) higher in juice that had been processed by juicing, rather than blending. The juices with the highest ascorbic acid (233.9 mg/serving), total polyphenols (862.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/serving), and flavonoids (295.1 mg quercetin equivalents/serving) concentrations were blended persimmon juice, blended mandarin orange juice, and juiced apple juice, respectively. These results indicate that juice extraction techniques significantly (P<0.05) influences the phytochemical levels and antioxidant capacity of fruit juices. PMID:25054109

Pyo, Young-Hee; Jin, Yoo-Jeong; Hwang, Ji-Young

2014-01-01

26

No difference in fecal levels of bacteria or short chain fatty acids in humans, when consuming fruit juice beverages containing fruit fiber, fruit polyphenols, and their combination.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of a Boysenberry beverage (750 mg polyphenols), an apple fiber beverage (7.5 g dietary fiber), and a Boysenberry plus apple fiber beverage (750 mg polyphenols plus 7.5 g dietary fiber) on gut health. Twenty-five individuals completed the study. The study was a placebo-controlled crossover study, where every individual consumed 1 of the 4 treatments in turn. Each treatment phase was 4-week long and was followed by a 2-week washout period. The trial beverages were 350 g taken in 2 doses every day (ie, 175 mL taken twice daily). The hypothesis for the study was that the combination of polyphenols and fiber would have a greater benefit on gut health than the placebo product or the fiber or polyphenols on their own. There were no differences in fecal levels of total bacteria, Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group, Bifidobacteriumspecies, Clostridium perfringens, or Lactobacillus species among any of the treatment groups. Fecal short chain fatty acid concentrations did not vary among treatment groups, although prostaglandin E2 concentrations were higher after consumption of the Boysenberry juice beverage. No significant differences were found in quantitative measures of gut health between the Boysenberry juice beverage, the apple fiber beverage, the Boysenberry juice plus apple fiber beverage, and the placebo beverage. PMID:25530011

Wallace, Alison J; Eady, Sarah L; Hunter, Denise C; Skinner, Margot A; Huffman, Lee; Ansell, Juliet; Blatchford, Paul; Wohlers, Mark; Herath, Thanuja D; Hedderley, Duncan; Rosendale, Douglas; Stoklosinski, Halina; McGhie, Tony; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Redman, Claire

2015-01-01

27

Dissolvable layered double hydroxide coated magnetic nanoparticles for extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of phenolic acids in fruit juices.  

PubMed

A magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide coated on magnetic nanoparticles was synthesized and used as a sorbent to extract some phenolic acids including p-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid from fruit juices. After extraction, the elution step was performed through dissolving double hydroxide layers containing the analytes by changing the solution pH. The extracted phenolic acids were separated and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection. Experimental parameters such as sorbent amount, solution pH, desorption solvent volume and extraction time were studied and optimized. The linearity range of the method was between 2 and 500?gL(-1) with the determination coefficient (r(2)) higher than 0.991. Relative standard deviations for intra- and inter-day precision for the analytes at 100?gL(-1) were in the range of 4.3-9.2% and 4.9-8.6%, respectively. Batch-to-batch reproducibility at 100?gL(-1) concentration level was in the range of 7.8-11% (n=3). The limits of detection were between 0.44 and 1.3?gL(-1). Relative recoveries higher than 81% with RSDs in the range of 4.2-9.7% were obtained in the analysis of fruit juice samples. PMID:25260344

Saraji, Mohammad; Ghani, Milad

2014-10-31

28

The effects of fruit juices and fruits on the absorption of iron from a rice meal.  

PubMed

The effects of the chemical composition of fruit juices and fruit on the absorption of iron from a rice (Oryza sativa) meal were measured in 234 parous Indian women, using the erythrocyte utilization of radioactive Fe method. The corrected geometric mean Fe absorptions with different juices varied between 0.040 and 0.129, with the variation correlating closely with the ascorbic acid contents of the juices (rs 0.838, P less than 0.01). Ascorbic acid was not the only organic acid responsible for the promoting effects of citrus fruit juices on Fe absorption. Fe absorption from laboratory 'orange juice' (100 ml water, 33 mg ascorbic acid and 750 mg citric acid) was significantly better than that from 100 ml water and 33 mg ascorbic acid alone (0.097 and 0.059 respectively), while Fe absorption from 100 ml orange juice (28 mg ascorbic acid) was better than that from 100 ml water containing the same amount of ascorbic acid (0.139 and 0.098 respectively). Finally, Fe absorption from laboratory 'lemon juice' (100 ml orange juice and 4 g citric acid) was significantly better than that from 100 ml orange juice (0.226 and 0.166 respectively). The corrected geometric mean Fe absorption from the rice meal was 0.025. Several fruits had little or no effect on Fe absorption from the meal (0.013-0.024). These included grape (Vitis vinifera), peach (Prunus persica), apple (Malus sylvestris) and avocado pear (Persea americana). Fruit with a mild to moderate enhancing effect on Fe absorption (0.031-0.088) included strawberry (Fragaria sp.) (uncorrected values), plum (Prunus domestica), rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum), banana (Musa cavendishii), mango (Mangifera indica), pear (Pyrus communis), cantaloup (Cucumis melo) and pineapple (Ananas comosus) (uncorrected values). Guava (Psidium guajava) and pawpaw (Carica papaya) markedly increased Fe absorption (0.126-0.293). There was a close correlation between Fe absorption and the ascorbic acid content of the fruits tested (rs 0.738, P less than 0.0001). There was also a weaker but significant correlation with the citric acid content (rs 0.55, P less than 0.03). Although this may have reflected a direct effect of citric acid on Fe absorption, it should be noted that fruits containing citric acid also contained ascorbic acid (rs 0.70, P less than 0.002).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3593665

Ballot, D; Baynes, R D; Bothwell, T H; Gillooly, M; MacFarlane, B J; MacPhail, A P; Lyons, G; Derman, D P; Bezwoda, W R; Torrance, J D

1987-05-01

29

Comparison between different ion exchange resins for the deacidification of passion fruit juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passion fruit is highly appreciated for its aroma, but its strong acidity limits its use in formulated food products. In this study, deacidification of clarified passion fruit juice using ion exchange resins has been evaluated. Ten commercial weakly basic anion exchange resins were compared using a 50 ml column. The deacidification was carried out in order to increase juice pH

Edwin Vera; Manuel Dornier; Jenny Ruales; Fabrice Vaillant; Max Reynes

2003-01-01

30

Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices  

PubMed Central

Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed. PMID:25332721

Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

2014-01-01

31

Deconstructing a fruit serving: comparing the antioxidant density of select whole fruit and 100% fruit juices.  

PubMed

Research suggests phytonutrients, specifically phenolic compounds, within fruit may be responsible for the putatively positive antioxidant benefits derived from fruit. Given the prominence of fruit juice in the American diet, the purpose of this research was to assess the antioxidant density of fresh fruit and 100% fruit juice for five commonly consumed fruits and juices and to compare the adequacy of 100% juice as a dietary equivalent to whole fruit in providing beneficial antioxidants. Antioxidant density was measured using an oxygen radical absorbance capacity method on six samples assayed in triplicate for each fruit (grape, apple, orange, grapefruit, pineapple), name-brand 100% juice, and store-brand 100% juice. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference or Student t test were used to assess significance (P<0.05). Antioxidant density (mmol TE/100 g) of apple, orange, and grapefruit was 23% to 54% higher than the mean antioxidant density of name-brand and store-brand juices for each fruit; however, only apple and grapefruit exhibited significantly greater (P<0.05) antioxidant density than either of their name-brand or store-brand juices. In contrast, the mean antioxidant density of name-brand grape and pineapple juice was higher than fresh grape or pineapple fruit; however, both fresh grapes and commercial grape juice contained significantly more (P<0.05) antioxidants than store-brand grape juice. Regardless of the convenience of fruit juice, results support the recommendations of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for increasing fruit servings in the whole fruit form due to their provision of beneficial antioxidants and fiber with approximately 35% less sugar. PMID:23810279

Crowe, Kristi Michele; Murray, Elizabeth

2013-10-01

32

Effect of liberibacter infection (huanglongbing disease) of citrus on orange fruit physiology and fruit/fruit juice quality: chemical and physical analyses.  

PubMed

More than 90% of oranges in Florida are processed, and since Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been rumored to affect fruit flavor, chemical and physical analyses were conducted on fruit and juice from healthy (Las -) and diseased (Las +) trees on three juice processing varieties over two seasons, and in some cases several harvests. Fruit, both asymptomatic and symptomatic for the disease, were used, and fresh squeezed and processed/pasteurized juices were evaluated. Fruit and juice characteristics measured included color, size, solids, acids, sugars, aroma volatiles, ascorbic acid, secondary metabolites, pectin, pectin-demethylating enzymes, and juice cloud. Results showed that asymptomatic fruit from symptomatic trees were similar to healthy fruit for many of the quality factors measured, but that juice from asymptomatic and especially symptomatic fruits were often higher in the bitter compounds limonin and nomilin. However, values were generally below reported taste threshold levels, and only symptomatic fruit seemed likely to cause flavor problems. There was variation due to harvest date, which was often greater than that due to disease. It is likely that the detrimental flavor attributes of symptomatic fruit (which often drop off the tree) will be largely diluted in commercial juice blends that include juice from fruit of several varieties, locations, and seasons. PMID:20030384

Baldwin, Elizabeth; Plotto, Anne; Manthey, John; McCollum, Greg; Bai, Jinhe; Irey, Mike; Cameron, Randall; Luzio, Gary

2010-01-27

33

Development and validation of a predictive model for the influences of selected product and process variables on ascorbic acid degradation in simulated fruit juice.  

PubMed

A predictive response surface model for the influences of product (soluble solids and titratable acidity) and process (temperature and heating time) parameters on the degradation of ascorbic acid (AA) in heated simulated fruit juices (SFJs) was established. Physicochemical property ranges of freshly squeezed and processed juices, and a previously established decimal reduction times of Escherichiacoli O157:H7 at different heating temperatures were used in establishing a Central Composite Design of Experiment that determined the combinations of product and process variable used in the model building. Only the individual linear effects of temperature and heating time significantly (P<0.05) affected AA reduction (%AAr). Validating systems either over- or underestimated actual %AAr with bias factors 0.80-1.20. However, all validating systems still resulted in acceptable predictive efficacy, with accuracy factor 1.00-1.26. The model may be useful in establishing unique process schedules for specific products, for the simultaneous control and improvement of food safety and quality. PMID:25660889

Gabriel, Alonzo A; Cayabyab, Jochelle Elysse C; Tan, Athalie Kaye L; Corook, Mark Lester F; Ables, Errol John O; Tiangson-Bayaga, Cecile Leah P

2015-06-15

34

19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. 151.91 Section 151...151.91 Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. The following values...the average Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices in the trade and...

2012-04-01

35

27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol...24.180 Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original...

2010-04-01

36

19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. 151.91 Section 151.91...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Fruit Juices § 151.91 Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices. The following values...

2010-04-01

37

Effectiveness of a bacteriophage in reducing Listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut fruits and fruit juices.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes is a serious foodborne pathogen and new strategies to control it in food are needed. Among them, bacteriophages hold attributes that appear to be attractive. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the bacteriophage Listex P100 to control L. monocytogenes growth on melon, pear and apple products (juices and slices) stored at 10 °C. L. monocytogenes grew well in untreated fruit slices. In juices, the pathogen grew in untreated melon, survived in untreated pear and decreased in untreated apple. Phage treatment was more effective on melon followed by pear, but no effect on apple products was observed. Reductions of about 1.50 and 1.00 log cfu plug(-1) for melon and pear slices were found, respectively. In juices, higher reductions were obtained in melon (8.00 log cfu mL(-1)) followed by pear (2.10 log cfu mL(-1)) after 8 days of storage. L. monocytogenes in apple juice was unaffected by phage treatment in which the phage decreased to almost undetectable numbers. These results highlight that Listex P100 could avoid pathogen growth on fresh-cut and in fruit juices with high pH during storage at 10 °C. The combination with other technologies may be required to improve the phage application on high acidity fruits. PMID:24290636

Oliveira, M; Viñas, I; Colàs, P; Anguera, M; Usall, J; Abadias, M

2014-04-01

38

Continental Breakfast $10 Selection of Assorted Bottled Fruit Juices  

E-print Network

Bottle Juices $3 Bottled Water $3 Granola Bars, Power Bars and Nutrigrain Bars $2 Assorted Organic#12;Continental Breakfast $10 Selection of Assorted Bottled Fruit Juices Seasonal Sliced Fresh Teas The American Breakfast Buffet $16 (Minimum of 15 guests) Selection of Assorted Bottled Fruit

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

39

Hydrophilic gallic acid-imprinted polymers over magnetic mesoporous silica microspheres with excellent molecular recognition ability in aqueous fruit juices.  

PubMed

Hydrophilic molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for gallic acid (GA) were prepared with excellent recognition ability in an aqueous solution. The proposed MIPs were designed by self-polymerization of dopamine (DA) on magnetic mesoporous silica (Fe3O4@SiO2@mSiO2, MMS) using GA as template. Resulting Fe3O4@SiO2@mSiO2@MIPs (MMS-MIPs) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and evaluated by adsorption isotherms/kinetics and competitive adsorption. The adsorption behavior between GA and MMS-MIPs followed Langmuir and Sips adsorption isotherms with a maximum adsorption capacity at 88.7mg/g and pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics with fast binding (equilibrium time at 100min). In addition, MMS-MIPs showed rapid magnetic separation (10s) and stability (retained 95.2% after six cycles). Subsequently, MMS-MIPs were applied for the selective extraction and determination of GA from grape, apple, peach and orange juices (4.02, 3.91, 5.97, and 0.67?g/g, respectively). Generally, the described method may pave the way towards rationally designing more advanced hydrophilic MIPs. PMID:25722156

Hu, Xin; Xie, Lianwu; Guo, Junfang; Li, Hui; Jiang, Xinyu; Zhang, Yuping; Shi, Shuyun

2015-07-15

40

Squeezing Fact from Fiction about 100% Fruit Juice.  

PubMed

Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. PMID:25770266

Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

2015-03-01

41

Spectrophotometric determination of carminic acid in human plasma and fruit juices by second order calibration of the absorbance spectra-pH data matrices coupled with standard addition method.  

PubMed

A simple analytical method based on the second-order calibration of the pH gradient spectrophotometric data was developed for assay of carminic acid (CA) in human plasma and orange juice over the concentration range of 1.5-14.0microM. The multi-way data analysis method was coupled with standard addition to encounter the significant effects of plasma and juices matrices on the acid-base behavior and UV-vis. absorbance spectra of CA. Thus, the standard addition three-way calibration data of plasma or fruit juices samples were analyzed by parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and the concentration related scores were used to derive a standard addition plot such as one obtained in univariate standard addition method. The number of PARAFAC components was obtained utilizing different criteria such as core consistency and residual errors through pf-test implementation. The applicability of the proposed method was evaluated by analysis of human plasma and fruit juices spiked with different levels of standard CA solutions. The results confirmed the success of the proposed method in the analysis of pH gradient spectrophotometric data for determination of CA. The recoveries were between 86.7 and 106.7. PMID:20441865

Samari, Fayezeh; Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

2010-05-14

42

Nutritional Value and Microbiological Safety of Fresh Fruit Juices sold through Retail Outlets in Qatar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional value of ten fresh fruit juices purchased from retail outlets in Doha, Qatar was calculated on the basis that approximately 100 g of fruit is used to make one glass of juice (250 ml). Avocado juice was the best source of energy and potassium followed by banana juice, while guava juice was an outstanding source of vitamin C

2002-01-01

43

Comparison of different methods for deacidification of clarified passion fruit juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high acidity of passion fruit limits its addition in food preparation. In order to easy the uses of this juice to formulate high aroma and flavour products, its citric acid content must be decreased. Various methods such as calcium salts precipitation, ion-exchange resins and electrodialysis with homopolar and bipolar membranes were investigated to increase the pH of a clarified

Edwin Vera; Jenny Ruales; Manuel Dornier; Jacqueline Sandeaux; Françoise Persin; Gérald Pourcelly; Fabrice Vaillant; Max Reynes

2003-01-01

44

Recovery of alicyclobacillus from inhibitory fruit juice concentrates.  

PubMed

Growth of Alicyclobacillus in low-pH fruit juices may result in off-odors and off-flavors due to the production of compounds such as guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol). An important step in preventing Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juices is the screening of incoming ingredients. Many fruit juice concentrates contain compounds that inhibit Alicyclobacillus growth, but beverages produced from the concentrates may not contain sufficient amounts of the active component to prevent spoilage. Therefore, accurate screening of juice concentrates is essential to prevent false-negative test results and product spoilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate isolation methods for detection of Alicyclobacillus in inhibitory juice concentrates. Recovery of Alicyclobacillus spores from inoculated and naturally contaminated concentrates was compared by using pour plate, spread plate, and filtration methods. Pour plates consistently recovered the lowest number of spores from inoculated concentrates. Spread plating was the most effective method used to recover spores from inoculated apple and pomegranate juice concentrates, while filtration resulted in the highest recovery from cranberry concentrate. When tested on naturally contaminated concentrates, the pour plate method failed to detect Alicyclobacillus in many samples. Filtration was much more effective. The filtration method increased the likelihood of detecting Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juice concentrates containing inhibitory compounds. PMID:21819669

McNamara, Christopher J; Wiebe, Deborah; Gomez, Margarita

2011-08-01

45

Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Aronia melanocarpa Fruit Juice in Rats Fed a High-Cholesterol Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aronia melanocrpa fruit juice (AMFJ) used in our experiment was very rich in phenolic substances (709.3 mg gallic acid equivalents\\/100 ml juice).\\u000a Anthocyanins (106.8 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents\\/100 ml juice) were the main flavonoid group. The aim of this study\\u000a was to assess the influence of AMFJ on plasma lipids and lipoprotein profile, and histopathology of liver and aorta in rats\\u000a with dietary-induced hyperlipidemia. AMFJ

S. VALCHEVA-KUZMANOVA; K. KUZMANOV; V. MIHOVA; I. KRASNALIEV; P. BORISOVA; A. BELCHEVA

2007-01-01

46

Prevalence, concentration, spoilage, and mitigation of Alicyclobacillus spp. in tropical and subtropical fruit juice concentrates.  

PubMed

The presence of Alicyclobacillus in fruit juices and concentrates poses a serious problem for the juice industry. This study was undertaken to determine the (i) prevalence, concentration, and species of Alicyclobacillus in tropical and subtropical concentrates; (ii) efficacy of aqueous chlorine dioxide in reducing Alicyclobacillus spp. spores on tropical and subtropical fruit surfaces; and (iii) fate of and off-flavor production by Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in mango and pineapple juices. One hundred and eighty tropical and subtropical juice concentrates were screened for the presence and concentration of Alicyclobacillus spp. If found, the species of Alicyclobacillus was determined by 16S rDNA sequencing and analysis with NCI BLAST. Of these samples, 6.1% were positive for Alicyclobacillus, and nine A. acidoterrestris strains and two Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius strains were identified. A five-strain cocktail of Alicyclobacillus spp. was inoculated onto the surface of fruits (grapefruit, guava, limes, mangoes, oranges and pineapple), which were then washed with 0, 50, or 100 ppm aqueous chlorine dioxide. Significant reductions due to chlorine dioxide were only seen on citrus fruits. A five-strain cocktail of A. acidoterrestris was inoculated into mango and pineapple juices. Microbial populations were enumerated over a 16-day period. Aroma compounds in the juice were analyzed by GC-olfactometry (GC-O) and confirmed using GC-MS. GC-O of mango juice identified previously reported medicinal/antiseptic compounds. GC-O of pineapple juice revealed an unexpected "cheese" off-aroma associated with 2-methylbutyric acid and 3-methylbutyric acid. PMID:21356453

Danyluk, Michelle D; Friedrich, Loretta M; Jouquand, Celine; Goodrich-Schneider, Renee; Parish, Mickey E; Rouseff, Russell

2011-05-01

47

Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to “cellulose-like” EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical “sugar-like“ spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation.

Aleksieva, K. I.; Dimov, K. G.; Yordanov, N. D.

2014-10-01

48

Spray drying of fruit and vegetable juices--a review.  

PubMed

The main cause of spray drying is to increase the shelf life and easy handling of juices. In the present paper, the studies carried out so far on spray drying of various fruits and vegetables are reported. The major fruit juices dried are mango, banana, orange, guava, bayberry, watermelon, pineapple, etc. However, study on vegetable juices is limited. In spray drying, the major optimized parameters are inlet air temperature, relative humidity of air, outlet air temperature, and atomizer speed that are given for a particular study. The juices in spray drying require addition of drying agents that include matlodextrin, liquid glucose, etc. The drying agents are added to increase the glass transition temperature. Different approaches for spray dryer design have also been discussed in the present work. PMID:24915356

Verma, Anjali; Singh, Satya Vir

2015-01-01

49

Development of an orange juice in-house reference material and its application to guarantee the quality of vitamin C determination in fruits, juices and fruit pulps.  

PubMed

Reference materials are useful for the quality control of analytical procedures and to evaluate the performance of laboratories. There are few and expensive certified reference materials commercially available for vitamin C or ascorbic acid analysis in food matrices. In this study, the preparation and the suitability assessment of an orange juice in-house reference material (RM) for vitamin C analysis in fruits, juices and in fruit pulps is described. This RM was used for the development and full validation of an HPLC method. The results showed excellent linearity (r(2)=0.9995), good accuracy (96.6-97.3%) and precision, as relative standard deviation, ranged from 0.70% to 3.67%. The in-house RM was homogenous and stable at storage conditions (-80°C) during 12 months. According to our results, this in-house RM is an excellent tool to use in quality control and method verification purposes for vitamin C analysis of fruits, juices and fruit pulps matrices. Furthermore, a stabilization solution with perchloric and metaphosphoric acids was developed which prevents degradation of ascorbic acid for a period of 12 months at -80°C. PMID:24518317

Valente, A; Sanches-Silva, A; Albuquerque, T G; Costa, H S

2014-07-01

50

Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. fruit juice protects liver from carbon tetrachloride-induced injury.  

PubMed

The protective effects of the juice of Opuntia ficus indica fruit (prickly pear) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatotoxicity were examined in rats. The animals were treated orally with the juice (3 mL/rat) 2 h after administration of the hepatotoxic agent. Preventive effects were studied by giving the juice (3 mL/rat) for 9 consecutive days. On day 9 the rats received the hepatotoxic agent. Morphological and biochemical evaluations were carried out 24, 48 and 72 h after induction of the hepatic damage. Data show that O. ficus indica fruit juice administration exerts protective and curative effects against the CCl(4)-induced degenerative process in rat liver. Histology evaluation revealed a normal hepatic parenchyma at 48 h; the injury was fully restored after 72 h. Moreover, a significant reduction in CCl(4)-induced increase of GOT and GPT plasma levels is evident; these data are in agreement with the functional improvement of hepatocytes. O. ficus indica fruit juice contains many phenol compounds, ascorbic acid, betalains, betacyanins, and a flavonoid fraction, which consists mainly of rutin and isorhamnetin derivatives. Hepatoprotection may be related to the flavonoid fraction of the juice, but other compounds, such as vitamin C and betalains could, synergistically, counteract many degenerative processes by means of their antioxidant activity. PMID:16220574

Galati, E M; Mondello, M R; Lauriano, E R; Taviano, M F; Galluzzo, M; Miceli, N

2005-09-01

51

Analysis of some Romanian fruit juices by ICP-MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study was carried out to evaluate the heavy metal content of 21 Romanian single strength fruit (plum, apple, sour cherry) juices. The samples were collected from five Romanian areas namely: Alba, Maramures, Cluj, Salaj and Moldova. The results indicated macro (Na, Mg, Ca, P) and micro (Fe, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb, etc) elements in the selected samples. The determination was performed by ICP-MS. Our results for fruit juice were compared with allowable limits for drinking water in the United Kingdom (NS30).

Dehelean, A.; Magdas, D. A.

2013-11-01

52

The Flame Spectrometric Determination of Calcium in Fruit Juice by Standard Addition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides procedures to measure the calcium concentration in fruit juice by atomic absorption. Fruit juice is used because: (1) it is an important consumer product; (2) large samples are available; and (3) calcium exists in fruit juice at concentrations that do not require excessive dilution or preconcentration prior to measurement. (JN)

Strohl, Arthur N.

1985-01-01

53

Investigating the transport dynamics of anthocyanins from unprocessed fruit and processed fruit juice from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) across intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Anthocyanins can contribute to human health through preventing a variety of diseases. The uptake of these compounds from food and the parameters determining uptake efficiency within the human body are still poorly understood. Here we have employed a Caco-2 cell based system to investigate the transport of key antioxidant food components from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) across the intestinal epithelial barrier. Anthocyanins and (-)-epicatechin were supplied in three contrasting matrices: fruit, processed fruit cherry juice, and polyphenolic fractions obtained by solid-phase extraction. Results show that both compound types behave differently. Fruit or juice matrices display comparable transport across the epithelial cell layer. The juice supplements sucrose and citric acid, which are regularly added to processed foods, have a positive effect on stability and transport. Polyphenolic fractions display a lower transport efficiency, relative to that of the fruit or juice, indicating the importance of food matrix components for intestinal absorption of polyphenols. PMID:24191680

Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra; van der Meer, Ingrid M; Tomassen, Monic M M; Hall, Robert D; Mes, Jurriaan J; Beekwilder, Jules

2013-11-27

54

Metabolic Responses of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains during Fermentation and Storage of Vegetable and Fruit Juices  

PubMed Central

Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were grown and stored in cherry (ChJ), pineapple (PJ), carrot (CJ), and tomato (TJ) juices to mimic the chemical composition of the respective matrices. Wheat flour hydrolysate (WFH), whey milk (W), and MRS broth were also used as representatives of other ecosystems. The growth rates and cell densities of L. plantarum strains during fermentation (24 h at 30°C) and storage (21 days at 4°C) differed only in part, being mainly influenced by the matrix. ChJ and PJ were the most stressful juices for growth and survival. Overall, the growth in juices was negatively correlated with the initial concentration of malic acid and carbohydrates. The consumption of malic acid was noticeable for all juices, but mainly during fermentation and storage of ChJ. Decreases of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA)—with the concomitant increase of their respective branched alcohols—and His and increases of Glu and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were the main traits of the catabolism of free amino acids (FAA), which were mainly evident under less acidic conditions (CJ and TJ). The increase of Tyr was found only during storage of ChJ. Some aldehydes (e.g., 3-methyl-butanal) were reduced to the corresponding alcohols (e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol). After both fermentation and storage, acetic acid increased in all fermented juices, which implied the activation of the acetate kinase route. Diacetyl was the ketone found at the highest level, and butyric acid increased in almost all fermented juices. Data were processed through multidimensional statistical analyses. Except for CJ, the juices (mainly ChJ) seemed to induce specific metabolic traits, which differed in part among the strains. This study provided more in-depth knowledge on the metabolic mechanisms of growth and maintenance of L. plantarum in vegetable and fruit habitats, which also provided helpful information to select the most suitable starters for fermentation of targeted matrices. PMID:24487533

Filannino, P.; Cardinali, G.; Rizzello, C. G.; Buchin, S.; De Angelis, M.; Gobbetti, M.

2014-01-01

55

Citrus tissue culture: stimulation of fruit explant cultures with orange juice.  

PubMed

In vitro growth of explant (juice vesicle or albedo tissues) cultures from citron (Citrus medica), lemon (C. limon), grapefruit (C. paradisi), sweet orange (C. sinensis), and mandarin (C. reticulata) fruits was stimulated by addition of orange juice (10% v/v optimum) to a basal medium containing Murashige and Skoog salts, 50 grams per liter sucrose, 100 milligrams per liter myo-inositol, 5 milligrams per liter thiamine.HCl, 2 milligrams per liter 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.5 milligrams per liter kinetin. In analyzing this effect of orange juice on citron explant cultures, we failed to obtain increased yields by addition of appropriate concentrations of citric acid to the basal medium but obtained growth stimulation when the medium was supplemented with juice from an "acidless" orange variety (cv. Lima). These facts suggest that some component(s) other than citric acid is involved. Addition of the inorganic ash corresponding to 10% (v/v) orange juice to the basal medium had no effect on yields. Similarly, the stimulatory effect of orange juice could not be explained based on its content of sucrose or of organic growth factors already present in the basal medium. PMID:16660631

Einset, J W

1978-12-01

56

The ORAC/kcal ratio qualifies nutritional and functional properties of fruit juices, nectars, and fruit drinks.  

PubMed

Fruit beverages are source of antioxidants, but their sugar content plays an important role in the epidemic of obesity. In this study, we considered 32 fruit beverages consumed in Italy (13 fruit juices, 11 nectars, and 8 fruit drinks), which were analyzed for caloric intake, total phenols (TP), ascorbic acid, and antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method). Results showed that the caloric intake was almost completely provided by the sugar content, ranging from 5.5 to 19%. The ORAC/kcal ratio was taken as an indicator of the antioxidant performance of fruit beverages. Fruit juices containing berries, red orange, and goji showed the best performances, together with berries or pears nectars and fruit drinks made with rose hips or tea extracts. The 95% of antioxidant capacity was provided by TP, which showed a significant linear correlation with the net ORAC values. Overall, the results indicate that the ORAC/kcal ratio is a suitable parameter to rank the quality of fruit beverages. PMID:24840207

Ninfali, Paolino; Chiarabini, Andrea; Angelino, Donato

2014-09-01

57

Juice blends--a way of utilization of under-utilized fruits, vegetables, and spices: a review.  

PubMed

The post-harvest shelf life of maximum of fruits and vegetables is very limited due to their perishable nature. In India more then 20-25 percent of fruits and vegetables are spoiled before utilization. Despite being the world's second largest producer of fruits and vegetables, in India only 1.5 percent of the total fruits and vegetables produced are processed. Maximum amounts of fruit and vegetable juices turn bitter after extraction due to conversion of chemical compounds. In spite of being under utilized, the utilization of highly nutritive fruits and vegetables is very limited due to high acidity, astringency, bitterness, and some other factors. While improving flavor, palatability, and nutritive and medicinal value of various fruit juices such as aonla, mango, papaya, pineapple, citrus, ber, pear, apple, watermelon, and vegetables including bottle gourd, carrot, beet root, bitter gourd, medicinal plants like aloe vera and spices can also be used for juice blending. All these natural products are valued very highly for their refreshing juice, nutritional value, pleasant flavor, and medicinal properties. Fruits and vegetables are also a rich source of sugars, vitamins, and minerals. However, some fruits and vegetables have an off flavor and bitterness although they are an excellent source of vitamins, enzymes, and minerals. Therefore, blending of two or more fruit and vegetable juices with spices extract for the preparation of nutritive ready-to-serve (RTS), beverages is thought to be a convenient and economic alternative for utilization of these fruits and vegetables. Moreover, one could think of a new product development through blending in the form of a natural health drink, which may also serve as an appetizer. The present review focuses on the blending of fruits, under-utilized fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, and spices in appropriate proportions for the preparation of natural fruit and vegetable based nutritive beverages. PMID:21929332

Bhardwaj, Raju Lal; Pandey, Shruti

2011-07-01

58

Application of membrane separation in fruit and vegetable juice processing: a review.  

PubMed

Fruit and vegetable juices are used due to convenience. The juices are rich in various minerals, vitamins, and other nutrients. To process the juices and their clarification and/or concentration is required. The membranes are being used for these purposes. These processes are preferred over others because of high efficiency and low temperature. Membranes and their characteristics have been discussed in brief for knowing suitability of membranes for fruit and vegetable juices. Membrane separation is low temperature process in which the organoleptic quality of the juice is almost retained. In this review, different membrane separation methods including Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration, and Reverse osmosis for fruit juices reported in the literature are discussed. The major fruit and vegetable juices using membrane processes are including the Reverse osmosis studies for concentration of Orange juice, Carrot juice, and Grape juice are discusses. The Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration are used for clarification of juices of mosambi juice, apple juice, pineapple juice, and kiwifruit juice. The various optimized parameters in membranes studies are pH, TAA, TSS, and AIS. In this review, in addition to above the OD is also discussed, where the membranes are used. PMID:24915352

Ilame, Susmit A; V Singh, Satyavir

2015-06-01

59

Evaluating the buffering capacity of various soft drinks, fruit juices and tea  

PubMed Central

Aims and Objective: The purpose of this study is to measure the initial pH of various commonly used beverages and to determine their ability to maintain a low pH by measuring their buffering capacities. Materials and Methods: Twelve commercially available drinks were taken and divided into four groups (preserved fruit juices, tea, mineral water and carbonated drinks. Each group comprised of three drinks. Their initial pH were measured with pH meter and their buffering capacities were measured by adding 1M NaOH in the increments of 0.2 ml into 100 ml of each drink till the pH raised to 5.5 and 7 respectively. Statistical Analysis: The volume of NaOH required to raise the pH to 5.5 and 7 were recorded in all the groups. This data was subjected to statistical analysis using Mann- Whitney tests. Results: Total titratable acidity measurement shows that among all the drinks, there was no significant difference between carbonated drinks and preserved fruit juices while a significant difference was present between carbonated drinks, preserved fruit juices and tea. Conclusion: In this in vitro study, it was found that packaged apple juice had the most buffering capacity with maximum erosive potential whereas green tea had the least. PMID:21116386

Singh, Smita; Jindal, Rahul

2010-01-01

60

Fruit juice, organic anion transporting polypeptides, and drug interactions in psychiatry.  

PubMed

Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are a group of membrane transport proteins that facilitate the influx of endogenous and exogenous substances across biological membranes. OATPs are found in enterocytes and hepatocytes and in brain, kidney, and other tissues. In enterocytes, OATPs facilitate the gastrointestinal absorption of certain orally administered drugs. Fruit juices such as grapefruit juice, orange juice, and apple juice contain substances that are OATP inhibitors. These fruit juices diminish the gastrointestinal absorption of certain antiallergen, antibiotic, antihypertensive, and ?-blocker drugs. While there is no evidence, so far, that OATP inhibition affects the absorption of psychotropic medications, there is no room for complacency because the field is still nascent and because the necessary studies have not been conducted. Patients should therefore err on the side of caution, taking their medications at least 4 hours distant from fruit juice intake. Doing so is especially desirable with grapefruit juice, orange juice, and apple juice; with commercial fruit juices in which OATP-inhibiting substances are likely to be present in higher concentrations; with calcium-fortified fruit juices; and with medications such as atenolol and fexofenadine, the absorption of which is substantially diminished by concurrent fruit juice intake. PMID:25470100

Andrade, Chittaranjan

2014-11-01

61

The mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of Ecballium elaterium fruit juice in human peripheral lymphocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of Ecballium elaterium (EE) fruit juice, which has an anti-inflammatory effect, using in vitro human peripheral lymphocytes. To investigate the\\u000a mutagenic effects of the EE fruit juice, human peripheral lymphocytes were treated with three doses (18, 36, and 72 ?l\\/l)\\u000a of fruit juice alone for 24 and

E. Rencüzo?ullari; H. B. ?la; A. Kayraldiz; S. B. Diler; A. Yavuz; M. Arslan; F. Funda Kaya; M. Topaktas

2006-01-01

62

A comparative study of pH modulation and trace elements of various fruit juices on enamel erosion: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

Fruit juices are popular worldwide with children of all ages as they are sweet and perceived to be healthful. This in vitro study was sought to measure pH of 10 different fruit juices, to find out possible erosive effects on human dental enamel of 40 extracted sound premolars and also to measure fluoride and trace elements of these juices. The estimation of pH of fruit juices was done by using Systronic upH 362 pH meter. The erosive effects of fruit juices were tested by using polarized light microscope. Orion electrode was used to measure fluoride. The trace elements were estimated by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer No. 6501F. The pH values in different juices were observed at different levels, and pH values of these juices were more acidic than baseline after 24 hours. As the time increased, the erosion effect became more in pineapple; grape and sugarcane juices, and they had more cariogenic trace elements like selenium, iron and manganese. So, these juices were found to be cariogenic. To conclude, orange, mousambi, mango, pomegranate, apple, chikku and watermelon juices had no erosive effect on the human enamel, with the presence of highest amount of trace elements like fluoride and phosphorous which are considered as strongly cariostatic. PMID:21985876

Nirmala, S V S G; Subba Reddy, V V

2011-01-01

63

Electron spin resonance measurement of radical scavenging activity of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice  

PubMed Central

Background: The fruits of Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot contain large amounts of phenolic substances, mainly procyanidins, anthocyanins and other flavonoids, and phenolic acids. The ability of phenolic substances to act as antioxidants has been well established. Objective: In this study, we investigated the radical scavenging activity of A. melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ). Materials and Methods: The method used was electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The galvinoxyl free radical was used as a scavenging object. AMFJ was added to the galvinoxyl free radical solution. The measure of the radical scavenging activity was the decrease of signal intensity. Results: AMFJ showed a potent antiradical activity causing a strong and rapid decrease of signal intensity as a function of time and juice concentration. This effect of AMFJ was probably due to the activity of its phenolic constituents. Conclusion: The ESR measurements in this study showed a pronounced radical scavenging effect of AMFJ, an important mechanism of its antioxidant activity. PMID:22701293

Valcheva-Kuzmanova, Stefka; Blagovi?, Branka; Vali?, Sre?ko

2012-01-01

64

Erosive Potential of Cola and Orange Fruit Juice on Tooth Colored Restorative Materials  

PubMed Central

Background: Erosion is a common condition which manifests due to consumption of high caloric and low pH acidic food stuffs such as carbonated drinks and fruit juices which cause irreversible damage to dental hard tissues and early deterioration of the dental restorations. Aim: The main aim of this study is to evaluate and to compare the erosive potential of carbonated drink (cola) and fruit juice (orange fruit juice) by measuring the surface roughness (Ra) values on two commonly used dental restorative materials. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 specimens each were prepared using both testing materials, compomer (Group I) and giomer (Group II). Six specimens in each group were discarded due to wide variation in pre exposed Ra values and the remaining 30 specimens in each group were further sub divided into 10 samples each according to the testing media used. Immersion regime was followed according to Von Fraunhofer and Rogers. The pre and post immersion surface roughness values were recorded using a profilometer. Results: Both tested materials showed statistically-significant surface erosion (P < 0.01) when exposed to cola and orange fruit juice than the control group (water). Discussion: Compomer showed more surface roughness when compared to giomer when exposed to the three tested media which can be attributed to the variation in filler content, decomposition of resin matrix and fallout of the fillers in composites when exposed to acidic drinks. Other factors responsible for this significant erosion were also discussed. Conclusions: Significant surface changes of the dental restorative materials can take place when exposed to low pH drinks for a prolonged period. PMID:25364590

Rajavardhan, K; Sankar, AJS; Kumar, MGM; Kumar, KR; Pranitha, K; Kishore, KK

2014-01-01

65

21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146...Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice...

2011-04-01

66

Polysaccharide composition of the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethanol-insoluble, high molecular weight fraction was collected from the juice of Morinda citrifolia fruit grown in Viet Nam. The fraction is composed primarily of carbohydrate (67% (w\\/w)). The polysaccharide fraction consists predominantly of GalAp (53.6mol%), Araf (13.6mol%), Galp (17.9mol%) and Rhap (9.5mol%). Glycosyl linkage analysis suggests the polysaccharide fraction contains mostly the pectic polysaccharides, homogalacturonan (4-GalAp), rhamnogalacturonan I (4-GalAp,

Anh Kim T. Bui; Antony Bacic; Filomena Pettolino

2006-01-01

67

Deacidification of clarified tropical fruit juices by electrodialysis. Part I. Influence of operating conditions on the process performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction of acidity of four tropical fruit juices, passion fruit, castilla mulberry, najanrilla and araza, was investigated by using the electrodialysis (ED) process. Two stack configurations using homopolar membranes and three compartments (ED3C), and bipolar membranes and two compartments (EDBM2C), were tested at the laboratory and pre-industrial scale. The ED performances were evaluated as a function of operating conditions

Edwin Vera; Jacqueline Sandeaux; Françoise Persin; Gérald Pourcelly; Manuel Dornier; Jenny Ruales

2007-01-01

68

Prevalence, concentration, spoilage, and mitigation of Alicyclobacillus spp. in tropical and subtropical fruit juice concentrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of Alicyclobacillus in fruit juices and concentrates poses a serious problem for the juice industry. This study was undertaken to determine the (i) prevalence, concentration, and species of Alicyclobacillus in tropical and subtropical concentrates; (ii) efficacy of aqueous chlorine dioxide in reducing Alicyclobacillus spp. spores on tropical and subtropical fruit surfaces; and (iii) fate of and off-flavor production

Michelle D. Danyluk; Loretta M. Friedrich; Celine Jouquand; Renee Goodrich-Schneider; Mickey E. Parish; Russell Rouseff

2011-01-01

69

Global Competition for the Japanese Fruit Juice Market: A Uniform Substitute Demand Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the competitiveness of countries exporting fruit juices into Japan through market structure analysis (MSA) within the context of the theory of consumer demand using the relative price version of the Rotterdam model and the block-wise dependent uniform substitute Rotterdam model. The models were estimated for six different types of fruit juices (orange, grapefruit, other citrus, apple, pineapple

Shiferaw T. Feleke; Richard L. Kilmer

2007-01-01

70

Determination of amino acids in pomegranate juices and fingerprint for adulteration with apple juices.  

PubMed

A new chiral micellar electrokinetic chromatography-laser induced fluorescence (MEKC-LIF) method was developed using sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate (SDBS) as surfactant for the determination of chiral amino acids in pomegranate juices. The use of SDBS as the micellar medium enhanced the fluorescence intensities of amino acids derivatised with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). The amino acid profile of pomegranate juices was compared to apple amino acids and l-Asn was proposed as a marker for the adulteration of pomegranate juices with apple juices. PMID:23790902

Tezcan, Filiz; Uza?ç?, Sesil; Uyar, Güler; Oztekin, Nevin; Erim, F Bedia

2013-11-15

71

Improving the storage stability of Bifidobacterium breve in low pH fruit juice.  

PubMed

Bifidobacterial food applications are limited since bifidobacteria are sensitive to e.g. acidic conditions prevalent in many food matrices. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a low pH selection step alone or combined to UV mutagenesis could improve the viability of an acid sensitive Bifidobacterium strain, B. breve 99, in low pH food matrices. Furthermore, the potential of carriers and an oat fibre preparation to further improve the stability was studied. The best performing low pH tolerant variants in the present study were generated by UV-mutagenesis with 70-700?J/cm(2) followed by incubation in growth medium at pH 4.5. The most promising variants regarding the low pH tolerance showed, in repeated tests with cells grown without pH control, about one Log-value better survival in pH 3.8 fruit juice after one week storage at 4°C compared to wild-type B. breve 99. Cells grown with pH control, PDX formulated and then frozen showed poorer viability in low pH fruit juice than cells grown with no pH control. For frozen concentrates pH 3.8 was too stressful and no or small differences between the variants and the wild-type strain were seen. The differences detected at pH 3.8 with the cells grown without pH control were also seen with the frozen concentrates at pH 4.5. Some improvement in the stability could be achieved by using a combination of trehalose, vitamin C and PDX as a freezing carrier material, whereas a significant improvement in the stability was seen when oat fibre was added into the fruit juice together with the frozen cells. Due to the initial very poor fruit juice tolerance of B. breve 99 the obtained improvement in the stability was not enough for commercial applications. However, the same methods could be applied to initially better performing strains to further improve their stability in the fruit juice. PMID:21195496

Saarela, M; Alakomi, H L; Mättö, J; Ahonen, A M; Puhakka, A; Tynkkynen, S

2011-09-01

72

Luffa aegyptiaca (Gourd) Fruit Juice as a Source of Peroxidase  

PubMed Central

Peroxidases have turned out to be potential biocatalyst for a variety of organic reactions. The research work reported in this communication was done with the objective of finding a convenient rich source of peroxidase which could be used as a biocatalyst for organic synthetic reactions. The studies made have shown that Luffa aegyptiaca (gourd) fruit juice contains peroxidase activity of the order of 180 enzyme unit/mL. The Km values of this peroxidase for the substrates guaiacol and hydrogen peroxide were 2.0 and 0.2?mM, respectively. The pH and temperature optima were 6.5 and 60°C, respectively. Like other peroxidases, it followed double displacement type mechanism. Sodium azide inhibited the enzyme competitively with Ki value of 3.35?mM. PMID:21804936

Yadav, R. S. S.; Yadav, K. S.; Yadav, H. S.

2011-01-01

73

Luffa aegyptiaca (Gourd) Fruit Juice as a Source of Peroxidase.  

PubMed

Peroxidases have turned out to be potential biocatalyst for a variety of organic reactions. The research work reported in this communication was done with the objective of finding a convenient rich source of peroxidase which could be used as a biocatalyst for organic synthetic reactions. The studies made have shown that Luffa aegyptiaca (gourd) fruit juice contains peroxidase activity of the order of 180 enzyme unit/mL. The K(m) values of this peroxidase for the substrates guaiacol and hydrogen peroxide were 2.0 and 0.2?mM, respectively. The pH and temperature optima were 6.5 and 60°C, respectively. Like other peroxidases, it followed double displacement type mechanism. Sodium azide inhibited the enzyme competitively with K(i) value of 3.35?mM. PMID:21804936

Yadav, R S S; Yadav, K S; Yadav, H S

2011-01-01

74

Inhibition of spoiling yeasts of fruit juices through citrus extracts.  

