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Sample records for acidic fruit juices

  1. Haloacetic acids content of fruit juices and soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Cardador, María José; Gallego, Mercedes

    2015-04-15

    Water used in a food factory is frequently disinfected with chlorine, which originates disinfection by-products: haloacetic acids (HAAs) make up the second most prevalent class of these products. In this paper we propose the first static HS-GC-MS method developed for direct HAA determination in beverages; the method has higher sensitivity, simplicity and reliability than the only alternative available in the literature. From 150 beverages analysed, it is possible to conclude that at least 2 HAAs (dichloro- and trichloroacetic acids, DCAA and TCAA) are always present in beverages prepared with treated water, which remains constant for 2 or 3 months in the beverages. Moreover, beverages of 100% fruit juices and soft drinks prepared with mineral water (free of HAAs) do not contain any HAA at significant values. Therefore, DCAA and TCAA may indicate of the presence of treated water in beverages. PMID:25466077

  2. Amino Acid Profile as a Feasible Tool for Determination of the Authenticity of Fruit Juices

    PubMed Central

    Asadpoor, Mostafa; Ansarin, Masoud; Nemati, Mahboob

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Fruit juice is a nutrient rich food product with a direct connection to public health. The purpose of this research was to determine the amino acid profile of juices and provide a quick and accurate indicator for determining their authenticity. Methods: The method of analysis was HPLC with fluorescence detector and pre-column derivatization by orthophtaldialdehyde (OPA). Sixty-six samples of fruit juices were analyzed, and fourteen amino acids were identified and determined in the sampled fruit juices. The fruit samples used for this analysis were apples, oranges, cherry, pineapple, mango, apricot, pomegranate, peach and grapes. Results: The results showed that 32% of samples tested in this study had a lower concentrate percentage as compared to that of their labels and/or other possible authenticity problems in the manufacturing process. The following samples showed probable adulteration: four cherry juice samples, two pomegranate juice samples, one mango, three grape, four peach, seven orange, two apple and one apricot juice samples. Conclusion: In general, determining the amount of amino acids and comparing sample amino acids profiles with the standard values seems to be an indicator for quality control. This method can provide the regulatory agencies with a tool, to help produce a healthier juice. The aim of this study is the analytical control of the fruit juice composition is becoming an important issue, and HPLC can provide an important and essential tool for more accurate research as well as for routine analysis. PMID:25436191

  3. Selective extraction and determination of chlorogenic acid in fruit juices using hydrophilic magnetic imprinted nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yi; Gao, Ruixia; Liu, Dechun; He, Gaiyan; Tang, Yuhai; Guo, Zengjun

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the novel hydrophilic magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles were developed for selective separation and determination of chlorogenic acid in aqueous fruit juices. The polymers were prepared by using amino-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as carriers, branched polyethyleneimine as functional monomer, and chlorogenic acid as template molecule. Branched polyethyleneimine with abundant active amino groups could react with template sufficiently, and its unique dendritic structure may amplify the number of the imprinted cavities. Meanwhile, it would improve the hydrophilicity of imprinted materials for attaining high extraction efficiency. The resulted polymers exhibit fast kinetics, high adsorption capacity, and favorable selectivity. In addition, the obtained nanoparticles were used as solid-phase extraction sorbents for selective isolation and determination of chlorogenic acid in peach, apple, and grape juices (0.92, 4.21, and 0.75μgmL(-1), respectively). PMID:26830581

  4. Utilization of fluorogenic assay for rapid detection of Escherichia coli in acidic fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Pao, Steven; Davis, Craig L; Friedrich, Loretta M; Parish, Mickey E

    2002-12-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate interference by acids commonly found in fruit juice in Escherichia coli assays involving the use of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) as a fluorogenic substrate for enzyme reaction. Fluorescence intensity was negatively correlated (P < 0.001) with the volume of fresh citrus juice tested by the lauryl tryptose broth (LST)-MUG assay, and the permissible sample sizes were limited to 0.3 and 0.5 ml for fresh citrus juices with pHs of 3.3 and 3.9, respectively. In addition, false-negative results were visually observed under UV light when the E*Colite assay was used to test large volumes (5 to 10 ml per test) of fresh citrus juice or when the test broth used for the LST-MUG assay was supplemented with citric, malic, or tartaric acid at 2 to 4 g/liter. These results suggest that the size and pH of acidic samples should be controlled in MUG-based fluorogenic assays. The inhibitory effect on fluorescence was due to high acidity, which reduces fluorescence from 4-methylumbelliferone. Buffering improved the assays. When sodium bicarbonate was incorporated in the enrichment broth at 10 g/liter, the permissible sample sizes for fresh grapefruit juice (pH 3.1) increased from 0.3 to 1 ml for the LST-MUG (with 9.9 ml of broth) assay and from 3 to 10 ml for the E*Colite (with 99 ml of broth) assay. PMID:12495014

  5. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  6. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  7. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  8. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive fruit juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible fruits, or...

  9. An acidic pectin lyase from Aspergillus niger with favourable efficiency in fruit juice clarification.

    PubMed

    Xu, S X; Qin, X; Liu, B; Zhang, D Q; Zhang, W; Wu, K; Zhang, Y H

    2015-02-01

    The pectin lyase gene pnl-zj5a from Aspergillus niger ZJ5 was identified and expressed in Pichia pastoris. PNL-ZJ5A was purified by ultrafiltration, anion exchange and gel chromatography. The Km and Vmax values determined using citrus pectin were 0.66 mg ml(-1) and 32.6 ?mol min(-1) mg(-1) , respectively. PNL-ZJ5A exhibited optimal activity at 43C and retained activity over 25-50C. PNL-ZJ5A was optimally active at pH 5 and effective in apple juice clarification. Compared with controls, PNL-ZJ5A increased the fruit juice yield significantly. Furthermore, PNL-ZJ5A reduced the viscosity of apple juice by 38.8% and increased its transmittance by 86.3%. PNL-ZJ5A combined with a commercial pectin esterase resulted in higher juice volume. PMID:25382689

  10. Mass spectrometric detection and formation of D-amino acids in processed plant saps, syrups, and fruit juice concentrates.

    PubMed

    Ptzold, Ralf; Brckner, Hans

    2005-12-14

    Liquid and syrupy dietary saps and juices of plant origin, characterized by the presence of large quantities of saccharides (glucose, fructose, or sucrose) and containing amino acids, were analyzed for the presence of D-amino acids using enantioselective gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. D-amino acids were detected in processed saps and juices of trees (maple, palm, birch), fruits (grape, apple, pear, pomegranate, date), and various other plants (agave, beetroot, sugar cane, carob). D-Ala was detected in all plant products and amounted to approximately 34% D-Ala (relative to L-Ala + D-Ala) in Canadian maple syrups, to approximately 13% in palm saps, and to 48 and 13% D-Ala, respectively, in concentrated grape juices (Spanish Arrope and Turkish Pekmez). Varying amounts and kinds of other D-amino acids were also detected. To test the hypothesis that racemization, that is, partial conversion of L-amino acids into their corresponding D-enantiomers, occurs at reversible stages of the Maillard reaction, the Amadori compound fructose-L-phenylalanine was synthesized. On heating at 200 degrees C for 5 (20) min, release of 10.8% (24.2%) D-Phe was detected. From the data it is concluded that the Amadori compounds formed in the course of the Maillard reaction are pecursors of D-amino acids in foodstuffs. PMID:16332121

  11. Quantification by UHPLC of total individual polyphenols in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Daz-Garca, M C; Obn, J M; Castellar, M R; Collado, J; Alacid, M

    2013-06-01

    The present work proposes a new UHPLC-PDA-fluorescence method able to identify and quantify the main polyphenols present in commercial fruit juices in a 28-min chromatogram. The proposed method improve the IFU method No. 71 used to evaluate anthocyanins profiles of fruit juices. Fruit juices of strawberry, American cranberry, bilberry, sour cherry, black grape, orange, and apple, were analysed identifying 70 of their main polyphenols (23 anthocyanins, 15 flavonols, 6 hydroxybenzoic acids, 14 hydroxycinnamic acids, 4 flavanones, 2 dihydrochalcones, 4 flavan-3-ols and 2 stilbenes). One standard polyphenol of each group was used to calculate individual polyphenol concentration presents in a juice. Total amount of polyphenols in a fruit juice was estimated as total individual polyphenols (TIP). A good correlation (r(2)=0.966) was observed between calculated TIP, and total polyphenols (TP) determined by the well-known colorimetric Folin-Ciocalteu method. In this work, the higher TIP value corresponded to bilberry juice (607.324 mg/100mL fruit juice) and the lower to orange juice (32.638 mg/100mL fruit juice). This method is useful for authentication analyses and for labelling total polyphenols contents of commercial fruit juices. PMID:23411199

  12. Determination of ascorbic acid content of some fruit juices and wine by voltammetry performed at pt and carbon paste electrodes.

    PubMed

    Pisoschi, Aurelia Magdalena; Pop, Aneta; Negulescu, Gheorghe Petre; Pisoschi, Aurel

    2011-01-01

    A method was developed for assessing ascorbic acid concentration in fruit juices and wine by differential pulse voltammetry. The oxidation peak for ascorbic acid occurs at about 530 mV (versus SCE) on a Pt strip working electrode and at about 470 mV on a carbon paste working electrode. The influence of the operational parameters like the pulse amplitude and the pulse period on the analytical signal was investigated. The obtained calibration graph shows a linear dependence between the peak height and ascorbic acid concentration within the range 0.31-20 mM with a Pt working electrode, and within the range 0.07-20 mM with a carbon paste working electrode. The equation of the calibration graph was y = 21.839x + 35.726, r = 0.9940, when a Pt strip electrode was used (where y represents the value of the current intensity measured for the peak height, expressed as A and x the analyte concentration, as mM). R.S.D. = 2.09%, n = 10, C(ascorbic acid) = 2.5 mM. The equation of the calibration graph was y = 3.4429x + 5.7334, r = 0.9971, when a carbon paste electrode was used (where y represents the value of intensity measured for the peak height, expressed as A and x the analyte concentration, as mM). R.S.D. = 2.35%, n = 10, C(ascorbic acid) = 2.5 mM. The developed method was applied to ascorbic acid assessment in fruit juices and wine. The ascorbic acid content determined ranged between 6.83 mg/100 mL juice for soft drinks (Fanta Madness) and 54.74 mg/100 mL for citrus (lemon) juices obtained by squeezing fruit. Different ascorbic acid concentrations (from standard solutions) were added to the analysed samples, the degree of recovery being comprised between 94.74 and 104.97%. The results of ascorbic acid assessment by differential pulse voltammetry were compared with those obtained by cyclic voltammetry. The results obtained by the two methods were in good agreement. PMID:21285920

  13. Freeze concentration of fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, S S; Cheryan, M; Sathe, S K; Salunkhe, D K

    1984-01-01

    Concentration of aqueous foods such as fruit juices, milk, beer, wine, coffee, and tea, is a major unit operation in the food industry. Technically feasible processes that are commercially available for the concentration of liquid foods include evaporation, freeze concentration, reverse osmosis, and ultrafiltration. Evaporation is considered to be the most economical and most widely used method of concentration. However, it is not suited for food products with very delicate flavors. Commercial processes for the concentration of such products by membrane separation techniques are not yet available. As compared to the conventional evaporation processes, concentration by freezing is potentially a superior and economic process for aroma-rich liquid foods. In the past, the process, however, was seldom used because of the investment cost and the considerable loss of concentrate in the withdrawn ice, and hence, the quality. Recent technological developments have minimized these two drawbacks associated with the earlier freeze concentration processes. In the coming decade, freeze concentration is seen as a potentially attractive method for the concentration of aroma-rich liquid foods, including fruit juices, coffee, tea, and selected alcoholic beverages. In this article, several aspects of the theoretical considerations behind freeze concentration of fruit juices, the development of new and cheaper designs, and commercially available freeze concentration processes are reviewed. The economics of the process and its application to several other areas of the food industry are also discussed. PMID:6383717

  14. The colligative properties of fruit juices by photopyroelectric calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frandas, A.; Surducan, V.; Nagy, G.; Bicanic, D.

    1999-03-01

    The photopyroelectric method was used to study the depression of freezing point in juices prepared from selected apple and orange juice concentrates. By using the models for real solutions, the effective molecular weight of the dissolved solids was obtained. The acids concentration in the fruit juice is reflected both in the equivalent molecular weight (by lowering it) and in the interaction coefficients b and C. Using the data for the molecular weight and the characteristic coefficients, prediction curves for the samples investigated can be used in practice. Freezing point depression can also be used as an indicator of the degree of spoilage of fruit juices.

  15. Quality control of fruit juices by using organic acids determined by capillary zone electrophoresis with poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated bubble cell capillaries.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Pascual-Ahuir, María; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel

    2015-12-01

    An enhanced method for the determination of organic acids in several fruit juices by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with direct UV-Vis detection has been developed in this work. First, a study with simulated real juice samples was done to find the best separation conditions. Next, several commercial fruit juices were analyzed, and the organic acid contents were quantified in less than 12 min using a poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated fused-silica 'bubble cell' capillary. The present method is reliable, fast and provides detection limits comprised between 0.1 and 2.5 μg mL(-1). Moreover, different chemometric techniques, based on CZE data, were examined. Linear discriminant analysis allowed the differentiation of fruit juices according to the fruit type, whereas multiple linear regression models predicted the percentages of orange and pineapple juices in binary blends with grape. Thus, the present methodology is of utmost interest for routine and quality control purposes in food industries. PMID:26041236

  16. Efficient determination of protocatechuic acid in fruit juices by selective and rapid magnetic molecular imprinted solid phase extraction coupled with HPLC.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lianwu; Guo, Junfang; Zhang, Yuping; Shi, Shuyun

    2014-08-13

    Magnetic molecular imprinted polymers (MMIPs) have been prepared as solid phase material to selectively extract protocatechuic acid (PCA) from fruit juices with high capacity and fast binding kinetics. The resulting MMIPs were characterized by TEM, FT-IR, TGA, and VSM. The adsorption process between PCA and MMIPs followed Langumuir adsorption isotherm with maximum adsorption capacity at 7.5 mg/g and pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics with fast binding kinetics (equilibrium time at 40 min). In addition, the prepared MMIPs showed rapid magnetic separation (10 s) and reusability (retained 94.9% after six cycles). Subsequently, MMIPs were successfully applied for selective enrichment and determination of PCA from fruit juices (0.45 ?g/mL in grape juice but not detected in apple juice, pineapple juice, orange juice, and peach juice) with satisfactory recoveries (92-107%). The results indicated that synthesized MMIPs can be used for efficient and selective extraction of PCA from complex matrices. PMID:25075753

  17. A comparative study of thermal and acid inactivation kinetics in fruit juices of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg grown at acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Fernández, Ana; Bernardo, Ana; López, Mercedes

    2009-11-01

    Acid and heat inactivation in orange and apple juices of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Colección Española de Cultivos Tipo (i.e., Spanish Type Culture Collection) 443 (CECT 443) (Salmonella Typhimurium) and S. enterica serovar Senftenberg CECT 4384 (Salmonella Senftenberg) grown in buffered brain heart infusion (pH 7.0) and acidified brain heart infusion up to pH 4.5 with acetic, citric, lactic, and hydrochloric acids was evaluated. Acid adaptation induced an adaptive response that increased the subsequent resistance to extreme pH conditions (pH 2.5) and to heat, although the magnitude of these responses differed between the two isolates and fruit juices. The acid resistance in orange juice for acid-adapted cells (D-values of 28.3-34.5 min for Salmonella Senftenberg and 30.0-39.2 min for Salmonella Typhimurium) resulted to be about two to three times higher than that corresponding to non-acid-adapted cells. In apple juice, acid-adapted Salmonella Senftenberg cells survived better than those of Salmonella Typhimurium, obtaining mean D-values of 114.8 +/- 12.3 and 41.9 +/- 2.5 min, respectively. The thermotolerance of non-acid-adapted Salmonella Typhimurium in orange (D(58)-value: 0.028 min) and apple juices (D(58)-value: 0.10 min) was approximately double for acid-adapted cells. This cross-protection to heat was more strongly expressed in Salmonella Senftenberg. D(58)-values obtained for non-acid-adapted cells in orange (0.11 min) and apple juices (0.19 min) increased approximately 10 and 5 times, respectively, after their growth in acidified media. The conditions prevailing during bacterial growth and heat treatment did not significantly influence the z-values observed (6.0 +/- 0.3 degrees C for Salmonella Typhimurium and 7.0 +/- 0.3 degrees C for Salmonella Senftenberg). The enhanced acid resistance found for both isolates could enable them to survive for prolonged time periods in the gastrointestinal tract, increasing the risk of illness. Further, it should be taken into account that microbial growth in acidified media also induces a cross-protection response against heat that should also be considered for the design of pasteurization processes for acid foods. PMID:19694554

  18. INTERACTION OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF CHLORINE WITH MALIC ACID, TARTARIC ACID, AND VARIOUS FRUIT JUICES, A SOURCE OF MUTAGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interactions of aqueous solutions of chlorine with some fruit acids (citric acid, DL-malic acid, and L-tartaric acid) at different pH values were studied. iethyl ether extraction followed by GC/MS analysis indicated that a number of mutagens (certain chlorinated propanones an...

  19. 21 CFR 73.250 - Fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit juice. 73.250 Section 73.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.250 Fruit juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of ascorbic acid in canned fruit juices, cordials, and soft drinks with iron(III) and 1,10-phenanthroline as reagents.

    PubMed

    Lau, O W; Luk, S F

    1987-01-01

    A simple and accurate spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of ascorbic acid in canned fruit juices, cordials, and soft drinks, based on the reduction of iron(III) by ascorbic acid to iron(II), which is then complexed with 1,10-phenanthroline. Background correction is necessary for most samples and can be achieved by copper(II)-catalyzed oxidation of the acid. The calibration graph was linear from 0 to 8 micrograms/mL of ascorbic acid with a slope of 0.12/ppm. The precision for the determination of ascorbic acid in a lemon drink containing 210 micrograms/mL of the acid was 0.9%. Many ingredients commonly found in fruit juices, cordials, and soft drinks do not interfere; however, tannic acid, pyrogallol, and sulfite interfere with the method. A wide range of samples was analyzed for ascorbic acid content by the proposed method. The samples included mango and lemon tea drinks and also grapefruit juices, for which no background correction is needed. PMID:3610966

  1. Spoilage of fruit juices by filamentous fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of molds in fruit juices has risen in recent years. Even though there are many critical control points in the processing protocols that are noted and maintained, there remains a problem with dairy and juices packed in paperboard cartons. This talk discusses the work involved in the dis...

  2. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spirits added to juice or... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.237 Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have...

  3. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spirits added to juice or... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.237 Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have...

  4. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spirits added to juice or... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Spirits § 24.237 Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have...

  5. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spirits added to juice or... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Spirits § 24.237 Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have...

  6. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spirits added to juice or... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.237 Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. Juice or concentrated fruit juice to which spirits have been added may not have...

  7. Comparison of the effects of blending and juicing on the phytochemicals contents and antioxidant capacity of typical korean kernel fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Pyo, Young-Hee; Jin, Yoo-Jeong; Hwang, Ji-Young

    2014-06-01

    Four Korean kernel fruit (apple, pear, persimmon, and mandarin orange) juices were obtained by household processing techniques (i.e., blending, juicing). Whole and flesh fractions of each fruit were extracted by a blender or a juicer and then examined for phytochemical content (i.e., organic acids, polyphenol compounds). The antioxidant capacity of each juice was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Results revealed that juices that had been prepared by blending whole fruits had stronger antioxidant activities and contained larger amounts of phenolic compounds than juices that had been prepared by juicing the flesh fraction of the fruit. However, the concentration of ascorbic acid in apple, pear, and mandarin orange juices was significantly (P<0.05) higher in juice that had been processed by juicing, rather than blending. The juices with the highest ascorbic acid (233.9 mg/serving), total polyphenols (862.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/serving), and flavonoids (295.1 mg quercetin equivalents/serving) concentrations were blended persimmon juice, blended mandarin orange juice, and juiced apple juice, respectively. These results indicate that juice extraction techniques significantly (P<0.05) influences the phytochemical levels and antioxidant capacity of fruit juices. PMID:25054109

  8. Comparison of the Effects of Blending and Juicing on the Phytochemicals Contents and Antioxidant Capacity of Typical Korean Kernel Fruit Juices

    PubMed Central

    Pyo, Young-Hee; Jin, Yoo-Jeong; Hwang, Ji-Young

    2014-01-01

    Four Korean kernel fruit (apple, pear, persimmon, and mandarin orange) juices were obtained by household processing techniques (i.e., blending, juicing). Whole and flesh fractions of each fruit were extracted by a blender or a juicer and then examined for phytochemical content (i.e., organic acids, polyphenol compounds). The antioxidant capacity of each juice was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Results revealed that juices that had been prepared by blending whole fruits had stronger antioxidant activities and contained larger amounts of phenolic compounds than juices that had been prepared by juicing the flesh fraction of the fruit. However, the concentration of ascorbic acid in apple, pear, and mandarin orange juices was significantly (P<0.05) higher in juice that had been processed by juicing, rather than blending. The juices with the highest ascorbic acid (233.9 mg/serving), total polyphenols (862.3 mg gallic acid equivalents/serving), and flavonoids (295.1 mg quercetin equivalents/serving) concentrations were blended persimmon juice, blended mandarin orange juice, and juiced apple juice, respectively. These results indicate that juice extraction techniques significantly (P<0.05) influences the phytochemical levels and antioxidant capacity of fruit juices. PMID:25054109

  9. Bolus consumption of a specifically designed fruit juice rich in anthocyanins and ascorbic acid did not influence markers of antioxidative defense in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Ellinger, Sabine; Gordon, Andr; Krten, Mira; Jungfer, Elvira; Zimmermann, Benno F; Zur, Berndt; Ellinger, Jrg; Marx, Friedhelm; Stehle, Peter

    2012-11-14

    Exotic fruits such as aai, camu-camu, and blackberries rich in natural antioxidants (ascorbic acid, anthocyanins) are marketed as "functional" foods supporting a pro-/antioxidant balance. Confirming data from human studies are lacking. Within a randomized controlled crossover trial, 12 healthy nonsmokers ingested 400 mL of a blended juice of these fruits or a sugar solution (control). Blood was drawn before and afterward to determine antioxidants in plasma, markers of antioxidant capacity [trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity, total oxidant scavenging capacity (TOSC)] and oxidative stress [isoprostane, DNA strand breaks in leukocytes in vivo], and their resistance versus H?O?-induced strand breaks. Compared with sugar solution, juice consumption increased plasma ascorbic acid and maintained TOSC and partly Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity (both P values < 0.05). Strand breaks in vivo increased after ingestion of both beverages (P < 0.001), probably due to postprandial and/or circadian effects. This anthocyanin-rich fruit juice may stabilize the pro-/antioxidant balance in healthy nonsmokers without affecting markers of oxidative stress. PMID:23072538

  10. Use of oleic-acid functionalized nanoparticles for the magnetic solid-phase microextraction of alkylphenols in fruit juices using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Viñas, Pilar; Pastor-Belda, Marta; Torres, Aitor; Campillo, Natalia; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles of cobalt ferrite with oleic acid as the surfactant (CoFe2O4/oleic acid) were used as sorbent material for the determination of alkylphenols in fruit juices. High sensitivity and specificity were achieved by liquid chromatography and detection using both diode-array (DAD) and electrospray-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MS/MS) in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode of the negative fragment ions for alkylphenols (APs) and in positive mode for ethoxylate APs (APEOs). The optimized conditions for the different variables influencing the magnetic separation procedure were: mass of magnetic nanoparticles, 50mg, juice volume, 10mL diluted to 25mL with water, pH 6, stirring for 10min at room temperature, separation with an external neodymium magnet, desorption with 3mL of methanol and orbital shaking for 5min. The enriched organic phase was evaporated and reconstituted with 100µL acetonitrile before injecting 30µL into a liquid chromatograph with a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile/0.1% (v/v) formic acid under gradient elution. Quantification limits were in the range 3.6 to 125ngmL(-1). The recoveries obtained were in the 91-119% range, with RSDs lower than 14%. The ESI-MS/MS spectra permitted the correct identification of both APs and APEOs in the fruit juice samples. PMID:26946030

  11. Comparison of the polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activity of European commercial fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Borges, Gina; Mullen, William; Crozier, Alan

    2010-10-01

    Thirty six commercial European fruit juices were tested to ascertain their antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic composition. Six of the products were labelled 100% pomegranate juice, the others included 20 brands of diluted pomegranate juice or pomegranate blended with other fruit juices and 10 different non-pomegranate fruit juices. The antioxidant capacity of all the juices was determined while anthocyanin, ellagitannin and ellagic acid profiles of the 26 pomegranate juices and pomegranate juice blends were obtained using HPLC-PDA-MS(2). Additional analysis was conducted on seven of the juices using HPLC with an on-line antioxidant detection system. Three of the "pure" pomegranate juices had the highest ellagitannin content and the highest antioxidant capacity. Only one of these three juices was rich in anthocyanins. The other "pure juices" had differences in their HPLC "pomegranate" fingerprint and also had a lower antioxidant capacity, in some cases lower than that of some of the blended juices. Vitamin C rather than phenolic compounds was the major contributor to the antioxidant capacity for some of the juices. Statistical analysis of both the antioxidant assay and the HPLC on-line antioxidant data demonstrated that the ellagitannins were the major antioxidants in the pomegranate juices. The complexity of the polyphenolic profile of pomegranates necessitates the use of HPLC-PDA-MS(2) for a thorough evaluation of juice composition and authenticity. PMID:21776457

  12. Kids' Fruit Drinks, Juices Contain Day's Worth of Sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_157954.html Kids' Fruit Drinks, Juices Contain Day's Worth of Sugar Study was conducted in Britain, ... fruit drinks and juices give kids a full day's worth of sugar in a single serving, a ...

  13. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  14. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  15. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  16. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  17. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for...

  18. Emerging preservation techniques for controlling spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed. PMID:25332721

  19. Emerging Preservation Techniques for Controlling Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms in Fruit Juices

    PubMed Central

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Aneja, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are important commodities in the global market providing vast possibilities for new value added products to meet consumer demand for convenience, nutrition, and health. Fruit juices are spoiled primarily due to proliferation of acid tolerant and osmophilic microflora. There is also risk of food borne microbial infections which is associated with the consumption of fruit juices. In order to reduce the incidence of outbreaks, fruit juices are preserved by various techniques. Thermal pasteurization is used commercially by fruit juice industries for the preservation of fruit juices but results in losses of essential nutrients and changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties. Nonthermal pasteurization methods such as high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, and ultrasound and irradiations have also been employed in fruit juices to overcome the negative effects of thermal pasteurization. Some of these techniques have already been commercialized. Some are still in research or pilot scale. Apart from these emerging techniques, preservatives from natural sources have also shown considerable promise for use in some food products. In this review article, spoilage, pathogenic microflora, and food borne outbreaks associated with fruit juices of last two decades are given in one section. In other sections various prevention methods to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microflora to increase the shelf life of fruit juices are discussed. PMID:25332721

  20. Deconstructing a fruit serving: comparing the antioxidant density of select whole fruit and 100% fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Kristi Michele; Murray, Elizabeth

    2013-10-01

    Research suggests phytonutrients, specifically phenolic compounds, within fruit may be responsible for the putatively positive antioxidant benefits derived from fruit. Given the prominence of fruit juice in the American diet, the purpose of this research was to assess the antioxidant density of fresh fruit and 100% fruit juice for five commonly consumed fruits and juices and to compare the adequacy of 100% juice as a dietary equivalent to whole fruit in providing beneficial antioxidants. Antioxidant density was measured using an oxygen radical absorbance capacity method on six samples assayed in triplicate for each fruit (grape, apple, orange, grapefruit, pineapple), name-brand 100% juice, and store-brand 100% juice. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference or Student t test were used to assess significance (P<0.05). Antioxidant density (mmol TE/100 g) of apple, orange, and grapefruit was 23% to 54% higher than the mean antioxidant density of name-brand and store-brand juices for each fruit; however, only apple and grapefruit exhibited significantly greater (P<0.05) antioxidant density than either of their name-brand or store-brand juices. In contrast, the mean antioxidant density of name-brand grape and pineapple juice was higher than fresh grape or pineapple fruit; however, both fresh grapes and commercial grape juice contained significantly more (P<0.05) antioxidants than store-brand grape juice. Regardless of the convenience of fruit juice, results support the recommendations of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for increasing fruit servings in the whole fruit form due to their provision of beneficial antioxidants and fiber with approximately 35% less sugar. PMID:23810279

  1. Validated Method for the Characterization and Quantification of Extractable and Nonextractable Ellagitannins after Acid Hydrolysis in Pomegranate Fruits, Juices, and Extracts.

    PubMed

    García-Villalba, Rocío; Espín, Juan Carlos; Aaby, Kjersti; Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Heinonen, Marina; Jacobs, Griet; Voorspoels, Stefan; Koivumäki, Tuuli; Kroon, Paul A; Pelvan, Ebru; Saha, Shikha; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A

    2015-07-29

    Pomegranates are one of the main highly valuable sources of ellagitannins. Despite the potential health benefits of these compounds, reliable data on their content in pomegranates and derived extracts and food products is lacking, as it is usually underestimated due to their complexity, diversity, and lack of commercially available standards. This study describes a new method for the analysis of the extractable and nonextractable ellagitannins based on the quantification of the acid hydrolysis products that include ellagic acid, gallic acid, sanguisorbic acid dilactone, valoneic acid dilactone, and gallagic acid dilactone in pomegranate samples. The study also shows the occurrence of ellagitannin C-glycosides in pomegranates. The method was optimized using a pomegranate peel extract. To quantify nonextractable ellagitannins, freeze-dried pomegranate fruit samples were directly hydrolyzed with 4 M HCl in water at 90 °C for 24 h followed by extraction of the pellet with dimethyl sulfoxide/methanol (50:50, v/v). The method was validated and reproducibility was assessed by means of an interlaboratory trial, showing high reproducibility across six laboratories with relative standard deviations below 15%. Their applicability was demonstrated in several pomegranate extracts, different parts of pomegranate fruit (husk, peels, and mesocarp), and commercial juices. A large variability has been found in the ellagitannin content (150-750 mg of hydrolysis products/g) and type (gallagic acid/ellagic acid ratios between 4 and 0.15) of the 11 pomegranate extracts studied. PMID:26158321

  2. Development and validation of a predictive model for the influences of selected product and process variables on ascorbic acid degradation in simulated fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Alonzo A; Cayabyab, Jochelle Elysse C; Tan, Athalie Kaye L; Corook, Mark Lester F; Ables, Errol John O; Tiangson-Bayaga, Cecile Leah P

    2015-06-15

    A predictive response surface model for the influences of product (soluble solids and titratable acidity) and process (temperature and heating time) parameters on the degradation of ascorbic acid (AA) in heated simulated fruit juices (SFJs) was established. Physicochemical property ranges of freshly squeezed and processed juices, and a previously established decimal reduction times of Escherichiacoli O157:H7 at different heating temperatures were used in establishing a Central Composite Design of Experiment that determined the combinations of product and process variable used in the model building. Only the individual linear effects of temperature and heating time significantly (P<0.05) affected AA reduction (%AAr). Validating systems either over- or underestimated actual %AAr with bias factors 0.80-1.20. However, all validating systems still resulted in acceptable predictive efficacy, with accuracy factor 1.00-1.26. The model may be useful in establishing unique process schedules for specific products, for the simultaneous control and improvement of food safety and quality. PMID:25660889

  3. Reverse osmosis as a potential technique to improve antioxidant properties of fruit juices used for functional beverages.

    PubMed

    Gunathilake, K D P P; Yu, Li Juan; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-04-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) as a potential technique to improve the antioxidant properties of cranberry, blueberry and apple juices was evaluated for the formulation of a functional beverage. The effects of temperature (20-40 C) and trans-membrane pressure (25-35 bars) on physico-chemical and antioxidant properties of fruit juices were evaluated to optimize the operating parameters for each fruit juice. There was no significant effect on any quality parameters of fruit juices under studied operating parameters of RO. However, total soluble solid, total acidity and colour (a(?)) of the concentrated juices increased in proportion to their volumetric concentrations. Antioxidant capacity measured by FRAP assay of concentrated apple, blueberry and cranberry juice was increased by 40%, 34%, and 30%, respectively. LDL oxidation inhibition by concentrated blueberry and cranberry juice was increased up to 41% and 45%, respectively. The results suggest that RO can be used for enhancing the health promoting properties of fruit juices. PMID:24262566

  4. Effectiveness of a bacteriophage in reducing Listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut fruits and fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M; Vias, I; Cols, P; Anguera, M; Usall, J; Abadias, M

    2014-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a serious foodborne pathogen and new strategies to control it in food are needed. Among them, bacteriophages hold attributes that appear to be attractive. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the bacteriophage Listex P100 to control L.monocytogenes growth on melon, pear and apple products (juices and slices) stored at 10C. L.monocytogenes grew well in untreated fruit slices. In juices, the pathogen grew in untreated melon, survived in untreated pear and decreased in untreated apple. Phage treatment was more effective on melon followed by pear, but no effect on apple products was observed. Reductions of about 1.50 and 1.00logcfuplug(-1) for melon and pear slices were found, respectively. In juices, higher reductions were obtained in melon (8.00 log cfumL(-1)) followed by pear (2.10logcfumL(-1)) after 8 days of storage. L.monocytogenes in apple juice was unaffected by phage treatment in which the phage decreased to almost undetectable numbers. These results highlight that Listex P100 could avoid pathogen growth on fresh-cut and in fruit juices with high pH during storage at 10C. The combination with other technologies may be required to improve the phage application on high acidity fruits. PMID:24290636

  5. Hydrophilic gallic acid-imprinted polymers over magnetic mesoporous silica microspheres with excellent molecular recognition ability in aqueous fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin; Xie, Lianwu; Guo, Junfang; Li, Hui; Jiang, Xinyu; Zhang, Yuping; Shi, Shuyun

    2015-07-15

    Hydrophilic molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for gallic acid (GA) were prepared with excellent recognition ability in an aqueous solution. The proposed MIPs were designed by self-polymerization of dopamine (DA) on magnetic mesoporous silica (Fe3O4@SiO2@mSiO2, MMS) using GA as template. Resulting Fe3O4@SiO2@mSiO2@MIPs (MMS-MIPs) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and evaluated by adsorption isotherms/kinetics and competitive adsorption. The adsorption behavior between GA and MMS-MIPs followed Langmuir and Sips adsorption isotherms with a maximum adsorption capacity at 88.7 mg/g and pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics with fast binding (equilibrium time at 100 min). In addition, MMS-MIPs showed rapid magnetic separation (10 s) and stability (retained 95.2% after six cycles). Subsequently, MMS-MIPs were applied for the selective extraction and determination of GA from grape, apple, peach and orange juices (4.02, 3.91, 5.97, and 0.67 ?g/g, respectively). Generally, the described method may pave the way towards rationally designing more advanced hydrophilic MIPs. PMID:25722156

  6. Effect of alpha-cyclodextrin-cinnamic acid inclusion complexes on populations of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Truong, Vy T; Boyer, Renee R; McKinney, Julie M; O'Keefe, Sean F; Williams, Robert C

    2010-01-01

    Cinnamic acid (CA), a naturally occurring organic acid found in fruits and spices, has antimicrobial activity against spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, but low aqueous solubility limits its use. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of solubility-enhancing alpha-cyclodextrin-CA inclusion complexes against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovars suspended in apple cider or orange juice at two different incubation temperatures (4 and 26 degrees Celsius). Two concentrations (400 and 1,000 mg/liter) of alpha-cyclodextrin-CA inclusion complex were aseptically added to apple cider inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (7 log CFU/ml) and orange juice inoculated with a cocktail of six Salmonella enterica serovars (7 log CFU/ml). Samples were extracted at 0 min, at 2 min, and at 24-h intervals for 7 days, serially diluted in 0.1 % peptone, spread plated in duplicate onto tryptic soy agar, and incubated at 35 degrees Celsius for 24 h. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 in apple cider were significantly reduced (P < or = 0.05) during the 7-day sampling period in all solutions regardless of temperature. Compared with the controls, populations were significantly reduced by the addition of 400 and 1,000 mg/liter inclusion complex, but reductions were not significantly different (P > or = 0.05) between the two treatment groups (400 and 1,000 mg/liter). Salmonella was significantly reduced in all solutions regardless of temperature. There were significant differences between the control and each inclusion complex concentration at 4 and 26 degrees Celsius. Coupled with additional processing steps, alpha-cyclodextrin-CA inclusion complexes may provide an alternative to traditional heat processes. PMID:20051210

  7. Squeezing Fact from Fiction about 100% Fruit Juice123

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. PMID:25770266

  8. Squeezing fact from fiction about 100% fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Roger; Drewnowski, Adam; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Toner, Cheryl D; Welland, Diane

    2015-03-01

    Total fruit intake in the United States is ~1 cup equivalent per day, or one-half of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendation for adults. Two-thirds of the fruit consumed is whole fruit and one-third is 100% juice. The nutritional value of whole fruit, with the exception of fiber and vitamin C, may be retained with appropriate juice production methods and storage conditions. One-hundred percent fruit juice consumption is associated with a number of health benefits, such as improved cardiovascular health and decreased obesity, although some of these and other potential benefits are controversial. Comprehensive analyses of the evidence by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in 2014, the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in 2010, and the Australian Dietary Guidelines of 2013 concluded that 100% fruit juice is not related to adiposity in children when consumed in appropriate amounts for age and energy needs. However, some reports suggest the consumption of fruit juice contributes to unhealthful outcomes, particularly among children. A dietary modeling study on the best ways to meet the fruit intake shortfall showed that a combination of whole fruit and 100% juice improved dietary density of potassium and vitamin C without significantly increasing total calories. Notably, 100% juice intake was capped at amounts consistent with the 2001 American Pediatric Association guidance. The preponderance of evidence supports the position that 100% fruit juice delivers essential nutrients and phytonutrients, provides year-round access to a variety of fruits, and is a cost-effective way to help people meet fruit recommendations. PMID:25770266

  9. Tetrahydro-beta-carboline alkaloids occur in fruits and fruit juices. Activity as antioxidants and radical scavengers.

    PubMed

    Herraiz, Tomas; Galisteo, Juan

    2003-11-19

    Tetrahydro-beta-carbolines are biologically active alkaloids that occur and accumulate in mammalian tissues, fluids, and brain, but their ultimate origin or biological role is still uncertain. Four tetrahydro-beta-carboline alkaloids: 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline, and 6-hydroxy-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline, are found as naturally occurring substances in some fruit and fruit juices. These compounds occur in the microg/g level in those products, and a characteristic and distinct profile appears to exist depending on the type of fruit and juice involved. Thus, 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline may appear in tomato, tomato juice, and kiwi; 6-hydroxy-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline in bananas, pineapple, tomato, and their corresponding juices; and 1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid in oranges and grapefruits, although it also occurred in most juices. Fruit-occurring tetrahydro-beta-carboline alkaloids acted as antioxidants and free radical scavengers in the ABTS assay when compared with ascorbic acid and Trolox. This suggests that tetrahydro-beta-carboline alkaloids might act as antioxidants when absorbed and accumulated in the body, contributing to the antioxidant effect of fruit products containing these compounds. PMID:14611187

  10. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original..., and unconcentrated fruit juice reduced with water to not less than 22 degrees Brix, is...

  11. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original..., and unconcentrated fruit juice reduced with water to not less than 22 degrees Brix, is...

  12. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... unconcentrated fruit juice. 24.180 Section 24.180 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice. Concentrated fruit juice reduced with water to its original..., and unconcentrated fruit juice reduced with water to not less than 22 degrees Brix, is...

  13. Influence of acid tolerance responses on survival, growth, and thermal cross-protection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in acidified media and fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Ryu, J H; Beuchat, L R

    1998-12-22

    A study was done to determine survival and growth characteristics of acid-adapted, acid-shocked, and control cells of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated into tryptic soy broth (TSB) acidified with organic acids and three commercial brands of apple cider and orange juice. The three types of cells behaved similarly in TSB acidified with acetic acid; however, in TSB (pH 3.9) acidified with lactic acid, acid-adapted cells were more tolerant than acid-shocked cells which, in turn, were more tolerant than control cells. The ability of the three types of cells to grow after inoculation into acidified TSB, then plated on tryptic soy agar containing sodium chloride was determined. Tolerance of acid-adapted cells and, less markedly, acid-shocked cells to sodium chloride was diminished, compared to control cells. The pathogen showed extraordinary tolerance to the low pH of apple cider and orange juice held at 5 or 25 degrees C for up to 42 days. Growth occurred in one brand of apple cider (pH 3.98) incubated at 25 degrees C. Regardless of test parameters, there was no indication that cell types differed in tolerance to the acidic environment in apple cider or orange juice. Survival of control, acid-adapted, and acid-shocked cells heated in apple cider and orange juice was studied. Within each apple cider or orange juice, D(52 degrees C)-values of acid-adapted cells were considerably higher than those of acid-shocked or control cells, which indicates that heat tolerance can be substantially enhanced by acid adaptation compared to acid shock. PMID:9926995

  14. Fruit juice-induced endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: evaluation of different fruit juices and purees and optimization of a red fruit juice blend.

    PubMed

    Auger, Cyril; Kim, Jong-Hun; Trinh, Sandrine; Chataigneau, Thierry; Popken, Anne M; Schini-Kerth, Valrie B

    2011-05-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that several polyphenol-rich sources such as red wine and green tea are potent inducers of endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated arteries. As various fruits and berries are known to contain high levels of polyphenols, the aim of the present study was to assess the ability of selected pure fruit juices and purees as well as blends to cause endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated arteries. Vascular reactivity was assessed using porcine coronary artery rings, and fruit juices, purees and blends were characterized for their content in vitamin C, total phenolic, sugar and antioxidant activity. Fruit juices and purees caused variable concentration-dependent relaxations, with blackcurrant, aronia, cranberry, blueberry, lingonberry, and grape being the most effective fruits. Several blends of red fruits caused endothelium-dependent relaxations. Relaxations to blend D involved both a NO- and an EDHF-mediated components. The present findings indicate that some berries and blends of red fruit juices are potent inducers of endothelium-dependent relaxations in the porcine coronary artery. This effect involves both endothelium-derived NO and EDHF, and appears to be dependent on their polyphenolic composition rather than on the polyphenolic content. PMID:21779562

  15. Recovery of alicyclobacillus from inhibitory fruit juice concentrates.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Christopher J; Wiebe, Deborah; Gomez, Margarita

    2011-08-01

    Growth of Alicyclobacillus in low-pH fruit juices may result in off-odors and off-flavors due to the production of compounds such as guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol). An important step in preventing Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juices is the screening of incoming ingredients. Many fruit juice concentrates contain compounds that inhibit Alicyclobacillus growth, but beverages produced from the concentrates may not contain sufficient amounts of the active component to prevent spoilage. Therefore, accurate screening of juice concentrates is essential to prevent false-negative test results and product spoilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate isolation methods for detection of Alicyclobacillus in inhibitory juice concentrates. Recovery of Alicyclobacillus spores from inoculated and naturally contaminated concentrates was compared by using pour plate, spread plate, and filtration methods. Pour plates consistently recovered the lowest number of spores from inoculated concentrates. Spread plating was the most effective method used to recover spores from inoculated apple and pomegranate juice concentrates, while filtration resulted in the highest recovery from cranberry concentrate. When tested on naturally contaminated concentrates, the pour plate method failed to detect Alicyclobacillus in many samples. Filtration was much more effective. The filtration method increased the likelihood of detecting Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juice concentrates containing inhibitory compounds. PMID:21819669

  16. Recovery of alicyclobacillus from inhibitory fruit juice concentrates.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    McNamara CJ; Wiebe D; Gomez M

    2011-08-01

    Growth of Alicyclobacillus in low-pH fruit juices may result in off-odors and off-flavors due to the production of compounds such as guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol). An important step in preventing Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juices is the screening of incoming ingredients. Many fruit juice concentrates contain compounds that inhibit Alicyclobacillus growth, but beverages produced from the concentrates may not contain sufficient amounts of the active component to prevent spoilage. Therefore, accurate screening of juice concentrates is essential to prevent false-negative test results and product spoilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate isolation methods for detection of Alicyclobacillus in inhibitory juice concentrates. Recovery of Alicyclobacillus spores from inoculated and naturally contaminated concentrates was compared by using pour plate, spread plate, and filtration methods. Pour plates consistently recovered the lowest number of spores from inoculated concentrates. Spread plating was the most effective method used to recover spores from inoculated apple and pomegranate juice concentrates, while filtration resulted in the highest recovery from cranberry concentrate. When tested on naturally contaminated concentrates, the pour plate method failed to detect Alicyclobacillus in many samples. Filtration was much more effective. The filtration method increased the likelihood of detecting Alicyclobacillus contamination of fruit juice concentrates containing inhibitory compounds.

  17. Novel approach for mono-segmented flow micro-titration with sequential injection using a lab-on-valve system: a model study for the assay of acidity in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Jakmunee, Jaroon; Pathimapornlert, Lop; Hartwell, Supaporn Kradtap; Grudpan, Kate

    2005-03-01

    A new concept for micro-titration using a "lab-on-valve"(LOV) system with sequential injection of mono-segmented flow is proposed. The performance of the system was demonstrated by the assay of acidity in fruit juices which is based on acid-base neutralization. A standard/sample solution containing citric acid, indicator, sodium hydroxide, were sandwiched between air segments and were aspirated in microliter volumes through a selection valve into a holding coil. The acid, indicator, and base were mixed by flow reversal. After removing air segments, the solution was pushed to the detector for monitoring of the change in absorbance of the indicator color, which depended on the concentration of the remaining base. With LOV, microliter volumes of the solution can be detected without dispersion of the color zone. A calibration graph (plot of absorbance vs. acidity value) in the range of 0.2-1.2% (w/v) as citric acid was established. Sample throughput of 30 sample h(-1) and good reproducibility (RSD = 1.2%, n= 11 for 0.6% acidity) were achieved. The procedure has been applied to determine acidity in fruit juices. PMID:15724157

  18. Effects of genotype, latitude, and weather conditions on the composition of sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in sea buckthorn (Hippopha rhamnoides ssp. mongolica) berry juice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie; Yang, Baoru; Trpanier, Martin; Kallio, Heikki

    2012-03-28

    Sea buckthorn berries (Hippopha rhamnoides ssp. mongolica) of nine varieties were collected from three growth locations in five inconsecutive years (n = 152) to study the compositional differences of sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in berries of different genotypes. Fructose and glucose (major sugars) were highest in Chuiskaya and Vitaminaya among the varieties studied, respectively. Malic acid and quinic acid (major acids) were highest in Pertsik and Vitaminaya, respectively. Ascorbic acid was highest in Oranzhevaya and lowest in Vitaminaya. Berry samples of nine varieties collected from two growth locations in five years (n = 124) were combined to study the effects of latitude and weather conditions on the composition of H. rhamnoides ssp. mongolica. Sea buckthorn berries grown at lower latitude had higher levels of total sugar and sugar/acid ratio and a lower level of total acid and were supposed to have better sensory properties than those grown at higher latitude. Glucose, quinic acid, and ascorbic acid were hardly influenced by weather conditions. The other components showed various correlations with temperature, radiation, precipitation, and humidity variables. In addition, fructose, sucrose, and myo-inositol correlated positively with each other and showed negative correlation with malic acid on the basis of all the samples studied (n = 152). PMID:22397621

  19. Improving the stability of probiotic bacteria in model fruit juices using vitamins and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Shah, N P; Ding, W K; Fallourd, M J; Leyer, G

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the survival of probiotic bacteria in a model fruit juice system. Three different strains of probiotic bacteria were used in this study: HOWARU Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, HOWARU Bifidobacterium lactis HN001, and Lactobacillus paracasei LPC 37. The probiotic bacteria were inoculated into model juice with various vitamins and antioxidants, namely white grape seed extract, green tea extract, vitamin B2, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, vitamin C, and vitamin E. The model juice without any additives was used as a control. Their viability was assessed on a weekly basis using plate count method. The model juice was made with sucrose, sodium citrate, citric acid powder, and distilled water and was pasteurized before use. Our findings showed that probiotic bacteria did not survive well in the harsh environment of the model fruit juice. However, the model juice containing vitamin C, grape extract, and green tea extract showed better survival of probiotic bacteria. The model juice containing grape seed extract, green tea extract, and vitamin C had the same initial population of 8.32 log CFU/mL, and at the end of the 6-wk storage period it had an average viability of 4.29 log CFU/mL, 7.41 log CFU/mL, and 6.44 log CFU/mL, respectively. Juices containing all other ingredients tested had viable counts of <10 CFU/mL at the end of the 6-wk storage period. PMID:20629884

  20. Fatty acid binding proteins 4 and 5 in overweight prepubertal boys: effect of nutritional counselling and supplementation with an encapsulated fruit and vegetable juice concentrate.

    PubMed

    Canas, Jose A; Damaso, L; Hossain, J; Balagopal, P Babu

    2015-01-01

    Elevated fatty acid binding proteins (FABP) may play a role in obesity and co-morbidities. The role of nutritional interventions in modulating these levels remains unclear. The aim of this post hoc study was to determine the effect of overweight (OW) on FABP4 and FABP5 in boys in relation to indices of adiposity, insulin resistance and inflammation, and to investigate the effects of a 6-month supplementation with an encapsulated fruit and vegetable juice concentrate (FVJC) plus nutritional counselling (NC) on FABP levels. A post hoc analysis of a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study of children recruited from the general paediatric population was performed. A total of thirty age-matched prepubertal boys (nine lean and twenty-one OW; aged 6-10 years) were studied. Patients received NC by a registered dietitian and were randomised to FVJC or placebo capsules for 6 months. FABP4, FABP5, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), glucose-induced acute insulin response (AIR), lipid-corrected ?-carotene (LC?C), adiponectin, leptin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), IL-6 and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were determined before and after the intervention. FABP were higher (P<001) in the OW v. lean boys and correlated directly with HOMA-IR, abdominal fat mass (AFM), hs-CRP, IL-6, and LC?C (P<005 for all). FABP4 was associated with adiponectin and AIR (P<005). FVJC plus NC reduced FABP4, HOMA-IR and AFM (P<005 for all) but not FABP5. OW boys showed elevated FABP4 and FABP5, but only FABP4 was lowered by the FVJC supplement. PMID:26688725

  1. A comparison of nutrient density scores for 100% fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Rampersaud, G C

    2007-05-01

    The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that consumers choose a variety of nutrient-dense foods. Nutrient density is usually defined as the quantity of nutrients per calorie. Food and nutrition professionals should be aware of the concept of nutrient density, how it might be quantified, and its potential application in food labeling and dietary guidance. This article presents the concept of a nutrient density score and compares nutrient density scores for various 100% fruit juices. One hundred percent fruit juices are popular beverages in the United States, and although they can provide concentrated sources of a variety of nutrients, they can differ considerably in their nutrient profiles. Six methodologies were used to quantify nutrient density and 7 100% fruit juices were included in the analysis: apple, grape, pink grapefruit, white grapefruit, orange, pineapple, and prune. Food composition data were obtained from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 18. Application of the methods resulted in nutrient density scores with a range of values and magnitudes. The relative scores indicated that citrus juices, particularly pink grapefruit and orange juice, were more nutrient dense compared to the other nonfortified 100% juices included in the analysis. Although the methods differed, the relative ranking of the juices based on nutrient density score was similar for each method. Issues to be addressed regarding the development and application of a nutrient density score include those related to food fortification, nutrient bioavailability, and consumer education and behavior. PMID:17995788

  2. Membrane processing of fruit juices and beverages: a review.

    PubMed

    Girard, B; Fukumoto, L R

    2000-03-01

    Membrane technology for the processing of fruit juices and beverages has been applied mainly for clarification using ultrafiltration and microfiltration, and for concentration using reverse osmosis. The effects of product preparation, membrane selection, and operating parameters are important factors influencing filtration rate and product quality. Technological advances related to the development of new membranes, improvement in process engineering, and better understanding of fruit beverage constituents have expanded the range of membrane separation processes. Developments in novel membrane processes, including electrodialysis and pervaporation, increased the array of applications in combination with other technologies for alternate uses in fruit juices and beverages. PMID:10770272

  3. Membrane processing of fruit juices and beverages: a review.

    PubMed

    Girard, B; Fukumoto, L R

    2000-01-01

    Membrane technology for the processing of fruit juices and beverages has been applied mainly for clarification using ultrafiltration and microfiltration, and for concentration using reverse osmosis. The effects of product preparation, membrane selection, and operating parameters are important factors influencing filtration rate and product quality. Technological advances related to the development of new membranes, improvement in process engineering, and better understanding of fruit beverage constituents have expanded the range of membrane separation processes. Developments in novel membrane processes, including electrodialysis and pervaporation, increased the array of applications in combination with other technologies for alternate uses in fruit juices and beverages. PMID:10890454

  4. Reducing childhood obesity by eliminating 100% fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Heyman, Melvin B

    2012-09-01

    The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 presents an opportunity to change the nutritional quality of foods served in low-income childcare centers, including Head Start centers. Excessive fruit juice consumption is associated with increased risk for obesity. Moreover, there is recent scientific evidence that sucrose consumption without the corresponding fiber, as is commonly present in fruit juice, is associated with the metabolic syndrome, liver injury, and obesity. Given the increasing risk of obesity among preschool children, we recommend that the US Department of Agriculture's Child and Adult Food Care Program, which manages the meal patterns in childcare centers such as Head Start, promote the elimination of fruit juice in favor of whole fruit for children. PMID:22813423

  5. Identification of gamma-irradiated fruit juices by EPR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksieva, K. I.; Dimov, K. G.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2014-10-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on commercially available juices from various fruits and different fruit contents: 25%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, homemade juices, nectars and concentrated fruit syrups, before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. In order to remove water from non- and irradiated samples all juices and nectars were filtered; the solid residue was washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. Only concentrated fruit syrups were dried for 60 min at 40 °C in a standard laboratory oven. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0025 before irradiation with exception of concentrated fruit syrups, which are EPR silent. Irradiation of juice samples gives rise to complex EPR spectra which gradually transferred to “cellulose-like” EPR spectrum from 25% to 100% fruit content. Concentrated fruit syrups show typical “sugar-like“ spectra due to added saccharides. All EPR spectra are characteristic and can prove radiation treatment. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signals were studied for a period of 60 days after irradiation.

  6. Orange proteomic fingerprinting: From fruit to commercial juices.

    PubMed

    Lerma-García, María Jesús; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Fasoli, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    Combinatorial peptide ligand library technology, coupled to mass spectrometry, has been applied to extensively map the proteome of orange pulp and peel and, via this fingerprinting, to detect its presence in commercial orange juices and drinks. The native and denaturing extraction protocols have captured 1109 orange proteins, as identified by LC-MS/MS. This proteomic map has been searched in an orange concentrate, from a Spanish juice manufacturer, as well as in commercial orange juices and soft drinks. The presence of numerous orange proteins in commercial juices has demonstrated the genuineness of these products, prepared by using orange fruits as original ingredients. However, the low number of identified proteins in sparkling beverages has suggested that they were prepared with scarce amounts of fruit extract, thus imparting lower quality to the final products. These findings not only increase the knowledge of the orange proteome but also present a reliable analytical method to assess quality and genuineness of commercial products. PMID:26593549

  7. Spray drying of fruit and vegetable juices--a review.

    PubMed

    Verma, Anjali; Singh, Satya Vir

    2015-01-01

    The main cause of spray drying is to increase the shelf life and easy handling of juices. In the present paper, the studies carried out so far on spray drying of various fruits and vegetables are reported. The major fruit juices dried are mango, banana, orange, guava, bayberry, watermelon, pineapple, etc. However, study on vegetable juices is limited. In spray drying, the major optimized parameters are inlet air temperature, relative humidity of air, outlet air temperature, and atomizer speed that are given for a particular study. The juices in spray drying require addition of drying agents that include matlodextrin, liquid glucose, etc. The drying agents are added to increase the glass transition temperature. Different approaches for spray dryer design have also been discussed in the present work. PMID:24915356

  8. Development of an orange juice in-house reference material and its application to guarantee the quality of vitamin C determination in fruits, juices and fruit pulps.

    PubMed

    Valente, A; Sanches-Silva, A; Albuquerque, T G; Costa, H S

    2014-07-01

    Reference materials are useful for the quality control of analytical procedures and to evaluate the performance of laboratories. There are few and expensive certified reference materials commercially available for vitamin C or ascorbic acid analysis in food matrices. In this study, the preparation and the suitability assessment of an orange juice in-house reference material (RM) for vitamin C analysis in fruits, juices and in fruit pulps is described. This RM was used for the development and full validation of an HPLC method. The results showed excellent linearity (r(2)=0.9995), good accuracy (96.6-97.3%) and precision, as relative standard deviation, ranged from 0.70% to 3.67%. The in-house RM was homogenous and stable at storage conditions (-80C) during 12 months. According to our results, this in-house RM is an excellent tool to use in quality control and method verification purposes for vitamin C analysis of fruits, juices and fruit pulps matrices. Furthermore, a stabilization solution with perchloric and metaphosphoric acids was developed which prevents degradation of ascorbic acid for a period of 12 months at -80C. PMID:24518317

  9. Analysis of some Romanian fruit juices by ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehelean, A.; Magdas, D. A.

    2013-11-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the heavy metal content of 21 Romanian single strength fruit (plum, apple, sour cherry) juices. The samples were collected from five Romanian areas namely: Alba, Maramures, Cluj, Salaj and Moldova. The results indicated macro (Na, Mg, Ca, P) and micro (Fe, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Pb, etc) elements in the selected samples. The determination was performed by ICP-MS. Our results for fruit juice were compared with allowable limits for drinking water in the United Kingdom (NS30).

  10. The Flame Spectrometric Determination of Calcium in Fruit Juice by Standard Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohl, Arthur N.

    1985-01-01

    Provides procedures to measure the calcium concentration in fruit juice by atomic absorption. Fruit juice is used because: (1) it is an important consumer product; (2) large samples are available; and (3) calcium exists in fruit juice at concentrations that do not require excessive dilution or preconcentration prior to measurement. (JN)

  11. Metabolite profiling of jaboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) and other dark-colored fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shi-Biao; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Long, Chunlin; Kennelly, Edward J

    2012-08-01

    Many dark-colored fruit juices, rich in anthocyanins, are thought to be important for human health. Joboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) fruits, native to Brazil, have phenolics including anthocyanins and are processed into juice and other products. The phenolic constituents in the fruits of jaboticaba were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Twenty-two compounds were identified or tentatively determined by detailed analysis of their mass spectral fragmentation patterns; 11 compounds including 7 gallotannins, 2 ellagic acid derivatives, syringin, and its glucoside were detected for the first time in the fruit. The compositional differences among the fruit extracts and their commercial products were also compared by principal component analysis; two anthocyanins, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, as well as two depsides, jaboticabin and 2-O-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-2,4,6-trihydroxyphenylacetic acid, present in the fruit extracts were not detected unexpectedly in commercial jaboticaba juice or jam. Therefore, the stability of anthocyanins in jaboticaba fresh fruits and products has been compared directly with that of other dark-colored fruit products made from blueberry and Concord grape, and the same trend of decreasing amounts of anthocyanins was observed in all tested products. The antioxidant activities (DPPH() and ABTS(+)) of jaboticaba fresh fruit extract and commercial samples were also compared. Principal component analysis proved to be a useful way to discern changes between fresh and processed fruits. Jaboticaba is a promising fruit with antioxidant capacity similar to those of other so-called superfruits; however, during processing the levels of some of anthocyanins and other polyphenols decrease significantly, and therefore the capacity of these products to affect human health may vary significantly from that of the fresh fruit. PMID:22809264

  12. Effects of pectinase clarification treatment on phenolic compounds of pummelo (Citrus grandis l. Osbeck) fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nor Nadiah Abdul Karim; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Shamsuddin, Rosnah; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes occured on phenolic compounds between two Malaysian varieties of pummelo fruit juice: Ledang (PO55) and Tambun (PO52) post-enzymatic clarification. The changes in polyphenols composition were monitored using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Diode Array Detection and Folin Ciocalteu's method. Clarification treatment of pummelo fruit juice with a commercial pectinase was optimized based on incubation temperature, time and enzyme concentration. Both varieties of pummelo fruit juice were treated with different optimized variables which produced the highest clarities with the least effect to the juice physical quality. Tambun variety was found to have significantly more total phenolic compounds (p <0.05) in comparison to Ledang variety, possibly due to the amount of naringin. Three types of hydroxycinnamic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic and coumaric acid) and three compounds of flavanones (naringin, hesperidin and narirutin) were found in both fruit juices, where naringin and chlorogenic acid were the major contributor to the total phenolic content. Naringin, which gave out bitter aftertaste to the juice, was found to decrease, 1.6 and 0.59 % reduction in Ledang and Tambun respectively, post-enzymatic treatment. The decrease in naringin, albeit nominal, could be a potential benefit to the juice production in reducing the bitterness of the juice. Post-enzymatic analysis furthermore resulted in no significance differences (p <0.05) on the total phenolic compounds of both varieties. This study in summary provides a compositional database for Malaysian pummelo fruit juice of various phenolic compounds, which can provide useful information for evaluating the authenticity and the health benefits from the juice. PMID:26243926

  13. Investigating the transport dynamics of anthocyanins from unprocessed fruit and processed fruit juice from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) across intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra; van der Meer, Ingrid M; Tomassen, Monic M M; Hall, Robert D; Mes, Jurriaan J; Beekwilder, Jules

    2013-11-27

    Anthocyanins can contribute to human health through preventing a variety of diseases. The uptake of these compounds from food and the parameters determining uptake efficiency within the human body are still poorly understood. Here we have employed a Caco-2 cell based system to investigate the transport of key antioxidant food components from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) across the intestinal epithelial barrier. Anthocyanins and (-)-epicatechin were supplied in three contrasting matrices: fruit, processed fruit cherry juice, and polyphenolic fractions obtained by solid-phase extraction. Results show that both compound types behave differently. Fruit or juice matrices display comparable transport across the epithelial cell layer. The juice supplements sucrose and citric acid, which are regularly added to processed foods, have a positive effect on stability and transport. Polyphenolic fractions display a lower transport efficiency, relative to that of the fruit or juice, indicating the importance of food matrix components for intestinal absorption of polyphenols. PMID:24191680

  14. Patulin production by Byssochlamys spp. in fruit juices.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, S L; Beuchat, L R; Worthington, R E

    1977-01-01

    Ten strains of Byssochlamys fulva and three strains of B. nivea were cultured in a laboratory medium and tested for their ability to produce patulin. Two strains of B. fulva and all three strains of B. nivea produced the mycotoxin. One strain of B. fulva produced patulin in 11 of 13 processed fruit juices, with greatest amounts being produced in blueberry, red raspberry, and boysenberry juices, whereas no patulin was detected in prune or tomato juices. Grown in Concord grape juice at 18, 25, 30, and 38 degrees C, this strain produced the highest patulin concentration at 18 degrees C after 25 days, whereas biomass production was greatest at 25 and 30 degrees C after 20 and 25 days. PMID:596876

  15. Patulin production by Byssochlamys spp. in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Rice, S L; Beuchat, L R; Worthington, R E

    1977-12-01

    Ten strains of Byssochlamys fulva and three strains of B. nivea were cultured in a laboratory medium and tested for their ability to produce patulin. Two strains of B. fulva and all three strains of B. nivea produced the mycotoxin. One strain of B. fulva produced patulin in 11 of 13 processed fruit juices, with greatest amounts being produced in blueberry, red raspberry, and boysenberry juices, whereas no patulin was detected in prune or tomato juices. Grown in Concord grape juice at 18, 25, 30, and 38 degrees C, this strain produced the highest patulin concentration at 18 degrees C after 25 days, whereas biomass production was greatest at 25 and 30 degrees C after 20 and 25 days. PMID:596876

  16. Characterization of statistically produced xylanase for enrichment of fruit juice clarification process.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Garg, Gaurav; Sharma, Jitender; Mahajan, Ritu

    2011-10-01

    Critical factors for xylanase production of Bacillus stearothermophilus under batch fermentation and for clarification of citrus fruit juice using this xylanase were optimized through central composite design of response surface methodology. Statistical approach resulted in an increase of 1.19-fold in xylanase yield over conventional method. Model equation for juice clarification included independent variables viz. temperature, incubation time and enzyme dose to study the dependent variables such as yield, acidic neutrality and filterability etc. Coefficient of determination, R(2) for enzyme production model and for different juice properties were in accordance with the linearity of the model. On the basis of the contour plots the optimum enzyme dose was 12.5 IU/g of xylanase. Enzymatic treatment has resulted in the improvement of twofold in the release of reducing sugars and 52.97% in juice yield, whereas 35.34% reduction in turbidity was observed. PMID:21093618

  17. Citrus tissue culture: stimulation of fruit explant cultures with orange juice.

    PubMed

    Einset, J W

    1978-12-01

    In vitro growth of explant (juice vesicle or albedo tissues) cultures from citron (Citrus medica), lemon (C. limon), grapefruit (C. paradisi), sweet orange (C. sinensis), and mandarin (C. reticulata) fruits was stimulated by addition of orange juice (10% v/v optimum) to a basal medium containing Murashige and Skoog salts, 50 grams per liter sucrose, 100 milligrams per liter myo-inositol, 5 milligrams per liter thiamine.HCl, 2 milligrams per liter 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 0.5 milligrams per liter kinetin. In analyzing this effect of orange juice on citron explant cultures, we failed to obtain increased yields by addition of appropriate concentrations of citric acid to the basal medium but obtained growth stimulation when the medium was supplemented with juice from an "acidless" orange variety (cv. Lima). These facts suggest that some component(s) other than citric acid is involved. Addition of the inorganic ash corresponding to 10% (v/v) orange juice to the basal medium had no effect on yields. Similarly, the stimulatory effect of orange juice could not be explained based on its content of sucrose or of organic growth factors already present in the basal medium. PMID:16660631

  18. Fruit juices as perpetrators of drug interactions: the role of organic anion-transporting polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Dolton, M J; Roufogalis, B D; McLachlan, A J

    2012-11-01

    Grapefruit juice is widely recognized to cause important drug interactions via inhibition of CYP3A4, and a wider variety of fruit juices have been shown to inhibit influx transporters in enterocytes known as organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs). Fruit juice coadministration significantly reduces the oral bioavailability of numerous important medicines relying on this anion transporter pathway for absorption. This article reviews the current literature on interactions between clinically used OATP substrates and fruit juice consumption. PMID:23033114

  19. The ORAC/kcal ratio qualifies nutritional and functional properties of fruit juices, nectars, and fruit drinks.

    PubMed

    Ninfali, Paolino; Chiarabini, Andrea; Angelino, Donato

    2014-09-01

    Fruit beverages are source of antioxidants, but their sugar content plays an important role in the epidemic of obesity. In this study, we considered 32 fruit beverages consumed in Italy (13 fruit juices, 11 nectars, and 8 fruit drinks), which were analyzed for caloric intake, total phenols (TP), ascorbic acid, and antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method). Results showed that the caloric intake was almost completely provided by the sugar content, ranging from 5.5 to 19%. The ORAC/kcal ratio was taken as an indicator of the antioxidant performance of fruit beverages. Fruit juices containing berries, red orange, and goji showed the best performances, together with berries or pears nectars and fruit drinks made with rose hips or tea extracts. The 95% of antioxidant capacity was provided by TP, which showed a significant linear correlation with the net ORAC values. Overall, the results indicate that the ORAC/kcal ratio is a suitable parameter to rank the quality of fruit beverages. PMID:24840207

  20. Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotopes in Fruit and Vegetable Juices 1

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, John; Wilson, A. T.

    1983-01-01

    18O/16O ratios from the juices of a number of fruits and vegetables were measured and found to be isotopically more enriched than the water in which they grew. Fast-growing high-water-content vegetables exhibited less enrichment than slower growing fruits such as apples, pears, and plums. 18O/16O measurements were also made on the water from various sections of several plants, and the enrichment was found to occur in the following order: leaves > fruit > stem ? ground water. D/H and 18O/16O measurements were made on a series of grape juice samples and, when plotted against each other, gave a slope of 3.9, indicating that the physical process causing this enrichment was probably evaporation, i.e. evapotranspiration. PMID:16663074

  1. Acid-base reaction-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for extraction of three classes of pesticides from fruit juice samples.

    PubMed

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Afshar Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-29

    A sample preparation method involving acid-base reaction-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography using nitrogen-phosphorous detection has been developed for the analysis of three classes of pesticides in juice samples. In this method, a basic organic solvent (p-chloroaniline) is used as an extraction solvent. It is dissolved in acidified deionized water and then injected into an alkaline aqueous sample solution. After injection, an acid-base reaction occurs and deprotonation of the organic solvent leads to formation of tiny droplets of the extractant and subsequent extraction of the analytes from sample solution. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method showed low limits of detection and quantification in the range of 0.05-0.43ngmL(-1) and 0.17-1.43ngmL(-1), respectively. Extraction recoveries and enrichment factors were between 39.2 and 84.1% and between 548 and 1178, respectively. Relative standard deviations of less than 8.6% for the extraction of 2.0ngmL(-1) of each pesticide were obtained for intra- (n=6) and inter-day (n=4) precisions. Finally, different juice samples were successfully analyzed using the proposed method, and penconazole, diniconazole, triadimenol, and acetamiprid were determined in some samples at ngmL(-1) levels. PMID:26755415

  2. 21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods 102.33 Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice. (a) For a... vegetable juice, the common or usual name shall be a descriptive name that meets the requirements of ...

  3. 21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods 102.33 Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice. (a) For a... vegetable juice, the common or usual name shall be a descriptive name that meets the requirements of ...

  4. 21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods 102.33 Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice. (a) For a... vegetable juice, the common or usual name shall be a descriptive name that meets the requirements of ...

  5. Juice blends--a way of utilization of under-utilized fruits, vegetables, and spices: a review.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Raju Lal; Pandey, Shruti

    2011-07-01

    The post-harvest shelf life of maximum of fruits and vegetables is very limited due to their perishable nature. In India more then 20-25 percent of fruits and vegetables are spoiled before utilization. Despite being the world's second largest producer of fruits and vegetables, in India only 1.5 percent of the total fruits and vegetables produced are processed. Maximum amounts of fruit and vegetable juices turn bitter after extraction due to conversion of chemical compounds. In spite of being under utilized, the utilization of highly nutritive fruits and vegetables is very limited due to high acidity, astringency, bitterness, and some other factors. While improving flavor, palatability, and nutritive and medicinal value of various fruit juices such as aonla, mango, papaya, pineapple, citrus, ber, pear, apple, watermelon, and vegetables including bottle gourd, carrot, beet root, bitter gourd, medicinal plants like aloe vera and spices can also be used for juice blending. All these natural products are valued very highly for their refreshing juice, nutritional value, pleasant flavor, and medicinal properties. Fruits and vegetables are also a rich source of sugars, vitamins, and minerals. However, some fruits and vegetables have an off flavor and bitterness although they are an excellent source of vitamins, enzymes, and minerals. Therefore, blending of two or more fruit and vegetable juices with spices extract for the preparation of nutritive ready-to-serve (RTS), beverages is thought to be a convenient and economic alternative for utilization of these fruits and vegetables. Moreover, one could think of a new product development through blending in the form of a natural health drink, which may also serve as an appetizer. The present review focuses on the blending of fruits, under-utilized fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, and spices in appropriate proportions for the preparation of natural fruit and vegetable based nutritive beverages. PMID:21929332

  6. Application of membrane separation in fruit and vegetable juice processing: a review.

    PubMed

    Ilame, Susmit A; V Singh, Satyavir

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable juices are used due to convenience. The juices are rich in various minerals, vitamins, and other nutrients. To process the juices and their clarification and/or concentration is required. The membranes are being used for these purposes. These processes are preferred over others because of high efficiency and low temperature. Membranes and their characteristics have been discussed in brief for knowing suitability of membranes for fruit and vegetable juices. Membrane separation is low temperature process in which the organoleptic quality of the juice is almost retained. In this review, different membrane separation methods including Microfiltration, Ultrafiltration, and Reverse osmosis for fruit juices reported in the literature are discussed. The major fruit and vegetable juices using membrane processes are including the Reverse osmosis studies for concentration of Orange juice, Carrot juice, and Grape juice are discusses. The Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration are used for clarification of juices of mosambi juice, apple juice, pineapple juice, and kiwifruit juice. The various optimized parameters in membranes studies are pH, TAA, TSS, and AIS. In this review, in addition to above the OD is also discussed, where the membranes are used. PMID:24915352

  7. Effects of Aronia melanocarpa Fruit Juice on Isolated Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Valcheva-Kuzmanova, Stefka; Markova, Tsvetelina; Mitcheva, Mitka; Belcheva, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot fruits are very rich in polyphenols – procyanidins, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Objective: On rat hepatocytes, isolated by two-stepped collagenase perfusion, we investigated the effect of A. melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) in two models of liver toxicity caused by (i) metabolic bioactivation of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and (ii) tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH)-induced oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Isolated rat hepatocytes are a suitable model for hepatotoxicity studies. We determined the main parameters of the functional and metabolic status of rat hepatocytes: Cell viability (measured by trypan blue exclusion) and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reduced glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA). These parameters were used to investigate the protective effects of AMFJ in the two toxicity models. The effects of AMFJ were compared with those of silymarin. The cells were treated either with AMFJ or silymarin at increasing concentrations of 5 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml, 30 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, and 100 μg/ml which were used for measuring of IC50. Results: In both toxicity models – CCl4 and t-BuOOH, AMFJ showed statistically significant cytoprotective and antioxidant activities. AMFJ prevented the loss of cell viability and GSH depletion, decreased LDH leakage and MDA production. The effects of AMFJ at the concentrations of 5, 10, 30, and 50 μg/ml were similar to those of the same concentrations of silymarin, while the effect of the highest AMFJ concentration of 100 μg/ml was higher than that of the same silymarin concentration. The effects were concentration-dependent and more prominent in the t-BuOOH model, compared to those in the CCl4 model. Conclusion: The cytoprotective and antioxidant effects of AMFJ established in this study might be due to its polyphenolic ingredients, which could influence the cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of the experimental hepatotoxic substances (CCl4 and t-BuOOH) and could act as free radical scavengers. The stronger effects of the highest AMFJ concentration in comparison with that of silymarin were possibly due to the combined presence of different polyphenols in the juice. SUMMARY On rat hepatocytes, isolated by two-stepped collagenase perfusion, we investigated the effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) in two models of liver toxicity caused by i) metabolic bioactivation of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and ii) tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH)-induced oxidative stress. In both toxicity models – CCl4 and t-BuOOH, AMFJ showed statistically significant cytoprotective and antioxidant activities. AMFJ prevented the loss of cell viability and GSH depletion, decreased LDH leakage and MDA production. The effects of AMFJ at the concentrations of 5, 10, 30, and 50 μg/ml were similar to those of the same concentrations of silymarin, while the effect of the highest AMFJ concentration of 100 μg/ml was higher than that of the same silymarin concentration. The effects were concentration-dependent and were more prominent in the t-BuOOH model, compared to those in the CCl4 model. PMID:27013800

  8. Antibacterial activity of Citrus limonum fruit juice extract.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Malachy Ifeanyi; Okoli, Arinze Stanley; Eze, Edith Nneka; Ekwume, Grace Chinwe; Okosa, Evangelin Uchena; Iroegbu, Christian Ukwuoma

    2015-09-01

    The fruit juice extract of Citrus limonum was investigated for antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of the extract on ten strains of bacteria was determined by both agar well diffusion and macro-broth dilution methods. The extract was variously bacteriostatic and bactericidal against Bacillussubtilis ATCC 6051, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600, Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145 as well as locally isolated clinical strains of the above bacteria and Salmonella kintambo (Human: 13, 23: mt:-), Salmonella typhi and Proteus sp. The MICs ranged from 0.78 mg/ml to 50mg/ml; MBCs, 25.0mg/ml to >100mg/ml and MBC/MIC ratios 2.0 to >16.0. These results provide scientific justification for the medicinal use of Citrus limonum fruit juice by Nigerian herbalists in the treatment of diseases in which strains of the test organisms have been implicated as etiologic agents. PMID:26408878

  9. Survival of Lactobacillus plantarum in model solutions and fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Nualkaekul, Sawaminee; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris

    2011-03-30

    The aim of the work was to study the survival of Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 in model solutions and develop a mathematical model describing its dependence on pH, citric acid and ascorbic acid. A Central Composite Design (CCD) was developed studying each of the three factors at five levels within the following ranges, i.e., pH (3.0-4.2), citric acid (6-40 g/L), and ascorbic acid (100-1000 mg/L). In total, 17 experimental runs were carried out. The initial cell concentration in the model solutions was approximately 1 10(8)CFU/mL; the solutions were stored at 4C for 6 weeks. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the stepwise regression demonstrated that a second order polynomial model fits well the data. The results demonstrated that high pH and citric acid concentration enhanced cell survival; one the other hand, ascorbic acid did not have an effect. Cell survival during storage was also investigated in various types of juices, including orange, grapefruit, blackcurrant, pineapple, pomegranate, cranberry and lemon juice. The model predicted well the cell survival in orange, blackcurrant and pineapple, however it failed to predict cell survival in grapefruit and pomegranate, indicating the influence of additional factors, besides pH and citric acid, on cell survival. Very good cell survival (less than 0.4 log decrease) was observed after 6 weeks of storage in orange, blackcurrant and pineapple juice, all of which had a pH of about 3.8. Cell survival in cranberry and pomegranate decreased very quickly, whereas in the case of lemon juice, the cell concentration decreased approximately 1.1 logs after 6 weeks of storage, albeit the fact that lemon juice had the lowest pH (pH~2.5) among all the juices tested. Taking into account the results from the compositional analysis of the juices and the model, it was deduced that in certain juices, other compounds seemed to protect the cells during storage; these were likely to be proteins and dietary fibre In contrast, in certain juices, such as pomegranate, cell survival was much lower than expected; this could be due to the presence of antimicrobial compounds, such as phenolic compounds. PMID:21411170

  10. 21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.33 Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice. (a) For a carbonated or noncarbonated beverage that contains less than 100 percent and more than 0 percent fruit...

  11. A comparative study of pH modulation and trace elements of various fruit juices on enamel erosion: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Nirmala, S V S G; Subba Reddy, V V

    2011-01-01

    Fruit juices are popular worldwide with children of all ages as they are sweet and perceived to be healthful. This in vitro study was sought to measure pH of 10 different fruit juices, to find out possible erosive effects on human dental enamel of 40 extracted sound premolars and also to measure fluoride and trace elements of these juices. The estimation of pH of fruit juices was done by using Systronic upH 362 pH meter. The erosive effects of fruit juices were tested by using polarized light microscope. Orion electrode was used to measure fluoride. The trace elements were estimated by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer No. 6501F. The pH values in different juices were observed at different levels, and pH values of these juices were more acidic than baseline after 24 hours. As the time increased, the erosion effect became more in pineapple; grape and sugarcane juices, and they had more cariogenic trace elements like selenium, iron and manganese. So, these juices were found to be cariogenic. To conclude, orange, mousambi, mango, pomegranate, apple, chikku and watermelon juices had no erosive effect on the human enamel, with the presence of highest amount of trace elements like fluoride and phosphorous which are considered as strongly cariostatic. PMID:21985876

  12. Survival of Bacillus anthracis spores in fruit juices and wine.

    PubMed

    Leishman, Oriana N; Johnson, Miranda J; Labuza, Theodore P; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2010-09-01

    Foods have been identified as a potential target for bioterrorism due to their essential nature and global distribution. Foods produced in bulk have the potential to have large batches of product intentionally contaminated, which could affect hundreds or thousands of individuals. Bacillus anthracis spores are one potential bioterrorism agent that may survive pasteurization and remain viable throughout the shelf life of fruit juices and cause disease if consumed. This project examined B. anthracis spore survival in orange, apple, and grape juices, as well as wine. Samples of beverages were inoculated with spores of two nonpathogenic B. anthracis strains at approximately 10(6) CFU/ml, and the spore count was determined periodically during storage for 30 days at 4C. After this time, the counts of survival spores never declined more than 1 log CFU/ml in any of the beverage types. These results indicate that spores can survive, with little to no loss in viability, for at least a month in fruit juices and wine. PMID:20828478

  13. Culture dependent and independent genomic identification of Alicyclobacillus species in contaminated commercial fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Osopale, Babasola Adewunmi; Witthuhn, Cornelia Regina; Albertyn, Jacobus; Oguntoyinbo, Folarin Anthony

    2016-06-01

    Alicyclobacillus is a genus of thermo-acidophilic, endospore-forming, bacteria species which occasionally cause spoilage of heat-processed fruit juices by producing guaiacol taint. In this study, Alicyclobacillus contamination of commercial fruit juices in West Africa was investigated using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Firstly, a total of 225 fruit juice products from Ghana (n = 39) and Nigeria (n = 186) were enriched with yeast-starch-glucose (YSG) broth (pH 3.7) following heat shock at 80 °C for 10 min. Alicyclobacillus was detected in 11.6% (26) of samples. Isolates were identified to the genus taxonomic level by genus-specific PCR which targeted the squalene-hopene-cyclase (shc) gene followed by analysis of the almost-complete 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences that identified 16 Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, 7 Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and 3 Alicyclobacillus genomic species 1 (Alicyclobacillus sp. 1). Whole-genome fingerprinting using PCR-RAPD primers Ba-10, F-61 and F-64 grouped the 16 A. acidoterrestris isolates into two genetic clusters. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analyses revealed the activity of vanillic-acid decarboxylase (vdc) in all A. acidoterrestris isolates due to guaiacol production from vanillic-acid. Lastly, species-specific PCR-DGGE targeting the 16S rRNA gene clearly discriminated between the guaiacol-producing A. acidoterrestris and the non-spoilage A. acidocaldarius group. Information provided by this study is fundamental to the development of effective strategies for the improvement of quality and shelf-life of processed tropical fruit juices in W. Africa. PMID:26919814

  14. Erosive Potential of Cola and Orange Fruit Juice on Tooth Colored Restorative Materials

    PubMed Central

    Rajavardhan, K; Sankar, AJS; Kumar, MGM; Kumar, KR; Pranitha, K; Kishore, KK

    2014-01-01

    Background: Erosion is a common condition which manifests due to consumption of high caloric and low pH acidic food stuffs such as carbonated drinks and fruit juices which cause irreversible damage to dental hard tissues and early deterioration of the dental restorations. Aim: The main aim of this study is to evaluate and to compare the erosive potential of carbonated drink (cola) and fruit juice (orange fruit juice) by measuring the surface roughness (Ra) values on two commonly used dental restorative materials. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 specimens each were prepared using both testing materials, compomer (Group I) and giomer (Group II). Six specimens in each group were discarded due to wide variation in pre exposed Ra values and the remaining 30 specimens in each group were further sub divided into 10 samples each according to the testing media used. Immersion regime was followed according to Von Fraunhofer and Rogers. The pre and post immersion surface roughness values were recorded using a profilometer. Results: Both tested materials showed statistically-significant surface erosion (P < 0.01) when exposed to cola and orange fruit juice than the control group (water). Discussion: Compomer showed more surface roughness when compared to giomer when exposed to the three tested media which can be attributed to the variation in filler content, decomposition of resin matrix and fallout of the fillers in composites when exposed to acidic drinks. Other factors responsible for this significant erosion were also discussed. Conclusions: Significant surface changes of the dental restorative materials can take place when exposed to low pH drinks for a prolonged period. PMID:25364590

  15. Synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects of fruit mixtures on total antioxidant capacities and bioactive compounds in tropical fruit juices.

    PubMed

    da Silva Pereira, Ana Carolina; Wurlitzer, Nedio Jair; Dionisio, Ana Paula; Lacerda Soares, Marcia Valria; Rocha Bastos, Maria do Socorro; Elesbo Alves, Ricardo; Montenegro Brasil, Isabella

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this work was investigate the synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects of fruit mixtures on total antioxidant capacities and bioactive compounds in tropical fruit juices, and optimize its formulation by the response surface methodology based on the responses: total polyphenols (TP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), ascorbic acid content and sensorial acceptance. Camu-camu, acerola and acai were the major factors that influenced the antioxidant potential of the juice; and the yellow mombin showed a positive effect on the acceptance of the tropical juice. It was observed an/antagonistic effect between acerola and camu-camu for the TAC response. The optimum formulation obtained was 20% acerola, 10% camu-camu, 10% yellow mombin, 10% cashew apple and 10% acai, which was responsible for a response of 155.46 mg.100 g(-1) of ascorbic acid, 103.01 mg of GAE.100 g-1 of TP, 10.27 M Trolox g(-1) of TAC and approximately 6.1 of acceptance. PMID:26817384

  16. Trace metal levels in fruit juices and carbonated beverages in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Williams, Akan B; Ayejuyo, Olusegun O; Ogunyale, Adekunle F

    2009-09-01

    Trace metal levels in selected fruit juices and carbonated beverages purchased in Lagos, Nigeria were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Unicam model 969) equipped with SOLAAR 32 windows software. Fruit juices analysed were grape, pineapple, apple, orange, lemon juices and their brand names were used. Some carbonated drinks were also evaluated for metal levels. Trace metals investigated were Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn, Sn, Fe, Cd and Co. Trace metal contents of fruit juices were found to be more than the metallic contents of carbonated beverages. Pb level in the fruit juices ranged from 0.08 to 0.57 mg/l but was not detected in the carbonated drinks. Concentrations of Pb in lemon juice and Mn in pineapple juice were relatively high. Cd and Co were not detected in the selected juices and beverages. Additionally, Pb, Cu, Cr and Fe were not detected in canned beverages but were present in bottled beverages. However, the metal levels of selected fruit juices and carbonated beverages were within permissible levels except for Mn in pineapple juice and Pb in lemon juice. PMID:18704729

  17. Metabolic Responses of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains during Fermentation and Storage of Vegetable and Fruit Juices

    PubMed Central

    Filannino, P.; Cardinali, G.; Rizzello, C. G.; Buchin, S.; De Angelis, M.; Gobbetti, M.

    2014-01-01

    Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were grown and stored in cherry (ChJ), pineapple (PJ), carrot (CJ), and tomato (TJ) juices to mimic the chemical composition of the respective matrices. Wheat flour hydrolysate (WFH), whey milk (W), and MRS broth were also used as representatives of other ecosystems. The growth rates and cell densities of L. plantarum strains during fermentation (24 h at 30°C) and storage (21 days at 4°C) differed only in part, being mainly influenced by the matrix. ChJ and PJ were the most stressful juices for growth and survival. Overall, the growth in juices was negatively correlated with the initial concentration of malic acid and carbohydrates. The consumption of malic acid was noticeable for all juices, but mainly during fermentation and storage of ChJ. Decreases of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA)—with the concomitant increase of their respective branched alcohols—and His and increases of Glu and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were the main traits of the catabolism of free amino acids (FAA), which were mainly evident under less acidic conditions (CJ and TJ). The increase of Tyr was found only during storage of ChJ. Some aldehydes (e.g., 3-methyl-butanal) were reduced to the corresponding alcohols (e.g., 3-methyl-1-butanol). After both fermentation and storage, acetic acid increased in all fermented juices, which implied the activation of the acetate kinase route. Diacetyl was the ketone found at the highest level, and butyric acid increased in almost all fermented juices. Data were processed through multidimensional statistical analyses. Except for CJ, the juices (mainly ChJ) seemed to induce specific metabolic traits, which differed in part among the strains. This study provided more in-depth knowledge on the metabolic mechanisms of growth and maintenance of L. plantarum in vegetable and fruit habitats, which also provided helpful information to select the most suitable starters for fermentation of targeted matrices. PMID:24487533

  18. Targeting excessive free radicals with peels and juices of citrus fruits: grapefruit, lemon, lime and orange.

    PubMed

    Guimares, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, Joo C M; Sousa, M Joo; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study between the antioxidant properties of peel (flavedo and albedo) and juice of some commercially grown citrus fruit (Rutaceae), grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), lemon (Citrus limon), lime (Citrusxaurantiifolia) and sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) was performed. Different in vitro assays were applied to the volatile and polar fractions of peels and to crude and polar fraction of juices: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation using beta-carotene-linoleate model system in liposomes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay in brain homogenates. Reducing sugars and phenolics were the main antioxidant compounds found in all the extracts. Peels polar fractions revealed the highest contents in phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and reducing sugars, which certainly contribute to the highest antioxidant potential found in these fractions. Peels volatile fractions were clearly separated using discriminant analysis, which is in agreement with their lowest antioxidant potential. PMID:19770018

  19. Pseudomonas sp. xylanase for clarification of Mausambi and Orange fruit juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Pawan Kumar; Chand, Duni

    2012-07-01

    Xylanase can be usd for many Industrial applications and juice clarification is one of them. Pseudomonas sp. xylanase was used for fruit juice clarification in free State. Maximum amount of juice clarification was in case of Mausambi juice was observed at 40 C∞ and 52 hours, in case of free enzyme treated juice there is 46.9% increase in clarity and 1.7 fold increase in reducing sugars of the juice and enzyme dose was optimized as 8U with maximum flow rate of 6 ml/min at this dose. In case of orange juice in free enzyme treated juice maximum clarity was observed at 40 C∞ and 52 hours, juice was found to be 42.14 % clear with increase of 1.9 fold of reducing sugars, enzyme dose optimized was 8.06U with maximum flow rate of 0.86 ml/min.

  20. Improving the storage stability of Bifidobacterium breve in low pH fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Saarela, M; Alakomi, H L; Mtt, J; Ahonen, A M; Puhakka, A; Tynkkynen, S

    2011-09-01

    Bifidobacterial food applications are limited since bifidobacteria are sensitive to e.g. acidic conditions prevalent in many food matrices. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a low pH selection step alone or combined to UV mutagenesis could improve the viability of an acid sensitive Bifidobacterium strain, B. breve 99, in low pH food matrices. Furthermore, the potential of carriers and an oat fibre preparation to further improve the stability was studied. The best performing low pH tolerant variants in the present study were generated by UV-mutagenesis with 70-700?J/cm(2) followed by incubation in growth medium at pH 4.5. The most promising variants regarding the low pH tolerance showed, in repeated tests with cells grown without pH control, about one Log-value better survival in pH 3.8 fruit juice after one week storage at 4C compared to wild-type B. breve 99. Cells grown with pH control, PDX formulated and then frozen showed poorer viability in low pH fruit juice than cells grown with no pH control. For frozen concentrates pH 3.8 was too stressful and no or small differences between the variants and the wild-type strain were seen. The differences detected at pH 3.8 with the cells grown without pH control were also seen with the frozen concentrates at pH 4.5. Some improvement in the stability could be achieved by using a combination of trehalose, vitamin C and PDX as a freezing carrier material, whereas a significant improvement in the stability was seen when oat fibre was added into the fruit juice together with the frozen cells. Due to the initial very poor fruit juice tolerance of B. breve 99 the obtained improvement in the stability was not enough for commercial applications. However, the same methods could be applied to initially better performing strains to further improve their stability in the fruit juice. PMID:21195496

  1. Association of raw fruit and fruit juice consumption with blood pressure: the INTERMAP Study1234

    PubMed Central

    Oude Griep, Linda M; Stamler, Jeremiah; Chan, Queenie; Van Horn, Linda; Steffen, Lyn M; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okuda, Nagako; Zhao, Liancheng; Daviglus, Martha L; Elliott, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that fruit consumption may lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases through blood pressure (BP)–lowering effects; little is known on the independent effect of raw fruit and fruit juice on BP. Objective: The objective was to quantify associations of raw fruit and fruit juice consumption with BP by using cross-sectional data from the INTERnational study on MAcro/micronutrients and blood Pressure (INTERMAP) of 4680 men and women aged 40–59 y from Japan, China, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Design: During 4 visits, 8 BP, four 24-h dietary recalls, and two 24-h urine samples were collected. Country-specific multivariate-controlled linear regression coefficients, including adjustment for urinary sodium excretion, were estimated and pooled, weighted by inverse of their variance. Results: The average total raw fruit consumption varied from a mean ± SD of 52 ± 65 g/1000 kcal in the United States to 68 ± 70 g/1000 kcal in China. Individual raw fruit intake was not associated with BP in pooled analyses for all countries or in participants from Western countries, although a positive association with diastolic BP was observed in East Asian participants (per 50 g/1000 kcal; 0.37 mm Hg; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.71). Positive relationships with diastolic BP were found for citrus fruit intake in Western consumers (per 25 g/1000 kcal; 0.47 mm Hg; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.81) and for apple intake in East Asian consumers (0.40 mm Hg; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.78). Among East Asian banana consumers, banana intake was inversely associated with diastolic BP (−1.01 mm Hg; 95% CI: −1.88, −0.02). Fruit juice intake, which was negligible in Asia, was not related to BP in Western countries. Conclusion: Consistent associations were not found between raw fruit and fruit juice consumption of individuals and BP. This observational study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005271. PMID:23553162

  2. Impact of Frozen Storage on the Anthocyanin and Polyphenol Contents of American Elderberry Fruit Juice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mitch C; Thomas, Andrew L; Greenlief, C Michael

    2015-06-17

    The effects of frozen storage on the anthocyanin and polyphenol content of elderberry fruit juice are investigated. Juice from three genotypes of American elderberry (Adams II, Bob Gordon, and Wyldewood) was screened for total phenolic (TP) and total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) contents with spectrophotometric methods. The individual anthocyanin content (IAC) of the juice was tested by coupling solid phase extraction with ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Juice samples were tested initially upon harvest and then again after 3, 6, and 9 months of frozen storage. Juice from the three different genotypes had significantly different TP, TMA, and IAC profiles initially (p < 0.05). The TP, TMA, and IAC contents of the juice from different genotypes were significantly affected (p < 0.05) by the frozen storage time, suggesting that both genotype and length of frozen storage time can affect the anthocyanin content of elderberry fruit juice. PMID:26028422

  3. [Effect of fruit and vegetable juices on the changes in the production of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds in human gastric juice].

    PubMed

    Ilńitskiĭ, A P; Iurchenko, V A

    1993-01-01

    The study was made of the effect of apple, grapefruit, orange and beet juices on in vitro formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) from sodium nitrite and amidopirin in human gastric juice (GJ). Experimental samples of GJ from outpatients attending the outpatient department of the AMS Cancer Research Center were used. The patients had various forms of gastritis and gastric cancer. It was found that fruit and beet juices may inhibit or enhance NDMA formation depending on the GJ composition, pH in particular. In acid medium (pH-1.3-3.4) there was a trend to inhibition of NDMA synthesis, while in neutral and alkaline (pH = 7.4-8.5) medium NDMA synthesis is activated. Practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:8073694

  4. Effects of heat, pH, antioxidant, agitation and light on betacyanin stability using red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate as models.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yen-Ming; Siow, Lee-Fong

    2015-05-01

    Red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is rich in antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of heat pasteurization, pH adjustment, ascorbic acid addition as well as storage under agitation and light or dark condition on betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) juice and concentrate. The concentrate was produced by concentrating clarified red-fleshed dragon fruit juice in a rotary evaporator at 40C. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used for analyzing betacyanin content. Addition of 0.25% ascorbic acid, pH4.0, and pasteurization at 65C for 30min were selected as the best processing conditions to retain betacyanin content in red-fleshed dragon fruit juice. Storage at the agitation speed of 220rpm showed that the concentrated samples had higher betacyanin stability compared to juice, while both juice and concentrate had almost similar betacyanin stability when tested for storage in the presence of light. In summary, ascorbic acid stabilized betacyanin in both juice and concentrate at agitated or non-agitated conditions. In contrast, light degraded betacyanin in both juice and concentrate models. PMID:25892813

  5. Quality assessment of industrially processed fruit juices available in dhaka city, bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Tasnim, F; Anwar Hossain, M; Kamal Hossain, M; Lopa, D; Formuzul Haque, K M

    2010-12-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the nutritional and microbiological quality of industrially processed packed fruit juices of mango (Mangifera indica) and orange (Citrus sinensis) from nine different manufacturing companies in Dhaka City. The highest quantity of total sugar (17.62%) and reducing sugar (9.99%) was recorded in mango juices while the lowest in orange juices (10.41% and 2.24% respectively) of different companies. In this study, protein contents were comparatively higher in mango juices than in orange juices. The pH of all samples varied from 3.500.10 to 4.700.05. Vitamin C content was comparatively higher in mango juices. The levels of metals tested namely, arsenic, lead, copper and zinc in the juices were within the limits of Bangladesh Standard and Testing Institute (BSTI) for fruit juices. The microbiological qualities of all the products were within the limits of the Gulf standards (the recommended Microbiological Standards for any fruit juice sold in the Gulf Region). Based on the above results, it is suggested that processed juices be prepared under hygienic conditions. PMID:22691996

  6. Effect of fermentation and subsequent pasteurization processes on amino acids composition of orange juice.

    PubMed

    Cerrillo, I; Fernández-Pachón, M S; Collado-González, J; Escudero-López, B; Berná, G; Herrero-Martín, G; Martín, F; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2015-06-01

    The fermentation of fruit produces significant changes in their nutritional composition. An orange beverage has been obtained from the controlled alcoholic fermentation and thermal pasteurization of orange juice. A study was performed to determine the influence of both processes on its amino acid profile. UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS was used for the first time for analysis of orange juice samples. Out of 29 amino acids and derivatives identified, eight (ethanolamine, ornithine, phosphoethanolamine, α-amino-n-butyric acid, hydroxyproline, methylhistidine, citrulline, and cystathionine) have not previously been detected in orange juice. The amino acid profile of the orange juice was not modified by its processing, but total amino acid content of the juice (8194 mg/L) was significantly increased at 9 days of fermentation (13,324 mg/L). Although the pasteurization process produced partial amino acid degradation, the total amino acid content was higher in the final product (9265 mg/L) than in the original juice, enhancing its nutritional value. PMID:25736875

  7. Luffa aegyptiaca (Gourd) Fruit Juice as a Source of Peroxidase

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, R. S. S.; Yadav, K. S.; Yadav, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    Peroxidases have turned out to be potential biocatalyst for a variety of organic reactions. The research work reported in this communication was done with the objective of finding a convenient rich source of peroxidase which could be used as a biocatalyst for organic synthetic reactions. The studies made have shown that Luffa aegyptiaca (gourd) fruit juice contains peroxidase activity of the order of 180 enzyme unit/mL. The Km values of this peroxidase for the substrates guaiacol and hydrogen peroxide were 2.0 and 0.2?mM, respectively. The pH and temperature optima were 6.5 and 60C, respectively. Like other peroxidases, it followed double displacement type mechanism. Sodium azide inhibited the enzyme competitively with Ki value of 3.35?mM. PMID:21804936

  8. Inhibition of spoiling yeasts of fruit juices through citrus extracts.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Speranza, Barbara; Campaniello, Daniela; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2013-10-01

    This article reports on the bioactivities of citrus extracts (citrus extract, lemon extract, and neroli) toward Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Pichia membranifaciens, and Rhodotorula bacarum. The bioactivities of the extracts (from 10 to 100 ppm) were evaluated through a microdilution method; thereafter, citrus extracts (0 to 80 ppm) were tested in combination with either pH (3.0 to 5.0) or temperature (5 to 25C). Finally, a confirmatory experiment was run in a commercial drink (referred to as red fruit juice) containing citrus extract (40 ppm) that was inoculated with either S. cerevisiae or Z. bailii (5 log CFU/ml) and stored at 4 and 25C. Yeasts increased to 7 log CFU/ml (Z. bailii) or 8 log CFU/ml (S. cerevisiae) in the control at 25C, but the citrus extract addition controlled yeast growth for at least 3 days; under refrigeration, the effect was significant for 10 days. PMID:24112576

  9. Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in pasteurized exotic Brazilian fruit juices: isolation, genotypic characterization and heat resistance.