PubMed

This article reports on the bioactivities of citrus extracts (citrus extract, lemon extract, and neroli) toward Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Pichia membranifaciens, and Rhodotorula bacarum. The bioactivities of the extracts (from 10 to 100 ppm) were evaluated through a microdilution method; thereafter, citrus extracts (0 to 80 ppm) were tested in combination with either pH (3.0 to 5.0) or temperature (5 to 25°C). Finally, a confirmatory experiment was run in a commercial drink (referred to as red fruit juice) containing citrus extract (40 ppm) that was inoculated with either S. cerevisiae or Z. bailii (5 log CFU/ml) and stored at 4 and 25°C. Yeasts increased to 7 log CFU/ml (Z. bailii) or 8 log CFU/ml (S. cerevisiae) in the control at 25°C, but the citrus extract addition controlled yeast growth for at least 3 days; under refrigeration, the effect was significant for 10 days. PMID:24112576

Bevilacqua, Antonio; Speranza, Barbara; Campaniello, Daniela; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

2013-10-01

75

Home Fruit, Juice and Vegetable Pantry Management and Availability Scales  

PubMed Central

Home fruit, 100% juice and vegetable (FJV) availability is related to increased FJV consumption by children. While FJV must be purchased for use in the home, no scales have been reported on home FJV pantry management practices. A scale for home FJV pantry management practices was generated from focus group discussions with diverse food shoppers. A commonly used scale of home FJV availability was also assessed. A grocery store intercept survey recruited 171 food shoppers with children in front of supermarkets and grocery stores. Survey instruments were administered twice, separated by 6 weeks. Single dimensionality was observed for each scale. Item Response Theory parameter estimates revealed easily interpreted patterns in the sequence of items by difficulty of response. These scales are available to help better understand influences on family FJV purchase decisions. PMID:17959271

Baranowski, Tom; Missaghian, Mariam; Watson, Kathy; Broadfoot, Alison; Cullen, Karen; Nicklas, Theresa; Fisher, Jennifer; O’Donnell, Sharon

2008-01-01

76

Lactic acid fermented vegetable juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermented foods are food substrates that are invaded or overgrown by edible microorganisms whose en- zymes, particularly amylases, proteases and lipases, hy- drolyse polysaccharides, proteins and lipids to non-toxic products with flavours, aromas and textures pleasant and attractive to the human consumer (STEINKRAUS 1997). The lactic acid fermentation of vegetable products, applied as a preservation method for the production of

J. KAROVI?OVÁ; Z. KOHAJDOVÁ

77

Influence of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of fruit juices enriched with pine bark extract on intestinal microflora.  

PubMed

The selective antimicrobial effect of fruit juices enriched with pine bark extract (PBE) (0.5 g/L) has been studied before and after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. PBE (a concentrate of water-soluble bioflavonoids, mainly including phenolic compounds) has been proven to have high stability to the digestion process. Pure phenolic compounds such as gallic acid had a high antimicrobial effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, maintaining the lactic acid bacteria population (?100%). Otherwise, E. coli O157:H7 only growth 50% when PBE was added to the culture media, while a slight increase on the growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria was observed after exposition to the bark extract. Fresh fruit juices enriched with PBE showed the highest inhibitory effect on pathogenic intestinal bacterial growth, mainly E. coli and Enterococcus faecalis. The in vitro digestion process reduced the antibacterial effect of juices against most pathogenic bacteria in approximately 10%. However, the beneficial effect of fruit juices enriched with PBE (0.5 g/L) on gut microbiota is still considerable after digestion. PMID:24679746

López-Nicolás, Rubén; González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Frontela-Saseta, Carmen

2014-08-15

78

21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146.148 Section 146.148...148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with...

2010-04-01

79

Role of limonin and nomilin in bitterness of juice from Huanglongbing affected fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Besides the physical defects due to the destructive Huanglongbing (HLB) citrus greening disease on oranges, the infected fruit and resulting juice have been perceived as being more sour, bitter and off-flavored. In the symptomatic juice, the off-flavor was correlated with lower sugars, and sometimes...

80

Determination and comparison of the total polyphenol contents of fresh and commercial fruit juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to study the importance of polyphenols in human health and, based on recommendations on the replacement of carbonated drinks with nutritious beverages, like fruit juices, seeks to compare the polyphenol contents of natural and commercial juices. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The total polypheol content of 39 fresh and 159 commercial (100 percent and less than 50 percent)

Reza Mahdavi; Zeinab Nikniaz; Maryam Rafraf; Abolghasem Jouyban

2011-01-01

81

Role of pomegranate and citrus fruit juices in colon cancer prevention  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer. PMID:24782614

Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko

2014-01-01

82

Role of pomegranate and citrus fruit juices in colon cancer prevention.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer. PMID:24782614

Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko

2014-04-28

83

19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Note 2, Chapter 20, HTSUS: Kind of fruit juice Average Brix value (degrees) Apple 13.3 Apricot 14.3 Bilberry (Whortleberry, Vaccinium Myrtillium) 13.4 Black currant 15.0 Blackberry 10.0 Black raspberry...

2011-04-01

84

A new catalytic-spectrophotometric method for quantification of trace amounts of nitrite in fruit juice samples.  

PubMed

A new kinetic method has been developed for the determination of nitrite in fruit juice samples. The method is based on the catalytic effect of nitrite with the oxidation of Nile Blue A (NBA) by KBrO(3) in the sulfuric acid medium. The optimum conditions obtained are 1.2 mM sulfuric acid, 0.034 mM of NBA, 2.8?×?10(-3) M KBrO(3), reaction temperature of 20 °C, and reaction time of 100 s at 595.5 nm. Under the optimized conditions, the method allowed the quantification of nitrite in a range of 0.2-800 ?g/mL with a detection limit of 0.02 ?g/mL. The method was applied to the determination of nitrite in 15 brands of fruit juice samples. PMID:22797881

Sobhanardakani, S; Farmany, A; Abbasi, S; Cheraghi, J; Hushmandfar, R

2013-03-01

85

Fermentation of roselle juice by lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was conducted to determine the suitability of roselle calyces as a raw material for the production of probiotic roselle juice by lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei). The juice was fermented for 72 h at 30°C and 37°C separately and then analyzed for pH, acidity, sugar content and viable cell counts. Both lactic cultures were found

Sukon Tantipaibulvut

86

Nisin based stabilization of novel fruit and vegetable functional juices containing bacterial cellulose at ambient temperature.  

PubMed

The current study reports the preparation and stabilization of novel functional drinks based on fruit and vegetable juices incorporating bacterial cellulose from Acetobacter xylinum. Pineapple, musk melon, carrot, tomato, beet root and a blend juice containing 20 % each of carrot and tomato juice with 60 % beet root juice has been studied. These juices have been stabilized over a storage period of 90 days at 28 °C, by the use of nisin and maintaining a low pH circumventing the need for any chemical preservatives or refrigeration. Instrumental color values have been correlated with the pigment concentrations present in the fresh as well as stored juices. There was 36, 72 and 60 % loss of total carotenoids in the case of carrot, pineapple and musk melon juices respectively while the lycopene content remained unchanged after 90 days of storage. The betanin content decreased 37 % in the case of beetroot juice and 25 % in the case of beetroot juice blended with carrot and tomato juices. Sensory analysis has revealed a clear preference for the beetroot blended mixed juice. PMID:24876660

Jagannath, A; Kumar, Manoranjan; Raju, P S; Batra, H V

2014-06-01

87

Integrating Introductory Biology and Chemistry Laboratories: Human Metabolism of Vitamin C and Fruit Juice Analysis: An Example  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This protocol is part of a three and a half week module called the Examination of Vitamin C(ascorbic acid), its Sources, Properties, and Metabolism. it provides anobvious connection between the disciplines of Biology and Chemistry. Presented here are protocolsfor the module components Analysis of Vitamin C in Fruit Juices and Human Metabolism of VitaminC. It includes student outlines, instructor's notes, and suggested questions for laboratory reports.

Elizabeth Godrick (Boston University; )

1997-01-01

88

Fruit juice inhibition of uptake transport: a new type of food–drug interaction  

PubMed Central

A new type of interaction in which fruit juices diminish oral drug bioavailability through inhibition of uptake transport is the focus of this review. The discovery was based on an opposite to anticipated finding when assessing the possibility of grapefruit juice increasing oral fexofenadine bioavailability in humans through inhibition of intestinal MDR1-mediated efflux transport. In follow-up investigations, grapefruit or orange juice at low concentrations potentially and selectively inhibited in vitro OATP1A2-mediated uptake compared with MDR1-caused efflux substrate transport. These juices at high volume dramatically depressed oral fexofenadine bioavailability. Grapefruit was the representative juice to characterize the interaction subsequently. A volume–effect relationship study using a normal juice amount halved average fexofenadine absorption. Individual variability and reproducibility data indicated the clinical interaction involved direct inhibition of intestinal OATP1A2. Naringin was a major causal component suggesting that other flavonoids in fruits and vegetables might also produce the effect. Duration of juice clinical inhibition of fexofenadine absorption lasted more than 2 h but less than 4 h indicating the interaction was avoidable with appropriate interval of time between juice and drug consumption. Grapefruit juice lowered the oral bioavailability of several medications transported by OATP1A2 (acebutolol, celiprolol, fexofenadine, talinolol, L-thyroxine) while orange juice did the same for others (atenolol, celiprolol, ciprofloxacin, fexofenadine). Juice clinical inhibition of OATP2B1 was unresolved while that of OATP1B1 seemed unlikely. The interaction between grapefruit juice and etoposide also seemed relevant. Knowledge of both affected uptake transporter and drug hydrophilicity assisted prediction of the clinical interaction with grapefruit or orange juice. PMID:21039758

Bailey, David G

2010-01-01

89

Fruit juice inhibition of uptake transport: a new type of food-drug interaction.  

PubMed

A new type of interaction in which fruit juices diminish oral drug bioavailability through inhibition of uptake transport is the focus of this review. The discovery was based on an opposite to anticipated finding when assessing the possibility of grapefruit juice increasing oral fexofenadine bioavailability in humans through inhibition of intestinal MDR1-mediated efflux transport. In follow-up investigations, grapefruit or orange juice at low concentrations potentially and selectively inhibited in vitro OATP1A2-mediated uptake compared with MDR1-caused efflux substrate transport. These juices at high volume dramatically depressed oral fexofenadine bioavailability. Grapefruit was the representative juice to characterize the interaction subsequently. A volume-effect relationship study using a normal juice amount halved average fexofenadine absorption. Individual variability and reproducibility data indicated the clinical interaction involved direct inhibition of intestinal OATP1A2. Naringin was a major causal component suggesting that other flavonoids in fruits and vegetables might also produce the effect. Duration of juice clinical inhibition of fexofenadine absorption lasted more than 2?h but less than 4?h indicating the interaction was avoidable with appropriate interval of time between juice and drug consumption. Grapefruit juice lowered the oral bioavailability of several medications transported by OATP1A2 (acebutolol, celiprolol, fexofenadine, talinolol, L-thyroxine) while orange juice did the same for others (atenolol, celiprolol, ciprofloxacin, fexofenadine). Juice clinical inhibition of OATP2B1 was unresolved while that of OATP1B1 seemed unlikely. The interaction between grapefruit juice and etoposide also seemed relevant. Knowledge of both affected uptake transporter and drug hydrophilicity assisted prediction of the clinical interaction with grapefruit or orange juice. PMID:21039758

Bailey, David G

2010-11-01

90

Effects of granulation on organic acid metabolism and its relation to mineral elements in Citrus grandis juice sacs.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of granulation on organic acid metabolism and its relation to mineral elements in 'Guanximiyou' pummelo (Citrus grandis) juice sacs. Granulated juice sacs had decreased concentrations of citrate and isocitrate, thus lowering juice sac acidity. By contrast, malate concentration was higher in granulated juice sacs than in normal ones. The reduction in citrate concentration might be caused by increased degradation, as indicated by enhanced aconitase activity, whilst the increase in malate concentration might be caused by increased biosynthesis, as indicated by enhanced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC). Real time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that the activities of most acid-metabolizing enzymes were regulated at the transcriptional level, whilst post-translational modifications might influence the PEPC activity. Granulation led to increased accumulation of mineral elements (especially phosphorus, magnesium, sulphur, zinc and copper) in juice sacs, which might be involved in the incidence of granulation in pummelo fruits. PMID:24128573

Wang, Xian-You; Wang, Ping; Qi, Yi-Ping; Zhou, Chen-Ping; Yang, Lin-Tong; Liao, Xin-Yan; Wang, Liu-Qing; Zhu, Dong-Huang; Chen, Li-Song

2014-02-15

91

Interactive neonatal gastrointestinal magnetic resonance imaging using fruit juice as an oral contrast media  

PubMed Central

Background The objective was to evaluate the use of fruit juice with an interactive inversion recovery (IR) MR pulse sequence to visualise the gastrointestinal tract. Methods We investigated the relaxation properties of 12 different natural fruit juices in vitro, to identify which could be used as oral contrast. We then describe our initial experience using an interactive MR pulse sequence to allow optimal visualisation after administering pineapple juice orally, and suppressing pre-existing bowel fluid contents, with variable TI in three adult and one child volunteer. Results Pineapple juice (PJ) had both the shortest T1 (243 ms) and shortest T2 (48 ms) of the fruit juices tested. Optimal signal differentiation between pre-existing bowel contents and oral PJ administration was obtained with TIs of between 900 and 1100 ms. Conclusion The use of an inversion recovery preparation allowed long T1 pre-existing bowel contents to be suppressed whilst the short T1 of fruit juice acts as a positive contrast medium. Pineapple juice could be used as oral contrast agent for neonatal gastrointestinal magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25245815

2014-01-01

92

Social Support Is a Primary Influence on Home Fruit, 100% Juice, and Vegetable Availability  

PubMed Central

Children tend to eat more fruit and vegetables when more are available in the home. We proposed and tested a model that predicts the availability at home (hereinafter termed “home availability”) of fruit, 100% juice, and vegetables, using new measures of frequency of food shopping, purchase, and comparative purchase outcome expectancies (ie, the perceived benefits and costs of purchasing fruit and vegetables), home food pantry management practices, family social support for purchasing fruit and vegetables, food shopping practices, and body mass index (BMI). Participants (N=98) were recruited in 2004 in front of grocery stores and completed two telephone interviews. Cross-sectional hierarchical regression was employed with backward deletion of nonsignificant variables. Despite many statistically significant bivariate correlations between the new variables and home fruit, 100% juice, and vegetable availability, social support was the primary predictor of home fruit availability in multivariate regression. BMI and home 100% juice pantry management were the primary predictors of home 100% juice availability. Social support, BMI, and shopping practices were the primary predictors of home vegetable availability. Social support for purchasing fruit, 100% juice, and vegetables was an important, consistent predictor of home availability. These findings need to be replicated in larger samples. PMID:18589035

Baranowski, Tom; Watson, Kathy; Missaghian, Mariam; Broadfoot, Alison; Cullen, Karen; Nicklas, Theresa; Fisher, Jennifer; Baranowski, Janice; O’Donnell, Sharon

2009-01-01

93

Composition, ultrastructure and function of the cutin and suberin-containing layers in the leaf, fruit peel, juice-sac and inner seed coat of grapefruit ( Citrus paradisi Macfed.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cutin and suberin polymers from various anatomical regions of grapefruit were analyzed chemically and ultrastructurally. The leaf, fruit peel and juice-sac showed an amorphous cuticular layer. The cutin in the leaf was composed of 10,16-dihydroxy C16 acid and its positional isomers as the major monomers whereas 16-hydroxy-10-oxo C16 acid was a major component in the fruit peel. Juice-sac cutin, on

Karl E. Espelie; Ronald W. Davis; P. E. Kolattukudy

1980-01-01

94

Social Support Is a Primary Influence on Home Fruit, 100% Juice, and Vegetable Availability  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Children tend to eat more fruit and vegetables when more are available in the home. We proposed and tested a model that predicts the availability at home (hereinafter termed "home availability") of fruit, 100% juice, and vegetables, using new measures of frequency of food shopping, purchase, and com...

95

Characterization of the aromatic profile in aqueous essence and fruit juice of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims F. Flavicarpa degner) by GC-MS and GC/O.  

PubMed

Chemical characterization by gas chromatography-mass spectometry (GC-MS) of the aromatic profile of yellow passion fruit essence and the juice of the fruit yielded a total of 62 and 34 components, respectively. Four new components have been identified and quantified for the first time in this fruit: 3-methyl-2-butanone; ethyl lactate (quantified only in the fruit juice); diethyl malonate (quantified only in the essence); and 3-penten-2-ol (quantified in both samples). Analysis of these samples by gas chromatography/olfactometry (GC/O) yielded a total of 66 components which appear to contribute to the aroma of passion fruit juice and its aqueous essence. Of these, four could not be quantified by GC-MS: acetic acid, ethyl propionate, ethyl 3-oxobutyrate, and propyl hexanoate. New components were described for the first time as constituents of the aromatic profile in this fruit including acetal, 1,3-dimethyl benzene, and 2-methylbutyl hexanoate. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) allowed for the detection of the most potent odorants in the commercial essence (2-methylbutyl hexanoate and hexyl hexanoate) and in the fresh juice (1,3-dimethyl benzene and 2-methylbutyl hexanoate). 2-Methylbutyl hexanoate, considered as one of the most potent odorants in this fruit, has been described for the first time as an aromatic constituent of yellow passion fruit. PMID:11879031

Jordán, Maria J; Goodner, Kevin L; Shaw, Philip E

2002-03-13

96

Patulin and its dietary intake by fruit juice consumption in Iran.  

PubMed

A survey was conducted to determine levels and dietary intake of patulin (PAT) from fruit juices consumed in Iran. PAT content was determined using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection in 161 samples of fruit juices including apple, pineapple, pear, peach, pomegranate and white and red grape juices. Results revealed the presence of PAT in 16.1% of the samples examined, ranging from 5 to 190.7 µg/kg. Average and median PAT content in positive samples was 34.5 and 18.5 µg/kg, respectively. PAT concentration in 2.5% of the samples was higher than the maximum limit as set by European regulations for PAT in fruit products (50 µg/kg). Estimated daily intake of PAT by fruit juice was 16.4, 45.9 and 74.6 ng/kg bw/day for Iranian adults, children and babies, respectively. The results of this study showed that PAT does not seem to be a problem in fruit-based drinks commercialised in Iran, except for apple juice. PMID:25494337

Rahimi, Ebrahim; Rezapoor Jeiran, Masoome

2015-03-01

97

Potential of membrane distillation for production of high quality fruit juice concentrate.  

PubMed

Fruit juices are generally concentrated in order to improve the stability during storage and to reduce handling, packaging, and transportation costs. Thermal evaporation is the most widely used technique in industrial fruit juice concentrate production. In addition to high energy consumption, a large part of the characteristics determining the quality of the fresh juice including aroma, color, vitamins, and antioxidants undergoes remarkable alterations through the use of high operation temperatures. Increasing consumer demand for minimally or naturally processed stable products able to retain as much possible the uniqueness of the fresh fruit has engendered a growing interest for development of nonthermal approaches for fruit juice concentration. Among them, membrane distillation (MD) and its variants have attracted much attention for allowing very high concentrations to be reached under atmospheric pressure and temperatures near ambient temperature. This review will provide an overview of the current status and recent developments in the use of MD for concentration of fruit juices. In addition to the most basic concepts of MD variants, crucial suggestions for membrane selection and operating parameters will be presented. Challenges and future trends for industrial adaptation taking into account the possibility of integrating MD with other existing processes will be discussed. PMID:24915342

Onsekizoglu Bagci, Pelin

2015-07-01

98

Determination of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid in fruit juices using supported-liquid membrane preconcentration method with high-performance liquid chromatography and UV detection after derivatization with p-toluenesulphonyl chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of supported-liquid membrane (SLM) technique for effective extraction of N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine (glyphosate) and its primary metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) from juices (orange, grapefruit, apple and blackcurrant) in combination with HPLC-UV detection after derivatization with p-toluenesulphonyl chloride (TsCl) is presented. The influence of various parameters such as the composition of acceptor phase, flow-rate, concentration of analytes, on the performance of

Maxim V. Khrolenko; Piotr P. Wieczorek

2005-01-01

99

Great heterogeneity of commercial fruit juices to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: role of the phenolic content and composition.  

PubMed

Since polyphenol-rich products such as red wine, grape juice, and grape extracts have been shown to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, we have evaluated whether commercial fruit juices such as those from berries are also able to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated coronary arteries and, if so, to determine whether this effect is related to their phenolic content. Among the 51 fruit juices tested, 2/12 grape juices, 3/7 blackcurrant juices, 4/5 cranberry juices, 1/6 apple juices, 0/5 orange juices, 2/6 red fruit and berry juices, 3/6 blends of red fruit juices, and 0/4 non-red fruit juices were able to induce relaxations achieving more than 50% at a volume of 1%. The active fruit juices had phenolic contents ranging from 0.31 to 1.86?g GAE/L, which were similar to those of most of the less active juices with the exception of one active grape juice (2.14?g GAE/L) and one active blend of red fruit juices (3.48?g GAE/L). Altogether, these findings indicate that very few commercial fruit juices have the ability to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, and that this effect is not related to their quantitative phenolic content, but rather to their qualitative phenolic composition. PMID:25009961

Auger, Cyril; Pollet, Brigitte; Arnold, Cécile; Marx, Céline; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

2015-01-01

100

Recent advances on membrane processes for the concentration of fruit juices: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit juices have been traditionally concentrated by multi-stage vacuum evaporation, resulting in a loss of fresh juice flavors, color degradation and a “cooked” taste due to the thermal effects. The promising alternative is reverse osmosis concentration. However, it cannot reach concentrations larger than 25–30°Brix with a single-stage RO system due to high osmotic pressure limitation, which is quite below the

B. Jiao; A. Cassano; E. Drioli

2004-01-01

101

Carbon isotope ratios and isotopic correlations between components in fruit juices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays food products are defined by geographical origin, method of production and by some regulations concerning terms of their authenticity. Important data for confirm the authenticity of product are providing by isotopic methods of food control. The method checks crucial criteria which characterize the authenticity of inspected product. The European Union Regulations clearly show the tendency for application of the isotopic methods for food authenticity control (wine, honey, juice). The aim of the legislation steps is the protection of European market from possibility of the commercial frauds. Method of isotope ratio mass spectrometry is very effective tool for the use distinguishably the food products of various geographical origin. The basic problem for identification of the sample origin is the lack of databases of isotopic composition of components and information about the correlations of the data. The subject of the work was study the isotopic correlations existing between components of fruits. The chemical and instrumental methods of separation: water, sugars, organic acids and pulp from fruit were implemented. IRMS technique was used to measure isotopic composition of samples. The final results for original samples of fruits (apple, strawberry etc.) will be presented and discussed. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education under grant NR12-0043-10/2010.

Wierzchnicki, Ryszard

2013-04-01

102

Use of electronic tongue and nose sensors to differentiate between juice from greening (Huanglongbing) and healthy fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2007 and 2008, consumer and descriptive sensory analyses were made of juice from fruit harvested from healthy and Huanglongbing (HLB) affected trees. Differences were sometimes found for flavor, mainly for juice from HLB fruit symptomatic for the disease (small, green, asymmetrical shape) with de...

103

Can pure fruit and vegetable juices protect against cancer and cardiovascular disease too? A review of the evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

While it is widely accepted that fruit and vegetables (F&V) lower the risk of cancer, and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the role of pure fruit and vegetable (PFV) juices is often downplayed. This review poses two questions: Are the protective benefits of F&V dependent upon constituents lacking in PFV juices (e.g. fibre)? Do PFV juices impact on disease risk when considered

Carrie H. S. Ruxton; Elaine J. Gardner; Drew Walker

2006-01-01

104

Inhibition of nonenzymatic protein glycation by pomegranate and other fruit juices.  

PubMed

The nonenzymatic glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycation endproducts in diabetes leads to the crosslinking of proteins and disease complications. Our study sought to demonstrate the effect of commonly consumed juices (pomegranate, cranberry, black cherry, pineapple, apple, and Concord grape) on the fructose-mediated glycation of albumin. Albumin glycation decreased by 98% in the presence of 10 ?L of pomegranate juice/mL; other juices inhibited glycation by only 20%. Pomegranate juice produced the greatest inhibition on protein glycation when incubated at both the same phenolic concentration and the same antioxidant potential. Both punicalagin and ellagic acid significantly inhibited the glycation of albumin by ~90% at 5 ?g/mL. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that pomegranate, but not apple juice, protected albumin from modification. These results demonstrate that pomegranate juice and two of its major constituents are potent inhibitors of fructose-mediated protein glycation. PMID:24433074

Dorsey, Pamela Garner; Greenspan, Phillip

2014-04-01

105

Isotopic and Elemental Determination in Some Romanian Apple Fruit Juices  

PubMed Central

H, C, O stable isotope ratios and the content of some heavy elements of 31 Romanian single-strength organic apple juices collected from four Transylvanian areas are discussed in this study. The aim of this study was to measure the 2H/1H, 18O/16O, 13C/12C ratios of these juices and their elemental profile and to establish a database of authentic values to be used for adulteration and authenticity testing. Our results have shown mean values of ?18O = ?4.2‰ and ?D??46.5‰, respectively, for apples from Transylvania and at the same time the mean value of ?13C = ?28.2‰. The content of Cd, Pb, U, Zn, As was below the acceptable limits stipulated in US-EPA standard for drinking water. Cu and Cr limits exceeded for one single juice; Ni content for some apple juices from Maramures, Alba, and Cluj was higher than the acceptable value. PMID:22666164

Magdas, Dana Alina; Dehelean, Adriana; Puscas, Romulus

2012-01-01

106

Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity in cashew apple juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cashew apple is native to Brazil, but there is insufficient information regarding the nutritional properties of this fruit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of high pressure processing (HPP) at room temperature (25 °C) on phenolic compound and ascorbic acid contents and antioxidant capacity of cashew apple juice. This study showed that HPP at 250 or

C. Queiroz; C. F. F. Moreira; F. C. Lavinas; M. L. M. Lopes; E. Fialho; V. L. Valente-Mesquita

2010-01-01

107

Changes in carotenoids including geometrical isomers and ascorbic acid content in orange–carrot juice during frozen storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits and vegetables are highly perishable foods, which explains the need to apply preservation techniques, such as freezing. The aim is to combine shelf life extension with maintenance of sensory and nutrient characteristics. The stability of orange–carrot juice stored at ?40 °C for 132 days was studied. The ascorbic acid and carotene contents and the influence of storage time were analysed.

Clara Cortés; María J. Esteve; Ana Frígola; Francisco Torregrosa

2005-01-01

108

Determination of methyl 2-benzimidazolecarbamate in bulk fruit juice concentrates by competitive-inhibition enzyme immunoassay.  

PubMed

A polyclonal enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was used to quantitate methyl 2-benzimidazolecarbamate (MBC or carbendazim), a degradation product of benomyl, in bulk fruit juice concentrates. These concentrates are used by industrial producers to prepare juice or juice concentrates sold in supermarkets. Total sample analysis time was less than 18 min without cleanup or 35 min with cleanup. As many as 8 samples can be analyzed simultaneously, with a limit of quantitation of 10 ppb. The assay's dynamic range ran from 0.5 to 20 ppb MBC but was best from 0.5 to 10 ppb. Intra-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) varied from 4.0 to 13% for standards and from 4.1 to 26% for samples. Interassay CVs varied from 4.5 to 47% for standards and 5.6 to 22% for samples. Average recovery of several juice concentrates spiked at 10 to 290 ppb was 97%. A total of 140 juice concentrates comprising 20 different kinds of juice were analyzed by 2 EIA methods and one liquid chromatographic (LC) procedure. MBC-positive samples gave the following correlation coefficients: 0.954 for EIA without cleanup vs LC, 0.956 for EIA with cleanup vs LC, and 0.978 for EIA with cleanup vs EIA without cleanup. MBC concentrations in MBC-positive juice samples ranged from 5 to 2960 ppb. PMID:7950422

Bushway, R J; Young, B E; Paradis, L R; Perkins, L B; Martin, S K; Brown, M P

1994-01-01

109

Profound hypoglycemia-?nduced by vaccinium corymbosum juice and laurocerasus fruit.  

PubMed

An emergency intervention was performed in a 75-year-old male patient with hypoglycemic attack and blackout. Although he was diagnosed with prediabetes before 2 years, he did not take any anti-diabetic drug or follow dietary advice. He drank Vaccinium corymbosum L (VC) juice daily with a belief that it increases sexual potency. Before the development of hypoglycemia, the patient had consumed about 500 ml VC juice in addition to eating 200-300 gram of Laurocerasus officinalis (LO) fruit. The measured plasma glucose (PG) level during loss of consciousness was 30 mg/dl. The profound hypoglycemia may be an unexpected side effect of an interaction between the chemical compositions of the two plants, occurred as a result of LO fruit intake that may have a strong PG-lowering effect or related to excessive intake of VC juice. Both plants may be considered in the alternative treatment of diabetes. PMID:25097289

Aktan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ozcelik, Abdullah; Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Yuce, Suleyman

2014-01-01

110

Profound hypoglycemia-?nduced by vaccinium corymbosum juice and laurocerasus fruit  

PubMed Central

An emergency intervention was performed in a 75-year-old male patient with hypoglycemic attack and blackout. Although he was diagnosed with prediabetes before 2 years, he did not take any anti-diabetic drug or follow dietary advice. He drank Vaccinium corymbosum L (VC) juice daily with a belief that it increases sexual potency. Before the development of hypoglycemia, the patient had consumed about 500 ml VC juice in addition to eating 200-300 gram of Laurocerasus officinalis (LO) fruit. The measured plasma glucose (PG) level during loss of consciousness was 30 mg/dl. The profound hypoglycemia may be an unexpected side effect of an interaction between the chemical compositions of the two plants, occurred as a result of LO fruit intake that may have a strong PG-lowering effect or related to excessive intake of VC juice. Both plants may be considered in the alternative treatment of diabetes. PMID:25097289

Aktan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ozcelik, Abdullah; Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Yuce, Suleyman

2014-01-01

111

Achieving fruit, juice, and vegetable recipe preparation goals influences consumption by 4th grade students  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Including children in food preparation activities has long been recommended as a method to encourage children's consumption, but has not been evaluated. Goal setting is also a common component of behavior change programs. This study assessed the impact of attaining goals to prepare fruit-juice or ve...

112

Home fruit, juice, and vegetable pantry management and availability scales: A validation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Home fruit, 100% juice, and vegetables (FJV) availability is related to increased FJV consumption by children. While FJV must be purchased for use in the home, no scales have been reported on home FJV pantry management practices. A scale for home FJV pantry management practices was generated from fo...

113

Letter to the editor: Taking into account scientific evidence showing the benefits of 100% fruit juice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In their recent commentary, Wojcicki and Heyman suggested that 100% fruit juice consumption is linked to childhood obesity and should be eliminated from the United States Department of Agriculture Food Programs. This recommendation is unsupported by the scientific literature, which has failed to sho...

114

A review of the relationship between 100% fruit juice consumption and weight in children and adolescents  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Studies assessing a relationship between consumption of 100% fruit juice by children and adolescents and weight are contradictory. The purpose of this review was to assess the 9 cross-sectional and 12 longitudinal studies that have looked at this association. Of the 9 cross-sectional studies revie...

115

Microorganisms and antifungal properties associated with noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit and fermented juice in Hawaii  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Noni (Morinda citrifolia), a medicinal plant grown in Hawaii and other Polynesian regions, is reportedly therapeutic for diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. Noni fruit often produce fermented juice that differs in chemical, physical and microbial properties. To determine ho...

116

Trends in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage and 100% Fruit Juice Consumption Among California Children  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine trends in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and 100% fruit juice by California children ages 2–11 years from 2003 to 2009 Methods This analysis used serial cross-sectional data from the California Health Interview Survey, a telephone survey of households in California. Parents were asked how many servings of SSBs and 100% fruit juice the child consumed the day before. A test of trend was used to evaluate changes in consumption over time. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the independent effects of race/ethnicity, parental education and household income on beverage consumption. Results The percent of children consuming an SSB on the prior day declined from 41% in 2003 to 16% in 2009 (p<0.001) among children ages 2–5 and from 56% in 2003 to 33% in 2009 (p<0.001) among children ages 6–11. The percent of children consuming any SSB decreased for all racial/ethnic groups, although there were disparities with higher consumption among Latinos. Among children ages 2–5, consumption of 2 or more servings of 100% fruit juice per day decreased among white children and increased among Latinos. For children ages 6–11, consumption of 2 or more servings of 100% fruit juice per day remained stable for white children and increased among Latinos and African-Americans. Conclusions The decrease in SSB consumption by California children from 2003 to 2009 is a promising trend. The increase in 100% fruit juice consumption among minority children during this period may be an unintended consequence of efforts to reduce SSB consumption. PMID:23688439

Beck, Amy L.; Patel, Anisha; Madsen, Kristine

2013-01-01

117

Drinking Citrus Fruit Juice Inhibits Vascular Remodeling in Cuff-Induced Vascular Injury Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Citrus fruits are thought to have inhibitory effects on oxidative stress, thereby attenuating the onset and progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease; however, there are few reports assessing their effect on vascular remodeling. Here, we investigated the effect of drinking the juice of two different citrus fruits on vascular neointima formation using a cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model. Male C57BL6 mice were divided into five groups as follows: 1) Control (water) (C), 2) 10% Citrus unshiu (CU) juice (CU10), 3) 40% CU juice (CU40), 4) 10% Citrus iyo (CI) juice (CI10), and 5) 40% CI juice (CI40). After drinking them for 2 weeks from 8 weeks of age, cuff injury was induced by polyethylene cuff placement around the femoral artery. Neointima formation was significantly attenuated in CU40, CI10 and CI40 compared with C; however, no remarkable preventive effect was observed in CU10. The increases in levels of various inflammatory markers including cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor-? in response to vascular injury did not differ significantly between C, CU10 and CI10. The increases in cell proliferation and superoxide anion production were markedly attenuated in CI10, but not in CU10 compared with C. The increase in phosphorylated ERK expression was markedly attenuated both in CU10 and CI10 without significant difference between CU10 and CI10. Accumulation of immune cells did not differ between CU10 and CI10. These results indicate that drinking citrus fruit juice attenuates vascular remodeling partly via a reduction of oxidative stress. Interestingly, the preventive efficacy on neointima formation was stronger in CI than in CU at least in part due to more prominent inhibitory effects on oxidative stress by CI. PMID:25692290

Ohnishi, Arika; Asayama, Rie; Mogi, Masaki; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Kan-no, Harumi; Tsukuda, Kana; Chisaka, Toshiyuki; Wang, Xiao-Li; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

2015-01-01

118

21 CFR 101.30 - Percentage juice declaration for foods purporting to be beverages that contain fruit or vegetable...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Percentage juice declaration for foods purporting to be beverages that contain fruit...vegetable juice. 101.30 Section 101.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...

2012-04-01

119

Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice. PMID:25838891

Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

2015-01-01

120

Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice. PMID:25838891

Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

2015-03-01

121

E-Nose and e-Tongue combination for improved recognition of fruit juice samples.  

PubMed

There are many important challenges related to food security analysis by application of chemical and electrochemical sensors. One critical parameter is the development of reliable tools, capable of performing an overall sensory analysis. In these systems, as much information as possible is required in relation to smell, taste and colour. Here, we investigated the possibility of using a multisensor data fusion approach, which combines an e-Nose and an e-Tongue, adept in generating combined aroma and taste profiles. In order to shed light on this concept, classification of various Tunisian fruit juices using a low-level of abstraction data fusion technique was attempted. Five tin oxide-based Taguchi Gas Sensors were applied in the e-Nose instrument and the e-Tongue was designed using six potentiometric sensors. Four different commercial brands along with eleven fruit juice varieties were characterised using the e-Nose and the e-Tongue as individual techniques, followed by a combination of the two together. Applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) separately on the respective e-Nose and e-Tongue data, only few distinct groups were discriminated. However, by employing the low-level of abstraction data fusion technique, very impressive findings were achieved. The Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network reached a 100% success rate in the recognition of the eleven-fruit juices. Therefore, data fusion approach can successfully merge individual data from multiple origins to draw the right conclusions that are more fruitful when compared to the original single data. Hence, this work has demonstrated that data fusion strategy used to combine e-Nose and e-Tongue signals led to a system of complementary and comprehensive information of the fruit juices which outperformed the performance of each instrument when applied separately. PMID:24360446

Haddi, Z; Mabrouk, S; Bougrini, M; Tahri, K; Sghaier, K; Barhoumi, H; El Bari, N; Maaref, A; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Bouchikhi, B

2014-05-01

122

Psychosocial and demographic predictors of fruit, juice and vegetable consumption among 11-14-year-old Boy Scouts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Psychosocial and demographic correlates of fruit, juice, and vegetable (FJV) consumption were investigated to guide how to increase FJV intake. Experimental design consisted of hierarchical multiple regression analysis of FJV consumption on demographics and psychosocial variables. Subjects were boys...

123

Gimme 5 fruit, juice, and vegetables for fun and health: outcome evaluation. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

A theory-based multicomponent intervention (Gimme 5) was designed and implemented to impact fourth- and fifth-grade children's fruit, juice, and vegetable (FJV) consumption and related psychosocial variables.

124

Social support is a primary influence on home fruit, 100% juice, and vegetable availability. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Baranowski T, Watson K, Missaghian M, Broadfoot A, Cullen K, Nicklas T, Fisher J, Baranowski J, O'Donnell S. Social support is a primary influence on home fruit, 100% juice, and vegetable availability.

125

Fermentation of pomegranate juice by probiotic lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, production of probiotic pomegranate juice through its fermentation by four strains of lactic acid bacteria:\\u000a Lactobacillus plantarum, L. delbruekii, L. paracasei, L. acidophilus was examined. Fermentation was carried out at 30°C for 72 h under microaerophilic conditions. Microbial population, pH, titrable\\u000a acidity, sugar and organic acid metabolism were measured during the fermentation period and the viability of all

Z. E. Mousavi; S. M. Mousavi; S. H. Razavi; Z. Emam-Djomeh; H. Kiani

2011-01-01

126

Effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice on amiodarone-induced pneumotoxicity in rats  

PubMed Central

Background: The fruits of Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot is extremely rich in biologically active polyphenols. Objective: We studied the protective effect of A. melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) in a model of amiodarone (AD)-induced pneumotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: AD was instilled intratracheally on days 0 and 2 (6.25 mg/kg). AMFJ (5 mL/kg and 10 mL/kg) was given orally from day 1 to days 2, 4, 9, and 10 to rats, which were sacrificed respectively on days 3, 5, 10, and 28 when biochemical, cytological, and immunological assays were performed. Results: AMFJ antagonized AD-induced increase of the lung weight coefficient. In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, AD increased significantly the protein content, total cell count, polymorphonuclear cells, lymphocytes and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase on days 3 and 5. In AMFJ-treated rats these indices of direct toxic damage did not differ significantly from the control values. In lung tissue, AD induced oxidative stress measured by malondialdehyde content and fibrosis assessed by the hydroxyproline level. AMFJ prevented these effects of AD. In rat serum, AD caused a significant elevation of interleukin IL-6 on days 3 and 5, and a decrease of IL-10 on day 3. In AMFJ-treated rats, these indices of inflammation had values that did not differ significantly from the control ones. Conclusion: AMFJ could have a protective effect against AD-induced pulmonary toxicity as evidenced by the reduced signs of AD-induced direct toxic damage, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis. PMID:24914278

Valcheva-Kuzmanova, Stefka; Stavreva, Galya; Dancheva, Violeta; Terziev, Ljudmil; Atanasova, Milena; Stoyanova, Angelina; Dimitrova, Anelia; Shopova, Veneta

2014-01-01

127

A study of fouling in the ultrafiltration of passion fruit juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of operating variables on permeation flux and resistances for the ultrafiltration of passion fruit juice were studied. The experiments were carried out on a polysulfone hollow fibre membrane laboratory module. The results showed that flux increased with temperature from 30 to 40°C and then decreased at 50°C. At low temperatures (30 and 40°C) the flux-pressure curves followed the

R. Jiraratananon; A. Chanachai

1996-01-01

128

Purification and some properties of a lectin from the fruit juice of the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).  

PubMed

In the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plant, the fruit juice was found to be the richest source of agglutinating activity. The lectin responsible could be inhibited by oligomers of N-acetylglucosamine, and this property was exploited to purify the lectin by affinity adsorption on trypsin-treated erythrocytes. The lectin is a glycoprotein that cross-reacts immunologically with the lectin from Datura stramonium (thorn-apple). PMID:7378052

Kilpatrick, D C

1980-01-01

129

Optimisation of in vitro measurement of available iron from different fortificants in citric fruit juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The percentage of dialyzable ferrous and total iron were studied in a citric juice (pineapple and passion fruit) fortified with ferrous sulphate, micronised dispersible ferric pyrophosphate and ferrous bis-glycinate in similar concentrations (49.2mg Fe\\/l). The in vitro method of Kapsokefalou and Miller (1991) [Kapsokefalou, M., & Miller, D. D. (1991). Effects of meat and selected food components on the valence

J. F. Haro-Vicente; C. Martínez-Graciá; G. Ros

2006-01-01

130

Influence of storage temperature and time on the physicochemical and bioactive properties of roselle-fruit juice blends in plastic bottle.  

PubMed

Roselle-fruit juice blends were made from roselle extract and mango, papaya, and guava juices at the ratio of 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80, % roselle: fruit juice, respectively. The blends were pasteurized at 82.5°C for 20 min and stored in 100 mL plastic bottles at 28 and 4°C for 6 months. The effects of storage time and temperature on physicochemical and bioactive properties were evaluated. Total soluble solids, pH, and reducing sugars increased significantly (P < 0.05) in some blends while titratable acidity decrease with increasing storage time. Vitamin C, total monomeric anthocyanins (TMA), total phenols (TPC), and antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, FRAP) in all roselle-fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased significantly (P < 0.05) at 28 and 4°C as storage progressed. Vitamin C in all roselle-fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased from 58-55% to 43-42% when stored at 28 and 4°C, respectively. TMA losses were 86-65% at 28°C and 75-53% at 4°C while TPC losses were 66-58% at 28°C and 51-22% at 4°C. Loss of antioxidant capacity (FRAP) was 18-46% at 28°C and 17-35% at 4°C. A principal component analysis (PCA) differentiated roselle-juice fruit blends into two clusters with two principle components PC1 and PC2, which explained 97 and 3% (blends stored at ambient temperature) and 96 and 4% (blends stored at refrigerated temperature) of the variation, respectively. PC1 differentiated roselle-guava juice blends which were characterized by vitamin C, TPC, FRAP, and pH, while PC2 from another cluster of roselle-mango and roselle-papaya juice blends and was characterized by TSS, RS, and color parameters (L* a* b*). However, TMA was the main variable with the highest effect on all roselle-fruit juice blends regardless of the storage time and temperature. PMID:24804077

Mgaya-Kilima, Beatrice; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Chove, Bernard Elias; Wicklund, Trude

2014-03-01

131

Influence of storage temperature and time on the physicochemical and bioactive properties of roselle-fruit juice blends in plastic bottle  

PubMed Central

Roselle-fruit juice blends were made from roselle extract and mango, papaya, and guava juices at the ratio of 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80, % roselle: fruit juice, respectively. The blends were pasteurized at 82.5°C for 20 min and stored in 100 mL plastic bottles at 28 and 4°C for 6 months. The effects of storage time and temperature on physicochemical and bioactive properties were evaluated. Total soluble solids, pH, and reducing sugars increased significantly (P < 0.05) in some blends while titratable acidity decrease with increasing storage time. Vitamin C, total monomeric anthocyanins (TMA), total phenols (TPC), and antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, FRAP) in all roselle-fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased significantly (P < 0.05) at 28 and 4°C as storage progressed. Vitamin C in all roselle-fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased from 58–55% to 43–42% when stored at 28 and 4°C, respectively. TMA losses were 86–65% at 28°C and 75–53% at 4°C while TPC losses were 66–58% at 28°C and 51–22% at 4°C. Loss of antioxidant capacity (FRAP) was 18–46% at 28°C and 17–35% at 4°C. A principal component analysis (PCA) differentiated roselle-juice fruit blends into two clusters with two principle components PC1 and PC2, which explained 97 and 3% (blends stored at ambient temperature) and 96 and 4% (blends stored at refrigerated temperature) of the variation, respectively. PC1 differentiated roselle-guava juice blends which were characterized by vitamin C, TPC, FRAP, and pH, while PC2 from another cluster of roselle-mango and roselle-papaya juice blends and was characterized by TSS, RS, and color parameters (L* a* b*). However, TMA was the main variable with the highest effect on all roselle-fruit juice blends regardless of the storage time and temperature. PMID:24804077

Mgaya-Kilima, Beatrice; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Chove, Bernard Elias; Wicklund, Trude

2014-01-01

132

Hyperspectral diffuse reflectance for determination of the optical properties of milk and fruit and vegetable juices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are two fundamental optical properties for turbid biological materials. This paper presents the technique and method of using hyperspectral diffuse reflectance for fast determination of the optical properties of fruit and vegetable juices and milks. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance over the spectral region between 530 and 900 nm from a variety of fruit and vegetable juices (citrus, grapefruit, orange, and vegetable) and milks with different fat levels (full, skim and mixed). The system collected diffuse reflectance in the source-detector separation range from 1.1 to 10.0 mm. The hyperspectral reflectance data were analyzed by using a diffusion theory model for semi-infinite homogeneous media. The absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the fruit and vegetable juices and milks were extracted by inverse algorithms from the scattering profiles for wavelengths of 530-900 nm. Values of the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient at 650 nm were highly correlated to the fat content of the milk samples with the correlation coefficient of 0.990 and 0.989, respectively. The hyperspectral imaging technique can be extended to the measurement of other liquid and solid foods in which light scattering is dominant.

Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu

2005-11-01

133

Effects of ascorbic acid retention on juice color and pigment stability in blood orange ( Citrus sinensis) juice during refrigerated storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood orange juice samples with two different levels of ascorbic acid content were placed in HDPE plastic bottles, pasteurized, and stored at 4.5 °C. The influence of ascorbic acid retention on color stability of blood orange juice was investigated using CIE L*a*b*, hue, chroma, polymeric color, and browning index during the storage period. Changes in monomeric anthocyanin pigments, total carotenoid contents,

M. H Choi; G. H Kim; H. S Lee

2002-01-01

134

Flavorings as new sources of contamination by deteriogenic Alicyclobacillus of fruit juices and beverages.  

PubMed

This study aimed to report the incidence of Alicyclobacillus and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in apple and pear flavorings (n=42) and to assess the effect of guaiacol-producing A. acidoterrestris strains on apple flavorings stored at 4, 20 and 45 °C. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was used for simultaneous confirmation of alicyclobacilli. A total of six isolates were identified as A. acidoterrestris, and only one strain was not able to produce guaiacol. The storage of apple flavoring at the optimum growth temperature of A. acidoterrestris (45 °C) resulted in the reduction in the spores' counts within 30 days of storage. On the other hand, during chilling (4 °C) and ambient storage conditions (20 °C) the counts of spores that remained stable for up to 60 days. An A. acidoterrestris strain inoculated in flavoring and further added to apple juice was able to grow and produce guaiacol in high amounts between 1-7 days of storage at 30 °C. In the current study it was shown that flavorings may be contaminated by deteriogenic A. acidoterrestris strains that are able to survive during storage in a wide range of temperature for long periods and further contaminate and spoil formulated fruit juices and beverages. A novel potential source of fruit juices and beverages contamination by deteriogenic Alicyclobacillus was shown. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first report on the incidence and fate of Alicyclobacillus and A. acidoterrestris in flavorings. PMID:24370970

Oteiza, Juan Martin; Soto, Silvina; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Giannuzzi, Leda

2014-02-17

135

In vitro inhibition of human influenza A virus infection by fruit-juice concentrate of Japanese plum (Prunus mume SIEB. et ZUCC).  

PubMed

Using a plaque reduction assay, treatment of human influenza A viruses with the fruit-juice concentrate of Japanese plum (Prunus mume SIEB. et ZUCC) showed strong in vitro anti-influenza activity against human influenza A viruses before viral adsorption, but not after viral adsorption, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus, A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2) virus and A/Memphis/1/71 (H3N2) virus of 6.35+/-0.17, 2.84+/-1.98 and 0.53+/-0.10 microg/ml, respectively. The plum-juice concentrate exhibited hemagglutination activity toward guinea pig erythrocytes. Its hemagglutination activity was inhibited by the monosaccharide N-acetylneuraminic acid and a sialoglycoprotein (fetuin), but not by the other tested monosaccharides (mannose, galactose, glucose and N-acetylglucosamine), suggesting the presence of a lectin-like molecule(s) in the Japanese plum-juice concentrate. Our findings suggest that the fruit-juice concentrate of Japanese plum may prevent and reduce infection with human influenza A virus, possibly via inhibition of viral hemagglutinin attachment to host cell surfaces by its lectin-like activity. PMID:18310920

Yingsakmongkon, Sangchai; Miyamoto, Daisei; Sriwilaijaroen, Nongluk; Fujita, Kimie; Matsumoto, Kosai; Jampangern, Wipawee; Hiramatsu, Hiroaki; Guo, Chao-Tan; Sawada, Toshihiko; Takahashi, Tadanobu; Hidari, Kazuya; Suzuki, Takashi; Ito, Morihiro; Ito, Yasuhiko; Suzuki, Yasuo

2008-03-01

136

Determination of creatinine, uric and ascorbic acid in bovine milk and orange juice by hydrophilic interaction HPLC.  

PubMed

Creatinine (Cr), uric (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) are common constituents in human fluids. Their abnormal concentrations in human fluids are associated with various diseases. Thus, apart from the endogenous formation in human body, it is also important to examine their sources from food products. In this study, a rapid and accurate HILIC method was developed for simultaneous determination of Cr, UA and AA in bovine milk and orange juice. Milk samples were pretreated by protein precipitation, centrifugation and filtration, followed by HPLC separation and quantification using a Waters Spherisorb S5NH2 column. The developed method has been successfully applied to determine the concentration of UA, AA and Cr in milk and fruit juice samples. The milk samples tested were found to contain UA and creatinine in the concentration range of 24.1-86.0 and 5.07-11.2?gmL(-1), respectively. The orange juices contain AA over 212?gmL(-1). PMID:25842333

Zuo, Ruiting; Zhou, Si; Zuo, Yuegang; Deng, Yiwei

2015-09-01

137

Assessment of fruit juice authenticity using UPLC-QToF MS: a metabolomics approach.  

PubMed

In recent years, with the growing complexity of global food supply chains and trade, food fraud, including adulteration of high value foods with cheaper substitutes, has become an increasingly important issue. A metabolomics approach can be applied to discover biomarkers that can be used to trace food adulteration. A study was undertaken to discover novel, potential biomarkers for the rapid detection of the adulteration of fruit juices with cheaper alternatives. Pineapple, orange, grapefruit, apple, clementine, and pomelo were investigated. Untargeted metabolite fingerprinting was performed by UPLC-QToF MS with multivariate data analysis. Twenty-one differential metabolites were selected, contributing to the separation between pineapple, orange and grapefruit juices, and their admixtures down to 1% adulteration level. A targeted metabolomics method was then optimised and adulteration could be detected at 1%. The results demonstrate that metabolomics has potential as a screening tool for the rapid detection of food adulteration. PMID:24262519

Jandri?, Z; Roberts, D; Rathor, M N; Abrahim, A; Islam, M; Cannavan, A

2014-04-01

138

Anti-diabetic effects of palm fruit juice in the Nile rat (Arvicanthis niloticus).  

PubMed

With the increasing incidence of metabolic diseases, numerous bioactive phytochemicals have been proffered in the dietary prevention of these conditions. Palm fruit juice (PFJ) possesses bioactive phenolic compounds (referred to as oil palm phenolics; OPP) that may deter diabetes. The objective of the present experiments was to document the degree to which PFJ reduces diabetes symptoms in a variety of circumstances in the Nile rat (Arvicanthis niloticus), a novel model for carbohydrate-induced type 2 diabetes (type 2 diabetes mellitus; T2DM) and the metabolic syndrome. Wild-type male Nile rats (n 100) were fed laboratory chow or semi-purified diabetogenic diets in five experiments lasting 4-36 weeks. PFJ was provided as a drink or mixed into the diet to provide OPP intakes from 170 to 720 mg gallic acid equivalents/kg body weight per d. Body weight and random and fasting blood glucose were assessed at different time points, and were analysed along with terminal fasting organ weights, insulin, plasma and liver lipids as measures of diabetes progression. PFJ proved to be anti-hyperglycaemic and anti-lipaemic in all experiments relative to untreated controls, delaying T2DM onset and even reversing advancing diabetes. Protection by PFJ was directly related to its OPP content, and no negative effects on energy intake or growth were observed. PFJ was effective both as a drink and mixed into the diet. Results suggest that PFJ may slow the rate of glucose absorption, reduce insulin resistance and/or enhance insulin secretion. PMID:25191613

Bolsinger, Julia; Pronczuk, Andrzej; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Hayes, K C

2014-01-01

139

[Study on predicting total acid content and soluble sugar of tomato juice by near infrared optical fiber spectrometer technique].  

PubMed

In order to explore a simple, rapid and efficient tomato quality detection method, in the present experiment near infrared spectroscopy and optical fiber sensing technology were applied to quickly measure the nutrition ingredient content in tomato juice samples. The main instrument used in this experiment was near infrared optical fiber spectrometer in a wavelength range from 900 to 2 500 nm, which measured the absorbance of the tomato juice samples; A collection of one hundred and sixty-four tomato juice samples were selected as the standard samples, the spectra and the corresponding chemical value were measured. Partial least squares (PLS) was adopted to establish the mathematical model of the total acid and soluble sugar content in tomato juice samples, and the regression equation was statistically analysed. The total acid in tomato juice prediction correlation coefficient was 0.967, calibration standard deviation (RMSEC) was 0.133, standard error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0.103; the soluble sugar prediction correlation coefficient is 0.976, calibration standard deviation (RMSEC) was 0.463, and the standard error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0. 460. The above data achieved better forecasting results, which showed that the method of quantitative analysis of tomato fruit multicomponent content was feasible. The method is rapid, simple and can do multicomponent analysis on the same sample simultaneously. It is a promising sensor and gradually becoming a international research focus in sensor field. PMID:24822399

Zhang, Bing-Fang; Yuan, Li-Bo; Zhang, Bing-Xiu

2014-02-01

140

Changes in vitamin C, phenolic, and carotenoid profiles throughout in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of a blended fruit juice.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the stability and bioaccessibility of vitamin C, phenolic compounds, and carotenoids, as well as the antioxidant activity in a blended fruit juice (BFJ) containing orange, pineapple, and kiwi. Vitamin C and most of the analyzed phenolic compounds were quite stable under gastric conditions (recovery > 75%), whereas carotenoids diminished significantly (to 64%). The concentration of all the evaluated compounds decreased during small intestinal digestion. The bioaccessibility of hydrophilic constituents was higher than that of lipophilic constituents. Flavonoids, vitamin C, and phenolic acids showed bioaccessibilities of 20.1, 15.0, and 12.7%, respectively. However, carotenes and xanthophylls were around 7.6 and 17.4% available for absorption. Despite the decrease in the concentration of these bioactive compounds after being subjected to an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, results suggest that BFJ is an important source of bioaccessible constituents. PMID:23374081

Rodríguez-Roque, María Janeth; Rojas-Graü, María Alejandra; Elez-Martínez, Pedro; Martín-Belloso, Olga

2013-02-27

141

Determination of mycotoxins in pomegranate fruits and juices using a QuEChERS-based method.  

PubMed

A rapid and accurate analytical method for the determination of three Alternaria mycotoxins (alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and tentoxin) in pomegranate samples (fruits and juices) was developed and validated. The overall average recoveries ranged for 82.0-109.4% and the relative standard deviations were from 1.2% to 10.9%. The optimized and validated method was applied to detect the presence of the target mycotoxins in real samples (fruits and juices) purchased from Greek markets. Mycotoxins were not found in any of the analyzed samples. Also, artificially inoculated pomegranate fruits with six different Alternaria alternata species complex isolates, known to produce the target mycotoxins on pure cultures, were analyzed and alternariol concentrations found ranged from 0.3 to 50.5?g/g, alternariol monomethyl ether from 0.5 to 32.3?g/g, while tentoxin was not detected. The developed analytical method can be used for the routine monitoring of the major Alternaria mycotoxins in pomegranates. PMID:25842312

Myresiotis, Charalampos K; Testempasis, Stefanos; Vryzas, Zisis; Karaoglanidis, George S; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

2015-09-01

142

Pilot-scale production of cloudy juice from low-quality pear fruit under low-oxygen conditions.  

PubMed

In this study, a process for the production of premium quality yellowish, cloudy pear juice from low-quality fruit under low-oxygen conditions was developed. The production process consisted of (1) shredding, (2) pressing with spiral-filter technology including a vacuumised extraction cell, (3) holding in an inert gas buffer tank, (4) pasteurisation, (5) and refrigerated storage. First, the system parameters of a spiral-filter press were optimised with the aim of producing a yellowish, cloudy pear juice with the highest possible juice yield. A maximum juice yield of 78% could be obtained. Enzymatic browning during juice extraction could be suppressed as a result of the fast processing and the low air (oxygen) levels in the extraction chamber of the spiral-filter press. Furthermore, we observed that instantaneous pasteurisation at 107 °C for 6s, subsequent aluminium laminate packaging and cold storage had only a minimum effect on the phenolic composition. PMID:25466096

De Paepe, Domien; Coudijzer, Katleen; Noten, Bart; Valkenborg, Dirk; Servaes, Kelly; De Loose, Marc; Diels, Ludo; Voorspoels, Stefan; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart

2015-04-15

143

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FAECAL COLIFORMS IN STREET VENDED FRUIT JUICES AND ITS SAFETY EVALUATION: A CASE STUDY OF BELLARY CITY, INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: Present study was undertaken for detection, isolation, characterization of the possible sources of faecal coliforms in street vended fresh fruit juices sold along the road sides of Bellary city, India and assessed its safety for human consumption. Materials and Methods: The samples of orange fruit juices were collected from the four different public hot spot areas of the city

Uma Reddy B; Chandrakanth N; Indu Priya S; Venkata Nagalakshmi R; Usha K. B; B UMA REDDY

144

Compared with the intake of commercial vegetable juice, the intake of fresh fruit and komatsuna (Brassica rapa L. var. perviridis) juice mixture reduces serum cholesterol in middle-aged men: a randomized controlled pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Vegetables and fruits are rich in vitamins, minerals and, dietary fiber and contribute to the prevention and improvement of obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, inadequate intake of vegetable and fruit is a concern in Japan. We therefore produced a juice mixture of fresh fruit and komatsuna (Brassica rapa L. var. perviridis: B. rapa) with the aim to investigate the effects of this juice mixture on anthropometric data, blood parameters, and dietary intake differences. Methods This study was performed as a single blind and randomized controlled trial. Subjects were 16 men (mean age, 46.4?±?7.1 years), and they were divided into two groups (control group and intervention group). The intervention group consumed the juice mixture of fresh fruit and B. rapa. The control group consumed commercial vegetable juice. Subjects consumed juice twice a day throughout the weekday, for 4 weeks. We prepared both juices with an equivalent energy balance. Results Weight and body mass index (BMI) of the control group after 4 weeks were significantly increased compared with baseline values. Serum total cholesterol (T-Chol) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Chol) of the intervention group after 4 weeks were significantly reduced compared with baseline values. Furthermore, intake of total vegetables and fruits were significantly increased compared with baseline values in both groups. Conclusions Both vegetable juices contributed to improved intake of total vegetables and fruit. Compared with the intake of commercial vegetable juice, the intake of fresh fruit and B. rapa juice is highly effective in reducing serum cholesterol. Short-term intake of fresh fruit and B. rapa juice was shown to enhance cholesterol metabolism. PMID:24961537

2014-01-01

145

Comparative Analysis of the Volatile Fraction of Fruit Juice from Different Citrus Species  

PubMed Central

The volatile composition of fruit from four Citrus varieties (Powell Navel orange, Clemenules mandarine, and Fortune mandarine and Chandler pummelo) covering four different species has been studied. Over one hundred compounds were profiled after HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis, including 27 esters, 23 aldehydes, 21 alcohols, 13 monoterpene hydrocarbons, 10 ketones, 5 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 4 monoterpene cyclic ethers, 4 furans, and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons, which were all confirmed with standards. The differences in the volatile profile among juices of these varieties were essentially quantitative and only a few compounds were found exclusively in a single variety, mainly in Chandler. The volatile profile however was able to differentiate all four varieties and revealed complex interactions between them including the participation in the same biosynthetic pathway. Some compounds (6 esters, 2 ketones, 1 furan and 2 aromatic hydrocarbons) had never been reported earlier in Citrus juices. This volatile profiling platform for Citrus juice by HS-SPME-GC-MS and the interrelationship detected among the volatiles can be used as a roadmap for future breeding or biotechnological applications. PMID:21818287

Alamar, M. Carmen; Gutiérrez, Abelardo; Granell, Antonio

2011-01-01

146

Alicyclobacillus dauci sp. nov., a slightly thermophilic, acidophilic bacterium isolated from a spoiled mixed vegetable and fruit juice product.  

PubMed

A novel, moderately thermophilic, acidophilic, Gram-variable, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium was isolated from a spoiled mixed vegetable and fruit juice product that had the off-flavour of guaiacol. The bacterium, strain 4F(T), grew aerobically at 20-50 °C (optimum 40 °C) and pH 3.0-6.0 (optimum pH 4.0) and produced acid from glycerol, d-galactose and d-glucose. It contained menaquinone-7 (MK-7) as the major isoprenoid quinone and the DNA G+C content was 49.6 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain 4F(T) were ?-alicyclic (?-cyclohexane fatty acids), which are characteristic of the genus Alicyclobacillus. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belongs to the Alicyclobacillus cluster, and is related most closely to the type strains of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris (97.4 % similarity) and Alicyclobacillus fastidiosus (97.3 %). Strain 4F(T) produced guaiacol from vanillic acid. It can be distinguished from related species by its acid production type and guaiacol production. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness values, it can be concluded that the strain represents a novel species of the genus Alicyclobacillus, for which the name Alicyclobacillus dauci sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 4F(T) (?= DSM 28700(T)?= NBRC 108949(T)?= NRIC 0938(T)). PMID:25505343

Nakano, Chisa; Takahashi, Naoto; Tanaka, Naoto; Okada, Sanae

2015-02-01

147

Comparison of torula yeast and various grape juice products as attractants for Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

PubMed

Early research investigating attractants for the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew, during the 1930s indicated that fermentation products were effective attractants for Mexican fruit flies and other tropical Tephritidae, but that attraction to fruit components was only of academic interest. Tests reported here were carried out on populations of Mexican fruit flies from 2004 to 2011. Trapping experiments carried out at sites in the states Nuevo Leon and San Luis Potosi compared grape juice, reconstituted grape concentrate and powdered grape mixes, and torula yeast extract in orchards at each site. The Nuevo Leon orchard was mixed with alternate rows of pears and surrounded by alternate hosts. The San Luis Potosi site was surrounded by other orange orchards or nonhosts. Each test was run for at least 10 mo and included highest and lowest trapping periods. Results showed that grape juice captured the most total flies and had the fewest samples with zero flies. However, in the series of experiments, each product had the most captures in at least one experiment. Hydrolyzed torula was superior in one of the six experiments. In five of the tests, polyethylene glycol was tested as an additive to the grape products but never improved capture rate compared with the product without the additive. These results indicate that grape juice is superior to grape concentrate or powder and grape juice is at least equal to torula yeast hydrolysate for trapping pest populations of Mexican fruit flies in commercial citrus orchards. PMID:24772538

Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B

2014-04-01

148

In vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic and antioxidant activities of punicalagin, ellagic acid and a total pomegranate tannin extract are enhanced in combination with other polyphenols as found in pomegranate juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits are widely consumed as juice (PJ). The potent antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic activities of PJ are attributed to its polyphenols including punicalagin, the major fruit ellagitannin, and ellagic acid (EA). Punicalagin is the major antioxidant polyphenol ingredient in PJ. Punicalagin, EA, a standardized total pomegranate tannin (TPT) extract and PJ were evaluated for in vitro antiproliferative,

Navindra P. Seeram; Lynn S. Adams; Susanne M. Henning; Yantao Niu; Yanjun Zhang; Muraleedharan G. Nair; David Heber

2005-01-01

149

Effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on consumer acceptance of fruit juices with different concentrations of açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).  

PubMed

This study evaluates the effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on the acceptance of two unfamiliar açaí fruit juices that have a low (40% açaí) versus a high (4% açaí) a priori overall liking. Hedonic and sensory measures as well as health- and nutrition-related attribute perceptions and purchase intention were rated before and after health information was presented. Differences in information effects due to interactions with juice type, consumer background attitudes and socio-demographics were investigated. Providing health information yielded a positive, though rather small increase, in overall liking, perceived healthiness and perceived nutritional value of both juices, as well as in their purchase intention. Sensory experiences remained predominant in the acceptance of the fruit juices, although the health claim had a stronger effect on the perceived healthiness and nutritional value of the least-liked juice. Background attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics influenced consumers' acceptance of both unfamiliar fruit juices. Health-oriented consumers were more likely to compromise on taste for an eventual health benefit, though they still preferred the best tasting juice. Consumers with a high food neophobia reported a lower liking for both unfamiliar fruit juices. Older respondents and women were more likely to accept fruit juices that claim a particular health benefit. PMID:19467277

Sabbe, Sara; Verbeke, Wim; Deliza, Rosires; Matta, Virginia; Van Damme, Patrick

2009-08-01

150

Food Insecurity is Related to Home Availability of Fruit, 100% Fruit Juice, and Vegetables  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Household food security is defined as access to enough food at all times for active, healthy living. Low food security may influence consumption because those households may lack sufficient resources to purchase more healthful items like fruit and vegetables. Because home availability is related to ...

151

Antimutagenic and antirecombinagenic activities of noni fruit juice in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Noni, a Hawaiian name for the fruit of Morinda citrifolia L., is a traditional medicinal plant from Polynesia widely used for the treatment of many diseases including arthritis, diabetes, asthma, hypertension and cancer. Here, a commercial noni juice (TNJ) was evaluated for its protective activities against the lesions induced by mitomycin C (MMC) and doxorrubicin (DXR) using the Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) in Drosophila melanogaster. Three-day-old larvae, trans-heterozygous for two genetic markers (mwh and flr3 ), were co-treated with TNJ plus MMC or DXR. We have observed a reduction in genotoxic effects of MMC and DXR caused by the juice. TNJ provoked a marked decrease in all kinds of MMC- and DXR-induced mutant spots, mainly due to its antirecombinagenic activity. The TNJ protective effects were concentration-dependent, indicating a dose-response correlation, that can be attributed to a powerful antioxidant and/or free radical scavenger ability of TNJ. PMID:23828338

Franchi, Leonardo P; Guimarães, Nilza N; De Andrade, Laise R; De Andrade, Heloísa H R; Lehmann, Maurício; Dihl, Rafael R; Cunha, Kênya S

2013-01-01

152

Hypoglycemic and Hepatoprotective Activity of Fermented Fruit Juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) in Diabetic Rats.  

PubMed

Morinda citrifolia is a medicinal plant used to treat diabetes and liver diseases. The fermented fruit juice of the M. Citrifolia (optical density?=?1.25) was used to study the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective properties in diabetes-induced rats. The rats were randomly distributed into 4 groups (control, diabetic experimental, diabetic standard, and diabetic untreated) of 6 each. Diabetes was induced by administering Streptozotocin (50?mg/kg body weight). Fasting blood glucose, body mass, liver tissue glycogen content, and the extent of liver degeneration were assessed. Diabetic experimental animals were treated with M. citrifolia juice (2?ml/kg, twice a day) and diabetic standard with reference hypoglycemic drug, glibenclamide orally for 20 days. Both the groups exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose level of 150?mg/dl ±15.88 and 125?mg/dl ±3.89, respectively, as compared to diabetic untreated with FBS?=?360.0?mg/dl ±15.81, (P < .003). On 10th day of experiment, diabetic experimental animals exhibited a decrease in body mass (10.2?g, 5.11%) which increased significantly by the 20th day (6?g, 3.0%, P < .022). Histological study of liver tissue obtained from untreated diabetic animals revealed significant fatty degeneration as compared to other three groups. The data of this study proved the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective activity of M. citrifolia. PMID:20981320

Nayak, B Shivananda; Marshall, Julien R; Isitor, Godwin; Adogwa, Andrew

2011-01-01

153

Lactic Acid Fermentation of ?-Carotene Rich Sweet Potato ( Ipomoea batatas L.) into Lacto-juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lacto-juices processed by lactic acid fermentation bring about a change in the beverage assortment for their high nutritive\\u000a value, vitamins and minerals which are beneficial to human health when consumed. Sweet potato roots (non-boiled\\/ fully-boiled)\\u000a were fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum MTCC 1407 at 28 ? 2?C for 48 h to make lacto- juice. During fermentation both analytical [pH, titratable acidity, lactic\\u000a acid, starch,

Smita H. Panda; Ramesh C. Ray

2007-01-01

154

Ultra performance liquid chromatography analysis to study the changes in the carotenoid profile of commercial monovarietal fruit juices.  

PubMed

We have developed an analytical method that allows the simultaneous determination of epoxycarotenoids, hydroxycarotenoids and carotenes in monovarietal fresh homemade and industrially processed fruit products. Analyses were carried out using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). The extraction method was optimized using methanol as the first extraction solvent for lyophilized samples followed by a saponification step. Recoveries ranged between 75% and 104% depending on the compound. Repeatability was better than 10% for all compounds (%RSD, n=3). The chromatographic analysis takes less than 17min. In this short period, up to 27 carotenoids were identified in apple, peach and pear products. The developed method allowed us to differentiate juice from six varieties of apple by their carotenoid profile. Moreover, the methodology allows us to differentiate the carotenoid profiles from commercial juices and homemade fresh peach and pear juices, as well as to study the rearrangements of 5,6- to 5,8-epoxycarotenoids. PMID:24503121

Delpino-Rius, Antoni; Eras, Jordi; Marsol-Vall, Alexis; Vilaró, Francisca; Balcells, Mercè; Canela-Garayoa, Ramon

2014-02-28

155

A review and critical analysis of the scientific literature related to 100% fruit juice and human health.  

PubMed

The association between the consumption of pure (100%) fruit juice (PFJ) and human health is uncertain. The current review summarizes data published between 1995 and 2012 related to PFJ with a focus on juices that are widely available and studied in forms representing native juice without supplemental nutrients or enhanced phytochemical content. The effects of apple, cranberry, grape, grapefruit, orange, and pomegranate PFJ intake on outcomes linked to cancer, cardiovascular disease, cognition, hypertension, inflammation, oxidation, platelet function, urinary tract infection, and vascular reactivity are reviewed. Implications for bodyweight regulation are also addressed. The collective data are provocative although challenges and unanswered questions remain. There are many plausible mechanisms by which PFJ might be protective, and investigation of its effects on human health and disease prevention must remain an active area of research. PMID:25593142

Hyson, Dianne A

2015-01-01

156

Effect of thermal and non-thermal pasteurisation on the microbial inactivation and phenolic degradation in fruit juice: a mini-review.  

PubMed

Fruit juice has been traditionally preserved by thermal pasteurisation. However, the applied heat can cause detrimental effects on health-promoting components such as phenolic compounds. Several non-thermal technologies such as membrane filtration, pulsed electric field (PEF) and ultraviolet (UV) exposure are promising methods developed for liquid food preservation. In particular, the combination of UV and PEF has proven to be more effective for microbial inactivation and maintaining nutritional quality of fruit juice compared with individual applications. PMID:23408366

Chen, Yougui; Yu, Li Juan; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

2013-03-30

157

An Experimental Investigation of Lime Juice Drying in a Pilot Plant Spray Dryer  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major problems in spray drying of fruit juices such as lime juice is stickiness and thermoplasticity of their compositions. Lime juice consists of invert sugars and citric acid, which have low glass transition temperatures. Due to this characteristic, the particles stick on the dryer wall upon their collision with it. As a result, drying of these materials

O. R. Roustapour; M. Hosseinalipour; B. Ghobadian

2006-01-01

158

Home fruit, juice, and vegetable pantry management and availability scales: a validation. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Home fruit, 100% juice, and vegetables (FJV) availability is related to increased FJV consumption by children. While FJV must be purchased for use in the home, no scales have been reported on home FJV pantry management practices. A scale for home FJV pantry management practices was generated from focus group discussions with diverse 162 food shoppers. A commonly used scale of home FJV availability was also assessed.

159

An immunomodulatory polysaccharide-rich substance from the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (noni) with antitumour activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (noni) contains a polysaccharide-rich substance (noni-ppt) with anti- tumour activity in the Lewis lung (LLC) peritoneal carcinomatosis model. Therapeutic administration of noni-ppt significantly enhanced the duration of survival of inbred syngeneic LLC tumour bearing mice. It did not exert significant cytotoxic effects in an adapted culture of LLC cells, LLC1, but could activate peritoneal

Anne Hirazumi; Eiichi Furusawa

1999-01-01

160

Analysis of Mineral and Heavy Metal Content of Some Commercial Fruit Juices by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

The presence of potentially toxic elements and compounds in foodstuffs is of intense public interest and thus requires rapid and accurate methods to determine the levels of these contaminants. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for the determination of metals and nonmetals in fruit juices. In this study, 21 commercial fruit juices (apple, peach, apricot, orange, kiwi, pear, pineapple, and multifruit) present on Romanian market were investigated from the heavy metals and mineral content point of view by ICP-MS. Our obtained results were compared with those reported in literature and also with the maximum admissible limit in drinking water by USEPA and WHO. For Mn the obtained values exceeded the limits imposed by these international organizations. Co, Cu, Zn, As, and Cd concentrations were below the acceptable limit for drinking water for all samples while the concentrations of Ni and Pb exceeded the limits imposed by USEPA and WHO for some fruit juices. The results obtained in this study are comparable to those found in the literature. PMID:24453811

Dehelean, Adriana; Magdas, Dana Alina

2013-01-01

161

Effect of Fruit Juice on Glucose Control and Insulin Sensitivity in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of 12 Randomized Controlled Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes mellitus has become a worldwide health problem. Whether fruit juice is beneficial in glycemic control is still inconclusive. This study aimed to synthesize evidence from randomized controlled trials on fruit juice in relationship to glucose control and insulin sensitivity. Methods A strategic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (updated to March, 2014) was performed to retrieve the randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of fruit juice on glucose control and insulin sensitivity. Study quality was assessed using the Jadad scale. Weighted mean differences were calculated for net changes in the levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) using fixed- or random-effects model. Prespecified subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to explore the potential heterogeneity. Results Twelve trials comprising a total of 412 subjects were included in the current meta-analysis. The numbers of these studies that reported the data on fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c and HOMA-IR were 12, 5, 3 and 3, respectively. Fruit juice consumption did not show a significant effect on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. The net change was 0.79 mg/dL (95% CI: ?1.44, 3.02 mg/dL; P?=?0.49) for fasting glucose concentrations and ?0.74 µIU/ml (95% CI: ?2.62, 1.14 µIU/ml; P?=?0.44) for fasting insulin concentrations in the fixed-effects model. Subgroup analyses further suggested that the effect of fruit juice on fasting glucose concentrations was not influenced by population region, baseline glucose concentration, duration, type of fruit juice, glycemic index of fruit juice, fruit juice nutrient constitution, total polyphenols dose and Jadad score. Conclusion This meta-analysis showed that fruit juice may have no overall effect on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. More RCTs are warranted to further clarify the association between fruit juice and glycemic control. PMID:24743260

Mi, Mantian; Wang, Jian

2014-01-01

162

The influence of lactic acid fermentation process of red beet juice on the stability of biologically active colorants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid fermentation can have preservative effect on red beet juice. The behavior of the pigment in the fermented juice was investigated and the results were compared with those of non-fermented juice. Two red beet varieties (Czerwona Kula and Chrobry) were used in our experiment. Three probiotic bacteria and three infant intestinal microbiota of Lactobacillus sp. were selected for beet

Agata Czy?owska; El?bieta Klewicka; Zdzis?awa Libudzisz

2006-01-01

163

Toxicological evaluation of the lyophilized fruit juice extract of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) in rodents.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (AM) fruit juice is widely consumed either raw or after processing in tropical countries because of its very juicy, creamy and sweet character including its medicinal importance. The safety of AM fruit was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats for acute and 60-day subchronic toxicity effects. Methods: Rats were administered distilled water (DW) and AM daily at doses of 80, 400 and 2000 mg/kg orally for 60 days. At the end of the study, blood samples were assayed for biochemical and hematological parameters. Vital organs were harvested and assessed for antioxidants and histopathology. Results: There was no mortality recorded up to 2000 mg/kg following acute administration. There were no significant changes in vital organ weights and hematological and biochemical parameters. However, significant (p<0.05) reduction in platelet count and packed cell volume was observed at 2000 and 400 mg/kg, respectively, which was reversed after cessation of treatment. Interestingly, subchronic oral administration of AM (80, 400 or 2000 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.001) increased sperm count and motility in comparison to vehicle-treated control. AM long-term treatment induced significant (p<0.05, <0.01 and <0.001) increases in the levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, respectively, in the liver and kidney. Conversely, AM (2000 mg/kg) produced significant (p<0.001) increase in malondialdehyde level with decreased (p<0.05) SOD activity in the brain. Conclusions: The study established that AM did not induce any significant toxic effect, indicating that it is safe in rats following oral administration for 60 consecutive days. PMID:24353141

Awodele, Olufunsho; Ishola, Ismail O; Ikumawoyi, Victor O; Akindele, Abidemi J; Akintonwa, Alade

2013-12-18

164

Partial characterization, in vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of patatin purified from potato fruit juice.  

PubMed

Patatin from potato fruit juice was purified by a combination of ultrafiltration and chromatographic techniques. The in vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activity against mouse melanoma B16 cells of patatin were investigated. The results showed that the monosaccharide composition of patatin included rhamnose, mannose, glucose, and galactose with a molar ratio of 41 : 30 : 21 : 8, and patatin consisted of (1 ? 3) linked ?-mannose, (1 ? 4) linked ?-galactose, (1 ? 4) linked ?-glucose, and (1 ? 2) linked ?-rhamnose. Furthermore, patatin possessed significant antioxidant activities measured by scavenging of the DPPH and superoxide free radicals, notable reducing power, protective effects against hydroxyl radical-induced oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation inhibitory. Moreover, patatin was identified as a potent antiproliferative agent against mouse melanoma B16 cells, causing cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. Assays of apoptotic cells also showed that patatin treatment at concentrations of 20 mg mL(-1) resulted in a marked reduction of viable cells. These results obtained in in vitro models suggested that patatin may have potential application as a cancer chemopreventive agent and food ingredient. PMID:24056776

Sun, Ying; Jiang, Lianzhou; Wei, Dongxu

2013-10-01

165

Bioavailability of carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol from fruit juices in the presence of absorption modifiers: in vitro and in vivo assessment.  

PubMed

The food industry is playing an increasing role in the development and marketing of new products although little is known regarding the bioavailability of the phytochemicals they contain. Our aim was to assess the effect of the presence of absorption modifiers (milk and iron) on the in vitro bioaccessibility and the serum response in vivo of carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol from fruit juices. Thirty-two young women participated in a three-period (21 d each) supplementation study with a 2-week wash-out in between. Subjects consumed consecutively 2 x 250 ml/d vitamin C-fortified juices supplied as fruit juice, fruit juice containing milk and fruit juice containing milk and iron. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after each supplementation period. In vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol was assessed by a static digestion model. Vitamin E and carotenoids from both studies were determined by HPLC. In vitro, xanthophyll ester hydrolysis and transference of free xanthophylls and alpha-tocopherol into the micellar phase were higher in the presence of absorption modifiers. In vivo, consumption of the fruit juices provoked significant increments (within-subject) of alpha-tocopherol and some carotenoids in serum. Dose-adjusted increments in serum of some carotenoids were higher when subjects consumed juices with milk and milk plus iron, although differences did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, the presence of milk and milk plus iron do not influence the bioavailability of carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol from fruit juices in vivo. Our results support the use of in vitro models to assess food-related factors affecting bioavailability of carotenoids and tocopherols from foods. PMID:18616839

Granado-Lorencio, F; Herrero-Barbudo, C; Blanco-Navarro, I; Pérez-Sacristán, B; Olmedilla-Alonso, B

2009-02-01

166

21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...raspberry-flavored apple and pear juice...characterize the product before the addition...usual name for the product shall indicate that...e.g., “Apple blend; apple juice in a blend of...usual name for the product shall: (1)...

2010-04-01

167

Antioxidant and anti-fatigue effects of anthocyanins of mulberry juice purification (MJP) and mulberry marc purification (MMP) from different varieties mulberry fruit in China.  

PubMed

Anthocyanins, copiously distributed in a variety of colored fruits and vegetables, are probably the most important group of visible plant pigments besides chlorophyll. And the mulberry fruit is one of the anthocyanins-rich fruits. Total flavonols, total phenolic acids and anthocyanins contents of ten varieties mulberry juice purification (MJP) and mulberry marc purification (MMP) were determined. The highest content was 965.63±4.90 mg RE/g, 690.83±7.38 mg GAE/g and 272.00±1.20 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/g FW, respectively. Moreover, MJP and MMP exhibited high antioxidant activity, including total force reduction (TRP), Fe³? reducing power (FRAP) and DPPH • radical scavenging capacity. In addition, the anti-fatigue activity of MJP and MMP was determined through mice-burden swimming experiments. Interestingly, the antioxidant and anti-fatigue capacities of MMP were much higher than those of MJP. The experimental results suggested that the generally discarded mulberry marc had greater value of development and utilization as food processing waste. PMID:23727333

Jiang, Dong-Qing; Guo, Ying; Xu, Dian-Hong; Huang, Ya-Si; Yuan, Ke; Lv, Zhi-Qiang

2013-09-01

168

The quality control of fruit juices by using the stable isotope ratios and trace metal elements concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last years, a growing number of research articles detailing the use of natural abundance light stable isotopes variations and trace metal elements concentration as geographic "tracers" to determine the provenance of food have been published. These investigations exploit the systematic global variations of stable hydrogen, oxygen and carbon isotope ratios in (combination) relation with trace metal element concentrations. The trace metal elements content of plants and also their light stable isotopic ratios are mainly related to the geological and pedoclimatic characteristics of the site of growth. The interpretation of such analysis requires an important number of data for authentic natural juices regarding the same seasonal and regional origin, because the isotopic analysis parameters of fruit juices show remarkable variability depending on climatologically factors. In this work was mesured H, C, O stable isotope ratios and the concentrations of 16 elements (P, K, Mg, Na, Ca, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb, Co, As, Cd, Mn, Fe and Hg) from 12 single strength juices. The natural variations that appear due to different environmental and climatic conditions are presented and discussed.

Magdas, D. A.; Dehelean, A.; Puscas, R.; Cristea, G.; Tusa, F.; Voica, C.

2012-02-01

169

Study of the antifungal potential of novel cellulose/copper composites as absorbent materials for fruit juices.  

PubMed

Cellulose/copper composites with antifungal properties have been synthesized by physical/chemical methods. Physical treatments by heat or by a combination of heat and UV radiation provided composites with metallic copper and excellent interfacial adhesion; in contrast, chemical reduction with borohydride generated small although partially aggregated copper oxide nanoparticles. Copper micro/nano-particles and copper ions (Cu(2+)) were released from the cellulose matrix at an adequate rate to achieve a strong antimicrobial activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae in in vitro experiments. Moreover, the copper oxide composites showed an excellent antifungal activity in pineapple and melon juice, reducing about 4 log cycles the loads of spoilage-related yeasts and moulds. The metallic copper composites reduced in 4 log cycles the load of yeasts and moulds in pineapple juice, although their antifungal activity was weaker in contact with melon juice. Copper loaded absorbent materials could be selectively implemented during the shelf-life of minimally processed fruits to reduce the number of spoilage-related microorganisms in the drip. PMID:22835229

Llorens, Amparo; Lloret, Elsa; Picouet, Pierre; Fernandez, Avelina

2012-08-17

170

Partial Purification of a Growth Factor from Orange Juice Which Affects Citrus Tissue Culture and Its Replacement by Citric Acid  

PubMed Central

Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) tissue cultures required a supply of orange juice to the medium for their vigorous growth. The growth-promoting activity of juice seemed to involve both cell division and cell enlargement. Juice had no promotive activity in bioassays for auxins, gibberellins, and cytokinins. The growth promoting activity of juice was mostly transferred into 1-butanol upon partition at pH 2. Gas chromatographic analysis of this acid 1-butanol fraction revealed large amounts of citric acid and negligible amounts of other organic acids. Supply of pure citric acid to the medium, alone or in combination with different concentrations of juice, indicated that citric acid replaces most of the requirement for juice. It seems that citric acid, which is a natural component of citrus juice, is responsible for the major part of the growth-promoting activity of the juice. The significance of citric acid as a growth factor in tissue cultures and the reasons for the dependence of citrus tissue cultures on external supply of citric acid are discussed. Images PMID:16659287

Erner, Yair; Reuveni, Oded; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E.

1975-01-01

171

Partial purification of a growth factor from orange juice which affects citrus tissue culture and its replacement by citric Acid.  

PubMed

Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) tissue cultures required a supply of orange juice to the medium for their vigorous growth. The growth-promoting activity of juice seemed to involve both cell division and cell enlargement. Juice had no promotive activity in bioassays for auxins, gibberellins, and cytokinins. The growth promoting activity of juice was mostly transferred into 1-butanol upon partition at pH 2. Gas chromatographic analysis of this acid 1-butanol fraction revealed large amounts of citric acid and negligible amounts of other organic acids. Supply of pure citric acid to the medium, alone or in combination with different concentrations of juice, indicated that citric acid replaces most of the requirement for juice.It seems that citric acid, which is a natural component of citrus juice, is responsible for the major part of the growth-promoting activity of the juice. The significance of citric acid as a growth factor in tissue cultures and the reasons for the dependence of citrus tissue cultures on external supply of citric acid are discussed. PMID:16659287

Erner, Y

1975-08-01

172

Determination of the 13C/12C ratio of ethanol derived from fruit juices and maple syrup by isotope ratio mass spectrometry: collaborative study.  

PubMed

A collaborative study of the carbon-13 isotope ratio mass spectrometry (13C-IRMS) method based on fermentation ethanol for detecting some sugar additions in fruit juices and maple syrup is reported. This method is complementary to the site-specific natural isotope fractionation by nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method for detecting added beet sugar in the same products (AOAC Official Methods 995.17 and 2000.19), and uses the same initial steps to recover pure ethanol. The fruit juices or maple syrups are completely fermented with yeast, and the alcohol is distilled with a quantitative yield (>96%). The carbon-13 deviation (delta13C) of ethanol is then determined by IRMS. This parameter becomes less negative when exogenous sugar derived from plants exhibiting a C4 metabolism (e.g., corn or cane) is added to a juice obtained from plants exhibiting a C3 metabolism (most common fruits except pineapple) or to maple syrup. Conversely, the delta13C of ethanol becomes more negative when exogenous sugar derived from C3 plants (e.g., beet, wheat, rice) is added to pineapple products. Twelve laboratories analyzed 2 materials (orange juice and pure cane sugar) in blind duplicate and 4 sugar-adulterated materials (orange juice, maple syrup, pineapple juice, and apple juice) as Youden pairs. The precision of that method for measuring delta13C was similar to that of other methods applied to wine ethanol or extracted sugars in juices. The within-laboratory (Sr) values ranged from 0.06 to 0.16%o (r = 0.17 to 0.46 percent per thousand), and the among-laboratories (SR) values ranged from 0.17 to 0.26 percent per thousand (R = 0.49 to 0.73 percent per thousand). The Study Directors recommend that the method be adopted as First Action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL. PMID:15287660

Jamin, Eric; Martin, Frédérique; Martin, Gilles G

2004-01-01

173

Biochemical and histopathological effects of administration various levels of Pomposia (Syzygium cumini) fruit juice as natural antioxidant on rat health.  

PubMed

The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the effects of administration various levels (400, 800 and 1,200 ppm) of pomposia extracts as natural antioxidant in comparison with BHT as synthetic antioxidant on some biochemical activities and histopathological examination of rats. Some of biochemical tests i.e. Alkaline phosphatase, transaminases]Aspartate transferase (AST) and alanine transferase (ALT) [,bilirubin, urea and uric acid were conducted. Histopathological examinations were carried out on the liver and kidney tissue of rats administrated tested substances. The biochemical results indicated that the administration of polyphenolic compounds present in pomposia juice did not cause any significant (p???0.05) changes in the biochemical parameters whereas the administration of BHT at 200 ppm caused significant (p???0.05) increase in the activities of enzymes relevant to the functions of liver and kidney. Microscopically examinations of liver and kidney of rat administered various levels of pomposia juice had the same character as that of control rats (this means that the polyphenolic compounds present in pomposia juice did not cause any adverse affect in liver and kidney), in contrast the administration of 200 ppm of BHT caused marked pathological changes in liver and kidney of rats. The results of the current investigation suggest using pomposia juice as safe food grade substance. PMID:24425943

El-Anany, Ayman M; Ali, Rehab F M

2013-06-01

174

(13)C/(12)C isotope ratios of organic acids, glucose and fructose determined by HPLC-co-IRMS for lemon juices authenticity.  

PubMed

High performance liquid chromatography linked to isotope ratio mass spectrometry via an interface allowing the chemical oxidation of organic matter (HPLC-co-IRMS) was used to simultaneously determine carbon 13 isotope ratio (?(13)C) of organic acids, glucose and fructose in lime and lemon juices. Because of the significant difference between organic acids and sugars concentrations, the experimental protocol was optimised by applying a "current jump" to the IRMS device. The filament current is increased of 300?A during elution in order to enhance IRMS sensitivity. Then, analysis were performed on 35 lemon and lime fruits from various geographical origins and squeezed in the laboratory. An overall average ?(13)C values of -25.40±1.62‰, -23.83±1.82‰ and -25.67±1.72‰ is found for organic acids mixture mainly made up of citric acid, glucose and fructose, respectively. These authentic samples allowed the definition of a confidence domain to which have been confronted 30 commercial juices (24 "pure juices" and 6 coming from concentrate). Among these 30 samples, 10 present ?(13)C values outside the defined range revealing an added "C4" type organic acids or sugars, addition not specified on the label that is not in agreement with EU regulation. PMID:24176310

Guyon, Francois; Auberger, Pauline; Gaillard, Laetita; Loublanches, Caroline; Viateau, Maryse; Sabathié, Nathalie; Salagoïty, Marie-Hélène; Médina, Bernard

2014-03-01

175

Inhibition of aconitase in citrus fruit callus results in a metabolic shift towards amino acid biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Citrate, a major determinant of citrus fruit quality, accumulates early in fruit development and declines towards maturation. The isomerization of citrate to isocitrate, catalyzed by aconitase is a key step in acid metabolism. Inhibition of mitochondrial aconitase activity early in fruit development contributes to acid accumulation, whereas increased cytosolic activity of aconitase causes citrate decline. It was previously hypothesized that the block in mitochondrial aconitase activity, inducing acid accumulation, is caused by citramalate. Here, we investigated the effect of citramalate and of another aconitase inhibitor, oxalomalate, on aconitase activity and regulation in callus originated from juice sacs. These compounds significantly increased citrate content and reduced the enzyme's activity, while slightly inducing its protein level. Citramalate inhibited the mitochondrial, but not cytosolic form of the enzyme. Its external application to mandarin fruits resulted in inhibition of aconitase activity, with a transient increase in fruit acidity detected a few weeks later. The endogenous level of citramalate was analyzed in five citrus varieties: its pattern of accumulation challenged the notion of its action as an endogenous inhibitor of mitochondrial aconitase. Metabolite profiling of oxalomalate-treated cells showed significant increases in a few amino acids and organic acids. The activities of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and aspartate kinase, as well as these of two ?-aminobutyrate (GABA)-shunt enzymes, succinic semialdehyde reductase (SSAR) and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSAD) were significantly induced in oxalomalate-treated cells. It is suggested that the increase in citrate, caused by aconitase inhibition, induces amino acid synthesis and the GABA shunt, in accordance with the suggested fate of citrate during the acid decline stage in citrus fruit. PMID:21528417

Degu, Asfaw; Hatew, Bayissa; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Shlizerman, Ludmila; Zur, Naftali; Katz, Ehud; Fernie, Alisdair R; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

2011-09-01

176

Sensory profile, soluble sugars, organic acids, and mineral content in milk- and soy-juice based beverages.  