    PubMed

    McKnight, I C; Eiroa, M N U; Sant'Ana, A S; Massaguer, P R

    2010-12-01

    In this study, the population of Alicyclobacillus spp. was estimated in pasteurized exotic Brazilian fruit juices using the most probable number (MPN) technique followed by biochemical tests. Pasteurized passion fruit (n = 57) and pineapple (n = 50) juices were taken directly from Brazilian manufacturers. While Alicyclobacillus spp. was isolated from passion fruit juice, the microorganism was not found in any pineapple juice samples. A higher incidence of Alicyclobacillus was observed in samples taken in June and July (dry months in Brazil) in comparison to the other months (March, April, May and August), and the highest Alicyclobacillus counts were recovered from these samples(>23 MNP/100 mL). Sixteen (n = 16) Alicyclobacillus strains were typed using the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA method (RAPD-PCR). RAPD-PCR revealed great genetic similarity between the passion fruit juice strains and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris DSM 2498. The heat resistance of three isolates was determined, and the mean D(95) (1.7 min) and z (7.6 C) values in the passion fruit juice were not significantly different (p > 0.05) from those obtained for the DSM 2498 strain (D(95) = 1.5 min and z = 7.1 C). This is the first report on the isolation of A. acidoterrestris from exotic fruit juices such as passion fruit juice. It is worth pointing out the importance of applying good agricultural practices in the field and applying controls for the fruit selection and washing steps, as well as controlling the time/temperature conditions for pasteurization so as to reduce the incidence and chances of A. acidoterrestris spoilage in these juices. PMID:20832679

  10. Clarification of Tomato Juice with Polygalacturonase Obtained from Tomato Fruits Infected by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, A A; Peter-Albert, C F; Akeredolu, M; Shokunbi, A A

    2015-02-01

    Two varieties of tomato fruits commonly available in Nigerian markets are the Roma VF and Ibadan local varieties of tomato fruits. The Roma VF fruits are oval in shape. It is a common type of cultivar in the Northern region of Nigeria and it is not susceptible to cracking. The Ibadan local variety of tomato fruits is a local variety commonly found on farmers fields in South-western region of Nigeria. They are highly susceptible to cracking. The Ibadan local variety was employed for this research. There are lots of benefits derived from the consumption of tomato fruits. The fruits can be made into tomato juice clarified with pectinases. Polygalacturonase is one of the pectinases used commercially in the clarification of fruit juice from different fruits. This study examined the production of polygalacturonase during the deterioration of tomato fruits by Aspergillus niger and the role of the purified polygalacturonase in the clarification of tomato juice. Tomato fruits of the Ibadan local variety were inoculated with mycelia discs containing spores of a 96-h-old culture of Aspergillus niger served as the inoculum. The organism from the stock culture was subcultured onto potato dextrose agar plates. The extraction of polygalacturonase after 10 days of incubation at 27 degrees C was carried out by homogenizing the fruits with liquid extractant using the MSE homogenizer after the deteriorated fruits had been chilled for 30 min inside a freezer. Control fruits were similarly treated except that sterile potato dextrose agar served as the inoculum. The effect of different temperature of incubation and different volume of enzyme on the tomato juice from the tomato fruits was investigated. Extracts from the inoculated fruits exhibited appreciable polygalacturonase activity. The juice with polygalacturonase was visually clearer and more voluminous than the juice treated with water for all parameters studied. The highest volume of juice was obtained after an incubation period of 30 min for the tomato fruits. The increase in juice yield can be attributed to the hydrolysis of pectin which releases the sap inside the cells of the pulp. The occurrence of polygalacturonase in tomato tissues infected by A. niger coupled with the trace amount in the non-infected tissues suggests that the enzyme is of fungal origin. The role of the polygalacturonase in the clarification process was established. This study will be very useful for industrial tomato juice production. PMID:26364357

  11. Role of pomegranate and citrus fruit juices in colon cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Vellayappan, Muthu Vignesh; Narasimhan, Gayathri; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Recent studies prove that though chemotherapeutic agents are being used for the treatment of colon cancer, they become non-effective when the cancer progresses to an invasive stage. Since consumption of certain dietary agents has been linked with various cancers, fruit juices have been investigated for their consistently protective effect against colon cancer. The unique biochemical composition of fruit juices is responsible for their anticancer properties. In this review, the chemo-preventive effect of fruit juices such as pomegranate and citrus juices against colon cancer are discussed. For this purpose, the bioavailability, in vitro and in vivo effects of these fruit juices on colorectal cancer are highlighted. Moreover, there is a scarcity of studies involving human trials to estimate the preventive nature of these juices against colon cancer. This review will support the need for more preclinical tests with these crude juices and their constituents in different colorectal cancer cell lines and also some epidemiological studies in order to have a better understanding and promote pomegranate and citrus juices as crusaders against colon cancer. PMID:24782614

  12. Role of limonin and nomilin in bitterness of juice from Huanglongbing affected fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Besides the physical defects due to the destructive Huanglongbing (HLB) citrus greening disease on oranges, the infected fruit and resulting juice have been perceived as being more sour, bitter and off-flavored. In the symptomatic juice, the off-flavor was correlated with lower sugars, and sometimes...

  13. Consumer liking of fruit juices with different aa (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sabbe, Sara; Verbeke, Wim; Deliza, Rosires; Matta, Virginia M; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    Overall liking, flavor, and perceived healthiness of one newly developed fruit juice with high aa content (40% aa) and 5 commercially available fruit juices with lower (4% to 20%) aa concentrations were evaluated by consumers in Belgium. General trends for the overall sample were examined by means of analysis of variance, whereas individual consumer preferences were evaluated using internal preference mapping and hierarchical cluster analysis. The relative contribution of flavor and perceived health benefits as predictors of consumers' overall liking of the 6 aa-based fruit juices was estimated through linear regression analysis. The results showed a negative relationship between the juices' overall liking and their aa concentrations. Although the vast majority of consumers preferred the juices having a low aa content (4% to 5% aa), a small consumer segment liked the juice with 40% aa. Flavor or taste experience superseded consumers' perceived health benefits as the primary determinant of the fruit juices' overall liking. The impact of perceived health benefits on the overall liking of the aa juices decreased with higher taste dissatisfaction. PMID:19646053

  14. Rapid determination of main constituents of packed juices by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography: an insight in to commercial fruit drinks.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Gunjan; Jangir, Deepak Kumar; Singh, Parul; Mehrotra, Ranjana; Ganesan, R; Gopal, E S R

    2014-03-01

    The present work reports the compositional analysis of thirteen different packed fruit juices using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Vitamin C, organic acids (citric and malic) and sugars (fructose, glucose and sucrose) were separated, analyzed and quantified using different reverse phase methods. A new rapid reverse phase HPLC method was developed for routine analysis of vitamin C in fruit juices. The precision results of the methods showed that the relative standard deviations of the repeatability and reproducibility were <0.05 and <0.1 respectively. Correlation coefficient of the calibration models developed was found to be higher than 0.99 in each case. It has been found that the content of Vitamin C was less variable amongst different varieties involved in the study. It is also observed that in comparison to fresh juices, the packed juices contain lesser amounts of vitamin C. Citric acid was found as the major organic acids present in packed juices while maximum portion of sugars was of sucrose. Comparison of the amount of vitamin C, organic acids and sugars in same fruit juice of different commercial brands is also reported. PMID:24587522

  15. Fruit juice inhibition of uptake transport: a new type of food–drug interaction

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, David G

    2010-01-01

    A new type of interaction in which fruit juices diminish oral drug bioavailability through inhibition of uptake transport is the focus of this review. The discovery was based on an opposite to anticipated finding when assessing the possibility of grapefruit juice increasing oral fexofenadine bioavailability in humans through inhibition of intestinal MDR1-mediated efflux transport. In follow-up investigations, grapefruit or orange juice at low concentrations potentially and selectively inhibited in vitro OATP1A2-mediated uptake compared with MDR1-caused efflux substrate transport. These juices at high volume dramatically depressed oral fexofenadine bioavailability. Grapefruit was the representative juice to characterize the interaction subsequently. A volume–effect relationship study using a normal juice amount halved average fexofenadine absorption. Individual variability and reproducibility data indicated the clinical interaction involved direct inhibition of intestinal OATP1A2. Naringin was a major causal component suggesting that other flavonoids in fruits and vegetables might also produce the effect. Duration of juice clinical inhibition of fexofenadine absorption lasted more than 2 h but less than 4 h indicating the interaction was avoidable with appropriate interval of time between juice and drug consumption. Grapefruit juice lowered the oral bioavailability of several medications transported by OATP1A2 (acebutolol, celiprolol, fexofenadine, talinolol, L-thyroxine) while orange juice did the same for others (atenolol, celiprolol, ciprofloxacin, fexofenadine). Juice clinical inhibition of OATP2B1 was unresolved while that of OATP1B1 seemed unlikely. The interaction between grapefruit juice and etoposide also seemed relevant. Knowledge of both affected uptake transporter and drug hydrophilicity assisted prediction of the clinical interaction with grapefruit or orange juice. PMID:21039758

  16. Analysis of Dental Enamel Surface Submitted to Fruit Juice Plus Soymilk by Micro X-Ray Fluorescence: In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Salmos Brito, Janaína; Santos Neto, Alexandrino; Silva, Luciano; Menezes, Rebeca; Araújo, Natália; Carneiro, Vanda; Moreno, Lara Magalhães; Miranda, Jéssica; Álvares, Pâmella; Nevares, Giselle; Xavier, Felipe; Arruda, José Alcides; Bessa-Nogueira, Ricardo; Santos, Natanael; Queiroz, Gabriela; Sobral, Ana Paula; Silveira, Márcia; Albuquerque, Diana; Gerbi, Marleny

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This paper aimed to analyze the in vitro industrialized fruit juices effect plus soy to establish the erosive potential of these solutions. Materials and Methods. Seventy bovine incisors were selected after being evaluated under stereomicroscope. Their crowns were prepared and randomly divided into 7 groups, using microhardness with allocation criteria. The crowns were submitted to the fruit juice plus soy during 15 days, twice a day. The pH values, acid titration, and Knoop microhardness were recorded and the specimens were evaluated using X-ray microfluorescence (µXRF). Results. The pH average for all juices and after 3 days was significantly below the critical value for dental erosion. In average, the pH value decreases 14% comparing initial time and pH after 3 days. Comparing before and after, there was a 49% microhardness decrease measured in groups (p < 0.05). Groups G1, G2, G5, and G6 are above this average. The analysis by μXRF showed a decrease of approximately 7% Ca and 4% P on bovine crowns surface. Florida (FL) statistical analysis showed a statistically significant 1 difference between groups. Thus, a tooth chance to suffer demineralization due to industrialized fruit juices plus soy is real. PMID:26977451

  17. Analysis of Dental Enamel Surface Submitted to Fruit Juice Plus Soymilk by Micro X-Ray Fluorescence: In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Salmos Brito, Janaína; Santos Neto, Alexandrino; Silva, Luciano; Menezes, Rebeca; Araújo, Natália; Carneiro, Vanda; Moreno, Lara Magalhães; Miranda, Jéssica; Álvares, Pâmella; Nevares, Giselle; Xavier, Felipe; Arruda, José Alcides; Bessa-Nogueira, Ricardo; Santos, Natanael; Queiroz, Gabriela; Sobral, Ana Paula; Silveira, Márcia; Albuquerque, Diana; Gerbi, Marleny

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This paper aimed to analyze the in vitro industrialized fruit juices effect plus soy to establish the erosive potential of these solutions. Materials and Methods. Seventy bovine incisors were selected after being evaluated under stereomicroscope. Their crowns were prepared and randomly divided into 7 groups, using microhardness with allocation criteria. The crowns were submitted to the fruit juice plus soy during 15 days, twice a day. The pH values, acid titration, and Knoop microhardness were recorded and the specimens were evaluated using X-ray microfluorescence (µXRF). Results. The pH average for all juices and after 3 days was significantly below the critical value for dental erosion. In average, the pH value decreases 14% comparing initial time and pH after 3 days. Comparing before and after, there was a 49% microhardness decrease measured in groups (p < 0.05). Groups G1, G2, G5, and G6 are above this average. The analysis by μXRF showed a decrease of approximately 7% Ca and 4% P on bovine crowns surface. Florida (FL) statistical analysis showed a statistically significant 1 difference between groups. Thus, a tooth chance to suffer demineralization due to industrialized fruit juices plus soy is real. PMID:26977451

  18. Sequential injection fluorimetric determination of Sn in juices of canned fruits.

    PubMed

    Morte, Elane S Boa; Korn, Maria Graas A; Saraiva, M Lcia M F S; Lima, Jos L F C; Pinto, Paula C A G

    2009-09-15

    The present work describes the development of a fast and robust sequential injection fluorimetric procedure for the determination of Sn in juices of canned fruits. The developed automatic methodology is based on the complexation of Sn with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (HQSA) to form a fluorimetric product (lambda(exc)=354 nm; lambda(em)=510 nm). The influence of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB) on the sensitivity of the fluorimetric determination was evaluated. Linear calibration plots were obtained for Sn concentrations between 1 and 10 mg L(-1), with a detection limit of 0.38 mg L(-1). In each analytical cycle 0.006 mg of HQSA and 0.47 mg of CPB were consumed and 1.5 mL of effluent was generated. The developed methodology was applied to the determination of Sn in juices of canned fruits and the results complied with those furnished by an electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry comparison procedure, with relative deviations lower than 5.2%. The automatic procedure exhibited good precision (R.S.D.<1.4%) and the sampling rate was about 70 determinations per hour. PMID:19615516

  19. Chromium levels in potable water, fruit juices and soft drinks: influence on dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Garca, E M; Cabrera, C; Snchez, J; Lorenzo, M L; Lpez, M C

    1999-10-29

    Potable water, fruit juices and soft drinks are some of the most widespread beverages in the habitual diet, and they can contribute to chromium dietary intake. We determined the concentration of chromium in 90 different samples of beverages widely consumed in Spain. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used to analyze samples processed with a HNO3-V2O5 acid digestion pretreatment. In water samples Cr was directly determined. We verified the sensitivity, accuracy and precision of the method and ruled out matrix interferences. In analyzed samples, chromium values ranged from not detectable to 11.80 micrograms/l in potable water, from not detectable to 17.60 micrograms/l in fruit juices and from 3.60 to 60.50 micrograms/l in soft drinks. The chromium levels we encountered are low and the contribution of non-alcoholic beverages to dietary intake of this element, have been estimated to be 0.41 microgram/day in the common Spanish diet. PMID:10588071

  20. Aluminium content of drinking waters, fruit juices and soft drinks: contribution to dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Lpez, Francisco F; Cabrera, Carmen; Lorenzo, M Luisa; Lpez, M Carmen

    2002-06-26

    Concentrations of aluminium in drinking waters (tap water, still mineral water and sparkling mineral water), fruit juices and soft drinks were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) of samples processed with a HNO3-V205 acid digestion pre-treatment. In water samples, aluminium was determined directly. We verified the sensitivity, accuracy and precision of the method and ruled out matrix interferences. In analysed samples, aluminium values ranged from 4.2 to 165.3 microg/l in drinking water (n=41), from 49.3 to 1,144.6 microg/l in fruit juices (n=47), and from 44.6 to 1053.3 microg/l in soft drinks (n=88). According to the type of container (glass or can) statistically significant differences (P<0.01) have been demonstrated. Considering the mean daily individual consumption of these beverages in Spain, the daily dietary intake of Al supplied by this source is estimated as 156 microg/person/day. This study contributes new data on the Al content of a variety of foods and beverages in Spain and to estimate reliably the total dietary intake of aluminium. PMID:12146520

  1. Stability, antimicrobial activity, and effect of nisin on the physico-chemical properties of fruit juices.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Junior, Adelson Alves; de Araújo Couto, Hyrla Grazielle Silva; Barbosa, Ana Andréa Teixeira; Carnelossi, Marcelo Augusto Guitierrez; de Moura, Tatiana Rodrigues

    2015-10-15

    Heat processing is the most commonly used hurdle for inactivating microorganisms in fruit juices. However, this preservation method could interfere with the organoleptic characteristics of the product. Alternative methods have been proposed and bacteriocins such as nisin are potential candidates. However, the approval of bacteriocins as food additives is limited, especially in foods from vegetal origin. We aimed to verify the stability, the effect on physico-chemical properties, and the antimicrobial activity of nisin in different fruit juices. Nisin remained stable in fruit juices (cashew, soursop, peach, mango, passion fruit, orange, guava, and cupuassu) for at least 30 days at room or refrigerated temperature and did not cause any significant alterations in the physico-chemical characteristics of the juices. Besides, nisin favored the preservation of vitamin C content in juices. The antimicrobial activity of nisin was tested against Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in cashew, soursop, peach, and mango juices. Nisin caused a 4-log reduction in viable cells of A. acidoterrestris in soursop, peach, and mango juices after 8h of incubation, and no viable cells were detected in cashew juices. After 24h of incubation in the presence of nisin, no viable cells were detected, independently of the juices. To S. aureus, at 24h of incubation in the presence of nisin, viable cells were only detected in mango juices, representing a 4-log decrease as compared with the control treatment. The number of viable cells of B. cereus at 24h of incubation in the presence of nisin represented at least a 4-log decrease compared to the control treatment. When the antimicrobial activity of nisin was tested against L. monocytogenes in cashew and soursop juices, no reduction in the viable cell number was observed compared to the control treatment after 24h of incubation. Viable cells were four and six times less than in the control treatment, in peach and mango juices respectively. The most sensitive microorganism to nisin was A. acidoterrestris and the least sensitive was L. monocytogenes. Still, a reduction of up to 90% of viable cells was observed in peach and mango juices inoculated with L. monocytogenes. These results indicate that the use of nisin could be an alternative in fruit juice processing. PMID:26162590

  2. Impact of fruit juice and beverage portion size on snack intake in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Norton, Erin M; Poole, Seletha A; Raynor, Hollie A

    2015-12-01

    It has been recommended that beverages other than 100% fruit juice, such as water, be served at meals and snacks for preschool-aged children to reduce excessive energy intake. Using a 2 2 2 design (between-subjects factor of order and within-subjects factors of beverage type and size), 26 children (3.9 0.6 years of age, 50% female, 73% white, and 88.5% non-Hispanic or Latino) completed four, 20-min snack sessions consisting of 200 g of applesauce, 60 g of graham crackers, and either 6 oz. (approximately 180 g) or 12 oz. (approximately 360 g) of 100% berry fruit juice or water, to examine the influence of 100% fruit juice and the portion size of the provided fruit juice, on beverage, food, and overall snack intake. Mixed-factor analyses of covariance revealed a significant (p < 0.05) beverage type and size interaction for amount of beverage consumed, with the 12 oz. juice condition consuming the greatest amount of beverage (226.6 116.4 g), and for energy consumed from food, with the 12 oz. water condition consuming more than the 12 oz. juice condition (117.7 69.1 kcal vs. 88.5 64.1 kcal). A main effect of beverage type was found on overall snack energy intake, with more overall energy consumed when juice was provided (175.4 50.0 kcal vs. 104.8 62.8 kcal, p < 0.001). Providing preschool-aged children with a larger size of beverage at a snack increased beverage and/or food intake, and serving 100% juice led to greater overall snack energy intake. Future research should examine the role of 100% fruit juice, and beverage portion size, in contributing to excessive daily energy intake in preschool-aged children. PMID:26232137

  3. Optimization of spray drying process for developing seabuckthorn fruit juice powder using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Selvamuthukumaran, Meenakshisundaram; Khanum, Farhath

    2014-12-01

    The response surface methodology was used to optimize the spray drying process for development of seabuckthorn fruit juice powder. The independent variables were different levels of inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration. The responses were moisture, solubility, dispersibility, vitamin C and overall color difference value. Statistical analysis revealed that independent variables significantly affected all the responses. The Inlet air temperature showed maximum influence on moisture and vitamin C content, while the maltodextrin concentration showed similar influence on solubility, dispersibility and overall color difference value. Contour plots for each response were used to generate an optimum area by superimposition. The seabuckthorn fruit juice powder was developed using the derived optimum processing conditions to check the validity of the second order polynomial model. The experimental values were found to be in close agreement to the predicted values and were within the acceptable limits indicating the suitability of the model in predicting quality attributes of seabuckthorn fruit juice powder. The recommended optimum spray drying conditions for drying 100g fruit juice slurry were inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration of 162.5C and 25g, respectively. The spray dried juice powder contains higher amounts of antioxidants viz., vitamin C, vitamin E, total carotenoids, total anthocyanins and total phenols when compared to commercial fruit juice powders and they are also found to be free flowing without any physical alterations such as caking, stickiness, collapse and crystallization by exhibiting greater glass transition temperature. PMID:25477639

  4. Evaluation of ultrasound based sterilization approaches in terms of shelf life and quality parameters of fruit and vegetable juices.

    PubMed

    Khandpur, Paramjeet; Gogate, Parag R

    2016-03-01

    The present work evaluates the performance of ultrasound based sterilization approaches for processing of different fruit and vegetable juices in terms of microbial growth and changes in the quality parameters during the storage. Comparison with the conventional thermal processing has also been presented. A novel approach based on combination of ultrasound with ultraviolet irradiation and crude extract of essential oil from orange peels has been used for the first time. Identification of the microbial growth (total bacteria and yeast content) in the juices during the subsequent storage and assessing the safety for human consumption along with the changes in the quality parameters (Brix, titratable acidity, pH, ORP, salt, conductivity, TSS and TDS) has been investigated in details. The optimized ultrasound parameters for juice sterilization were established as ultrasound power of 100 W and treatment time of 15 min for the constant frequency operation (20 kHz). It has been established that more than 5 log reduction was achieved using the novel combined approaches based on ultrasound. The treated juices using different approaches based on ultrasound also showed lower microbial growth and improved quality characteristics as compared to the thermally processed juice. Scale up studies were also performed using spinach juice as the test sample with processing at 5 L volume for the first time. The ultrasound treated juice satisfied the microbiological and physiochemical safety limits in refrigerated storage conditions for 20 days for the large scale processing. Overall the present work conclusively established the usefulness of combined treatment approaches based on ultrasound for maintaining the microbiological safety of beverages with enhanced shelf life and excellent quality parameters as compared to the untreated and thermally processed juices. PMID:26585014

  5. Fruit juice drinks prevent endogenous antioxidant response to high-fat meal ingestion.

    PubMed

    Miglio, Cristiana; Peluso, Ilaria; Raguzzini, Anna; Villao, Deborah V; Cesqui, Eleonora; Catasta, Giovina; Toti, Elisabetta; Serafini, Mauro

    2014-01-28

    High-fat meals (HFM) induce metabolic stress, leading to the activation of protective mechanisms, including inflammation and endogenous antioxidant defences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of antioxidant-rich fruit juice drinks on the endogenous antioxidant response induced by HFM. In a double-blind, cross-over design (10d washout), fourteen overweight volunteers were randomly assigned to one of the following interventions: HFM+500ml placebo beverage (HFM-PB, free from fruit); HFM+500ml antioxidant beverage 1 (HFM-AB1; apple, grape, blueberry and pomegranate juices and grape skin, grape seed and green tea extracts); HFM+500ml antioxidant beverage 2 (HFM-AB2; pineapple, black currant and plum juices). HFM-PB consumption increased the plasma levels of thiols (SH) (4h, P<0001) and uric acid (UA) (2h, P<001) and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) (4h, P<001). Following the consumption of drinks, UA production was significantly reduced with respect to placebo beverage consumption 8h after HFM-AB2 consumption (P<005). SH levels were reduced 05 (P<005), 1 (P<005) and 2h (P<001) after HFM-AB1 consumption and 2, 4 and 8h (P<005) after HFM-AB2 consumption. Plasma TRAP (2h, P<0001) and urinary ferric reducing antioxidant power (0-8h, P<001) were increased by HFM-AB1 consumption, the drink with the highest in vitro antioxidant capacity, but not by HFM-AB2 consumption. In urine, UA levels were significantly increased from basal levels after the consumption of HFM-PB and HFM-AB2. However, neither of the beverages increased the urinary excretion of UA with respect to the placebo beverage. In conclusion, the increase in UA and SH levels induced by HFM as part of an endogenous antioxidant response to postprandial stress can be prevented by the concomitant ingestion of antioxidant-rich fruit juice drinks. PMID:23930843

  6. Intake of Fruit Juice and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Bo; Li, Shuangshuang; Liu, Zhaolu; Tian, Huan; Yin, Xiuxiu; Huai, Pengcheng; Tang, Weihong; Zhou, Donghao; Steffen, Lyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Several prospective studies have been conducted to examine the relationship between fruit juice intake and risk of incident type 2 diabetes, but results have been mixed. In the present study, we aimed to estimate the association between fruit juice intake and risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to December 2013. All prospective cohort studies of fruit juice intake with risk of type 2 diabetes were included. The pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for highest vs. lowest category of fruit juice intake were estimated using a random-effects model. Results A total of four studies (191,686 participants, including 12,375 with type 2 diabetes) investigated the association between sugar-sweetened fruit juice and risk of incident type 2 diabetes, and four studies (137,663 participants and 4,906 cases) investigated the association between 100% fruit juice and risk of incident type 2 diabetes. A higher intake of sugar-sweetened fruit juice was significantly associated with risk of type 2 diabetes (RR?=?1.28, 95%CI?=?1.041.59, p?=?0.02), while intake of 100% fruit juice was not associated with risk of developing type 2 diabetes (RR?=?1.03, 95% CI?=?0.911.18, p?=?0.62). Conclusions Our findings support dietary recommendations to limit sugar-sweetened beverages, such as fruit juice with added sugar, to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:24682091

  7. Social Support Is a Primary Influence on Home Fruit, 100% Juice, and Vegetable Availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children tend to eat more fruit and vegetables when more are available in the home. We proposed and tested a model that predicts the availability at home (hereinafter termed "home availability") of fruit, 100% juice, and vegetables, using new measures of frequency of food shopping, purchase, and com...

  8. 19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... determined to be the average Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices in the trade and commerce of... 10.2 Passion Fruit 15.3 Peach 11.8 Pear 15.4 Pineapple 14.3 Plum 14.3 Pomegranate 18.2 Prune...

  9. 19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... determined to be the average Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices in the trade and commerce of... 10.2 Passion Fruit 15.3 Peach 11.8 Pear 15.4 Pineapple 14.3 Plum 14.3 Pomegranate 18.2 Prune...

  10. 19 CFR 151.91 - Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... determined to be the average Brix values of unconcentrated natural fruit juices in the trade and commerce of... 10.2 Passion Fruit 15.3 Peach 11.8 Pear 15.4 Pineapple 14.3 Plum 14.3 Pomegranate 18.2 Prune...

  11. Potential of membrane distillation for production of high quality fruit juice concentrate.

    PubMed

    Onsekizoglu Bagci, Pelin

    2015-01-01

    Fruit juices are generally concentrated in order to improve the stability during storage and to reduce handling, packaging, and transportation costs. Thermal evaporation is the most widely used technique in industrial fruit juice concentrate production. In addition to high energy consumption, a large part of the characteristics determining the quality of the fresh juice including aroma, color, vitamins, and antioxidants undergoes remarkable alterations through the use of high operation temperatures. Increasing consumer demand for minimally or naturally processed stable products able to retain as much possible the uniqueness of the fresh fruit has engendered a growing interest for development of nonthermal approaches for fruit juice concentration. Among them, membrane distillation (MD) and its variants have attracted much attention for allowing very high concentrations to be reached under atmospheric pressure and temperatures near ambient temperature. This review will provide an overview of the current status and recent developments in the use of MD for concentration of fruit juices. In addition to the most basic concepts of MD variants, crucial suggestions for membrane selection and operating parameters will be presented. Challenges and future trends for industrial adaptation taking into account the possibility of integrating MD with other existing processes will be discussed. PMID:24915342

  12. Patulin and its dietary intake by fruit juice consumption in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Rezapoor Jeiran, Masoome

    2015-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine levels and dietary intake of patulin (PAT) from fruit juices consumed in Iran. PAT content was determined using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection in 161 samples of fruit juices including apple, pineapple, pear, peach, pomegranate and white and red grape juices. Results revealed the presence of PAT in 16.1% of the samples examined, ranging from 5 to 190.7 µg/kg. Average and median PAT content in positive samples was 34.5 and 18.5 µg/kg, respectively. PAT concentration in 2.5% of the samples was higher than the maximum limit as set by European regulations for PAT in fruit products (50 µg/kg). Estimated daily intake of PAT by fruit juice was 16.4, 45.9 and 74.6 ng/kg bw/day for Iranian adults, children and babies, respectively. The results of this study showed that PAT does not seem to be a problem in fruit-based drinks commercialised in Iran, except for apple juice. PMID:25494337

  13. Determination of patulin in fruit juices using HPLC-DAD and GC-MSD techniques.

    PubMed

    Moukas, Athanasios; Panagiotopoulou, Vasiliki; Markaki, Panagiota

    2008-08-15

    A high performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) and a gas chromatography with a mass spectrometer (GC-MSD) are described for the determination of patulin (PAT) in apple juice. The limits of detection (DL) and quantification (QL) for the HPLC-DAD and GC-MSD method were found to be (DL=0.23?gkg(-1) QL=1.2?gkg(-1)) and (DL=5.8?gkg(-1) and QL=13.8?gkg(-1)), respectively. The recovery factors for HPLC-DAD and GC-MSD were found to be 99.5% (RSD%=0.73) and 41% (RSD%=10.03), respectively. The HPLC-DAD method was used to determine the occurrence of PAT in 90 samples of fruit juices. Results revealed the presence of PAT in 100% of the samples examined. The mean values of PAT in concentrated fruit juices and in the commercial fruit juices collected from the Greek market were found to be 10.54?g PAT kg(-1) and 5.57?g PAT kg(-1) juice, respectively. The most contaminated samples were four concentrated juices ranging from 18.10?g PAT kg(-1) to 36.8?g PAT kg(-1) juice. The daily exposure to patulin for the consumers of all ages in Greece, is ranging from 0.008?g PAT kg(-1) bw to 0.1?g PAT kg(-1) bw if the daily intake of fruit juices is from 0.1 to 0.5kg. With the exception to the most contaminated sample, the daily exposure due to the samples examined, is below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake for PAT (0.4?g PAT kg(-1) bw). PMID:26050002

  14. [High performance liquid chromatographic determination of reducing sugars in fruit juices with laser resonance Raman detection].

    PubMed

    Ding, M; Koizumi, H; Suzuki, Y

    1997-07-01

    A liquid chromatographic method using semi-microcolumn separation combined with laser resonance Raman detection was developed for the determination of monosaccharides in fruit juices. Reducing sugars (galactose, glucose, mannose, arabinose, xylose and ribose) were derivatized with 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene-4'-sulfonyl (DABSYL) hydrazine. The derivatives of the monosaccharides exhibited strong resonance Raman scattering at 1136 cm(-1) when Ar+ laser emission line 488.0 nm was used. A semi-microcolumn Inertsil ODS-2 (250 mm x 1.5 mm i.d.) was used to the separation of the monosaccharide derivatives. The saccharides eluted within 25 min. However the excess DABSYL hydrazine was retained strongly with a retention time of about 60 min. In order to reduce the longer analysis time, the excess DABSYL hydrazine was removed by adding glyoxylic acid and then Na2CO3 aqueous solution when the derivation reaction was finished. As a result, the analysis time was reduced to about a half of its initial run time. The sensitivity of resonance Raman detection greater two orders of magnitude than refractive index (RI) detection. The detection limit of glucose is 10 ng (5.5 pmol). The high selectivity of Raman detection came from the facts that only the interested compounds in a given sample was derived with the Raman labeling reagent and that only the characteristic Raman bands of the derivatives were selectively detected. In this work, in spite of the coexisting large quantities of organic acids in fruit juice, the determined values of glucose agreed well with those obtained by RI detection without any derivatization procedure. PMID:15739455

  15. Great heterogeneity of commercial fruit juices to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: role of the phenolic content and composition.

    PubMed

    Auger, Cyril; Pollet, Brigitte; Arnold, Ccile; Marx, Cline; Schini-Kerth, Valrie B

    2015-01-01

    Since polyphenol-rich products such as red wine, grape juice, and grape extracts have been shown to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, we have evaluated whether commercial fruit juices such as those from berries are also able to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated coronary arteries and, if so, to determine whether this effect is related to their phenolic content. Among the 51 fruit juices tested, 2/12 grape juices, 3/7 blackcurrant juices, 4/5 cranberry juices, 1/6 apple juices, 0/5 orange juices, 2/6 red fruit and berry juices, 3/6 blends of red fruit juices, and 0/4 non-red fruit juices were able to induce relaxations achieving more than 50% at a volume of 1%. The active fruit juices had phenolic contents ranging from 0.31 to 1.86?g GAE/L, which were similar to those of most of the less active juices with the exception of one active grape juice (2.14?g GAE/L) and one active blend of red fruit juices (3.48?g GAE/L). Altogether, these findings indicate that very few commercial fruit juices have the ability to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, and that this effect is not related to their quantitative phenolic content, but rather to their qualitative phenolic composition. PMID:25009961

  16. Electrochemical evaluation of total antioxidant capacities in fruit juice based on the guanine/graphene nanoribbon/glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Zhou, Jiawan; Zhang, Hejing; Gai, Pengbo; Zhang, Xiaohua; Chen, Jinhua

    2013-03-15

    Based on electro-immobilization of guanine on graphene nanoribbon (GNR) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode, a new electrochemical DNA biosensor was developed for the evaluation of total antioxidant capacities (TAC) in fruit juices. The biosensor relies on the guanine damage that is induced by hydroxyl radical (OH) generated by Fenton-type reaction. Ascorbic acid (AA), which has the ability to scavenge the OH and to protect the guanine immobilized on the electrode surface, was used as the standard antioxidant to evaluate the TAC in fruit juice. Under optimized conditions, the proposed biosensor has excellent analytical performance for antioxidant capacity assessment: wide linear range (0.1 to 4 mg L(-1)), high sensitivity (4.16 ?A/mg L(-1)) and low detection limit (0.05 mg L(-1)). Compared with the other electrochemical sensors developed previously, the proposed electrode demonstrates the improved detection limit of about 5 times to one order of magnitude for antioxidant capacity assessment. Additionally, the biosensor was successfully applied to the determination of the TAC in fruit juices. PMID:23598118

  17. Evaluation of the use of Syzygium cumini fruit extract as an antioxidant additive in orange juice and its sensorial impact.

    PubMed

    Tobal, Thaise Mari; da Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni; Bolini, Helena Maria Andr; Boscolo, Mauricio

    2012-05-01

    This work is an exploratory study of the possibility of promoting the consumption of Syzygium cumini fruit by adding its extract to orange juice making good use of its functional (antioxidant) properties. S. cumini fruit extract was characterized in terms of its anthocyanin content (2.11 g/100 g expressed in cyanidine-3-glucoside equivalents), total phenolic compounds (360 mg/100 g expressed in gallic acid equivalents) and antioxidant capacity evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging method. The effects of the addition of S. cumini fruit crude extract as well as its chromatographic fractions on the juice were assessed chemically by headspace solid-phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometry detector. Only six compounds had their chromatographic peak intensities clearly changed and the results are discussed in terms of the inhibition of the formation of 2-octanone, hexanol, ?-copaene, and ?-panasinsene and the conservation of octyl acetate and p-menth-1-en-9-ol. Sensory evaluation of orange juice with and without S. cumini crude extract addition did not show any significant differences in the sensorial profile, discriminative and acceptance tests. PMID:21981004

  18. Carbon isotope ratios and isotopic correlations between components in fruit juices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzchnicki, Ryszard

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays food products are defined by geographical origin, method of production and by some regulations concerning terms of their authenticity. Important data for confirm the authenticity of product are providing by isotopic methods of food control. The method checks crucial criteria which characterize the authenticity of inspected product. The European Union Regulations clearly show the tendency for application of the isotopic methods for food authenticity control (wine, honey, juice). The aim of the legislation steps is the protection of European market from possibility of the commercial frauds. Method of isotope ratio mass spectrometry is very effective tool for the use distinguishably the food products of various geographical origin. The basic problem for identification of the sample origin is the lack of databases of isotopic composition of components and information about the correlations of the data. The subject of the work was study the isotopic correlations existing between components of fruits. The chemical and instrumental methods of separation: water, sugars, organic acids and pulp from fruit were implemented. IRMS technique was used to measure isotopic composition of samples. The final results for original samples of fruits (apple, strawberry etc.) will be presented and discussed. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education under grant NR12-0043-10/2010.

  19. Goal Setting Is Differentially Related to Change in Fruit, Juice, and Vegetable Consumption among Fourth-Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Zakeri, Issa; Pryor, Erin W.; Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; Watson, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    The impact of goal attainment in a dietary change program to increase fruit, 100% juice, and vegetable consumption was assessed among fourth-grade students. At each session, the students were given goals related to increasing fruit, juice, and vegetable consumption. Baseline consumption and postconsumption were assessed with up to 4 days of…

  20. Use of electronic tongue and nose sensors to differentiate between juice from greening (Huanglongbing) and healthy fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2007 and 2008, consumer and descriptive sensory analyses were made of juice from fruit harvested from healthy and Huanglongbing (HLB) affected trees. Differences were sometimes found for flavor, mainly for juice from HLB fruit symptomatic for the disease (small, green, asymmetrical shape) with de...

  1. Goal Setting Is Differentially Related to Change in Fruit, Juice, and Vegetable Consumption among Fourth-Grade Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Zakeri, Issa; Pryor, Erin W.; Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; Watson, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    The impact of goal attainment in a dietary change program to increase fruit, 100% juice, and vegetable consumption was assessed among fourth-grade students. At each session, the students were given goals related to increasing fruit, juice, and vegetable consumption. Baseline consumption and postconsumption were assessed with up to 4 days of

  2. Inhibition of Nonenzymatic Protein Glycation by Pomegranate and Other Fruit Juices

    PubMed Central

    Dorsey, Pamela Garner; Greenspan, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The nonenzymatic glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycation endproducts in diabetes leads to the crosslinking of proteins and disease complications. Our study sought to demonstrate the effect of commonly consumed juices (pomegranate, cranberry, black cherry, pineapple, apple, and Concord grape) on the fructose-mediated glycation of albumin. Albumin glycation decreased by 98% in the presence of 10 μL of pomegranate juice/mL; other juices inhibited glycation by only 20%. Pomegranate juice produced the greatest inhibition on protein glycation when incubated at both the same phenolic concentration and the same antioxidant potential. Both punicalagin and ellagic acid significantly inhibited the glycation of albumin by ∼90% at 5 μg/mL. Sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that pomegranate, but not apple juice, protected albumin from modification. These results demonstrate that pomegranate juice and two of its major constituents are potent inhibitors of fructose-mediated protein glycation. PMID:24433074

  3. Inhibition of nonenzymatic protein glycation by pomegranate and other fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, Pamela Garner; Greenspan, Phillip

    2014-04-01

    The nonenzymatic glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycation endproducts in diabetes leads to the crosslinking of proteins and disease complications. Our study sought to demonstrate the effect of commonly consumed juices (pomegranate, cranberry, black cherry, pineapple, apple, and Concord grape) on the fructose-mediated glycation of albumin. Albumin glycation decreased by 98% in the presence of 10 ?L of pomegranate juice/mL; other juices inhibited glycation by only 20%. Pomegranate juice produced the greatest inhibition on protein glycation when incubated at both the same phenolic concentration and the same antioxidant potential. Both punicalagin and ellagic acid significantly inhibited the glycation of albumin by ~90% at 5 ?g/mL. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that pomegranate, but not apple juice, protected albumin from modification. These results demonstrate that pomegranate juice and two of its major constituents are potent inhibitors of fructose-mediated protein glycation. PMID:24433074

  4. Quantification of four arsenic species in fruit juices by ion-chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Sean D; Chen, Peter E

    2012-08-01

    A method using ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS) for the quantification of arsenic species in fruit juices has been developed and validated. The method is capable of quantifying four anionic arsenic species - arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) - in the presence of unretained species such as arsenobetaine (AsB). Method validation was based on repeatability, analysis of reference materials, recovery of fortified samples, and determination of detection and quantification limits. The method was tested for use with apple, pear, cranberry, grape (red, white and purple) juices, as well as several juice blends. Limits of detection were 0.35, 0.41, 0.45 and 0.70?g?kg? for As(III), DMA, MMA and As(V), respectively. Chromatographic recovery was good for most samples (90-107% compared to total arsenic), though recovery for some grape juice samples was lower (67-78%). PMID:22639850

  5. The carbon isotopes ratio and trace metals content determinations in some Transylvanian fruit juices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehelean, A.; Magdas, D. A.; Cristea, G.

    2012-02-01

    This work presents a preliminary study on the carbon isotope signature and trace metal content investigated on the soil-plant-fruit pulp chain. The samples were collected from two Transylvanian areas namely Alba and Salaj. The average value of the δ13C at the soil surface was around δ13C ≈ -27%° and important differences of the δ13C values between the two studied areas were not observed. Meanwhile, differences between fruit pulp of grape juice and the pulp of pear juice relived a difference of about 1.5%° for δ13C values.

  6. [Natural mineral and spring waters and fruit juices as food sources of silicon].

    PubMed

    Prescha, Anna; Zab?ocka, Katarzyna; Naduk, Joanna; Grajeta, Halina

    2011-01-01

    Beverages especially mineral waters are considered as one of the best nutritional sources of silicon. The aim of this work was to determine the silicon content in bottled mineral and spring waters, as well as in orange, apple, grapefruit and mixed fruit juices available on the market. The electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) was used for the silicon determination. The silicon levels in mineral waters ranged from 3.33 - 30.05 mg Si/dm3, in spring waters ranged from 3.66- 11.23 mg/dm3, and in fruit juices ranged from 0.21- 1.93 mg/100g. PMID:22171519

  7. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Orange Fruit Surfaces and in Juice Using Photocatalysis and High Hydrostatic Pressure.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sungyul; Ghafoor, Kashif; Kim, Jeong Un; Kim, Sanghun; Jung, Bora; Lee, Dong-Un; Park, Jiyong

    2015-06-01

    Nonpasteurized orange juice is manufactured by squeezing juice from fruit without peel removal. Fruit surfaces may carry pathogenic microorganisms that can contaminate squeezed juice. Titanium dioxide-UVC photocatalysis (TUVP), a nonthermal technique capable of microbial inactivation via generation of hydroxyl radicals, was used to decontaminate orange surfaces. Levels of spot-inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 (initial level of 7.0 log CFU/cm(2)) on oranges (12 cm(2)) were reduced by 4.3 log CFU/ml when treated with TUVP (17.2 mW/cm(2)). Reductions of 1.5, 3.9, and 3.6 log CFU/ml were achieved using tap water, chlorine (200 ppm), and UVC alone (23.7 mW/cm(2)), respectively. E. coli O157:H7 in juice from TUVP (17.2 mW/cm(2))-treated oranges was reduced by 1.7 log CFU/ml. After orange juice was treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at 400 MPa for 1 min without any prior fruit surface disinfection, the level of E. coli O157:H7 was reduced by 2.4 log CFU/ml. However, the E. coli O157:H7 level in juice was reduced by 4.7 log CFU/ml (to lower than the detection limit) when TUVP treatment of oranges was followed by HHP treatment of juice, indicating a synergistic inactivation effect. The inactivation kinetics of E. coli O157:H7 on orange surfaces followed a biphasic model. HHP treatment did not affect the pH, °Brix, or color of juice. However, the ascorbic acid concentration and pectinmethylesterase activity were reduced by 35.1 and 34.7%, respectively. PMID:26038898

  8. Total oxidant scavenging capacities of common European fruit and vegetable juices.

    PubMed

    Lichtenthler, Ramona; Marx, Friedhelm

    2005-01-12

    The total oxidant scavenging capacity (TOSC) assay in a modified and automated version was applied for a comparative and detailed survey of the antioxidant capacities of 14 common European fruit and vegetable juices (ACE, apple, beetroot, blueberry, carrot, elderberry, lemon, lingonberry, multivitamin, orange, pink grapefruit, sauerkraut, and tomato juices as well as sour cherry nectar). The juices were ranked according to their scavenging capacity against the three reactive oxygen species (ROS) peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite. These ROS are of physiological and technological relevance and cover a broad range of reactivity. Nonlinear correlations between concentrations of all studied samples and antioxidant capacity were taken into account for the assessment of the results. Due to the more complex assay design, results are only partially in accordance with those of the literature. Because of its outstanding TOSC values against two of the three ROS, lingonberry juice deserves special attention. PMID:15631516

  9. Letter to the editor: Taking into account scientific evidence showing the benefits of 100% fruit juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In their recent commentary, Wojcicki and Heyman suggested that 100% fruit juice consumption is linked to childhood obesity and should be eliminated from the United States Department of Agriculture Food Programs. This recommendation is unsupported by the scientific literature, which has failed to sho...

  10. The Increased Availability and Marketing of Fruit, Juice, and Vegetables to Middle School Students Increases Consumption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this intervention were to determine whether middle school student consumption of fruit, juice, and vegetables (FJV) during school lunch would be increased by: 1) increasing FJV availability and accessibility in the middle school school lunch snack bar/a la carte line; and 2) combin...

  11. Microorganisms and antifungal properties associated with noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit and fermented juice in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia), a medicinal plant grown in Hawaii and other Polynesian regions, is reportedly therapeutic for diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. Noni fruit often produce fermented juice that differs in chemical, physical and microbial properties. To determine ho...

  12. A review of the relationship between 100% fruit juice consumption and weight in children and adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies assessing a relationship between consumption of 100% fruit juice by children and adolescents and weight are contradictory. The purpose of this review was to assess the 9 cross-sectional and 12 longitudinal studies that have looked at this association. Of the 9 cross-sectional studies revie...

  13. Home fruit, juice, and vegetable pantry management and availability scales: A validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Home fruit, 100% juice, and vegetables (FJV) availability is related to increased FJV consumption by children. While FJV must be purchased for use in the home, no scales have been reported on home FJV pantry management practices. A scale for home FJV pantry management practices was generated from fo...

  14. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials

    PubMed Central

    Satish, V; Prabhakar, AR; Namineni, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this in vitro study, the effects of a Cola drink, and fresh fruit juice (citrus) on the surface roughness on flowable composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) each was evaluated and compared. Using a brass mold 70 pellets each of flowable composite (Filtek™ Flow) and RMGIC tricure restorative material were prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Two groups (groups I and II) were formed containing 30 pellets of each material. Remaining 10 pellets of each restorative material did form the control group [water (group III)]. Experimental group pellets were again divided into three subgroups (mild, moderate and severe) containing 10 pellets each and were kept in plastic containers with 30 ml Cola drink (group I) and fresh fruit juice (group II) respectively. Immersion regime was followed according to M aupome G et al. Baseline and final surface roughness (Ra) value for each pellet was evaluated using a profilometer. Statistical analysis was done with Wilcoxon’s signed rank test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Mann-Whitney test. Results showed that the erosive effect of both Cola drink and fresh fruit juice caused significant surface roughness on both flowable composite and RMGIC restorative materials in the mild, moderate and severe immersion regimes. How to cite this article: Maganur P, Satish V, Prabhakar AR, Namineni S. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):1-5. PMID:26124573

  15. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials.

    PubMed

    Maganur, Prabhadevi; Satish, V; Prabhakar, A R; Namineni, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    In this in vitro study, the effects of a Cola drink, and fresh fruit juice (citrus) on the surface roughness on flowable composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) each was evaluated and compared. Using a brass mold 70 pellets each of flowable composite (Filtek™ Flow) and RMGIC tricure restorative material were prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions. Two groups (groups I and II) were formed containing 30 pellets of each material. Remaining 10 pellets of each restorative material did form the control group [water (group III)]. Experimental group pellets were again divided into three subgroups (mild, moderate and severe) containing 10 pellets each and were kept in plastic containers with 30 ml Cola drink (group I) and fresh fruit juice (group II) respectively. Immersion regime was followed according to M aupome G et al. Baseline and final surface roughness (Ra) value for each pellet was evaluated using a profilometer. Statistical analysis was done with Wilcoxon's signed rank test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Mann-Whitney test. Results showed that the erosive effect of both Cola drink and fresh fruit juice caused significant surface roughness on both flowable composite and RMGIC restorative materials in the mild, moderate and severe immersion regimes. How to cite this article: Maganur P, Satish V, Prabhakar AR, Namineni S. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):1-5. PMID:26124573

  16. Achieving fruit, juice, and vegetable recipe preparation goals influences consumption by 4th grade students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Including children in food preparation activities has long been recommended as a method to encourage children's consumption, but has not been evaluated. Goal setting is also a common component of behavior change programs. This study assessed the impact of attaining goals to prepare fruit-juice or ve...

  17. Supercritical carbon dioxide process for pasteurization of fruit juices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) nonthermal processing inactivates microorganisms in juices using non-toxic and non-reactive CO2. However, data is lacking on the inactivation of E. coli K12 and L. plantarum in apple cider using pilot plant scale SCCO2 equipment. For this study, pasteurized pres...

  18. Isotopic and Elemental Determination in Some Romanian Apple Fruit Juices

    PubMed Central

    Magdas, Dana Alina; Dehelean, Adriana; Puscas, Romulus

    2012-01-01

    H, C, O stable isotope ratios and the content of some heavy elements of 31 Romanian single-strength organic apple juices collected from four Transylvanian areas are discussed in this study. The aim of this study was to measure the 2H/1H, 18O/16O, 13C/12C ratios of these juices and their elemental profile and to establish a database of authentic values to be used for adulteration and authenticity testing. Our results have shown mean values of δ18O = −4.2‰ and δDδ−46.5‰, respectively, for apples from Transylvania and at the same time the mean value of δ13C = −28.2‰. The content of Cd, Pb, U, Zn, As was below the acceptable limits stipulated in US-EPA standard for drinking water. Cu and Cr limits exceeded for one single juice; Ni content for some apple juices from Maramures, Alba, and Cluj was higher than the acceptable value. PMID:22666164

  19. Electrodialytic removal of nitrate from pineapple juice: effect on selected physicochemical properties, amino acids, and aroma components of the juice.

    PubMed

    Ackarabanpojoue, Yuwadee; Chindapan, Nathamol; Yoovidhya, Tipaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of nitrate removal from pineapple juice by electrodialysis (ED) on selected properties of the ED-treated juice. Single-strength pineapple juice with reduced pulp content was treated by ED to reduce the nitrate concentration to 15, 10, or 5 ppm. After ED, the removed pulp was added to the ED-treated juice and its properties, including electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), color, amino acids, and selected aroma compounds, were determined and compared with those of the untreated juice. ED could reduce the nitrate content of 1 L of pineapple juice from an initial value of 50 ppm to less than 5 ppm within 30 min. A significant decrease in the electrical conductivity, acidity, pH, TSS, and yellowness, but a significant increase in the lightness, of the juice was observed upon ED. Concentrations of almost all amino acids of the ED-treated juice significantly decreased. The concentrations of 8 major compound contributors to the pineapple aroma also significantly decreased. Adding the pulp back to the ED-treated juice increased the amino acids concentrations; however, it led to a significant decrease in the concentrations of the aroma compounds. PMID:25827307

  20. Investigation on Clarified Fruit Juice Composition by Using Visible Light Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Camerlingo, Carlo; Zenone, Flora; Delfino, Ines; Diano, Nadia; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Lepore, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Liquid samples of clarified apple and apricot juices at different production stages were investigated using visible light micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to assess its potential in monitoring fruit juice production. As is well-known, pectin plays a strategic role in the production of clarified juice and the possibility of using Raman for its detection during production was therefore evaluated. The data analysis has enabled the clear identification of pectin. In particular, Raman spectra of apple juice samples from washed and crushed fruits revealed a peak at 845 cm-1 (typical of pectin) which disappears in the Raman spectra of depectinised samples. The fructose content was also revealed by the presence of four peaks at 823 cm-1, 872 cm-1, 918 cm-1 and 975 cm-1. In the case of apricot juice, several Raman fingerprints of ?-carotene at 1008, 1159 and 1520 cm-1 were also highlighted. Present results resulted interesting for the exclusive use of optical methods for the quantitative determination of the above-mentioned substances in place of the biochemical assays generally used for this purpose, which are time consuming and require different chemical reagents for each of them.

  1. Suitability of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus plantarum as probiotics intended for fruit juices containing citrus extracts.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Campaniello, Daniela; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Maddalena, Lucia; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2013-11-01

    A strain of Lactobacillus plantarum and 4 strains of bifidobacteria were inoculated in apple juice and in a commercial beverage labeled as "red-fruit juice," containing citrus extracts as natural preservatives; the suitability of the probiotics was evaluated in relation to their resistance to 2 kinds of citrus extracts (biocitro and lemon extract), survival in juices at 4 and 37 C, and inhibition of Zygosaccharomyces bailii. Cell count of L. plantarum and bifidobacteria over time was fitted through the Weibull equation, for the evaluation of the first reduction time (?), death time, and microbiological shelf life (the break-point was set to 7 log cfu/mL). Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis experienced the highest ?-value (23.21 d) and death time (96.59 d) in the red-fruit juice at 4 C, whereas L. plantarum was the most promising strain in apple juice at 37 C. Biocitro and lemon extract did not exert a biocidal effect toward probiotics; moreover, the probiotics controlled the growth of Z. bailii and the combination of L. plantarum with 40 ppm of biocitro reduced the level of the yeast after 18 d by 2 log cfu/mL. PMID:24245895

  2. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils on Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, and Listeria innocua in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Raybaudi-Massilia, Rosa M; Mosqueda-Melgar, Jonathan; Martn-Belloso, Olga

    2006-07-01

    The antimicrobial properties of essential oils (EOs) and their derivatives have been known for years. However, the information published about the minimal effective concentration of EOs against microorganisms in fruit juices is scarce. In this study, both MIC and MBC of six EOs (lemongrass, cinnamon, geraniol, palmarosa, or benzaldehyde) against Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, and Listeria innocua were determined by the agar and broth dilution methods, respectively. All of the six EOs inhibited the microbial (Salmonella Enteritidis, E. coli, and L. innocua) growth at a concentration from 1 microl/ ml (MIC). These studies led to choosing the three most effective EOs. Lemongrass, cinnamon, and geraniol were found to be most effective in inhibiting the growth of the microorganisms and thus were used for the MBC analysis. On this last point, significant differences (P < 0.05) among EOs, their concentrations, and culture media (apple, pear, and melon juices, or tryptone soy broth medium) were found after comparing the results on MBC for each microorganism. A concentration of 2 microl/ml from lemongrass, cinnamon, or geraniol was enough to inactivate Salmonella Enteritidis, E. coli, and L. innocua in apple and pear juices. However, in melon juice and tryptone soy broth medium, concentrations of 8 and 10 microl/ml from cinnamon, respectively, or 6 microl/ml from geraniol were necessary to eliminate the three microorganisms, whereas lemongrass required only 5 micro/ml to inactivate them. These results suggest that EOs represent a good alternative to eliminate microorganisms that can be a hazard for the consumer in unpasteurized fruit juices. The present study contributes to the knowledge of MBC of EOs against pathogenic bacteria on fruit juices. PMID:16865889

  3. Drinking citrus fruit juice inhibits vascular remodeling in cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Arika; Asayama, Rie; Mogi, Masaki; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Kan-No, Harumi; Tsukuda, Kana; Chisaka, Toshiyuki; Wang, Xiao-Li; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2015-01-01

    Citrus fruits are thought to have inhibitory effects on oxidative stress, thereby attenuating the onset and progression of cancer and cardiovascular disease; however, there are few reports assessing their effect on vascular remodeling. Here, we investigated the effect of drinking the juice of two different citrus fruits on vascular neointima formation using a cuff-induced vascular injury mouse model. Male C57BL6 mice were divided into five groups as follows: 1) Control (water) (C), 2) 10% Citrus unshiu (CU) juice (CU10), 3) 40% CU juice (CU40), 4) 10% Citrus iyo (CI) juice (CI10), and 5) 40% CI juice (CI40). After drinking them for 2 weeks from 8 weeks of age, cuff injury was induced by polyethylene cuff placement around the femoral artery. Neointima formation was significantly attenuated in CU40, CI10 and CI40 compared with C; however, no remarkable preventive effect was observed in CU10. The increases in levels of various inflammatory markers including cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor-? in response to vascular injury did not differ significantly between C, CU10 and CI10. The increases in cell proliferation and superoxide anion production were markedly attenuated in CI10, but not in CU10 compared with C. The increase in phosphorylated ERK expression was markedly attenuated both in CU10 and CI10 without significant difference between CU10 and CI10. Accumulation of immune cells did not differ between CU10 and CI10. These results indicate that drinking citrus fruit juice attenuates vascular remodeling partly via a reduction of oxidative stress. Interestingly, the preventive efficacy on neointima formation was stronger in CI than in CU at least in part due to more prominent inhibitory effects on oxidative stress by CI. PMID:25692290

  4. Preparation of resveratrol-enriched grape juice from ultrasonication treated grape fruits.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Md Mohidul; Yun, Hae-Keun; Kwak, Eun-Jung; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2014-03-01

    Grape (Vitis spp.) is a major source of resveratrol that can be eaten directly or after making jam, jelly, wine and juice. Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) has a profound positive influence on human health, including anti-carcinogenic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-ageing effects and the ability to lower blood sugar. During industrial production of grape juice, resveratrol is lost because of the use of clarifying agents and filtration; therefore, commercial grape juice contains very low amounts of resveratrol. In this study, we investigated the accumulation of resveratrol in grape juice prepared from three varieties of grape, viz. Campbell Early, Muscat Bailey A (MBA) and Kyoho, following post-harvest ultrasonication cleaning for 5 min and 6h of incubation in the dark at 25 °C. This process resulted in the amounts of resveratrol increasing by 1.53, 1.15 and 1.24 times in juice prepared from Campbell Early, MBA and Kyoho, respectively, without changing the amounts of total soluble solids. Overall, our results indicate that ultrasonication treatment of post-harvested grape fruits can be an effective method for producing resveratrol-enriched grape juice as well as cleaning grapes thoroughly. PMID:24041855

  5. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice. PMID:25838891

  6. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P < 0.05), without bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, and metallic taste, and samples with sucrose and sucralose did not differ from each other for the attribute sweet aftertaste. Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P < 0.05) differences between them. Aspartame and sucralose can be good substitutes for sucrose in passion fruit juice. PMID:25838891

  7. E-Nose and e-Tongue combination for improved recognition of fruit juice samples.

    PubMed

    Haddi, Z; Mabrouk, S; Bougrini, M; Tahri, K; Sghaier, K; Barhoumi, H; El Bari, N; Maaref, A; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Bouchikhi, B

    2014-05-01

    There are many important challenges related to food security analysis by application of chemical and electrochemical sensors. One critical parameter is the development of reliable tools, capable of performing an overall sensory analysis. In these systems, as much information as possible is required in relation to smell, taste and colour. Here, we investigated the possibility of using a multisensor data fusion approach, which combines an e-Nose and an e-Tongue, adept in generating combined aroma and taste profiles. In order to shed light on this concept, classification of various Tunisian fruit juices using a low-level of abstraction data fusion technique was attempted. Five tin oxide-based Taguchi Gas Sensors were applied in the e-Nose instrument and the e-Tongue was designed using six potentiometric sensors. Four different commercial brands along with eleven fruit juice varieties were characterised using the e-Nose and the e-Tongue as individual techniques, followed by a combination of the two together. Applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) separately on the respective e-Nose and e-Tongue data, only few distinct groups were discriminated. However, by employing the low-level of abstraction data fusion technique, very impressive findings were achieved. The Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network reached a 100% success rate in the recognition of the eleven-fruit juices. Therefore, data fusion approach can successfully merge individual data from multiple origins to draw the right conclusions that are more fruitful when compared to the original single data. Hence, this work has demonstrated that data fusion strategy used to combine e-Nose and e-Tongue signals led to a system of complementary and comprehensive information of the fruit juices which outperformed the performance of each instrument when applied separately. PMID:24360446

  8. Psychosocial and demographic predictors of fruit, juice and vegetable consumption among 11-14-year-old Boy Scouts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Psychosocial and demographic correlates of fruit, juice, and vegetable (FJV) consumption were investigated to guide how to increase FJV intake. Experimental design consisted of hierarchical multiple regression analysis of FJV consumption on demographics and psychosocial variables. Subjects were boys...

  9. Evaluation of the anti-proliferative and cytostatic effect of Citrus sinensis (orange) fruit juice

    PubMed Central

    Chinedu, Enegide; Arome, David; Ameh, Solomon F; Ameh, Gift E

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This work has been designed to evaluate the anti-proliferative and cytostatic effects of Citrus sinensis (orange) fruit juice on rapidly proliferating cells. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on the seeds of Sorghum bicolor for 72 h. The mean radicle length (mm) of the seeds was taken at 48 and 72 h. Result: The result showed that when compared with the control, methotrexate, the standard drug showed a significant (P < 0.001) anti-proliferative effect throughout the experiment. The inhibition of the radicle growth was more after 72 h (87.42%). At a dose of 5% (v/v), the juice showed a slightly significant (P < 0.05) effect affect after 72 h; however, there was no significant effect at 48 h. The juice at doses of 10% and 20% (v/v) showed a highly significant (P < 0.001) anti-proliferative effect throughout the experiment; however, the percentage inhibitions were higher at 72 h. At 72 h, the percentage inhibition for juice at 10% (v/v) was 72.37% and at 20% (v/v) was 91.96%. The concentrations of 40% and 60% (v/v) showed cytostatic effects as no appreciable growth of the radicles of the seeds was observed throughout the experiment. The percentage inhibition for 40% (v/v) was 100% and 99.72% for 48 and 72 h, respectively, while that for the juice concentration of 60% (v/v) was 100% throughout the study. Conclusion: The experiment has shown that C. sinensis fruit juice has a potential for causing both anti-proliferative and cytostatic effects on fast proliferating cells and hence cancerous cells. PMID:25298937

  10. Apple juice composition: sugar, nonvolatile acid, and phenolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Lee, H S; Wrolstad, R E

    1988-01-01

    Apples from Michigan, Washington, Argentina, Mexico, and New Zealand were processed into juice; the 8 samples included Golden Delicious, Jonathan, Granny Smith, and McIntosh varieties. Liquid chromatography was used for quantitation of sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol), nonvolatile acids (malic, quinic, citric, shikimic, and fumaric), and phenolics (chlorogenic acid and hydroxymethylfurfural [HMF]). Other determinations included pH, 0Brix, and L-malic acid. A number of compositional indices for these authentic juices, e.g., chlorogenic acid content, total malic - L-malic difference, and the HMF:chlorogenic ratio, were at variance with recommended standards. The phenolic profile was shown to be particularly influenced by gelatin fining, with peak areas decreasing by as much as 50%. The L-malic:total malic ratio serves as a better index for presence of synthetic malic acid than does the difference between the 2 determinations. No apparent differences in chemical composition could be attributed to geographic origin. PMID:3417603

  11. Efficient immobilization of a fungal laccase and its exploitation in fruit juice clarification.

    PubMed

    Lettera, Vincenzo; Pezzella, Cinzia; Cicatiello, Paola; Piscitelli, Alessandra; Giacobelli, Valerio Guido; Galano, Eugenio; Amoresano, Angela; Sannia, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The clarification step represents, in fruit juices industries, a bottleneck process because residual phenols cause severe haze formation affecting juice quality and impairing customers acceptance. An enzymatic step can be efficiently integrated in the process, and use of immobilized enzymes entails an economical advantage. In this work, covalent immobilization of recombinant POXA1b laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus on epoxy activated poly(methacrylate) beads was optimized thanks to a Response Surface Methodologies approach. Through regression analysis the process was well fitted by a quadratic polynomial equation (R(2)=0.9367, adjusted R(2)=0.8226) under which laccase activity reached 2000 ± 100 Ug(-1) of beads, with an immobilization efficiency of 98%. The immobilized biocatalyst was characterized and then tested in fruit juice clarification reaching up to 45% phenol reduction, without affecting health-effective flavanones content. Furthermore, laccase treated juice displays an improved sensory profile, due to the reduction of vinyl guaiacol, a potent off-flavor possessing a peppery/spicy aroma. PMID:26593616

  12. Effect of novel ultrasound based processing on the nutrition quality of different fruit and vegetable juices.

    PubMed

    Khandpur, Paramjeet; Gogate, Parag R

    2015-11-01

    Increasing consumer awareness regarding the health benefits of different nutrients in food have led to the requirement of assessing the effect of food processing approaches on the quality attributes. The present work focuses on understanding the effects of novel approaches based on the use of ultrasound and ultraviolet irradiations on the nutritional quality of different fruit and vegetable juices (orange, sweet lime, carrot and spinach juices) and its comparison with the conventional thermal pasteurization operated at 80°C for 10 min. The ultrasound sterilization parameters were maintained at ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz and power of 100 W with treatment time as 15 min. For the case of ultraviolet irradiations, 2 UVC lamps (254 nm) of 8 W were placed in parallel on either sides of the reactor. The treated juices were analyzed for total phenol content, antioxidant activity, vitamin C, carbohydrates etc. It has been established that ultrasound processed juice retained most of the nutrient components to higher extent in comparison to all the other techniques used in the work. Combination of ultrasound and ultraviolet irradiations used to achieve an effective decontamination of juices (recommended 5 log reduction of microorganisms) also retained nutrients to a higher level in comparison to the thermal method; however some losses were observed as compared to the use of only ultrasound which could be attributed to inefficient heat exchange in the combined approach. A scale up attempt was also made for treatment of spinach juice using ultrasonic reactors and analysis for quality attributes confirmed that the juice satisfied the criteria of required nutrient contents for 18 days shelf life trial in refrigerated storage conditions. The present work has clearly established the usefulness of ultrasound based treatment in maintaining the nutritional quality of beverages while giving enhanced shelf life as compared to the conventional approaches. PMID:26186829

  13. Effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice on amiodarone-induced pneumotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Valcheva-Kuzmanova, Stefka; Stavreva, Galya; Dancheva, Violeta; Terziev, Ljudmil; Atanasova, Milena; Stoyanova, Angelina; Dimitrova, Anelia; Shopova, Veneta

    2014-01-01

    Background: The fruits of Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot is extremely rich in biologically active polyphenols. Objective: We studied the protective effect of A. melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) in a model of amiodarone (AD)-induced pneumotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: AD was instilled intratracheally on days 0 and 2 (6.25 mg/kg). AMFJ (5 mL/kg and 10 mL/kg) was given orally from day 1 to days 2, 4, 9, and 10 to rats, which were sacrificed respectively on days 3, 5, 10, and 28 when biochemical, cytological, and immunological assays were performed. Results: AMFJ antagonized AD-induced increase of the lung weight coefficient. In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, AD increased significantly the protein content, total cell count, polymorphonuclear cells, lymphocytes and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase on days 3 and 5. In AMFJ-treated rats these indices of direct toxic damage did not differ significantly from the control values. In lung tissue, AD induced oxidative stress measured by malondialdehyde content and fibrosis assessed by the hydroxyproline level. AMFJ prevented these effects of AD. In rat serum, AD caused a significant elevation of interleukin IL-6 on days 3 and 5, and a decrease of IL-10 on day 3. In AMFJ-treated rats, these indices of inflammation had values that did not differ significantly from the control ones. Conclusion: AMFJ could have a protective effect against AD-induced pulmonary toxicity as evidenced by the reduced signs of AD-induced direct toxic damage, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis. PMID:24914278

  14. Hyperspectral diffuse reflectance for determination of the optical properties of milk and fruit and vegetable juices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu

    2005-11-01

    Absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are two fundamental optical properties for turbid biological materials. This paper presents the technique and method of using hyperspectral diffuse reflectance for fast determination of the optical properties of fruit and vegetable juices and milks. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance over the spectral region between 530 and 900 nm from a variety of fruit and vegetable juices (citrus, grapefruit, orange, and vegetable) and milks with different fat levels (full, skim and mixed). The system collected diffuse reflectance in the source-detector separation range from 1.1 to 10.0 mm. The hyperspectral reflectance data were analyzed by using a diffusion theory model for semi-infinite homogeneous media. The absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of the fruit and vegetable juices and milks were extracted by inverse algorithms from the scattering profiles for wavelengths of 530-900 nm. Values of the absorption and reduced scattering coefficient at 650 nm were highly correlated to the fat content of the milk samples with the correlation coefficient of 0.990 and 0.989, respectively. The hyperspectral imaging technique can be extended to the measurement of other liquid and solid foods in which light scattering is dominant.

  15. Influence of storage temperature and time on the physicochemical and bioactive properties of roselle-fruit juice blends in plastic bottle.

    PubMed

    Mgaya-Kilima, Beatrice; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Chove, Bernard Elias; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-03-01

    Roselle-fruit juice blends were made from roselle extract and mango, papaya, and guava juices at the ratio of 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80, % roselle: fruit juice, respectively. The blends were pasteurized at 82.5C for 20min and stored in 100mL plastic bottles at 28 and 4C for 6months. The effects of storage time and temperature on physicochemical and bioactive properties were evaluated. Total soluble solids, pH, and reducing sugars increased significantly (P<0.05) in some blends while titratable acidity decrease with increasing storage time. Vitamin C, total monomeric anthocyanins (TMA), total phenols (TPC), and antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, FRAP) in all roselle-fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased significantly (P<0.05) at 28 and 4C as storage progressed. Vitamin C in all roselle-fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased from 58-55% to 43-42% when stored at 28 and 4C, respectively. TMA losses were 86-65% at 28C and 75-53% at 4C while TPC losses were 66-58% at 28C and 51-22% at 4C. Loss of antioxidant capacity (FRAP) was 18-46% at 28C and 17-35% at 4C. A principal component analysis (PCA) differentiated roselle-juice fruit blends into two clusters with two principle components PC1 and PC2, which explained 97 and 3% (blends stored at ambient temperature) and 96 and 4% (blends stored at refrigerated temperature) of the variation, respectively. PC1 differentiated roselle-guava juice blends which were characterized by vitamin C, TPC, FRAP, and pH, while PC2 from another cluster of roselle-mango and roselle-papaya juice blends and was characterized by TSS, RS, and color parameters (L* a* b*). However, TMA was the main variable with the highest effect on all roselle-fruit juice blends regardless of the storage time and temperature. PMID:24804077

  16. Influence of storage temperature and time on the physicochemical and bioactive properties of roselle-fruit juice blends in plastic bottle

    PubMed Central

    Mgaya-Kilima, Beatrice; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Chove, Bernard Elias; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-01-01

    Roselle-fruit juice blends were made from roselle extract and mango, papaya, and guava juices at the ratio of 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80, % roselle: fruit juice, respectively. The blends were pasteurized at 82.5°C for 20 min and stored in 100 mL plastic bottles at 28 and 4°C for 6 months. The effects of storage time and temperature on physicochemical and bioactive properties were evaluated. Total soluble solids, pH, and reducing sugars increased significantly (P < 0.05) in some blends while titratable acidity decrease with increasing storage time. Vitamin C, total monomeric anthocyanins (TMA), total phenols (TPC), and antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, FRAP) in all roselle-fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased significantly (P < 0.05) at 28 and 4°C as storage progressed. Vitamin C in all roselle-fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased from 58–55% to 43–42% when stored at 28 and 4°C, respectively. TMA losses were 86–65% at 28°C and 75–53% at 4°C while TPC losses were 66–58% at 28°C and 51–22% at 4°C. Loss of antioxidant capacity (FRAP) was 18–46% at 28°C and 17–35% at 4°C. A principal component analysis (PCA) differentiated roselle-juice fruit blends into two clusters with two principle components PC1 and PC2, which explained 97 and 3% (blends stored at ambient temperature) and 96 and 4% (blends stored at refrigerated temperature) of the variation, respectively. PC1 differentiated roselle-guava juice blends which were characterized by vitamin C, TPC, FRAP, and pH, while PC2 from another cluster of roselle-mango and roselle-papaya juice blends and was characterized by TSS, RS, and color parameters (L* a* b*). However, TMA was the main variable with the highest effect on all roselle-fruit juice blends regardless of the storage time and temperature. PMID:24804077

  17. Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract in pork nuggets.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R; Jebin, N; Saha, R; Sarma, D K

    2016-01-01

    Pork nuggets with 'very good' acceptability was processed by incorporating kordoi (Averrhoa carambola) fruit juice and bamboo (Bambusa polymorpha) shoot extract, and their physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were evaluated during 35 days storage under refrigeration. Addition of kordoi fruit juice (4%) and bamboo shoot extract (6%) had a significant effect on the pH, moisture, protein, fat, fiber, instrumental color values and texture profiles of nuggets. Nuggets with juice and extract had significantly lower TBARS values towards the end of the storage period compared to the control. Microbial and sensory qualities of nuggets were significantly improved by the addition of juice and extract. Incorporation of juice and extract at 4% and 6% levels, respectively, increased the storage life of pork nuggets by at least two weeks, i.e. from 21 days to 35 days at 4 ± 1 °C compared to the control. PMID:26212939

  18. In vitro erosive capacity of some fruit juices and soft or low alcoholic strength beverages on human teeth.

    PubMed

    Lissera, R G; Luna Maldonado, E R; Battellino, L J

    1998-01-01

    The in vitro erosive capacity of different fruit juices and soft or low alcoholic strength beverages (n = 50) on human teeth was examined. The end-point was the amount of calcium and phosphate released into the medium following incubation with the test substance. Overall, the erosive capacity rose as the pH of the products fell. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the dissolving effect and pH or the modulating action in the presence of acids (r = -0.69282 and -0.63708 respectively; p = 0.0000). Conversely, there was no association between erosive capacity and concentrations of calcium, phosphate or fluoride. Considered overall, sport drinks exhibited the greatest demineralizing effect. Beer had the lowest dissolving action. Most of the drinks manufactured with grapefruit, lime or lemon/lime proved to be more erosive than those prepared with apple or peach. Susceptibility to erosion was virtually the same for all types of teeth and dental surfaces. The cervical portion which harbours the anatomical neck underwent dissolution more readily than the coronary portion (p < 0.001). The erosive capacity of the fruit juices and beverages tested is related to their pH. However, a strict relation between free H+ and demineralizing action was not found, probably due to the influence of other factors not considered in the present study. PMID:11885455

  19. Design, development and evaluation of an automatic fruit-juice pasteurization system using microwave - ultrasonic waves.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh Samani, Bahram; Khoshtaghaza, Mohammad Hadi; Minaei, Saeid; Zareifourosh, Hemad; Eshtiaghi, Mohammad Naghi; Rostami, Sajad

    2016-01-01

    Conventional pasteurization treatments often lead to substantial decrease in fruits juice quality. Due to these issues, the objective of this research was to compare the combined effect of a novel thermal (microwave) and non-thermal (ultrasonic) treatments with conventional thermal pasteurization on some qualitative characteristics of sour cherry juice (vitamins, phenolics, anthocyanins, etc.). For this purpose, an automatic control system comprising of ultrasonic generator, ultrasonic transducer, horn, pump, circulator, microwave oven, container, pipe interface, temperature sensor, float, data acquisition card, microwave power control circuit, and reactor was designed and developed. Moreover, in order to optimize the effect of ultrasonic waves on the existing micro-organisms in the sour cherry juice, some preliminary experiments were carried out to optimize the ultrasonic probe and reactor design. The results of evaluations showed that using the combined automatic system, the qualitative properties of sour cherry (vitamin C content 14 %, total phenolics content 1 %, total anthocyanins content 6 %) can be better maintained compared with the conventional thermal method. Based on the results obtained in this study, the following processing conditions: microwave power of 541.7 W, temperature of 41 °C, ultrasonic power of 799.57 W and ultrasonic exposure time of 6 min were recommended for optimum processing of sour cherry juice. PMID:26787934

  20. Sample preparation bias in carbon stable isotope ratio analysis of fruit juices and sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Krueger, D A

    1993-01-01

    Two sample preparation methods are commonly used for carbon stable isotope ratio analysis (SIRA). One involves combustion of the sample with oxygen at 850 degrees C; the other involves combustion of the sample with CuO in an evacuated glass tube at 550 degrees C. I observed in our laboratory that these 2 methods yield different results for sugar-based products such as fruit juices, sweeteners, and vanillin. The CuO method yields results approximately 1%. more positive than the oxygen combustion method. This bias is also observed in other laboratories, as shown in an analysis of the results of the AOAC collaborative studies of carbon SIRA of maple syrup, orange juice, honey, and honey protein. The oxygen combustion method is the AOAC method for honey, apple juice, and orange juice; both methods are incorporated into the AOAC method for maple syrup. I recommend that data generated by the CuO combustion method be appropriately corrected to yield results concordant with the official oxygen combustion method. PMID:8471867

  1. 21 CFR 101.30 - Percentage juice declaration for foods purporting to be beverages that contain fruit or vegetable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) In easily legible boldface print or type in distinct contrast to other printed or graphic matter, in... physical characteristics, name, labeling, ingredient statement, or advertising that it contains fruit or... exuding from a fruit or vegetable; or (3) Specific physical resemblance to a juice or distinctive...

  2. 21 CFR 101.30 - Percentage juice declaration for foods purporting to be beverages that contain fruit or vegetable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) In easily legible boldface print or type in distinct contrast to other printed or graphic matter, in... physical characteristics, name, labeling, ingredient statement, or advertising that it contains fruit or... exuding from a fruit or vegetable; or (3) Specific physical resemblance to a juice or distinctive...

  3. 21 CFR 101.30 - Percentage juice declaration for foods purporting to be beverages that contain fruit or vegetable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) In easily legible boldface print or type in distinct contrast to other printed or graphic matter, in... physical characteristics, name, labeling, ingredient statement, or advertising that it contains fruit or... exuding from a fruit or vegetable; or (3) Specific physical resemblance to a juice or distinctive...

  4. 21 CFR 101.30 - Percentage juice declaration for foods purporting to be beverages that contain fruit or vegetable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) In easily legible boldface print or type in distinct contrast to other printed or graphic matter, in... physical characteristics, name, labeling, ingredient statement, or advertising that it contains fruit or... exuding from a fruit or vegetable; or (3) Specific physical resemblance to a juice or distinctive...

  5. 21 CFR 101.30 - Percentage juice declaration for foods purporting to be beverages that contain fruit or vegetable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) In easily legible boldface print or type in distinct contrast to other printed or graphic matter, in... physical characteristics, name, labeling, ingredient statement, or advertising that it contains fruit or... exuding from a fruit or vegetable; or (3) Specific physical resemblance to a juice or distinctive...

  6. Effect of oscillatory high hydrostatic pressure treatments on Byssochlamys nivea ascospores suspended in fruit juice concentrates.

    PubMed

    Palou, E; López-Malo, A; Barbosa-Cánovas, G V; Welti-Chanes, J; Davidson, P M; Swanson, B G

    1998-12-01

    The effect of continuous (689 MPa with holding times of 5, 15 or 25 min) and oscillatory (one, three or five cycles at 689 MPa with holding times of 1 s) high hydrostatic pressure treatments on the viability of Byssochlamys nivea ascospores suspended in apple and cranberry juice concentrates adjusted by dilution to water activities (aw) of 0.98 and 0.94 was evaluated at 21 and 60 degrees C. Inactivation of the initial spore inocula was achieved after three or five cycles of oscillatory pressurization at 60 degrees C when the aw was 0.98 in both fruit juices. With aw 0.94, the initial inocula were reduced by less than 1 log-cycle after five pressure cycles. Inactivation was not observed within 25 min with continuous pressurization at 60 degrees C. In treatments at 21 degrees C, no effect on spore viability was observed with continuous or oscillatory treatments. PMID:9871357

  7. Assessment of fruit juice authenticity using UPLC-QToF MS: a metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    Jandri?, Z; Roberts, D; Rathor, M N; Abrahim, A; Islam, M; Cannavan, A

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, with the growing complexity of global food supply chains and trade, food fraud, including adulteration of high value foods with cheaper substitutes, has become an increasingly important issue. A metabolomics approach can be applied to discover biomarkers that can be used to trace food adulteration. A study was undertaken to discover novel, potential biomarkers for the rapid detection of the adulteration of fruit juices with cheaper alternatives. Pineapple, orange, grapefruit, apple, clementine, and pomelo were investigated. Untargeted metabolite fingerprinting was performed by UPLC-QToF MS with multivariate data analysis. Twenty-one differential metabolites were selected, contributing to the separation between pineapple, orange and grapefruit juices, and their admixtures down to 1% adulteration level. A targeted metabolomics method was then optimised and adulteration could be detected at 1%. The results demonstrate that metabolomics has potential as a screening tool for the rapid detection of food adulteration. PMID:24262519

  8. Assessment of fruit juice authenticity using UPLC-QToF MS: a metabolomics approach.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Jandrić Z; Roberts D; Rathor MN; Abrahim A; Islam M; Cannavan A

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, with the growing complexity of global food supply chains and trade, food fraud, including adulteration of high value foods with cheaper substitutes, has become an increasingly important issue. A metabolomics approach can be applied to discover biomarkers that can be used to trace food adulteration. A study was undertaken to discover novel, potential biomarkers for the rapid detection of the adulteration of fruit juices with cheaper alternatives. Pineapple, orange, grapefruit, apple, clementine, and pomelo were investigated. Untargeted metabolite fingerprinting was performed by UPLC-QToF MS with multivariate data analysis. Twenty-one differential metabolites were selected, contributing to the separation between pineapple, orange and grapefruit juices, and their admixtures down to 1% adulteration level. A targeted metabolomics method was then optimised and adulteration could be detected at 1%. The results demonstrate that metabolomics has potential as a screening tool for the rapid detection of food adulteration.

  9. Ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus westerdijkiae in orange fruit and juice.

    PubMed

    Marino, Andreana; Nostro, Antonia; Fiorentino, Caterina

    2009-06-30

    To evaluate the incidence of fungi producing ochratoxin A in orange fruit and juice a survey was carried out by challenge test with ochratoxin A producing strains of Aspergillus westerdijkiae used as the model system. A. westerdijkiae grew into experimental lesions caused on orange surfaces, in orange natural medium and in orange juice and produced OTA in all environments. The higher temperature of 26 degrees C had a greater influence than temperatures of 20 degrees C and 4 degrees C on the growth of the mould, and OTA production. The environmental temperature of 20 degrees C, slows down but does not prevent toxin production. At the lowest temperature of 4 degrees C no growth was observed. PMID:19447511

  10. Assessment of Microbial Load of Un-pasteurized Fruit Juices and in vitro Antibacterial Potential of Honey Against Bacterial Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Muhammad Naeem; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Ali, Muhammad Asad; Hussain, Firasat; Ali, Shahzad; Muhammad, Ali; Irfan, Muhammad; Ahmad, Aftab; Irfan, Muhammad; Shabbir, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    The development of resistance in bacteria against commonly used antibiotics/drugs is of considerable medical significance. Aim of this study was to determine the microbial load of un-pasteurized packed fruit juices sold in Lahore city and to determine antibacterial activity of five different honey samples against isolated bacteria. Unpasteurized fruit juice samples (n=60) were collected from street vendors. All the samples were subjected to Total viable count (TVC), Staphylococcal count (SC) and Coliform count (CC). One hundred and ten strains of bacteria were isolated from various fruit juices and identified on the basis of cultural characters, morphology and biochemical characters. Mean TVCs, SCs and CCs of juices (6.80±1.91, 5.45±1.06 and 3.25±1.25 log10 CFU/ml respectively) were non-significant with standard permissible limits (p<0.05). Among all the fruit juices, 66.66% of samples had TVC more than 4 log10 CFU/ml, 51.66% of samples had SC more than 3 log10 CFU/ml and 46.66% of samples had CC more than 2 log10 CFU/ml. Among the bacillus isolates purified, were Bacillus alvei, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus polymyxa, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli and Enterobecter. All five different types of honey samples used in this study showed antibacterial activity against B. alvei, B. polymyxa, B. subtilis and S. aureus and no activity against P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, Enterobecter and E. coli. It is concluded that microbial load in unpasteurized fruit juices is significantly higher than standard permissible limits which insinuates its possible role in spoilage and food borne illnesses. Periodic monitoring of packed fruit juices should be carried out to make them safe for consumption. Honey can be used as an alternative for treatment of various infections, especially those caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria. PMID:26668658

  11. Assessment of Microbial Load of Un-pasteurized Fruit Juices and in vitro Antibacterial Potential of Honey Against Bacterial Isolates.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad Naeem; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Ali, Muhammad Asad; Hussain, Firasat; Ali, Shahzad; Muhammad, Ali; Irfan, Muhammad; Ahmad, Aftab; Irfan, Muhammad; Shabbir, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    The development of resistance in bacteria against commonly used antibiotics/drugs is of considerable medical significance. Aim of this study was to determine the microbial load of un-pasteurized packed fruit juices sold in Lahore city and to determine antibacterial activity of five different honey samples against isolated bacteria. Unpasteurized fruit juice samples (n=60) were collected from street vendors. All the samples were subjected to Total viable count (TVC), Staphylococcal count (SC) and Coliform count (CC). One hundred and ten strains of bacteria were isolated from various fruit juices and identified on the basis of cultural characters, morphology and biochemical characters. Mean TVCs, SCs and CCs of juices (6.801.91, 5.451.06 and 3.251.25 log10 CFU/ml respectively) were non-significant with standard permissible limits (p<0.05). Among all the fruit juices, 66.66% of samples had TVC more than 4 log10 CFU/ml, 51.66% of samples had SC more than 3 log10 CFU/ml and 46.66% of samples had CC more than 2 log10 CFU/ml. Among the bacillus isolates purified, were Bacillus alvei, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus polymyxa, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli and Enterobecter. All five different types of honey samples used in this study showed antibacterial activity against B. alvei, B. polymyxa, B. subtilis and S. aureus and no activity against P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, Enterobecter and E. coli. It is concluded that microbial load in unpasteurized fruit juices is significantly higher than standard permissible limits which insinuates its possible role in spoilage and food borne illnesses. Periodic monitoring of packed fruit juices should be carried out to make them safe for consumption. Honey can be used as an alternative for treatment of various infections, especially those caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria. PMID:26668658

  12. Determination of isopropyl thioxanthone (ITX) in fruit juices by pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sagratini, Gianni; Maes, Jordi; Giardina, Dario; Pic, Yolanda

    2006-10-01

    A rapid LC-MS method, which compares different mass analyzers-single quadrupole, ion trap, and triple quadrupole-was developed for the quantitative determination of isopropyl thioxanthone (ITX) in fruit juices. ITX, a photoinitiator in UV-cured inks that can reach foods from the cartons for beverages in which they are used, was extracted from fruit juice samples with acetone/hexane (50:50) using pressurized liquid extraction. This method gave detection limits of 3, 3, and 0.01 microg/L and quantification limits of 10, 10, and 0.05 microg/L using single quadrupole, ion trap, and triple quadrupole, respectively. Five replicate fortifications of different fruit juices at the quantification limit gave recoveries oscillating between 68 and 72% with CV varying between 14 and 18%. This is the first report of a positive mass spectrometric identification and quantification of ITX in fruit juice samples packed in TetraPack. The sensitivity and specificity of the LC-MS/MS analysis using the triple quadrupole enables it to be the method of choice for risk assessment and monitoring. The method was applied to apricot, orange, peach, apple, grape and pineapple, and cherry and strawberry juices and to fruit nectars from Spain and Italy, and the ITX was detected in the range of 0.05-0.78 microg/L. PMID:17002475

  13. Determination of mycotoxins in pomegranate fruits and juices using a QuEChERS-based method.

    PubMed

    Myresiotis, Charalampos K; Testempasis, Stefanos; Vryzas, Zisis; Karaoglanidis, George S; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2015-09-01

    A rapid and accurate analytical method for the determination of three Alternaria mycotoxins (alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and tentoxin) in pomegranate samples (fruits and juices) was developed and validated. The overall average recoveries ranged for 82.0-109.4% and the relative standard deviations were from 1.2% to 10.9%. The optimized and validated method was applied to detect the presence of the target mycotoxins in real samples (fruits and juices) purchased from Greek markets. Mycotoxins were not found in any of the analyzed samples. Also, artificially inoculated pomegranate fruits with six different Alternaria alternata species complex isolates, known to produce the target mycotoxins on pure cultures, were analyzed and alternariol concentrations found ranged from 0.3 to 50.5 ?g/g, alternariol monomethyl ether from 0.5 to 32.3 ?g/g, while tentoxin was not detected. The developed analytical method can be used for the routine monitoring of the major Alternaria mycotoxins in pomegranates. PMID:25842312

  14. Changes in vitamin C, phenolic, and carotenoid profiles throughout in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of a blended fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez-Roque, Mara Janeth; Rojas-Gra, Mara Alejandra; Elez-Martnez, Pedro; Martn-Belloso, Olga

    2013-02-27

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the stability and bioaccessibility of vitamin C, phenolic compounds, and carotenoids, as well as the antioxidant activity in a blended fruit juice (BFJ) containing orange, pineapple, and kiwi. Vitamin C and most of the analyzed phenolic compounds were quite stable under gastric conditions (recovery > 75%), whereas carotenoids diminished significantly (to 64%). The concentration of all the evaluated compounds decreased during small intestinal digestion. The bioaccessibility of hydrophilic constituents was higher than that of lipophilic constituents. Flavonoids, vitamin C, and phenolic acids showed bioaccessibilities of 20.1, 15.0, and 12.7%, respectively. However, carotenes and xanthophylls were around 7.6 and 17.4% available for absorption. Despite the decrease in the concentration of these bioactive compounds after being subjected to an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, results suggest that BFJ is an important source of bioaccessible constituents. PMID:23374081

  15. Antioxidant and ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of 40 tropical juices from Malaysia and identification of phenolics from the bioactive fruit juices of Barringtonia racemosa and Phyllanthus acidus.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Ooi, Kheng Leong

    2014-10-01

    The present study compared pH, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of 40 fresh juices. The juice of Baccaurea polyneura showed the highest yield (74.17 1.44%) and total soluble solids (32.83 0.27 Brix). The highest and lowest pH values were respectively measured from the juices of Dimocarpus longan (6.87 0.01) and Averrhoa bilimbi (1.67 0.67). The juice of Psidium guajava gave the highest total phenolic (857.24 12.65 ?g GAE/g sample) and vitamin C contents (590.31 7.44 ?g AAE/g sample). The juice of Phyllanthus acidus with moderate contents of total phenolics and vitamin C was found to exhibit the greatest scavenging (613.71 2.59 ?g VCEAC/g sample), reducing (2784.89 3.93 ?g TEAC/g sample), and ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities (95.37 0.15%). The juice of Barringtonia racemosa was ranked second in the activities and total phenolic content. Gallic and ellagic acids, which were quantified as the major phenolics of the respective juices, are suggested to be the main contributors to the antioxidant activities. The ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the juices could be derived from myricetin and quercetin (that were previously reported as potent ?-glucosidase inhibitors) in the hydrolyzed juice extracts. The juice of Syzygium samarangense, which was found to be highest in metal chelating activity (82.28 0.10%), also was found to have these phenolics. PMID:25198055

  16. Can pure fruit and vegetable juices protect against cancer and cardiovascular disease too? A review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Ruxton, Carrie H S; Gardner, Elaine J; Walker, Drew

    2006-01-01

    While it is widely accepted that fruit and vegetables (F&V) lower the risk of cancer, and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the role of pure fruit and vegetable (PFV) juices is often downplayed. This review poses two questions: Are the protective benefits of F&V dependent upon constituents lacking in PFV juices (e.g. fibre)? Do PFV juices impact on disease risk when considered separately from F&V? Studies comparing the effects of fibre and antioxidants were reviewed, yielding the finding that the impact of F&V may relate more strongly to antioxidants, than to fibre. For the second question, high-quality published studies that considered PFV juices were reviewed. The impact of PFV juices on cancer risk was weakly positive, although a lack of human data and contradictory findings hampered conclusions. For CVD, there was convincing evidence from epidemiological and clinical studies that PFV juices reduced risk via a number of probable mechanisms. It was concluded that the view that PFV juices are nutritionally inferior to F&V, in relation to chronic disease risk reduction, is unjustified. PMID:17127476

  17. Cardioprotective Effects of Lagenaria siceraria Fruit Juice on Isoproterenol-induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats: A Biochemical and Histoarchitecture Study.