PubMed

The juice industry has undergone a continuous innovation to satisfy the increasing healthy food demand by developing, among others, beverages based on fruits and milk or soybeans. The comparison among the sensory attributes between nineteen commercial mixed beverages showed significant differences in colour, sweetness, acidity, and consistency. Sucrose and citric acid were found in large proportion due to their natural presence or their addition. Potassium was the major macromineral (148-941 mg/L), especially in soy beverages. The low concentration of sodium in soy drinks is a healthy characteristic. The profile of inorganic anions has been included for the first time. Sulphate (39-278 mg/L) and phosphate (51-428 mg/L) were the predominant anions. High correlations were found between the percentage of fruit and consistency, fructose, malic acid, potassium and phosphate content (r(2)>0.790). Based on the data obtained, these beverages show pleasant organoleptic characteristics and constitute a good source of essential nutrients for regular consumers. PMID:25466130

Andrés, Víctor; Tenorio, M Dolores; Villanueva, M José

2015-04-15

177

Evaluation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice with Cornus fruit ( Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.) extract by conventional media and thin agar layer method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival in apple juice supplemented with Cornus fruit (Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.) extract was studied. Inoculated samples with or without Cornus fruit extract were kept at 21 and 7°C. Microbial analysis was conducted on days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7. MacConkey sorbitol agar (MSA), tryptic soy agar (TSA), and thin agar layer (TAL) medium were

Vivian C. H. Wu; Xujian Qiu; Y.-H. Peggy Hsieh

2008-01-01

178

Survival of probiotic bacteria during lactic acid fermentation of vegetable juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general objective of this research was to perform the lactic acid fermentative processes using different probiotic bacteria species unspecific to epiphytic microbiota of vegetables, with a view to achieve new knowledge concerning the possibility of developing and preservation their viability in vegetable juices. The carrots and the red beet were evaluated as potential substrat for the production of probiotic

Carmen Leane Nicolescu; Daniela Avram; Magda Gabriela; Bratu Iuliana Manea

179

Reduction of nitrate and nitrite in vegetable juices prior to lactic acid fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction of the nitrate content in vegetable juices has an important effect on the total intake of nitrate by humans. Carrot puree containing 500 mg\\/1 nitrate was treated with immobilized cells of Halomonas spec, at 6°C. The nitrate was reduced within five hours quantitatively to nitrous oxide.Lactic acid fermentation by Leuconostoc mesenteroides performed after completion of the denitrification process

J. Emig; C. Meisel; G. Wolf; K. Gierschner; W. P. Hammes

1990-01-01

180

21 CFR 146.145 - Orange juice from concentrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice from concentrate. 146.145 Section...Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.145 Orange juice from concentrate. (a) Orange juice from concentrate is the food...

2010-04-01

181

21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section...Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative is the food...

2010-04-01

182

21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section...Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing is the food...

2010-04-01

183

Diet quality is positively associated with 100% fruit juice consumption in children and adults in the United States: NHANES 2003-2006  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One hundred percent fruit juice (100% FJ) has been viewed by some as a sweetened beverage with concerns about its effect on weight. Little regard has been given to the contribution of 100% FJ to diet quality. In this study data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were...

184

21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...specifically shows that the juice with the represented flavor is used as a flavor (e.g., raspberry-flavored apple and pear...of this chapter, the presence of added natural flavors is not required to be declared in the name of...

2011-04-01

185

Identification of grape juice aroma volatiles and attractiveness to the Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Volatiles from a Concord grape juice produced in Mexico were identified, tested for attractiveness and mixed into an attractant blend. Volatiles were sampled using solid phase microextraction (SPME). Chemicals were analyzed by gas chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Identi...

186

IMPACT OF IONIZING RADIATION AND THERMAL TREATMENTS ON FURAN LEVELS IN FRUIT JUICES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The formation of furan in freshly-prepared apple and orange juices as affected by ionization radiation and thermal treatments was studied using a newly developed solid phase microextraction method coupled with GC-MS. Results show that furan levels increased linearly as radiation dose increased from...

187

ASSOCIATIONS OF SOLUBLE FIBER, WHOLE FRUITS/VEGETABLES, AND JUICE WITH PLASMA BETA-CAROTENE CONCENTRATIONS IN A FREE-LIVING POPULATION OF BREAST CANCER SURVIVORS  

PubMed Central

Objective Soluble fiber and the physical state of fruits/vegetables affect plasma ß-carotene concentrations; however, most of this research was conducted in laboratory-based settings. These analyses investigated the relationship between soluble fiber and juiced vs. whole fruits/vegetables to plasma ß-carotene concentrations in a free-living population. Method This cross-sectional analysis used 12-month follow-up data from the Women’s Healthy Eating & Living Study (WHEL) (1995-2006), a study to improve diet in breast cancer survivors in the Western United States. The dietary nutrients considered in this analysis included intake of soluble fiber (g), ß-carotene from fruit/vegetable juice (mg), and ß-carotene from whole fruits/vegetables (mg). A linear regression model was used to assess the relationship of the variables to plasma ß-carotene concentrations. Results Out of 3,088 women enrolled in WHEL 2,397 women had complete data (mean age=54). The final model accounted for approximately 49% of the explained variance in plasma ß-carotene concentrations. Fruit/vegetable juice had the largest, positive relation to plasma ß-carotene concentrations (standardized parameter estimate=0.23, p < 0.01) followed by whole fruits/vegetables (standardized parameter estimate=0.09, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Soluble fiber may inhibit ß-carotene absorption; therefore, consumption of juice may increase plasma ß-carotene concentrations more than whole fruits/vegetables in free-living populations. PMID:23127215

Kolodziejczyk, Julia K.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Natarajan, Loki; Patterson, Ruth; Pierce, John P.; Norman, Gregory J.

2012-01-01

188

The choice of strains of Lactobacillus species for the lactic acid fermentation of vegetable juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reasons for using lactic acid bacteria are to make food durable, to improve its taste and to maintain the nutritive,\\u000a physiological and hygienic value of the fermentation products. Sixteen strains of the genus Lactobacillus were tested on samples of white fresh cabbage and of a sterilized cabbage and carrot juice mixture. After 7 days of lactic\\u000a acid fermentation at

J. Karovi?ová; Milan Drdák; Gabriel Greif; Eva Hybenová

1999-01-01

189

Relationship between Apparent Viscosity and Line-Spread Test Measurement of Thickened Fruit Juices Prepared with a Xanthan Gum-based Thickener  

PubMed Central

The flow behaviors of three thickened fruit juices (orange, apple, and grape juice) prepared with a commercial instant xanthan gum (XG)-based thickener that is marketed in Korea were investigated at different thickener concentrations (1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, 2.5%, 3.0%, and 3.5%) and setting times (5 and 30 min) using a rheometer and a line-spread measurement method. The flow distance values measured by the line-spread test (LST) were compared with the apparent viscosity (?a,50) values measured with a sophisticated computer-controlled rheometer. The ?a,50 values of the juices increased as thickener concentration increased, whereas their flow distances decreased. The ?a,50 values at the 30-min setting time were much higher than those at the 5-min setting time, indicating that the setting time before serving or consuming thickened juices can affect viscosity values. Plots comparing ?a,50 values to LST flow distances revealed strong exponential relationships between the two measures (R2=0.989 and R2=0.987 for the 5- and 30-min setting times, respectively). These results indicate that the LST can be a suitable instrument for evaluating the viscosity of thickened fruit juices prepared with different XG-based thickener concentrations and setting times for the dysphagia diet. PMID:25320723

Kim, Sung-Gun; Yoo, Whachun; Yoo, Byoungseung

2014-01-01

190

Simultaneous transgenic suppression of LePG and LeExp1 influences fruit texture and juice viscosity in a fresh market tomato variety.  

PubMed

Tomatoes are grown for fresh consumption or for processing of the fruit. Some ripening-associated processes of the fruit can either contribute to or degrade attributes associated with both fresh and processing quality. For example, cell wall disassembly is associated with loss of fresh fruit firmness as well as with loss of processed tomato product viscosity. Several enzymes contribute to cell wall polysaccharide disassembly. Polygalacturonase (PG, poly[1,4-alpha-d-galactouronide] glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.15) is among the most abundant polysaccharide hydrolases in ripening tomato fruit and is the major contributor to pectin depolymerization. Expansin (LeExp1) is also abundant in ripening fruit and is proposed to contribute to cell wall disassembly by nonhydrolytic activity, possibly by increasing substrate accessibility to other enzymes. Suppression of either LePG or LeExp1 expression alone results in altered softening and/or shelf life characteristics. To test whether simultaneous suppression of both LePG and LeExp1 expression influences fruit texture in additive or synergistic ways, transgenic Lycopersicon esculentum var. Ailsa Craig lines with reduced expression of either LePG or LeExp1 were crossed. Fruits from the third generation of progeny, homozygous for both transgenic constructs, were analyzed for firmness and other quality traits during ripening on or off the vine. In field-grown transgenic tomato fruit, suppression of LeExp1 or LePG alone did not significantly increase fruit firmness. However, fruits suppressed for both LePG and LeExp1 expression were significantly firmer throughout ripening and were less susceptible to deterioration during long-term storage. Juice prepared from the transgenic tomato fruit with reduced LePG and LeExp1 expression was more viscous than juice prepared from control fruit. PMID:14640598

Powell, Ann L T; Kalamaki, Mary S; Kurien, Philip A; Gurrieri, Sergio; Bennett, Alan B

2003-12-01

191

Comparison of the phenolic composition of fruit juices by single step gradient HPLC analysis of multiple components versus multiple chromatographic runs optimised for individual families.  

PubMed

After minimal sample preparation, two different HPLC methodologies, one based on a single gradient reversed-phase HPLC step, the other on multiple HPLC runs each optimised for specific components, were used to investigate the composition of flavonoids and phenolic acids in apple and tomato juices. The principal components in apple juice were identified as chlorogenic acid, phloridzin, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid. Tomato juice was found to contain chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, naringenin and rutin. The quantitative estimates of the levels of these compounds, obtained with the two HPLC procedures, were very similar, demonstrating that either method can be used to analyse accurately the phenolic components of apple and tomato juices. Chlorogenic acid in tomato juice was the only component not fully resolved in the single run study and the multiple run analysis prior to enzyme treatment. The single run system of analysis is recommended for the initial investigation of plant phenolics and the multiple run approach for analyses where chromatographic resolution requires improvement. PMID:10798720

Bremner, P D; Blacklock, C J; Paganga, G; Mullen, W; Rice-Evans, C A; Crozier, A

2000-06-01

192

21 CFR 146.135 - Orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice. 146.135 Section 146.135 Food and...Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.135 Orange juice. (a) Orange juice is the unfermented juice obtained from...

2010-04-01

193

Hybrid Model Based on Genetic Algorithms and SVM Applied to Variable Selection within Fruit Juice Classification  

PubMed Central

Given the background of the use of Neural Networks in problems of apple juice classification, this paper aim at implementing a newly developed method in the field of machine learning: the Support Vector Machines (SVM). Therefore, a hybrid model that combines genetic algorithms and support vector machines is suggested in such a way that, when using SVM as a fitness function of the Genetic Algorithm (GA), the most representative variables for a specific classification problem can be selected. PMID:24453933

Fernandez-Lozano, C.; Canto, C.; Gestal, M.; Andrade-Garda, J. M.; Rabuñal, J. R.; Dorado, J.; Pazos, A.

2013-01-01

194

Influence of rutin and ascorbic acid in colour, plum anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity stability in model juices.  

PubMed

Model juices at pH 3.7 were prepared with different combinations of ascorbic acid, rutin (quercetin 3-rutinoside) and concentrated anthocyanin extract of plums (cv. Black Gold). The anthocyanins in the concentrated extract were cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside, in a proportion of 76% and 24% respectively. The model juices were stored during 17 weeks in darkness at 20 °C. The colour stability was improved by the presence of rutin and strongly damaged by the ascorbic acid. The fortification of anthocyanin model juices with ascorbic acid originated the degradation of most of anthocyanins. However, anthocyanins improved ascorbic acid stability during storage. The copigmentation of anthocyanin and rutin showed a beneficial effect on colour stability from the 5 weeks of storage. In model juices prepared exclusively with purified plum extract a high correlation (R(2)=0.881) between anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity was found. PMID:25466051

Hernández-Herrero, J A; Frutos, M J

2015-04-15

195

Destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by vanillic acid in unpasteurized juice from six apple cultivars.  

PubMed

The behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Granny Smith, Gala, Empire, McIntosh, Red Delicious, and Golden Delicious apple juice with or without supplementation with 5 or 10 mM vanillic acid was examined over a storage period of 7 days at 4 and 15 degrees C. The consequences of supplementation on sensory difference and preference were also determined by triangle testing. Juices made from the six apple cultivars had pH values ranging between pH 3.13 and 3.92. Vanillic acid exerted a concentration, pH, and time-dependent lethal effect toward E. coli O157:H7 in unpasteurized apple juice. Supplementation with 10 mM vanillic acid led to a 5-logarithm reduction in populations after 7 days at both temperatures, but sensory analysis revealed significant differences from and preference for unsupplemented juices. Supplementation with 5 mM vanillic acid accelerated death of E. coli O157:H7, but population reductions ranged from 5 log CFU/ml in low pH juices to none in high pH juices, particularly at 4 degrees C. No sensory difference or preference was detected in two of the six juices at this level of supplementation. PMID:16541683

Moon, Kwan Deog; Delaquis, Pascal; Toivonen, Peter; Bach, Susan; Stanich, Kareen; Harris, Leanne

2006-03-01

196

Flavonoids and phenolic acids from cranberry juice are bioavailable and bioactive in healthy older adults.  

PubMed

Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) are a rich source of phenolic phytochemicals, which likely contribute to their putative health benefits. A single-dose pharmacokinetic trial was conducted in 10 healthy adults ?50y to evaluate the acute (24-h) absorption and excretion of flavonoids, phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins (PACs) from a low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail (54% juice). Inter-individual variability was observed in the Cmax and Tmax of many of these compounds in both plasma and urine. The sum total concentration of phenolics detected in plasma reached a peak of 34.2?g/ml between 8 and 10h, while in urine this peak was 269.8?g/mg creatinine, and appeared 2-4h earlier. The presence of PAC-A2 dimers in human urine has not previously been reported. After cranberry juice consumption, plasma total antioxidant capacity assessed using ORAC and TAP assays correlated with individual metabolites. Our results show phenolic compounds in cranberry juice are bioavailable and exert antioxidant actions in healthy older adults. PMID:25172705

McKay, Diane L; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Zampariello, Carly A; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

2015-02-01

197

Regulation of ascorbic acid metabolism by blue LED light irradiation in citrus juice sacs.  

PubMed

In the present study, the effects of red and blue LED lights on the accumulation of ascorbic acid (AsA) were investigated in the juice sacs of three citrus varieties, Satsuma mandarin, Valencia orange, and Lisbon lemon. The results showed that the blue LED light treatment effectively increased the AsA content in the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties, whereas the red LED light treatment did not. By increasing the blue LED light intensity, the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties accumulated more AsA. Moreover, continuous irradiation with blue LED light was more effective than pulsed irradiation for increasing the AsA content in the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties. Gene expression results showed that the modulation of AsA accumulation by blue LED light was highly regulated at the transcription level. The up-regulation of AsA biosynthetic genes (CitVTC1, CitVTC2, CitVTC4, and CitGLDH), AsA regeneration genes (CitMDAR1, CitMDAR2, and CitDHAR) and two GSH-producing genes (CitGR and CitchGR) contributed to these increases in the AsA content in the three citrus varieties. PMID:25711821

Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Kato, Masaya

2015-04-01

198

Antimicrobial Activity of Some Essential Oils Against Microorganisms Deteriorating Fruit Juices  

PubMed Central

Seventeen microbial species including 10 fungal taxa, two yeasts and five bacteria, were isolated from freshly prepared orange, guava and banana juices kept in open bottles at room temperature for 7 days. Eight different essential oils, from local herbs, were tested for their antimicrobial activity against these test organisms. The essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum and Origanum majorana were found to be highly effective against these microorganisms. Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the most prevalent microorganisms in juice, showed the highest resistance against these essential oils. GC-MS analysis showed that while e-citral, a'-myrcene, and z-citral represent the major components (75.1%) of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus; bezynen,1-methyl-4-(2-propenyl), 1,8-cineole and trans-a'-bisabolene were the main components (90.6%) of Ocimum basilicum; whereas 3-cyclohexen-1-01,4-methyl-1(1-methylethyl)-(CAS), c-terpinene and trans-caryophyllene represent the major components (65.1%) of Origanum majorana. These three essential oils were introduced into juices by two techniques namely, fumigation and direct contact. The former technique showed more fungicidal effect than the latter one against A. flavus, A. niger, and S. cerevisiae. The essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus by comparison to other test oils showed the strongest effect against these fungi with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1.5 µl/ml medium and a sublethal concentration of 1.0 µl/ml. The antimicrobial activity of this oil is thermostable at 121? for 30 min. PMID:24039503

Sarhan, M. M.; Abu Shahla, A. N. K.; Abou El-Khair, E. K.

2006-01-01

199

Pasteurization of fruit juices by means of a pulsed high pressure process.  

PubMed

The use of pulsed high hydrostatic pressure was investigated as a possible approach to stabilize foodstuffs. The objective of this article was to investigate the effect of the main processing variables (pressure [150 to 300 MPa], temperature levels [25 to 50 degrees C], and pulse number [1 to 10]) on the sanitation of nonpasteurized clear Annurca apple juice as well as freshly-squeezed clear orange juice. The aim of the article was the optimization of the process parameters in step-wise pressure treatment (pressure holding time of each pulse: 60 s, compression rate: 10.5 MPa/s, decompression time: 2 to 5s). The shelf life of the samples, processed at optimized conditions, was evaluated in terms of microbiological stability and quality retention. According to our experimental results, the efficiency of pulsed high pressure processes depends on the combination of pulse holding time and number of pulses. The pulsed high pressure cycles have no additive or synergetic effect on microbial count. The efficacy of the single pulses decreases with the increase of the pulse number and pressure level. Therefore the first pulse cycle is more effective than the following ones. By coupling moderate heating to high pressure, the lethality of the process increases but thermal degradation of the products can be detected. The optimization of the process condition thus results in a compromise between the reduction of the pressure value, due to the synergetic temperature action, and the achievement of quality of the final production. The juices processed under optimal processing conditions show a minimum shelf life of 21 d at a storage temperature of 4 degrees C. PMID:20492291

Donsì, Giorgio; Ferrari, Giovanna; Maresca, Paola

2010-04-01

200

Fermentation of Agave tequilana juice by Kloeckera africana: influence of amino-acid supplementations.  

PubMed

This study aimed to improve the fermentation efficiency of Kloeckera africana K1, in tequila fermentations. We investigated organic and inorganic nitrogen source requirements in continuous K. africana fermentations fed with Agave tequilana juice. The addition of a mixture of 20 amino-acids greatly improved the fermentation efficiency of this yeast, increasing the consumption of reducing sugars and production of ethanol, compared with fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. The preference of K. africana for each of the 20 amino-acids was further determined in batch fermentations and we found that asparagine supplementation increased K. africana biomass production, reducing sugar consumption and ethanol production (by 30, 36.7 and 45%, respectively) over fermentations supplemented with ammonium sulfate. Therefore, asparagine appears to overcome K. africana nutritional limitation in Agave juice. Surprisingly, K. africana produced a high concentration of ethanol. This contrasts to poor ethanol productivities reported for other non-Saccharomyces yeasts indicating a relatively high ethanol tolerance for the K. africana K1 strain. Kloeckera spp. strains are known to synthesize a wide variety of volatile compounds and we have shown that amino-acid supplements influenced the synthesis by K. africana of important metabolites involved in the bouquet of tequila. The findings of this study have revealed important nutritional limitations of non-Saccharomyces yeasts fermenting Agave tequilana juice, and have highlighted the potential of K. africana in tequila production processes. PMID:21761236

Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Hernández-Cortés, Guillermo; Córdova, Jesús; Estarrón-Espinosa, Mirna; Díaz-Montaño, Dulce María

2012-02-01

201

Quantitative analysis of bayberry juice acidity based on visible and near-infrared spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Visible and near-infrared (Vis/NIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been investigated for its ability to nondestructively detect acidity in bayberry juice. What we believe to be a new, better mathematic model is put forward, which we have named principal component analysis-stepwise regression analysis-backpropagation neural network (PCA-SRA-BPNN), to build a correlation between the spectral reflectivity data and the acidity of bayberry juice. In this model, the optimum network parameters,such as the number of input nodes, hidden nodes, learning rate, and momentum, are chosen by the value of root-mean-square (rms) error. The results show that its prediction statistical parameters are correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9451 and root-mean-square error of prediction(RMSEP) of 0.1168. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression is also established to compare with this model. Before doing this, the influences of various spectral pretreatments (standard normal variate, multiplicative scatter correction, S. Golay first derivative, and wavelet package transform) are compared. The PLS approach with wavelet package transform preprocessing spectra is found to provide the best results, and its prediction statistical parameters are correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9061 and RMSEP of 0.1564. Hence, these two models are both desirable to analyze the data from Vis/NIR spectroscopy and to solve the problem of the acidity prediction of bayberry juice. This supplies basal research to ultimately realize the online measurements of the juice's internal quality through this Vis/NIR spectroscopy technique.

Shao Yongni; He Yong; Mao Jingyuan

2007-09-01

202

Capillary electrophoretic separation of sugars in fruit juices using on-line mid infrared Fourier transform detection.  

PubMed

Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy has been coupled to on-line capillary electrophoresis (CE) for the separation and detection of natural sugars in orange fruit juices. The CE separation electrolyte comprised 50 mM sodium carbonate buffer adjusted to pH 12.3 with NaOH. Galactose was selected as an internal standard. To ensure tight connections between the custom-made IR-transparent flow cell (optical path length was 15 [micro sign]m) and the fused silica capillaries, commercially available O-rings were used. The scanner of the spectrometer was operated at a HeNe laser modulation frequency of 320 kHz, recording interferograms in a double-sided, forward-backward mode with 8 cm(-1) spectral resolution. For each spectrum 64 interferograms (512 for the background) were co-added and a Blackman-Harris 3-term apodization function was performed. A low-pass filter at 1828 cm(-1) was inserted in the IR beam to increase the light throughput in the spectral region of interest (1800 cm(-1)-900 cm(-1)). Using these features a new spectrum could be obtained every two seconds. Sucrose, glucose and fructose were structurally identified and quantified in orange juice samples. The limits of detection (3S/N) for all analytes were in the low millimolar range (0.7-1.9 mM) or, in absolute amounts, the low nanogram range (1.5-3.2 ng). The resolution ranged between 1.14 to 3.15 and the RSD of the proposed method was 1.8-4.4%. PMID:15852150

Kolhed, Malin; Karlberg, Bo

2005-05-01

203

Synergistic combinations of high hydrostatic pressure and essential oils or their constituents and their use in preservation of fruit juices.  

PubMed

This work addresses the inactivation achieved with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e by combined processes of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and essential oils (EOs) or their chemical constituents (CCs). HHP treatments (175-400 MPa for 20 min) were combined with 200 ?L/L of each EO (Citrus sinensis L., Citrus lemon L., Citrus reticulata L., Thymus algeriensis L., Eucalyptus globulus L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Mentha pulegium L., Juniperus phoenicea L., and Cyperus longus L.) or each CC ((+)-limonene, ?-pinene, ?-pinene, p-cymene, thymol, carvacrol, borneol, linalool, terpinen-4-ol, 1,8-cineole, ?-terpinyl acetate, camphor, and (+)-pulegone) in buffer of pH 4.0 or 7.0. The tested combinations achieved different degrees of inactivation, the most effective being (+)-limonene, carvacrol, C. reticulata L. EO, T. algeriensis L. EO and C. sinensis L. EO which were capable of inactivating about 4-5 log(10) cycles of the initial cell populations in combination with HHP, and therefore showed outstanding synergistic effects. (+)-Limonene was also capable of inactivating 5 log(10) cycles of the initial E. coli O157:H7 population in combination with HHP (300 MPa for 20 min) in orange and apple juices, and a direct relationship was established between the inactivation degree caused by the combined process with (+)-limonene and the occurrence of sublethal injury after the HHP treatment. This work shows the potential of EOs and CCs in the inactivation of foodborne pathogens in combined treatments with HHP, and proposes their possible use in liquid food such as fruit juices. PMID:23246609

Espina, Laura; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Laglaoui, Amin; Mackey, Bernard M; Pagán, Rafael

2013-01-15

204

Chemical composition and nutritional value of protein concentrates isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) fruit juice by precipitation with ethanol or ferric chloride.  

PubMed

Effects of protein precipitators, ethanol and ferric chloride, on yield, resolubility, chemical composition and nutritional value of protein concentrates isolated from industrial potato fruit juice (PFJ) were studied. Optimum precipitating concentrations of ethanol and ferric chloride in PFJ were 4 M (23.1% v/v) and 20 mM (2% w/v), resulting in yield of 69% and 86.5% of total protein, respectively. Contents of total glycoalkaloids and potassium in both protein concentrates were significantly lower (P < 0.05) as compared with contents in PFJ dry matter. Both protein concentrates exhibited high nutritional value; values of essential amino acid index (EAAI) were 81.7% and 82.7%, respectively. Fraction of patatin proteins (39-43 kDa) represented with EAAI value of 86.1% the nutritionally improving protein component. Lipid acyl hydrolase activity of patatin family was not negatively affected by cooled ethanol precipitation. It can be thus suggested that biological and enzymatic activities of this protein family are utilizable after this type of precipitation. PMID:19739640

Bártová, Veronika; Bárta, Jan

2009-10-14

205

Effect of simulated processing on the antioxidant capacity and in vitro protein digestion of fruit juice-milk beverage model systems.  

PubMed

The effects of simulated processing (pH adjustment and thermal treatment) on the antioxidant capacity and in vitro protein digestion of fruit juice-milk beverage (FJMB) models consisting of whey protein (WP), and chlorogenic acid (CHA) or catechin (CAT) were investigated. Results indicated that CAT was more susceptible to processing than CHA, and showed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in ABTS and FRAP after sterilization (121°C/10 min) and pH adjustment to 6.8. WP addition had different effects (none, masking, synergetic effect) on the antioxidant activity of FJMB. Pasteurization (63°C/30 min) and pH adjustment (pH 3.7 or pH 6.8) had either non-significant or slight effects on FJMB's antioxidant capacity, while sterilization significantly (p<0.05) increased or decreased its ABTS and FRAP depending on the different models. In vitro digestion of WP in FJMB was obviously (p < 0.05) inhibited by phenolics to varying degrees, and little influenced (p>0.05) by pasteurization, whereas sterilization initially accelerated WP digestion but did not change its overall digestibility. PMID:25577106

He, Zhiyong; Yuan, Bo; Zeng, Maomao; Tao, Guanjun; Chen, Jie

2015-05-15

206

Pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) fruit juice and two major constituents thereof exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in human gingival and oral gum epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Pitanga, Eugenia uniflora L., is a tropical fruit, which may be consumed as juice. While beneficial health effects of Eugenia uniflora L. leaf extracts have extensively been studied, limited data are available on an anti-inflammatory potential of pitanga juice. The aim of the presented study was to investigate anti-inflammatory properties of pitanga juice with regards to a prevention of inflammation-related periodontal diseases. For this purpose, six healthy volunteers swirled pitanga juice, containing 35% pitanga pulp, for 10 min. Thereafter, oral gum epithelial cells were harvested using a sterile brush and stimulated with lipopolysaccharides from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG-LPS) for 6 h. Furthermore, human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) were used to elucidate the anti-inflammatory potential of pitanga juice constituents, cyanidin-3-glucoside and oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one, in juice representative concentrations of 119 ?g ml(-1) and 30 ?g ml(-1), respectively. For the first time, an anti-inflammatory impact of pitanga juice on gingival epithelial cells was shown by means of an attenuation of IL-8 release by 55 ± 8.2% and 52 ± 11% in non-stimulated and PG-LPS-stimulated cells, respectively. In addition, both cyanidin-3-glucoside and oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one reduced the LPS-stimulated CXCL8 mRNA expression by 50 ± 15% and 37 ± 18% and IL-8 release by 52 ± 9.9% and 45 ± 3.7% in HGF-1 cells, when concomitantly incubated with 10 ?g ml(-1)PG-LPS for 6 h, revealing an anti-inflammatory potential of the volatile compound oxidoselina-1,3,7(11)-trien-8-one for the first time. PMID:25228206

Josino Soares, Denise; Walker, Jessica; Pignitter, Marc; Walker, Joel Michael; Imboeck, Julia Maria; Ehrnhoefer-Ressler, Miriam Margit; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella; Somoza, Veronika

2014-11-01

207

Treatment of fruit-juice industry wastewater in a two-stage anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor system followed by a sequencing batch reactor (SBR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has been carried out to assess the performance of a combined system consisting of an anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor followed by a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for treatment of fruit-juice industry wastewater at a temperature of 26 °C. Three experimental runs were conducted in this investigation. In the first experiment, a single-stage AH reactor was operated at a hydraulic

A. Tawfik; H. El-Kamah

2012-01-01

208

Treatment of fruit-juice industry wastewater in a two-stage anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor system followed by a sequencing batch reactor (SBR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has been carried out to assess the performance of a combined system consisting of an anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor followed by a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for treatment of fruit-juice industry wastewater at a temperature of 26 °C. Three experimental runs were conducted in this investigation. In the first experiment, a single-stage AH reactor was operated at a hydraulic

A. Tawfik; H. El-Kamah

2011-01-01

209

EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN ON FRUIT CROPS  

EPA Science Inventory

Because of climatic restrictions, fruit production is concentrated in a relatively few states in the U.S. Among the factors presenting increasing challenges to fruit growers is air pollution. In contrast to herbaceous annual agricultural crops, woody perennial fruit plants are su...

210

High hydrostatic pressure processing of fruit juices and smoothies: research and commercial application  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several world-wide health organizations such as WHO and FAO have pointed out the importance of increasing the intake of fruits and vegetables in the diet because they can provide essential bioactive compounds as well as health beneficial phytochemicals. Consumers are also increasingly more conscious...

211

Fumaric acid in apple juice: a potential indicator of microbial spoilage of apples used as raw material.  

PubMed

The effects of heat treatment (evaporation and excessive heating), and microbial contamination (Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium expansum and Lactobacillus plantarum) as sources of fumaric acid formation in apple juice concentrates were investigated. Fumaric acid formed in apple juice did not exceed 1.0 mg l(-1) during both commercial-scale evaporation and laboratory-scale excessive heat treatment, indicating that malic dehydration is not the primary source of fumaric acid formation. However, R. stolonifer and L. plantarum produced 18.23 +/- 0.82 and 5.39 +/- 0.31 mg l(-1) fumaric acid as determined in the raw juice obtained from contaminated apples after 5 days of incubation. The mean fumaric acid content of apple juice concentrates manufactured in 2000, 2001 and 2002 were determined as 4.9 +/- 1.9, 5.7 +/- 2.8 and 4.1 +/- 2.6 mg l(-1), respectively. The overall results suggest that the primary source of fumaric acid in apple juice concentrate is the use of apples decayed by certain microorganisms capable of producing fumaric acid. PMID:15370835

Gökmen, V; Acar, J

2004-07-01

212

The Use of PCA, FA, CA for the Evaluation of Vegetable Juices Processed by Lactic Acid Fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

KAROVI?OVÁ J., KOHAJDOVÁ Z. (2002): The use of PCA, FA, CA for the evaluation of vegetable juices processed by lactic acid fermentation. Czech J. Food Sci., 20: 135-143. The cabbage-carrot juices were inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum 92H at the concentration of 8 × 10 6 CFU\\/ml and fermented in a thermostat at 24°C for 150 hours. During the fermentation, both

ZLATICA KOHAJDOVÁ

213

High fat meal increase of IL-17 is prevented by ingestion of fruit juice drink in healthy overweight subjects.  

PubMed

An emerging role of IL-17 in the inflammatory response associated with pathogenesis of neurodegeneration has been recently suggested. However, though diet represents a key factor in the modulation of inflammatory processes, evidence is not currently available on the nutritional regulation of IL-17 in humans. In a double blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study, we investigated the effect of High Fat Meal (HFM) on IL-17 circulating levels in presence of a placebo (HFM-P) or with a Fruit Juice Drink (HFM-FJD) composed of pineapple, blackcurrant and plum in fourteen healthy overweight humans. Fasting in the morning subjects ingested a test meal providing 1344 Kcal. Ingestion of HFM-P induced an inflammatory response mediated by TNF-? (p < 0.001), IL-6 (p < 0.001) and IL-17 (p < 0.01). Plasma IL-17 concentration significantly increased at 1 h (+2.6 ± 1.1 pg/ml), remaining high at 4 h (+2.98 ± 1.2 pg/ml), 6 h (+2.38 ± 0.6 pg/ml) and 8 h (+2.8 ± 0.9 pg/ml) (ANOVA for time-course p=0.009). When the HFM was consumed in the presence of the FJD a marked inhibition of IL-17 response to the HFM was observed (ANOVA between treatment p=0.037). We provided, for the first time, evidence on the role of diet in modulating IL-17 production in healthy overweight subjects. PMID:22211683

Peluso, Ilaria; Raguzzini, Anna; Villano, Debora V; Cesqui, Eleonora; Toti, Elisabetta; Catasta, Giovina; Serafini, Mauro

2012-01-01

214

Unpasteurized juice may pose danger.  

PubMed

People with HIV or immune system deficiencies should avoid drinking unpasteurized fruit juices and cider that may contain harmful bacteria that can make them sick. These products, however, may not be labeled with a statement warning that they have not been pasteurized. Frozen concentrates, shelf-stable juice in hermetically-sealed containers, and canned juices are safe to drink. PMID:11364868

1998-01-01

215

Diffusion Properties of Garcinia Fruit Acids (Garcinia atroviridis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffusion properties of garcinia fruit acids (Garcinia atroviridis) were investigated in a batch reactor. The influences of two variables were studied: material thickness and extraction temperature. Stirring was continuous to assure turbulent flow inside the vessel. Garcinia fruits were sliced into infinite slabs of two different thicknesses, 2.5 and 4.0 mm. Each group of a given thickness was then

Chairat SIRIPATANA

2007-01-01

216

Multivariate optimization by exploratory analysis applied to the determination of microelements in fruit juice by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for the direct determination (without sample pre-digestion) of microelements in fruit juice by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry has been developed. The method has been optimized by a 2 3 factorial design, which evaluated the plasma conditions (nebulization gas flow rate, applied power, and sample flow rate). A 1:1 diluted juice sample with 2% HNO 3 (Tetra Packed, peach flavor) and spiked with 0.5 mg L - 1 of Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn was employed in the optimization. The results of the factorial design were evaluated by exploratory analysis (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, HCA, and Principal Component Analysis, PCA) to determine the optimum analytical conditions for all elements. Central point condition differentiation (0.75 L min - 1 , 1.3 kW, and 1.25 mL min - 1 ) was observed for both methods, Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, with higher analytical signal values, suggesting that these are the optimal analytical conditions. F and t-student tests were used to compare the slopes of the calibration curves for aqueous and matrix-matched standards. No significant differences were observed at 95% confidence level. The correlation coefficient was higher than 0.99 for all the elements evaluated. The limits of quantification were: Al 253, Cu 3.6, Fe 84, Mn 0.4, Zn 71, Ni 67, Cd 69, Pb 129, Sn 206, Cr 79, Co 24, and Ba 2.1 µg L - 1 . The spiking experiments with fruit juice samples resulted in recoveries between 80 and 120%, except for Co and Sn. Al, Cd, Pb, Sn and Cr could not be quantified in any of the samples investigated. The method was applied to the determination of several elements in fruit juice samples commercialized in Brazil.

Froes, Roberta Eliane Santos; Neto, Waldomiro Borges; Silva, Nilton Oliveira Couto e.; Naveira, Rita Lopes Pereira; Nascentes, Clésia Cristina; da Silva, José Bento Borba

2009-06-01

217

Detection of adulteration in blackberry juice concentrates and wines.  

PubMed

Adulteration of blackberry juice concentrates and wines with juice of sorbitol-containing fruits was detected by determining carbohydrates by high performance liquid chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography, and thin layer chromatography. Sorbitol is not fermented by yeast and can be detected in wines made from blackberry juice concentrates that contain sorbitol. High levels of sorbitol and quinic and malic acids suggest that an imported blackberry concentrate may have been adulterated with plum. Degradation of anthocyanin pigments during processing and storage limits the utility of pigment analyses in detecting adulteration. PMID:7174584

Wrolstad, R E; Culbertson, J D; Cornwell, C J; Mattick, L R

1982-11-01

218

In Vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities of an antioxidant-rich fruit and berry juice blend. Results of a pilot and randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of a juice blend (JB), MonaVie Active, containing a mixture of fruits and berries with known antioxidant activity, including acai, a palm fruit, as the predominant ingredient. The phytochemical antioxidants...

219

Pulsed electric field processing of different fruit juices: impact of pH and temperature on inactivation of spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms.  

PubMed

Pulsed electrical field (PEF) technology can be used for the inactivation of micro-organisms and therefore for preservation of food products. It is a mild technology compared to thermal pasteurization because a lower temperature is used during processing, leading to a better retention of the quality. In this study, pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms relevant in refrigerated fruit juices were studied to determine the impact of process parameters and juice composition on the effectiveness of the PEF process to inactivate the micro-organisms. Experiments were performed using a continuous-flow PEF system at an electrical field strength of 20 kV/cm with variable frequencies to evaluate the inactivation of Salmonella Panama, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in apple, orange and watermelon juices. Kinetic data showed that under the same conditions, S. cerevisiae was the most sensitive micro-organism, followed by S. Panama and E. coli, which displayed comparable inactivation kinetics. L. monocytogenes was the most resistant micro-organism towards the treatment conditions tested. A synergistic effect between temperature and electric pulses was observed at inlet temperatures above 35 °C, hence less energy for inactivation was required at higher temperatures. Different juice matrices resulted in a different degree of inactivation, predominantly determined by pH. The survival curves were nonlinear and could satisfactorily be modeled with the Weibull model. PMID:24418831

Timmermans, R A H; Nierop Groot, M N; Nederhoff, A L; van Boekel, M A J S; Matser, A M; Mastwijk, H C

2014-03-01

220

Synergistic antimicrobial activity of caprylic acid in combination with citric acid against both Escherichia coli O157:H7 and indigenous microflora in carrot juice.  

PubMed

The identification of novel, effective, and non-thermal decontamination methods is imperative for the preservation of unpasteurized and fresh vegetable juices. The aim of this study was to examine the bactericidal effects of caprylic acid + citric acid against the virulent pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 and the endogenous microflora in unpasteurized fresh carrot juice. Carrot juice was treated with either caprylic acid, citric acid, or a combination of caprylic acid + citric acid at mild heating temperature (45 °C or 50 °C). The color of the treated carrot juice as well as microbial survival was examined over time. Combined treatment was more effective than individual treatment in terms of both color and microbial survival. Caprylic acid + citric acid treatment (each at 5.0 mM) at 50 °C for 5 min resulted in 7.46 and 3.07 log CFU/ml reductions in the E. coli O157:H7 and endogenous microflora populations, respectively. By contrast, there was no apparent reduction in either population following individual treatment. A validation assay using a low-density E. coli O157:H7 inoculum (3.31 log CFU/ml) showed that combined treatment with caprylic acid (5.0 mM) + citric acid (2.5 mM) at 50 °C for >5 min or with caprylic acid + citric acid (both at 5.0 mM) at either 45 °C or 50 °C for >5 min completely destroyed the bacteria. Combined treatment also increased the redness of the juice, which is a perceived indication of quality. Taken together, these results indicate that combined treatment with low concentrations of caprylic acid and citric acid, which are of biotic origin, can eliminate microorganisms from unpasteurized carrot juice. PMID:25846927

Kim, S A; Rhee, M S

2015-08-01

221

Detection of Non-volatile Acids in Sweet Cherry Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten sweet cherry cultivars were analysed for their content of acids. The acids were precipitated as lead salts, and measured as trimethylsilylderivatives (TMS), applying gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS). The results confirmed that malic acid is dominating in sweet cherry fruits, comprising 70–85% of total acidity, and also the presence of quinic, citric, chlorogenic and phosphoric acids.

Håkon Oen; Sigbjørn Vestrheim

1985-01-01

222

Exploitation of vegetables and fruits through lactic acid fermentation.  

PubMed

Lactic acid fermentation represents the easiest and the most suitable way for increasing the daily consumption of fresh-like vegetables and fruits. Literature data are accumulating, and this review aims at describing the main features of the lactic acid bacteria to be used for fermentation. Lactic acid bacteria are a small part of the autochthonous microbiota of vegetables and fruits. The diversity of the microbiota markedly depends on the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the plant matrix. Notwithstanding the reliable value of the spontaneous fermentation to stabilize and preserve raw vegetables and fruits, a number of factors are in favour of using selected starters. Two main options may be pursued for the controlled lactic acid fermentation of vegetables and fruits: the use of commercial/allochthonous and the use of autochthonous starters. Several evidences were described in favour of the use of selected autochthonous starters, which are tailored for the specific plant matrix. Pro-technological, sensory and nutritional criteria for selecting starters were reported as well as several functional properties, which were recently ascribed to autochthonous lactic acid bacteria. The main features of the protocols used for the manufacture of traditional, emerging and innovative fermented vegetables and fruits were reviewed. Tailored lactic acid bacteria starters completely exploit the potential of vegetables and fruits, which enhances the hygiene, sensory, nutritional and shelf life properties. PMID:23122495

Di Cagno, Raffaella; Coda, Rossana; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

2013-02-01

223

Amino acid sources in the adult diet do not affect life span and fecundity in the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana  

PubMed Central

1. In tropical forests, the adults of many butterfly species feed on fruits rather than nectar from flowers and have long life spans. Rotting fruit and nectar differ from each other in many respects, including sources of amino acids and microbial life. If amino acids in the adult diet can be used for reproduction, this may have facilitated the evolution of extended life spans in this guild. 2. This issue was addressed by investigating effects of banana, yeast, and amino acids in the adult diet of the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera) on longevity and female reproductive output in two experiments. 3. Results showed that in the fruit-feeding butterfly B. anynana: (i) banana juice, but not sliced banana or added amino acids extend life span compared with a sugar solution of similar composition; (ii) compared with this sugar solution, other cohorts (banana juice-amino acid enriched) did not have significantly higher reproductive outputs; (iii) yeast does not represent a valuable source of nutrients; (iv) caloric restriction may cause decreased life span and rate of reproduction; and (v) increased rates of reproduction have a life span cost. PMID:19081752

Molleman, Freerk; Ding, Jimin; Wang, Jane-Ling; Brakefield, Paul M.; Carey, James R.; Zwaan, Bas J.

2008-01-01

224

Stability of patulin in a juice-like aqueous model system in the presence of ascorbic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the stability of patulin in an aqueous juice-like model system was investigated. At acidic pH, the presence of ascorbic acid reduced the stability of patulin. After 34 days, patulin was reduced to 30% of its initial concentration in the presence of ascorbic acid compared to 68–71% in samples without ascorbic acid. Conditions during storage (presence of

S. Drusch; S. Kopka; J. Kaeding

2007-01-01

225

Joint effect of nitrogen sources and B vitamin supplementation of date juice on lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of date juice as a substrate for lactic acid production was investigated. Various nitrogen sources were compared with yeast extract for efficient lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus. Among different nitrogen sources added to date juice (yeast extract, ammonium sulfate, tryptic soy, urea, peptone, and casein hydrolysate), yeast extract was the most efficient. The effect of

Aicha Nancib; Nabil Nancib; Djalal Meziane-Cherif; Abdelhafid Boubendir; Michel Fick; Joseph Boudrant

2005-01-01

226

Treatment of fruit-juice industry wastewater in a two-stage anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor system followed by a sequencing batch reactor (SBR).  

PubMed

This study has been carried out to assess the performance of a combined system consisting of an anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor followed by a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for treatment of fruit-juice industry wastewater at a temperature of 26 degrees C. Three experimental runs were conducted in this investigation. In the first experiment, a single-stage AH reactor was operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10.2 h and organic loading rate (OLR) of 11.8 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). The reactor achieved a removal efficiency of 42% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 50.8% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), 50.3% for volatile fatty acids (VFA) and 56.4% for total suspended solids (TSS). In the second experiment, two AH reactors connected in series achieved a higher removal efficiency for COD (67.4%), BOD5 (77%), and TSS (71.5%) at a total HRT of 20 h and an OLR of 5.9 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). For removal of the remaining portions of COD, BOD5 and TSS from the effluent of the two-stage AH system, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated as a post-treatment unit. The reactor achieved a substantial reduction in total COD, resulting in an average effluent concentration of 50 mg L(-1) at an HRT of 11 h and OLR of 5.3 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). Almost complete removal of total BOD5 and oil and grease was achieved, i.e. 10 mg L(-1) and 1.2 mg L(-1), respectively, remained in the final effluent of the SBR. PMID:22629614

Tawfik, A; El-Kamah, H

2012-01-01

227

Adjunctive daily supplementation with encapsulated fruit, vegetable and berry juice powder concentrates and clinical periodontal outcomes: a double-blind RCT  

PubMed Central

Aim A double-blind randomized controlled trial to determine whether dietary supplementation with fruit/vegetable/berry juice powder concentrates, simultaneously with non-surgical periodontal therapy, improved 2-month treatment outcomes. Methods Volunteers with chronic periodontitis were randomly assigned to one of three groups: fruit/vegetable (FV), fruit/vegetable/berry (FVB) or placebo. Supplements were taken daily during non-surgical debridement and maintenance and outcomes assessed at 2, 5 and 8 months after completion. Primary outcomes were mean probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment gain, % sites bleeding on probing (% BOP) at 2 months. Adherence and plasma ?-carotene were determined. Results Sixty-one nutritionally replete (by serum biochemistry) volunteers enrolled and 60 (n = 20 per arm) completed the 2-month review. Clinical outcomes improved in all groups at 2 months, with additional improvement in PPD versus placebo for FV (p < 0.03). Gingival crevicular fluid volumes diminished more in supplement groups than placebo (FVB; p < 0.05) at 2 months, but not at later times. The % BOP (5 months) and cumulative plaque scores (8 months) were lowered more in the FV group (p < 0.05). Conclusions Adjunctive juice powder concentrates appear to improve initial pocket depth reductions in nutritionally replete patients, where plasma micronutrient bioavailability is attainable. Definitive multicentre studies in untreated and treated patients are required to ascertain the clinical significance of such changes. PMID:22093005

Chapple, Iain L C; Milward, Michael R; Ling-Mountford, Nicola; Weston, Paul; Carter, Kevin; Askey, Keeley; Dallal, Gerard E; De Spirt, Silke; Sies, Helmut; Patel, Dina; Matthews, John B

2012-01-01

228

21 CFR 146.141 - Canned orange juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned orange juice. 146.141 Section 146.141 Food...Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.141 Canned orange juice. (a) Canned orange juice is the food prepared from orange juice...

2010-04-01

229

Determination of ten pyrethroids in various fruit juices: comparison of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction sample preparation and QuEChERS method combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.  

PubMed

Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) sample preparation and the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method combined with DLLME were developed and compared for the analysis of ten pyrethroids in various fruit juices using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). QuEChERS-DLLME method has found its widespread applications to all the fruit juices including those samples with more complex matrices (orange, lemon, kiwi and mango) while DLLME was confined to the fruit juices with simpler matrices (apple, pear, grape and peach). The two methods provided acceptable recoveries and repeatability. In addition, the applicabilities of two methods were demonstrated with the real samples and further confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PMID:24767068

Zhang, Yaohai; Zhang, Xuelian; Jiao, Bining

2014-09-15

230

Degradation kinetic modelling of ascorbic acid and colour intensity in pasteurised blood orange juice during storage.  

PubMed

The stability of ascorbic acid and colour intensity in pasteurised blood orange juice (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) during one month of storage was investigated at 4-37 °C. The effects of ascorbic acid fortification (at 100, 200 mg L(-1)) and deaeration, temperature/time storage on the kinetic behaviour were determined. Ascorbic acid was monitored by HPLC-DAD and colour intensity by spectrophotometric measurements. Degradation kinetics were best fitted by first-order reaction models for both ascorbic acid and colour intensity. Three models (Arrhenius, Eyring and Ball) were used to assess the temperature-dependent degradation. Following the Arrhenius model, activation energies were ranged from 51 to 135 kJ mol(-1) for ascorbic acid and from 49 to 99 kJ mol(-1) for colour intensity. The effect of storage temperature and deaeration are the most influent factors on kinetics degradation, while the fortification revealed no significant effect on ascorbic acid content and colour intensity. PMID:25466074

Remini, Hocine; Mertz, Christian; Belbahi, Amine; Achir, Nawel; Dornier, Manuel; Madani, Khodir

2015-04-15

231

Simultaneous analysis of thiabendazole, carbendazim and 2-aminobenzimidazole in concentrated fruit juices by liquid chromatography after a single mix-mode solid-phase extraction cleanup.  

PubMed

A method using liquid chromatography and a single mix-mode solid-phase extraction cleanup for the simultaneous analysis of thiabendazole [2-(1,3-thiazol-4-yl)-1H-benzoimidazole], carbendazim [(methyl N-(1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-carbamate)] and 2-aminobenzimidazole (1H-benzimidazol-2-amine) in concentrated fruit juices is described. The three fungicides were isolated from the samples and concentrated by solid-phase extraction on Oasis MCX cartridges. The determination was performed by liquid chromatography with a diode array, detecting at 288 nm. In this method, the average recoveries from blank control juice samples spiked in a concentration range of 0.01-0.10 mg/kg were in the range of 81-95%, with relative standard deviations below 8%. Detection limits and limits of quantification were 4 micro g/kg and 10 micro g/kg, respectively, for each fungicide. Real juice samples were analyzed by the proposed method. The results were compared to those from liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. PMID:20183067

Liu, Xiao S; Tong, Zhang F; Zhen, Ling; Huang, Da X; Gao, Xin; Xu, Chao Y

2009-08-01

232

Sensitive micellar electrokinetic chromatography-laser-induced fluorescence method to analyze chiral amino acids in orange juices.  

PubMed

In this work a new method to detect the existence of chiral amino acids in orange juice is presented. The method employs beta-cyclodextrins and micellar electrokinetic chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence (MEKC-LIF) to separate and detect L- and D-amino acids (L-aa and D-aa) previously derivatized with fluorescein isothiocianate (FITC). A systematic optimization of the chiral-MEKC conditions is done bringing about in less than 20 min a good separation of the main amino acids found in orange juice (i.e., Pro, Asp, Ser, Asn, Glu, Ala, Arg, and the nonchiral GABA, i.e., gamma-aminobutyric acid). Using this procedure, the analysis time reproducibility for the 15 standard compounds (L-aa, D-aa, and GABA) has been determined to be better than 0.2% (n = 5) for the same day and better than 0.7% (n = 15) for three different days. Corrected peak area reproducibility is somewhat lower, providing values better than 3.3% (n = 5) for the same day and 6.9% (n = 15) for three different days. The limit of detection using this procedure was determined to be 0.86 attomoles for L-Arg. The optimized FITC derivatization method allows the easy and straightforward detection of amino acids in orange concentrates and juices (i.e., only centrifugation of diluted samples for 5 min is needed prior to their derivatization). D-Ala, D-Asp, D-Arg, and D-Glu were determined in orange juices and orange concentrates from different geographical origins using this new method. Moreover, the effect of different temperature treatments (50, 92, and 150 degrees C) on the content of D-aa in orange juice was evaluated. PMID:12207463

Simó, Carolina; Barbas, Coral; Cifuentes, Alejandro

2002-09-11

233

Fermentative production of L(+)-lactic acid using hydrolyzed acorn starch, persimmon juice and wheat bran hydrolysate as nutrients.  

PubMed

The use of hydrolyzed acorn starch as a novel carbon source for L(+)-lactic acid production was proposed. The effects of carbon-nitrogen ratio and growth factor on the fermentations were studied by single factor experiments. A lower carbon-nitrogen ratio could enhance L(+)-lactic acid production, and the expensive yeast extract could be replaced by the cheap persimmon juice providing growth factor for L(+)-lactic acid production when wheat bran hydrolysate was used as the nitrogen source. The dosages of wheat bran hydrolysate and persimmon juice in the medium were statistically optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The yield of L(+)-lactic acid reached 45.78g/100g dry acorn with a final concentration of 57.61+/-1.37g/l and a productivity of 1.60+/-0.12g/lh when the batch fermentation was carried out in a 5l bioreactor under the optimal conditions of wheat bran hydrolysate 24.55g/l and persimmon juice 12.30g/l. Comparative batch fermentations using different raw materials such as acorn, cassava, corn and glucose showed that both the yield and the productivity of L(+)-lactic acid production were the highest when the hydrolyzed acorn starch was used as the carbon source. Therefore, the acorn could be used as a new substitute of grain raw material in L(+)-lactic acid production. PMID:20116239

Lu, Zhengdong; He, Feng; Shi, Yue; Lu, Mingbo; Yu, Longjiang

2010-05-01

234

Fruit Juice Slush Ingredients  

E-print Network

Nutrition Assistance Program ­ SNAP. The Supple- mental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides nutrition assistance to people with low income. It can help you buy nutritious foods for a better diet by the Expanded Food Nutrition Education Program, USDA, NIFA. VCEP-5NP2013 #12;

Liskiewicz, Maciej

235

In Vitro and in Vivo Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Capacities of an Antioxidant-Rich Fruit and Berry Juice Blend. Results of a Pilot and Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of a juice blend (JB), MonaVie Active, containing a mixture of fruits and berries with known antioxidant activity, including acai, a palm fruit, as the predominant ingredient. The phytochemical antioxidants in the JB are primarily in the form of anthocyanins, predominantly cyanidin 3-rutoside, cyanidin 3-diglycoside, and cyanidin

Gitte S. Jensen; Xianli Wu; Kelly M. Patterson; Janelle Barnes; Steve G. Carter; Larry Scherwitz; Robert Beaman; John R. Endres; Alexander G. Schauss

2008-01-01

236

Suppressive effects of fruit-juice concentrate of Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. (Japanese apricot, Ume) on Helicobacter pylori-induced glandular stomach lesions in Mongolian gerbils.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is an important factor in human gastric disorders, including chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcers, intestinal metaplasia and cancer. Since epidemiologic studies overwhelmingly agree on a protective influence of fruits and vegetables in reducing the risk of gastric neoplasia and processed foods made from Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. (Japanese apricot or "Ume" in Japanese) are traditionally known for their miscellaneous medical effects, in the present study we investigated the efficacy of a fruit-juice concentrate of Japanese apricot (CJA) in the glandular stomach of Hp-infected Mongolian gerbils. Hp-inoculated gerbils were given CJA in their drinking water at concentrations of 1 and 3% for 10 weeks. The microscopic scores for gastritis and mucosal hyperplasia in the CJA groups were significantly lower than in the Hp-inoculated control group, with dose-dependence. Real-time PCR was performed to quantitate Hp by demonstrating urease A gene amount using gerbils glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene as an internal control. Average relative urease A gene dosage in the glandular stomach in the 1 and 3% CJA and Hp-inoculated control groups was 26.6 +/- 11.6% (average +/- SE), 30.3 +/- 10.5%, 100 +/- 40.9%, respectively, the fruit-juice concentrate causing significant lowering (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively, with 1 and 3%). These findings suggest that suppressive effects on gastric cancer development might also be expected as a result of decreased numbers of Hp and improvement of Hp-induced chronic active gastritis on administration of CJA. PMID:16235996

Otsuka, Takafumi; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Harunari; Inada, Kenichi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Kumagai, Toshiko; Katsuyama, Tsutomu; Miki, Kazumasa; Tatematsu, Masae

2005-01-01

237

Evaluation of Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children: comparing reported fruit, juice and vegetable intakes with plasma carotenoid concentration and school lunch observations.  

PubMed

Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children (WebDASC) was developed to estimate dietary intake in a school meal intervention study among 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The present study validates self-reported fruit, juice and vegetable (FJV) intakes in 8- to 11-year-old children by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported their diet, the children's school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self-reported food and FJV consumption at school lunch was measured in terms of matches, intrusion, omission and faults, when compared with images and weights of lunch intake. Self-reported intake of FJV was significantly correlated with the total carotenoid concentration (0·58) (P< 0·01). Fruit and juice consumption showed higher correlations than vegetables with plasma carotenoid concentration (0·38 and 0·42 v. 0·33) (P< 0·01). A total of 82 % of the participants fell into the same or adjacent quartiles when cross-classified by FJV intake and carotenoids biomarkers. WebDASC attained 82 % reporting matches overall and a higher percentage match for reporting fruits compared with beverages. The present study indicated that WebDASC can be used to rank 8- to 11-year-old Danish children according to their intake of FJV overall and at school meals. PMID:23181984

Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Bysted, Anette; Trolle, Ellen; Christensen, Tue; Knuthsen, Pia; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Andersen, Lene F; Brockhoff, Per; Tetens, Inge

2013-07-14

238

Pain reduction and improvement in range of motion after daily consumption of an açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp-fortified polyphenolic-rich fruit and berry juice blend.  

PubMed

Dietary interventions involving antioxidants are of interest for reducing inflammation, improving joint motion, and altering pain perception. We evaluated the effect of oral consumption of a fruit and berry blend on pain and range of motion (ROM). This open-label clinical pilot study involved 14 study participants with limitations in ROM that was associated with pain and affected daily living. Participants included but were not limited to those with age-related osteoarthritis. Study participants consumed 120 mL MonaVie Active® fruit juice, predominantly containing açai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and other fruit concentrates, daily for 12 weeks. Study participants were assessed at baseline and 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks by structured nurse interviews, pain and activities of daily living (ADL) questionnaires, blood samples, and ROM assessment. Pain was scored by using a visual analogue scale. ROM was assessed by using dual digital inclinometry as recommended by American Medical Association guidelines. Consumption of the juice resulted in significant pain reduction, improved ROM measures, and improvement in ADLs. Serum antioxidant status, as monitored by the cell-based antioxidant protection in erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay, was improved within 2 weeks and continued to improve throughout the 12 weeks of study participation (P<.01). The inflammatory marker C-reactive protein was reduced at 12 weeks, but this change did not reach statistical significance. Lipid peroxidation decreased mildly at 12 weeks. The antioxidant status, as measured by the CAP-e bioassay, showed the best correlation with improvements in physical well-being (pain, ROM, and ADL). The significant association among increased antioxidant status, improved ROM, and pain reduction warrants further study. PMID:21470042

Jensen, Gitte S; Ager, David M; Redman, Kimberlee A; Mitzner, Marcie A; Benson, Kathleen F; Schauss, Alexander G

2011-01-01

239

Pain Reduction and Improvement in Range of Motion After Daily Consumption of an Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Pulp–Fortified Polyphenolic-Rich Fruit and Berry Juice Blend  

PubMed Central

Abstract Dietary interventions involving antioxidants are of interest for reducing inflammation, improving joint motion, and altering pain perception. We evaluated the effect of oral consumption of a fruit and berry blend on pain and range of motion (ROM). This open-label clinical pilot study involved 14 study participants with limitations in ROM that was associated with pain and affected daily living. Participants included but were not limited to those with age-related osteoarthritis. Study participants consumed 120?mL MonaVie Active® fruit juice, predominantly containing açai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and other fruit concentrates, daily for 12 weeks. Study participants were assessed at baseline and 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks by structured nurse interviews, pain and activities of daily living (ADL) questionnaires, blood samples, and ROM assessment. Pain was scored by using a visual analogue scale. ROM was assessed by using dual digital inclinometry as recommended by American Medical Association guidelines. Consumption of the juice resulted in significant pain reduction, improved ROM measures, and improvement in ADLs. Serum antioxidant status, as monitored by the cell-based antioxidant protection in erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay, was improved within 2 weeks and continued to improve throughout the 12 weeks of study participation (P<.01). The inflammatory marker C-reactive protein was reduced at 12 weeks, but this change did not reach statistical significance. Lipid peroxidation decreased mildly at 12 weeks. The antioxidant status, as measured by the CAP-e bioassay, showed the best correlation with improvements in physical well-being (pain, ROM, and ADL). The significant association among increased antioxidant status, improved ROM, and pain reduction warrants further study. PMID:21470042

Ager, David M.; Redman, Kimberlee A.; Mitzner, Marcie A.; Benson, Kathleen F.; Schauss, Alexander G.

2011-01-01

240

Heat capacity of natural fruit juices and of their concentrates at temperatures from 10 to 120°C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heat capacity of natural apple, cherry, and raspberry juices and of their concentrates has been studied at temperatures from 10 to 120°C and pressures of 0.1 and 2 MPa. A setup based on the method of adiabatic calorimeter was assembled to carry out investigations. An estimate of the error of setup operation as well as control measurements on water prove the accuracy of experimental data to be within ±0.8% at the indicated parameters of state. For the heat capacity of juices 175 values have been obtained. Equations that describe experimental data as functions of temperature and content of dry matter have been constructed.

Magerramov, M. A.

2007-09-01

241

Comparison of torula yeast and various grape juice products as attractants for Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Early research during the 1930’s focused on attractants for the Mexican fruit fly indicated that fermentation products were effective attractants for Mexican fruit flies and other tropical Tephritidae, but that attraction to fruit components was only of academic interest. Tests reported here were ca...

242

21 CFR 101.30 - Percentage juice declaration for foods purporting to be beverages that contain fruit or vegetable...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or vegetable, or the product contains color and...Contains 50 percent apple juice” or “50 percent...statement of identity of the product, this phrase need not...name, logo, universal product code, or the title phrase...1 Acerola 6.0 Apple 11.5 Apricot...

2010-04-01

243

Determination of total monomeric anthocyanin pigment content of fruit juices, beverages, natural colorants, and wines by the pH differential method: collaborative study.  

PubMed

This collaborative study was conducted to determine the total monomeric anthocyanin concentration by the pH differential method, which is a rapid and simple spectrophotometric method based on the anthocyanin structural transformation that occurs with a change in pH (colored at pH 1.0 and colorless at pH 4.5). Eleven collaborators representing commercial laboratories, academic institutions, and government laboratories participated. Seven Youden pair materials representing fruit juices, beverages, natural colorants, and wines were tested. The repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) varied from 1.06 to 4.16%. The reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDR) ranged from 2.69 to 10.12%. The HorRat values were < or = 1.33 for all materials. The Study Director recommends that the method be adopted Official First Action. PMID:16385975

Lee, Jungmin; Durst, Robert W; Wrolstad, Ronald E

2005-01-01

244

Determination of five pesticides in juice, fruit and vegetable samples by means of liquid chromatography combined with multivariate curve resolution.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to quantify five commonly used pesticides (propoxur, carbaryl, carbendazim, thiabendazole and fuberidazole) in real samples as: tomato, orange juice, grapefruit juice, lemon and tangerine. The method used for the determination of these analytes in the complex matrices was high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. In order to work under isocratic conditions and to complete each run in less than 10 min, the analysis was carried out applying multivariate curve resolution coupled to alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS). The flexibility of this applied multivariate model allowed the prediction of the concentrations of the five analytes in complex samples including strongly coeluting analytes, elution time shifts, band shape changes and presence of uncalibrated interferents. The obtained limits of detection (in ?g L(-1)) using the proposed methodology were 2.3 (carbendazim), 0.90 (thiabendazole), 12 (propoxur), 0.46 (fuberidazole) and 0.32 (carbaryl). PMID:24528840

Boeris, Valeria; Arancibia, Juan A; Olivieri, Alejandro C

2014-03-01

245

Ingredients in fruit juices interact with dasatinib through inhibition of BCRP: a new mechanism of beverage-drug interaction.  

PubMed

Small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are a group of highly novel and target-specific anticancer drugs. Recently, most TKIs are found to be substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP). However, little information is available regarding the Pgp- or BCRP-mediated interaction of TKIs with coadministered drugs/food/beverage. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of the major ingredients of grapefruit juice (GFJ), orange juice (OJ), apple juice (AJ), and green tea on P-gp and BCRP-mediated dasatinib efflux. Among the 14 ingredients screened, only tangeretin and nobiletin moderately inhibited P-gp-mediated dasatinib efflux. In contrast, four ingredients in GFJ [i.e., bergamottin, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB), quercetin, and kaempferol], two ingredients in OJ (tangeretin and nobiletin), and one ingredient in AJ (i.e., hesperetin) greatly inhibited BCRP-mediated dasatinib efflux at the concentration of 50 ?M (p < 0.001). Further concentration-dependent studies revealed that bergamottin, DHB, tangeretin, and nobiletin are potent BCRP inhibitors, with IC50 values 3.19, 5.2, 1.19, and 1.04 ?M, respectively. Further in vivo investigations are warranted to evaluate the BCRP-mediated FJ-TKI interaction. Literature reports only documented the modulatory effect of FJ and green tea on CYP3A, P-gp, and OATP. Our novel finding that FJ ingredients strongly inhibit BCRP may represent a new mechanism of beverage-drug interaction. PMID:25418056

Fleisher, Brett; Unum, Jesse; Shao, Jie; An, Guohua

2015-01-01

246

Regulation of L-ascorbic acid content in strawberry fruits  

PubMed Central

Plants have several L-ascorbic acid (AsA) biosynthetic pathways, but the contribution of each one to the synthesis of AsA varyies between different species, organs, and developmental stages. Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) fruits are rich in AsA. The pathway that uses D-galacturonate as the initial substrate is functional in ripe fruits, but the contribution of other pathways to AsA biosynthesis has not been studied. The transcription of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes such as D-galacturonate reductase (FaGalUR) and myo-inositol oxygenase (FaMIOX), and the AsA recycling enzyme monodehydroascorbate reductase (FaMDHAR) were positively correlated with the increase in AsA during fruit ripening. Fruit storage for 72 h in a cold room reduced the AsA content by 30%. Under an ozone atmosphere, this reduction was 15%. Ozone treatment increased the expression of the FaGalUR, FaMIOX, and L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (FaGIPP) genes, and transcription of the L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (FaGLDH) and FAMDHAR genes was higher in the ozone-stored than in the air-stored fruits. Analysis of AsA content in a segregating population from two strawberry cultivars showed high variability, which did not correlate with the transcription of any of the genes studied. Study of GalUR protein in diverse cultivars of strawberry and different Fragaria species showed that a correlation between GalUR and AsA content was apparent in most cases, but it was not general. Three alleles were identified in strawberry, but any sequence effect on the AsA variability was eliminated by analysis of the allele-specific expression. Taken together, these results indicate that FaGalUR shares the control of AsA levels with other enzymes and regulatory elements in strawberry fruit. PMID:21561953

Cruz-Rus, Eduardo; Amaya, Iraida; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F.; Botella, Miguel A.; Valpuesta, Victoriano

2011-01-01

247

Carotene reactivity in pink grapefruit juice elucidated from model systems and multiresponse modeling.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to assess the impact of pink grapefruit juice composition and structure on the degradation kinetics of lycopene and ?-carotene using model systems and multiresponse modeling. Carotenes were heated at four temperatures in their native matrix (juice) or were extracted and incorporated in water/ethanol emulsion systems formulated with or without ascorbic acid or naringin. Kinetic analysis showed that the rate constants and activation energy were lower for lycopene than for ?-carotene in the juice, while this trend was inversed in the model system. Multiresponse modeling was used to analyze the role of ascorbic acid and naringin in carotene degradation. Ascorbic acid had a very low impact, while naringin significantly increased the carotene degradation and isomerization rates. We concluded that lycopene was more sensitive to thermal degradation and phytochemical interactions than ?-carotene, but this behavior was masked in the fruit juice matrix by better structural protection. PMID:25818174

Achir, Nawel; Hadjal, Thiziri; Madani, Khodir; Dornier, Manuel; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie

2015-04-22

248

Effect of consumption of tomato juice enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the lipid profile, antioxidant biomarker status, and cardiovascular disease risk in healthy women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  We compared the effects of consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-enriched tomato juice versus plain tomato\\u000a juice on the serum lipid profile and levels of biomarkers related to antioxidant status and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk\\u000a in women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Eighteen healthy women participated in a 2-week intervention trial involving the daily intake of 500 mL of n-3 PUFA-enriched\\u000a juice (n = 11) or plain

F. J. García-Alonso; V. Jorge-Vidal; G. Ros; M. J. Periago

249

Grapefruit juice greatly increases serum concentrations of lovastatin and lovastatin acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Grapefruit juice increases the bioavailability of several drugs known to be metabolized by CYP3A4. We wanted to investigate a possible interaction of grapefruit juice with lovastatin, a cholesterollowering agent that is partially metabolized by CYP3A4.Methods: An open, randomized, two-phase crossover study with an interval of 2 weeks between the phases was carried out. Ten healthy volunteers took either 200

Teemu Kantola; Kari T. Kivistö; Pertti J. Neuvonen

1998-01-01

250

The effect of supplementation by different nitrogen sources on the production of lactic acid from date juice by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of lactic acid from date juice by fermentation has been studied using Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus as the producer organism. The optimum substrate concentration, expressed in its glucose content, was 60 g l?1. Various nitrogen sources were compared with yeast extract in terms of their efficiency for lactic acid production. None of these nitrogen sources gave lactic acid concentrations

Nabil Nancib; Aicha Nancib; Amel Boudjelal; Chouki Benslimane; Fabrice Blanchard; J Boudrant

2001-01-01

251

21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...than 1.35 grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of the juice. ...total acidity of the pineapple juice by titration by the method prescribed in § 145.180...section by the grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of juice,...

2014-04-01

252

21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...than 1.35 grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of the juice. ...total acidity of the pineapple juice by titration by the method prescribed in § 145.180...section by the grams of anhydrous citric acid per 100 milliliters of juice,...

2013-04-01

253

Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota from masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits and their fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

Masau are Zimbabwean wild fruits, which are usually eaten raw and/ or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu and jam. Yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits collected from Muzarabani district in Zimbabwe were isolated and identified using physiological and molecular methods. The predominant species were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia fabianii and Aureobasidium pullulans. A. pullulans was the dominant species on the unripe fruits but was not isolated from the fermented fruit pulp. S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis were predominant in the fermented fruit pulp but were not detected in the unripe fruits. S. cerevisiae, I. orientalis, P. fabianii and S. fibuligera are fermentative yeasts and these might be used in the future development of starter cultures to produce better quality fermented products from masau fruit. Lactic acid bacteria were preliminary identified and the predominant strains found were Lactobacillus agilis and L. plantarum. Other species identified included L. bifermentans, L. minor, L. divergens, L. confusus, L. hilgardii, L. fructosus, L. fermentum and Streptococcus spp. Some of the strains of LAB could also potentially be used in a mixed-starter culture with yeasts and might contribute positively in the production of fermented masau fruit products. PMID:17904237

Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Gadaga, Tendekayi H; Theelen, Bart; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

2007-11-30

254

21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (5) Buffering agents. (6) Preservatives. (7) Antifoaming agents except those derived from animal fats. (8) Mint flavoring and artificial green coloring, in case the fruit juice ingredient or combination of fruit juice ingredients is...

2012-04-01

255

21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... (5) Buffering agents. (6) Preservatives. (7) Antifoaming agents except those derived from animal fats. (8) Mint flavoring and artificial green coloring, in case the fruit juice ingredient or combination of fruit juice ingredients is...

2014-04-01

256

21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (5) Buffering agents. (6) Preservatives. (7) Antifoaming agents except those derived from animal fats. (8) Mint flavoring and artificial green coloring, in case the fruit juice ingredient or combination of fruit juice ingredients is...

2013-04-01

257

Effect of HLB on flavor of orange juice and perception of limonin and nomilin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of Huanglongbing (HLB) on orange juice flavor is complex. On the one hand, fruit that are harvested from diseased trees, that are asymptomatic for the disease, produce juice that is not much different from normal juice. In some cases the asymptomatic HLB fruit juice was detected to be sli...

258

21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...two or more of the following acidifying ingredients: (i) Lemon juice. (ii) Lime juice. (iii) Citric acid. (2...of this section may be combined, as for example, “with lemon juice and between 2 and 3% honey added”. (iv) When...

2011-04-01

259

21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...two or more of the following acidifying ingredients: (i) Lemon juice. (ii) Lime juice. (iii) Citric acid. (2...of this section may be combined, as for example, “with lemon juice and between 2 and 3% honey added”. (iv) When...

2014-04-01

260

21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...two or more of the following acidifying ingredients: (i) Lemon juice. (ii) Lime juice. (iii) Citric acid. (2...of this section may be combined, as for example, “with lemon juice and between 2 and 3% honey added”. (iv) When...

2010-04-01

261

21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...two or more of the following acidifying ingredients: (i) Lemon juice. (ii) Lime juice. (iii) Citric acid. (2...of this section may be combined, as for example, “with lemon juice and between 2 and 3% honey added”. (iv) When...

2013-04-01

262

21 CFR 146.187 - Canned prune juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...two or more of the following acidifying ingredients: (i) Lemon juice. (ii) Lime juice. (iii) Citric acid. (2...of this section may be combined, as for example, “with lemon juice and between 2 and 3% honey added”. (iv) When...

2012-04-01

263

Interactions between limonin and nomilin, two bitter compounds of orange juice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As a preliminary step to understand and characterize which metabolites are responsible for the bitter off-favor of Huanglongbing infected fruit, the thresholds of limonin, nomilin, and their combination in a sugar and acid matrix, as well as in healthy ‘Valencia’ orange juice were determined by tast...

264

Interactions and thresholds of limonin and nomilin in bitterness perception in orange juice and other matrices  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Limonin and nomilin are two bitter compounds present in citrus and are thought to cause the bitter off-flavor of Huanglongbing-infected fruit/juice. This study determined the thresholds of limonin, nomilin, and their combination in a simple matrix (sucrose and citric acid), a complex matrix (sucrose...

265

Insights regarding sensory evaluation of bitterness development in citrus juice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Delayed bitterness is a well-known phenomenon in citrus juice and has a negative impact on juice quality. Bitterness results when the tasteless limonoic acid A-ring lactone (LARL) in juice is converted to the bitter compound limonin after juicing. Citrus varieties that produce juice that becomes bit...

266

Effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological, chemical, and sensory properties of fresh ashitaba and kale juices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the popularity of health effects upon intake of fresh fruits and vegetables, the demand for fresh vegetables and fruit juices has rapidly increased. However, currently, washing is the only procedure for reducing contaminated microorganisms, which obviously limits the shelf-life of fresh vegetable juice (less than 3 days). In this study, we examined the effects of irradiation on the microbiological, chemical and sensory properties of ashitaba and kale juices for industrial application and possible shelf-life extension. Freshly made ashitaba and kale juices already had 2.3×105 and 9.5×104 CFU/mL, respectively. Irradiation of 5 kGy induced higher than 2 decimal reductions in the microbial level, which was consistently maintained during storage for 7 days under refrigerated conditions. Total content of ascorbic acid in vegetable juice decreased upon irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. However, the content of flavonoids did not change, whereas that of polyphenols increased upon irradiation. In sensory evaluation, the ashitaba and kale juices without irradiation (control) scored lower than the irradiated samples after 1 and 3 days, respectively. This study confirms that irradiation is an effective method for sterilizing fresh vegetable juice without compromising sensory property, which cannot be subjected to heat pasteurization due to changes in the bioactivities of the products.

Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Kyung Haeng

2012-08-01

267

Synthesis of core-shell molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres by precipitation polymerization for the inline molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction of thiabendazole from citrus fruits and orange juice samples.  

PubMed

In this work, the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres with narrow particle size distributions and core-shell morphology by a two-step precipitation polymerization procedure is described. Polydivinylbenzene (poly DVB-80) core particles were used as seed particles in the production of molecularly imprinted polymer shells by copolymerization of divinylbenzene-80 with methacrylic acid in the presence of thiabendazole (TBZ) and an appropriate porogen. Thereafter, polymer particles were packed into refillable stainless steel HPLC columns used in the development of an inline molecularly imprinted SPE method for the determination of TBZ in citrus fruits and orange juice samples. Under optimized chromatographic conditions, recoveries of TBZ within the range 81.1-106.4%, depending upon the sample, were obtained, with RSDs lower than 10%. This novel method permits the unequivocal determination of TBZ in the samples under study, according to the maximum residue levels allowed within Europe, in less than 20 min and without any need for a clean-up step in the analytical protocol. PMID:21246728

Barahona, Francisco; Turiel, Esther; Cormack, Peter A G; Martín-Esteban, Antonio

2011-01-01

268

Survival of acid adapted and non-acid adapted Salmonella Typhimurium in pasteurized orange juice and yogurt under different storage temperatures.  

PubMed

The survival capacity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium acid adapted and non-acid adapted cells was monitored in pasteurized yogurt (pH 4.1) and orange juice (pH 3.6) during storage at different temperatures (4, 10, 25 and 37?). Acid adapted and non-acid adapted cells were obtained by means of their growth for 36?h in Brain Heart Infusion broth acidified at pH 4.8 with citric acid and buffered (pH 7.0) Brain Heart Infusion broth, respectively. S. typhimurium showed a great ability to survive in both foodstuffs and, especially, in yogurt, where both acid adapted and non-acid adapted populations suffered only a reduction of about 1.3-1.9?log10 cycles after 43 days of storage in the range of temperatures 4-25?. At 37? a higher bacterial inactivation was observed (4.0-4.4?log10 cycles). In orange juice, a different behaviour was observed for acid-adapted and non-acid adapted cells. Whereas non-acid adapted cells survived better than acid adapted cells at 4 and 10?, acid adapted cells showed enhanced survival abilities at higher temperatures (25 and 37?). Thus, the times required to achieve a 5 log10 cycles reduction for non-acid adapted and acid adapted cells were 10.2 and 6.0 (4?), 6.3 and 4.2 (10?), 0.6 and 1.0 (25?) and 0.10 and 0.15 (37?) days, respectively. Evidence found in this study demonstrates that refrigeration temperatures protect S. typhimurium from inactivation in acid foods and indicates that S. typhimurium acid tolerance response (ATR) is determined by storage temperature and food composition. PMID:23729421

Álvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Valdés, Lorena; Bernardo, Ana; Prieto, Miguel; López, Mercedes

2013-10-01

269

Regulation of the lemon-fruit V-ATPase by variable stoichiometry and organic acids.  

PubMed

The lemon-fruit V-ATPase can exist in two forms: nitrate-sensitive and nitrate-insensitive. Here we report the results of measurements of H+ /ATP stoichiometries using two kinetic methods: one based on steady-state DpH and one based on initial rates of H+-pumping. Our findings indicate that the nitrate-insensitive fruit V-ATPase has an H+ /ATP stoichiometry of ~1, while both the nitrate-sensitive fruit V-ATPase and the epicotyl V-ATPase have stoichiometries of 2, under zero-load conditions. As DpH increases, the stoichiometry of the nitrate-sensitive fruit V-ATPase decreases to 1. Under similar conditions, the stoichiometry of the epicotyl enzyme remains 2. Thus, the pH-dependent variable stoichiometry of the lemon-fruit V-ATPase may represent a key factor in juice sac vacuolar hyperacidification. On the other hand, the H+ /ATP stoichiometry of the epicotyl V-ATPase can decrease from 2 to 1 in the presence of a membrane potential. The low pH of the fruit vacuole is not due solely to the lower H+/ATP stoichiometry of its pump. We show that lumenal citrate and malate improve the coupling of both the epicotyl and fruit V-ATPases and enhance their ability to generate a pH gradient. Since citrate accumulation is restricted to fruit vacuoles, it may be another important determinant of vacuolar pH. PMID:11891579

Müller, M L; Taiz, L

2002-02-01

270

The PH gene determines fruit acidity and contributes to the evolution of sweet melons.  

PubMed

Taste has been the subject of human selection in the evolution of agricultural crops, and acidity is one of the three major components of fleshy fruit taste, together with sugars and volatile flavour compounds. We identify a family of plant-specific genes with a major effect on fruit acidity by map-based cloning of C. melo PH gene (CmPH) from melon, Cucumis melo taking advantage of the novel natural genetic variation for both high and low fruit acidity in this species. Functional silencing of orthologous PH genes in two distantly related plant families, cucumber and tomato, produced low-acid, bland tasting fruit, showing that PH genes control fruit acidity across plant families. A four amino-acid duplication in CmPH distinguishes between primitive acidic varieties and modern dessert melons. This fortuitous mutation served as a preadaptive antecedent to the development of sweet melon cultigens in Central Asia over 1,000 years ago. PMID:24898284

Cohen, Shahar; Itkin, Maxim; Yeselson, Yelena; Tzuri, Galil; Portnoy, Vitaly; Harel-Baja, Rotem; Lev, Shery; Sa'ar, Uzi; Davidovitz-Rikanati, Rachel; Baranes, Nadine; Bar, Einat; Wolf, Dalia; Petreikov, Marina; Shen, Shmuel; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Ast, Tslil; Schuldiner, Maya; Belausov, Eduard; Eshed, Ravit; Ophir, Ron; Sherman, Amir; Frei, Benedikt; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Xu, Yimin; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, Jim; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Yaakov; Paris, Harry S; Katzir, Nurit; Burger, Yosef; Schaffer, Arthur A

2014-01-01

271

Reduction of non-enzymatic browning of orange juice and semi-concentrates by removal of reaction substrate.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to standardize the technology for the removal of amino acids (one of the browning reaction substrates) from sweet orange cv. Malta Common juice to reduce colour and quality deterioration in single strength juice and during subsequent concentration. Juice of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) cv. Malta Common fruits was extracted by screw type juice extractor, preserved in 500 ppm SO2 and clarified by using "Pectinase CCM" enzyme (0.2% for 2 h at 50?±?2 °C). For removal of amino acids juice was passed under gravity through a glass column packed with an acidic cation exchange resin (CER), Dowex-50 W and quantity to be treated in one lot was standardized. The CER treated and untreated juices were concentrated to 15 and 30°Brix in a rotary vacuum evaporator. Results indicate that 121 ml of orange juice when passed through a glass column (5 cm internal diameter) packed with cation exchange resin (Dowex-50 W) upto a height of 8 cm, could remove about 98.4% of the amino acids with minimum losses in other juice constituents. With cation exchange resin treatment, the non-enzymatic browning and colour deterioration of orange juice semi-concentrates was reduced to about 3 folds in comparison to untreated counterparts. The retention of vitamin C and sugars was also better in semi-concentrates prepared from cation exchange resin treated juice. Thus, cation exchange resin treatment of orange juice prior to concentration and storage is highly beneficial in reduction of non-enzymatic browning, colour deterioration and retention of nutritional, sensory quality of product during preparation and storage. PMID:24966423

Sharma, Satish K; Juyal, Shashibala; Rao, V K; Yadav, V K; Dixit, A K

2014-07-01

272

A novel phenolic acid from the fruits of Rosa soulieana.  

PubMed

From the n-BuOH-soluble fraction of a MeOH extract of the fruits of Rosa soulieana, one new phenolic glucoside (1) was isolated along with five known compounds, comprising two lignin glycosides, two flavonoid glycosides and a phenolic glycoside. The chemical structure of the new compound was elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including ESI-MS, UV, IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, DEPT and 2D NMR (HSQC and HMBC). All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant activity by using ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzoline-6-sulfonic acid)) assay. Among these compounds, 1, 3 and 6 exhibited strong scavenging activity in ABTS(·+)(SC50 = 102.10, 193.85, 65.38 ?mol/L, respectively) compared with the positive control l-ascorbic acid (Vc) (SC50 = 117.16 ?mol/L). PMID:24831176

He, Wenjun; Yang, Chunyan; Wang, Mingkui; Li, Fu

2014-01-01

273

Iron-shortage-induced increase in citric acid content and reduction of cytosolic aconitase activity in Citrus fruit vesicles and calli.  

PubMed

Aconitase, which catalyses the conversion of citrate into isocitrate, requires Fe for its activity. The yeast and animal enzyme loses its enzymatic activity under Fe shortage and binds to RNA of genes involved in Fe homeostasis, altering their expression. Thus, the enzyme provides a regulatory link between organic acid metabolism and Fe cellular status. Roots and leaves of Fe-deficient plants show induction in organic acids, especially citrate. Although no RNA-binding activity has been so far demonstrated for the plant aconitase, whether alternations in enzyme activity by Fe could play a role in this induction remain unanswered. This question was investigated in lemon fruit [Citrus limon (L.) Burm var Eureka], characterized by the accumulation of citrate to about 0.3 M in the juice vesicles cells (pulp). Calli and isolated juice vesicles showed two- to three-fold induction in citrate level when subjected to Fe shortage. The mRNA level of aconitase exhibited no changes under reduced Fe concentrations. Analysis of aconitase isozymes demonstrated that out of two aconitase isozymes, typically detected in citrus fruit, only the cytosolic form displayed a reduced activity under low Fe concentrations. Our data support the notion of a limited Fe-availability-induced reduction in cytosolic aconitase, resulting in a slower rate of citrate breakdown and a concomitant increase in citrate levels. PMID:18251926

Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Marsh, Ken; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

2007-09-01

274

Taurine is absent from amino components in fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica.  

PubMed

Juices of edible fruits from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, commonly named prickly pears or Indian figs, were analysed for amino acids using an automated amino acid analyser run in the high-resolution physiological mode. Emphasis was put on the detection of free taurine (Tau), but Tau could be detected neither in different cultivars of prickly pears from Italy, South Africa and the Near East nor in commercially available prickly pear juices from the market. PMID:25485199

Ali, Hatem Salama Mohamed; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman Saleh; Brückner, Hans

2014-01-01

275

Application of magnetic solvent bar liquid-phase microextraction for determination of organophosphorus pesticides in fruit juice samples by gas chromatography mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A simple, rapid and sensitive sample pretreatment technique, magnetic solvent bar liquid-phase microextraction (MSB-LPME) was developed for extracting organophosphorus pesticides from fruit juice. The analytes were extracted from the sample to the organic solvent immobilized in the fiber. The magnetic solvent bar not only can be used to stir the samples but also extract the analytes. After extraction, the analyte-adsorbed magnetic solvent bar can be readily isolated from the sample solution by a magnet, which could greatly simplify the operation and reduce the whole pretreatment time. The bar was eluted with methanol. The elute was evaporated to dryness and residue was dissolved in hexane. Several experimental parameters were investigated and optimized, including type of extraction solvent, number of magnetic solvent bar, extraction temperature, extraction time, salt concentration, stirring speed, pH and desorption conditions. The recoveries were in the range of 81.3-104.6%, and good reproducibilities were obtained with relative standard deviation below 6.1%. PMID:25624224

Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Yu, Cui; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

2015-06-01

276

Anaerobic co-digestion of wine/fruit-juice production waste with landfill leachate diluted municipal sludge cake under semi-continuous flow operation.  

PubMed

Anaerobic co-digestion of four organic waste streams; a thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) and screen cake (SC) from a fruit-juice/winery wastewater treatment plant along with municipal sludge cake (MC) and landfill leachate (LL) was evaluated. A total of eight semi-continuously-fed single and co-digesters were operated side-by-side at sludge retention times (SRT) of 20 and 10 days. Co-digestion of industrial waste streams (TWAS and SC) with MC and LL resulted in increased operational stability compared to the single digestion of industrial TWAS at the higher organic loading (10 d SRT). Although digester operational temperature had no statistically significant effect on organics removal and biogas production, mesophilic digesters had consistently higher total coliform densities (8838-37,959 most probable number or MPN/g-dry weight) compared to the thermophilic digesters (41-6723 MPN/g-dry weight) at both SRTs. Coliform analysis results also proved that most of the thermophilic digestates could be classified as Class A biosolids according to regulations. Furthermore, addition of industrial TWAS to co-digesters enhanced the dewaterability of the digested streams. A cost-benefit analysis confirmed the benefits and indicated that a full-scale co-digester utilizing all four waste streams can decrease the total capital and operational cost by 22% ($10.52 million). PMID:25081853

Leiva, M Barrantes; Koupaie, E Hosseini; Eskicioglu, C

2014-10-01

277

The influence of pomegranate fruit extract in comparison to regular pomegranate juice and seed oil on nitric oxide and arterial function in obese Zucker rats.  

PubMed

Metabolic syndrome includes most widely distributed clinical conditions such as obesity, hypertension, dislipidemia, and diabetes. Pomegranate fruit extract (PFE), rich in polyphenolic antioxidants, reduces the expression of oxidation-sensitive genes at the sites of perturbed shear-stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PFE in comparison to regular pomegranate juice (PJ) and seed oil on the biological actions of nitric oxide (NO) and the arterial function in obese Zucker rats, a model of metabolic syndrome. Our results indicated that supplementation with PFE or PJ significantly decreased the expression of vascular inflammation markers, thrombospondin (TSP), and cytokine TGFbeta1 (P<0.05), whereas seed oil supplementation had a significant effect only on TSP-1 expression (P <0.05). Plasma nitrate and nitrite (NO(x)) levels were significantly increased by PFE and PJ (P<0.05). Furthermore, the effect of PFE in increasing endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression was comparable to that of PJ. These data highlight possible clinical applications of PFE in metabolic syndrome. PMID:17553710

de Nigris, Filomena; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Williams-Ignarro, Sharon; D'Armiento, Francesco P; Fiorito, Carmela; Ignarro, Louis J; Napoli, Claudio

2007-08-01

278

Transcriptome and metabolome analyses of sugar and organic acid metabolism in Ponkan (Citrus reticulata) fruit during fruit maturation.  

PubMed

Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Ponkan) is an important mandarin citrus in China. However, the low ratio of sugars to organic acids makes it less acceptable for consumers. In this work, three stages (S120, early development stage; S195, commercial harvest stage; S205, delayed harvest stage) of Ponkan fruit were selected for study. Among 28 primary metabolites analyzed in fruit, sugars increased while organic acids in general decreased. RNA-Seq analysis was carried out and 19,504 genes were matched to the Citrus clementina genome, with 85 up-regulated and 59 down-regulated genes identified during fruit maturation. A sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene was included in the up-regulated group, and this was supported by the transcript ratio distribution. Expression of two asparagine transferases (AST), and a specific ATP-citrate lyase (ACL) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) members increased during fruit maturation. It is suggested that SPS, AST, ACL and GAD coordinately contribute to sugar accumulation and organic acid degradation during Ponkan fruit maturation. Both the glycolysis pathway and TCA cycle were accelerated during later maturation, indicating the flux change from sucrose metabolism to organic acid metabolism was enhanced, with citrate degradation occurring mainly through the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and acetyl-CoA pathways. PMID:25455100

Lin, Qiong; Wang, Chengyang; Dong, Wencheng; Jiang, Qing; Wang, Dengliang; Li, Shaojia; Chen, Ming; Liu, Chunrong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

2015-01-01

279

Chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation of juice from steamed cashew apple blended with orange juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fully riped cashew apples (yellow variety) were steamed for 7 minutes prior to juice extraction. The extracted juice was blended\\u000a with various proportions of sweet orange juice. Chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation were carried out on both\\u000a the blended and unblended juices. The ascorbic acid content of unsteamed cashew apple juice was 287 mg\\/100 ml. Steaming of\\u000a the cashew apple

U. E. Inyang; U. J. Abah

1997-01-01

280

Frozen Fruit Pops Ingredients  

E-print Network

Frozen Fruit Pops Ingredients: 8 ounces crushed pineapple in juice 6 ounces nonfat yogurt, with fruit 6 ounces orange juice, frozen concentrate, thawed Directions 1. Mix the ingredients in a medium opener Popsicle sticks Number of Servings: 4 Preparation Time: 5 minutes Total time: 4 hours For more

Liskiewicz, Maciej

281

Two Novel Glycosides from the Fruits of Morinda Citrifolia (Noni) Inhibit AP1 Transactivation and Cell Transformation in the Mouse Epidermal JB6 Cell Line1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (noni), a plant originally grown in the Hawaiian and Tahitian islands, has long been used by islanders to treat diseases, including cancer. Two novel glycosides, 6-O-(b-D-glucopy- ranosyl)-1-O-octanoyl-b-D-glucopyranose and asperulosidic acid, ex- tracted from the juice of noni fruits, were used to examine their effects on 12-O-tedtradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced AP-1 transactivation

Guangming Liu; Ann Bode; Wei-Ya Ma; Shengmin Sang; Chi-Tang Ho; Zigang Dong

2001-01-01

282

THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN COMPOSITION, pH, AND TITRATABLE ACIDITY OF PEACH FRUIT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical reactions that determine pH and titration curve of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruit flesh tissue have been modeled. Fruit pulp pH is computed as the result of acid\\/base reactions between organic acids, amino acids, and phosphate derivatives, and their respective salts. Amino acids and phosphate derivatives are taken into account as if they comprised asparagine and phosphoric

Philippe Lobit; Patrick Soing; Michel Génard; Robert Habib

2002-01-01

283

Simplified miniaturized ultrasound-assisted matrix solid phase dispersion extraction and high performance liquid chromatographic determination of seven flavonoids in citrus fruit juice and human fluid samples: hesperetin and naringenin as biomarkers.  

PubMed

In the present study, for the first time, a simplified miniaturized ultrasound-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (SM-USA-MSPD) method with a different application for liquid matrices was developed to extract different flavonoids (hesperidin, diosmin, eriocitrin, narirutin, naringin, hesperetin and naringenin) from citrus fruit juice and human fluid samples prior to their determination using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Different effective parameters were studied and under the optimum conditions (including sample volume: 150?L; solid phase: silica-based C18, 200mg; eluting solvent: methanol, 500?L; pH: 4; and sonication: 6min; at room temperature), limits of detection and limits of quantification were ranged from 23.3 to 46.8ngmL(-1) and 74.8 to 141.5ngmL(-1), respectively. Once optimized, analytical performance of the method was studied in terms of linearity (0.074-198.5?gmL(-1), r(2)>0.991), accuracy (recovery=84.6-101.5%), and precision (repeatability: intra-day precision<5.9%, and inter-day precision<7.2%). At the end, SM-USA-MSPD method was successfully applied to estimate the levels of hesperetin and naringenin in plasma and urinary excretion -after ingestion of orange, grapefruit and lime juices- and the obtained results confirmed that these compounds could be used as good biomarkers of citrus fruit juice intake. PMID:24011420

Barfi, Behruz; Asghari, Alireza; Rajabi, Maryam; Barfi, Azadeh; Saeidi, Iman

2013-10-11

284

Ribonucleic acid synthesis during fruiting body formation in Myxococcus xanthus.  