    PubMed

    Upaganlawar, A; Balaraman, R

    2011-10-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of Lagenaria siceraria fruit juice in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. Rats injected with isoproterenol (200 mg/kg, s.c.) showed a significant increase in the levels of serum uric acid, tissue Na(++) and Ca(++) ions and membrane-bound Ca(+2)-ATPase activity. A significant decrease in the levels of serum protein, tissue K(+) ion, vitamin E level, and the activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and mg(+2)-ATPase was observed. Isoproterenol injected rats also showed a significant increase in the intensity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme and histopathologic alterations in the heart. Treatment with L. siceraria fruit juice (400 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 30 days and administration of isoproterenol on 29(th) and 30(th) days showed a protective effect on altered biochemical and histopathologic changes. These findings indicate the cardioprotective effect of L. siceraria fruit juice in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats. PMID:22224036

  18. Measurement of total bile acids in gastric juice.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, B J; Watt, P C; O'Reilly, T; McFarland, R J; Love, A H

    1984-01-01

    An established method for the assay of total bile acids was validated for use in fasting and post-prandial gastric juice samples. Fasting and post-prandial intragastric bile acid concentrations were measured in 29 healthy volunteers, 15 patients after vagotomy and gastrojejunostomy (V and GJ) and 15 patients after vagotomy and pyloroplasty (V and P). Healthy female volunteers had higher post-prandial bile acid concentrations than age matched healthy males (p less than 0.02). Patients with V and GJ had higher fasting and post-prandial bile acid concentrations than age and sex matched control subjects (p less than 0.01). Patients with V and P had higher bile acid concentrations than control subjects only in post-prandial samples (p less than 0.05). PMID:6699194

  19. Surfactant mediated extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidants from fruits juices.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shweta; Kori, Shivpoojan; Parmar, Ankush

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to enhance the extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidants from fruit juices by the application of surfactants formulations instead of conventional solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetone). A variety of fruit infusions: apple red delicious (apple (rd)) (Malus domestica), Mcintosh apple (apple (i)) (Malus pumila), sweet lemon (Citrus limetta) and mango (Magnifera indica) were studied. Effect of water, organic solvents and five different aqueous surfactant formulations viz. SDS, Brij-35, Brij-58, Triton X-100 and Span-40 were explored for the extraction of TPC and determining the antioxidant activity (AA). The TPC and AA (%) were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu (FCA) and DPPH assay, respectively. The effect of surfactant type, concentration and common organic solvents on the extraction of TPC and AA (%) was studied using UV-visible spectrophotometric technique. Among all the extracting systems employed, Brij-58 showed the highest extraction efficiency. PMID:25952870

  20. Alicyclobacillus dauci sp. nov., a slightly thermophilic, acidophilic bacterium isolated from a spoiled mixed vegetable and fruit juice product.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Chisa; Takahashi, Naoto; Tanaka, Naoto; Okada, Sanae

    2015-02-01

    A novel, moderately thermophilic, acidophilic, Gram-variable, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium was isolated from a spoiled mixed vegetable and fruit juice product that had the off-flavour of guaiacol. The bacterium, strain 4F(T), grew aerobically at 20-50 C (optimum 40 C) and pH 3.0-6.0 (optimum pH 4.0) and produced acid from glycerol, d-galactose and d-glucose. It contained menaquinone-7 (MK-7) as the major isoprenoid quinone and the DNA G+C content was 49.6 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids of strain 4F(T) were ?-alicyclic (?-cyclohexane fatty acids), which are characteristic of the genus Alicyclobacillus. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain belongs to the Alicyclobacillus cluster, and is related most closely to the type strains of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris (97.4 % similarity) and Alicyclobacillus fastidiosus (97.3 %). Strain 4F(T) produced guaiacol from vanillic acid. It can be distinguished from related species by its acid production type and guaiacol production. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness values, it can be concluded that the strain represents a novel species of the genus Alicyclobacillus, for which the name Alicyclobacillus dauci sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is 4F(T) (?= DSM 28700(T)?= NBRC 108949(T)?= NRIC 0938(T)). PMID:25505343

  1. Direct surface plasmon resonance immunosensing of pyraclostrobin residues in untreated fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Mauriz, E; Garca-Fernndez, C; Mercader, J V; Abad-Fuentes, A; Escuela, A M; Lechuga, L M

    2012-12-01

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunoassay for on-line detection of the strobilurin fungicide pyraclostrobin in untreated fruit juices is presented. The analysis of pyraclostrobin residues is accomplished in apple, grape, and cranberry samples by monitoring the recognition events occurring separately in a two-channel home-made SPR biosensor. Covalent coupling of the analyte derivative results in a reversible method, enabling more than 80 measurements on the same sensor surface. Optimization of the immunoassay conditions provides limits of detection as low as 0.16 ?g L(-1). The selectivity and reproducibility of the analysis is ensured by studying both non-specific interactions with unrelated compounds and inter-assay coefficients of variation. Excellent recovery ranging from 98 to 103% was achieved by a simple 1:5 dilution of fruit juice with assay buffer before the analysis. The lack of previous cleaning and homogenization procedures reduces the analysis time of a single food sample to only 25 min, including the regeneration cycle. PMID:22918534

  2. Effect of Helicobacter pylori and its eradication on gastric juice ascorbic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, S; Hawksby, C; Miller, S; Dahill, S; Beattie, A D; McColl, K E

    1994-01-01

    The presence of ascorbic acid in gastric juice may protect against gastric carcinoma and peptic ulceration. This study examined the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) on the secretion of ascorbic acid into gastric juice by measuring fasting plasma and gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations in patients with and without the infection and also before and after its eradication. Gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations in 19 H pylori positive patients were significantly lower (median 2.8, range 0-28.8 micrograms/ml) than those in 10 H pylori negative controls (median 17.8, range 5.6-155.4 micrograms/ml) (p < 0.0005) despite similar plasma ascorbic acid concentrations in both groups. The median gastric juice:plasma ascorbic acid ratio in the H pylori positive patients was only 1.16 (range 0.02-6.67), compared with a median ratio of 4.87 (range 0.76-21.33) in H pylori negative controls (p < 0.01). In the patients with H pylori infection there was a significant negative correlation between the severity of the antral polymorphonuclear infiltrate and gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations (correlation coefficient -0.52, p = 0.02). After eradication of H pylori in 11 patients, gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations rose from 2.4 (0-12.8 micrograms/ml) to 11.2 (0-50 micrograms/ml) (p = 0.01). The median gastric juice: plasma ascorbic acid ratio also increased from 1.33 (0.05-6.67) to 2.89 (0.01-166) (p = 0.01). In conclusion, the high gastric juice:plasma ascorbic acid ratio in H pylori negative subjects shows active secretion of ascorbic acid into gastric juice. Secondly, H pylori infection causes a reversible lowering of gastric juice ascorbic acid concentrations, which may predispose to gastric carcinoma and peptic ulceration. PMID:8150339

  3. Consumption Patterns of Fruit and Vegetable Juices and Dietary Nutrient Density among French Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Francou, Aurée; Hebel, Pascale; Braesco, Véronique; Drewnowski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fruit and vegetable consumption is a marker of higher-quality diets; less is known about the contribution of 100% fruit and vegetable juices (FVJ) to diet quality. Objective: To explore FVJ consumption patterns in relation to dietary nutrient density among French children (aged 3–14 years old) and adults (≥21 years old). Methods: Analyses were based on the nationally representative 2013 CCAF (Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France) survey of 1930 respondents, stratified by age group, FVJ consumption, and socioeconomic status (SES). Dietary nutrient density was based on the Nutrient Rich Food (NRF9.3) index, adjusted for gender and age. Results: Mean total consumption of fruits and vegetables was 2.6 servings/day for children and 3.8 servings/day for adults. Mean population consumption of FVJ was 83 mL/day for children and 54.6 mL/day for adults, equivalent to 0.4 servings/day and 0.3 servings/day respectively. FVJ consumers had higher quality diets than did non-consumers, after adjusting for covariates. The respective NRF9.3 values were 486.4 ± 4.3 vs. 428.7 ± 7.5 for children and 460.7 ± 4.4 vs. 435.4 ± 4.4 for adults. FVJ consumers had similar or higher intakes of fruits and vegetables than did non-consumers. The socioeconomic gradient for FVJ consumption was much weaker (p < 0.046) than for whole fruit (p < 0.01). Conclusions: In a nationally representative sample of French children and adults, fruit and vegetable consumption fell short of recommended values. Higher FVJ consumption was associated with higher-quality diets and better compliance with the French National Plan for Nutrition and Health (PNNS). PMID:26213964

  4. Effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on consumer acceptance of fruit juices with different concentrations of aa (Euterpe oleracea Mart.).

    PubMed

    Sabbe, Sara; Verbeke, Wim; Deliza, Rosires; Matta, Virginia; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-08-01

    This study evaluates the effect of a health claim and personal characteristics on the acceptance of two unfamiliar aa fruit juices that have a low (40% aa) versus a high (4% aa) a priori overall liking. Hedonic and sensory measures as well as health- and nutrition-related attribute perceptions and purchase intention were rated before and after health information was presented. Differences in information effects due to interactions with juice type, consumer background attitudes and socio-demographics were investigated. Providing health information yielded a positive, though rather small increase, in overall liking, perceived healthiness and perceived nutritional value of both juices, as well as in their purchase intention. Sensory experiences remained predominant in the acceptance of the fruit juices, although the health claim had a stronger effect on the perceived healthiness and nutritional value of the least-liked juice. Background attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics influenced consumers' acceptance of both unfamiliar fruit juices. Health-oriented consumers were more likely to compromise on taste for an eventual health benefit, though they still preferred the best tasting juice. Consumers with a high food neophobia reported a lower liking for both unfamiliar fruit juices. Older respondents and women were more likely to accept fruit juices that claim a particular health benefit. PMID:19467277

  5. Substituting homemade fruit juice for sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with lower odds of metabolic syndrome among Hispanic adults.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Josiemer; Malik, Vasanti; Hu, Frank B; Campos, Hannia

    2012-06-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, studies conducted on Hispanic adults are scarce. To determine the association between beverages consumed by Hispanic adults and MetS and its components, data were analyzed in 1872 Costa Rican adults who served as controls of a population-based, case-control study of coronary heart disease. Multivariate-adjusted means were calculated for components of MetS by servings (never, ? 1/wk; 2-6/wk, ? 1/d) of 2 traditional fruit-based beverages ("fresco" and freshly-squeezed homemade fruit juice, separately) and 2 SSB (instant drinks and regular sodas, separately and combined). The prevalence ratio (PR) of MetS was calculated for each beverage and the OR was calculated by substituting one serving of homemade fruit juice or water for one of SSB. Significant positive trends were observed for increasing servings of instant drinks with plasma TG and waist circumference and for regular soda with waist circumference (all P-trend < 0.001). Increasing servings of homemade fruit juice were positively associated with HDL cholesterol (P-trend = 0.033). Consuming ?1 serving/d of instant drinks was associated with a higher PR of MetS [1.42 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.83)] compared with no consumption. Substituting one serving of homemade fruit juice for instant drink was associated with 29% (95% CI: 7, 47%) lower odds of MetS and for regular soda with 30% (95% CI: 1, 50%) lower odds. Substituting water for combined SSB was marginally significant (OR = 0.86 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.00). In conclusion, reducing the consumption of SSB and substituting them with homemade fruit juices in moderation may be a culturally appropriate approach to lower MetS among Hispanic adults. PMID:22551801

  6. Speciation of As(III) and As(V) in fruit juices by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lai, Guoxin; Chen, Guoying; Chen, Tuanwei

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive method was developed to speciate and quantify As(III) and As(V) in fruit juices. At pH 3.0, As(III) and ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) formed a complex, which was extracted into CCl4 by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and subsequently quantified by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS). After As(V) was reduced by thiosulphate at pH 1.7-1.8, total inorganic arsenic (iAs) was determined following the same protocol and As(V) was calculated from the difference. Interference from methylarsonic acid (MMA) was managed at <10% by controlling the pH of the reduction reaction. This procedure achieved 1.2 μg L(-1) limit of detection (3σ) and 92-102% recovery at 10 μg L(-1), and is applicable to most fruit juices except certain pear juice that may contain considerable MMA. PMID:26212955

  7. Fruit juice consumption decreases the proportion of children with inadequate intakes of key nutrients: NHANES 2003-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit juice (FJ) consumption has been under scrutiny despite its nutrient profile. NHANES (2003–2006) data were used to compare the proportion of children ages 2–18 years with intakes of selected vitamins/minerals below recommended levels among consumers (n = 3,976; 51% females) and non-consumers (n...

  8. Postharvest ripening of noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia) and the microbial and chemical properties of its fermented juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia) is a tropical plant used traditionally in Polynesia, Southeast Asia and other regions for medicinal purposes. Noni fruit and juice extracts are reportedly therapeutic for diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. Research was conducted to determine the phy...

  9. Food Insecurity is Related to Home Availability of Fruit, 100% Fruit Juice, and Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Household food security is defined as access to enough food at all times for active, healthy living. Low food security may influence consumption because those households may lack sufficient resources to purchase more healthful items like fruit and vegetables. Because home availability is related to ...

  10. Hypoglycemic and Hepatoprotective Activity of Fermented Fruit Juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, B. Shivananda; Marshall, Julien R.; Isitor, Godwin; Adogwa, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Morinda citrifolia is a medicinal plant used to treat diabetes and liver diseases. The fermented fruit juice of the M. Citrifolia (optical density?=?1.25) was used to study the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective properties in diabetes-induced rats. The rats were randomly distributed into 4 groups (control, diabetic experimental, diabetic standard, and diabetic untreated) of 6 each. Diabetes was induced by administering Streptozotocin (50?mg/kg body weight). Fasting blood glucose, body mass, liver tissue glycogen content, and the extent of liver degeneration were assessed. Diabetic experimental animals were treated with M. citrifolia juice (2?ml/kg, twice a day) and diabetic standard with reference hypoglycemic drug, glibenclamide orally for 20 days. Both the groups exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose level of 150?mg/dl 15.88 and 125?mg/dl 3.89, respectively, as compared to diabetic untreated with FBS?=?360.0?mg/dl 15.81, (P < .003). On 10th day of experiment, diabetic experimental animals exhibited a decrease in body mass (10.2?g, 5.11%) which increased significantly by the 20th day (6?g, 3.0%, P < .022). Histological study of liver tissue obtained from untreated diabetic animals revealed significant fatty degeneration as compared to other three groups. The data of this study proved the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective activity of M. citrifolia. PMID:20981320

  11. 21 CFR 102.33 - Beverages that contain fruit or vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the represented flavor is used as a flavor (e.g., raspberry-flavored apple and pear juice drink). In...; raspberry and cranberry flavored juice drink); or (2) Include the amount of the named juice, declared in a 5- percent range (e.g., Raspcranberry; raspberry and cranberry juice beverage, 10- to 15-percent...

  12. New technique for analysing conjugated bile acids in gastric juice.

    PubMed Central

    Gotley, D C; Morgan, A P; Cooper, M J

    1990-01-01

    A new technique of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for the analysis of conjugated bile acids in gastric juice. The assay is rapid, sensitive, and highly specific for bile acid conjugates over the range 30-10,000 mumol/l and is not affected by the presence of food. Ten patients with a variety of common upper gastrointestinal disorders underwent continuous gastric aspiration for 16 hours, including a fasting, post-prandial, and nocturnal period, and aliquots of aspirates were analysed every two hours by the HPLC technique for the six most prevalent bile acid conjugates present in human hepatic bile. Intragastric bile acid concentrations were lowest in the post-prandial period and highest in the early hours of the morning. Conjugated bile acid proportions, or profiles, varied considerably from patient to patient, but tended to remain uniform over time in individual patients. It is concluded that HPLC is superior to enzymatic techniques for the analysis of conjugated bile acids in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Images PMID:2262562

  13. Enzyme- and transporter-mediated beverage-drug interactions: An update on fruit juices and green tea.

    PubMed

    An, Guohua; Mukker, Jatinder Kaur; Derendorf, Hartmut; Frye, Reginald F

    2015-12-01

    Beverage-drug interactions have remained an active area of research and have been the subject of extensive investigations in the past 2 decades. The known mechanisms of clinically relevant beverage-drug interactions include modulation of the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP). For CYP3A-mediated beverage-drug interaction, the in vivo CYP3A inhibitory effect is limited to grapefruit juice (GFJ), which increases the bioavailability of several orally administered drugs that undergo extensive first-pass metabolism via enteric CYP3A. In contrast, clinically significant OATP-mediated beverage-drug interactions have been observed with not only GFJ but also orange juice, apple juice, and, most recently, green tea. Fruit juices and green tea are all a mixture of a large number of constituents. The investigation of specific constituent(s) responsible for the enzyme and/or transporter inhibition remains an active area of research, and many new findings have been obtained on this subject in the past several years. This review highlights the multiple mechanisms through which beverages can alter drug disposition and provides an update on the new findings of beverage-drug interactions, with a focus on fruit juices and green tea. PMID:26095990

  14. A comparison of antioxidative capacities of fruit juices, drinks and nectars, as determined by EPR and UV-vis spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Bartoszek, Mariola; Polak, Justyna

    2016-01-15

    The differences in the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) values at the same incubation time obtained by two different techniques: electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, which use the same antioxidant-free radical reaction mechanism, were determined for fruit juices, nectars and drinks. For this study, the stable free radical 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH()) was used. The antioxidant capacity was presented in Trolox Equivalents, e.g., ?M trolox per 100ml of sample. All of the studied fruit juices, drinks and nectars showed antioxidative properties. Dependencies between TEAC values and the percent fruit content and sample color were observed for the studied beverages. It was found that EPR spectroscopy is the more adequate method for determining TEAC values for these kinds of samples. PMID:26433341

  15. A comparison of antioxidative capacities of fruit juices, drinks and nectars, as determined by EPR and UV-vis spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoszek, Mariola; Polak, Justyna

    2016-01-01

    The differences in the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) values at the same incubation time obtained by two different techniques: electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, which use the same antioxidant-free radical reaction mechanism, were determined for fruit juices, nectars and drinks. For this study, the stable free radical 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) was used. The antioxidant capacity was presented in Trolox Equivalents, e.g., ?M trolox per 100 ml of sample. All of the studied fruit juices, drinks and nectars showed antioxidative properties. Dependencies between TEAC values and the percent fruit content and sample color were observed for the studied beverages. It was found that EPR spectroscopy is the more adequate method for determining TEAC values for these kinds of samples.

  16. Microbiological quality of fresh-squeezed orange juice and efficacy of fruit surface decontamination methods in microbiological quality.

    PubMed

    Bagci, Ufuk; Temiz, Ayhan

    2011-08-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the microbiological quality of fresh-squeezed orange juice and to reduce the microbial population by using various chemical and physical fruit surface decontamination methods. In the first step of the study, polyethylene-bottled fresh-squeezed orange juice samples purchased in Ankara, Turkey, were examined. The average aerobic plate count (APC) and coliform count (CC) varied within the ranges of 3 to 5 log CFU/ml and 1 to 4 log MPN/ml, respectively. Ten of 60 samples contained various levels of Escherichia coli, while Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 were not detected in any of the samples. Comparing the efficacy of various fruit surface decontamination methods on microbial population of oranges, the best results were obtained following two applications of submersion in boiling water and 5% H(2)O(2) solution for both the uninoculated and inoculated samples. Orange juice samples obtained from surface-inoculated and decontaminated oranges were also examined. We showed that about 17.4% of the E. coli population was transferred to orange juice after extraction, indicating the separation of microbial contaminants from fruit peel during extraction. Finally, the levels of microbial contamination occurred throughout the extraction process on the inner surfaces of a commercial juice extractor at one of the sale points investigated. Significant (P < 0.05) increases in the APC and CC were determined in surface samples of the extractor after the extraction. Surface decontamination and extraction are critical steps in fresh juice production for preventing microbial contamination. Immersion in boiling water for 0.5 min, without using any chemicals, can be offered as an effective method to reduce microbial population on orange surfaces. PMID:21819649

  17. Multiresidue method for fast determination of pesticides in fruit juices by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Romero-Gonzlez, R; Garrido Frenich, A; Martnez Vidal, J L

    2008-06-30

    A new analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 90 pesticides in fruit juices by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated. Extraction was performed with acetonitrile, applying QuEChERS methodology, and the extracts were analyzed without any further clean-up step, providing better results than solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure. Before chromatographic step, extracts were diluted with water (1:1) in order to obtain good peak shapes. Several chromatographic conditions were evaluated in order to achieve a fast separation in Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mode, obtaining a run time of only 11 min. Matrix effect was studied for different types of fruit juices (peach, orange, pineapple, apple and multifruit), indicating that multifruit juice can be selected as representative matrix for routine analysis of these food commodities. Pesticides were quantified using matrix-matched calibration with recoveries between 70.4 and 108.5% and relative standard deviation lower than 20%. Limits of quantification were lower than 5 microg L(-1) in all the cases. The developed procedure was applied to commercial fruit juices, detecting carbendazim, cyprodinil and thiabendazol in a few samples. PMID:18585265

  18. Microdiffusion-based UV-LED spectrometric setup for determining low levels of ethanol in fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Gros, Nataša

    2011-12-15

    A novel setup is described in which we combined the separation of a volatile substance from a sample with a complex matrix on the basis of a microdiffusion process with a kinetic on-line spectrometric monitoring of the reaction in the receptive medium at 365 nm. The fruit juice was selected as a model for testing the performance of the setup in real-life applications. The ethanol content in fruit juice can be considered as an indicator of the fruit-juice quality and should not exceed the regulatory limiting values. After optimising the microdiffusion process, blackcurrant, orange and two varieties of apple juice were analysed. The sample analysis lasted 15 min at 35°C. The ethanol concentrations were found to be between 0.9 and 4.0 mmol/L, and were comparable to the results obtained using the SIST:ISO 2448:1998 standard method, which is time consuming, labour intensive and requires high sample volumes. The setup can easily be adapted for determining other volatile substances in low concentrations in complicated samples of different types by introducing different chemistry and replacing the light source if the light of a different wavelength is required. The measuring characteristics of the setup were critically assessed, the main sources of uncertainty recognised and the possibilities for further improvements of the setup and the procedure considered. PMID:22099665

  19. Antimicrobial efficacy of UV radiation on Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EDL 933) in fruit juices of different absorptivities.

    PubMed

    Oteiza, Juan M; Peltzer, Mercedes; Gannuzzi, Leda; Zaritzky, Noemi

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of UV light for inactivating E. coli (ATCC 25922) and E. coli O157:H7 (EDL 933) was examined in fruit juices (orange, apple, and multifruit) with different absorptivities under several operating conditions (liquid film thickness and agitation rate). The juices were inoculated with two bacterial concentrations (10(5) and 10(7) CFU/ml) and were treated using a UV desinfection unit at 254 nm; UV doses ranged from 0 to 6 J/cm2. The effect of the culture medium, tryptone soy agar (TSA) and sorbitol MacConkey agar (SMAC), on the recovery of E. coli strains exposed to UV radiation was also analyzed. The most suitable culture medium for recovery of E. coli strains in juices exposed to UV radiation was TSA. Values of D (radiation dose [joules per square centimeter] necessary to decrease the microbial population by 90%) obtained in all juices assessed were higher in TSA than in SMAC. In the juices analyzed, stirring of the medium exposed to UV radiation and reducing liquid film thickness (to 0.7 mm) produced the highest bactericidal effect. A linear relationship was found between the D-values obtained and the absorptivity coefficients for all the juices. The higher the absorbance of the medium, the greater the values of D required to inactivate E. coli strains by UV radiation. An equation was developed to describe the relationship of the fraction of energy absorbed by the system (absorbed energy factor [AEF]), the thickness of the film exposed to UV radiation, and the absorptivity coefficient of the juices. A linear relationship was found between D and AEF in the different juices tested. PMID:15690803

  20. Glutathione and cinnamic acid: natural dietary components used in preventing the process of browning by inhibition of Polyphenol Oxidase in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Gacche, R N; Warangkar, S C; Ghole, V S

    2004-04-01

    Consumer demands for 'freshness' in processed foods has been given increasing attention by food processing industries by searching for minimally processed products. Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO) mediated browning is a major cause of undesirable flavors and nutritional losses in fruit juices. Here the anti-browning efficiency of glutathione (GSH, reduced form) and cinnamic acid (CA) in apple juice is evaluated. It was observed that the rate of the browning reaction could be efficiently delayed using GSH and CA, which act as inhibitors of PPO. Kinetic studies confirm that GSH and CA are non-competitive and competitive inhibitors of PPO respectively. PMID:15449733

  1. Uptake and bioavailability of anthocyanins and phenolic acids from grape/blueberry juice and smoothie in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Sabine; Rudloff, Silvia; Asseburg, Heike; Borsch, Christian; Fröhling, Bettina; Unger, Franziska; Dold, Sebastian; Spengler, Bernhard; Römpp, Andreas; Kunz, Clemens

    2015-04-14

    The goal of eating five servings of fruits and vegetables a day has not yet been achieved. The intake of polyphenols such as anthocyanins (ACN) could be improved by consuming smoothies and juices that are increasingly popular, especially in children; however, bioavailability data concerning food matrix effects are scarce. Thus, we conducted a randomised, cross-over, bioavailability study (n 10) to determine the bioavailability of ACN and their metabolites from an ACN-rich grape/blueberry juice (841 mg ACN/litre) and smoothie (983 mg ACN/litre) in vivo, and the uptake of a corresponding grape/blueberry extract in vitro. After the intake of beverage (0·33 litres), plasma and fractionated urine samples were collected and analysed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to MS. The most abundant ACN found in plasma and urine were malvidin and peonidin as native ACN and as glucuronidated metabolites as well as 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHB); minor ACN (delphinidin, cyanidin and petunidin) were only detected as native glycosides. Plasma pharmacokinetics and recoveries of urinary metabolites of ACN were not different for juice or smoothie intake; however, the phenolic acid 3,4-DHB was significantly better bioavailable from juice in comparison to smoothie. In vitro data with absorptive intestinal cells indicated that despite their weak chemical stability, ACN and 3,4-DHB could be detected at the basal side in their native forms. Whether smoothies as well as juices should be recommended to increase the intake of potentially health-promoting ACN and other polyphenols requires the consideration of other ingredients such as their relatively high sugar content. PMID:25778541

  2. A Review and Critical Analysis of the Scientific Literature Related to 100% Fruit Juice and Human Health12

    PubMed Central

    Hyson, Dianne A

    2015-01-01

    The association between the consumption of pure (100%) fruit juice (PFJ) and human health is uncertain. The current review summarizes data published between 1995 and 2012 related to PFJ with a focus on juices that are widely available and studied in forms representing native juice without supplemental nutrients or enhanced phytochemical content. The effects of apple, cranberry, grape, grapefruit, orange, and pomegranate PFJ intake on outcomes linked to cancer, cardiovascular disease, cognition, hypertension, inflammation, oxidation, platelet function, urinary tract infection, and vascular reactivity are reviewed. Implications for bodyweight regulation are also addressed. The collective data are provocative although challenges and unanswered questions remain. There are many plausible mechanisms by which PFJ might be protective, and investigation of its effects on human health and disease prevention must remain an active area of research. PMID:25593142

  3. Ultra performance liquid chromatography analysis to study the changes in the carotenoid profile of commercial monovarietal fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Delpino-Rius, Antoni; Eras, Jordi; Marsol-Vall, Alexis; Vilar, Francisca; Balcells, Merc; Canela-Garayoa, Ramon

    2014-02-28

    We have developed an analytical method that allows the simultaneous determination of epoxycarotenoids, hydroxycarotenoids and carotenes in monovarietal fresh homemade and industrially processed fruit products. Analyses were carried out using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). The extraction method was optimized using methanol as the first extraction solvent for lyophilized samples followed by a saponification step. Recoveries ranged between 75% and 104% depending on the compound. Repeatability was better than 10% for all compounds (%RSD, n=3). The chromatographic analysis takes less than 17min. In this short period, up to 27 carotenoids were identified in apple, peach and pear products. The developed method allowed us to differentiate juice from six varieties of apple by their carotenoid profile. Moreover, the methodology allows us to differentiate the carotenoid profiles from commercial juices and homemade fresh peach and pear juices, as well as to study the rearrangements of 5,6- to 5,8-epoxycarotenoids. PMID:24503121

  4. A review and critical analysis of the scientific literature related to 100% fruit juice and human health.

    PubMed

    Hyson, Dianne A

    2015-01-01

    The association between the consumption of pure (100%) fruit juice (PFJ) and human health is uncertain. The current review summarizes data published between 1995 and 2012 related to PFJ with a focus on juices that are widely available and studied in forms representing native juice without supplemental nutrients or enhanced phytochemical content. The effects of apple, cranberry, grape, grapefruit, orange, and pomegranate PFJ intake on outcomes linked to cancer, cardiovascular disease, cognition, hypertension, inflammation, oxidation, platelet function, urinary tract infection, and vascular reactivity are reviewed. Implications for bodyweight regulation are also addressed. The collective data are provocative although challenges and unanswered questions remain. There are many plausible mechanisms by which PFJ might be protective, and investigation of its effects on human health and disease prevention must remain an active area of research. PMID:25593142

  5. Flavor of fresh blueberry juice and the comparison to amount of sugars, acids, anthocyanidins, and physicochemical measurements.

    PubMed

    Bett-Garber, Karen L; Lea, Jeanne M; Watson, Michael A; Grimm, Casey C; Lloyd, Steven W; Beaulieu, John C; Stein-Chisholm, Rebecca E; Andrzejewski, Brett P; Marshall, Donna A

    2015-04-01

    Six cultivars of southern highbush (SHB) and rabbiteye (RE) blueberry samples were harvested on 2 different dates. Each treatment combination was pressed 2 times for repeated measures. Fresh juice was characterized for 18 flavor/taste/feeling factor attributes by a descriptive flavor panel. Each sample was measured for sugars, acids, anthocyanidins, Folin-Ciocalteu, soluble solids (BRIX), titratable acidity (TA), and antioxidant capacity (ORACFL ). Flavors were correlated with the composition and physicochemical data. Blueberry flavor correlated with 3 parameters, and negatively correlated with 2. Strawberry correlated with oxalic acid and negatively correlated with sucrose and quinic acid. Sweet aroma correlated with oxalic and citric acid, but negatively correlated with sucrose, quinic, and total acids. Sweet taste correlated with 11 parameters, including the anthocyanidins; and negatively correlated with 3 parameters. Neither bitter nor astringent correlated with any of the antioxidant parameters, but both correlated with total acids. Sour correlated with total acids and TA, while negatively correlating with pH and BRIX:TA. Throat burn correlated with total acids and TA. Principal component analysis negatively related blueberry, sweet aroma, and sweet to sour, bitter, astringent, tongue tingle, and tongue numbness. The information in this component was related to pH, TA, and BRIX:TA ratio. Another principal component related the nonblueberry fruit flavors to BRIX. This PC, also divided the SHB berries from the RE. This work shows that the impact of juice composition on flavor is very complicated and that estimating flavor with physicochemical parameters is complicated by the composition of the juice. PMID:25816898

  6. Effect of thermal and non-thermal pasteurisation on the microbial inactivation and phenolic degradation in fruit juice: a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yougui; Yu, Li Juan; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2013-03-30

    Fruit juice has been traditionally preserved by thermal pasteurisation. However, the applied heat can cause detrimental effects on health-promoting components such as phenolic compounds. Several non-thermal technologies such as membrane filtration, pulsed electric field (PEF) and ultraviolet (UV) exposure are promising methods developed for liquid food preservation. In particular, the combination of UV and PEF has proven to be more effective for microbial inactivation and maintaining nutritional quality of fruit juice compared with individual applications. PMID:23408366

  7. Comparison of Hydrolyzed Protein Baits and Various Grape Juice Products as Attractants for Anastrepha Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Herrera, F; Miranda, E; Gómez, E; Presa-Parra, E; Lasa, R

    2016-02-01

    Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew; Diptera: Tephritidae), have traditionally been trapped in citrus orchards in Mexico using protein hydrolysates as bait. Recently, CeraTrap®, an enzymatic hydrolyzed protein, has emerged as an effective lure for monitoring A. ludens at the orchard level and is currently being used by growers in the region of Veracruz. Several studies have revealed that grape juice is highly attractive to A. ludens, and recent work supports its potential use for regulation purposes. In our study, the attraction of A. ludens to different grape products was evaluated in citrus orchards and in comparison to other Anastrepha species in an area composed of mango and chicozapote orchards. Attraction to grape lures was compared with CeraTrap and the standard protein Captor +borax trap. In general, CeraTrap was more attractive than different commercial grape products in several experiments. Only Jumex, a commercial grape juice, did not differ significantly from CeraTrap in the capture of A. ludens males and females in a citrus crop. However, several drawbacks were detected when using Jumex grape juice: 1) higher tendency to capture males, 2) less selectivity against non-targeted insects, 3) higher capture of beneficial lacewings, and iv) the need to re-bait weekly owing to lower stability. In the area containing mango and chicozapote, CeraTrap was more attractive than Captor + borax for Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina, followed by grape juice products, which were the least attractive for these fruit fly species. PMID:26396199

  8. Ascorbic Acid Determination in Natural Orange Juice: As a Teaching Tool of Coulometry and Polarography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertotti, Mauro; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to determine ascorbic acid concentrations in natural orange juice. The experiment is used with undergraduate pharmacy students to allow understanding of the principles of operation of the coulometer and polarograph. (DDR)

  9. Analysis of mineral and heavy metal content of some commercial fruit juices by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dehelean, Adriana; Magdas, Dana Alina

    2013-01-01

    The presence of potentially toxic elements and compounds in foodstuffs is of intense public interest and thus requires rapid and accurate methods to determine the levels of these contaminants. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for the determination of metals and nonmetals in fruit juices. In this study, 21 commercial fruit juices (apple, peach, apricot, orange, kiwi, pear, pineapple, and multifruit) present on Romanian market were investigated from the heavy metals and mineral content point of view by ICP-MS. Our obtained results were compared with those reported in literature and also with the maximum admissible limit in drinking water by USEPA and WHO. For Mn the obtained values exceeded the limits imposed by these international organizations. Co, Cu, Zn, As, and Cd concentrations were below the acceptable limit for drinking water for all samples while the concentrations of Ni and Pb exceeded the limits imposed by USEPA and WHO for some fruit juices. The results obtained in this study are comparable to those found in the literature. PMID:24453811

  10. Cariogenicity of soft drinks, milk and fruit juice in low-income african-american children: a longitudinal study.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Lim S; Sohn W; Burt BA; Sandretto AM; Kolker JL; Marshall TA; Ismail AI

    2008-07-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors conducted a study to test the hypothesis that high consumption of soft drinks, relative to milk and 100 percent fruit juice, is a risk factor for dental caries in low-income African-American children in Detroit.METHODS: Trained dentists and interviewers examined a representative sample of 369 children, aged 3 to 5 years, in 2002-2003 and again two years later. The authors used the 2000 Block Kids Food Frequency Questionnaire (NutritionQuest, Berkeley, Calif.) to collect dietary information. They assessed caries by using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System.RESULTS: Soft drinks, 100 percent fruit juice and milk represented the sugared beverages consumed by the cohort. A cluster analysis of the relative proportion of each drink at baseline and follow-up revealed four consumption patterns. Using zero-inflated negative binomial models, the authors found that children who changed from being low consumers of soft drinks at baseline to high consumers after two years had a 1.75 times higher mean number of new decayed, missing and filled tooth surfaces compared with low consumers of soft drinks at both time points.CONCLUSION: Children who consumed more soft drinks, relative to milk and 100 percent fruit juice, as they grew older were at a greater risk of developing dental caries.CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Health promotion programs and health care providers should emphasize to patients and caregivers the caries risk associated with consumption of soft drinks.

  11. Analysis of Mineral and Heavy Metal Content of Some Commercial Fruit Juices by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Dehelean, Adriana; Magdas, Dana Alina

    2013-01-01

    The presence of potentially toxic elements and compounds in foodstuffs is of intense public interest and thus requires rapid and accurate methods to determine the levels of these contaminants. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for the determination of metals and nonmetals in fruit juices. In this study, 21 commercial fruit juices (apple, peach, apricot, orange, kiwi, pear, pineapple, and multifruit) present on Romanian market were investigated from the heavy metals and mineral content point of view by ICP-MS. Our obtained results were compared with those reported in literature and also with the maximum admissible limit in drinking water by USEPA and WHO. For Mn the obtained values exceeded the limits imposed by these international organizations. Co, Cu, Zn, As, and Cd concentrations were below the acceptable limit for drinking water for all samples while the concentrations of Ni and Pb exceeded the limits imposed by USEPA and WHO for some fruit juices. The results obtained in this study are comparable to those found in the literature. PMID:24453811

  12. The diversity and antifungal susceptibility of the yeasts isolated from coconut water and reconstituted fruit juices in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Natlia O P; Pil, Fernanda B; Freitas, Larissa F D; Gomes, Ftima C O; Johann, Susana; Nardi, Regina M D; Lachance, Marc-Andr; Rosa, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterise the yeasts present in the reconstituted fruit juices and coconut water extracted with "coconut machines", both collected from commercial outlets in a Brazilian city, and to investigate the antifungal resistance of isolates from these beverages that were able to grow at 37C. The yeast population counts in the coconut water samples ranged from 1.7 to >6.5logcfu/ml, and in the reconstituted fruit juices, the counts ranged from 1.5 to >5.5logcfu/ml. Aureobasidium pullulans, Candida boidinii, Candidaintermedia, Candidaoleophila, Candidaparapsilosis, Candidasantamariae, Candidatropicalis, Clavispora lusitaniae, Kloeckera apis, Lachancea fermentati, Pichia fermentans and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were the most frequent species isolated from these beverages. At least 18 yeast species isolated from these beverages have been reported as opportunistic pathogens. Eight yeast isolates were resistant to fluconazole, seven were resistant to itraconazole, and 26 to amphotericin B. Some yeast species were resistant to more than one of the antifungal drugs tested. Two isolates of C. tropicalis from the reconstituted fruit juices exhibited resistance to all three drugs. The presence of yeast strains that are resistant to commonly used antifungal drugs suggests a potential risk, at least to immunocompromised individuals who consume these beverages. PMID:23290225

  13. Phenolic acids in berries, fruits, and beverages.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Pirjo; Hellstrm, Jarkko; Trrnen, Riitta

    2006-09-20

    The contents of soluble and total phenolic acids were analyzed in samples of 29 berries and berry products, 24 fruits and fruit peels, and 12 beverages. Variation of phenolic acids in berries was also studied. Soluble phenolic acids were extracted with methanolic acetic acid, and a tentative quantification was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total phenolic acid content was determined by HPLC after alkaline and acid hydrolyses. The content of total phenolic acids as aglycones in the above samples varied from 0 (pear cider) to 103 mg/100 g fresh weight (rowanberry). Besides rowanberry, the best phenolic acid sources among berries were chokeberry (96 mg/100 g), blueberry (85 mg/100 g), sweet rowanberry (75 mg/100 g), and saskatoon berry (59 mg/100 g). Among fruits, the highest contents (28 mg/100 g) were determined in dark plum, cherry, and one apple variety (Valkea Kuulas). Coffee (97 mg/100 g) as well as green and black teas (30-36 mg/100 g) were the best sources among beverages. Caffeic acid dominated in all of these samples except in tea brews. Variation in the phenolic acid contents of the berries was either small or moderate. PMID:16968082

  14. Bile acid composition in snake bile juice and toxicity of snake bile acids to rats.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Yen-Hung; Wang, Dar-Yi; Liau, Ming-Yi; Wu, Ming-Ling; Deng, Jou-Fang; Noguchi, Tamao; Hwang, Deng-Fwu

    2003-11-01

    We determined the bile acid profiles in bile juice of snake gallbladders by HPLC on a silica gel RP-18 reversed-phase column. Cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid were predominant components in three of four snake species. To elucidate the toxic effect of snake bile acids on rats, a synthetic bile acid mixture was prepared mimicking the bile acid composition of a snake Naja naja atra bile juice. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups and treated orally at 3-day intervals with saline (control group) and different doses (1-3x doses) of the bile acid mixture. After treatment, the following parameters increased: the relative ratios of liver and kidney mass to body mass, the concentrations of red blood cell, hemoglobin and hematocrit in the blood, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, plasma urea nitrogen and creatinine in the plasma, and the levels of urine urea nitrogen and creatinine in the urine. Body mass of rats and the levels of Na+, K+, Ca++ in the urine of rats were significantly decreased, especially for groups treated with 2x and 3x doses of the bile acid mixture. Examination of liver and kidney pathology also showed cell enlargement and lesion in cell integrity in treated groups, especially for groups treated with 2x and 3x bile acid mixture, indicating that short-term toxicity of snake N. naja atra bile acids was significant in rats. PMID:14659461

  15. Fruit antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid, total phenol, quercetin, and carotene of Irwin mango fruits stored at low temperature after high electric field pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Shivashankara, K S; Isobe, Seiichiro; Al-Haq, Muhammad Imran; Takenaka, Makiko; Shiina, Takeo

    2004-03-10

    Greenhouse-grown tree ripe (TR) and mature green (MG) mangoes (cv. Irwin) were exposed to high electric field treatment before 20 and 30 days of storage at 5 degrees C. MG fruits were allowed to ripen at room temperature after low-temperature storage. Fruit physical quality attributes, ascorbic acid, carotene, quercetin, total phenols, and antioxidant capacity were estimated before and after the storage period. Antioxidant capacity of fruit juice was estimated using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Fruit firmness decreased significantly during storage. Titratable acidity decreased 20 days after storage. Total soluble solids did not change during storage. Antioxidant capacity of fruits remained unchanged up to 20 days of storage period and decreased thereafter. Total phenol and carotenes increased during storage. Antioxidant capacity of fruits was significantly correlated only to ascorbic acids. Peel color and carotenes were higher in TR fruits, whereas titratable acidity and firmness were higher in MG fruits. There was no significant difference in other parameters between the stages of picking. Electric field pretreatment affected the respiration and antioxidant capacity of TR fruits and did not have any significant affect on other parameters. TR mangoes of cv. Irwin are more suitable for low-temperature storage and can be successfully stored for up to 20 days at 5 degrees C without any significant losses in functional properties and quality attributes. PMID:14995134

  16. Evaluation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice with Cornus fruit (Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.) extract by conventional media and thin agar layer method.

    PubMed

    Wu, Vivian C H; Qiu, Xujian; Peggy Hsieh, Y-H

    2008-02-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival in apple juice supplemented with Cornus fruit (Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.) extract was studied. Inoculated samples with or without Cornus fruit extract were kept at 21 and 7 degrees C. Microbial analysis was conducted on days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7. MacConkey sorbitol agar (MSA), tryptic soy agar (TSA), and thin agar layer (TAL) medium were used to compare the recovery of bacteria stressed under combination treatment. Influence of temperature, storage time, and Cornus fruit on survival of cells was evaluated. The most dramatic reduction of E. coli O157:H7 was observed in apple juice with Cornus fruit extract at 21 degrees C. At 7 degrees C, E. coli O157:H7 was reduced by 2.3logcfu/ml in the apple juice with Cornus fruit extract compared to the control sample on day 7. TAL and TSA were more efficient than MSA. Cornus fruit extract can be used in combination with temperature and storage time controls to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice. This study has shown that TAL is a viable method of recovering and differentiating injured microorganisms and apple juice supplemented with Cornus fruit has potential as a value-added beverage with antimicrobial effects and potential health benefits. PMID:17993394

  17. Toxicological evaluation of the lyophilized fruit juice extract of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) in rodents.

    PubMed

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Ishola, Ismail O; Ikumawoyi, Victor O; Akindele, Abidemi J; Akintonwa, Alade

    2013-12-18

    Abstract Background: Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (AM) fruit juice is widely consumed either raw or after processing in tropical countries because of its very juicy, creamy and sweet character including its medicinal importance. The safety of AM fruit was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats for acute and 60-day subchronic toxicity effects. Methods: Rats were administered distilled water (DW) and AM daily at doses of 80, 400 and 2000 mg/kg orally for 60 days. At the end of the study, blood samples were assayed for biochemical and hematological parameters. Vital organs were harvested and assessed for antioxidants and histopathology. Results: There was no mortality recorded up to 2000 mg/kg following acute administration. There were no significant changes in vital organ weights and hematological and biochemical parameters. However, significant (p<0.05) reduction in platelet count and packed cell volume was observed at 2000 and 400 mg/kg, respectively, which was reversed after cessation of treatment. Interestingly, subchronic oral administration of AM (80, 400 or 2000 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.001) increased sperm count and motility in comparison to vehicle-treated control. AM long-term treatment induced significant (p<0.05, <0.01 and <0.001) increases in the levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, respectively, in the liver and kidney. Conversely, AM (2000 mg/kg) produced significant (p<0.001) increase in malondialdehyde level with decreased (p<0.05) SOD activity in the brain. Conclusions: The study established that AM did not induce any significant toxic effect, indicating that it is safe in rats following oral administration for 60 consecutive days. PMID:24353141

  18. Anaerobic digestion of wastewater from the fruit juice industry: experiments and modeling.

    PubMed

    Zerrouki, Souhaib; Rihani, Rachida; Bentahar, Fatiha; Belkacemi, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of wastewater from the fruit juice industry was carried out in a batch digester. To study the effect of the pH values as well as the nutrient medium on the fermentation process, different parameters were monitored under mesophilic temperature, such as cumulative biogas volume, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total sugar, and biomass growth. It was found that for all cases, the COD concentration decreased with time. The lowest value reached was obtained when the nutrient medium was added; it was about 110 g/L after 480 h. In such cases, the COD removal reached about 80%; the highest cumulative biogas volume of about 5,515.8 NmL was reached after 480 h testing; and the lowest value reached was about 2,862.3 NmL in the case of peach-substrate containing sodium sulfite. The addition of nutrient medium improved the cumulative biogas production as well as the COD abatement. Measurement of the biogas composition highlighted three gaseous components, namely, methane (56.52%), carbon dioxide (20.14%), and hydrogen sulfide (23.34%). The modified Gompertz equation and the first-order kinetic model were used to describe the cumulative biogas production and the organic matter removal, respectively. A good agreement was found between simulated and experimental data. PMID:26114280

  19. Determination of Trace Metals and Essential Minerals in Selected Fruit Juices in Minna, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ajai, A. I.; Ochigbo, S. S.; Abdullahi, Z.; Anigboro, P. I.

    2014-01-01

    Levels of trace metals and essential minerals in selected fruit juice samples purchased from Minna were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and Flame photometer. From the obtained result, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, and Zn were present in all the samples, while Cd, Pb, and Cr were not detectable in all the samples. Concentrations of K range between 1.31 ± 0.10 and 41.20 ± 0.10 mg/100 mL, Na between 15.47 ± 0.15 and 3.50 ± 0.20 mg/100 mL, Mn between Nd and 0.27 ± 0.08 mg/100 mL, Fe between Nd and 0.90 ± 0.05 mg/100 mL, Cu between Nd-0.60 ± 0.00 mg/100 mL, and Zn between Nd-0.09 ± 0.01 mg/100 mL, respectively. The trace metal levels in all the samples were within permissible limit as recommended by WHO for edible foods and drinks and could therefore be taken to compliment the deficiency of these essential minerals from other food sources. PMID:26904631

  20. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Valcheva-Kuzmanova, S; Kuzmanov, K; Tancheva, S; Belcheva, A

    2007-03-01

    Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) is rich in phenolic antioxidants, especially flavonoids from the anthocyanin subclass. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of AMFJ on plasma glucose and lipids in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). AMFJ was applied by gavage at doses of 10 and 20 ml/kg for 6 weeks to normal and diabetic rats. Streptozotocin caused a significant elevation of plasma glucose by 141% and of plasma triglycerides (TG) by 64% in comparison with normal control rats and induced statistically insignificant elevations of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and a reduction of HDL-cholesterol. Applied to normal rats, AMFJ did not influence plasma glucose and lipid levels. Applied to diabetic rats, AMFJ (10 and 20 ml/kg) significantly reduced plasma glucose by 44% and 42% and TG by 35% and 39%, respectively, to levels that did not significantly differ from those of the normal control rats and counteracted the influence of streptozotocin on total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. In conclusion, AMFJ significantly decreased the streptozotocin-induced abnormalities in blood glucose and TG in diabetic rats and might be useful in prevention and control of diabetes mellitus and diabetes-associated complications. PMID:17440626

  1. Anaerobic digestion of wastewater from the fruit juice industry: experiments and modeling.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Zerrouki S; Rihani R; Bentahar F; Belkacemi K

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of wastewater from the fruit juice industry was carried out in a batch digester. To study the effect of the pH values as well as the nutrient medium on the fermentation process, different parameters were monitored under mesophilic temperature, such as cumulative biogas volume, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total sugar, and biomass growth. It was found that for all cases, the COD concentration decreased with time. The lowest value reached was obtained when the nutrient medium was added; it was about 110 g/L after 480 h. In such cases, the COD removal reached about 80%; the highest cumulative biogas volume of about 5,515.8 NmL was reached after 480 h testing; and the lowest value reached was about 2,862.3 NmL in the case of peach-substrate containing sodium sulfite. The addition of nutrient medium improved the cumulative biogas production as well as the COD abatement. Measurement of the biogas composition highlighted three gaseous components, namely, methane (56.52%), carbon dioxide (20.14%), and hydrogen sulfide (23.34%). The modified Gompertz equation and the first-order kinetic model were used to describe the cumulative biogas production and the organic matter removal, respectively. A good agreement was found between simulated and experimental data.

  2. Effect of Fruit Juice on Glucose Control and Insulin Sensitivity in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of 12 Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Mantian; Wang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus has become a worldwide health problem. Whether fruit juice is beneficial in glycemic control is still inconclusive. This study aimed to synthesize evidence from randomized controlled trials on fruit juice in relationship to glucose control and insulin sensitivity. Methods A strategic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (updated to March, 2014) was performed to retrieve the randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of fruit juice on glucose control and insulin sensitivity. Study quality was assessed using the Jadad scale. Weighted mean differences were calculated for net changes in the levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) using fixed- or random-effects model. Prespecified subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed to explore the potential heterogeneity. Results Twelve trials comprising a total of 412 subjects were included in the current meta-analysis. The numbers of these studies that reported the data on fasting glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c and HOMA-IR were 12, 5, 3 and 3, respectively. Fruit juice consumption did not show a significant effect on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. The net change was 0.79 mg/dL (95% CI: −1.44, 3.02 mg/dL; P = 0.49) for fasting glucose concentrations and −0.74 µIU/ml (95% CI: −2.62, 1.14 µIU/ml; P = 0.44) for fasting insulin concentrations in the fixed-effects model. Subgroup analyses further suggested that the effect of fruit juice on fasting glucose concentrations was not influenced by population region, baseline glucose concentration, duration, type of fruit juice, glycemic index of fruit juice, fruit juice nutrient constitution, total polyphenols dose and Jadad score. Conclusion This meta-analysis showed that fruit juice may have no overall effect on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. More RCTs are warranted to further clarify the association between fruit juice and glycemic control. PMID:24743260

  3. Development of pectin films with pomegranate juice and citric acid.

    PubMed

    Azeredo, Henriette M C; Morrugares-Carmona, Rosario; Wellner, Nikolaus; Cross, Kathryn; Bajka, Balazs; Waldron, Keith W

    2016-05-01

    The influence of pomegranate juice (PJ, replacing water as solvent) and citric acid (CA) on properties of pectin films was studied. PJ provided the films with a bright red color, and acted as a plasticizer. Increasing PJ/water ratio from 0/100 to 100/0 resulted in enhanced elongation (from 2% to 20%), decreased strength (from 10 to <2MPa) and modulus (from 93 to <10MPa), increased water vapor permeability (WVP, from 3 to 9g.mm.kPa(-1).h(-1).m(-2)), and decreased insoluble matter (IM, from 35% to 24%). Although a crosslinking effect by CA was not confirmed, it has been suggested to occur from its effects on films. CA noticeably increased IM (from <10% to almost 40%); moreover, when measured on a dry film basis, the CA effects presented a noticeable tendency to increases strength and modulus, and to decrease WVP. The red color density was decreased by CA, suggesting a destabilization of anthocyanins. PMID:26769510

  4. A real-time PCR assay for the enumeration and detection of Zygosaccharomyces bailii from wine and fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Rawsthorne, Helen; Phister, Trevor G

    2006-10-15

    Zygosaccharomyces bailii is a major food and beverage spoilage organism. Existing methods for its detection involve lengthy enrichment techniques and then the result does not always differentiate between Z. bailii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this work, we developed a quantitative real-time PCR assay for the rapid detection of Z. bailii from fruit juices and wine even in the presence of non-target DNA. Primers were designed to the gene coding for the D1/D2 loop of the 26S ribosomal RNA subunit producing a single PCR product with a melting temperature of 83.5 degrees C. As few as 2 cells per ml could be detected by the assay in cranberry raspberry and apple juices and 22 cells per ml from grape juice. The assay was equally efficient in wine, detecting 6 cells per ml even in the presence of 10(7)S. cerevisiae cells. The CFU/ml as determined by plating on YM media showed excellent correlation with the CFU/ml established by the QPCR assay for all the beverages examined. Unknown samples of Z. bailii were prepared in the juices and wine and examined by QPCR. The QPCR estimated cell number was in good agreement with the cell counts obtained by plating, the exception being the cranberry raspberry juice sample. It was determined by live/dead cell counts that the Z. bailii cells were less viable in this juice thus leading to an overestimation of CFU/ml by QPCR. However, the correlation was high between QPCR and total cell count as determined by fluorescent microscopy. This assay provides a rapid and accurate method to establish the levels of the total Z. bailii population which consists of both viable and nonviable cells. PMID:16950531

  5. Determination of fruit juice authenticity by capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Low, N H

    1996-01-01

    A method using capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection was developed to determine the addition of high-fructose syrup and beet or cane invert syrup to apple or orange juice. Fingerprint oligosaccharides in these inexpensive sweeteners were not detectable (area < 1000) in pure apple or orange juice. One hundred twenty-three pure apple juice and 60 pure orange juice samples representing growing regions around the world were analyzed. Ten samples were intentionally adulterated with each sweetener at levels of 5, 10, and 15%. The detection limit for each sweetener was 5%. PMID:8634542

  6. Determination of creatinine, uric and ascorbic acid in bovine milk and orange juice by hydrophilic interaction HPLC.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Ruiting; Zhou, Si; Zuo, Yuegang; Deng, Yiwei

    2015-09-01

    Creatinine (Cr), uric (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) are common constituents in human fluids. Their abnormal concentrations in human fluids are associated with various diseases. Thus, apart from the endogenous formation in human body, it is also important to examine their sources from food products. In this study, a rapid and accurate HILIC method was developed for simultaneous determination of Cr, UA and AA in bovine milk and orange juice. Milk samples were pretreated by protein precipitation, centrifugation and filtration, followed by HPLC separation and quantification using a Waters Spherisorb S5NH2 column. The developed method has been successfully applied to determine the concentration of UA, AA and Cr in milk and fruit juice samples. The milk samples tested were found to contain UA and creatinine in the concentration range of 24.1-86.0 and 5.07-11.2 μg mL(-1), respectively. The orange juices contain AA over 212 μg mL(-1). PMID:25842333

  7. Quantification of Las gene by qPCR from orange juice extracted from Huanglongbing infected fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research is to establish a methodology to quantify the Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) in orange juice as an indicator of orange juice quality. Current standard method for citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) diagnosis is using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) to quan...

  8. Adaptability and stability analysis of the juice yield of yellow passion fruit varieties.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, E J; Freitas, J P X; Jesus, O N

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed the genotype x environment interaction (GE) for the juice productivity (JuProd) of 12 yellow passion fruit varieties (Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg.) using additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model and auxiliary parameters. The experiments were conducted in eight environments of Bahia State, Brazil, using a randomized block design with three replications. Analysis of variance showed significant effects (P ? 0.01) for environments, genotypes, and GE interaction. The first two interaction principal component axes (IPCAs) explained 81.00% of the sum of squares of the GE interaction. The AMMI1 and AMMI2 models showed that varieties 09 and 11 were the most stable. Other parameters, namely, the AMMI stability value (ASV), yield stability (YSI), sustainability, and stability index (StI), indicated that other varieties were more stable. These varying results were certainly a consequence of methodological differences. In contrast, the ranking of varieties for each of the stability parameters showed significant positive correlations (P ? 0.05) between IPCA1 x (ASV, YSI), JuProd x (StI, YSI), YSI x ASV, and StI x YSI. Cluster analysis based on the genotypic profile of the effects of the GE interaction identified three groups that correlated with the distribution of varieties in the AMMI1 biplot. However, the classification of stable genotypes was limited because the association with the productivity was not included in the analysis. Variety 08 showed the most stable and productive behavior, ranking above average in half of the environments, and it should be recommended for use. PMID:25177932

  9. Slight Fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium Improves the Taste (Sugar:Acid Ratio) of Citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. chachiensis) Juice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Fu, Manqin; Wen, Jing

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium, which can metabolize citric acid, could be applied in improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice. During fermentation, the strain of L. fermentium can preferentially utilize citric acid of citrus (Citrus reticulata cv. Chachiensis) juice to support the growth without the consumption of sugar. After 6 h of fermentation with L. fermentium at 30 C, the sugar:acid ratio of citrus juice increased to 22:1 from 12:1, which resulted in that the hedonic scores of sweetness, acidity and overall acceptability of fermented-pasteurized citrus juice were higher than the unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice, the ORAC value and total amino acid showed a reduction, and no significant change (P > 0.05) in the L*, a*, b*, total soluble phenolics and ascorbic acid (Vc) content in the fermented-pasteurized citrus juice was observed as compared with unfermented-pasteurized citrus juice. Hence, slight fermentation with L. fermentium can be used for improving the taste (sugar:acid ratio) of citrus juice with the well retaining of quality. PMID:26447635

  10. [Comparative characteristics of the isotopic D/H composition and antioxidant activity of freshly squeezed juices from fruits and vegetables grown in different geographical regions].

    PubMed

    Bykov, M I; Dzhimak, S S; Basov, A A; Arcybasheva, O M; Shashkov, D; Baryshev, M G

    2015-01-01

    Data presented in this paper reflect changes in antioxidant activity, the content of prooxidant factors and deuterium concentration in freshly squeezed juices from fruits and vegetables grown in different climatic regions (10 samples of juices from wholesale and retail trade network of 8 kinds of vegetables and fruits, 28 manufacturers from 14 countries). Determination of the concentration of deuterium was performed using a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Total antioxidant activity of fresh juices was determined amperometrically after dilution in 2.2 mM H3PO4 in a ratio of 1:100. Prooxidant performance was evaluated by a maximum and area of flash of chemiluminescence induced by the introduction of 0.3% hydrogen peroxide. It was found that the antioxidant activity of fresh juice from fruits and vegetables grown within the same climatic region can differ by several times. In this case, most of the fruits and vegetables of russian producers were not inferior, than antioxidant activity of the fresh juices from the same plant products grown abroad. It should be noted that the indicators of the antioxidant activity of fresh juice from Russian pears exceeded this indicator of all fresh juices from pears, imported from Argentina, South Africa and the United States of America by 21.1, 30.4 and 32.7%, respectively. In assessing the prooxidant properties of fresh juices should be noted the almost complete absence of factors with prooxidant nature only in 36% of the studied fresh juices, whose maximum performance and area of flash of chemiluminescence were less than 0.1%, including a pear and apple juices from the russian production. It should be noted that the area of chemiluminescence of the juice from potatoes, grown in Russia, was at 103.1 and 115.2% lower than in juice obtained respectively from potatoes produced in Israel and Egypt (p<0.05), indicating a higher safety of consumption of potatoes produced in Russia. When studying--the isotopic D/H composition of fresh juices it was found that the highest deuterium content was in the juice from the pears, imported from Argentina (deltaD = -72% per hundred), while the lowest concentration of deuterium was observed in the juice from the Egyptian potatoes (delta = -358% per hundred). In general, significantly lower deuterium content was determined in fresh juices made from potatoes and cabbage grown in different countries, in comparison with other fresh juices from fruits and vegetables. The smallest range of differences in the isotopic D/H was composed in freshjuices from tomato, pomegranate and oranges of Turkish manufacturers (deuterium concentration ranged in them from -221 to -214% per hundred), that can be used to confirm the geographical origin of fruits and vegetables grown in Turkey. The data reflecting the antioxidant activity, the content of prooxidant factors and deuterium concentration in the juices, allow us to recommend the latter as additional criteria when assessing the quality of food products. PMID:26852536

  11. Cashew apple juice as microbial cultivation medium for non-immunogenic hyaluronic acid production

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Adriano H.; Ogrodowski, Cristiane C.; de Macedo, André C.; Santana, Maria Helena A.; Gonçalves, Luciana R.B.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, natural cashew apple juice was used as cultivation medium as an alternative to substitute brain heart infusion medium. The effect of aeration and juice supplementation with yeast extract on the production of hyaluronic acid in batch fermentation was also investigated. Similar levels of cell mass were obtained in inoculum using cashew apple juice supplemented with yeast extract or the conventional brain heart infusion medium. Fermentation in Erlenmeyer flasks produced low biomass and hyaluronic acid concentrations. The hyaluronic acid concentration and viscosity increased from 0.15 g/L and 3.87 cP (no aeration or medium supplementation) to 1.76 g/L and 107 cP, when aeration (2 vvm) and 60 g/L of yeast extract were used. The results suggest the production of low-molecular weight hyaluronic acid oligomers instead of the high molecular weight polymer. PMID:24688498

  12. Determination of D-malic acid in apple juice by liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Eisele, T A

    1996-01-01

    Eleven laboratories collaboratively studied a liquid chromatographic (LC) method for determination of D-malic acid in apple juice. The mobile phase consisted of mM L-valine and 8 mM copper acetate adjusted to pH 5.5 with NaOH. The UV detector was set at 330 nm, and a single reversed-phase LC column was used. Seven paired samples containing various amounts of D-malic acid ranging from 0 to 188 mg/100 mL of 12 Brix pasteurized apple juice were tested by each collaborator. Repeatability and reproducibility coefficients of variation ranged from 1.0 to 3.5% and 7.7 to 11.7%, respectively, within the range of 26 to 188 mg D-malic acid/100 mL of 12 Brix apple juice. The collaborative study results demonstrated that the method could quantitate the economic adulteration of apple juice with DL-malic acid at lower levels than those reported with previous methods. The LC method for determination of D-malic acid in apple juice has been adopted first action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL. PMID:8620111

  13. Efficacy of phytic acid as an inhibitor of enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Du, Yunjian; Dou, Siqi; Wu, Shengjun

    2012-11-15

    Browning decreases the commercial value of apple juice, and therefore colour preservation during processing and storage is the main objective of manufacturers. In this study, the efficacy of phytic acid as a browning inhibitor for use on apple juice was investigated. Browning of apple juice treated with phytic acid was monitored during processing and storage. 0.1 mM Phytic acid inhibited the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from the apple juice by 99.2%. Consequently, the apple juice treated with phytic acid had significantly lower browning formation during processing and after 6 months of storage at room temperature compared with the control (p<0.05). Results indicate that this is a promising way to inhibit browning in apple juice. PMID:22868131

  14. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes as efficient solid-phase extraction materials of organophosphorus pesticides from apple, grape, orange and pineapple fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Ravelo-Prez, Lidia M; Hernndez-Borges, Javier; Rodrguez-Delgado, Miguel Angel

    2008-11-21

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been used for the first time as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbents for the extraction of eight organophosphorus pesticides (i.e. ethoprophos, diazinon, chlorpyriphos-methyl, fenitrothion, malathion, chlorpyriphos, fenamiphos and buprofezin) from different commercial fruit juices (i.e. apple, grape, orange and pineapple). The developed method, which involves SPE and direct gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection analysis, is very fast, simple and cheap: only 1:1 dilution with Milli-Q water and pH adjustment to 6.0 of 10 mL of juice is necessary prior to a quick MWCNTs-SPE procedure that used only 40 mg of stationary phase (MWCNTs of 10-15 nm o.d., 2-6 nm i.d. and 0.1-10 microm length). Mean recovery values were above 73% for all the pesticides and fruit juices (between 77 and 101% for apple juice, 75 and 103% for grape juice, 73 and 103% for orange juice and 73 and 93% for pineapple juice) with a relative standard deviation (RSD) lower than 8.5% in all cases. Matrix matched calibration was carried out for each sample matrix since statistical differences between the calibration curves constructed is pure solvent and in the reconstructed juice extracts were found. Limits of detection ranged between 1.85 and 7.32 microg/L (which also represents LODs between 1.85 and 7.34 microg/kg) well below the European Union maximum residue limits for the raw fruits. The proposed method, which is demonstrated to be quick, cheap, accurate and highly selective, was also applied to the analysis of this group of pesticides in several commercial juices in which none of the selected pesticides were found. PMID:18849040

  15. Target selection in designing pasteurization processes for shelf-stable high-acid fruit products.

    PubMed

    Silva, Filipa V M; Gibbs, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This study is focused on the search for targets and criteria for the design of pasteurization processes for high-acid shelf-stable fruit products, such as juices, nectars, pastes, purees, concentrates, jams, jellies, etc. First, an overview of pasteurization is presented and then, frequently used targets for pasteurization processes are reviewed Enzymes naturally present in fruits, in decreasing order of heat resistance, were pectinesterase, peroxidase, and polyphenoloxidase, and they may be used as pasteurization targets. The heat resistance of each enzyme is strongly dependent on its fruit origin. The most heat resistant micro-organisms capable of spoiling high acid fruit products include ascospores of Neosartorya fischeri, Byssochlamys nivea, Talaromyces flavus, Eupenicillium javanicum, and Byssochlamys fulva moulds, as well as bacterial spores of Clostridium butyricum, Bacillus coagulans, and Bacillus megaterium. These micro-organisms, spores, and enzymes were, in general, less heat resistant than the spores of a particular spoilage micro-organism named Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, which has been causing problems in the fruit industry. Therefore, the use of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores as a reference micro-organism in the design of pasteurization processes for high-acid shelf-stable fruit products is suggested. PMID:15540648

  16. Activity and concentration of polyphenolic antioxidants in apple juice. 2. Effect of novel production methods.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, Addie A; Dekker, Matthijs; Skrede, Grete; Jongen, Wim M F

    2004-05-19

    There is a great interest in food components that possess possible health-protecting properties, as is the case with flavonoids. Previous research showed that conventional apple juice processing resulted in juices poor in flavonoids and with a low antioxidant activity. This paper shows that it is possible to improve flavonoid content in juice and its antioxidant activity by applying an alcoholic extraction either on the pulp or on the pomace. The levels of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid in enriched juice were between 1.4 (chlorogenic acid) and 9 (quercetin glycosides) times higher than in conventional apple juice. In enriched juice the antioxidant activity was 5 times higher than in conventional apple juice, with 52% of the antioxidant activity of the originating fruits present. The novel processing method had similar effects for three apple cultivars tested (Elstar, Golden Delicious, and Jonagold). The taste and color of enriched juice were different from those of conventional juice. PMID:15137823

  17. Antioxidant and anti-fatigue effects of anthocyanins of mulberry juice purification (MJP) and mulberry marc purification (MMP) from different varieties mulberry fruit in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dong-Qing; Guo, Ying; Xu, Dian-Hong; Huang, Ya-Si; Yuan, Ke; Lv, Zhi-Qiang

    2013-09-01

    Anthocyanins, copiously distributed in a variety of colored fruits and vegetables, are probably the most important group of visible plant pigments besides chlorophyll. And the mulberry fruit is one of the anthocyanins-rich fruits. Total flavonols, total phenolic acids and anthocyanins contents of ten varieties mulberry juice purification (MJP) and mulberry marc purification (MMP) were determined. The highest content was 965.634.90 mg RE/g, 690.837.38 mg GAE/g and 272.001.20 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/g FW, respectively. Moreover, MJP and MMP exhibited high antioxidant activity, including total force reduction (TRP), Fe? reducing power (FRAP) and DPPH radical scavenging capacity. In addition, the anti-fatigue activity of MJP and MMP was determined through mice-burden swimming experiments. Interestingly, the antioxidant and anti-fatigue capacities of MMP were much higher than those of MJP. The experimental results suggested that the generally discarded mulberry marc had greater value of development and utilization as food processing waste. PMID:23727333

  18. 21 CFR 146.132 - Grapefruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grapefruit juice. 146.132 Section 146.132 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages 146.132 Grapefruit juice. (a) Identity(1) Description. Grapefruit juice is the unfermented...

  19. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fruit juices by combined treatments of citrus fruit essential oils and heat.

    PubMed

    Espina, Laura; Somolinos, María; Ouazzou, Abdenour Ait; Condón, Santiago; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

    2012-09-17

    This work approaches the possibility of combining mild heat treatments with citrus fruit essential oils (EOs) to improve the effectiveness of heat treatments and thus to reduce treatment intensity. Concentrations between 10 and 200 μL/L of lemon, mandarin, or orange EO were tested at 54 °C for 10 min in laboratory media, determining that 200 μL/L of each EO was necessary to achieve a 5 log(10) reduction of the initial Escherichia coli O157:H7 concentration. A relationship could be established between sublethally injured cells after the heat treatment and inactivated cells after the combined process. In apple juice, the synergism in the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 when adding 200 μL/L of lemon EO might suppose a reduction in the treatment temperature (of 4.5 °C) or in the treatment time (by 5.7 times) within the range of temperature assayed (54-60 °C). Addition of 75 μL/L of lemon EO was determined to achieve the same synergistic effect of the combined treatment when the initial inoculum was reduced from 3×10(7) to 3×10(4) CFU/mL. Since the addition of lemon EO did not decrease the hedonic acceptability of apple juice, the proposed combined treatment could be further studied and optimized for the production of new minimally processed juices. PMID:22906601

  20. The quality control of fruit juices by using the stable isotope ratios and trace metal elements concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdas, D. A.; Dehelean, A.; Puscas, R.; Cristea, G.; Tusa, F.; Voica, C.

    2012-02-01

    In the last years, a growing number of research articles detailing the use of natural abundance light stable isotopes variations and trace metal elements concentration as geographic "tracers" to determine the provenance of food have been published. These investigations exploit the systematic global variations of stable hydrogen, oxygen and carbon isotope ratios in (combination) relation with trace metal element concentrations. The trace metal elements content of plants and also their light stable isotopic ratios are mainly related to the geological and pedoclimatic characteristics of the site of growth. The interpretation of such analysis requires an important number of data for authentic natural juices regarding the same seasonal and regional origin, because the isotopic analysis parameters of fruit juices show remarkable variability depending on climatologically factors. In this work was mesured H, C, O stable isotope ratios and the concentrations of 16 elements (P, K, Mg, Na, Ca, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb, Co, As, Cd, Mn, Fe and Hg) from 12 single strength juices. The natural variations that appear due to different environmental and climatic conditions are presented and discussed.

  1. Efficacy of a microencapsulated iron pyrophosphate-fortified fruit juice: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in Spanish iron-deficient women.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Prez-Granados, Ana M; Toxqui, Laura; Gonzlez-Vizcayno, Carmen; Delgado, Marco A; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2011-06-01

    Fe-deficiency anaemia is a worldwide health problem. We studied the influence of consuming an Fe-fortified fruit juice on Fe status in menstruating women. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 16 weeks of duration was performed. Subjects were randomised into two groups: the P group (n 58) or the F group (n 64), and consumed, as a supplement to their usual diet, 500 ml/d of a placebo fruit juice or an Fe-fortified fruit juice, respectively. The Fe-fortified fruit juice, containing microencapsulated iron pyrophosphate, provided 18 mg Fe/d (100 % of the RDA). At baseline and monthly, dietary intake, body weight and Fe parameters were determined: total erythrocytes, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), Hb, serum Fe, serum ferritin, serum transferrin, transferrin saturation, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP). The fruit juice consumption involved increased intake of carbohydrates and vitamin C, and increased BMI within normal limits. Ferritin was higher in the F group after week 4 (P < 005) and became 80 % higher than in the P group after week 16 (P < 0001), and transferrin decreased in the F group compared with the P group after week 4 (P < 0001). RDW was higher at weeks 4 and 8 in the F group compared with the P group (P < 005). Transferrin saturation increased after week 8, and haematocrit, MCV and Hb increased after week 12, in the F group compared with the P group. Serum Fe did not change. sTfR and ZnPP decreased in the F group at week 16 (P < 005). Iron pyrophosphate-fortified fruit juice improves Fe status and may be used to prevent Fe-deficiency anaemia. PMID:21303569

  2. Biochemical and histopathological effects of administration various levels of Pomposia (Syzygium cumini) fruit juice as natural antioxidant on rat health.

    PubMed

    El-Anany, Ayman M; Ali, Rehab F M

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the effects of administration various levels (400, 800 and 1,200ppm) of pomposia extracts as natural antioxidant in comparison with BHT as synthetic antioxidant on some biochemical activities and histopathological examination of rats. Some of biochemical tests i.e. Alkaline phosphatase, transaminases]Aspartate transferase (AST) and alanine transferase (ALT) [,bilirubin, urea and uric acid were conducted. Histopathological examinations were carried out on the liver and kidney tissue of rats administrated tested substances. The biochemical results indicated that the administration of polyphenolic compounds present in pomposia juice did not cause any significant (p???0.05) changes in the biochemical parameters whereas the administration of BHT at 200ppm caused significant (p???0.05) increase in the activities of enzymes relevant to the functions of liver and kidney. Microscopically examinations of liver and kidney of rat administered various levels of pomposia juice had the same character as that of control rats (this means that the polyphenolic compounds present in pomposia juice did not cause any adverse affect in liver and kidney), in contrast the administration of 200ppm of BHT caused marked pathological changes in liver and kidney of rats. The results of the current investigation suggest using pomposia juice as safe food grade substance. PMID:24425943

  3. Bile acid concentrations in the gastric juice of patients with erosive oesophagitis.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, B J; Crothers, G; McFarland, R J; Love, A H

    1985-01-01

    Intragastric total bile acid concentrations were measured before and after a corn oil test meal in 16 patients with erosive oesophagitis and symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux. Sixteen age and sex matched control subjects were also studied. No significant difference was detected between fasting or postprandial gastric bile acid concentrations in patients and in control subjects although a wide range of bile acid concentrations was detected among individuals in both groups. Gastric juice pH was less than 3.5 in seven patients when intragastric bile acid concentrations were greater than 200 mumol/l. These results do not support a role for abnormal duodenogastric reflux in the pathogenesis of erosive oesophagitis. The detection of acid reflux in such patients during intra-oesophageal pH monitoring, however, does not exclude the presence of bile acids which may contribute to the cytotoxic potential of gastric juice. PMID:3996940

  4. (13)C/(12)C isotope ratios of organic acids, glucose and fructose determined by HPLC-co-IRMS for lemon juices authenticity.

    PubMed

    Guyon, Francois; Auberger, Pauline; Gaillard, Laetita; Loublanches, Caroline; Viateau, Maryse; Sabathi, Nathalie; Salagoty, Marie-Hlne; Mdina, Bernard

    2014-03-01

    High performance liquid chromatography linked to isotope ratio mass spectrometry via an interface allowing the chemical oxidation of organic matter (HPLC-co-IRMS) was used to simultaneously determine carbon 13 isotope ratio (?(13)C) of organic acids, glucose and fructose in lime and lemon juices. Because of the significant difference between organic acids and sugars concentrations, the experimental protocol was optimised by applying a "current jump" to the IRMS device. The filament current is increased of 300?A during elution in order to enhance IRMS sensitivity. Then, analysis were performed on 35 lemon and lime fruits from various geographical origins and squeezed in the laboratory. An overall average ?(13)C values of -25.401.62, -23.831.82 and -25.671.72 is found for organic acids mixture mainly made up of citric acid, glucose and fructose, respectively. These authentic samples allowed the definition of a confidence domain to which have been confronted 30 commercial juices (24 "pure juices" and 6 coming from concentrate). Among these 30 samples, 10 present ?(13)C values outside the defined range revealing an added "C4" type organic acids or sugars, addition not specified on the label that is not in agreement with EU regulation. PMID:24176310

  5. Comparison of dynamic viscoelastic and physicochemical properties of pressurised and pasteurised longan juices with xanthan addition.

    PubMed

    Chaikham, Pittaya; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee

    2012-10-15

    Physical and biochemical properties of pressurised and pasteurised longan juices with various xanthan additions, such as viscoelastic behaviour, colour L (lightness), -a(*) (greenness), b(*) (yellowness), ?E (total different colours) and BI (Browning Index) parameters, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, ascorbic acid, gallic acid, ellagic acid, total phenols and antioxidant capacity (DPPH assay) were studied. Viscoelastic determination indicated that longan juice with 0.15% xanthan addition was optimal for a fruit drink. Colour parameters showed pressurised longan juice at 500 MPa was brighter and more transparent than fresh and other processed juices. PPO was completely inactivated in pasteurised juices, whereas in pressurised juices at 300 and 500 MPa, the activities were more than 100% and 95-99%, respectively. Bioactive components including ascorbic acid were significantly reduced according to treatment severities, whereas gallic and ellagic acids were relatively stable in all processed juices. Total phenols and DPPH radical-scavenging activity decreased significantly on pasteurisation, but were stable on pressurisation. PMID:23442674

  6. Sensory profile, soluble sugars, organic acids, and mineral content in milk- and soy-juice based beverages.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Víctor; Tenorio, M Dolores; Villanueva, M José

    2015-04-15

    The juice industry has undergone a continuous innovation to satisfy the increasing healthy food demand by developing, among others, beverages based on fruits and milk or soybeans. The comparison among the sensory attributes between nineteen commercial mixed beverages showed significant differences in colour, sweetness, acidity, and consistency. Sucrose and citric acid were found in large proportion due to their natural presence or their addition. Potassium was the major macromineral (148-941 mg/L), especially in soy beverages. The low concentration of sodium in soy drinks is a healthy characteristic. The profile of inorganic anions has been included for the first time. Sulphate (39-278 mg/L) and phosphate (51-428 mg/L) were the predominant anions. High correlations were found between the percentage of fruit and consistency, fructose, malic acid, potassium and phosphate content (r(2)>0.790). Based on the data obtained, these beverages show pleasant organoleptic characteristics and constitute a good source of essential nutrients for regular consumers. PMID:25466130

  7. Temporal Variations of Organic Acids in Sumac Fruit

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, C.; Mulcahy, F.; Somayajula, K.; Edenborn, H.M.

    2006-10-01

    Extracts from staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) fruits were obtained from fresh fruits obtained from June to October in two successive years. Total acidity, pH, and concentrations of malic and succinic acids determined using liquid chromatography were measured for each extract. Acidity and acid concentrations reached their maxima in late July, and declined slowly thereafter. Malic and succinic acid concentrations in the extracts reached maxima of about 4 and 0.2% (expressed per unit weight of fruit), respectively. Malic and succinic acids were the only organic acids observed in the extracts, and mass balance determinations indicate that these acids are most likely the only ones present in appreciable amounts.

  8. 3-Amino-4-hydroxybenzoic acid production from sweet sorghum juice by recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Hideo; Sasaki, Kengo; Uematsu, Kouji; Tsuge, Yota; Teramura, Hiroshi; Okai, Naoko; Nakamura-Tsuruta, Sachiko; Katsuyama, Yohei; Sugai, Yoshinori; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Hirano, Ko; Sazuka, Takashi; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-12-01

    The production of the bioplastic precursor 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-AHBA) from sweet sorghum juice, which contains amino acids and the fermentable sugars sucrose, glucose and fructose, was assessed to address the limitations of producing bio-based chemicals from renewable feedstocks. Recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum strain KT01 expressing griH and griI derived from Streptomyces griseus produced 3,4-AHBA from the sweet sorghum juice of cultivar SIL-05 at a final concentration (1.0 g l(-1)) that was 5-fold higher than that from pure sucrose. Fractionation of sweet sorghum juice by nanofiltration (NF) membrane separation (molecular weight cut-off 150) revealed that the NF-concentrated fraction, which contained the highest concentrations of amino acids, increased 3,4-AHBA production, whereas the NF-filtrated fraction inhibited 3,4-AHBA biosynthesis. Amino acid supplementation experiments revealed that leucine specifically enhanced 3,4-AHBA production by strain KT01. Taken together, these results suggest that sweet sorghum juice is a potentially suitable feedstock for 3,4-AHBA production by recombinant C. glutamicum. PMID:26409852

  9. Comparative Effect of Crude and Commercial Enzyme on the Juice Recovery from Bael Fruit (Aegle marmelos Correa) Using Principal Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anurag; Sharma, H. K.; Kumar, Sanjay; Upadhyay, Ashutosh; Mishra, K. P.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of incubation time, incubation temperature, and crude enzyme concentration was observed on the yield, viscosity, and clarity of the juice obtained from bael fruit pulp. The recommended enzymatic treatment conditions from the study were incubation time 475 min, incubation temperature 45°C, and crude enzyme concentration 0.20 mL/25 g bael fruit pulp. The recovery, viscosity, and clarity of the juice under these conditions were 82.9%, 1.41 cps, and 21.32%T, respectively. The variables, clarity, and yield were found as principal components for comparing different samples of the juice treated with enzyme. PMID:26904592

  10. Determination of six pyrethroid insecticides in fruit juice samples using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Boonchiangma, Suthasinee; Ngeontae, Wittaya; Srijaranai, Supalax

    2012-01-15

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection was applied for the determination of six pyrethroids (tetramethrin, fenpropathrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate and permethrin) in various fruit juices including apple, red grape, orange, kiwi, passion fruit, pomegranate and guava juice. Six pyrethroids were separated within 30 min using a Waters Atlantis T3 column under an isocratic elution of acetonitrile-water (72:28). The parameters affecting extraction efficiency of the DLLME method such as type of disperser and extraction solvent, volume of disperser and extraction solvent and centrifugation time were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, 5.00 mL of sample solution, 300 ?L of chloroform as extraction solvent and 1.25 mL of methanol as dispersive solvent gave high enrichment factor in the range of 62-84. Good linearity was obtained from 2 to 1,500 ?g/L (r(2)>0.995). The mean recoveries of the pyrethroids evaluated by fortification of real samples were in the range of 84-94%. The limits of detection ranging from 2 to 5 ?g/L are sufficient to analyze pyrethroid residues at the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the European Union (EU) in fruit juices. The proposed method can be applied to direct determination of pyrethroid residues in fruit juices. PMID:22265489

  11. Consumption of mixed fruit-juice drink and vitamin C reduces postprandial stress induced by a high fat meal in healthy overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Peluso, Ilaria; Villano, Debora V; Roberts, Susan A; Cesqui, Eleonora; Raguzzini, Anna; Borges, Gina; Crozier, Alan; Catasta, Giovina; Toti, Elisabetta; Serafini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Postprandial stress induced by acute consumption of meals with a high fat content results in an increase of markers of cardiometabolic risk. Repeated acute dietary stress may induce a persistent low-grade inflammation, playing a role in the pathogenesis of functional gut diseases. This may cause an impairment of the complex immune response of the gastrointestinal mucosa, which results in a breakdown of oral tolerance. We investigated the effect of ingestion of a fruit-juice drink (FJD) composed by multiple fruit juice and extracts, green tea extracts and vitamin C on postprandial stress induced by a High Fat Meal (HFM) in healthy overweight subjects. Following a double blind, placebo controlled, cross-over design, 15 healthy overweight subjects were randomized to a HFM providing 1334 Kcal (55% fat, 30% carbohydrates and 15% proteins) in combination with 500 mL of a placebo drink (HFM-P) or a fruit-juice drink (HFM-FJD). Ingestion of HFM-P led to an increase in circulating levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, TNF-α and IL-6. Ingestion of HFM-FJD significantly reduced plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, decreasing inflammatory response mediated by TNF-α and IL-6. Ingestion of a fruit-juice drink reduce markers of postprandial stress induced by a HFM. PMID:23701571

  12. Consumption of mixed fruit-juice drink and vitamin C reduces postprandial stress induced by a high fat meal in healthy overweight subjects.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Peluso I; Villano DV; Roberts SA; Cesqui E; Raguzzini A; Borges G; Crozier A; Catasta G; Toti E; Serafini M

    2014-01-01

    Postprandial stress induced by acute consumption of meals with a high fat content results in an increase of markers of cardiometabolic risk. Repeated acute dietary stress may induce a persistent low-grade inflammation, playing a role in the pathogenesis of functional gut diseases. This may cause an impairment of the complex immune response of the gastrointestinal mucosa, which results in a breakdown of oral tolerance. We investigated the effect of ingestion of a fruit-juice drink (FJD) composed by multiple fruit juice and extracts, green tea extracts and vitamin C on postprandial stress induced by a High Fat Meal (HFM) in healthy overweight subjects. Following a double blind, placebo controlled, cross-over design, 15 healthy overweight subjects were randomized to a HFM providing 1334 Kcal (55% fat, 30% carbohydrates and 15% proteins) in combination with 500 mL of a placebo drink (HFM-P) or a fruit-juice drink (HFM-FJD). Ingestion of HFM-P led to an increase in circulating levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, TNF-α and IL-6. Ingestion of HFM-FJD significantly reduced plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, decreasing inflammatory response mediated by TNF-α and IL-6. Ingestion of a fruit-juice drink reduce markers of postprandial stress induced by a HFM.

  13. Speciation of AsIII and AsV in fruit juices by dispersive liquidliquid microextraction and hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new procedure was developed to speciate and quantify As(III) and As(V) in fruit juices. At pH 3.0, As(III) and ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) formed a complex, which was extracted into carbon tetrachloride by dispersive liquidliquid microextraction (DLLME) and subsequently quantified...

  14. Diet quality is positively associated with 100% fruit juice consumption in children and adults in the United States: NHANES 2003-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred percent fruit juice (100% FJ) has been viewed by some as a sweetened beverage with concerns about its effect on weight. Little regard has been given to the contribution of 100% FJ to diet quality. In this study data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were...

  15. Identification of grape juice aroma volatiles and attractiveness to the Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatiles from a Concord grape juice produced in Mexico were identified, tested for attractiveness and mixed into an attractant blend. Volatiles were sampled using solid phase microextraction (SPME). Chemicals were analyzed by gas chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Identi...

  16. NONTHERMAL INACTIVATION OF E. COLI IN FRUIT JUICES USING RADIO FREQUENCY ELECTRIC FIELDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Radio frequency electric fields (RFEF) processing to inactivate bacteria in apple juice at moderately low temperatures has recently been developed. The process is similar to the pulsed electric fields process, except that the power supply is continuous rather than pulsed; therefore, the capital cost...

  17. Quantitative analysis of bayberry juice acidity based on visible and near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Yongni; He, Yong; Mao, Jingyuan

    2007-09-01

    Visible and near-infrared (Vis/NIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been investigated for its ability to nondestructively detect acidity in bayberry juice. What we believe to be a new, better mathematic model is put forward, which we have named principal component analysis-stepwise regression analysis-backpropagation neural network (PCA-SRA-BPNN), to build a correlation between the spectral reflectivity data and the acidity of bayberry juice. In this model, the optimum network parameters, such as the number of input nodes, hidden nodes, learning rate, and momentum, are chosen by the value of root-mean-square (rms) error. The results show that its prediction statistical parameters are correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9451 and root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.1168. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression is also established to compare with this model. Before doing this, the influences of various spectral pretreatments (standard normal variate, multiplicative scatter correction, S. Golay first derivative, and wavelet package transform) are compared. The PLS approach with wavelet package transform preprocessing spectra is found to provide the best results, and its prediction statistical parameters are correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9061 and RMSEP of 0.1564. Hence, these two models are both desirable to analyze the data from Vis/NIR spectroscopy and to solve the problem of the acidity prediction of bayberry juice. This supplies basal research to ultimately realize the online measurements of the juice's internal quality through this Vis/NIR spectroscopy technique.

  18. ASSOCIATIONS OF SOLUBLE FIBER, WHOLE FRUITS/VEGETABLES, AND JUICE WITH PLASMA BETA-CAROTENE CONCENTRATIONS IN A FREE-LIVING POPULATION OF BREAST CANCER SURVIVORS

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziejczyk, Julia K.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Natarajan, Loki; Patterson, Ruth; Pierce, John P.; Norman, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Soluble fiber and the physical state of fruits/vegetables affect plasma ß-carotene concentrations; however, most of this research was conducted in laboratory-based settings. These analyses investigated the relationship between soluble fiber and juiced vs. whole fruits/vegetables to plasma ß-carotene concentrations in a free-living population. Method This cross-sectional analysis used 12-month follow-up data from the Women’s Healthy Eating & Living Study (WHEL) (1995-2006), a study to improve diet in breast cancer survivors in the Western United States. The dietary nutrients considered in this analysis included intake of soluble fiber (g), ß-carotene from fruit/vegetable juice (mg), and ß-carotene from whole fruits/vegetables (mg). A linear regression model was used to assess the relationship of the variables to plasma ß-carotene concentrations. Results Out of 3,088 women enrolled in WHEL 2,397 women had complete data (mean age=54). The final model accounted for approximately 49% of the explained variance in plasma ß-carotene concentrations. Fruit/vegetable juice had the largest, positive relation to plasma ß-carotene concentrations (standardized parameter estimate=0.23, p < 0.01) followed by whole fruits/vegetables (standardized parameter estimate=0.09, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Soluble fiber may inhibit ß-carotene absorption; therefore, consumption of juice may increase plasma ß-carotene concentrations more than whole fruits/vegetables in free-living populations. PMID:23127215

  19. Microbes Associated with Freshly Prepared Juices of Citrus and Carrots

    PubMed Central

    Aneja, Kamal Rai; Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Kumar, Vikas; Kaur, Manpreeet

    2014-01-01

    Fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. They contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. In the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot) by serial dilution agar plate technique. A total of 30 juice samples were examined for their microbiological quality. Twenty-five microbial species including 9 bacterial isolates, 5 yeast isolates, and 11 mould isolates were isolated from juices. Yeasts and moulds were the main cause of spoilage of juices. Aspergillus flavus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were observed in the maximum number of juice samples. Among bacteria Bacillus cereus and Serratia were dominant. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in few samples. Candida sp., Curvularia, Colletotrichum, and Acetobacter were observed only in citrus juice samples. Alternaria, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were also observed in tested juice samples. Some of the microorganisms detected in these juice samples can cause disease in human beings, so there is need for some guidelines that can improve the quality of fruit juices. PMID:26904628

  20. Effects of types and amounts of stabilizers on physical and sensory characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Akkarachaneeyakorn, Suthida; Tinrat, Sirikhwan

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the pH of mulberry juice was optimized for high anthocyanin content and an attractive red color. Mulberry juice pH values of 2.5, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 were evaluated. A pH of 2.5 gave an anthocyanin content of 541.39106.43mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside per liter, and the a* value was 141.00. The effects of stabilizers (CMC and xanthan gum) on the physical characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice (via the addition of mulberry fruit pulp at a mass fraction of 5%) during storage (4C for 1week) were also determined using different mass fractions of the stabilizers (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%). Increasing the stabilizer mass fraction increased the viscosity, turbidity, stability of turbidity, and h* value. Using xanthan gum as the stabilizer produced better results for these parameters than CMC. The type of stabilizer and its mass fraction had no effect on most sensory characteristics, including appearance, color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P?0.05), but did affect the odor (P?0.05). Xanthan gum stabilizer gave the juice a better odor than CMC. Cloudy mulberry juice containing 0.5% xanthan gum as the stabilizer had the highest acceptance rate among panelists (average acceptance was 6.901.37 points) and produced no precipitate during storage. PMID:25987996

  1. Relationship between Apparent Viscosity and Line-Spread Test Measurement of Thickened Fruit Juices Prepared with a Xanthan Gum-based Thickener.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Gun; Yoo, Whachun; Yoo, Byoungseung

    2014-09-01

    The flow behaviors of three thickened fruit juices (orange, apple, and grape juice) prepared with a commercial instant xanthan gum (XG)-based thickener that is marketed in Korea were investigated at different thickener concentrations (1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, 2.5%, 3.0%, and 3.5%) and setting times (5 and 30 min) using a rheometer and a line-spread measurement method. The flow distance values measured by the line-spread test (LST) were compared with the apparent viscosity (ηa,50) values measured with a sophisticated computer-controlled rheometer. The ηa,50 values of the juices increased as thickener concentration increased, whereas their flow distances decreased. The ηa,50 values at the 30-min setting time were much higher than those at the 5-min setting time, indicating that the setting time before serving or consuming thickened juices can affect viscosity values. Plots comparing ηa,50 values to LST flow distances revealed strong exponential relationships between the two measures (R(2)=0.989 and R(2)=0.987 for the 5- and 30-min setting times, respectively). These results indicate that the LST can be a suitable instrument for evaluating the viscosity of thickened fruit juices prepared with different XG-based thickener concentrations and setting times for the dysphagia diet. PMID:25320723

  2. Extinction of Vibrio cholerae in acidic substrata: contaminated cabbage and lettuce treated with lime juice.

    PubMed

    Mata, L; Vargas, C; Saborío, D; Vives, M

    1994-12-01

    Lime juice killed millions of Vibrio cholerae O1, El Tor, Inaba, present on cabbage and lettuce contaminated in the laboratory. The lethal effect was evident within 5 min of exposure to lime juice. No vibrios could be recovered at dilution 1:10 using alkaline peptone water (APW) and thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-saccharose agar (TCBS). More than 99.9% of the initial inoculum was effectively destroyed. The number of vibrios killed by lime juice was 2 to 6 logarithms greater than the maximum infecting dose, and 4 to 8 logs greater than the minimum infecting dose for cholera El Tor. The time interval needed for killing was smaller than the usual waiting time for serving food in homes and restaurants. The addition of lime juice to non-acidic foods, beverages and water, is strongly recommended to prevent infection with cholera vibrios and other acid-sensitive microorganisms. This measure is particularly important for rural and slum populations in the tropics and subtropics. PMID:7501870

  3. Hybrid model based on Genetic Algorithms and SVM applied to variable selection within fruit juice classification.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Lozano, C; Canto, C; Gestal, M; Andrade-Garda, J M; Rabual, J R; Dorado, J; Pazos, A

    2013-01-01

    Given the background of the use of Neural Networks in problems of apple juice classification, this paper aim at implementing a newly developed method in the field of machine learning: the Support Vector Machines (SVM). Therefore, a hybrid model that combines genetic algorithms and support vector machines is suggested in such a way that, when using SVM as a fitness function of the Genetic Algorithm (GA), the most representative variables for a specific classification problem can be selected. PMID:24453933

  4. Hybrid Model Based on Genetic Algorithms and SVM Applied to Variable Selection within Fruit Juice Classification

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Lozano, C.; Canto, C.; Gestal, M.; Andrade-Garda, J. M.; Rabuñal, J. R.; Dorado, J.; Pazos, A.

    2013-01-01

    Given the background of the use of Neural Networks in problems of apple juice classification, this paper aim at implementing a newly developed method in the field of machine learning: the Support Vector Machines (SVM). Therefore, a hybrid model that combines genetic algorithms and support vector machines is suggested in such a way that, when using SVM as a fitness function of the Genetic Algorithm (GA), the most representative variables for a specific classification problem can be selected. PMID:24453933

  5. Rapid determination of nineteen chlorophenols in wood, paper, cardboard, fruits, and fruit juices by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Diserens, J M

    2001-01-01

    Although the use of pentachlorophenol (PCP) is prohibited in most countries, it is still widely found in the wood of pallets, containers, crates and in cardboard, paper, etc. Such material may contain not only PCP but other chlorophenols as well. Wooden crates and cardboard boxes are often used to store and transport fresh fruits. Consequently, chlorophenols present in the wood may contaminate the stored fruits by migration. To ascertain that packaging, storage material, and fruit raw materials are free from chlorophenol residues, we developed a rapid and sensitive method for the detection of 19 chlorophenols by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The test portions are directly extracted and acetylated in a solution of sodium carbonate in the presence of acetic anhydride and hexane. The hexane layer is analyzed, without further purification, by GC/MS in the selective-ion monitoring mode. The method allows the analysis of >40 samples/day with detection limits of <20 microg/kg for chlorophenols in wood, cardboard, and paper, and <2 microg/kg for chlorophenols in fruits. Typical recoveries of all chlorophenols were 94% from paper, 115% from cardboard, 51% from wood (depending on the size of the chips or shavings), and 93% from fruit puree. PMID:11417649

  6. Fruit Age and Changes in Abscisic Acid Content, Ethylene Production, and Abscission Rate of Cotton Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Guinn, Gene

    1982-01-01

    The relationships of fruit age, abscisic acid (ABA) concentration, ethylene evolution, and abscission rates were studied in an effort to determine why cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., cv. Deltapine 16) fruits rarely abscise more than 15 days after anthesis. Because abscission of cotton fruits is increased by conditions that limit photosynthesis, greenhouse-grown plants with fruits of various ages were placed in dim light for 3 days to induce high rates of fruit abscission. Abscission rates, ABA concentrations, and ethylene evolution rates were determined for fruits of various ages. Almost all of the young fruits abscised, but abscission rate declined with age until almost no abscission was observed in fruits that were 15 or more days past anthesis. Dim light increased the ABA concentrations of fruits that were 6 to 11 days old but did not increase ABA concentrations in fruits that were younger or older. The concentration of ABA declined with fruit age from peak values at 4 and 6 days after anthesis. Dim light also increased ethylene evolution from fruits up to 10 days old but had little effect on ethylene production or abscission of fruits more than 11 days old. Ethylene evolution declined with fruit age from peak values at 4 and 6 days after anthesis. Fruits of various ages (from plants not exposed to dim light) were sliced to induce high rates of wound ethylene production. The results indicated that the capacity for ethylene production declined with fruit age, parallel with a decline in abscission rate. Decreases in ABA concentration and ethylene evolution with fruit age indicate that change in the capacity to synthesize these hormones, especially in response to stress, is one cause of the decline in abscission rates as cotton fruits become older. PMID:16662207

  7. [Association between consumption of soft drinks, fruit juice, and milk and body mass index among public school students in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Fernanda de Albuquerque Melo; Sichieri, Rosely

    2009-12-01

    The association between consumption of soft drinks, fruit juice, and milk and body mass index (BMI) was evaluated in 1,423 students 9 to 16 years of age from public schools in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Beverage intake was measured using 24-hour recall and a food frequency questionnaire. Weight and height were measured to calculate BMI. Regression analyses took into account the cluster (classes) effect. Analyses were stratified by gender and adjusted for physical activity and age. The results showed a positive association between soft drink intake and age (p = 0.05) and a negative association between milk and age (p = 0.004). For girls only, there was a significant association between frequent fruit juice intake and BMI (beta = 0.02; p = 0.03). For the other beverages, there were no significant associations between BMI and frequent consumption in either gender. Soft drinks and juices accounted for 20% of mean daily energy intake. The results showed that efforts to reduce energy intake from beverages should include consumption of fruit juice. PMID:20191162

  8. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.185 Pineapple juice. (a) Identity....

  9. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.185 Pineapple juice. (a) Identity....

  10. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pineapple juice. 146.185 Section 146.185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CANNED FRUIT JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.185 Pineapple juice. (a) Identity....

  11. Destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by vanillic acid in unpasteurized juice from six apple cultivars.