PubMed Central

A method has been devised that allowed us, for the first time, to pulse-label M. xanthus cells with precursors for ribonucleic acid biosynthesis while they were undergoing fruiting body formation. Using this method, we examined patterns of ribonucleic acid (RNA) accumulation throughout the process of fruiting body formation. As development proceeded, the rate of RNA accumulation increased at two periods of the developmental cycle: once just before aggregation and once late in the cycle, when sporulation was essentially completed. In contrast to vegetatively growing cells, in which only stable RNA species are labeled during a 30-min pulse, the majority of radioactivity found in RNA from 30-min pulse-labeled developing cells was found in an unstable heterodisperse fraction that migrated to the 5S to 16S region of sucrose density gradients and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. This pattern of incorporation could not be induced (i) by a shift down of vegetatively growing cells to a nutritionally poor medium, in which the generation time was increased to that of developing cells during the growth phase, or (ii) by plating of vegetative cells onto the same solid-surface environment as that of developing cells, but which surface supported vegetative growth rather than fruiting body formation. Thus, the RNA synthesis pattern observed appeared to be related to development per se rather than to nutritional depletion or growth on a solid surface alone. The radioactivity incorporated into the unstable 5S to 16S RNA fraction accumulated as the pulse length was increased from 10 to 30 min; in contrast, an analogous unstable fraction from vegetative cells decreased as pulse length was increased. This suggested that developmental 5S to 16S RNA was more stable than vegetative cell 5S to 16S RNA (presumptive messenger RNA). However, during a 45-min chase period, radioactivity in 30-min-pulse-labeled developmental 5S to 16S RNA decayed to an extent twice that of developmental RNA located in 16S and 23S regions of sucrose density gradients and was considerably less stable than the 5S, 16S, and 23S RNA species labeled during a 30-min pulse of vegetative cells. PMID:6163763

Smith, B A; Dworkin, M

1981-01-01

285

Evolution of the aroma volatiles of pear fruits supplemented with fatty acid metabolic precursors.  

PubMed

To examine the biochemical metabolism of aroma volatiles derived from fatty acids, pear fruits were incubated in vitro with metabolic precursors of these compounds. Aroma volatiles, especially esters, were significantly increased, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in pear fruits fed on fatty acid metabolic precursors. Cultivars having different flavor characteristics had distinctly different aroma volatile metabolisms. More esters were formed in fruity-flavored "Nanguoli" fruits than in green-flavored "Dangshansuli" fruits fed on the same quantities of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Hexanal and hexanol were more efficient metabolic intermediates for volatile synthesis than linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Hexyl esters were the predominant esters produced by pear fruits fed on hexanol, and their contents in "Dangshansuli" fruits were higher than in "Nanguoli" fruits. Hexyl esters and hexanoate esters were the primary esters produced in pear fruits fed on hexanal, however the content of hexyl ester in "Dangshansuli" was approximately three times that in "Nanguoli". The higher contents of hexyl esters in "Dangshansuli" may have resulted from a higher level of hexanol derived from hexanal. In conclusion, the synthesis of aroma volatiles was largely dependent on the metabolic precursors presented. PMID:25474290

Qin, Gaihua; Tao, Shutian; Zhang, Huping; Huang, Wenjiang; Wu, Juyou; Xu, Yiliu; Zhang, Shaoling

2014-01-01

286

Changes in physicochemical characteristics and free amino acids of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) fruits during maturation.  

PubMed

In this study, changes in physicochemical characteristics associated with fruit quality and free amino acids were investigated during maturation of hawthorn fruits. Significant differences in these parameters were found during maturation. The color turned progressively from mature green to semi-red, to reach bright red; the shape changed gradually from oval to round or approached round; the size, weight, and edible part (flesh/core ratio) of hawthorns increased while the density of intact fruits did not change. The content of moisture, total soluble sugars, soluble pectin, reduced ascorbic acid, total ascorbic acid, fructose, and sucrose increased while crude protein content decreased significantly. The levels of starch, sucrose, titratable acidity, protopectin, pectin, total free amino acids, and total essential amino acids initially increased and then decreased gradually during maturation. The outcomes of this study provide additional and useful information for fresh consumption and processing as well as utilization of dropped unripe hawthorn fruits. PMID:25577050

Li, Wei-Qin; Hu, Qing-Ping; Xu, Jian-Guo

2015-05-15

287

The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. PMID:24573534

Bittman, Mark E; Callahan, Michael J

2014-07-01

288

Production of concentrated kiwifruit juice by integrated membrane process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of fruit juices is industrially performed in order to reduce storage, packaging, handling and shipping costs. This paper describes the research efforts to develop and optimise an integrated membrane process, on laboratory scale, for the production of concentrated kiwifruit juice as alternative to the traditional vacuum evaporation. Fresh depectinated kiwifruit juice was previously clarified by ultrafiltration (UF) process.

A. Cassano; B. Jiao; E. Drioli

2004-01-01

289

Characterization of Terebinth Fruit Oil and Optimization of Acidolysis Reaction with Caprylic and Stearic Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of the fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition of terebinth fruit oil and the synthesis of structured\\u000a lipids (SL) were performed in this study. Interesterification reaction of terebinth fruits oil (Pistacia terebinthus L.) with caprylic acid (CA) and stearic acid (SA) to produce a SL was performed in n-hexane using immobilized sn-1,3 specific lipase from Mucor miehei. The effect of

Derya KocakHasene; Hasene Keskin; Sibel Fad?lo?lu; Boleslaw Kowalski; Fahrettin Gö?ü?

290

PreClinical Study: Antioxidant Levels and Immunomodulatory Effects of Wolfberry Juice and Other Juice Mixtures in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although wolfberry juice, derived from the fruit of Lycium barbarum, has been purported by Chinese researchers to augment immune response, there is a paucity of information in scientific literature about its effects. This study was designed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of wolfberry juice, individually and in mixtures with other juices, using a mouse model. The antioxidant activity of wolfberry

Sue Chao; Marc Schreuder; Gary Young; Karen Nakaoka; Lynn Moyes; Craig Oberg

291

Biochemical and histopathological effects of administration various levels of Pomposia ( Syzygium cumini ) fruit juice as natural antioxidant on rat health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the effects of administration various levels (400, 800 and 1,200 ppm)\\u000a of pomposia extracts as natural antioxidant in comparison with BHT as synthetic antioxidant on some biochemical activities\\u000a and histopathological examination of rats. Some of biochemical tests i.e. Alkaline phosphatase, transaminases]Aspartate transferase\\u000a (AST) and alanine transferase (ALT) [,bilirubin, urea and uric acid

Ayman M. El-Anany; Rehab F. M. Ali

292

Polyphenol profiling of a red-fleshed apple cultivar and evaluation of the color extractability and stability in the juice.  

PubMed

Red-fleshed apples can be used for the production of innovative products such as rosé juices and ciders. Phenolic compounds including procyanidins (i.e., condensed tannins) and anthocyanins were quantified in the fruits and juices of a red-fleshed apple cultivar by chromatography coupled to UV-visible and mass spectrometry. Juice color was characterized by colorimetry. The influence of oxygen, pH, sulfites, ascorbic acid, and copper on the color stability of the juice was studied in an experimental design. Fruits were rich in polyphenols (0.5 g/100 g FW), with anthocyanins and procyanidins accounting for 9 and 73% of total polyphenols, respectively. Extractability of anthocyanins in the juice was 26%. Juice storage under air atmosphere at 35 °C resulted in significant browning with the anthocyanin level decreasing up to 86% after 14 days. In contrast, color was stable for storage under argon atmosphere. Sulfites, ascorbic acid, and copper have only a slightly influence on color stability in those conditions. PMID:24655330

Malec, Marta; Le Quéré, Jean-Michel; Sotin, Hélène; Kolodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Bauduin, Rémi; Guyot, Sylvain

2014-07-23

293

Phenolic acids composition of fruit extracts of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana L., var. Golo lemai)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruits of Ziziphus mauritiana L. (ber) are consumed in fresh and dried/processed form in many countries across Asia including Pakistan. In the present study, we analyzed the composition of total phenolic acids (free, soluble-bound and insoluble-bound) from Golo lemai ber fruit extracts by applying a...

294

Original article Development of spray dried orange juice blended  

E-print Network

Original article Development of spray dried orange juice blended skim milk powder Ramachandra H by incorporation of orange juice. Blends with different levels of orange juice and skim milk were spray dried, viz. As the propor- tion of juice increased, the acidity and viscosity of the blends increased due to the high citric

Boyer, Edmond

295

Organic vs conventionally grown Rio Red whole grapefruit and juice: comparison of production inputs, market quality, consumer acceptance, and human health-bioactive compounds.  

PubMed

Most claims that organic produce is better tasting and more nutritious than nonorganic (conventional) produce are largely unsubstantiated. This is due mainly to a lack of rigor in research studies matching common production variables of both production systems, such as microclimate, soil type, fertilizer elemental concentration, previous crop, irrigation source and application, plant age, and cultivar. The aforementioned production variables common to both production systems were matched for comparison of Texas commercially grown conventional and certified organic Rio Red red-fruited grapefruit. Whole grapefruits from each production system were harvested between 800 and 1000 h at commercial early (November), mid- (January), and late season (March) harvest periods for three consecutive years. Within each harvest season, conventional and organic whole fruits were compared for marketable qualities (fruit weight, specific gravity, peel thickness, and peel color), and juices were compared for marketable qualities (specific gravity, % juice, and color), human health-bioactive compounds (minerals, ascorbic acid, lycopene, sugars, pectin, phenols, and nitrates), and consumer taste intensity and overall acceptance. Conventional fruit was better colored and higher in lycopene, and the juice was less tart, lower in the bitter principle naringin, and better accepted by the consumer panel than the organic fruit. Organic fruit had a commercially preferred thinner peel, and the juice was higher in ascorbic acid and sugars and lower in nitrate and the drug interactive furanocoumarins. PMID:17474757

Lester, Gene E; Manthey, John A; Buslig, Béla S

2007-05-30

296

Ascorbic Acid Content in Relation to Ascorbic Acid Oxidase Activity and Polyamine Content in Tomato and Bell Pepper Fruits During Development, Maturation and Senescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill, cv. XPH-1251) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum, cv. New ace) plants were grown in a greenhouse in controlled hydroponic conditions, and fruits were harvested at different intervals from 18 to 94 days from fruit set. Total ascorbic acid was higher in bell pepper than in tomato fruit. In pepper fruit, the level increased rapidly during its

Elhadi M. Yahia; Margarita Contreras-Padilla; Gustavo Gonzalez-Aguilar

2001-01-01

297

How to improve bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) juice color quality: effect of juice processing on bayberry anthocyanins and polyphenolics.  

PubMed

Fresh bayberries (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) were processed into juice at an industrialized scale with four treatments: control, SO2 addition, pasteurization of the crushed pulp, and blanching before fruit crushing. Changes in anthocyanin pigments and polyphenolics (hydrobenzoic acids and flavonol glycosides) were monitored during processing. Centrifuged juice yield ranged from 73 to 78% (w/w), but only 12-27% of the anthocyanins and 20-32% of the polyphenolics were recovered in the ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) juices. Fifty-two to 58% of anthocyanins and 30-35% of polyphenolics were present in the centrifuged cakes. The initial processing steps of blanching, crushing, pasteurization, and depectinization caused a great loss of total and individual polyphenolics. Total monomeric anthocyanins were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in pasteurization- and blanching-treated samples than those in the SO2 treated samples, whereas those in the SO2-treated sample were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those in the control juice. Overall polyphenolic levels were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in pasteurization- and blanching-treated samples than in the SO2-treated and control samples after each processing step. Important changes occurred in the polyphenolic profile with a 50-150% of hydroxybenzoic acids increase due to the free gallic acid from the flavonol glycoside-gallates during the initial processing steps. Flavonol deoxyhexosides were more stable than the flavonol hexosides during bayberry juice processing. PMID:16390184

Fang, Zhongxiang; Zhang, Min; Sun, Yunfei; Sun, Jingcai

2006-01-11

298

Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty-acids, carotenoids, amino-acids as well as terpenes. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino- and a-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds be...

299

Effect of acid adaptation and acid shock on thermal tolerance and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and O111 in apple juice.  

PubMed

Gradual exposure to moderate acidic environments may enhance the thermal tolerance and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in acid and acidified foods. Limited studies comparing methodologies to induce this phenomenon have been performed. The effects of strain and physiological state on thermal tolerance and survival of E. coli in apple juice were studied. The decimal reduction time (D-value) at 56°C [D56°C] was determined for E. coli O157:H7 strains C7927 and ATCC 43895 and E. coli O111 at four physiological states: unadapted, acid-shocked (two methodologies used), and acid-adapted cells. The effect of acidulant was also evaluated by determining the D56°C for the O157:H7 strains subjected to acid shock during 18 h in Trypticase soy broth (TSB), with pH 5 adjusted with hydrochloric, lactic, and malic acids. Survival of the three strains at four physiological states was determined at 1 ± 1°C and 24 ± 2°C. Experiments were performed in triplicate. For thermal inactivation, a significant interaction was found between strain and physiological state (P < 0.0001). Highest thermal tolerance was observed for the 43895 strain subjected to acid shock during 18 h in TSB acidified with HCl (D56°C of 3.0 ± 0.1 min) and the lowest for the acid-shocked C7927 strain treated for 4 h in TSB acidified with HCl (D56°C of 0.45 ± 0.06 min). Acidulants did not alter the heat tolerance of strain C7927 (D56°C of 1.9 ± 0.1 min; P > 0.05) but significantly affected strain 43895 (P < 0.05), showing the greatest tolerance when malic acid was used (D56°C of 3.7 ± 0.3 min). A significant interaction between strain, storage temperature, and physiological state was noted during the survival experiments (P < 0.05). E. coli O111 was the most resistant strain, surviving 6 and 23 days at 24 and 1°C, respectively. Our findings may assist in designing challenge studies for juices and other pH-controlled products, where Shiga toxin-producing E. coli represents the pathogen of concern. PMID:25285481

Usaga, Jessie; Worobo, Randy W; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I

2014-10-01

300

Characterization of polyphenols, sugars, and other polar compounds in persimmon juices produced under different technologies and their assessment in terms of compositional variations.  

PubMed

Persimmon juice is emerging in the global juice market as a new wholesome commercial juice that could effectively complement a healthy diet, given the epidemiological evidence linking a diet rich in fruits and vegetables with reduced incidences of chronic diseases. However, little data are available on the persimmon-juice composition or on the effect of the technological treatment employed for its production. The present work performs a complete qualitative analytical characterization through high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS) of the diverse persimmon juices produced under different technologies in a pilot plant (clarification, astringency removal, flash vacuum expansion, centrifugation and pasteurization) in order to evaluate the effect of the different production procedures on the polar chemical profile of persimmon juice. Persimmon-juice extracts have been found to be a source of sugars, protein derivatives, organic acids, vitamins, and polyphenols, including simple polyphenols (phenolic acids and flavonoids) and polymerized flavan-3-ols. A marked influence of processing on the composition of the juices has been noticed. Extracts 3 and 7 (undergoing the combinations of clarification and centrifugation, and astringency removal, centrifugation and pasteurization, respectively) contained more polyphenols, which may help reduce risk of chronic diseases. PMID:25842339

Jiménez-Sánchez, Cecilia; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Marti, Nuria; Saura, Domingo; Valero, Manuel; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

2015-09-01

301

Library Juice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Library Juice is a current awareness newsletter for librarians and other information professionals, published weekly by editor-librarian Rory Litwin. Each issue of Library Juice compiles recent news, articles, and announcements gleaned from a wide range of mailing lists related to librarianship, information science, intellectual freedom, and social responsibility. The Website posts the current issue of the newsletter and maintains an archive of all past issues.

302

Effect of different tetra pack juices on microhardness of direct tooth colored-restorative materials  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the effect of apple and orange juices on the surface hardness of direct tooth-colored restorative materials. Materials and methods The materials included resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer 3M™ ESPE™ Core buildup restorative) and composite resin (Filtek™ 3M™ ESPE™ Z350). A total of 45 disks of each restorative material were prepared. The disks were divided into groups of 15, which were immersed for 7 days in deionized water (G1/G4, control group), apple juice (G2/G5), or orange juice (G3/G6). The pH of the apple juice was approximately 4.8 and the pH of the orange juice was approximately 4.9. Surface hardness tests were performed before immersion and at various times following immersion. Statistical analysis included two-way ANOVA with repeated measurement and Tukey’s test. Results Exposure to juices significantly reduced the hardness of both materials (p < 0.05), while deionized water did not affect the surface hardness of either material. The ionomer cement experienced a greater reduction than the composite resin (p = 0.000). There was no significant difference in the effect of apple and orange juices. Conclusion Juice box-type fruit juices reduced the hardness of direct tooth-colored restorative materials. Material selection should be considered when planning restorations in patients who have experienced tooth surface loss. In terms of the materials evaluated in this study, the composite material provides greater durability under acidic conditions. PMID:23960552

Fatima, Nazish; Abidi, Syed Yawar Ali; Qazi, Fazal-Ur-Rehaman; Jat, Shahbaz Ahmed

2012-01-01

303

Eletrochemical reduction of patulin and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in both neutral and acid non-aqueous media. Their electroanalytical determination in apple juices.  

PubMed

The electro-reduction of patulin mycotoxin and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural at glassy carbon electrodes in acetonitrile +0.1 mol L(-1) tetrabutylammonium perchlorate, in both the absence and the presence of different aliquots of trifluoroacetic acid is reported. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural is the most common interference in the determination of patulin in products derived from apples. The electrochemical techniques were cyclic and square wave voltammetries, and controlled potential bulk electrolysis. The number of electrons exchanged in the patulin electro-reduction of n=1 could be inferred from controlled potential bulk electrolysis measurements. Ultraviolet-visible and infrared spectroscopies were used to identify patulin electro-reduction product/s. A value of (2.1±0.1)×10(-5) cm(2) s(-1) for the patulin diffusion coefficient was calculated from convoluted cyclic voltammograms. A method based on square wave voltammetry was developed for the quantitative determination of patulin in both fresh, and commercial apple juices in the presence of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Calibration curves obtained from solutions of the commercial reagent, and commercial apple juices were linear in the range from 3.0×10(-7) to 2.2×10(-5) mol L(-1). The lowest concentration measured experimentally for a signal to noise ratio of 3:1 was 3×10(-7) mol L(-1) (45 ppb) and a recovery percent of 84% was determined for commercial apple juices. This electroanalytical methodology appears as a good screening method for the determination of patulin in apple juices. PMID:23622529

Damián Chanique, Gerardo; Heraldo Arévalo, Alejandro; Alicia Zon, María; Fernández, Héctor

2013-07-15

304

Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit  

PubMed Central

The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty acids, carotenoids, amino acids, and terpenes. Although amino acids are known precursors of aroma compounds in the plant kingdom, the initial steps in the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles have received little attention. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino acids and ?-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds bearing the side chain of the exogenous amino or keto acid supplied. Moreover, L-[13C6]phenylalanine was also incorporated into aromatic volatile compounds. Amino acid transaminase activities extracted from the flesh of mature melon fruits converted L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-valine, L-methionine, or L-phenylalanine into their respective ?-keto acids, utilizing ?-ketoglutarate as the amine acceptor. Two novel genes were isolated and characterized (CmArAT1 and CmBCAT1) encoding 45.6?kDa and 42.7?kDa proteins, respectively, that displayed aromatic and branched-chain amino acid transaminase activities, respectively, when expressed in Escherichia coli. The expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 was low in vegetative tissues, but increased in flesh and rind tissues during fruit ripening. In addition, ripe fruits of climacteric aromatic cultivars generally showed high expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 in contrast to non-climacteric non-aromatic fruits. The results presented here indicate that in melon fruit tissues, the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles can initiate through a transamination mechanism, rather than decarboxylation or direct aldehyde synthesis, as has been demonstrated in other plants. PMID:20065117

Gonda, Itay; Bar, Einat; Portnoy, Vitaly; Lev, Shery; Burger, Joseph; Schaffer, Arthur A.; Tadmor, Ya'akov; Gepstein, Shimon; Giovannoni, James J.; Katzir, Nurit; Lewinsohn, Efraim

2010-01-01

305

Metabolism of phenolic compounds by Lactobacillus spp. during fermentation of cherry juice and broccoli puree.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the metabolism of phenolic acids and flavonoids during lactic acid fermentation of cherry juice and broccoli puree for potential food and pharmaceutical purposes. When fermenting cherry juice and broccoli puree, Lactobacillus spp. exhibited strain-specific metabolism of phenolic acid derivatives. The metabolism of protocatechuic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids through phenolic acid decarboxylases and reductases differed between mMRS and cherry juice and broccoli puree. The synthesis of reduced compounds was the highest during food fermentations and the substrate seemed to modulate the metabolism of phenolic compounds. The reduction of phenolic acids involves a hydrogen donor and the re-oxidation of the reduced co-factor NADH, which may provide a metabolic advantage through NAD(+) regeneration. Quinic acid reduction may replace fructose and pyruvate as hydrogen acceptors, and it may provide an energetic advantage to heterofermentative bacteria when growing in broccoli puree lacking of fructose. This study demonstrated that phenolics metabolism may confer a selective advantage for lactobacilli in vegetable and fruit fermentation, and the metabolic routes are strongly dependent on the intrinsic factors of substrate. Fermented cherry juice and broccoli puree, due to the selected bacterial bioconversion pathways, are enriched in phenolic derivative with high human bioavailability and biological activity. PMID:25475296

Filannino, Pasquale; Bai, Yunpeng; Di Cagno, Raffaela; Gobbetti, Marco; Gänzle, Michael G

2015-04-01

306

Rapid Differentiation of Commercial Juices and Blends by Using Sugar Profiles Obtained by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis with Indirect UV Detection.  

PubMed

A method for the determination of sugars in several fruit juices and nectars by capillary zone electrophoresis with indirect UV-vis detection has been developed. Under optimal conditions, commercial fruit juices and nectars from several fruits were analyzed, and the sugar and cyclamate contents were quantified in less than 6 min. A study for the detection of blends of high-value juices (orange and pineapple) with cheaper alternatives was also developed. For this purpose, different chemometric techniques, based on sugar content ratios, were applied. Linear discriminant analysis showed that fruit juices can be distinguished according to the fruit type, juice blends also being differentiated. Multiple linear regression models were also constructed to predict the adulteration of orange and pineapple juices with grape juice. This simple and reliable methodology provides a rapid analysis of fruit juices of economic importance, which is relevant for quality control purposes in food industries and regulatory agencies. PMID:25719749

Navarro-Pascual-Ahuir, María; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel

2015-03-18

307

Low temperature storage affects the ascorbic acid metabolism of cherry tomato fruits.  

PubMed

Tomato fruits are an important source of l-Ascorbic acid, which is an essential compound of human diet. The effect of the widespread practice of cold storing (5-10 °C) tomato fruits was monitored to determine its impact on the concentration and redox status of l-Ascorbic acid. Total l-Ascorbic acid levels were well maintained in both attached fruits and cold treated fruits, while in other treatments its levels were considerably reduced. However, low temperature storage conditions enhanced the expression of most genes coding for enzymes involved in l-Ascorbic acid biosynthesis and redox reactions. The findings suggest that the transcriptional up-regulation under chilling stress conditions of most genes coding for l-Ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase, GDP-d-mannose 3,5-epimerase but also for the isoenzymes of ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase enzyme, glutathione reductase that are strongly correlated to the l-Ascorbic redox status. Moreover, fruits stored at 10 °C exhibited higher levels of transcript accumulation of MDHAR2, DHAR1, DHAR2, GR1 and GR2 genes, pointing to a better ability to manage chilling stress in comparison to fruits stored at 5 °C. PMID:25282013

Tsaniklidis, Georgios; Delis, Costas; Nikoloudakis, Nikolaos; Katinakis, Panagiotis; Aivalakis, Georgios

2014-11-01

308

Effect of Processing, Post-Harvest Irradiation, and Production System on the Cytotoxicity and Mutagenicity of Vitis labrusca L. Juices in HTC Cells  

PubMed Central

The juices of grapes (Vitis labrusca L.) are similar to the fruit itself because the main constituents of the fruit are present in the juice. However, their quality characteristics may be modified by the harsh technological processes used for the production of integral food, such as production systems of raw materials and post-harvest treatment of grapes with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Therefore, the present study analyzed juices produced naturally (by liquefying the fruit) or by the technological process of extraction by steam distillation (90°C) of grapes from organic and conventional production systems that were untreated or treated with UV type C (65.6 J/m2 for 10 minutes). Using cultures of Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC) in vitro, cytotoxic effects were assayed by the MTT test and by calculating the cytokinesis blocked proliferation index (CBPI), and mutagenic effects were measured by the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay. The results of the MTT assay and the CBPIs indicated that none of the juices were cytotoxic, including those that induced cell proliferation. The results of the micronucleus assay showed that none of the juices were mutagenic. However, the average number of micronuclei was lower in the juices produced from organic grapes, and cell proliferation, soluble acids and phenolic compounds were significantly higher. Compared with the natural juices, the integral juices of conventional grapes showed a higher average number of micronuclei as well as lower stimulation of cell proliferation and lower levels of bioactive compounds. The results demonstrate a beneficial effect of UV-C irradiation of post-harvest grapes in stimulating the synthesis of nutraceutical compounds without generating cytotoxic or mutagenic substances. Taken together, our findings support the consumption of grape juice and the application of food production techniques that enhance its nutritional value and promote its production, marketing and consumption. PMID:25244067

Düsman, Elisângela; de Almeida, Igor Vivian; Lucchetta, Luciano; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

2014-01-01

309

Beneficial Effects of Citrus Juice Fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 on Japanese Cedar Pollinosis  

PubMed Central

Recently, the prevalence of allergies in Japan has been increasing. Certain types of fruit juice and lactic acid bacteria are known to alleviate allergic symptoms. Therefore, we examined whether citrus juice fermented by a specific lactic acid bacteria can improve the symptoms of Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCPsis). Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 (LP0132) was selected based on its high proliferative activity in citrus juice and anti-inflammatory interleukin-10-inducing activity. Dietary administration of heat-killed LP0132 cells or citrus juice fermented with LP0132 was found to significantly suppress nasal rubbing in a JCPsis mouse model, indicating relief of allergy symptoms. To evaluate the effects of LP0132-fermented citrus juice on pollinosis symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in humans with JCPsis, a single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial was conducted. The participants were 42 adults with JCPsis. They ingested 100?mL of sterilized LP0132-fermented citrus juice (active group) or unfermented citrus juice (placebo group) once daily for 8 weeks. Immediately after the pollen peak when allergy symptoms and QOL loss were most severe, itchy eyes, itchy skin, and QOL loss by JCPsis were alleviated in the active group compared with the placebo group. At 10 weeks after starting the intervention, increased the levels of blood eosinophils were significantly suppressed in the active group compared with the placebo group. We conclude that continuous ingestion of citrus juice fermented with LP0132 may help alleviate the allergy symptoms and impaired QOL caused by JCPsis. PMID:25379362

HARIMA-MIZUSAWA, Naomi; IINO, Tohru; ONODERA-MASUOKA, Norie; KATO-NAGAOKA, Noriko; KIYOSHIMA-SHIBATA, Junko; GOMI, Atsushi; SHIBAHARA-SONE, Harue; KANO, Mitsuyoshi; SHIDA, Kan; SAKAI, Masashi; MIYAZAKI, Kouji; ISHIKAWA, Fumiyasu

2014-01-01

310

Effects of ultrasound treatment in purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) juice.  

PubMed

Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit is a berry with a tasty pulp full of seeds that constitutes about 10-15% of the edible pulp. In Mexico, cactus pear is mainly consumed fresh, but also has the potential to be processed in other products such as juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ultrasound conditions at amplitude levels ranging (40% and 60% for 10, 15, 25 min; 80% for 3, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 25 min) on the characteristics of purple cactus pear juice. The evaluated parameters were related with the quality (stability, °Brix, pH), microbial growth, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and % chelating activity) of purple cactus pear juices. The ultrasound treatment for time period of 15 and 25 min significantly reduced the microbial count in 15 and 25 min, without affecting the juice quality and its antioxidant properties. Juice treated at 80% of amplitude level showed an increased of antioxidant compounds. Our results demonstrated that sonication is a suitable technique for cactus pear processing. This technology allows the achievement of juice safety and quality standards without compromising the retention of antioxidant compounds. PMID:23545106

Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Yadira; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Villanueva-Sánchez, Javier; Alanís-García, Ernesto

2013-09-01

311

Usual Intake of Fruit juice  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

312

Supplementation of orange juice with docosahexaenoic acid improves plasma phospholipid DHA content of children  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a long-chain, polyunsaturated fatty acid that is important for brain and retinal development. Its principal dietary source in children is fish. Since many children have a low fish intake, there is concern that they do not receive adequate DHA. In older children, it may ...

313

??????????????????????????????????????????????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ??? ?????????????? Determination of Benzoic Acid and Sorbic Acid in Bael Fruit, Rossella Drink and Flavor Concentrate Syrups by Steam Distillation. ????? ????????????* ?????? ??????????? 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

????????: ??????????????????????????????? ????????????? ????????? ?????????????????????? ?????????????? ????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????? ???????????? ????????????????? ?????????? Platinum EPS C18 ??????????????? 0.01 ?????? pH 4.5 ??? ????????????????????????? ??????????? 1.0 ???????????????? ??????????????????????????????? 240???????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???? ??????????????????? 50-1000 ???????????????? ????????????? ??? 90-107% ??? 87-118% ????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????? ??????????? Abstract: Benzoic acid and sorbic acid in bael fruit, rossella drink and flavor concentrate syrups were extracted by steam distillation

Ladda Wattanasiritham; Kulvadee Trongpanich

314

Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) apple juice lowers mutagenicity of aflatoxin B1 in S. typhimurium TA102  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) is a medicinal plant native to Brazil and also yields a nutritious fruit juice. Its large pulpy pseudo-fruit, referred to as the cashew apple, contains high concentrations of vitamin C, carotenoids, phenolic compounds and minerals. Natural and processed cashew apple juice (CAJ\\/cajuina) are amongst the most popular juices in Brazil, especially in the north-east. Both juices have

Ana Amélia Melo Cavalcante; Gabriel Rübensam; Bernardo Erdtmann; Martin Brendel; João A. P. Henriques

2005-01-01

315

Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality  

SciTech Connect

Mature 'McIntosh', 'Empire', and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and in 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0 and pH 3.5. Apple foliage had no acid rain lesions at any of the pH levels tested. Pollen germination was reduced at ph 2.5 in 'Empire'. Slight fruit set reduction at pH 2.5 was observed in 'McIntosh'. The incidence of russetting on 'Golden Delicious' fruits was ameliorated by the presence of rain-exclusion chambers but was not affected by acid rain. With season-long sprays at pH 2.75, there was a slight delay in maturity and lower weight of 'McIntosh' apples. Even at the lowest pH levels no detrimental effects of simulated acid rain were found on apple tree productivity and fruit quality when measured as fruit set, seed number per fruit, and fruit size and appearance.

Forsline, P.L. (Cornell Univ., Geneva, NY); Musselman, R.C.; Kender, W.J.; Dee, R.J.

1983-01-01

316

Free-radical-scavenging activity and total phenols of noni ( Morinda citrifolia L.) juice and powder in processing and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fresh juice of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.), a tropical plant used as a folk medicine in Pacific islands, possessed free-radical-scavenging activity (RSA), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), at 140mg equivalent ascorbic acid\\/100ml and total phenols at 210mg gallic acid\\/100ml. Fermentation of noni fruit for 3months resulted in a loss of more than 90% of RSA. Dehydration at 50°C produced a loss of

J. Yang; R. Paulino; S. Janke-Stedronsky; F. Abawi

2007-01-01

317

Characterisation of phenolic compounds in processed fibres from the juice industry.  

PubMed

The content of phenolic compounds was determined in nine industrially processed fibres derived from the juice industry. Apple, peach, and pear as non-citrus fruit fibres were examined, as well as orange peel and flesh, tangerine peel and flesh, and lemon flesh as citrus fruit fibres, and carrot as vegetable fibre. The extractable phenolic profile of all fibres was obtained by UPLC-PDA-FLR-MS/MS. Forty phenolic compounds were identified and their concentrations determined. In addition, bound phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins were measured in solid residues in order to determine the phenolic compounds remaining. Also, to allow the comparison of the profiles and contents in the fresh fruit and fibres, we analysed extractable and bound phenolic compounds in lyophilized peel and pulp from fresh fruit. The profile and phenolic content of the fibres was similar to that of the fresh fruit, except for flavan-3-ols, which registered lower values. PMID:25442594

Delpino-Rius, Antoni; Eras, Jordi; Vilaró, Francisca; Cubero, Miguel Ángel; Balcells, Mercè; Canela-Garayoa, Ramon

2015-04-01

318

Separation of Hydroxycitric Acid Lactone from Fruit Pectins and Polyhydroxyphenols on Poly(4-Vinylpyridine) Weak-Base Resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVP) has been used for the separation of hydroxycitric acid lactone (HCAL) from polyhydroxyphenols and fruit pectins, as the study has relevance to the problem of extraction of the antiobesity substance hydroxycitric acid from Garcinia cambogia fruits, a rich source of the acid. PVP has been used both in free-base form and in protonated or salt form as a

M. CHANDA; G. L. REMPEL

2000-01-01

319

Linking ascorbic acid production in Ribes nigrum with fruit development and changes in sources and sinks  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Understanding the synthesis of ascorbic acid (l-AsA) in green tissues in model species has advanced considerably; here we focus on its production and accumulation in fruit. In particular, our aim is to understand the links between organs which may be sources of l-AsA (leaves) and those which accumulate it (fruits). The work presented here tests the idea that changes in leaf and fruit number influence the accumulation of l-AsA. The aim was to understand the importance of leaf tissue in the production of l-AsA and to determine how this might provide routes for the manipulation of fruit tissue l-AsA. Methods The experiments used Ribes nigrum (blackcurrant), predominantly in field experiments, where the source–sink relationship was manipulated to alter potential leaf l-AsA production and fruit growth and accumulation of l-AsA. These manipulations included reductions in reproductive capacity, by raceme removal, and the availability of assimilates by leaf removal and branch phloem girdling. Natural variation in fruit growth and fruit abscission is also described as this influences subsequent experimental design and the interpretation of l-AsA data. Key Results Results show that fruit l-AsA concentration is conserved but total yield of l-AsA per plant is dependent on a number of innate factors many of which relate to raceme attributes. Leaf removal and phloem girdling reduced fruit weight, and a combination of both reduced fruit yields further. It appears that around 50 % of assimilates utilized for fruit growth came from apical leaves, while between 20 and 30 % came from raceme leaves, with the remainder from ‘storage’. Conclusions Despite being able to manipulate leaf area and therefore assimilate availability and stored carbohydrates, along with fruit yields, rarely were effects on fruit l-AsA concentration seen, indicating fruit l-AsA production in Ribes was not directly coupled to assimilate supply. There was no supporting evidence that l-AsA production occurred predominantly in green leaf tissue followed by its transfer to developing fruits. It is concluded that l-AsA production occurs predominantly in the fruit of Ribes nigrum. PMID:23419248

Atkinson, Christopher J.; Davies, Michael J.; Taylor, June M.; Longbottom, Helen

2013-01-01

320

Grapefruit juice—simvastatin interaction: Effect on serum concentrations of simvastatin, simvastatin acid, and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Simvastatin is a cholesterol-lowering agent that is metabolized through CYP3A4. We studied the effect of grapefruit juice on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered simvastatin.Methods: In a randomized, 2-phase crossover study, 10 healthy volunteers took either 200 mL double-strength grapefruit juice or water 3 times a day for 2 days. On day 3, each subject ingested 60 mg simvastatin with

Jari J. Lilja; Kari T. Kivistö; Pertti J. Neuvonen

1998-01-01

321

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables: Canned soups--vegetarian Instant potatoes Beets Artichokes Vegetable broth Canned, jarred or packaged fruit Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes Rice milk Boxed, evaporated or powdered milk Fats, Oils, and Sweets: Jarred jams, jellies

O'Toole, Alice J.

322

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables  

E-print Network

Needed Items Fruits and Vegetables: Canned soups--vegetarian Canned fruits or vegetables Canned or Instant potatoes Vegetable broth Dried fruit Fruit and Vegetable Juices Beans, Legumes, Nuts: Garbanzo or powdered milk Fats, Oils, and Sweets: Jarred jams, jellies, or preserves Oils for cooking (canola, olive

O'Toole, Alice J.

323

Total Antioxidant Capacity of Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total antioxidant activity of 12 fruits and 5 commercial fruit juices was measured in this study using automated oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. On the basis of the wet weight of the fruits (edible portion), strawberry had the highest ORAC activity (micromoles of Trolox equivalents per gram) followed by plum, orange, red grape, kiwi fruit, pink grapefruit, white

Hong Wang; Guohua Cao; Ronald L. Prior

1996-01-01

324

7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The juice used in the determining of solids, acids...

2014-01-01

325

7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The juice used in the determining of solids, acids...

2011-01-01

326

7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The juice used in the determining of solids, acids...

2013-01-01

327

7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...United States Standards for Grades of Florida Oranges and Tangelos Standards for Internal Quality of Common Sweet Oranges (citrus Sinensis (l) Osbeck) § 51.1179 Method of juice extraction. The juice used in the determining of solids, acids...

2012-01-01

328

Effects of carrot and tomato juice consumption on faecal markers relevant to colon carcinogenesis in humans.  

PubMed

High intakes of carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables are associated with a reduced risk of various cancers including colon cancer. A human intervention study with carrot and tomato juice should show whether a diet rich in carotenoids, especially high in beta-carotene and lycopene, can modify luminal processes relevant to colon carcinogenesis. In a randomised cross-over trial, twenty-two healthy young men on a low-carotenoid diet consumed 330 ml tomato or carrot juice per d for 2 weeks. Intervention periods were preceded by 2-week depletion phases. At the end of each study period, faeces of twelve volunteers were collected for chemical analyses and use in cell-culture systems. Consumption of carrot juice led to a marked increase of beta-carotene and alpha-carotene in faeces and faecal water, as did lycopene after consumption of tomato juice. In the succeeding depletion phases, carotenoid contents in faeces and faecal water returned to their initial values. Faecal water showed high dose-dependent cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects on colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT29). These effects were not markedly changed by carrot and tomato juice consumption. Neither bile acid concentrations nor activities of the bacterial enzymes beta-glucosidase and beta-glucuronidase in faecal water changed after carrot and tomato juice consumption. Faecal water pH decreased only after carrot juice consumption. SCFA were probably not responsible for this effect, as SCFA concentrations and profiles did not change significantly. In summary, in the present study, 2-week interventions with carotenoid-rich juices led only to minor changes in investigated luminal biomarkers relevant to colon carcinogenesis. PMID:18254985

Schnäbele, Kerstin; Briviba, Karlis; Bub, Achim; Roser, Silvia; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice L; Rechkemmer, Gerhard

2008-03-01

329

[5-hydroxymethylfurfural as indicator of quality of juices for child nutrition].  

PubMed

132 samples of domestic and imported juices and juice concentrates for child nutrition were analyzed on content of 5-hydroxymethylfurfurol (5-HMF), which is considered as an indicator of violation of juice manufacturing technology. The concentrations of 5-HMF in 15.9% of domestic juice samples and 10.3% of imported juice and concentrate samples were found higher than 20 mg/L--maximum level established by AIJN for some juices and nectars. The results confirmed the expediency of including of HMF maximum concentration in hygienic characterization of fruit juices and concentrates as an indicator of violation of their manufacturing and storage procedures. PMID:11517690

Eller, K I; Pimenova, V V; Kon', I Ia

2001-01-01

330

Bell pepper fruit fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase is a cytochrome P450 (CYP74B)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid hydroperoxide lyases cleave a C?C bond adjacent to a hydroperoxide group in lipoxygenase derived lipid hydroperoxides to form short-chain aldehydes and oxo-acids. Previously, we showed that fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase from bell pepper fruits is a heme protein whose spectrophotometric properties greatly resemble a cytochrome P450. In order to ascertain the relationship of it to the P450 gene

Kenji Matsui; Mizuyoshi Shibutani; Toshiharu Hase; Tadahiko Kajiwara

1996-01-01

331

Content variations of triterpenic acid, nucleoside, nucleobase, and sugar in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit during ripening.  

PubMed

Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit is widely consumed as food and traditional Chinese medicine in Asian countries due to its potential effects for human health. To facilitate selection of the maturity stage providing optimum health benefits, jujube fruits were analysed at six stages of growth (S1-6) for triterpenic acids, nucleosides, nucleobases, and sugars by UHPLC-MS/MS or HPLC-ELSD methods. The content levels of most triterpenic acids and sugars increased with ripening, and reached the highest at S5 and S6, respectively. The accumulation of the cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) was mainly in the later stage of ripening (S5-6). Therefore, if taking triterpenic acids as the major quality indicator, S5 should be the ideal time to harvest jujube fruit, and the full ripen stage (S6) maybe the best choice when taking sugars and cyclic nucleotides as the most important components. PMID:25149013

Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Wu, Dawei; Su, Shulan; Wang, Hanqing; Zhao, Yunan

2015-01-15

332

[Contents of tannins and oxalic acid in the selected forest fruits depending on the harvest site].  

PubMed

Contents of anti-nutritional components (tannins and oxalic acid) were determined in samples of forest fruits: blueberry, raspberry and wild strawberry harvested in Lublin region from areas considered as potentially not exposed to pollution (Skierbieszów Landscape Park) and potentially polluted areas (Cement Factory Rejowiec S.A.). Study revealed that blueberry and raspberry fruits collected on potentially polluted area were characterized by higher tannins contents than those harvested on potentially not polluted area. Oxalic acid level in studied material indicated its significantly higher concentration in wild strawberry fruits collected both from not exposed and polluted areas as compared to raspberry and blueberry. Tannins and oxalic acid contents in analyzed berries may be accepted as low and safe for human's health. PMID:18666621

Sembratowicz, Iwona; Ognik, Katarzyna; Rusinek, Elzbieta; Truchli?ski, Jerzy

2008-01-01

333

Immobilization of xylanase purified from Bacillus pumilus VLK-1 and its application in enrichment of orange and grape juices.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of purified free and immobilized xylanase in enrichment of fruit juices. Extracellular xylanase produced from Bacillus pumilus VLK-1 was purified to apparent homogeneity by 15.4-fold with 88.3 % recovery in a single step using CM-Sephadex C-50. Purified xylanase showed a single band on SDS-polyacrylamide gel with a molecular mass of 22.0 kDa. The purified enzyme was immobilized on glutaraldehyde-activated aluminum oxide pellets and the immobilization process parameters were optimized statistically through response surface methodology. The bound enzyme displayed an increase in optimum temperature from 60 to 65?ºC and pH from 8.0 to 9.0. The pH and temperature stability of the enzyme was also enhanced after immobilization. It could be reused for 10 consecutive cycles with 58 % residual enzyme activity. The potential of purified xylanase (free and immobilized) in juice enrichment from grape (Vitis amurensis) and orange (Citrus sinensis) pulps has been investigated. The optimization of this process using free xylanase revealed maximum juice yield, clarity and reducing sugar on treatment with 20 IU/g fruit pulp for 30 min at 50?ºC. Treatment of both the fruit pulps with xylanase under optimized conditions resulted in an increase in juice yield, clarity, reducing sugars, titratable acidity, and filterability but a decline in turbidity and viscosity. Immobilized enzyme was more effective in improving juice quality as compared to its soluble counterpart. The results showed B. pumilus VLK-1 xylanase, in both free and immobilized form, as a potential candidate for use in fruit juice enrichment. PMID:25190829

Kumar, Lalit; Nagar, Sushil; Mittal, Anuradha; Garg, Neelam; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

2014-09-01

334

Ionic liquid-assisted liquid-phase microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic droplets combined with high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of benzoylurea insecticide in fruit juice.  

PubMed

A green, simple, and efficient method, ionic liquid-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic droplets (ILSFOD-LLME) collected via a bell-shaped collection device (BSCD) coupled to high performance liquid chromatography with a variable-wavelength detector, was developed for the preconcentration and analysis of seven benzoylurea insecticides (BUs) in fruit juice. In the proposed method, the low-density solvent 1-dodecanol and the ionic liquid trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate ([P14, 6, 6, 6]PF6) were used as extractant. The extraction solvent droplet was easily collected and separated by the BSCD without centrifugation. The experimental parameters were optimized by the one-factor-at-a-time approach and were followed using an orthogonal array design. The results indicated the different effects of each parameter for extraction efficiency. Under the optimal conditions in the water model, the limits of detection for the analytes varied from 0.03 to 0.28?gL(-1). The enrichment factors ranged from 160 to 246. Linearities were achieved for hexaflumuron and flufenoxuron in the range of 0.5-500?gL(-1), for triflumuron, lufenuron and diafenthiuron in the range of 1-500?gL(-1), and for diflubenzuron and chlorfluazuron in the range of 5-500?gL(-1); the correlation coefficients for the BUs ranged from 0.9960 to 0.9990 with recoveries of 75.6-113.9%. Finally, the developed technique was successfully applied to real fruit juice with acceptable results. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the seven BUs at two spiked levels (50 and 200?gL(-1)) varied between 0.1% and 7.3%. PMID:25124227

Yang, Miyi; Zhang, Panjie; Hu, Lu; Lu, Runhua; Zhou, Wenfeng; Zhang, Sanbing; Gao, Haixiang

2014-09-19

335

Phenolics of Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae) fruits: identification of anthocyanins and gallic acid derivatives.  

PubMed

Arbutus unedo L., the strawberry tree (Ericaceae family), is an evergreen shrub or small tree, typical of the Mediterranean fringe and climate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the profile of the phenolic constituents of A. unedo fruits. Seven compounds were purified by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography of the MeOH extract followed by HPLC and were characterized as arbutin, beta-D-glucogalline, gallic acid 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-galloylquinic acid, 5-O-galloylquinic acid, 3-O-galloylshikimic acid, and 5-O-galloylshikimic acid, by means of NMR and ESI-MS analyses. Moreover, LC-PDA-MS analysis of the red pigment of A. unedo fruits revealed the presence of three anthocyanins recognized as cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside, delphinidin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-arabinopyranoside. These pigments were also quantified. PMID:17177565

Pawlowska, Agata Maria; De Leo, Marinella; Braca, Alessandra

2006-12-27

336

Thermal resistance parameters of acid-adapted and unadapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple-carrot juice blends: effect of organic acids and pH.  