    PubMed

    Moon, Kwan Deog; Delaquis, Pascal; Toivonen, Peter; Bach, Susan; Stanich, Kareen; Harris, Leanne

    2006-03-01

    The behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Granny Smith, Gala, Empire, McIntosh, Red Delicious, and Golden Delicious apple juice with or without supplementation with 5 or 10 mM vanillic acid was examined over a storage period of 7 days at 4 and 15 degrees C. The consequences of supplementation on sensory difference and preference were also determined by triangle testing. Juices made from the six apple cultivars had pH values ranging between pH 3.13 and 3.92. Vanillic acid exerted a concentration, pH, and time-dependent lethal effect toward E. coli O157:H7 in unpasteurized apple juice. Supplementation with 10 mM vanillic acid led to a 5-logarithm reduction in populations after 7 days at both temperatures, but sensory analysis revealed significant differences from and preference for unsupplemented juices. Supplementation with 5 mM vanillic acid accelerated death of E. coli O157:H7, but population reductions ranged from 5 log CFU/ml in low pH juices to none in high pH juices, particularly at 4 degrees C. No sensory difference or preference was detected in two of the six juices at this level of supplementation. PMID:16541683

  12. The effects of juice processing on black mulberry antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Tomas, Merve; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, Robert; Beekwilder, Jules; Capanoglu, Esra

    2015-11-01

    Black mulberry fruit is processed to juice at significant scale in Turkey. The effect of industrial-scale juice production on black mulberry antioxidants was evaluated using samples collected from the main steps of processing; including the selection of fruits, washing, mechanical milling, mashing, cold pressing, pasteurization, and filling-packing. Two major anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside), two phenolic acids (3- and caffeoylquinic acid) and 3 flavonols (rutin, quercetin-3-glucoside, and quercetin-malonyl-glucoside) were identified using LC-QTOF-MS and were quantified using HPLC. Approximately, 60-70% of the fruit anthocyanins were retained in the final juice, which also contained high levels of caffeoylquinic acids, relative to the fruit. Mashing and pressing were the steps which were effective for the recovery of fruit polyphenolics into the juice fraction. Moreover, an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model, applied to determine the effect of processing on the bioavailability of mulberry antioxidants, indicated a higher anthocyanin bioavailability for the fruit matrix than for the juice matrix. PMID:25976822

  13. Regulation of ascorbic acid metabolism by blue LED light irradiation in citrus juice sacs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lancui; Ma, Gang; Yamawaki, Kazuki; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Hikaru; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Ohta, Satoshi; Kato, Masaya

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, the effects of red and blue LED lights on the accumulation of ascorbic acid (AsA) were investigated in the juice sacs of three citrus varieties, Satsuma mandarin, Valencia orange, and Lisbon lemon. The results showed that the blue LED light treatment effectively increased the AsA content in the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties, whereas the red LED light treatment did not. By increasing the blue LED light intensity, the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties accumulated more AsA. Moreover, continuous irradiation with blue LED light was more effective than pulsed irradiation for increasing the AsA content in the juice sacs of the three citrus varieties. Gene expression results showed that the modulation of AsA accumulation by blue LED light was highly regulated at the transcription level. The up-regulation of AsA biosynthetic genes (CitVTC1, CitVTC2, CitVTC4, and CitGLDH), AsA regeneration genes (CitMDAR1, CitMDAR2, and CitDHAR) and two GSH-producing genes (CitGR and CitchGR) contributed to these increases in the AsA content in the three citrus varieties. PMID:25711821

  14. Flavonoids and phenolic acids from cranberry juice are bioavailable and bioactive in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    McKay, Diane L; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Zampariello, Carly A; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2015-02-01

    Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) are a rich source of phenolic phytochemicals, which likely contribute to their putative health benefits. A single-dose pharmacokinetic trial was conducted in 10 healthy adults ?50y to evaluate the acute (24-h) absorption and excretion of flavonoids, phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins (PACs) from a low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail (54% juice). Inter-individual variability was observed in the Cmax and Tmax of many of these compounds in both plasma and urine. The sum total concentration of phenolics detected in plasma reached a peak of 34.2?g/ml between 8 and 10h, while in urine this peak was 269.8?g/mg creatinine, and appeared 2-4h earlier. The presence of PAC-A2 dimers in human urine has not previously been reported. After cranberry juice consumption, plasma total antioxidant capacity assessed using ORAC and TAP assays correlated with individual metabolites. Our results show phenolic compounds in cranberry juice are bioavailable and exert antioxidant actions in healthy older adults. PMID:25172705

  15. Absorption and excretion of ascorbic acid alone and in acerola (Malpighia emarginata) juice: comparison in healthy Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Eriko; Kondo, Yoshitaka; Amano, Akiko; Aizawa, Shingo; Hanamura, Takayuki; Aoki, Hitoshi; Nagamine, Kenichi; Koizumi, Takeshi; Maruyama, Naoki; Ishigami, Akihito

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that some food components, such as bioflavonoids, affect the bioavailability of ascorbic acid in humans. Since little is known in Japan about the effective intake of this dietary requirement, we tested young Japanese males after the ingestion of commercial ascorbic acid or acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) juice to compare the quantities absorbed and excreted. Healthy Japanese subjects received a single oral dose of ascorbic acid solution (50, 100, 200 or 500 mg) and received distilled water as a reference at intervals of 14 d or longer. All subjects were collected blood and urine until 6 h after ingestion and evaluated for time-dependent changes in plasma and urinary ascorbic acid levels. Predictably, the area under the curve (AUC) values in plasma and urine after ingestion increased dose-dependently. Next, each subject received diluted acerola juice containing 50 mg ascorbic acid. Likewise, their plasma and urinary ascorbic acid concentrations were measured. In plasma, the AUC value of ascorbic acid after ingestion of acerola juice tended to be higher than that from ascorbic acid alone. In contrast, the urinary excretion of ascorbic acid at 1, 2 and 5 h after ingestion of acerola juice were significantly less than that of ascorbic acid. These results indicate that some component of acerola juice favorably affected the absorption and excretion of ascorbic acid. PMID:22040889

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Some Essential Oils Against Microorganisms Deteriorating Fruit Juices

    PubMed Central

    Sarhan, M. M.; Abu Shahla, A. N. K.; Abou El-Khair, E. K.

    2006-01-01

    Seventeen microbial species including 10 fungal taxa, two yeasts and five bacteria, were isolated from freshly prepared orange, guava and banana juices kept in open bottles at room temperature for 7 days. Eight different essential oils, from local herbs, were tested for their antimicrobial activity against these test organisms. The essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum and Origanum majorana were found to be highly effective against these microorganisms. Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the most prevalent microorganisms in juice, showed the highest resistance against these essential oils. GC-MS analysis showed that while e-citral, a'-myrcene, and z-citral represent the major components (75.1%) of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus; bezynen,1-methyl-4-(2-propenyl), 1,8-cineole and trans-a'-bisabolene were the main components (90.6%) of Ocimum basilicum; whereas 3-cyclohexen-1-01,4-methyl-1(1-methylethyl)-(CAS), c-terpinene and trans-caryophyllene represent the major components (65.1%) of Origanum majorana. These three essential oils were introduced into juices by two techniques namely, fumigation and direct contact. The former technique showed more fungicidal effect than the latter one against A. flavus, A. niger, and S. cerevisiae. The essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus by comparison to other test oils showed the strongest effect against these fungi with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1.5 l/ml medium and a sublethal concentration of 1.0 l/ml. The antimicrobial activity of this oil is thermostable at 121? for 30 min. PMID:24039503

  17. Pasteurization of fruit juices by means of a pulsed high pressure process.

    PubMed

    Dons, Giorgio; Ferrari, Giovanna; Maresca, Paola

    2010-04-01

    The use of pulsed high hydrostatic pressure was investigated as a possible approach to stabilize foodstuffs. The objective of this article was to investigate the effect of the main processing variables (pressure [150 to 300 MPa], temperature levels [25 to 50 degrees C], and pulse number [1 to 10]) on the sanitation of nonpasteurized clear Annurca apple juice as well as freshly-squeezed clear orange juice. The aim of the article was the optimization of the process parameters in step-wise pressure treatment (pressure holding time of each pulse: 60 s, compression rate: 10.5 MPa/s, decompression time: 2 to 5s). The shelf life of the samples, processed at optimized conditions, was evaluated in terms of microbiological stability and quality retention. According to our experimental results, the efficiency of pulsed high pressure processes depends on the combination of pulse holding time and number of pulses. The pulsed high pressure cycles have no additive or synergetic effect on microbial count. The efficacy of the single pulses decreases with the increase of the pulse number and pressure level. Therefore the first pulse cycle is more effective than the following ones. By coupling moderate heating to high pressure, the lethality of the process increases but thermal degradation of the products can be detected. The optimization of the process condition thus results in a compromise between the reduction of the pressure value, due to the synergetic temperature action, and the achievement of quality of the final production. The juices processed under optimal processing conditions show a minimum shelf life of 21 d at a storage temperature of 4 degrees C. PMID:20492291

  18. Lactic acid production from sugar-cane juice by a newly isolated Lactobacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Timbuntam, Walaiporn; Sriroth, Klanarong; Tokiwa, Yutaka

    2006-06-01

    A newly isolated sucrose-tolerant, lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus sp. strain FCP2, was grown on sugar-cane juice (125 g sucrose l(-1), 8 g glucose l(-1) and 6 g fructose l(-1)) for 5 days and produced 104 g lactic acid l(-1) with 90% yield. A higher yield (96%) and productivity (2.8 g l(-1 )h(-1)) were obtained when strain FCP2 was cultured on 3% w/v (25 g sucrose l(-1), 2 g glucose l(-1) and 1 g fructose l(-1)) sugar-cane juice for 10 h. Various cheap nitrogen sources such as silk worm larvae, beer yeast autolysate and shrimp wastes were also used as a substitute to yeast extract. PMID:16786246

  19. EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN ON FRUIT CROPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of climatic restrictions, fruit production is concentrated in a relatively few states in the U.S. Among the factors presenting increasing challenges to fruit growers is air pollution. In contrast to herbaceous annual agricultural crops, woody perennial fruit plants are su...

  20. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... density, or to 22 degrees Brix, or to any degree of Brix between its original density and 22 degrees Brix... between its original density and 22 degrees Brix. The proprietor, prior to using concentrated fruit...

  1. 27 CFR 24.180 - Use of concentrated and unconcentrated fruit juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... density, or to 22 degrees Brix, or to any degree of Brix between its original density and 22 degrees Brix... between its original density and 22 degrees Brix. The proprietor, prior to using concentrated fruit...

  2. Global, Regional, and National Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Fruit Juices, and Milk: A Systematic Assessment of Beverage Intake in 187 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin; Lim, Stephen; Andrews, Kathryn G.; Engell, Rebecca E.; Ezzati, Majid; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Background Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fruit juice, and milk are components of diet of major public health interest. To-date, assessment of their global distributions and health impacts has been limited by insufficient comparable and reliable data by country, age, and sex. Objective To quantify global, regional, and national levels of SSB, fruit juice, and milk intake by age and sex in adults over age 20 in 2010. Methods We identified, obtained, and assessed data on intakes of these beverages in adults, by age and sex, from 193 nationally- or subnationally-representative diet surveys worldwide, representing over half the world’s population. We also extracted data relevant to milk, fruit juice, and SSB availability for 187 countries from annual food balance information collected by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. We developed a hierarchical Bayesian model to account for measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modeling uncertainty, and to combine and harmonize nationally representative dietary survey data and food availability data. Results In 2010, global average intakes were 0.58 (95%UI: 0.37, 0.89) 8 oz servings/day for SSBs, 0.16 (0.10, 0.26) for fruit juice, and 0.57 (0.39, 0.83) for milk. There was significant heterogeneity in consumption of each beverage by region and age. Intakes of SSB were highest in the Caribbean (1.9 servings/day; 1.2, 3.0); fruit juice consumption was highest in Australia and New Zealand (0.66; 0.35, 1.13); and milk intake was highest in Central Latin America and parts of Europe (1.06; 0.68, 1.59). Intakes of all three beverages were lowest in East Asia and Oceania. Globally and within regions, SSB consumption was highest in younger adults; fruit juice consumption showed little relation with age; and milk intakes were highest in older adults. Conclusions Our analysis highlights the enormous spectrum of beverage intakes worldwide, by country, age, and sex. These data are valuable for highlighting gaps in dietary surveillance, determining the impacts of these beverages on global health, and targeting dietary policy. PMID:26244332

  3. Inhibitory Effects of Na-Hypochlorite and Heating on the Mycobiota Associated with Fruits or Juice of Passion (Passiflora edulis Sims) in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    A total of 34 species belonging to 21 genera of fungi were recorded on passion fruits of both pure and hybrid origin in Uganda, however, the pure type exhibited wider spectrum (28 species and 16 genera) than the hybrid type (21 & 15). Also, yeasts (unidentified and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa) were also encountered in high numbers. Moreover, the mean count of all mycobiota obtained from the pure type was higher than that of hybrid, despite the bigger size of the later. Members of yeasts and Cladosporium followed by Phoma, Penicillium, Fusarium and Alternaria species dominated on passion fruits of pure origin, while only C. cladosporioides, F. solani and yeasts dominated on the hybrid type. Treatment with Na-hypochlorite exhibited inhibitory effects on the total mycobiotic propagules as well as the dominant species from fruits of both types. The current results, therefore, suggest the use of Na-hypochlorite to control the post-harvest mycobiota associated with passion fruits. Regarding the mycobiota contaminating passion juice, yeasts were found to be the major contaminants with Candida parapsilosis being the most common. Moulds constituted only a minor proportion with Acremonium strictum followed by Fusarium chlamydosporum, F. moniliforme, F. acuminatum and F. solani as the most dominant species. In the heat-treated juice samples, the counts of the most commonly encountered mycobiota (both yeasts and molds) were significantly inhibited or completely eliminated. Some unidentified Bacillus species were also recovered from the juice, however, their counts in the heated samples were increased but insignificantly. PMID:24039477

  4. Quantitative analysis of bayberry juice acidity based on visible and near-infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Shao Yongni; He Yong; Mao Jingyuan

    2007-09-01

    Visible and near-infrared (Vis/NIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been investigated for its ability to nondestructively detect acidity in bayberry juice. What we believe to be a new, better mathematic model is put forward, which we have named principal component analysis-stepwise regression analysis-backpropagation neural network (PCA-SRA-BPNN), to build a correlation between the spectral reflectivity data and the acidity of bayberry juice. In this model, the optimum network parameters,such as the number of input nodes, hidden nodes, learning rate, and momentum, are chosen by the value of root-mean-square (rms) error. The results show that its prediction statistical parameters are correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9451 and root-mean-square error of prediction(RMSEP) of 0.1168. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression is also established to compare with this model. Before doing this, the influences of various spectral pretreatments (standard normal variate, multiplicative scatter correction, S. Golay first derivative, and wavelet package transform) are compared. The PLS approach with wavelet package transform preprocessing spectra is found to provide the best results, and its prediction statistical parameters are correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9061 and RMSEP of 0.1564. Hence, these two models are both desirable to analyze the data from Vis/NIR spectroscopy and to solve the problem of the acidity prediction of bayberry juice. This supplies basal research to ultimately realize the online measurements of the juice's internal quality through this Vis/NIR spectroscopy technique.

  5. Safety evaluation of an aai-fortified fruit and berry functional juice beverage (MonaVie Active()).

    PubMed

    Schauss, Alexander G; Clewell, Amy; Balogh, Lajos; Szakonyi, Ilona Pasics; Financsek, Istvan; Horvth, Jnos; Thuroczy, Julianna; Bres, Erzsbet; Vrtesi, Adl; Hirka, Gabor

    2010-11-28

    The safety of an aai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp enriched fruit and berry juice, MonaVie Active, fortified with the functional ingredient, glucosamine, was studied. The beverage was found not to be mutagenic, clastogenic, cytotoxic, or genotoxic, as determined by the bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosomal aberration assay, mouse micronucleus assay, and mammalian cell gene mutation (L5178Y) assay. The single dose LD50 based on a 14-day acute oral toxicity study is greater than 20,000 mg/kg bw, the highest dose tested. In a repeat dose 90-day oral subchronic toxicity study by gavage, 220 animals were randomly assigned to a control group, an untreated group, or one of three experimental groups (10, 20 and 40 g/kg bw). No treatment-related significant changes in body weight, food and water consumption, ophthalmology, organ weights, urinanalysis, hematological and clinical chemistry, or gross pathology, were observed in surviving animals compared to the control groups. Three animals died midway through the observation period (male, 20 g/kg bw/day; male 40 g/kg bw/day; and, female, 10 g/kg bw/day). These animals died without preceding clinical symptoms, histopathological lesions, or evidence of injury to tissue or organs except for signs of suffocation/aspiration congestion, which was concluded to be due to problems with the gavage administration of the fluid test article, and not due to the test article itself. The NOEAL was determined to be 40 g/kg bw/day for male and female rats, which was the highest dose tested. Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) content averaged 21.7 ?g/100 g, comparable to amounts found in iceberg lettuce. In conclusion, the results provide additional experimental evidence that MonaVie Active juice is non-toxic. PMID:20452390

  6. Detection of viable Zygosaccharomyces bailii in fruit juices using ethidium monoazide bromide and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Rawsthorne, Helen; Phister, Trevor G

    2009-05-31

    In this study, we use ethidium monoazide (EMA) a dye commonly used to differentiate viable and nonviable populations of bacteria in real-time PCR (QPCR) assays to eliminate the nonviable cells from the Z. bailii population. Thus we are able to determine the viable Z. bailii population using QPCR plus EMA. To do this we first, optimized the EMA exposure conditions; EMA concentration of 50 microg/ml with an incubation at 30 degrees C in the dark for 5 min. Followed by light exposure on ice, for 5 min using a 500 W halogen lamp at a distance of 12 cm. Using these optimized conditions, we determined that the assay could detect as few as 12.5 viable Z. bailii cells in the presence of 10(5) CFU/ml of heat killed-cells. The EMA assay was also more consistent at determining viable cell counts when compared to plating than fluorescent microscopy viable cell counts. Finally, we used the assay to determine the viable population in heat-treated (72 degrees C, 2 min), ethanol-treated and raspberry cranberry juice Z. bailii cultures. When examining Z. bailii cells treated with 70% ethanol the QPCR assay with EMA (1.22 x 10(2)) showed a better correlation with plating (4.5 x 10(1) CFU/ml) compared to the QPCR assay without EMA (5.31 x 10(6) CFU/ml) and this was also seen in the other two injured populations. Thus we feel that we have designed an assay which will be useful for the detection of viable spoilage yeasts in various fruit juices. PMID:19243848

  7. Application of pulsed electric field in the production of juice and extraction of bioactive compounds from blueberry fruits and their by-products.

    PubMed

    Bobinait?, Ramun?; Pataro, Gianpiero; Lamanauskas, Nerijus; atkauskas, Saulius; Vikelis, Pranas; Ferrari, Giovanna

    2015-09-01

    The influence of Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) pre-treatment of blueberry fruits (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), both on the extraction yield and antioxidant properties of juice obtained by pressing and on the on the recovery of bioactive compounds from berry by-products (press cake) by extraction with solvent, was investigated. PEF treatments carried out at field strengths of 1, 3, and 5kV/cm and an energy input of 10kJ/kg achieved a cell disintegration index (Z p ) of 0.70, 0.80, and 0.87, respectively. Mechanical pressing (1.32bar for 8min) of PEF-treated berries (1, 3, and 5kV/cm at 10kJ/kg) significantly increased the juice yield (+28%) compared with the untreated sample. The juice obtained from PEF pre-treated berries also had a significantly higher total phenolic content (+43%), total anthocyanin content (+60%) and antioxidant activity (+31%). However, PEF treatment intensity higher than 1kV/cm did not significantly improve the quantitative or qualitative characteristics of the juice. Compared to the untreated sample, higher amounts of total phenolics (+63%), total athocyanins (+78%) and antioxidant activity (+65%) were detected in the press cake extracts. PEF treatment of higher intensity resulted in better extractability of bioactive compounds from blueberry press cake. The results obtained from this study demonstrate the potential of PEF as a mild pre-treatment method to improve the efficiency of the industrial processing of berry fruits. PMID:26345006

  8. Reduced-energy cranberry juice increases folic acid and adiponectin and reduces homocysteine and oxidative stress in patients with the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Simo, Tathiana Name Colado; Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson Batisti; Simo, Andra Name Colado; Oliveira, Sayonara Rangel; Venturini, Danielle; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Miglioranza, Lcia Helena Silva; Dichi, Isaias

    2013-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) comprises pathological conditions that include insulin resistance, arterial hypertension, visceral adiposity and dyslipidaemia, which favour the development of CVD. Some reports have shown that cranberry ingestion reduces cardiovascular risk factors. However, few studies have evaluated the effect of this fruit in subjects with the MetS. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of reduced-energy cranberry juice consumption on metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with the MetS, and to verify the effects of cranberry juice concomitantly on homocysteine and adiponectin levels in patients with the MetS. For this purpose, fifty-six individuals with the MetS were selected and divided into two groups: control group (n 36) and cranberry-treated group (n 20). After consuming reduced-energy cranberry juice (07 litres/d) containing 04mg folic acid for 60 d, the cranberry-treated group showed an increase in adiponectin (P=0010) and folic acid (P=0033) and a decrease in homocysteine (P<0001) in relation to baseline values and also in comparison with the controls (P<005). There was no significant change in the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-a, IL-1 and IL-6. In relation to oxidative stress measurements, decreased (P<005) lipoperoxidation and protein oxidation levels assessed by advanced oxidation protein products were found in the cranberry-treated group when compared with the control group. In conclusion, the consumption of cranberry juice for 60 d was able to improve some cardiovascular risk factors. The present data reinforce the importance of the inverse association between homocysteine and adiponectin and the need for more specifically designed studies on MetS patients. PMID:23750500

  9. High hydrostatic pressure processing of fruit juices and smoothies: research and commercial application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several world-wide health organizations such as WHO and FAO have pointed out the importance of increasing the intake of fruits and vegetables in the diet because they can provide essential bioactive compounds as well as health beneficial phytochemicals. Consumers are also increasingly more conscious...

  10. Detection of Alicyclobacillus spp. in Fruit Juice by Combination of Immunomagnetic Separation and a SYBR Green I Real-Time PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yahong; Liu, Bin; Wang, Ling; Yue, Tianli

    2015-01-01

    An approach based on immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and SYBR Green I real-time PCR (real-time PCR) with species-specific primers and melting curve analysis was proposed as a rapid and effective method for detecting Alicyclobacillus spp. in fruit juices. Specific primers targeting the 16S rDNA sequences of Alicyclobacillus spp. were designed and then confirmed by the amplification of DNA extracted from standard strains and isolates. Spiked samples containing known amounts of target bacteria were used to obtain standard curves; the correlation coefficient was greater than 0.986 and the real-time PCR amplification efficiencies were 98.9%- 101.8%. The detection limit of the testing system was 2.8×101 CFU/mL. The coefficient of variation for intra-assay and inter-assay variability were all within the acceptable limit of 5%. Besides, the performance of the IMS-real-time PCR assay was further investigated by detecting naturally contaminated kiwi fruit juice; the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 91.7%, 95.9% and 95.3%, respectively. The established IMS-real-time PCR procedure provides a new method for identification and quantitative detection of Alicyclobacillus spp. in fruit juice. PMID:26488469

  11. Quantitative fate of chlorogenic acid during enzymatic browning of potato juice.

    PubMed

    Narvez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Gruppen, Harry

    2013-02-20

    The quantitative fate of chlorogenic acid (ChA) during enzymatic browning of potato juice was investigated. Potato juice was prepared in water without the use of any antibrowning agent (OX treatment). As a control, a potato juice was prepared in the presence of NaHSO(3) (S control). To study the composition of phenolic compounds in potato in their native states, also a potato extract was made with 50% (v/v) methanol containing 0.5% (v/v) acetic acid (MeOH control). Water-soluble low molecular weight fractions (LMWFs) and high molecular weight fractions (HMWFs) from S and OX extracts were obtained by ultrafiltration and dialysis, respectively. Pellets obtained after the OX treatment and the S and MeOH controls were also analyzed for ChA content. Whereas in the S-LMWF all ChA was converted to sulfonic acid adducts, no free ChA was found in the OX-LMWF, indicating its high reactivity upon enzymatic browning. Analysis of protein in the HMWFs showed a higher content of "reacted" ChA in OX (49.8 7.1 mg ChA/100 g potato DW) than in S (14.4 1.5 mg ChA/100 g potato DW), as evidenced by quinic acid release upon alkaline hydrolysis. The presence of quinic acid in S-HMWF was unexpected, but a mass balance incorporating the ChA content of LMWF, HMWF, and pellet for the three extractions suggested that ChA might have been attached to polymeric material, soluble in the aqueous environment of S but not in that of MeOH. Size exclusion chromatography, combined with proteolysis, revealed that ChA reacted with patatin and protease inhibitors to produce brown soluble complexes. PMID:23360289

  12. Chemical characterization of orange juice from trees infected with citrus greening (Huanglongbing).

    PubMed

    Dagulo, Lilibeth; Danyluk, Michelle D; Spann, Timothy M; Valim, M Filomena; Goodrich-Schneider, Rene; Sims, Charles; Rouseff, Russell

    2010-03-01

    The effects due to Candidatus Liberibacter infection, commonly called citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB), on volatile and nonvolatile components of orange juices, OJ, were examined using GC-MS and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HLB symptomatic, asymptomatic, and control "Hamlin" and "Valencia" oranges were harvested from December to May during the 2007 to 2008 harvest season. Brix/acid levels in control and asymptomatic juices were similar but symptomatic juices were as much as 62% lower than control juices. No bitter flavanone neohesperidosides were detected and polymethoxyflavone concentrations were well below bitter taste thresholds. Limonin concentrations were significantly higher (91% to 425%) in symptomatic juice compared to control but still below juice bitterness taste thresholds. Juice terpenes, such as gamma-terpinene and alpha-terpinolene, were as much as 1320% and 62% higher in symptomatic juice than control. Average ethyl butanoate concentrations were 45% lower and average linalool was 356% higher in symptomatic Valencia OJ compared to control. Symptomatic Valencia OJ had on average only 40% the total esters, 48% the total aldehydes, and 33% as much total sesquiterpenes as control juice. Total volatiles between control and symptomatic juices were similar due to elevated levels of alcohols and terpenes in symptomatic juice. There were no consistent differences between asymptomatic and control juices. The chemical composition of juice from HLB/greening symptomatic fruit appears to mimic that of juice from less mature fruit. The reported off-flavor associated with symptomatic juices probably stem from lower concentrations of sugars, higher concentrations of acid as all known citrus bitter compounds were either below taste thresholds or absent. PMID:20492226

  13. Effects of types and amounts of stabilizers on physical and sensory characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice

    PubMed Central

    Akkarachaneeyakorn, Suthida; Tinrat, Sirikhwan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the pH of mulberry juice was optimized for high anthocyanin content and an attractive red color. Mulberry juice pH values of 2.5, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 were evaluated. A pH of 2.5 gave an anthocyanin content of 541.39 ± 106.43 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside per liter, and the a* value was 14 ± 1.00. The effects of stabilizers (CMC and xanthan gum) on the physical characteristics of cloudy ready-to-drink mulberry fruit juice (via the addition of mulberry fruit pulp at a mass fraction of 5%) during storage (4°C for 1 week) were also determined using different mass fractions of the stabilizers (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%). Increasing the stabilizer mass fraction increased the viscosity, turbidity, stability of turbidity, and h* value. Using xanthan gum as the stabilizer produced better results for these parameters than CMC. The type of stabilizer and its mass fraction had no effect on most sensory characteristics, including appearance, color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P ≥ 0.05), but did affect the odor (P ≥ 0.05). Xanthan gum stabilizer gave the juice a better odor than CMC. Cloudy mulberry juice containing 0.5% xanthan gum as the stabilizer had the highest acceptance rate among panelists (average acceptance was 6.90 ± 1.37 points) and produced no precipitate during storage. PMID:25987996

  14. Analysis of anthocyanins in commercial fruit juices by using nano-liquid chromatography-electrospray-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-vis detector.

    PubMed

    Fanali, Chiara; Dugo, Laura; D'Orazio, Giovanni; Lirangi, Melania; Dach, Marina; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Nano-LC and conventional HPLC techniques were applied for the analysis of anthocyanins present in commercial fruit juices using a capillary column of 100 ?m id and a 2.1 mm id narrow-bore C(18) column. Analytes were detected by UV-Vis at 518 nm and ESI-ion trap MS with HPLC and nano-LC, respectively. Commercial blueberry juice (14 anthocyanins detected) was used to optimize chromatographic separation of analytes and other analysis parameters. Qualitative identification of anthocyanins was performed by comparing the recorded mass spectral data with those of published papers. The use of the same mobile phase composition in both techniques revealed that the miniaturized method exhibited shorter analysis time and higher sensitivity than narrow-bore chromatography. Good intra-day and day-to-day precision of retention time was obtained in both methods with values of RSD less than 3.4 and 0.8% for nano-LC and HPLC, respectively. Quantitative analysis was performed by external standard curve calibration of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside standard. Calibration curves were linear in the concentration ranges studied, 0.1-50 and 6-50 ?g/mL for HPLC-UV/Vis and nano-LC-MS, respectively. LOD and LOQ values were good for both methods. In addition to commercial blueberry juice, qualitative and quantitative analysis of other juices (e.g. raspberry, sweet cherry and pomegranate) was performed. The optimized nano-LC-MS method allowed an easy and selective identification and quantification of anthocyanins in commercial fruit juices; it offered good results, shorter analysis time and reduced mobile phase volume with respect to narrow-bore HPLC. PMID:21246720

  15. Finding of pesticides in fashionable fruit juices by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Tran, Kevin; Eide, David; Nickols, Susan M; Cromer, Michele R; Sabaa-Srur, Armando; Smith, Robert E

    2012-10-15

    Products labelled as containing extracts from two mushrooms (cordyceps plus reishi) and the juices from aa, goji, mangosteen, noni, pomegranate, and sea buckthorn have been analysed for 174 different pesticides, using the validated QuEChERS method for sample preparation and electrospray LC-MS/MS in the positive ion mode for analysis. Pesticides were found in 10 of the 21 samples analysed. Most pesticides found were below the tolerance levels (1-6 ?g/g, depending on the pesticide), but some were not. This included boscalid, dimethomorph, iprovalicarb, pyridaben, pyrimethanil, and imazalil, for which there is no tolerance reported or zero tolerance in any fruit. However, genuine aa that was harvested in the state of Par and lyophilised in Rio de Janeiro had no detectable pesticides, when analysed by both LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS, which can detect 213 more pesticides and industrial chemicals. Likewise no pesticides were found in one sample each of cordyceps plus reishi, sea buckthorn and noni. PMID:23442701

  16. Food matrix and processing influence on carotenoid bioaccessibility and lipophilic antioxidant activity of fruit juice-based beverages.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Roque, María Janeth; de Ancos, Begoña; Sánchez-Vega, Rogelio; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Cano, M Pilar; Elez-Martínez, Pedro; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2016-01-20

    The biological activity of carotenoids depends on their bioaccessibility and solubilization in the gastrointestinal tract. These compounds are poorly dispersed in the aqueous media of the digestive tract due to their lipophilic nature. Thus, it is important to analyze the extent to which some factors, such as the food matrix and food processing, may improve their bioaccessibility. Beverages formulated with a blend of fruit juices and water (WB), milk (MB) or soymilk (SB) were treated by high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) (35 kV cm(-1) with 4 μs bipolar pulses at 200 Hz for 1800 μs), high-pressure processing (HPP) (400 MPa at 40 °C for 5 min) or thermal treatment (TT) (90 °C for 1 min) in order to evaluate the influence of food matrix and processing on the bioaccessibility of carotenoids and on the lipophilic antioxidant activity (LAA). The bioaccessibility of these compounds diminished after applying any treatment (HIPEF, HPP and TT), with the exception of cis-violaxanthin + neoxanthin, which increased by 79% in HIPEF and HPP beverages. The lowest carotenoid bioaccessibility was always obtained in TT beverages (losses up to 63%). MB was the best food matrix for improving the bioaccessibility of carotenoids, as well as the LAA. The results demonstrate that treatment and food matrix modulated the bioaccessibility of carotenoids as well as the lipophilic antioxidant potential of beverages. Additionally, HIPEF and HPP could be considered as promising technologies to obtain highly nutritional and functional beverages. PMID:26499515

  17. Preparation and properties of an immobilized pectinlyase for the treatment of fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Busto, M D; Garca-Tramontn, K E; Ortega, N; Perez-Mateos, M

    2006-09-01

    Pectinlyase, present in different commercial pectinases used in juice technology, was immobilized on alginate beads. The optimal conditions were: 0.17 g alginate ml(-1), 1.2% (w/v or v/v) enzyme concentration and acetic-HCl/glycine-HCl buffer at pH 3.6 or tris-HCl/imidazole buffer at pH 6.4. Maximum percentage of immobilization (10.6%) was obtained with Rapidase C80. Kinetic parameters of free and immobilized pectinlyase were also determined. The pH and temperature at which activity of soluble and immobilized enzyme was maximum were 7.2 and 55 degrees C. Thermal stability was not significantly altered by immobilization, especially at 40 degrees C, showing two periods of different stability. Free and immobilized preparation reduced the viscosity of highly esterified pectin from 1.09 to 0.70 and 0.72 mm(2) s(-1), respectively, after 30 min at 40 degrees C. Furthermore, the immobilized enzyme could be re-used through 4 cycles and the efficiency loss in viscosity reduction was found to be only 9.2%. PMID:16102964

  18. Evaluation of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis fruit juice hepatoprotective effect upon ethanol toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Alimi, Hichem; Hfaeidh, Najla; Mbarki, Sakhria; Bouoni, Zouhour; Sakly, Mohsen; Ben Rouma, Khmais

    2012-09-01

    The aim of our present study is to investigate the effect of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis prickly pear juice (PPJ) against ethanol-induced liver injury in rats. Chronic ethanol administration (3 g/kg b.w.) during 90 days to Wistar rats, significantly (p < 0.01) increased the liver lipid and protein oxidation, reduced the glutathione content and the activities of liver antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and conversely elevated the liver injury biochemical markers like aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, cholesterol, triglycerides and caused a severe histopathologic injuries. Conversely pre-treatment of ethanol-fed rats with PPJ (20 and 40 ml/kg b.w., orally), interestingly reduced liver lipid and protein oxidation, histopathologic lesions and inhibited the alterations of antioxidant enzymes and the release of biochemical markers. The hepatoprotective effect of PPJ could be due to their capacity to end free radicals chain reactions or to enhance the endogenous antioxidants activities. PMID:23047946

  19. Absorption, metabolism and excretion of flavanones from single portions of orange fruit and juice and effects of anthropometric variables and contraceptive pill use on flavanone excretion

    PubMed Central

    Brett, Gary M.; Hollands, Wendy; Needs, Paul W.; Teucher, Birgit; Dainty, Jack R.; Davis, Barry D.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.; Kroon, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Oranges are rich sources of flavonoids that are bioactive and may protect against age-related diseases. The absorption of orange flavanones may be affected by factors such as processing and subject anthropometric variables, and the bioactivity of the absorbed phytochemicals depends on how they are metabolised during absorption. In a randomised cross-over study, twenty subjects consumed a single portion of orange fruit (150 g) or juice (300 g) that contained the flavanones narirutin and hesperidin, and an additional 109 subjects across a broad age range (1880 years) consumed the juice. Flavanone metabolites were measured in regularly collected samples of plasma and urine. After consumption of fruit or juice, flavanone conjugates, but not the aglycones, were detected in plasma and urine. The flavanone conjugates were shown to include the 7- and 4?-O-monoglucuronides of naringenin, the 7- and 3?-O-monoglucuronides of hesperetin, two hesperetin diglucuronides and a hesperetin sulfo-glucuronide, but no aglycones or rutinosides. Analysis of the plasma pharmacokinetic and urinary excretion data on a dose-adjusted basis indicated no difference in absorption or excretion of either flavanone between the fruit and juice matrices. In the extended urinary excretion dataset the individual variation was very large (range 059 % urinary yield). There was a small but significant (P<005) decrease in the excretion of hesperetin (but not naringenin) with increasing age (P<005), but the effects of sex, BMI and contraceptive pill use were shown not to be associated with the variation in flavanone excretion. PMID:18710603

  20. Phenolic compounds, organic acids and antioxidant activity of grape juices produced in industrial scale by different processes of maceration.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marcos dos Santos; da Conceição Prudêncio Dutra, Maria; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Corrêa, Luiz Claudio; Pereira, Giuliano Elias; de Oliveira, Débora; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde Terezinha; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2015-12-01

    The effect of maceration process on the profile of phenolic compounds, organic acids composition and antioxidant activity of grape juices from new varieties of Vitis labrusca L. obtained in industrial scale was investigated. The extraction process presented a high yield without pressing the grapes. The use of a commercial pectinase resulted in an increase on extraction yield and procyanidins B1 and B2 concentrations and a decrease on turbidity and concentration of catechins. The combination of 60 °C and 3.0 mL 100 kg(-1) of enzyme resulted in the highest extraction of phenolic compounds, reducing the content of acetic acid. The juices presented high antioxidant activity, related to the great concentration of malvidin, cyanidin, catechin and caffeic, cinnamic and gallic acids. Among the bioactive compounds, the juices presented high concentration of procyanidin B1, caffeic acid and trans-resveratrol, with higher levels compared to those reported in the literature. PMID:26041208

  1. Pulsed electric field processing of different fruit juices: impact of pH and temperature on inactivation of spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, R A H; Nierop Groot, M N; Nederhoff, A L; van Boekel, M A J S; Matser, A M; Mastwijk, H C

    2014-03-01

    Pulsed electrical field (PEF) technology can be used for the inactivation of micro-organisms and therefore for preservation of food products. It is a mild technology compared to thermal pasteurization because a lower temperature is used during processing, leading to a better retention of the quality. In this study, pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms relevant in refrigerated fruit juices were studied to determine the impact of process parameters and juice composition on the effectiveness of the PEF process to inactivate the micro-organisms. Experiments were performed using a continuous-flow PEF system at an electrical field strength of 20 kV/cm with variable frequencies to evaluate the inactivation of Salmonella Panama, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in apple, orange and watermelon juices. Kinetic data showed that under the same conditions, S. cerevisiae was the most sensitive micro-organism, followed by S. Panama and E. coli, which displayed comparable inactivation kinetics. L. monocytogenes was the most resistant micro-organism towards the treatment conditions tested. A synergistic effect between temperature and electric pulses was observed at inlet temperatures above 35 C, hence less energy for inactivation was required at higher temperatures. Different juice matrices resulted in a different degree of inactivation, predominantly determined by pH. The survival curves were nonlinear and could satisfactorily be modeled with the Weibull model. PMID:24418831

  2. In Vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities of an antioxidant-rich fruit and berry juice blend. Results of a pilot and randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of a juice blend (JB), MonaVie Active, containing a mixture of fruits and berries with known antioxidant activity, including acai, a palm fruit, as the predominant ingredient. The phytochemical antioxidants...

  3. Synergistic antimicrobial activity of caprylic acid in combination with citric acid against both Escherichia coli O157:H7 and indigenous microflora in carrot juice.

    PubMed

    Kim, S A; Rhee, M S

    2015-08-01

    The identification of novel, effective, and non-thermal decontamination methods is imperative for the preservation of unpasteurized and fresh vegetable juices. The aim of this study was to examine the bactericidal effects of caprylic acid + citric acid against the virulent pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 and the endogenous microflora in unpasteurized fresh carrot juice. Carrot juice was treated with either caprylic acid, citric acid, or a combination of caprylic acid + citric acid at mild heating temperature (45 °C or 50 °C). The color of the treated carrot juice as well as microbial survival was examined over time. Combined treatment was more effective than individual treatment in terms of both color and microbial survival. Caprylic acid + citric acid treatment (each at 5.0 mM) at 50 °C for 5 min resulted in 7.46 and 3.07 log CFU/ml reductions in the E. coli O157:H7 and endogenous microflora populations, respectively. By contrast, there was no apparent reduction in either population following individual treatment. A validation assay using a low-density E. coli O157:H7 inoculum (3.31 log CFU/ml) showed that combined treatment with caprylic acid (5.0 mM) + citric acid (2.5 mM) at 50 °C for >5 min or with caprylic acid + citric acid (both at 5.0 mM) at either 45 °C or 50 °C for >5 min completely destroyed the bacteria. Combined treatment also increased the redness of the juice, which is a perceived indication of quality. Taken together, these results indicate that combined treatment with low concentrations of caprylic acid and citric acid, which are of biotic origin, can eliminate microorganisms from unpasteurized carrot juice. PMID:25846927

  4. 27 CFR 24.184 - Use of volatile fruit-flavor concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... original juice or must from which the wine was produced. (b) Use of juice or must from which volatile fruit-flavor has been removed. Juice, concentrated fruit juice, or must processed at a concentrate plant is considered to be pure juice, concentrated fruit juice, or must even though volatile fruit-flavor has...

  5. 27 CFR 24.184 - Use of volatile fruit-flavor concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... original juice or must from which the wine was produced. (b) Use of juice or must from which volatile fruit-flavor has been removed. Juice, concentrated fruit juice, or must processed at a concentrate plant is considered to be pure juice, concentrated fruit juice, or must even though volatile fruit-flavor has...

  6. 27 CFR 24.184 - Use of volatile fruit-flavor concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... original juice or must from which the wine was produced. (b) Use of juice or must from which volatile fruit-flavor has been removed. Juice, concentrated fruit juice, or must processed at a concentrate plant is considered to be pure juice, concentrated fruit juice, or must even though volatile fruit-flavor has...

  7. 27 CFR 24.184 - Use of volatile fruit-flavor concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... original juice or must from which the wine was produced. (b) Use of juice or must from which volatile fruit-flavor has been removed. Juice, concentrated fruit juice, or must processed at a concentrate plant is considered to be pure juice, concentrated fruit juice, or must even though volatile fruit-flavor has...

  8. 27 CFR 24.184 - Use of volatile fruit-flavor concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... original juice or must from which the wine was produced. (b) Use of juice or must from which volatile fruit-flavor has been removed. Juice, concentrated fruit juice, or must processed at a concentrate plant is considered to be pure juice, concentrated fruit juice, or must even though volatile fruit-flavor has...

  9. Treatment of fruit-juice industry wastewater in a two-stage anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor system followed by a sequencing batch reactor (SBR).

    PubMed

    Tawfik, A; El-Kamah, H

    2012-01-01

    This study has been carried out to assess the performance of a combined system consisting of an anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor followed by a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for treatment of fruit-juice industry wastewater at a temperature of 26 degrees C. Three experimental runs were conducted in this investigation. In the first experiment, a single-stage AH reactor was operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10.2 h and organic loading rate (OLR) of 11.8 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). The reactor achieved a removal efficiency of 42% for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 50.8% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), 50.3% for volatile fatty acids (VFA) and 56.4% for total suspended solids (TSS). In the second experiment, two AH reactors connected in series achieved a higher removal efficiency for COD (67.4%), BOD5 (77%), and TSS (71.5%) at a total HRT of 20 h and an OLR of 5.9 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). For removal of the remaining portions of COD, BOD5 and TSS from the effluent of the two-stage AH system, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was investigated as a post-treatment unit. The reactor achieved a substantial reduction in total COD, resulting in an average effluent concentration of 50 mg L(-1) at an HRT of 11 h and OLR of 5.3 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). Almost complete removal of total BOD5 and oil and grease was achieved, i.e. 10 mg L(-1) and 1.2 mg L(-1), respectively, remained in the final effluent of the SBR. PMID:22629614

  10. Adjunctive daily supplementation with encapsulated fruit, vegetable and berry juice powder concentrates and clinical periodontal outcomes: a double-blind RCT

    PubMed Central

    Chapple, Iain L C; Milward, Michael R; Ling-Mountford, Nicola; Weston, Paul; Carter, Kevin; Askey, Keeley; Dallal, Gerard E; De Spirt, Silke; Sies, Helmut; Patel, Dina; Matthews, John B

    2012-01-01

    Aim A double-blind randomized controlled trial to determine whether dietary supplementation with fruit/vegetable/berry juice powder concentrates, simultaneously with non-surgical periodontal therapy, improved 2-month treatment outcomes. Methods Volunteers with chronic periodontitis were randomly assigned to one of three groups: fruit/vegetable (FV), fruit/vegetable/berry (FVB) or placebo. Supplements were taken daily during non-surgical debridement and maintenance and outcomes assessed at 2, 5 and 8 months after completion. Primary outcomes were mean probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment gain, % sites bleeding on probing (% BOP) at 2 months. Adherence and plasma β-carotene were determined. Results Sixty-one nutritionally replete (by serum biochemistry) volunteers enrolled and 60 (n = 20 per arm) completed the 2-month review. Clinical outcomes improved in all groups at 2 months, with additional improvement in PPD versus placebo for FV (p < 0.03). Gingival crevicular fluid volumes diminished more in supplement groups than placebo (FVB; p < 0.05) at 2 months, but not at later times. The % BOP (5 months) and cumulative plaque scores (8 months) were lowered more in the FV group (p < 0.05). Conclusions Adjunctive juice powder concentrates appear to improve initial pocket depth reductions in nutritionally replete patients, where plasma micronutrient bioavailability is attainable. Definitive multicentre studies in untreated and treated patients are required to ascertain the clinical significance of such changes. PMID:22093005

  11. Uncovering co-expression gene network regulating fruit acidity in diverse apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acidity is a major contributor to fruit quality. Several organic acids are present in apple fruit, but malic acid is predominant and determines fruit acidity. The trait is largely controlled by the Malic acid (Ma) locus, underpinning which Ma1 that encodes an Aluminum-activated Malate Transporter1 (...

  12. UV Tolerance of Spoilage Microorganisms and Acid-Shocked and Acid-Adapted Escherichia coli in Apple Juice Treated with a Commercial UV Juice-Processing Unit.

    PubMed

    Usaga, Jessie; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I; Worobo, Randy W

    2016-02-01

    The enhanced thermal tolerance and survival responses of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in acid and acidified foods is a major safety concern for the production of low-pH products, including beverages. Little is known about this phenomenon when using UV light treatments. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of strain (E. coli O157:H7 strains C7927, ATCC 35150, ATCC 43895, and ATCC 43889 and E. coli ATCC 25922) and physiological state (control-unadapted, acid adapted, and acid shocked) on the UV tolerance of E. coli in apple juice treated under conditions stipulated in current U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations. A greater than 5-log reduction of E. coli was obtained under all tested conditions. A significant effect of strain (P < 0.05) was observed, but the physiological state did not influence pathogen inactivation (P ≥ 0.05). The UV sensitivity of three spoilage microorganisms (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium commune, and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris) was also determined at UV doses of 0 to 98 mJ/cm(2). Alicyclobacillus was the most UV sensitive, followed by Penicillium and Aspergillus. Because of the nonsignificant differences in UV sensitivity of E. coli in different physiological states, the use of an unadapted inoculum would be adequate to conduct challenge studies with the commercial UV unit used in this study at a UV dose of 14 mJ/cm(2). The high UV tolerance of spoilage microorganisms supports the need to use a hurdle approach (e.g., coupling of refrigeration, preservatives, and/or other technologies) to extend the shelf life of UV-treated beverages. PMID:26818991

  13. Antibacterial effects of roselle calyx extracts and protocatechuic acid in ground beef and apple juice.

    PubMed

    Chao, Che-Yi; Yin, Mei-Chin

    2009-03-01

    The antibacterial effects of roselle calyx aqueous and ethanol extracts and protocatechuic acid against food spoilage bacteria Salmonella typhimurium DT104, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus were examined. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of roselle calyx aqueous and ethanol extracts and protocatechuic acid against these bacteria were in the range of 112-144, 72-96, and 24-44 microg/mL, respectively. Protocatechuic acid content in roselle calyx aqueous and ethanol extracts was 2.8 +/- 0.7 and 11.9 +/- 1.2 mg/g, respectively. Antibacterial activity of roselle calyx ethanol extract and protocatechuic acid was not affected by heat treatments from 25 degrees to 75 degrees C and 25 degrees to 100 degrees C, respectively. After 3 days storage at 25 degrees C, the addition of roselle calyx extracts and protocatechuic acid exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory effects against test bacteria in ground beef and apple juice, in which the roselle calyx ethanol extract showed greater antibacterial effects than the aqueous extract. These data suggest that roselle calyx ethanol extract and protocatechuic acid might be potent agents as food additives to prevent contamination from these bacteria. PMID:19099360

  14. Degradation kinetic modelling of ascorbic acid and colour intensity in pasteurised blood orange juice during storage.

    PubMed

    Remini, Hocine; Mertz, Christian; Belbahi, Amine; Achir, Nawel; Dornier, Manuel; Madani, Khodir

    2015-04-15

    The stability of ascorbic acid and colour intensity in pasteurised blood orange juice (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) during one month of storage was investigated at 4-37 °C. The effects of ascorbic acid fortification (at 100, 200 mg L(-1)) and deaeration, temperature/time storage on the kinetic behaviour were determined. Ascorbic acid was monitored by HPLC-DAD and colour intensity by spectrophotometric measurements. Degradation kinetics were best fitted by first-order reaction models for both ascorbic acid and colour intensity. Three models (Arrhenius, Eyring and Ball) were used to assess the temperature-dependent degradation. Following the Arrhenius model, activation energies were ranged from 51 to 135 kJ mol(-1) for ascorbic acid and from 49 to 99 kJ mol(-1) for colour intensity. The effect of storage temperature and deaeration are the most influent factors on kinetics degradation, while the fortification revealed no significant effect on ascorbic acid content and colour intensity. PMID:25466074

  15. Determination of ten pyrethroids in various fruit juices: comparison of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction sample preparation and QuEChERS method combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaohai; Zhang, Xuelian; Jiao, Bining

    2014-09-15

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) sample preparation and the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method combined with DLLME were developed and compared for the analysis of ten pyrethroids in various fruit juices using gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). QuEChERS-DLLME method has found its widespread applications to all the fruit juices including those samples with more complex matrices (orange, lemon, kiwi and mango) while DLLME was confined to the fruit juices with simpler matrices (apple, pear, grape and peach). The two methods provided acceptable recoveries and repeatability. In addition, the applicabilities of two methods were demonstrated with the real samples and further confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PMID:24767068

  16. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  17. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  18. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  19. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  20. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with preservative... of orange juice for manufacturing as provided for in § 146.151, except that a preservative is...