PubMed

Numerous outbreaks involving fresh juices contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 have occurred in the United States and around the world, raising concern for the safety of these products. Until now, only a few studies regarding the thermal tolerance of this pathogen in acidic juices over a wide range of pH values have been published. Therefore, the effect of varying the pH with different organic acids on the thermal inactivation of non-acid-adapted and acid-adapted E. coli O157:H7 (strain C7927) was determined. The decimal reduction times (D-values) and the change in temperature required for the thermal destruction curve to traverse 1 log cycle (z-values) were calculated for non-acid-adapted E. coli in an apple-carrot juice blend (80:20) adjusted to three pH values (3.3, 3.5, and 3.7) by the addition of lactic, malic, or acetic acid and at a pH of 4.5 adjusted with NaOH. Thermal parameters were also determined for acid-adapted cells in juices acidified with malic acid. The effect of the soluble solids content on the thermal tolerance was studied in samples with a pH of 3.7 at 9.4 to 11.5 °Brix. The D-values were determined at 54, 56, and 58 °C, and trials were conducted in triplicate. Non-acid-adapted E. coli exhibited the highest thermal tolerance at pH 4.5 (D-value at 54 °C [D54 °C] of 20 ± 4 min and z-value of 6.2 °C), although on average, the D-values increased significantly (P < 0.01) due to acid adaptation. In acidified juices, the highest tolerance was observed in acid-adapted E. coli in samples adjusted to pH 3.7 with malic acid (D54 °C of 9 ± 2 min and z-value of 5.4 °C) and the lowest in unadapted E. coli at pH 3.3 acidified with acetic acid (D58 °C of 0.03 ± 0.01 min and z-value of 10.4 °C). For juices acidified to the same endpoint pH with different acids, E. coli was found to be more tolerant in samples acidified with malic acid, followed by lactic and acetic acids. Increasing the soluble solids content from 9.4 to 11.5 °Brix showed no significant effect on the thermal tolerance of E. coli (P > 0.01). The data from this study will be useful for establishing critical limits for safe thermal processing of pH-controlled juices and similar products. PMID:24680067

Usaga, Jessie; Worobo, Randy W; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I

2014-04-01

337

The effect of addition of chokeberry, flowering quince fruits and rhubarb juice to strawberry jams on their polyphenol content, antioxidant activity and colour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to establish whether the addition of berries (flowering quince, chokeberry) and rhubarb juice during\\u000a jam processing improves its colour and enriches jams in polyphenol compounds other than those found in strawberries. The sum\\u000a of phenolic compounds determined by HPLC was distributed in a wide concentration range depending on the cultivar. Jams prepared\\u000a from Elkat

Aneta Wojdy?o; Jan Oszmia?ski; Irena Bober

2008-01-01

338

Sensitive determination of organic acid preservatives in juices and soft drinks treated by monolith-based stir cake sorptive extraction and liquid chromatography analysis.  

PubMed

A simple, efficient, and sensitive method for simultaneous determination of sorbic acid (SA), benzoic acid (BA), and cinnamic acid (CA) in juices and soft drinks was developed by stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE) coupling to high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The SCSE based on polymeric ionic liquid-based monolith (PILM) as extractive medium was used to concentrate these three organic acid preservatives. Because hydrophobic and ion-exchange interactions co-contributed to the extraction, the PILM-SCSE exhibited a high extractive capability towards analytes. To obtain optimum extraction performance, several SCSE parameters were investigated and discussed, including desorption solvent, pH value, ionic strength in the sample matrix, and the extraction and desorption time. Under the optimized extraction conditions, limits of detection of 0.16, 1.08, and 0.18 ?g/L (S/N=3) and quantification limits of 0.52, 3.42, and 0.61 (S/N=10) were obtained for SA, BA, and CA, respectively. The method also showed good linearity and reproducibility, as well as advantages such as simplicity, low cost, and high feasibility. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of SA, BA, and CA in real juices and soft drinks, and the recoveries ranged from 63.0 to 107 %. PMID:23307124

Lin, Fuhua; Nong, Shuyu; Huang, Xiaojia; Yuan, Dongxing

2013-02-01

339

Chili pepper fruits: presumed precursors of fatty acids characteristic for capsaicinoids.  

PubMed

Capsaicin is a molecule unique to fruits from the genus Capsicum. It is responsible for the pungent sensation and displays valuable pharmacological properties. Despite the fruits' economic importance and decades of research, the regulation of the content of capsaicinoids in individual fruits is not completely elucidated, and no agricultural cultivation of chili of defined pungency is assured. Precursor candidates of the fatty acid moiety of the capsaicinoids, especially for the unique 8-methyl- trans-6-nonenoic acid, were examined. Thioesters, acyl-ACP and acyl-CoA, were isolated from the placenta of Capsicum fruits by means of DEAE-Sepharose chromatography, selectively converted to the corresponding N-butylamides, and analyzed by GC-MS. Fatty acid moieties characteristic for capsaicinoids were identified. In two different varieties ( Capsicum chinense var. Habanero orange and Capsicum annuum var. Jalapeno) it was shown that the fatty acid pattern corresponds to the distribution pattern of the capsaicinoids formed up to this time. The acyl-thioester fractions contained already the 8-methyl- trans-6-nonenoic acid. PMID:18489121

Thiele, Roland; Mueller-Seitz, Erika; Petz, Michael

2008-06-11

340

Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality  

SciTech Connect

Mature McIntosh, Empire, and Golden Delicious apple trees (Malus domestica) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0 and 3.5. Apple foliage had no acid rain lesions at any of the pH levels tested. Pollen germination was reduced at pH 2.5 in Empire. Slight fruit set reduction at pH 2.5 was observed in McIntosh. Even at the lowest pH levels no detrimental effects of simulated acid rain were found on apple tree productivity and fruit quality when measured as fruit set, seed number per fruit, and fruit size and appearance.

Forsline, P.L.; Musselman, R.C.; Kender, W.J.; Dee, R.J.

1983-01-01

341

HPLC method for the simultaneous quantification of the major organic acids in Angeleno plum fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method was developed to profile major organic acids in Angeleno fruit by high performance liquid chromatography. Organic acids in plum were extracted by water with ultra- sonication at 50°C for 30 min. The extracts were chromatographed on Waters Atlantis T3 C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 ?m) with 0.01mol/L sulfuric acid and water as mobile phase, and flow rate was 0.5 ml/min. The column temperature was 40C, and chromatography was monitored by a diode array detector at 210 nm. The result showed that malic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid, pyruvic acid, acetic acid, succinic acid in Angeleno plum, and the malic acid was the major organic acids. The coefficient of determination of the standard calibration curve is R2 > 0.999. The organic acids recovery ranged from 99.11% for Malic acid to 106.70% for Oxalic acid, and CV (n=6) ranged from 0.95% for Malic acid to 6.23% for Oxalic acid, respectively. The method was accurate, sensitive and feasible in analyzing the organic acids in Angeleno plum.

Wang, Yanwei; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Wei; Zhao, Zhilei; Cao, Jiankang

2014-08-01

342

Determination and stereochemistry of proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic amino acids in Saudi Arabian date fruits.  

PubMed

Whereas an abundance of literature is available on the occurrence of common proteinogenic amino acids (AAs) in edible fruits of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), recent reports on non-proteinogenic (non-coded) AAs and amino components are scarce. With emphasis on these components we have analyzed total hydrolysates of twelve cultivars of date fruits using automated ion-exchange chromatography, HPLC employing a fluorescent aminoquinolyl label, and GC-MS of total hydrolysates using the chiral stationary phases Chirasil(®)-L-Val and Lipodex(®) E. Besides common proteinogenic AAs, relatively large amounts of the following non-proteinogenic amino acids were detected: (2S,5R)-5-hydroxypipecolic acid (1.4-4.0 g/kg dry matter, DM), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (1.3-2.6 g/kg DM), ?-amino-n-butyric acid (0.5-1.2 g/kg DM), (2S,4R)-4-hydroxyproline (130-230 mg/kg DM), L-pipecolic acid (40-140 mg/kg DM), and 2-aminoethanol (40-160 mg/kg DM) as well as low or trace amounts (<70 mg/kg DM) of L-ornithine, 5-hydroxylysine, ?-alanine, and in some samples (<20 mg/kg DM) of (S)-?-aminoisobutyric acid and (<10 mg/kg DM) L-allo-isoleucine. In one date fruit, traces of ?-aminoadipic acid could be determined. Enantiomeric analysis of 6 M DCl/D2O hydrolysates of AAs using chiral capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of very low amounts of D-Ala, D-Asp, D-Glu, D-Ser and D-Phe (1.2-0.4%, relative to the corresponding L-enantiomers), besides traces (0.2-1%) of other D-AAs. The possible relevance of non-proteinogenic amino acids in date fruits is briefly addressed. PMID:24938763

Ali, Hatem Salama Mohamed; Alhaj, Omar Amin; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman Saleh; Brückner, Hans

2014-09-01

343

Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products.  

PubMed

Date fruit has served as a staple food in the Arab world for centuries. Worldwide production of date fruit has increased almost threefold over the last 40 years, reaching 7.68 million tons in 2010. Date fruit can provide many essential nutrients and potential health benefits to the consumer. Date fruit goes through four ripening stages named kimri, khalal, rutab and tamer. The main chemical components of date fruit include carbohydrates, dietary fibre, enzymes, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids and carotenoids. The chemical composition of date fruit varies according to ripening stage, cultivar, growing environment, postharvest conditions, etc. The nutritional and medicinal activities of date fruit are related to its chemical composition. Many studies have shown that date fruit has antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer and immunostimulant activities. Various date fruit-based products such as date syrup, date paste, date juice and their derived products are available. Date by-products can be used as raw materials for the production of value-added products such as organic acids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics, date-flavoured probiotic-fermented dairy produce, bakery yeasts, etc. In this paper the chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal values of date fruit as well as date fruit-based products are reviewed. PMID:23553505

Tang, Zhen-Xing; Shi, Lu-E; Aleid, Salah M

2013-08-15

344

Fatty Acid, Tocopherol and Sterol Compositions of Canadian Prairie Fruit Seed Lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seeds of four prairie fruits—chokecherry (Prunus virginiana), thorny buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea), Woods’ rose (Rosa woodsii) and hawthorn (Crataegus × mordenensis)—from Southern Alberta were investigated. The lipid contents of the seeds were found to be 10.4, 11.5, 3.7 and 3.4%, respectively.\\u000a The tested seed lipids contained mainly linoleic acid in the range from 27.9 to 65.6% and oleic acid from 19.7 to

Farooq Anwar; Roman Przybylski; Magdalena Rudzinska; Eliza Gruczynska; John Bain

2008-01-01

345

In vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities of an antioxidant-rich fruit and berry juice blend. Results of a pilot and randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study.  

PubMed

This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of a juice blend (JB), MonaVie Active, containing a mixture of fruits and berries with known antioxidant activity, including acai, a palm fruit, as the predominant ingredient. The phytochemical antioxidants in the JB are primarily in the form of anthocyanins, predominantly cyanidin 3-rutoside, cyanidin 3-diglycoside, and cyanidin 3-glucoside. The cell-based antioxidant protection of erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay demonstrated that antioxidants in the JB penetrated and protected cells from oxidative damage ( p < 0.001), whereas polymorphonuclear cells showed reduced formation of reactive oxygen species ( p < 0.003) and reduced migration toward three different pro-inflammatory chemoattractants: fmlp ( p < 0.001), leukotriene B4 ( p < 0.05), and IL-8 ( p < 0.03). A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial with 12 healthy subjects examined the JB's antioxidant activity in vivo. Blood samples at baseline, 1 h, and 2 h following consumption of the JB or placebo were tested for antioxidant capacity using several antioxidant assays and the TBARS assay, a measure of lipid peroxidation. A within subject comparison showed an increase in serum antioxidants at 1 h ( p < 0.03) and 2 h ( p < 0.015), as well as inhibition of lipid peroxidation at 2 h ( p < 0.01) postconsumption. PMID:18717569

Jensen, Gitte S; Wu, Xianli; Patterson, Kelly M; Barnes, Janelle; Carter, Steve G; Scherwitz, Larry; Beaman, Robert; Endres, John R; Schauss, Alexander G

2008-09-24

346

SENSORY PROFILE OF PINEAPPLE JUICE PROCESSED BY HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat leads to quality changes in sensory and nutritional characteristics of foods. High hydrostatic pressure is being investigated, as a processing that may destroy undesired microorganisms, while preserving sensory and nutritional characteristics. One of the most promising segments in Brazil is fruit juice, and evaluating its sensory profile is a valuable tool to improve the juice quality. The objective of

Aline M. de Barros; Rosires Deliza; Lúcia H. E. S. Laboissière; Amauri Rosenthal; Helena M. A. Bolini

347

Improving survival of probiotic bacteria using bacterial poly-?-glutamic acid.  

PubMed

A major hurdle in producing a useful probiotic food product is bacterial survival during storage and ingestion. The aim of this study was to test the effect of ?-PGA immobilisation on the survival of probiotic bacteria when stored in acidic fruit juice. Fruit juices provide an alternative means of probiotic delivery, especially to lactose intolerant individuals. In addition, the survival of ?-PGA-immobilised cells in simulated gastric juice was also assessed. Bifidobacteria strains (Bifidobacteria longum, Bifidobacteria breve), immobilised on 2.5% ?-PGA, survived significantly better (P<0.05) in orange and pomegranate juice for 39 and 11days respectively, compared to free cells. However, cells survived significantly better (P<0.05) when stored in orange juice compared to pomegranate juice. Moreover, both strains, when protected with 2.5% ?-PGA, survived in simulated gastric juice (pH2.0) with a marginal reduction (<0.47 log CFU/ml) or no significant reduction in viable cells after 4h, whereas free cells died within 2h. In conclusion, this research indicates that ?-PGA can be used to protect Bifidobacteria cells in fruit juice, and could also help improve the survival of cells as they pass through the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Following our previous report on the use of ?-PGA as a cryoprotectant for probiotic bacteria, this research further suggests that ?-PGA could be used to improve probiotic survival during the various stages of preparation, storage and ingestion of probiotic cells. PMID:25506798

Bhat, A R; Irorere, V U; Bartlett, T; Hill, D; Kedia, G; Charalampopoulos, D; Nualkaekul, S; Radecka, I

2015-03-01

348

Thermal stability of anthocyanins and colourless phenolics in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juices and model solutions.  

PubMed

The present study aimed at a systematic assessment of the factors influencing the anthocyanin (AC) stability and colour retention of pomegranate juices and less complex model solutions with particular focus on the effects of colourless phenolic copigments (CP). The thermal stability of ACs in three pomegranate juices obtained from isolated arils and the entire fruit with and without previous steaming, in model solutions with AC:CP ratios ranging from 1:0 to 1:4 (m/m), and in two purified extracts from pomegranate juices characterised by different phenolic profiles, respectively, was investigated upon heating at 60, 70, 80 and 90°C for 15 min to 5h. The thermal impact on the AC and CP contents, and the formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and AC degradation products were monitored using HPLC-DAD-MS(n). Total phenolic contents, antioxidant capacity and colour properties were determined spectrophotometrically. Heating at 90°C for 5h resulted in total AC losses ranging from 76% to 87% of the initial AC levels in the juices, 78% in both extracts as well as 57% and ?78% in the model solutions, showing the best stability at an AC:CP ratio of 1:2 and in juices having the highest initial AC contents, respectively. In contrast, the AC stability was independent of total phenolic contents, and low and high molecular pomegranate matrix components (such as organic acids and sugars). Good correlation of the AC contents with red colour (a(?)) was observed for all samples at elevated temperatures (70-90°C). The stability of putative health-promoting polyphenols of pomegranate juices was not markedly affected by the thermal treatment. Unexpectedly, the HMF contents only slightly increased upon forced heating. Therefore, the visual appearance does not adequately reflect the quality and storage stability of pomegranate juices. PMID:23411312

Fischer, Ulrike A; Carle, Reinhold; Kammerer, Dietmar R

2013-06-01

349

Changes in sugars and organic acids in wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruit during development and maturation.  

PubMed

Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fruits of three cultivars ('Damaye', 'Baihua' and 'Ningqi No.1') were harvested at five different ripening stages and evaluated for sugars and organic acids. Fructose, glucose and total sugar contents increased continually through development and reached their maxima at 34 days after full bloom (DAF). Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars at maturity, while sucrose content had reduced by maturity. L.barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) content was in the range of 13.03-76.86 mg g(-1)FW during ripening, with a maximum at 20DAF. Citric, tartaric and quinic acids were the main organic acid components during development, and their levels followed similar trends: the highest contents were at 30, 14 and 20DAF, respectively. The significant correlations of fructose and total sugar contents with LBP content during fruit development indicated that they played a key role in LBP accumulation. PMID:25466081

Zhao, Jianhua; Li, Haoxia; Xi, Wanpeng; An, Wei; Niu, Linlin; Cao, Youlong; Wang, Huafang; Wang, Yajun; Yin, Yue

2015-04-15

350

Dynamics of fatty-acid composition of neutral acylglycerols in maturing euonymus fruits.  

PubMed

The dynamics of the fatty-acid (FA) composition of neutral acylglycerols (NAGs) composed of 1,2,3-triacyl-sn-glycerols (TAGs) and 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols (acDAGs) was determined in the fruit seeds and arils of three Euonymus L. species at three stages of their maturity. The NAG composition comprised 29 FAs, linoleic, oleic, palmitic, and ?-linolenic acids being predominant. Noticeable amounts of other FAs, such as lauric, myristic, hexadec-9-enoic, stearic, (Z)-vaccenic, and arachidic acid, etc., could also be present. In the course of maturation, the qualitative composition of major FAs remained nearly unchanged, while the unsaturation index of FAs in seeds and in TAGs, as well as, but to a lesser extent, in arils and in acDAGs, respectively, always decreased. This decline was brought about by a sharp fall of the ?-linolenate level, a decrease of the linoleate content, and a corresponding rise in the oleate content. It is suggested that, in both seeds and arils, both classes of NAGs were formed at the expense of the same FA pool; the quantitative composition of this pool was characteristic of a given fruit part and strongly changed during maturation. The accumulation of TAGs in E. europaeus fruits was accompanied by a conversion of hexadec-9-enoic acid into (Z)-vaccenic acid via the C2 -elongation reaction. PMID:24706628

Sidorov, Roman A; Zhukov, Anatoly V; Pchelkin, Vasily P; Vereshchagin, Andrei G; Tsydendambaev, Vladimir D

2014-04-01

351

Expression and regulation of pear 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase gene (PpACS1a) during fruit ripening, under salicylic acid and indole-3-acetic acid treatment, and in diseased fruit.  

PubMed

In plants, the level of ethylene is determined by the activity of the key enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS). A gene encoding an ACC synthase protein was isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia). This gene designated PpACS1a (GenBank accession no. KC632526) was 1488 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 495 amino acids that shared high similarity with other pear ACC synthase proteins. The PpACS1a was grouped into type-1 subfamily of plant ACS based on its conserved domain and phylogenetic status. Real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PpACS1a was differentially expressed in pear tissues and predominantly expressed in anthers. The expression signal of PpACS1a was also detected in fruit and leaves, but no signal was detected in shoots and petals. Furthermore, the PpACS1a expression was regulated during fruit ripening. In addition, the PpACS1a gene expression was regulated by salicylic acid (SA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in fruit. Moreover, the expression of the PpACS1a was up-regulated in diseased pear fruit. These results indicated that PpACS1a might be involved in fruit ripening and response to SA, IAA and disease. PMID:24562629

Shi, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Xing

2014-06-01

352

Morus Alba Fruit Herbal alternative to synthetic Acid Base indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indicators used in titration show well marked changes of colour in certain intervals of pH. Most of these indicators are organic dyes and are of synthetic origin. Morus alba linn belonging to the family: Moraceae (Urticaceae); it is commonly called as white Mullberry; toola; tuk; shetu. Today synthetic indicators are the choice of acid-base titrations. But due to environmental pollution,

K. S. Pathade; S. B. Patil; M. S. Kondawar; N. S. Naikwade; C. S. Magdum

353

Physical and chemical properties of pomegranate fruit accessions from Croatia.  

PubMed

The objective was to evaluate physical and chemical properties of eight pomegranate accessions (seven cultivars and one wild genotype) collected from the Mediterranean region of Croatia. Accessions showed high variability in fruit weight and size, calyx and peel properties, number of arils per fruit, total aril weight, and aril and juice yield. Variables that define sweet taste, such as low total acidity (TA; 0.37-0.59%), high total soluble solids content (TSS; 12.5-15.0%) and their ratio (TSS/TA) were evaluated, and results generally aligned with sweetness classifications of the fruit. Pomegranate fruit had a high variability in total phenolic content (1985.6-2948.7mg/L). HPLC-MALDI-TOF/MS analysis showed that accessions with dark red arils had the highest total anthocyanin content, with cyanidin 3-glucoside as the most abundant compound. Principal component analysis revealed great differences in fruit physical characteristics and chemical composition among pomegranate accessions. PMID:25660857

Raduni?, Mira; Juki? Špika, Maja; Goreta Ban, Smiljana; Gadže, Jelena; Díaz-Pérez, Juan Carlos; MacLean, Dan

2015-06-15

354

Synthesis of gold nanoparticles using renewable Punica granatum juice and study of its catalytic activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Punica granatum juice, a delicious multivitamin drink of great medicinal significance, is rich in different types of phytochemicals, such as terpenoids, alkaloids, sterols, polyphenols, sugars, fatty acids, aromatic compounds, amino acids, tocopherols, etc. We have demonstrated the use of the juice for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at room temperature under very mild conditions. The synthesis of the AuNPs was complete in few minutes and no extra stabilizing or capping agents were necessary. The size of the nanoparticles could be controlled by varying the concentration of the fruit extract. The AuNPs were characterized by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. Catalytic activity of the synthesized colloidal AuNPs has also been demonstrated.

Dash, Shib Shankar; Bag, Braja Gopal

2014-01-01

355

Antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and total phenol of exotic fruits occurring in Brazil.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and phenolic content were studied in 10 exotic fruits from Brazil: abiu, acerola, wax jambu, cashew, mamey sapote, carambola or star fruit, Surinam cherry, longan, sapodilla and jaboticaba. The ascorbic acid was determined by 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetic methods and total phenols were measured colorimetrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The antioxidant activity was investigated with three different methods: hypochlorous acid scavenging activity, 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation decolorization assay, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The highest content of vitamin C (1,525.00 mg/100 g pulp) occurred in acerola. The total phenol content was higher in abiu, acerola, Surinam cherry and sapodilla. In relation to antioxidant activity, acerola has showed the great values in all three different methods tested. It was found that the fruits have a significant antioxidant effect when tested by each method, respectively, and these antioxidant capacities are promising. The sample concentration also influenced its antioxidant power. PMID:18785051

de Assis, Sandra Aparecida; Vellosa, José Carlos Rebuglio; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenço; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Leite, Kátia Maria da Silva Cerqueira; Martins, Antonio Baldo Geraldo; Oliveira, Olga Maria Mascarenhas de Faria

2009-08-01

356

Chlorogenic acid content swap during fruit maturation in Coffea pseudozanguebariae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorogenic acids (CGA) are products of phenylpropanoid metabolism, i.e. one branch of the phenolic pathway. A wild species, Coffea pseudozanguebariae, native of East Africa, is a caffeine-free species with low CGA content (1.2% dmb in green beans). It is also used as a gene donor to improve C. canephora cup taste quality. In the current study, contents of the different

Claire Bertrand; Michel Noirot; Sylvie Doulbeau; Alexandre de Kochko; Serge Hamon; Claudine Campa

2003-01-01

357

Differential expression of fatty acid synthase genes, Acl, Fat and Kas, in Capsicum fruit.  

PubMed

The biosynthesis of capsaicinoids in the placenta of chilli fruit is modelled to require components of the fatty acid synthase (FAS) complex. Three candidate genes for subunits in this complex, Kas, Acl, and Fat, isolated based on differential expression, were characterized. Transcription of these three genes was placental-specific and RNA abundance was positively correlated with degree of pungency. Kas and Acl were mapped to linkage group 1 and Fat to linkage group 6. None of the genes is linked to the pungency locus, C, on linkage group 2. KAS accumulation was positively correlated with pungency. Western blots of placental extracts and histological sections both demonstrated that the accumulation of this enzyme was correlated with fruit pungency and KAS was immunolocalized to the expected cell layer, the placental epidermis. Enzyme activity of the recombinant form of the placental-specific KAS was confirmed using crude cell extracts. These FAS components are fruit-specific members of their respective gene families. These genes are predicted to be associated with Capsicum fruit traits, for example, capsaicinoid biosynthesis or fatty acid biosynthesis necessary for placental development. PMID:12810854

Aluru, Maneesha R; Mazourek, Michael; Landry, Laurie G; Curry, Jeanne; Jahn, Molly; O'Connell, Mary A

2003-07-01

358

Sensitive cell-based assay using DCFH oxidation for the determination of pro- and antioxidant properties of compounds and mixtures: Analysis of fruit and vegetable juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive oxygen species play a critical role in cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, cancer and aging. Diets rich in foods containing antioxidants, such as fruits and vegetables, could help prevent these pathologies. It is therefore important to properly assay the antioxidant potentials of these antioxidant foods in order to have a guideline for their proper use. Actual in vitro

Karl Girard-Lalancette; André Pichette; Jean Legault

2009-01-01

359

A 7-ITEM VERSUS A 31-ITEM FOOD FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE FOR MEASURING FRUIT, JUICE AND VEGETABLE INTAKE AMONG A PREDOMINANTLY AFRICAN AMERICAN POPULATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study sought to determine which of 2 fruit and vegetable food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) most closely approximated intake measured by the average of four 24-hour dietary recalls. Participants completed either a 31-item FFQ (n = 70) or 7-item FFQ (n = 76) on 2 occasions approximately 2 week...

360

Cabbage Juice Indicator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this chemistry activity, learners make indicator solution from red cabbage. Then, learners test everyday foods and household substances using the cabbage juice indicator. Learners will record the color change, approximate pH (using the pH scale), and identify if it is an acid or base. As an extension, learners can make pH paper strips to conduct an "at home" pH test of other household items. The indicator solution can be frozen in ice trays and when mixed with alcohol, can last for months. For safety reasons, adult supervision is recommended.

The Science House

2014-01-28

361

Evidence for 1-(Malonylamino)cyclopropane-1Carboxylic Acid Being the Major Conjugate of Aminocyclopropane-1- Carboxylic Acid in Tomato Fruit1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller) fruit discs fed with (2,3-14C)1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) formed 1-malonyl-ACC (MACC) as the major conjugate of ACC in fruit throughout all ripening stages, from immature-green through the red-ripe stage. Another conjugate of ACC, g-glutamyl-ACC (GACC), was formed only in mature-green fruit in an amount about 10% of that of MACC; conjugation of ACC into GACC was not

Galen Peiser; Shang Fa Yang

362

Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS  

SciTech Connect

A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15mx0.25mm, 0.25{mu}m film thickness, in a temperature program from 50 deg. C for 1 min, then ramped at 15 deg. C/min to 300 deg. C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

Culea, M. [Faculty of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

2007-04-23

363

Sterol Profile for Natural Juices Authentification by GC-MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A GC-MS analytical method is described for some natural juices analysis. The fingerprint of sterols was used to characterize the natural juice. A rapid liquid-liquid extraction method was used. The sterols were separated on a Rtx-5MS capillary column, 15m×0.25mm, 0.25?m film thickness, in a temperature program from 50°C for 1 min, then ramped at 15°C/min to 300°C and held for 15 min. Identification of sterols and their patterns were used for juice characterization. The sterol profile is a useful approach for confirming the presence of juices of orange, grapefruit, pineapple and passion fruit in compounded beverages and for detecting of adulteration of fruit juices.

Culea, M.

2007-04-01

364

Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.  

PubMed

Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea. PMID:23909609

Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

2013-09-01

365

Regulation of fruit ascorbic acid concentrations during ripening in high and low vitamin C tomato cultivars  

PubMed Central

Background To gain insight into the regulation of fruit ascorbic acid (AsA) pool in tomatoes, a combination of metabolite analyses, non-labelled and radiolabelled substrate feeding experiments, enzyme activity measurements and gene expression studies were carried out in fruits of the ‘low-’ and ‘high-AsA’ tomato cultivars ‘Ailsa Craig’ and ‘Santorini’ respectively. Results The two cultivars exhibited different profiles of total AsA (totAsA, AsA + dehydroascorbate) and AsA accumulation during ripening, but both displayed a characteristic peak in concentrations at the breaker stage. Substrate feeding experiments demonstrated that the L-galactose pathway is the main AsA biosynthetic route in tomato fruits, but that substrates from alternative pathways can increase the AsA pool at specific developmental stages. In addition, we show that young fruits display a higher AsA biosynthetic capacity than mature ones, but this does not lead to higher AsA concentrations due to either enhanced rates of AsA breakdown (‘Ailsa Craig’) or decreased rates of AsA recycling (‘Santorini’), depending on the cultivar. In the later stages of ripening, differences in fruit totAsA-AsA concentrations of the two cultivars can be explained by differences in the rate of AsA recycling activities. Analysis of the expression of AsA metabolic genes showed that only the expression of one orthologue of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (SlGGP1), and of two monodehydroascorbate reductases (SlMDHAR1 and SlMDHAR3) correlated with the changes in fruit totAsA-AsA concentrations during fruit ripening in ‘Ailsa Craig’, and that only the expression of SlGGP1 was linked to the high AsA concentrations found in red ripe ‘Santorini’ fruits. Conclusions Results indicate that ‘Ailsa Craig’ and ‘Santorini’ use complementary mechanisms to maintain the fruit AsA pool. In the low-AsA cultivar (‘Ailsa Craig’), alternative routes of AsA biosynthesis may supplement biosynthesis via L-galactose, while in the high-AsA cultivar (‘Santorini’), enhanced AsA recycling activities appear to be responsible for AsA accumulation in the later stages of ripening. Gene expression studies indicate that expression of SlGGP1 and two orthologues of SlMDHAR are closely correlated with totAsA-AsA concentrations during ripening and are potentially good candidates for marker development for breeding and selection. PMID:23245200

2012-01-01

366

The Effect of Bioactive Compounds on In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Different Berry Juices  

PubMed Central

Background Berry fruit is known for its high contents of various bioactive compounds. The latter constitute of anthocyanins, flavonols and flavanols and posses high antioxidative activity. The highly dynamic antioxidant system can be evaluated in vitro and in vivo in several model organisms. These measurements represent a good approximation of the real potential of bioactive compounds in the cells of higher eucarions. The aim of the study was thus to determine in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of different berry juices, which reportedly contain high amounts of phenolics. Methodology/Principal Findings Five different berry species were collected from several locations in central Slovenia and juice was extracted from each species separately. Juice was assessed for their in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity. Phenolic profiles of berries were determined with the use of a HPLC/MS system, in vitro antioxidant activity with the DPPH radical scavenging method and in vivo antioxidative activity using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The highest diversity of individual phenols was detected for bilberry juice. The highest in vitro antioxidant capacity was determined for blackcurrant juice. A decrease in intracellular oxidation compared to control was observed in the following order: blackcurrant < chokeberry?=?blueberry < bilberry. The results indicate important differences in antioxidant activity of berry juices between in vitro and in vivo studies. Conclusion/Significance In addition to the total content of phenolic compounds entering the cells, a key factor determining antioxidative activity of berry juices is also the ratio between the compounds. Where high content levels of anthocyanins and very low content levels of flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids were measured a lower intracellular oxidation has been detected. Specifically, intracellular oxidation increased with higher consumption of hydroxycinnamic acids and lower consumption of anthocyanins in the cells. Antioxidative activity also increased when the consumption of analyzed phenols was rather low. PMID:23110118

Slatnar, Ana; Jakopic, Jerneja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Jamnik, Polona

2012-01-01

367

The fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (noni) downregulates HIF-1? protein expression through inhibition of PKB, ERK-1/2, JNK-1 and S6 in manganese-stimulated A549 human lung cancer cells.  

PubMed

High exposure of manganese is suggested to be a risk factor for many lung diseases. Evidence suggests anticancerous and antiangiogenic effects by products derived from Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit. In this study, we investigated the effect of noni fruit juice (NFJ) on the expression of HIF-1?, a tumor angiogenic transcription factor in manganese-chloride (manganese)-stimulated A549 human lung carcinoma cells. Treatment with manganese largely induced expression of HIF-1? protein but did not affect HIF-1? mRNA expression in A549 cells, suggesting the metal-mediated co- and/or post-translational HIF-1? upregulation. Manganese treatment also led to increased phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated protein kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase-1 (JNK-1), protein kinase B (PKB), S6 and eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2? (eIF-2?) in A549 cells. Of note, the exposure of NFJ inhibited the manganese-induced HIF-1? protein upregulation in a concentration-dependent manner. Importantly, as assessed by results of pharmacological inhibition and siRNA transfection studies, the effect of NFJ on HIF-1? protein downregulation seemed to be largely associated with the ability of NFJ to interfere with the metal's signaling to activate PKB, ERK-1/2, JNK-1 and S6 in A549 cells. It was further shown that NFJ could repress the induction of HIF-1? protein by desferoxamine or interleukin-1? (IL-1?), another HIF-1? inducer in A549 cells. Thus, the present study provides the first evidence that NFJ has the ability to strongly downregulate manganese-induced HIF-1? protein expression in A549 human lung cancer cells, which may suggest the NFJ-mediated beneficial effects on lung pathologies in which manganese and HIF-1? overexpression play pathogenic roles. PMID:22179285

Jang, Byeong-Churl

2012-03-01

368

Concord grape juice supplementation and neurocognitive function in human aging.  

PubMed

Polyphenol compounds found in berry fruits, in particular flavonoids, have been associated with health benefits including improvement in cognition and neuronal function with aging. Concord grape juice contains polyphenols, including anthocyanins and flavanols, and previous research has shown improvement in a number of human health conditions with grape juice supplementation. In the current study, older adult subjects with mild cognitive impairment consumed Concord grape juice or placebo for 16 weeks and were administered assessments of memory function and brain activation pre- and postintervention. Participants who consumed grape juice showed reduced semantic interference on memory tasks. Relatively greater activation in anterior and posterior regions of the right hemisphere was also observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging in the grape juice treated subjects. These findings provide further evidence that Concord grape juice can enhance neurocognitive function in older adults with mild memory decline. PMID:22468945

Krikorian, Robert; Boespflug, Erin L; Fleck, David E; Stein, Amanda L; Wightman, Jolynne D; Shidler, Marcelle D; Sadat-Hossieny, Sara

2012-06-13

369

Biothiols, taurine, and lipid-soluble antioxidants in the edible pulp of Sicilian cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruits and changes of bioactive juice components upon industrial processing.  

PubMed

Biothiols, taurine, and flavonols, as well as tocopherols and carotenoids have been assessed in the edible pulp of Sicilian red (Sanguigna), yellow (Surfarina), and white (Muscaredda) cultivars of cactus pear. The yellow cultivar has the highest level of reduced glutathione (GSH, 8.1 +/- 0.78 mg/100 g pulp), whereas the white cultivar showed the highest amount of cysteine (1.21 +/- 0.12 mg/100 g pulp). Taurine accounted for 11.7 +/- 1.0 mg/100 g in the yellow pulp, while lower levels were measured in the others. With the exception of kaempferol in the yellow cultivar (2.7 +/- 0.2 microg/100 g pulp), the edible pulp of cactus pear was not a source of flavonols. Very low amounts of lipid-soluble antioxidant vitamins such as vitamin E and carotenoids were measured in all cultivars. As a consequence of industrial processing, a total loss of GSH and beta-carotene and a net decrease of vitamin C and cysteine were revealed in the fruit juice, whereas betalains, taurine, and vitamin E appeared to be less susceptible to degradation. PMID:16190641

Tesoriere, L; Fazzari, M; Allegra, M; Livrea, M A

2005-10-01

370

Mesophilic batch anaerobic co-digestion of fruit-juice industrial waste and municipal waste sludge: process and cost-benefit analysis.  

PubMed

The feasibility of anaerobic co-digestion of two juice-based beverage industrial wastes, screen cake (SC) and thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS), along with municipal sludge cake (MC) was investigated. Experiments were conducted in twenty mesophilic batch 160 ml serum bottles with no inhibition occurred. The statistical analysis proved that the substrate type had statistically significant effect on both ultimate biogas and methane yields (P=0.0003<0.05). The maximum and minimum ultimate cumulative methane yields were 890.90 and 308.34 mL/g-VSremoved from the digesters containing only TWAS and SC as substrate. First-order reaction model well described VS utilization in all digesters. The first 2-day and 10-day specific biodegradation rate constants were statistically higher in the digesters containing SC (P=0.004<0.05) and MC (P=0.0005<0.05), respectively. The cost-benefit analysis showed that the capital, operating and total costs can be decreased by 21.5%, 29.8% and 27.6%, respectively using a co-digester rather than two separate digesters. PMID:24280084

Hosseini Koupaie, E; Barrantes Leiva, M; Eskicioglu, C; Dutil, C

2014-01-01

371

Survival and development of immature stages of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit.  

PubMed

We studied, under laboratory conditions, the performance of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), immature stages in intact whole fruit of three sweet orange varieties, lemon, and bitter oranges. Both citrus variety and fruit part (flavedo, albedo, and pulp) had strong effects on larval performance, smaller effects on pupae, and no effects on eggs. Fruit peel was the most critical parameter for larval development and survival, drastically affecting larval survival (inducing very high mortality rates). Among fruit regions, survival of larvae placed in flavedo was zero for all varieties tested except for bitter orange (22.5% survival), whereas survival in albedo was very low (9.8-17.4%) for all varieties except for bitter orange (76%). Survival of pupae obtained from larvae placed in the above-mentioned fruit regions was high for all varieties tested (81.1-90.7%). Fruit pulp of all citrus fruit tested was favorable for larval development. The highest survival was observed on bitter oranges, but the shortest developmental times and heaviest pupae were obtained from orange cultivars. Pulp chemical properties, such as soluble solid contents, acidity, and pH had rather small effects on larval and pupal survival and developmental time (except for juice pH on larvae developmental duration), but they had significant effects on pupal weight. PMID:18613588

Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Nanos, George D

2008-06-01

372

Protective effect of Öküzgözü (Vitis vinifera L. cv.) grape juice against carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative stress in rats.  

PubMed

The consumption of fruits plays an important role as a health protecting factor. Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are believed to have health benefits due to their antioxidant activity. Öküzgözü is the largest among the grape varieties grown in Turkey. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl?) causes free radical generation in many tissues such as the liver, kidney, heart, lung, testis, brain and blood. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the only drug to treat primary biliary cirrhosis, but the effects remain controversial. The aim of the present study is to investigate the protective effect of Öküzgözü grape juice or UDCA against tissue damage induced by CCl? in rats. The amount of total phenolics and flavonoids were found to be 1208.00 +/- 43.00 ?g ml?¹ as the gallic acid equivalent and 5.2 +/- 0.19 ?g ml?¹ as the quercitin equivalent in Öküzgözü grape juice, respectively. In vivo administration of CCl? caused a significant increase of various biochemical parameters such as alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), total bilirubin (TB) and a decrease in albumin (ALB) levels in serum or an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the tissues when compared to a control. Administration of CCl? along with Öküzgözü grape juice or ursodeoxycolic acid (UDCA) significantly reduces these changes. Histopathalogical studies also support the protective effect of the extract. This study demonstrates the protective activity of Öküzgözü grape juice and thus scientifically supports the usage of this fruit in various traditional medicines for the treatment of tissue disorders. The effect of Öküzgözü grape juice was comparable with that of UDCA. PMID:22434241

Pirinççio?lu, Mihdiye; K?z?l, Göksel; K?z?l, Murat; Özdemir, Gültekin; Kanay, Zeki; Ketani, M Ayd?n

2012-06-01

373

High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of amino acids in ackee fruit with emphasis on the toxic amino acid hypoglycin A.  

PubMed

High-performance liquid chromatography is used to determine the amino acid content of ripe and unripe ackee fruit. Specific emphasis is placed on the level of the toxic amino acid hypoglycin A (hyp-A) in the unripe and ripe ackee fruit and seed. Unripe samples are found to contain significantly higher quantities (P < 0.05) of hyp-A when compared with ripe samples. Uncooked unripe fruit is found to contain 124.4 +/- 6.7 mg/100 g fresh weight and uncooked ripe fruit 6.4 +/- 1.1 mg/100 g fresh weight. The seed of the uncooked unripe fruit is found to contain 142.8 +/- 8.8 mg/100 g fresh weight, and the seed of uncooked ripe fruit has 106.0 +/- 5.4 mg/100 g fresh weight. Boiling fruit in water for approximately 30 min is efficient in removing hyp-A from the edible arilli; however, low levels of 0.54 +/- 0.15 mg/200 mL are detected in the water that was used to cook the ripe fruit. The average %recovery of the amino acids was 80.34%. PMID:12387335

Golden, K D; Williams, O J; Bailey-Shaw, Y

2002-09-01

374

In vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids, flavonoids, and vitamin C from differently processed oranges and orange juices [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck].  

PubMed

Carotenoid, flavonoid, and vitamin C concentrations were determined in fresh orange segments and a puree-like homogenate derived thereof, as well as freshly squeezed, flash-pasteurized, and pasteurized juices. Lutein and ?-cryptoxanthin were slightly degraded during dejuicing, whereas ?-carotene levels were retained. Vitamin C levels remained unaffected, whereas flavonoid levels decreased 8-fold upon juice extraction, most likely due to the removal of flavonoid-rich albedo and juice vesicles. Likewise, the presence of such fibrous matrix compounds during in vitro digestion was assumed to significantly lower the total bioaccessibility (BA) of all carotenoids from fresh fruit segments (12%) as compared to juices (29-30%). Mechanical disruption of orange segments prior to digestion did not alter carotenoid BA, whereas pasteurization of the freshly squeezed juice slightly increased BA by 9-11%. In addition to carotenoid BA, the stabilities of hesperidin, narirutin, and vitamin C including dehydroascorbic acid during in vitro digestion were monitored, and applied analytical methods were briefly validated. PMID:25539394

Aschoff, Julian K; Kaufmann, Sabrina; Kalkan, Onur; Neidhart, Sybille; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

2015-01-21

375

Analysis of biologically active oxyprenylated ferulic acid derivatives in Citrus fruits.  

PubMed

4'-Geranyloxyferulic (GOFA) and boropinic acid have been discovered during the last decade as interesting phytochemicals having valuable pharmacological effects as cancer chemopreventive, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and anti-Helicobacter pylori agents. A reverse-phase HPLC-UV/Vis method for the separation and quantification of the title oxyprenylated ferulic acid derivatives in extracts obtained from peels of nine edible Citrus and Fortunella fruits was successfully applied. Concentration values showed a great variation between the different species, being orange (C. sinensis) the fruit richest in GOFA (0.141?±?0.011 mg/g of exocarp fresh weight) and kumquat (Fortunella japonica) the one in which boropinic acid was recorded as the most abundant phytochemical (0.206?±?0.002 mg/g of exocarp fresh weight). Both secondary metabolites were not detected only in three species. The set-up methodology showed limits of quantification (LOQ) values, that were able to selectively quantify both GOFA and boropinic acid. Results described herein depict a potential chemopreventive dietary feeding role for the Rutaceae spp. under investigation. PMID:24928688

Genovese, Salvatore; Fiorito, Serena; Locatelli, Marcello; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Epifano, Francesco

2014-09-01

376

Effect of early detection greening on juice flavor and chemistry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

When Huanglongbing (HLB) was first discovered in Florida, trees with early symptoms of disease were harvested to determine whether there was any flavor difference between juice made from infected trees but with asymptomatic fruit, and fruit harvested from healthy trees. It is of interest to the proc...

377

Effect of early detection Huanglongbing on juice flavor and chemistry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

When Huanglongbing (HLB) was first discovered in Florida, trees with early symptoms of disease were harvested to determine whether there was any flavor difference between juice made from infected trees but with asymptomatic fruit, and fruit harvested from healthy trees. It is of interest to the proc...

378

Co-mapping studies of QTLs for fruit acidity and candidate genes of organic acid metabolism and proton transport in sweet melon (Cucumis melo L.).  

PubMed

Sweet melon cultivars contain a low level of organic acids and, therefore, the quality and flavor of sweet melon fruit is determined almost exclusively by fruit sugar content. However, genetic variability for fruit acid levels in the Cucumis melo species exists and sour fruit accessions are characterized by acidic fruit pH of <5, compared to the sweet cultivars that are generally characterized by mature fruit pH values of >6. In this paper, we report results from a mapping population based on recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between the non-sour 'Dulce' variety and the sour PI 414323 accession. Results show that a single major QTL for pH co-localizes with major QTLs for the two predominant organic acids in melon fruit, citric and malic, together with an additional metabolite which we identified as uridine. While the acidic recombinants were characterized by higher citric and malic acid levels, the non-acidic recombinants had a higher uridine content than did the acidic recombinants. Additional minor QTLs for pH, citric acid and malic acid were also identified and for these the increased acidity was unexpectedly contributed by the non-sour parent. To test for co-localization of these QTLs with genes encoding organic acid metabolism and transport, we mapped the genes encoding structural enzymes and proteins involved in organic acid metabolism, transport and vacuolar H+ pumps. None of these genes co-localized with the major pH QTL, indicating that the gene determining melon fruit pH is not one of the candidate genes encoding this primary metabolic pathway. Linked markers were tested in two additional inter-varietal populations and shown to be linked to the pH trait. The presence of the same QTL in such diverse segregating populations suggests that the trait is determined throughout the species by variability in the same gene and is indicative of a major role of the evolution of this gene in determining the important domestication trait of fruit acidity within the species. PMID:22406955

Cohen, S; Tzuri, G; Harel-Beja, R; Itkin, M; Portnoy, V; Sa'ar, U; Lev, S; Yeselson, L; Petrikov, M; Rogachev, I; Aharoni, A; Ophir, R; Tadmor, Y; Lewinsohn, E; Burger, Y; Katzir, N; Schaffer, A A

2012-07-01

379

Phenolic acids, syringaldehyde, and juglone in fruits of different cultivars of Juglans regia L.  

PubMed

Phenolic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic, ellagic, and syringic acid) as well as syringaldehyde and juglone were identified in ripe fruits of 10 walnut cultivars: Adams, Cisco, Chandler, Franquette, Lara, Fernor, Fernette, Alsoszentivani 117 (A-117), Rasna, and Elit. Analyses were done using a high-performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a diode array detector. Significant differences in the contents of identified phenolics were observed among cultivars. Phenolics were determined separately in the kernel and in the thin skin of the walnut, termed the pellicle. Not only in the kernel but also in the pellicle did syringic acid, juglone, and ellagic acid predominate (average values of 33.83, 11.75, and 5.90 mg/100 g of kernel; and 1003.24, 317.90, and 128.98 mg/100 g of pellicle, respectively), and the contents of ferulic and sinapic acid (average values of 0.06 and 0.05 mg/100 g of kernel and 2.93 and 2.17 mg/100 g of pellicle, respectively) were the lowest in all cultivars. The highest differences in the sum of all identified phenolics were observed between Rasna and Fernette fruits; in Rasna there were >2-fold higher contents of identified phenolics in both kernel and pellicle. It was found that the walnut pellicle is the most important source of walnut phenolics. The ratio between the contents in pellicle and kernel varied by at least 14.8-fold for caffeic acid (cv. Adams) and by up to 752.0-fold for p-coumaric acid (cv. Elit). PMID:16076123

Colaric, Mateja; Veberic, Robert; Solar, Anita; Hudina, Metka; Stampar, Franci

2005-08-10

380

Effects of polyphenol-rich chokeberry juice on antioxidant/pro-oxidant status in healthy subjects.  

PubMed

Berry fruits are a rich source of polyphenols, especially anthocyanins: well-known potent anti-oxidant phytochemicals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate beneficial effects of long-term consumption of polyphenol-rich organic chokeberry juice on different markers of antioxidant/pro-oxidant status in healthy female volunteers. Twenty-nine women, aged 25-49, were included in the study. Serological markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defence, blood pressure, routine biochemical, and anthropometric parameters were analyzed at baseline and after twelve weeks of regular chokeberry juice consumption. Significant decrease in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances level (TBARS; P<.001) and pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB; P<.05), as well as increase in paroxonase-1 activity toward diazoxon (P<.01) were found. Total oxidative status and sulphydryl groups levels were not significantly influenced by the intervention. Anthropometric, biochemical parameters, and blood pressure values were within the referent values for all subjects and were not influenced by the chokeberry juice consumption. However, we found positive correlation between age, body mass index, waist circumference, body fat percent, blood pressure, and analyzed marker of lipid peroxidation, which was influenced by the consumption. In conclusion, the fine modulation of several antioxidant/pro-oxidant status biomarkers observed in healthy subjects indicates putative prophylactic effects of polyphenol-rich chokeberry juice and supports its importance as part of an optimal diet. PMID:24650155

Kardum, Nevena; Koni?-Risti?, Aleksandra; Savikin, Katarina; Spasi?, Slavica; Stefanovi?, Aleksandra; Ivaniševi?, Jasmina; Miljkovi?, Milica

2014-08-01

381

Assimilation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and /sup 14/C sucrose by citrus fruit tissues  

SciTech Connect

Assimilation and metabolism of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was compared to that of (U-/sup 14/C) sucrose in young grapefruit (ca 25 mm diameter) to determine their respective roles in fruit growth. Fixation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ by isolated fruit tissues during 10 min in light exceeded that in dark by 2- to 30-fold depending on tissue content of chlorophyll. Greatest apparent photosynthesis occurred in outer green peel, but green juice tissues assimilated more than did adjoining inner peel tissue. In the dark, juice tissues incorporated 2.5-fold more /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ than any other tissue. Neutral sugars accounted for a smaller proportion and organic acids, a greater proportion, of the /sup 14/C-assimilates in interior peel and juice tissues. These data suggest more extensive production of organic acids from /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ in tissues isolated from the fruit interior. In contrast, little difference among tissues was evident in extent of organic- and amino-acid production from exogenous (U-/sup 14/C) sucrose. A small area of cuticle on whole fruit was replaced by a filter disc impregnated with radiolabeled sucrose and incubated for 16 h. Thus, carbon derived from CO/sub 2/ assimilation by fruit appears to be partitioned differently than that derived from sucrose.

Tomlinson, P.T.; Koch, K.E.

1987-04-01

382

Fruit load induces changes in global gene expression and in abscisic acid (ABA) and indole acetic acid (IAA) homeostasis in citrus buds  

PubMed Central

Many fruit trees undergo cycles of heavy fruit load (ON-Crop) in one year, followed by low fruit load (OFF-Crop) the following year, a phenomenon known as alternate bearing (AB). The mechanism by which fruit load affects flowering induction during the following year (return bloom) is still unclear. Although not proven, it is commonly accepted that the fruit or an organ which senses fruit presence generates an inhibitory signal that moves into the bud and inhibits apical meristem transition. Indeed, fruit removal from ON-Crop trees (de-fruiting) induces return bloom. Identification of regulatory or metabolic processes modified in the bud in association with altered fruit load might shed light on the nature of the AB signalling process. The bud transcriptome of de-fruited citrus trees was compared with those of ON- and OFF-Crop trees. Fruit removal resulted in relatively rapid changes in global gene expression, including induction of photosynthetic genes and proteins. Altered regulatory mechanisms included abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism and auxin polar transport. Genes of ABA biosynthesis were induced; however, hormone analyses showed that the ABA level was reduced in OFF-Crop buds and in buds shortly following fruit removal. Additionally, genes associated with Ca2+-dependent auxin polar transport were remarkably induced in buds of OFF-Crop and de-fruited trees. Hormone analyses showed that auxin levels were reduced in these buds as compared with ON-Crop buds. In view of the auxin transport autoinhibition theory, the possibility that auxin distribution plays a role in determining bud fate is discussed. PMID:24706719

Shalom, Liron; Samuels, Sivan; Zur, Naftali; Shlizerman, Lyudmila; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Blumwald, Eduardo; Sadka, Avi

2014-01-01

383

Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars  

PubMed Central

The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars (“Lefan,” “Katirbasi,” “Cekirdeksiz-IV,” and “Asinar”) was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. “Lefan” displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested. PMID:21716925

Gözlekçi, ?adiye; Saraço?lu, Onur; Onursal, Ebru; Özgen, Mustafa

2011-01-01

384

Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars.  

PubMed

The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars ("Lefan," "Katirbasi," "Cekirdeksiz-IV," and "Asinar") was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. "Lefan" displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested. PMID:21716925

Gözlekçi, Sadiye; Saraço?lu, Onur; Onursal, Ebru; Ozgen, Mustafa

2011-04-01

385

Beverages of lemon juice and exotic noni and papaya with potential for anticholinergic effects.  

PubMed

Lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.) juice beverages enriched either with noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) (LN) or papaya (Carica papaya L.) (LP), were characterized by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n), the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by (DPPH·), superoxide (O2(·-)), hydroxyl radicals (·OH) and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) assays, and their potential as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibitors was also assessed. The fruits are rich in a wide range of bioactive phenolics. Regarding DPPH·, ·OH and HOCl assays, the LP displayed strong activity, and LN was the most active against O2(·-). Concerning cholinesterases, LP was the most active, mainly due to lemon juice contribution. The effect on the cholinesterases was not as strong as in previous reports on purified extracts, but the bioactive-rich beverages offer the possibility of dietary coadjutants for daily consumption of health-promoting substances by adults with aging-related cognitive or physical disorders. PMID:25306312

Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

2015-03-01

386

Effective trapping of fruit flies with cultures of metabolically modified acetic Acid bacteria.  

PubMed

Acetoin in vinegar is an attractant to fruit flies when combined with acetic acid. To make vinegar more effective in attracting fruit flies with increased acetoin production, Komagataeibacter europaeus KGMA0119 was modified by specific gene disruption of the acetohydroxyacid isomeroreductase gene (ilvC). A previously constructed mutant lacking the putative ligand-sensing region in the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (KeLrp, encoded by Kelrp) was also used. The ilvC and Kelrp disruptants (KGMA5511 and KGMA7203, respectively) produced greater amounts of acetoin (KGMA5511, 0.11%; KGMA7203, 0.13%) than the wild-type strain KGMA0119 (0.069%). KGMA7203 produced a trace amount of isobutyric acid (0.007%), but the other strains did not. These strains produced approximately equal amounts of acetic acid (0.7%). The efficiency of fruit fly attraction was investigated with cultured Drosophila melanogaster. D. melanogaster flies (approximately 1,500) were released inside a cage (2.5 m by 2.5 m by 1.5 m) and were trapped with a device containing vinegar and a sticky sheet. The flies trapped on the sticky sheet were counted. The cell-free supernatant from KGMA7203 culture captured significantly more flies (19.36 to 36.96% of released flies) than did KGMA0119 (3.25 to 11.40%) and KGMA5511 (6.87 to 21.50%) cultures. Contrastingly, a 0.7% acetic acid solution containing acetoin (0.13%) and isobutyric acid (0.007%), which mimicked the KGMA7203 supernatant, captured significantly fewer flies (0.88 to 4.57%). Furthermore, the KGMA0119 supernatant with additional acetoin (0.13%) and isobutyric acid (0.007%) captured slightly more flies than the original KGMA0119 supernatant but fewer than the KGMA7203 supernatant, suggesting that the synergistic effects of acetic acid, acetoin, isobutyric acid, and unidentified metabolites achieved the efficient fly trapping of the KGMA7203 supernatant. PMID:25595769

Ishii, Yuri; Akasaka, Naoki; Goda, Itsuko; Sakoda, Hisao; Fujiwara, Shinsuke

2015-04-01

387

Recommended varieties Select only disease-free, preferably vine-ripened, firm fruit  

E-print Network

acidity in whole, crushed or juiced tomatoes, add 2 tablespoons of bottled lemon juice or 1/2 teaspoon of citric acid per quart of tomatoes. For pints, use one tablespoon bottled lemon juice or 1/4 teaspoon citric acid.You can add lemon juice or citric acid directly to the jars before filling with the product

388

Occurrence of urolithins, gut microbiota ellagic acid metabolites and proliferation markers expression response in the human prostate gland upon consumption of walnuts and pomegranate juice.  

PubMed

Epidemiology supports the important role of nutrition in prostate cancer (PCa) prevention. Pomegranate juice (PJ) exerts protective effects against PCa, mainly attributed to PJ ellagitannins (ETs). Our aim was to assess whether ETs or their metabolites ellagic acid and urolithins reach the human prostate upon consumption of ET-rich foods and to evaluate the effect on the expression of three proliferation biomarkers. Sixty-three patients with BPH or PCa were divided into controls and consumers of walnuts (35 g walnuts/day) or pomegranate (200 mL PJ/day) for 3 days before surgery. Independently of the ETs source, the main metabolite detected was urolithin A glucuronide, (3,8-dihydroxy-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one glucuronide) (up to 2 ng/g) together with the traces of urolithin B glucuronide, (3-hydroxy-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one glucuronide) and dimethyl ellagic acid. The small number of prostates containing metabolites was likely caused by clearance of the compounds during the fasting. This was corroborated in a parallel rat study and thus the presence of higher quantities of metabolites at earlier time points cannot be discarded. No apparent changes in the expression of CDKN1A, MKi-67 or c-Myc were found after consumption of the walnuts or PJ. Our results suggest that urolithin glucuronides and dimethyl ellagic acid may be the molecules responsible for the beneficial effects of PJ against PCa. PMID:19885850

González-Sarrías, Antonio; Giménez-Bastida, Juan A; García-Conesa, María T; Gómez-Sánchez, María B; García-Talavera, Noelia V; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Sánchez-Alvarez, Carmen; Fontana-Compiano, Luis O; Morga-Egea, Juan P; Pastor-Quirante, Francisco A; Martínez-Díaz, Francisco; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Espín, Juan Carlos

2010-03-01

389

Biocorrosion of stainless steel grade 304L (SS304L) in sugar cane juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this research study is to assess the behaviour of stainless steel AISI 304L in contact with sugar cane juice. Stainless steel grade 304L is largely used in the sugar cane industry but the acidic nature of sugar cane juice pose a serious challenge in maintaining the life span of vital components.Sugar cane juice is acid having

S. Durmoo; C. Richard; G. Beranger; Y. Moutia

2008-01-01

390

Discrimination and characterization of strawberry juice based on electronic nose and tongue: comparison of different juice processing approaches by LDA, PLSR, RF, and SVM.  

PubMed

An electronic nose (E-nose) and an electronic tongue (E-tongue) have been used to characterize five types of strawberry juices based on processing approaches (i.e., microwave pasteurization, steam blanching, high temperature short time pasteurization, frozen-thawed, and freshly squeezed). Juice quality parameters (vitamin C, pH, total soluble solid, total acid, and sugar/acid ratio) were detected by traditional measuring methods. Multivariate statistical methods (linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and partial least squares regression (PLSR)) and neural networks (Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machines) were employed to qualitative classification and quantitative regression. E-tongue system reached higher accuracy rates than E-nose did, and the simultaneous utilization did have an advantage in LDA classification and PLSR regression. According to cross-validation, RF has shown outstanding and indisputable performances in the qualitative and quantitative analysis. This work indicates that the simultaneous utilization of E-nose and E-tongue can discriminate processed fruit juices and predict quality parameters successfully for the beverage industry. PMID:25005851

Qiu, Shanshan; Wang, Jun; Gao, Liping

2014-07-01

391

Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit  

PubMed Central

Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2–4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4–6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4–10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4–6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and ?-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit. PMID:25180109

Sweetman, C.; Sadras, V. O.; Hancock, R. D.; Soole, K. L.; Ford, C. M.

2014-01-01

392

Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit.  

PubMed

Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2-4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4-6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4-10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4-6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and ?-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit. PMID:25180109

Sweetman, C; Sadras, V O; Hancock, R D; Soole, K L; Ford, C M

2014-11-01

393

In vitro effect of vegetable and fruit juices on the mutagenicity of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline, 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline.  

PubMed

The antimutagenic potencies of the juices of 28 fruits and 34 vegetables commonly consumed in Germany were investigated with respect to the mutagenic activities induced by 2-amino-3-methyl[4,5-f]-quinoline (IQ), and in part by 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ) or 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. With IQ, weak to strong antimutagenic activities were found in 68% of the fruits and 73% of the vegetables that were tested. In fruits, strong antimutagenic activities were detected in bananas, blackberries, blueberries, sweet and sour cherries, blackcurrants and redcurrants, pineapple and watermelon. Moderate antimutagenic activities were detected in greengage, kiwi, mangos, honeydew melons and plums. Weak antimutagenic activities were detected in apple, apricot, mirabelle, pears, peaches and strawberries, whereas white and red grapes and raspberries were inactive, and gooseberries and citrus fruits in general possessed marginal or no antimutagenic activities. In vegetables, strong to moderate antimutagenic activities were found for all cruciferous vegetables, except Chinese cabbage, which had only weak antimutagenic activity. Other vegetables with strong antimutagenic activities were beets, chives, horseradish, onions, rhubarb and spinach. Moderate antimutagenic activities were found with green beans and tomatoes, weak activities in eggplant, garden cress, many lettuces, leeks, mangold, cucumber, pumpkin, radish and summer squash. Asparagus, carrots, fennel leaves, parsley, green peppers and radishes were inactive. When fruit and vegetable juices were heated, a considerable reduction of antimutagenic potencies was seen with apple, apricot, kiwi, pineapple, beets, cabbage (Chinese, Savoy, red and white), cauliflower, leafy lettuce, cucumber, onions, radish and rhubarb. Antimutagenic factors in blackberries, blueberries, sweet and sour cherries, honeydew melons, mirabelle, plums, strawberries, Brussels sprouts, chicory greens, eggplant, garden cress, mangold, pumpkin, lamb's lettuce and spinach were, however, remarkably heat stable. Antimutagenic potencies in bananas, blackcurrants and redcurrants, greengages, gooseberries, mangos, watermelon, green beans, kohlrabi, horseradish, tomatoes and chives were partially reduced. Antimutagenic activities in the juices of eight apple cultivars were moderate in two, weak in four, and marginal or absent in two. No major differences, however, were detected in five batches of oranges and three batches each of grapefruits, asparagus, green beans, broccoli, cauliflower, spinach and tomatoes. No (or only minor) differences were seen between IQ, MeIQ and MeIQx and tester strains TA98 and TA100. Pineapple and celeriac juices inhibited the enzymatic system responsible for the activation of IQ, but had no desmutagenic activity. Peroxidase activity found to be present in broccoli, cauliflower, green beans and tomatoes may contribute to antimutagenic activities in these vegetables. PMID:8206443

Edenharder, R; Kurz, P; John, K; Burgard, S; Seeger, K

1994-05-01

394

Apple juice greatly reduces systemic exposure to atenolol  

PubMed Central

AIM Fruit juice reduces the plasma concentrations of several ?-adrenoceptor blockers, likely by inhibiting OATP2B1-mediated intestinal absorption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of apple juice on the pharmacokinetics of atenolol. METHODS Twelve healthy Korean volunteers with genotypes of SLCO2B1 c.1457C> T (*1/*1 (n= 6) and *3/*3 (n= 6)) were enrolled in this study. In a three-phase, one-sequence crossover study, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of atenolol was evaluated after administration of 50 mg atenolol. Subjects received atenolol with either 300 ml water, 1200 ml apple juice or 600 ml apple juice. RESULTS Apple juice markedly reduced the systemic exposure to atenolol. The geometric mean ratios (95% confidence intervals) of apple juice : water were 0.18 (0.13, 0.25, 1200 ml) and 0.42 (0.30, 0.59, 600 ml) for the AUC(0,tlast). In this study, the PK parameters of atenolol responded in a dose-dependent manner to apple juice. CONCLUSIONS Apple juice markedly reduced systemic exposure to atenolol. The genetic variation of SLCO2B1 c.1457C>T had a minimal effect on the pharmacokinetics of atenolol when the drug was administered with water or apple juice. PMID:22574741

Jeon, Hyewon; Jang, In-Jin; Lee, SeungHwan; Ohashi, Kyoichi; Kotegawa, Tsutomu; Ieiri, Ichiro; Cho, Joo-Youn; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Shin, Sang-Goo; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Lim, Kyoung Soo

2013-01-01

395

Production of succinic acid from oil palm empty fruit bunch cellulose using Actinobacillus succinogenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Succinic acid is a common metabolite in plants, animals and microorganisms. It has been used widely in agricultural, food and pharmaceutical industries. Enzymatic hydrolysate glucose from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) cellulose was used as a substrate for succinic acid production using Actinobacillus succinogenes. Using cellulose extraction from OPEFB can enhance the production of glucose as a main substrate for succinic acid production. The highest concentration of glucose produced from enzymatic hydrolysis is 167 mg/mL and the sugar recovery is 0.73 g/g of OPEFB. By optimizing the culture medium for succinic acid fermentation with enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose, the nitrogen sources could be reduced to just only 2.5 g yeast extract and 2.5 g corn step liquor. Batch fermentation was carried out using enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose with yeast extract, corn steep liquor and the salts mixture, 23.5 g/L succinic acid was obtained with consumption of 72 g/L glucose in enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose at 38 hours and 37°C. This study suggests that enzymatic hydrolysate of OPEFB cellulose maybe an alternative substrate for the efficient production of succinic acid by Actinobacillus succinogenes.

Pasma, Satriani Aga; Daik, Rusli; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof

2013-11-01

396

Spatial and temporal variations in mango colour, acidity, and sweetness in relation to temperature and ethylene gradients within the fruit.  

PubMed

Managing fruit quality is complex because many different attributes have to be taken into account, which are themselves subjected to spatial and temporal variations. Heterogeneous fruit quality has been assumed to be partly related to temperature and maturity gradients within the fruit. To test this assumption, we measured the spatial variability of certain mango fruit quality traits: colour of the peel and of the flesh, and sourness and sweetness, at different stages of fruit maturity using destructive methods as well as vis-NIR reflectance. The spatial variability of mango quality traits was compared to internal variations in thermal time, simulated by a physical model, and to internal variations in maturity, using ethylene content as an indicator. All the fruit quality indicators analysed showed significant spatial and temporal variations, regardless of the measurement method used. The heterogeneity of internal fruit quality traits was not correlated with the marked internal temperature gradient we modelled. However, variations in ethylene content revealed a strong internal maturity gradient which was correlated with the spatial variations in measured mango quality traits. Nonetheless, alone, the internal maturity gradient did not explain the variability of fruit quality traits, suggesting that other factors, such as gas, abscisic acid and water gradients, are also involved. PMID:25151123

Nordey, Thibault; Léchaudel, Mathieu; Génard, Michel; Joas, Jacques

2014-11-01

397

Carbon and water relations for developing fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, including effects of drought and gibberellic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth, gas exchange rates, and carbohydrate content were studied for developing fruits of the cul- tivated cactus Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, includ- ing effects of drought and exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3). Fruit development required 110 d from the time of bud differentiation to ripening at 80 d after anthesis, when the fruit mass averaged 67 g. Stomatal conductance and net

Erick De la Barrera; Park S. Nobel

2010-01-01

398

Citrus fruits. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. B. Technology.  

PubMed

In Part II of this review on citrus fruits, the literature on chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation are critically considered. Sweet oranges, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, and lime are generally used for processing. The literature on chemical components of citrus fruit which include sugars, polysaccharides, organic acids, nitrogenous constituents and lipids; carotenoids which contribute to color; vitamins and minerals and flavonoids; limonoids, some of which impart bitterness to the juice; and the volatile components which contribute to aroma were reviewed in section A. Chilled and pasteurized juices, juice concentrates, and beverages are the important products manufactured commercially, and to a limited extent powdered citrus juices, canned segments, and marmalades. The literature on the manufacture of these products also as new types of juice and oil extractors; TASTE and other types of evaporators; tank farms to store juice and concentrate in bulk; aseptic filling in bulk containers and retail packs; alternate flexible and rigid containers other than glass and tin; and recovery of volatile flavoring constituents during juice processing are some of the important technological developments in the recent past and have been discussed in this section. Bitterness in citrus juices and its control, composition of cloud, and its stability and changes during storage have been reviewed. Essential oils, pectin, frozen and dried juice sacs, dried pulp and molasses, flavonoids, seed oil, and meal are the important byproducts, the manufacture of which is given in essential details. Generally, consumers judge the product on the basis of its sensory attributes. The quality of finished product is dependent upon the raw materials used and control of processes. In section C, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) standards for different products, physicochemical and microbiological parameters prescribed as indices of quality of fruit, juice, concentrate, and other products; composition of essential oils; and aroma concentrates are discussed in relation to sensory quality. Analytical methods for compounds affecting quality, and methods for detection of adulteration in different citrus products are briefly reviewed. The importance of sensorily evaluating quality of citrus products to select and develop quality control indices is emphasized. Areas where further research are required are indicated. A comprehensive bibliography is provided to aid further study and research. PMID:6380950

Ranganna, S; Govindarajan, V S; Ramana, K V

1983-01-01

399

Sensory-guided identification of N-(1-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-2-ylidene)-alpha-amino acids as contributors to the thick-sour and mouth-drying orosensation of stewed beef juice.  

PubMed

Sensory-guided fractionation of stewed beef juice using ultrafiltration, gel permeation chromatography, PFPP-HPLC, and HILIC combined with analytical sensory techniques led to the identification of the dipeptides beta-alanyl-N-methyl-L-histidine and beta-alanyl-L-histidine, as well as the creatinine derivatives N-(1-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-2-ylidene)aminopropionic acid, N-(1-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-2-ylidene)aminoacetic acid, and N-(1-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-2-ylidene)amino-4,5,6-trihydroxyhexanoic acid as taste modulators in stewed beef juice. Model experiments demonstrated for the first time that the latter three N-(1-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-2-ylidene)-alpha-amino acids are formed by Maillard-type reactions from creatinine and reducing hexoses. Quantitative analysis, followed by taste recombination and omission experiments, revealed that subthreshold concentrations of these taste modulators enhance the typical thick-sour and mouth-drying orosensation and the mouthfulness imparted by stewed beef juice, although none of these compounds exhibited any significant intrinsic taste when tasted individually in water. PMID:20420435

Sonntag, Tessa; Kunert, Christof; Dunkel, Andreas; Hofmann, Thomas

2010-05-26

400

Health-Promoting Components of Fruits and Vegetables in the Diet12  

PubMed Central

Regular consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods has been negatively correlated with the risk of the development of chronic diseases. There is a huge gap between the average consumption of fruits and vegetables in Americans and the amount recommended by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The key is to encourage consumers to increase the total amount to 9 to 13 servings of fruits and vegetables in all forms available. Fresh, processed fruits and vegetables including frozen and canned, cooked, 100% fruit juices and 100% vegetable juices, as well as dry fruits are all considered as servings of fruits and vegetables per day. A wide variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods provide a range of nutrients and different bioactive compounds including phytochemicals, vitamins, minerals, and fibers. Potatoes serve as one of the low-fat foods with unique nutrients and phytochemical profiles, particularly rich in vitamin C, vitamin B-6, potassium, manganese, and dietary fibers. Potatoes provide 25% of vegetable phenolics in the American diet, the largest contributors among the 27 vegetables commonly consumed in the United States, including flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol), phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid), and carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin). More and more evidence suggests that the health benefits of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods are attributed to the synergy or interactions of bioactive compounds and other nutrients in whole foods. Therefore, consumers should obtain their nutrients, antioxidants, bioactive compounds, and phytochemicals from a balanced diet with a wide variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and other plant foods for optimal nutrition, health, and well-being, not from dietary supplements. PMID:23674808

Liu, Rui Hai

2013-01-01

401

Modulation of oxidative cell damage by reconstituted mixtures of phenolic apple juice extracts in human colon cell lines.  

PubMed

Diets rich in fruits and vegetables are associated with a lower risk of tumour induction in the intestine and other sites. Apple juice with high amounts of antioxidative phenolics might protect the intestine against reactive oxygen species-mediated cell damage. We investigated to which extent the preventive effectiveness of polyphenolic juice extracts is governed by the amounts of five major constituents (rutin, phloridzin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and epicatechin). In human colon cell lines (Caco-2, HT29), reconstituted mixtures of these phenolics were investigated in comparison to the original juice extracts, originating from cider and table apples. Parameters studied were (oxidative) DNA damage (Comet assay), cellular redox status (dichlorofluorescein assay) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). The TEAC of the reconstituted mixtures was higher compared to the respective original extracts (4.7-7.3 mM vs. 3.6-4.2 mM Trolox). After 24 h cell incubation, menadione-induced (oxidative) DNA damage was more effectively reduced by the reconstituted mixtures (1-100 microg/mL, 24 h), as compared to the original extracts. In contrast, the cellular ROS level was reduced to a rather similar extent by original extracts and reconstituted mixtures. The results lead to the conclusion that the selected constituents in their authentic proportions substantially account for the antioxidative effectiveness of phenolic apple juice extracts. PMID:16548011

Schaefer, Sandra; Baum, Matthias; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Janzowski, Christine

2006-04-01

402

Expression of a functional jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase is negatively correlated with strawberry fruit development.  

PubMed

The volatile metabolite methyl jasmonate (MeJA) plays an important role in intra- and interplant communication and is involved in diverse biological processes. In this study, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a S-adenosyl-l-methionine:jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (JMT) from Fragaria vesca and Fragaria×ananassa. Biochemical assays and comprehensive transcript analyses showed that JMT has been erroneously annotated as gene fusion with a carboxyl methyltransferase (CMT) (gene15184) in the first published genome sequence of F. vesca. Recombinant FvJMT catalyzed the formation of MeJA with KM value of 22.3?M while FvCMT and the fusion protein were almost inactive. Activity of JMT with benzoic acid and salicylic acid as substrates was less than 1.5% of that with JA. Leucine at position 245, an amino acid missing in other JMT sequences is essential for activity of FvJMT. In accordance with MeJA levels, JMT transcript levels decreased steadily during strawberry fruit ripening, as did the expression levels of JA biosynthesis and regulatory genes. It appears that CMT has originated by a recent duplication of JMT and lost its enzymatic activity toward JA. In the newest version of the strawberry genome sequence (June 2014) CMT and JMT are annotated as separate genes in accordance with differential temporal and spatial expression patterns of both genes in Fragaria sp. In conclusion, MeJA, the inactive derivative of JA, is probably involved in early steps of fruit development by modulating the levels of the active plant hormone JA. PMID:25046752

Preuß, Anja; Augustin, Christiane; Figueroa, Carlos R; Hoffmann, Thomas; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Sevilla, José F; Schwab, Wilfried

2014-09-15

403

A model study on rate of degradation of L-ascorbic acid during processing using home-produced juice concentrates.  

PubMed

The rate of degradation of L-ascorbic acid in solution has been investigated under varying conditions, such as temperature, level of dissolved oxygen, pH, amino acids, sugars and processing conditions. Changes in pH between pH 1.5 and 7.0 accelerate L-ascorbic acid degradation. The most important factor that determines its stability is storage temperature, on which the rate of degradation of L-ascorbic acid is directly dependent. Similarly, the deleterious effect of variables such as oxygen and pH are influenced by temperature. Therefore, low temperature storage is imperative in order to regard L-ascorbic acid delay. A definite role of amino acids in L-ascorbic acid degradation has not been identified. PMID:7621082

Roig, M G; Rivera, Z S; Kennedy, J F

1995-05-01

404

PRODUCCIÓN ECONÓMICA DE ÁCIDO LÁCTICO UTILIZANDO RESIDUOS DE COSECHA Y JUGOS DE CAÑA DE AZÚCAR (Saccharum officinarum L.) Economical production of lactic acid using sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wastes and juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T Sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) tops and leaves (JCG), and the juice extracted from this sugar cane, harvested with crop burning (JCL) and without crop burning (JCV), were tested as substrates for the discontinuous fermentative production of lactic acid. Anaerobic fermentations were carried out at 32°C, adjusting pH at 6.0, and using

Liliana Serna Cock; Aida Rodríguez de Stouvenel

405

Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

2014-01-01

406

A natural mutation led truncation in Ma1, one of the two aluminum-activated malate transporter like genes at the Ma locus, is associated with low fruit acidity in apple  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acidity levels greatly affect fruit taste and flavor, thereby the consumer’s acceptance and market value. In mature apple fruit, malic acid is the nearly exclusive organic acid. Several studies have confirmed that the major quantitative trait locus Ma largely controls the variation of fruit acidity ...

407

Lemon Fruit Salad Ingredients  

E-print Network

Lemon Fruit Salad Ingredients: 20 ounces pineapple chunks in juice 1/2 pound grapes, seedless 2 bananas 1 3/4 cups skim milk 4 ounces instant pudding mix, lemon flavored Directions 1. Open can to bowl. 3. Wash and peel bananas, and slice. Add to bowl. Set aside. 4. In separate bowl, pour lemon

Liskiewicz, Maciej

408

Carbohydrate-Free Peach (Prunus persica) and Plum (Prunus domestica) Juice Affects Fecal Microbial Ecology in an Obese Animal Model  

PubMed Central

Background Growing evidence shows the potential of nutritional interventions to treat obesity but most investigations have utilized non-digestible carbohydrates only. Peach and plum contain high amounts of polyphenols, compounds with demonstrated anti-obesity effects. The underlying process of successfully treating obesity using polyphenols may involve an alteration of the intestinal microbiota. However, this phenomenon is not well understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Obese Zucker rats were assigned to three groups (peach, plum, and control, n?=?10 each), wild-type group was named lean (n?=?10). Carbohydrates in the fruit juices were eliminated using enzymatic hydrolysis. Fecal samples were obtained after 11 weeks of fruit or control juice administration. Real-time PCR and 454-pyrosequencing were used to evaluate changes in fecal microbiota. Over 1,500 different Operational Taxonomic Units at 97% similarity were detected in all rats. Several bacterial groups (e.g. Lactobacillus and members of Ruminococcacea) were found to be more abundant in the peach but especially in the plum group (plum juice contained 3 times more total polyphenolics compared to peach juice). Principal coordinate analysis based on Unifrac-based unweighted distance matrices revealed a distinct separation between the microbiota of control and treatment groups. These changes in fecal microbiota occurred simultaneously with differences in fecal short-chain acids concentrations between the control and treatment groups as well as a significant decrease in body weight in the plum group. Conclusions This study suggests that consumption of carbohydrate-free peach and plum juice has the potential to modify fecal microbial ecology in an obese animal model. The separate contribution of polyphenols and non-polyphenols compounds (vitamins and minerals) to the observed changes is unknown. PMID:25007331

Markel, Melissa; Martino, Hercia S.; Minamoto, Yasushi; Steiner, Jörg M.; Byrne, David; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U.

2014-01-01

409

Effects of raspberry fruit extracts and ellagic acid on respiratory burst in murine macrophages.  

PubMed

The mechanism of action of polyphenolic compounds is attributed to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties and their effects on subcellular signal transduction, cell cycle impairment and apoptosis. A raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit extract contains various antioxidant active compounds, particularly ellagic acid (EA); however the exact intracellular mechanism of their action is not fully understood. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of raspberry extracts, and that of ellagic acid by assessment of the production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) by murine macrophage J774 cells. Raspberry extracts and their active compound EA did not affect or had very minor effects on cell viability. No significant difference in the ROS generation in arachidonic acid stimulated macrophages was determined for raspberry extracts and EA whereas in the phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate model ROS generation was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced. Our observation that raspberry pomace extracts in vitro reduce ROS production in a J774 macrophage culture suggests that raspberry extract and ellagic acid mediated antioxidant effects may be due to the regulation of NADPH oxidase activity. PMID:24699912

Raudone, Lina; Bobinaite, Ramune; Janulis, Valdimaras; Viskelis, Pranas; Trumbeckaite, Sonata

2014-06-01

410

Gluconacetobacter kakiaceti sp. nov., an acetic acid bacterium isolated from a traditional Japanese fruit vinegar.  

PubMed

Two novel acetic acid bacteria, strains G5-1(T) and I5-1, were isolated from traditional kaki vinegar (produced from fruits of kaki, Diospyros kaki Thunb.), collected in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 formed a distinct subline in the genus Gluconacetobacter and were closely related to Gluconacetobacter swingsii DST GL01(T) (99.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The isolates showed 96-100% DNA-DNA relatedness with each other, but <53% DNA-DNA relatedness with closely related members of the genus Gluconacetobacter. The isolates could be distinguished from closely related members of the genus Gluconacetobacter by not producing 2- and 5-ketogluconic acids from glucose, producing cellulose, growing without acetic acid and with 30% (w/v) d-glucose, and producing acid from sugars and alcohols. Furthermore, the genomic DNA G+C contents of strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 were a little higher than those of their closest phylogenetic neighbours. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic position, strains G5-1(T) and I5-1 are assigned to a novel species, for which the name Gluconacetobacter kakiaceti sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is G5-1(T) (=JCM 25156(T)=NRIC 0798(T)=LMG 26206(T)). PMID:21841006

Iino, Takao; Suzuki, Rei; Tanaka, Naoto; Kosako, Yoshimasa; Ohkuma, Moriya; Komagata, Kazuo; Uchimura, Tai

2012-07-01

411

Analysis of Citric Acid in Beverages: Use of an Indicator Displacement Assay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of an indicator displacement assay permits the visualization of binding events between host and guest molecules. An undergraduate laboratory experiment is described to demonstrate the technique in the determination of citric acid content in commercially available beverages such as soda pop and fruit juices. Through the technique, students…

Umali, Alona P.; Anslyn, Eric V.; Wright, Aaron T.; Blieden, Clifford R.; Smith, Carolyne K.; Tian, Tian; Truong, Jennifer A.; Crumm, Caitlin E.; Garcia, Jorge E.; Lee, Soal; Mosier, Meredith; Nguyen, Chester P.

2010-01-01

412

Optimisation of extraction procedures for analysis of benzoic and sorbic acids in foodstuffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzoic and sorbic acids are the most commonly used preservatives in foodstuffs. They are usually analysed by RP-HPLC. However, in view of the complexity and diversity of foodstuffs composition, appropriate sample preparation procedures are required for reliable extraction of these preservatives from the matrices. Specific extraction procedures for analysis of jams, table olives, spreadable fats, sauces, fruit juices and wines

Fernando J. M Mota; Isabel M. P. L. V. O Ferreira; Sara C Cunha; M Beatriz; P. P Oliveira

2003-01-01

413

Anthocyanins, phenolic acids and antioxidant properties of Juçara fruits (Euterpe edulis M.) along the on-tree ripening process.  

PubMed

Juçara (Euterpe edulis M.) fruits are an interesting source of phenolic compounds, mainly anthocyanins, making them valuable to the food and pharmaceutical industries. Juçara fruits were harvested along the on-tree ripening process between March and June as practiced in Paraná state, Brazil and examined for their total anthocyanin content (TAC), total phenolic content (TPC), total phenolic acid (TPA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAA). Overall, TAC increased (91.52-236.19 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent/100 g dm) whereas TPC (81.69-49.09 mg GAE/g dm) and TPA (44.27-30.95 mg/100 g dm) decreased during ripening of juçara fruits. Use of tandem mass spectrometry allowed the identification of cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside and peonidin-3-rutinoside for the first time in juçara fruits. The analysis of the phenolic acids by HPLC-MS/MS indicated the presence of gallic, protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, chlorogenic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, sinapinic and ferulic acids. The high antioxidant capacity using DPPH radical scavenging capacity (655.89-745.32 ?mol TE/g dm) and ORAC assays (1088.10-2071.55 ?mol TE/g dm) showed that juçara fruits have potential as a source of novel natural antioxidants for disease prevention and health promotion, and also as natural food additives for developing new functional food products. PMID:24570272

Bicudo, Milene Oliveira Pereira; Ribani, Rosemary Hoffmann; Beta, Trust

2014-06-01

414

Grapefruit juice—felodipine interaction: Effect of naringin and 6?,7?-dihydroxybergamottin in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To test whether naringin or 6?,7?-dihydroxybergamottin is a major active substance in grape-fruit juice-felodipine interaction in humans.Methods: Grapefruit juice was separated by means of centrifugation and filtration into supernatant and particulate fractions, which were then assayed for naringin and 6?,7?-dihydroxybergamottin. The effect of these fractions, grapefruit juice (containing comparable amounts of both fractions), and water on the pharmacokinetics of

David G. Bailey; John H. Kreeft; Claudio Munoz; David J. Freeman; John R. Bend

1998-01-01

415

In vitro demineralization of enamel by orange juice, apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola.  

PubMed

Enamel demineralization was studied over periods related to normal use of an orange juice, an apple juice, Pepsi Cola and Diet Pepsi Cola. Rectangular blocks of intact human enamel (3 mm x 3 mm) were cut from teeth, coated with nail varnish except for the enamel surface and exposed to the drinks for 2, 4, 5, 6 or 40 minutes. The amount of calcium released from the enamel into solution was determined with the use of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed the following degree of enamel demineralization: Pepsi Cola = orange juice greater than apple juice greater than Diet Pepsi Cola. The results suggest that diet colas are less demineralizing than other acid drinks, and complementary plaque studies indicate that they are also less cariogenic. The study emphasized the importance of acid-type, buffer capacity, pH and the presence of other components on the degree of enamel demineralization. PMID:2095316

Grobler, S R; Senekal, P J; Laubscher, J A

1990-12-01

416

21 CFR 146.114 - Lemon juice.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...section. (b ) “Lemon juice from concentrate” or “reconstituted lemon juice” (1 ) if the food is prepared from concentrated...juice; or (2 ) if the food is prepared from lemon juice from concentrate and lemon juice. The...

2010-04-01

417

Evidence for 1-(Malonylamino)cyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Being the Major Conjugate of Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid in Tomato Fruit1  

PubMed Central

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Miller) fruit discs fed with [2,3-14C]1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) formed 1-malonyl-ACC (MACC) as the major conjugate of ACC in fruit throughout all ripening stages, from immature-green through the red-ripe stage. Another conjugate of ACC, ?-glutamyl-ACC (GACC), was formed only in mature-green fruit in an amount about 10% of that of MACC; conjugation of ACC into GACC was not detected in fruits at other ripening stages. No GACC formation was observed from etiolated mung bean (Vigna radiata [L.] Wilczek) hypocotyls, etiolated common vetch (Vicia sativum L.) epicotyls, or pea (Pisum sativum L.) root tips, etiolated epicotyls, and green stem tissue, where active conversion of ACC into MACC was observed. GACC was, however, formed in vitro in extracts from fruit of all ripening stages. GACC formation in an extract from red fruit at pH 7.15 was only about 3% of that at pH 8.0, the pH at which most assays were run. Our present in vivo data support the previous contention that MACC is the major conjugate of ACC in plant tissues, whereas GACC is a minor, if any, conjugate of ACC. Thus, our data do not support the proposal that GACC formation could be more important than MACC formation in tomato fruit. PMID:9536071

Peiser, Galen; Fa Yang, Shang

1998-01-01

418

Effect of Stevia rebaudiana addition on bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of beverages based on exotic fruits mixed with oat following simulated human digestion.  

PubMed

In order to determine the impact of Stevia rebaudiana (SR) addition on bioactive compounds bioaccessibility of a new developed functional beverage based on exotic fruits (mango juice, papaya juice and açaí) mixed with orange juice and oat, an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was performed. Ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, total antioxidant capacity and steviol glycosides were evaluated before and after a simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Salivary and gastric digestion had no substantial effect on any of the major phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, total antioxidant capacity and steviol glycosides, whereas carotenoids and anthocyanins diminished significantly during the gastric step. All analysed compounds were significantly altered during the pancreatic-bile digestion and this effect was more marked for carotenoids and total anthocyanins. However, phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, total antioxidant capacity and steviol glycosides bioaccessibility increased as did SR concentration. Ascorbic acid bioaccessibility was negatively affected by the SR addition. PMID:25872434

Carbonell-Capella, Juana M; Buniowska, Magdalena; Esteve, María J; Frígola, Ana

2015-10-01

419

Study on swelling behaviour of hydrogel based on acrylic acid and pectin from dragon fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biocompatible hydrogel based on acrylic acid (AA) and pectin was synthesized using gamma irradiation technique. AA was grafted onto pectin backbone that was extracted from dragon fruit under pH 3.5 and extracts and ethanol ratios (ER) 1:0.5. The optimum hydrogel system with high swelling capacity was obtained by varying the dose of radiation and ratio of pectin:AA. FTIR-ATR spectroscopy was used to verify the interaction while thermal properties were analyzed by TGA and DSC. Swelling studies was carried out in aqueous solutions with different pH values as to determine the pH sensitivity. The results show that the hydrogel with a ratio of 2:3 (pectin:AA) and 30 kGy radiation dose has the highest swelling properties at pH of 10.

Abdullah, Mohd Fadzlanor; Lazim, Azwani Mat

2014-09-01

420

Influence of harvest time on quality of ‘Valencia’ oranges and juice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Valencia’ oranges were harvested from February to June, 2007, and the effect of harvest time on fruit and juice quality was investigated. After reaching a peak in peel color in March, peel regreening occurred and juice content decreased. Soluble solids content (SSC) remained constant at 10.3-11.0% ...

421

Enhanced xylose recovery from oil palm empty fruit bunch by efficient acid hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) is abundantly available in Malaysia and it is a potential source of xylose for the production of high-value added products. This study aimed to optimize the hydrolysis of EFB using dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) via response surface methodology for maximum xylose recovery. Hydrolysis was carried out in an autoclave. An optimum xylose yield of 91.2 % was obtained at 116 °C using 2.0 % (v/v) H2SO4, a solid/liquid ratio of 1:5 and a hydrolysis time of 20 min. A lower optimum xylose yield of 24.0 % was observed for dilute H3PO4 hydrolysis at 116 °C using 2.4 % (v/v) H3PO4, a solid/liquid ratio of 1:5 and a hydrolysis time of 20 min. The optimized hydrolysis conditions suggested that EFB hydrolysis by H2SO4 resulted in a higher xylose yield at a lower acid concentration as compared to H3PO4. PMID:23709290

Tan, Hooi Teng; Dykes, Gary A; Wu, Ta Yeong; Siow, Lee Fong

2013-08-01

422

Optimization of a method for determination of phenolic acids in exotic fruits by capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

In this work, the separation of nine phenolic acids (benzoic, caffeic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, ferulic, gallic, protocatechuic, syringic, and vanillic acid) was approached by a 3(2) factorial design in electrolytes consisting of sodium tetraborate buffer (STB) in the concentration range of 10-50 mmol L(-1) and methanol in the volume percentage of 5-20%. Derringer's desirability functions combined globally were tested as response functions. An optimal electrolyte composed by 50 mmol L(-1) tetraborate buffer at pH 9.2, and 7.5% (v/v) methanol allowed baseline resolution of all phenolic acids under investigation in less than 15 min. In order to promote sample clean up, to preconcentrate the phenolic fraction and to release esterified phenolic acids from the fruit matrix, elaborate liquid-liquid extraction procedures followed by alkaline hydrolysis were performed. The proposed methodology was fully validated (linearity from 10.0 to 100 microg mL(-1), R(2)>0.999; LOD and LOQ from 1.32 to 3.80 microg mL(-1) and from 4.01 to 11.5 microg mL(-1), respectively; intra-day precision better than 2.8% CV for migration time and 5.4% CV for peak area; inter-day precision better than 4.8% CV for migration time and 4.8-11% CV for peak area; recoveries from 81% to 115%) and applied successfully to the evaluation of phenolic contents of abiu-roxo (Chrysophyllum caimito), wild mulberry growing in Brazil (Morus nigra L.) and tree tomato (Cyphomandra betacea). Values in the range of 1.50-47.3 microg g(-1) were found, with smaller amounts occurring as free phenolic acids. PMID:19545963

Fukuji, Tatiana S; Tonin, Fernando G; Tavares, Marina F M

2010-01-20

423

Roles of jasmonic acid in the development of sweet cherries as measured from fruit or disc samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of jasmonic acid (JA) on callus formation was investigated ondiscs taken from the pulp of sweet cherry fruit (Prunusavium L.). The discs were sampled at 16 days after full bloom(DAFB),22 DAFB, and 29 DAFB and cultured on B5 medium involving different combinationsof 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), N6-benzyl adenine (BA), and JA.Only at 16 DAFB, 1.0 µM JA concentration increased

Satoru Kondo; Miwa Motoyama; Hiroyasu Michiyama; Min Kim

2002-01-01

424