  1. Effect of blending and storage on quality characteristics of blended sand pear-apple juice beverage.

    PubMed

    Raj, Dev; Sharma, P C; Vaidya, Devina

    2011-02-01

    Juice from sand pear and apple was extracted by grating the fruits following extraction using hydraulic press. The juice after extraction was filtered, heat pasteurized and packed in glass bottles followed by processing. Suitability of blending sand pear juice with apple juice was evaluated. Blending of sand pear juice (SPJ) with apple juice (AJ) in the proportion of 50:50 to 60:40 gave better quality with higher sensory score. With the increase in the level of SPJ in the AJ mix there was gradual increase in the level of polyphenols. Brix to acid ratio of the beverage was optimum when SPJ and AJ were blended in the ratio of 50:50 to 60:40. Storage of blended beverage containing 50-60% SPJ was found more shelf stable during 6months storage. PMID:23572723

  2. Pipette vial dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of benzoylurea insecticide in fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Xi, Xuefei; Yang, Miyi; Shen, Ganni; Wu, Xiaoling; Lu, Runhua; Zhou, Wenfeng; Zhang, Sanbing; Gao, Haixiang

    2016-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, and efficient method of using a pipette vial to perform dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on the solidification of floating organic droplets was coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a diode array detector for the preconcentration and analysis of four benzoylurea insecticides in fruit juice. In this method, 1-dodecanol was used as an extractant, and a snipped pipette was used as an experimental vial to simplify the procedure of collecting and separating solidified extractant. The experimental parameters were optimized using a Plackett-Burman design and one-factor-at-a-time method. Under the optimal conditions in the water model, the limits of detection for analytes varied from 0.03 to 0.28?g/L, and the enrichment factors ranged from 147 to 206. Linearity was achieved for diflubenzuron and flufenoxuron in a range of 0.5-500?g/L, for hexaflumuron in a range of 1-500?g/L, and for triflumuron in a range of 5-500?g/L. The correlation coefficients for the analytes ranged from 0.9986 to 0.9994 with recoveries of 91.4-110.9%. Finally, the developed technique was successfully applied to fruit juice samples with acceptable results. The relative standard deviations of the analytes at two spiking levels (50 and 200?g/L) varied between 0.2 and 4.5%. PMID:26526571

  3. Vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of furfurals and patulin in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Abu-Bakar, Nur-Bahiyah; Makahleh, Ahmad; Saad, Bahruddin

    2014-03-01

    A fast and simple solvent microextraction technique using salting out-vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (salting out-VALLME) was developed for the extraction of furfurals (2-furfural (2-F), 3-furfural (3-F), 5-methylfurfural (5-MF) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF)) and patulin (PAT) in fruit juice samples. The optimum extraction conditions for 5 mL sample were: extraction solvent, 1-hexanol; volume of extractant, 200 µL; vortex time, 45 s; salt addition, 20%. The simultaneous determination of the furfurals and PAT were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The separation was performed using ODS Hypersil C18 column (4.6 mm i.d × 250 mm, 5 μm) under gradient elution. The detection wavelengths used for all compounds were 280 nm except for 3-F (210 nm). The furfurals and PAT were successfully separated in less than 9 min. Good linearities (r(2)>0.99) were obtained within the range 1-5000 μg L(-1) for all compounds except for 3-F (10-5000 µg L(-1)) and PAT (0.5-100 μg L(-1)). The limits of detection (0.28-3.2 µg L(-1)) were estimated at S/N ratio of 3. The validated salting out-VALLME-HPLC method was applied for the analysis of furfurals and PAT in fruit juice samples (apple, mango and grape). PMID:24468341

  4. Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Laura; Ye, Zheng; Mursu, Jaakko; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Forouhi, Nita G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prospective associations between consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice with type 2 diabetes before and after adjustment for adiposity, and to estimate the population attributable fraction for type 2 diabetes from consumption of sugar sweetened beverages in the United States and United Kingdom. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources and eligibility PubMed, Embase, Ovid, and Web of Knowledge for prospective studies of adults without diabetes, published until February 2014. The population attributable fraction was estimated in national surveys in the USA, 2009-10 (n=4729 representing 189.1 million adults without diabetes) and the UK, 2008-12 (n=1932 representing 44.7 million). Synthesis methods Random effects meta-analysis and survey analysis for population attributable fraction associated with consumption of sugar sweetened beverages. Results Prespecified information was extracted from 17 cohorts (38 253 cases/10 126 754 person years). Higher consumption of sugar sweetened beverages was associated with a greater incidence of type 2 diabetes, by 18% per one serving/day (95% confidence interval 9% to 28%, I2 for heterogeneity=89%) and 13% (6% to 21%, I2=79%) before and after adjustment for adiposity; for artificially sweetened beverages, 25% (18% to 33%, I2=70%) and 8% (2% to 15%, I2=64%); and for fruit juice, 5% (−1% to 11%, I2=58%) and 7% (1% to 14%, I2=51%). Potential sources of heterogeneity or bias were not evident for sugar sweetened beverages. For artificially sweetened beverages, publication bias and residual confounding were indicated. For fruit juice the finding was non-significant in studies ascertaining type 2 diabetes objectively (P for heterogeneity=0.008). Under specified assumptions for population attributable fraction, of 20.9 million events of type 2 diabetes predicted to occur over 10 years in the USA (absolute event rate 11.0%), 1.8 million would be attributable to consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (population attributable fraction 8.7%, 95% confidence interval 3.9% to 12.9%); and of 2.6 million events in the UK (absolute event rate 5.8%), 79 000 would be attributable to consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (population attributable fraction 3.6%, 1.7% to 5.6%). Conclusions Habitual consumption of sugar sweetened beverages was associated with a greater incidence of type 2 diabetes, independently of adiposity. Although artificially sweetened beverages and fruit juice also showd positive associations with incidence of type 2 diabetes, the findings were likely to involve bias. None the less, both artificially sweetened beverages and fruit juice were unlikely to be healthy alternatives to sugar sweetened beverages for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Under assumption of causality, consumption of sugar sweetened beverages over years may be related to a substantial number of cases of new onset diabetes. PMID:26199070

  5. Hyaluronic acid depolymerization by ascorbate-redox effects on solid state cultivation of Streptococcus zooepidemicus in cashew apple fruit bagasse.

    PubMed

    de Macedo, Andr Casimiro; Santana, Maria Helena Andrade

    2012-05-01

    The cashew fruit (Anacardium occidentale L.) has been used as a promising agricultural resource for the production of low-molecular weight (M(W)) hyaluronic acid (HA) (10(4)-10(5) Da). The cashew juice is a rich source of vitamin C containing, 1.2-2.0 g L(-1). This work explores the effects of the initial concentration of the ascorbate on the solid fermentation of the juice-moisturized bagasse from the cashew apple fruit. The results show that the M(W) reduction of HA is proportional to the initial ascorbate concentration. The presence of ascorbate did not influence the Streptococcus zooepidemicus metabolism. However, the HA productivity was increased from 0.18 to 0.28 mg g(-1) h(-1) when the ascorbate concentration ranged from 1.7 to 10 mg mL(-1). These findings contribute to the controlled production of HA in a low M(W) range, which is important in cell signalization, angiogenesis and nanoparticles production. PMID:22806044

  6. Heat capacity of natural fruit juices and of their concentrates at temperatures from 10 to 120C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magerramov, M. A.

    2007-09-01

    The heat capacity of natural apple, cherry, and raspberry juices and of their concentrates has been studied at temperatures from 10 to 120C and pressures of 0.1 and 2 MPa. A setup based on the method of adiabatic calorimeter was assembled to carry out investigations. An estimate of the error of setup operation as well as control measurements on water prove the accuracy of experimental data to be within 0.8% at the indicated parameters of state. For the heat capacity of juices 175 values have been obtained. Equations that describe experimental data as functions of temperature and content of dry matter have been constructed.

  7. The PH gene determines fruit acidity and contributes to the evolution of sweet melons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acids are one of the three major components of fleshy fruit taste, together with sugars and volatile flavor compounds. However, the molecular-genetic control of acid accumulation in fruit is poorly understood and, to date, no genes responsible for acid accumulation in fleshy fruit have been function...

  8. Pain Reduction and Improvement in Range of Motion After Daily Consumption of an Aai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) PulpFortified Polyphenolic-Rich Fruit and Berry Juice Blend

    PubMed Central

    Ager, David M.; Redman, Kimberlee A.; Mitzner, Marcie A.; Benson, Kathleen F.; Schauss, Alexander G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Dietary interventions involving antioxidants are of interest for reducing inflammation, improving joint motion, and altering pain perception. We evaluated the effect of oral consumption of a fruit and berry blend on pain and range of motion (ROM). This open-label clinical pilot study involved 14 study participants with limitations in ROM that was associated with pain and affected daily living. Participants included but were not limited to those with age-related osteoarthritis. Study participants consumed 120?mL MonaVie Active fruit juice, predominantly containing aai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and other fruit concentrates, daily for 12 weeks. Study participants were assessed at baseline and 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks by structured nurse interviews, pain and activities of daily living (ADL) questionnaires, blood samples, and ROM assessment. Pain was scored by using a visual analogue scale. ROM was assessed by using dual digital inclinometry as recommended by American Medical Association guidelines. Consumption of the juice resulted in significant pain reduction, improved ROM measures, and improvement in ADLs. Serum antioxidant status, as monitored by the cell-based antioxidant protection in erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay, was improved within 2 weeks and continued to improve throughout the 12 weeks of study participation (P<.01). The inflammatory marker C-reactive protein was reduced at 12 weeks, but this change did not reach statistical significance. Lipid peroxidation decreased mildly at 12 weeks. The antioxidant status, as measured by the CAP-e bioassay, showed the best correlation with improvements in physical well-being (pain, ROM, and ADL). The significant association among increased antioxidant status, improved ROM, and pain reduction warrants further study. PMID:21470042

  9. Pain reduction and improvement in range of motion after daily consumption of an aai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp-fortified polyphenolic-rich fruit and berry juice blend.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Gitte S; Ager, David M; Redman, Kimberlee A; Mitzner, Marcie A; Benson, Kathleen F; Schauss, Alexander G

    2011-01-01

    Dietary interventions involving antioxidants are of interest for reducing inflammation, improving joint motion, and altering pain perception. We evaluated the effect of oral consumption of a fruit and berry blend on pain and range of motion (ROM). This open-label clinical pilot study involved 14 study participants with limitations in ROM that was associated with pain and affected daily living. Participants included but were not limited to those with age-related osteoarthritis. Study participants consumed 120 mL MonaVie Active fruit juice, predominantly containing aai pulp (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and other fruit concentrates, daily for 12 weeks. Study participants were assessed at baseline and 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks by structured nurse interviews, pain and activities of daily living (ADL) questionnaires, blood samples, and ROM assessment. Pain was scored by using a visual analogue scale. ROM was assessed by using dual digital inclinometry as recommended by American Medical Association guidelines. Consumption of the juice resulted in significant pain reduction, improved ROM measures, and improvement in ADLs. Serum antioxidant status, as monitored by the cell-based antioxidant protection in erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay, was improved within 2 weeks and continued to improve throughout the 12 weeks of study participation (P<.01). The inflammatory marker C-reactive protein was reduced at 12 weeks, but this change did not reach statistical significance. Lipid peroxidation decreased mildly at 12 weeks. The antioxidant status, as measured by the CAP-e bioassay, showed the best correlation with improvements in physical well-being (pain, ROM, and ADL). The significant association among increased antioxidant status, improved ROM, and pain reduction warrants further study. PMID:21470042

  10. Variable Efficacy of the Proteinaceous Antifungal YvgO in Select Fruit Juices and Teas as a Complement with UV Methods of Food Protection.

    PubMed

    Manns, David C; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2015-10-01

    Heat-resistant fungal spores present a processing challenge for beverages and fruit juices, as thermal and UV strategies are often inadequate in reducing heat-resistant fungal burdens to acceptable levels. While effective against pathogenic or invasive bacteria, germicidal UV light treatments also fail to achieve an appreciable reduction of heat-resistant fungal spores. As an alternative, the efficacy of the antifungal protein YvgO was examined across a selection of fruit juices and teas, as well as solid model matrices. Compared with its efficacy in analogous liquid matrices, the apparent efficacy of YvgO was diminished on acidified solid matrices due to a reduction in YvgO diffusion. Using an XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] tetrazolium dye cytotoxicity assay, the effective concentrations to reduce growth by 50% were elucidated in samples challenged with Byssochlamys fulva H25. The MICs were determined and ranged from 2 ppm in apple juice and acidified teas to approximately 3 to 12 ppm for lemonade and orange, white cranberry, blueberry, prune, cherry, and grape juices. Apple cider and nonacidified teas showed reduced efficacy, with MICs exceeding 100 ppm. Tannin-rich products readily removed YvgO from the product, impairing its efficacy. Adding bovine serum albumin as a competitive inhibitor effectively reversed the YvgO-tannin association and restored efficacy in black but not green tea matrices. When challenged with a 5-log CFU inoculum of B. fulva, the shelf lives of the products were extended for various times up to 28 days in a concentrationdependent manner. However, initial efficacy was not predictive of shelf life extension, as some products exhibited improved protection at just two- and fourfold concentrations above the MIC, while others only exhibited long-term stability when concentrations exceeded 20 times the MIC. As such, YvgO may be an attractive alternative to currently available protection strategies and will provide needed diversity for natural food protectants. PMID:26408134

  11. Comparison of torula yeast and various grape juice products as attractants for Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early research during the 1930s focused on attractants for the Mexican fruit fly indicated that fermentation products were effective attractants for Mexican fruit flies and other tropical Tephritidae, but that attraction to fruit components was only of academic interest. Tests reported here were ca...

  12. Lowering of oxidative stress improves endothelial function in healthy subjects with habitually low intake of fruit and vegetables: a randomized controlled trial of antioxidant- and polyphenol-rich blackcurrant juice.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faisel; Ray, Sumantra; Craigie, Angela M; Kennedy, Gwen; Hill, Alexander; Barton, Karen L; Broughton, Jane; Belch, Jill J F

    2014-07-01

    Inadequate intake of the recommended five-a-day fruit and vegetable portions might contribute to increased cardiovascular disease risk. We assessed the effects of dietary intake of a blackcurrant juice drink, rich in vitamin C and polyphenols, on oxidative stress and vascular function. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of 66 healthy adults who habitually consume <2 portions of fruit and vegetables per day. Participants were randomly allocated to consume 250ml of placebo (flavored water) or low or high blackcurrant juice drink four times a day for 6 weeks. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and plasma concentrations of F2-isoprostanes and vitamin C were measured. In the high blackcurrant juice drink group FMD increased significantly (5.83.1 to 6.93.1%, P=0.022) compared with the placebo group (6.02.2 to 5.12.4%). Plasma vitamin C concentration increased significantly in the low (38.617.6 to 49.421.0mol/L, P<0.001) and high (34.620.4 to 73.823.3mol/L, P<0.001) blackcurrant juice drink groups compared with the placebo group (38.121.0 to 29.017.6mol/L). F2-isoprostane concentrations were significantly lower in the high blackcurrant juice drink group (22564pg/ml) compared with the low blackcurrant juice drink (25769pg/ml, P=0.002) and placebo group (25459pg/ml, P=0.003). At follow-up, changes in plasma vitamin C correlated significantly with changes in FMD (r=0.308, P=0.044). Consumption of blackcurrant juice drink high in vitamin C and polyphenols can decrease oxidative stress and improve vascular health in individuals with habitually low dietary fruit and vegetable intake. PMID:24742818

  13. Effects of ultrasound treatments on quality of grapefruit juice.

    PubMed

    Aadil, Rana Muhammad; Zeng, Xin-An; Han, Zhong; Sun, Da-Wen

    2013-12-01

    Sonication is recognised as a potential technique for improvement in the quality of fruit juices. This study was initiated with the objective of evaluating the effect of sonication treatments on some important quality parameters of grapefruit juice such as physico-chemical (pH, acidity and Brix), Hunter colour values (L(*), a(*) and b(*)), cloud value, electrical conductivity, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols. Sonication of grapefruit juice was done in a bath type sonicator at a frequency of 28 kHz by maintaining a constant temperature of 20 C. Results showed that there was significant improvement in the cloud value, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols in all the juice samples sonicated for 30, 60 and 90 min but no changes occurred in the pH, acidity and Brix value as compared to control. Some differences in all the colour values were also observed but overall quality of grapefruit juice was improved, suggesting that sonication technique may successfully be implemented an industrial scale for the processing of grapefruit juice. PMID:23871078

  14. Development of a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for analyzing furanocoumarin components in citrus fruit juices and Chinese herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Ku; Sheu, Ming-Thau; Huang, Chia-Hui; Ho, Hsiu-O

    2009-03-01

    A rapid and sensitive reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantitation of five furanocoumarins (bergaptol, psoralen, bergapten, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, and bergamottin) is developed and validated. HPLC analysis of these five furanocoumarins is performed on a reversed-phase Inertsil ODS-2 column with a particle size of 5 microm. Using only water and acetonitrile as solvents, good separation, good precision, and high accuracy are obtained for the analysis of furanocoumarin components. This method is validated and applied to analyze the composition of five furanocoumarins in four citrus fruit juices (grapefruit, pomelo I, pomelo II, and shaddock) and ten Chinese herbal medicines (Bai-Zhi, Qiang-Huo, Du-Huo, Fang-Feng, Dang-Gui, Huang-Qin, Gan-Cao, Chen-Pi, Ge-Gen, and Yin-Chen-Hao) prepared by water decoction or an alcohol infusion. Results show that four of the five furanocoumarins (but not bergapten) are detected in grapefruit, pomelo I, and pomelo II, and the highest amount of these components is found in grapefruit juice. In the ten Chinese herbal medicines, the five furanocoumarins are not detected in Ge-Gen or Yin-Chen-Hao. The remaining herbs contain various compositions and amounts of furanocoumarins. In general, Chinese herbal medicines prepared by the 40% ethanol infusion contain larger amounts of furanocoumarins than those prepared by hot water decoction. PMID:19298708

  15. Purification and characterization of [Formula: see text]-mannanase from Bacillus pumilus (M27) and its applications in some fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Adiguzel, Ahmet; Nadaroglu, Hayrunnisa; Adiguzel, Gulsah

    2015-08-01

    Thermo alkaline mannanase was purified from the bacteria of Bacillus pumilus (M27) using the techniques of ammonium sulphate precipitation, DEAE-Sephadex ion exchange chromatography and Sephacryl S200 gel filtration chromatography with 111-fold and 36 % yield. It was determined that the enzyme had 2 sub-units including 35 kDa and 55 kDa in gel filtration chromatography and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis systems. The optimum pH and temperature was determined as 8 and 60 °C, respectively. It was also noticed that the enzyme did not lose its activity at a wide interval such as pH 3-11 and at high temperatures such as 90 °C. Additionally, the effects of some metal ions on the mannanase enzyme activity. Moreover, the clarifying efficiency of purified mannanase enzyme with some fruit juices such as orange, apricot, grape and apple was also investigated. Enzymatic treatment was carried out with 1 mL L(-1) of purified mannanase for 1 h at 60 °C. It was determined that the highest pure enzyme was efficient upon clarifying the apple juice at 154 % rate. PMID:26243955

  16. Effect of storage in juice with or without pulp and/or calcium lactate on the subsequent survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in simulated gastric fluid.

    PubMed

    Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Jo, Seong-Chun; Seo, Hye-Kyung; Park, Sun-Min; Lee, Seung-Cheol

    2008-04-30

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of storing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fruit or vegetable juices with or without pulp and/or calcium lactate, on the bacterial resistance to a simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 1.5). Apple, carrot, orange, and tomato juices containing pulp or freed from pulp by filtration were used in this study. Calcium lactate at about 1.4 g/l was added to juices to obtain calcium supplemented juices. Juices with or without pulp and/or calcium lactate were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and then were stored at 7 degrees C for 0, 1, 2, or 4 days. The acid resistance of cells stored in juices with or without pulp and/or calcium lactate was determined by incubating in SGF for 90 or 240 min at 37 degrees C. Cells stored in apple juice for 4 days, carrot juice for 2 days, and orange juice for 4 days with pulp only had greater acid resistance, while all cells stored in tomato juice with pulp had greater acid resistance than cells stored in juice without pulp. The D-values of cells stored in supplemented apple and orange juices with calcium lactate declined 1.7-3.5 fold, whereas D-values of cells stored in supplemented tomato juice decreased by about 1.4-fold when compared to cells stored in juice without calcium lactate after exposure in SGF. These results indicate that storing E. coli O157:H7 in juices with pulp had little or no effect on the acid resistance of cells during subsequent exposure in SGF. Calcium lactate supplemented into juices could dramatically decrease the ability of E. coli O157:H7 to survive in SGF, possibly reducing the risk of foodborne illness by juice products. PMID:18328587

  17. A low-viscosity soluble-fiber fruit juice supplement fails to lower cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men and women.

    PubMed

    Davidson, M H; Dugan, L D; Stocki, J; Dicklin, M R; Maki, K C; Coletta, F; Cotter, R; McLeod, M; Hoersten, K

    1998-11-01

    This study was designed to determine whether a soluble dietary fiber supplement containing gum arabic and pectin in apple juice would lower serum lipids in 110 hypercholesterolemic men and women. Subjects were stabilized on an American Heart Association Phase I Diet for 8 wk. Those with elevated low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, despite dietary modification, continued to follow the diet and were randomly assigned to receive 720 mL/d of apple juice containing 0 (control), 5, 9 or 15 g of gum arabic and pectin (4:1 ratio) for 12 wk, followed by a 6-wk apple juice-only washout phase. Serum lipid profiles, body weight and 3-day diet records were collected at 3-wk intervals. No significant differences among groups were observed in serum lipid responses during treatment or washout. During the treatment phase, mean serum total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations increased by 3.5 and 28.5%, respectively (all groups combined, P < 0.0001). The high density lipoprotein cholesterol level did not change significantly from baseline in any group. During washout, mean total cholesterol concentration rose by an additional 2.4% (P < 0.05) compared with the value at the end of the treatment period, suggesting that the apple juice used to deliver the fiber supplement may have contributed to the adverse changes observed in the serum lipid profile. These findings do not support the hypothesized hypocholesterolemic effect of the gum arabic/pectin (4:1) mixture studied, but do underline the importance of selecting appropriate vehicles for delivery of dietary fiber mixtures. PMID:9808644

  18. Genotype x environment interactions in eggplant for fruit phenolic acid content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eggplant fruit are a rich source of phenolic acids that contribute to fruit nutritive value and influence culinary quality. We evaluated the influence of production environment on eggplant fruit phenolic acid content. Ten Solanum melongena accessions including five F1 hybrid cultivars, three open-...

  19. Ingredients in fruit juices interact with dasatinib through inhibition of BCRP: a new mechanism of beverage-drug interaction.

    PubMed

    Fleisher, Brett; Unum, Jesse; Shao, Jie; An, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are a group of highly novel and target-specific anticancer drugs. Recently, most TKIs are found to be substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP). However, little information is available regarding the Pgp- or BCRP-mediated interaction of TKIs with coadministered drugs/food/beverage. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of the major ingredients of grapefruit juice (GFJ), orange juice (OJ), apple juice (AJ), and green tea on P-gp and BCRP-mediated dasatinib efflux. Among the 14 ingredients screened, only tangeretin and nobiletin moderately inhibited P-gp-mediated dasatinib efflux. In contrast, four ingredients in GFJ [i.e., bergamottin, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB), quercetin, and kaempferol], two ingredients in OJ (tangeretin and nobiletin), and one ingredient in AJ (i.e., hesperetin) greatly inhibited BCRP-mediated dasatinib efflux at the concentration of 50 ?M (p < 0.001). Further concentration-dependent studies revealed that bergamottin, DHB, tangeretin, and nobiletin are potent BCRP inhibitors, with IC?? values 3.19, 5.2, 1.19, and 1.04 ?M, respectively. Further in vivo investigations are warranted to evaluate the BCRP-mediated FJ-TKI interaction. Literature reports only documented the modulatory effect of FJ and green tea on CYP3A, P-gp, and OATP. Our novel finding that FJ ingredients strongly inhibit BCRP may represent a new mechanism of beverage-drug interaction. PMID:25418056

  20. Yeasts and lactic acid bacteria microbiota from masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits and their fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Nyanga, Loveness K; Nout, Martinus J R; Gadaga, Tendekayi H; Theelen, Bart; Boekhout, Teun; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2007-11-30

    Masau are Zimbabwean wild fruits, which are usually eaten raw and/ or processed into products such as porridge, traditional cakes, mahewu and jam. Yeasts, yeast-like fungi, and lactic acid bacteria present on the unripe, ripe and dried fruits, and in the fermented masau fruits collected from Muzarabani district in Zimbabwe were isolated and identified using physiological and molecular methods. The predominant species were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia orientalis, Pichia fabianii and Aureobasidium pullulans. A. pullulans was the dominant species on the unripe fruits but was not isolated from the fermented fruit pulp. S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis were predominant in the fermented fruit pulp but were not detected in the unripe fruits. S. cerevisiae, I. orientalis, P. fabianii and S. fibuligera are fermentative yeasts and these might be used in the future development of starter cultures to produce better quality fermented products from masau fruit. Lactic acid bacteria were preliminary identified and the predominant strains found were Lactobacillus agilis and L. plantarum. Other species identified included L. bifermentans, L. minor, L. divergens, L. confusus, L. hilgardii, L. fructosus, L. fermentum and Streptococcus spp. Some of the strains of LAB could also potentially be used in a mixed-starter culture with yeasts and might contribute positively in the production of fermented masau fruit products. PMID:17904237

  1. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Sucrose Scales. Where the juice has been obtained using concentrated juice with addition of water, the..., uncorrected for acidity and read as degrees Brix on the International Sucrose Scales. (ii) The acidity,...

  2. 21 CFR 146.185 - Pineapple juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Sucrose Scales. Where the juice has been obtained using concentrated juice with addition of water, the..., uncorrected for acidity and read as degrees Brix on the International Sucrose Scales. (ii) The acidity,...

  3. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  4. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  5. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  6. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  7. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  8. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  9. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  10. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  11. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards...

  12. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  13. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards...

  14. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  15. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  16. 21 CFR 146.150 - Canned concentrated orange juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned concentrated orange juice. 146.150 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.150 Canned concentrated orange juice. (a) Canned concentrated orange... labeling of ingredients prescribed for frozen concentrated orange juice by § 146.146, except that it is...

  17. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards...

  18. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  19. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards...

  20. 21 CFR 146.153 - Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.153 Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Concentrated orange juice for manufacturing is the food that complies with the requirements of composition and...

  1. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  2. 21 CFR 146.151 - Orange juice for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice for manufacturing. 146.151 Section... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.151 Orange juice for manufacturing. (a) Orange juice for manufacturing... from oranges as provided in § 146.135, except that the oranges may deviate from the standards...

  3. Carotene reactivity in pink grapefruit juice elucidated from model systems and multiresponse modeling.

    PubMed

    Achir, Nawel; Hadjal, Thiziri; Madani, Khodir; Dornier, Manuel; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie

    2015-04-22

    This study was carried out to assess the impact of pink grapefruit juice composition and structure on the degradation kinetics of lycopene and ?-carotene using model systems and multiresponse modeling. Carotenes were heated at four temperatures in their native matrix (juice) or were extracted and incorporated in water/ethanol emulsion systems formulated with or without ascorbic acid or naringin. Kinetic analysis showed that the rate constants and activation energy were lower for lycopene than for ?-carotene in the juice, while this trend was inversed in the model system. Multiresponse modeling was used to analyze the role of ascorbic acid and naringin in carotene degradation. Ascorbic acid had a very low impact, while naringin significantly increased the carotene degradation and isomerization rates. We concluded that lycopene was more sensitive to thermal degradation and phytochemical interactions than ?-carotene, but this behavior was masked in the fruit juice matrix by better structural protection. PMID:25818174

  4. HLB effects on the flavor of orange juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The citrus greening disease or Huanglongbing (HLB) disease has been reported to affect orange fruit and juice flavor, but until now was never well documented. Sensory and chemical flavor studies were conducted to compare juice from fruit harvested from healthy trees to juice from asymptomatic and sy...

  5. Encapsulation artocarpanone and ascorbic acid in O/W microemulsions: Preparation, characterization, and antibrowning effects in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xue; Zhu, Qin; Dai, Yaqing; He, Jianfei; Pan, Hongyang; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Zong-Ping

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to improve artocarpanone solubility by developing an O/W microemulsion with the evaluation of its antibrowning effects. The chemical and physical stabilities as well as antibrowning effects in apple juice were also evaluated. The formulation of artocarpanone microemulsion consisted of 4% w/w of ethyl butyrate, 10.67% w/w of Tween 80, 5.33% w/w of polyethylene glycol 400, and 80% w/w of water, with a maximum solubility of artocarpanone up to 10.54 0.01 mg/mL, at least 3000-folds increase in solubility compared that in water. Encapsulating artocarpanone and ascorbic acid (VC) into microemulsion simultaneously decreased modest artocarpanone solubility whereas improving its stability in long-term storage. Blank, artocarpanone and artocarpanone-Vc-loaded microemulsions demonstrated steadily during accelerated and long-term storage. Artocarpanone-Vc-loaded microemulsion showed strong antibrowning effects in apple juice at room temperature in 24h, suggesting that artocarpanone-Vc-loaded microemulsion is a good antibrowning agent for apple juices. PMID:26304444

  6. Influence of sub-lethal stresses on the survival of lactic acid bacteria after spray-drying in orange juice.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, J; Borges, S; Teixeira, P

    2015-12-01

    The demand for new functional non-dairy based products makes the production of a probiotic orange juice powder an encouraging challenge. However, during drying process and storage, loss of viability of the dried probiotic cultures can occur, since the cells are exposed to various stresses. The influence of sub-lethal conditions of temperature, acidic pH and hydrogen peroxide on the viability of Pediococcus acidilactici HA-6111-2 and Lactobacillus plantarum 299v during spray drying in orange juice and subsequent storage under different conditions was investigated. At the end of storage, the survival of both microorganisms through simulated gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) conditions was also determined. The viability of cells previously exposed to each stress was not affected by the drying process. However, during 180 days of storage at room temperature, unlike P. acidilactici HA-6111-2, survival of L. plantarum 299v was enhanced by prior exposure to sub-lethal conditions. Previous exposure to sub-lethal stresses of each microorganism did not improve their viability after passage through simulated GIT. Nevertheless, as cellular inactivation during 180 days of storage was low, both microorganisms were present in numbers of ca. 10(7) cfu/mL at the end of GIT. This is an indication that both bacteria are good candidates for use in the development of an orange juice powder with functional characteristics. PMID:26338119

  7. Salicylic Acid Induces Changes in Mango Fruit that Affect Oviposition Behavior and Development of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Pagadala Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi; Aurade, Ravindra Mahadappa; Kempraj, Vivek; Roy, Tapas Kumar; Shivashankara, Kodthalu Seetharamaiah; Verghese, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of 'natural plant defenses' by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri) on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis) were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis. PMID:26422203

  8. Salicylic Acid Induces Changes in Mango Fruit that Affect Oviposition Behavior and Development of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Tapas Kumar; Shivashankara, Kodthalu Seetharamaiah; Verghese, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is an important quarantine pest around the globe. Although measures for its control are implemented worldwide through IPM and male annihilation, there is little effect on their population. Hence, there is a need for new strategies to control this minacious pest. A strategy that has received negligible attention is the induction of ‘natural plant defenses’ by phytohormones. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicylic acid (SA) treatment of mango fruit (cv. Totapuri) on oviposition and larval development of B. dorsalis. In oviposition choice assays, gravid females laid significantly less eggs in SA treated compared to untreated fruit. Headspace volatiles collected from SA treated fruit were less attractive to gravid females compared to volatiles from untreated fruit. GC-MS analysis of the headspace volatiles from SA treated and untreated fruit showed noticeable changes in their chemical compositions. Cis-ocimene and 3-carene (attractants to B. dorsalis) were reduced in the headspace volatiles of treated fruit. Further, reduced pupae formation and adult emergence was observed in treated fruit compared to control. Increased phenol and flavonoid content was recorded in treated fruit. We also observed differential expression of anti-oxidative enzymes namely catalase (CAT), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis. PMID:26422203

  9. Chiral ligand-exchange separation and determination of malic acid enantiomers in apple juice by open-tubular capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Aydo?an, Cemil; Karako, Veyis; Denizli, Adil

    2015-11-15

    This study describes the application of an open tubular capillary column for chiral ligand-exchange separation and determination of malic acid enantiomers in apple juice by open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC). The open tubular column was prepared by in-situ grafting polymerization of 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA-Cl) and followed by L-Histidine (L-His) modification. L-His was used as a chiral ligand-exchange selector and copper (II) as a central ion. The electrochromatographic characterization of the open tubular column was performed with the use of thiourea as an electroosmotic flow (EOF) marker. Factors affecting electrochromatographic enantioseparation of malic acid were also studied. The running buffer conditions for optimum enantioseparation of malic acid were found to be ACN/5.0mM CuSO4, 20.0mM (NH4)2SO4 (60/40%, v/v) adjusted to pH 3.0. The separation and determination of the enantiomers of malic acid in the apple juice solution diluted 10- to 40-folds were successfully achieved. PMID:25977007

  10. Vortex- and CO2 -gas-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction with salt addition for the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of furanic compounds in concentrated juices and dried fruits.

    PubMed

    Abu-Bakar, Nur-Bahiyah; Makahleh, Ahmad; Saad, Bahruddin

    2016-03-01

    A novel microextraction method based on vortex- and CO2 -assisted liquid-liquid microextraction with salt addition for the isolation of furanic compounds (5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, 5-methyl-2-furaldehyde, 2-furaldehyde, 3-furaldehyde, 2-furoic and 3-furoic acids) was developed. Purging the sample with CO2 was applied after vortexing to enhance the phase separation and mass transfer of the analytes. The optimum extraction conditions were: extraction solvent (volume), propyl acetate (125 μL); sample pH, 2.4; vortexing time, 45 s; salt concentration, 25% w/v and purging time, 5 min. The analytes were separated using an ODS Hypersil C18 column (250×4.6 mm i.d, 5 μm) under gradient flow. The proposed method showed good linearities (r(2) >0.999), low detection limits (0.08-1.9 μg/L) and good recoveries (80.7-122%). The validated method was successfully applied for the determination of the furanic compounds in concentrated juice (mango, date, orange, pomegranate, roselle, mangosteen and soursop) and dried fruit (prune, date and apricot paste) samples. PMID:26718308

  11. Development of magnetic octadecylsilane particles as solid-phase extraction adsorbent for the determination of fat-soluble vitamins in fruit juice-milk beverage by capillary liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chaofan; Jia, Li; Liu, Qingqing; Zhang, Sheng

    2010-07-01

    A sensitive, fast and simple method based on magnetic octadecylsilane particles was developed for the extraction of three fat-soluble vitamins followed by capillary LC (CLC) analysis with UV detection. Magnetic octadecylsilane particles were prepared based on three-step reactions including co-precipitation, sol-gel polymerization and alkylation. The characterization of the prepared product was studied by scanning electron microscope and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry. The particles were used as magnetic SPE adsorbent for the extraction of fat-soluble vitamins in fruit juice-milk beverage. The extraction condition and efficiency of the particles for fat-soluble vitamins were investigated. By coupling magnetic SPE with capillary LC with UV detection, low concentrations of fat-soluble vitamins in fruit juice-milk beverage can be detected without the interference from other substances in the sample matrix. PMID:20533343

  12. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry compatible approaches for the quantitation of folic acid in fortified juices and cereals using aqueous normal phase conditions.

    PubMed

    Young, Josh E; Matyska, Maria T; Pesek, Joseph J

    2011-04-15

    Folic acid was separated under aqueous normal phase (ANP) conditions with Diamond Hydride columns and quantitated in fortified cereal and juice matrices using high performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet absorption (HPLC-UV) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based methodologies. The folic acid was well-resolved from matrix components under the ANP conditions studied and allowed for the direct analyses of the fortified juices and cereals without the sample cleanup that is often required for other reported LC-based approaches. The calibration curve obtained from the LC-MS analyses demonstrated good linearity (R(2)=0.9997) in the studied concentration range of 0.05-0.5 mg/L. The spiked flour percent recovery was 90% with HPLC-UV and 91% with LC-MS. Spiked juice percent recovery was 102% with LC-MS. However, analyses of juices were unsatisfactory either in terms of recovery or sensitivity. Therefore, analyses of juices will either need to be performed by LC-MS or, if by HPLC-UV, will require sample cleanup. Three cereals and one juice were analyzed with the methods. PMID:20926082

  13. The PH gene determines fruit acidity and contributes to the evolution of sweet melons.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Shahar; Itkin, Maxim; Yeselson, Yelena; Tzuri, Galil; Portnoy, Vitaly; Harel-Baja, Rotem; Lev, Shery; Sa'ar, Uzi; Davidovitz-Rikanati, Rachel; Baranes, Nadine; Bar, Einat; Wolf, Dalia; Petreikov, Marina; Shen, Shmuel; Ben-Dor, Shifra; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph; Ast, Tslil; Schuldiner, Maya; Belausov, Eduard; Eshed, Ravit; Ophir, Ron; Sherman, Amir; Frei, Benedikt; Neuhaus, H Ekkehard; Xu, Yimin; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, Jim; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Yaakov; Paris, Harry S; Katzir, Nurit; Burger, Yosef; Schaffer, Arthur A

    2014-01-01

    Taste has been the subject of human selection in the evolution of agricultural crops, and acidity is one of the three major components of fleshy fruit taste, together with sugars and volatile flavour compounds. We identify a family of plant-specific genes with a major effect on fruit acidity by map-based cloning of C. melo PH gene (CmPH) from melon, Cucumis melo taking advantage of the novel natural genetic variation for both high and low fruit acidity in this species. Functional silencing of orthologous PH genes in two distantly related plant families, cucumber and tomato, produced low-acid, bland tasting fruit, showing that PH genes control fruit acidity across plant families. A four amino-acid duplication in CmPH distinguishes between primitive acidic varieties and modern dessert melons. This fortuitous mutation served as a preadaptive antecedent to the development of sweet melon cultigens in Central Asia over 1,000 years ago. PMID:24898284

  14. Insights regarding sensory evaluation of bitterness development in citrus juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delayed bitterness is a well-known phenomenon in citrus juice and has a negative impact on juice quality. Bitterness results when the tasteless limonoic acid A-ring lactone (LARL) in juice is converted to the bitter compound limonin after juicing. Citrus varieties that produce juice that becomes bit...

  15. Effect of HLB on flavor of orange juice and perception of limonin and nomilin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of Huanglongbing (HLB) on orange juice flavor is complex. On the one hand, fruit that are harvested from diseased trees, that are asymptomatic for the disease, produce juice that is not much different from normal juice. In some cases the asymptomatic HLB fruit juice was detected to be sli...

  16. Identification of oligomers in polyethyleneterephthalate bottles for mineral water and fruit juice. Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of first series cyclic trimer.

    PubMed

    Nasser, A L M; Lopes, L M X; Eberlin, M N; Monteiro, M

    2005-12-01

    Cyclic oligomers were identified in PET bottles used for mineral water and fruit juice using MS and (1)H and (13)C NMR: a first series cyclic trimer, a first series cyclic tetramer, a first series cyclic dimmer and a second series cyclic trimer. An analytical method to determine first series cyclic trimer in these bottles was developed and validated, using HPLC. The first series cyclic trimer levels were 316-462 mg/100g of PET bottle. PMID:16298192

  17. The hydroxycinnamic acid content of barley and brewers' spent grain (BSG) and the potential to incorporate phenolic extracts of BSG as antioxidants into fruit beverages.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Aoife L; O'Callaghan, Yvonne C; Neugart, Susanne; Piggott, Charles O; Connolly, Alan; Jansen, Marcel A K; Krumbein, Angelika; Schreiner, Monika; FitzGerald, Richard J; O'Brien, Nora M

    2013-12-01

    The hydroxycinnamic acid (HA) content of starting barley for brewers' spent grains (BSG), whole BSG and phenolic extracts from BSG was measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and correlated with antioxidant potential. The effect of BSG phenolic extracts on antioxidant activity of fruit beverages was also assessed (using the total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays). The concentration of HA present in barley extract and BSG was in the order of ferulic acid (FA), p-coumaric acid (p-CA) derivatives, FA derivatives, p-CA, caffeic acid (CA) and CA derivatives. Results suggested that brewing and roasting decreased the HA content. Antioxidant activity was significantly (P<0.05) correlated with caffeic acid (R(2)=0.8309) and total HA (R(2)=0.3942) concentrations. Addition of extracts to fruit beverages resulted in a significant (P<0.05) increase in antioxidant activity of cranberry juice, measured by the FRAP assay. In vitro digestion significantly (P<0.05) reduced TPC, DPPH and FRAP activity of the fruit beverages. PMID:23870996

  18. 21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... deficiency, if any, of the natural acidity of the fruit juice ingredient. (3) Sodium citrate, sodium acetate, sodium tartrate, monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium potassium tartrate, potassium citrate, potassium acid tartrate, or any combination thereof, in an amount not exceeding 2...

  19. 21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... deficiency, if any, of the natural acidity of the fruit juice ingredient. (3) Sodium citrate, sodium acetate, sodium tartrate, monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium potassium tartrate, potassium citrate, potassium acid tartrate, or any combination thereof, in an amount not exceeding 2...

  20. 21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... deficiency, if any, of the natural acidity of the fruit juice ingredient. (3) Sodium citrate, sodium acetate, sodium tartrate, monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium potassium tartrate, potassium citrate, potassium acid tartrate, or any combination thereof, in an amount not exceeding 2...

  1. 21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... deficiency, if any, of the natural acidity of the fruit juice ingredient. (3) Sodium citrate, sodium acetate, sodium tartrate, monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium potassium tartrate, potassium citrate, potassium acid tartrate, or any combination thereof, in an amount not exceeding 2...

  2. 21 CFR 150.141 - Artificially sweetened fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... deficiency, if any, of the natural acidity of the fruit juice ingredient. (3) Sodium citrate, sodium acetate, sodium tartrate, monosodium phosphate, disodium phosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium potassium tartrate, potassium citrate, potassium acid tartrate, or any combination thereof, in an amount not exceeding 2...

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological, chemical, and sensory properties of fresh ashitaba and kale juices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Cheorun; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Kyung Haeng

    2012-08-01

    Due to the popularity of health effects upon intake of fresh fruits and vegetables, the demand for fresh vegetables and fruit juices has rapidly increased. However, currently, washing is the only procedure for reducing contaminated microorganisms, which obviously limits the shelf-life of fresh vegetable juice (less than 3 days). In this study, we examined the effects of irradiation on the microbiological, chemical and sensory properties of ashitaba and kale juices for industrial application and possible shelf-life extension. Freshly made ashitaba and kale juices already had 2.3×105 and 9.5×104 CFU/mL, respectively. Irradiation of 5 kGy induced higher than 2 decimal reductions in the microbial level, which was consistently maintained during storage for 7 days under refrigerated conditions. Total content of ascorbic acid in vegetable juice decreased upon irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. However, the content of flavonoids did not change, whereas that of polyphenols increased upon irradiation. In sensory evaluation, the ashitaba and kale juices without irradiation (control) scored lower than the irradiated samples after 1 and 3 days, respectively. This study confirms that irradiation is an effective method for sterilizing fresh vegetable juice without compromising sensory property, which cannot be subjected to heat pasteurization due to changes in the bioactivities of the products.

  4. Simultaneous separation and determination of organic acids in blueberry juices by capillary electrophoresis- electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Yongku, Li; Wang, Xinyi; Wang, Fen; Wang, Xu; Wang, Yanfang; Meng, Xianjun

    2015-08-01

    A sensitive and expeditious capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry(CE-ESIMS) method for the separation, identification and determination of succinic, citric, salicylic, malic, benzoic, sorbic, ascorbic, and tartaric acid in blueberry juices has been developed. In order to obtain the analytical separation, CE-MS interface parameters(e.g., buffer pH and composition, sheath liquid and gas flow rates, sheath liquid composition, electrospray voltage, etc.) were carefully optimized. Eight organic acids were baseline separated in 8min under optimum experimental conditions. The precisions for eight replicate separations of a standard mixture solution were 2.54-4.12% for peak area and 0.85-2.12% for migration time respectively. The linear ranges were 10.0-1000.0, 8.0-1000.0, 13.0-1000.0, 6.0-1000.0, 9.0-1000.0, 3.2-600.0, 6.0-1000.0 and 18.0-1000.0?g/L for succinic, citric, salicylic, malic, benzoic, sorbic, ascorbic, and tartaric acid with detection limits of 2.5, 2.0, 3.4, 1.5, 2.2, 0.8, 1.5, 4.5?g/L, respectively. The average recoveries of the eight components were between 86.8 and 99.8% with RSDs of 1.8-5.3%. The proposed method was applied to the simultaneous analysis of eight analytes in Blueberry Juice samples with satisfactory results. PMID:26243946

  5. Determination of fungicides in fruit juice by ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic solvent droplets followed by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fan, Run-Zhen; Liu, Congyun; Jiang, Wenqing; Wang, Xiaonan; Liu, Fengmao

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-DLLME) based on solidification of the floating organic solvent droplets (SFO) combined with HPLC was used for determination of five fungicides in fruit juice samples. 1-Dodecanol, which has a low density and low toxicity, was used as the extraction solvent in UA-DLLME. The solidification of floating organic droplets facilitates the transfer of analytes from the aqueous phase to the organic phase. This method was easy, quick, inexpensive, precise, and linear over a wide range. Under the optimized conditions, the enrichment factors for a 5 mL fruit juice sample were 25 to 56, and the LODs for the five fungicides ranged from 5 to 50 microg/L. The average recoveries ranged from 71.8 to 118.2% with RSDs of 0.9 to 13.9%. Application of the DLLME-SFO technique allows successful separation and preconcentration of the fungicides at a low concentration level in fruit juice samples. PMID:24672876

  6. Interactions and thresholds of limonin and nomilin in bitterness perception in orange juice and other matrices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limonin and nomilin are two bitter compounds present in citrus and are thought to cause the bitter off-flavor of Huanglongbing-infected fruit/juice. This study determined the thresholds of limonin, nomilin, and their combination in a simple matrix (sucrose and citric acid), a complex matrix (sucrose...

  7. Interactions between limonin and nomilin, two bitter compounds of orange juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a preliminary step to understand and characterize which metabolites are responsible for the bitter off-favor of Huanglongbing infected fruit, the thresholds of limonin, nomilin, and their combination in a sugar and acid matrix, as well as in healthy Valencia orange juice were determined by tast...

  8. Pericarp browning and quality management of litchi fruit by antioxidants and salicylic acid during ambient storage.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Mishra, Daya Shankar; Chakraborty, Binayak; Kumar, Prabhat

    2013-08-01

    Different antioxidants and salicylic acid were tested to overcome pericarp browning and to maintain the postharvest quality of the litchi fruits at ambient storage. It was found that 0.5% salicylic acid, 1% isoascorbic acid and 1% N-acetyl cysteine performed better over sulphur dioxide (SO2) fumigation for most of the parameters under study. Application of 0.5% salicylic acid found superior to reduce the pericarp browning, relative leakage rate, and decay percentage. It was effective in reduction of polyphenol oxidase activity and improvement of anthocyanin pigments of the fruit pericarp over other treatments. Total soluble solid, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid of the litchi fruits were recorded highest with the application of 1% isoascorbic acid followed by 0.5% salicylic acid treatment. Therefore, 0.5% salicylic acid and 1% isoascorbic could be used as an alternative of SO2 fumigation for quality retention of litchi fruits. PMID:24425984

  9. Composition of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv «Maltaise demi-sanguine» juice. A comparison between organic and conventional farming.

    PubMed

    Letaief, Hend; Zemni, Hassen; Mliki, Ahmed; Chebil, Samir

    2016-03-01

    Juices from conventionally and organically grown Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Maltaise demi-sanguine blood orange were investigated for quality parameters and antioxidant capacity. This blood orange variety is particularly rich in linoleic, linolenic acids, vitamin C and phenolic compounds. The quantitative determination of these compounds in cv. Maltaise demi-sanguine juice produced under conventional and organic agricultural practices revealed significant differences. The organically grown fruits contained more hesperidin and total fatty acids amounts as well as a higher sugar content and a lower acidity. Conventionally-grown fruit was found to have an increase in antioxidant capacity. In addition to having higher antioxidant activity conventionally-grown fruit had an observed increase in the concentration of phenolic acids and most flavonoids. The results of this study indicated that organically-grown Maltaise demi-sanguine juice contained an increased concentration of hesperidin which has been observed to possess biological activities associated with a healthy life. PMID:26471557

  10. Ionic liquid-based totally organic solvent-free emulsification microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of three acaricides in fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaheng; Liang, Zhe; Guo, Hao; Gao, Peng; Lu, Runhua; Zhou, Wenfeng; Zhang, Sanbing; Gao, Haixiang

    2013-10-15

    A novel, totally organic solvent-free emulsification microextraction (TEME) technique using ionic liquids (ILs) is proposed in this study. Seven bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquids were synthesized. After comparing the physicochemical properties of the ionic liquids and their application to microextraction experiments, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C6MIM][NTf2]), which has moderate surface tension and viscosity, was selected as the extraction solvent. The dispersion of ILs and mass transfer were accelerated by ultrasound irradiation and temperature control processes. Therefore, no dispersive organic solvent was needed. Several variables, such as ionic liquid volume, duration of the ultrasound extraction, dispersion temperature, ionic strength and centrifugation time were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.1-600 ?g L(-1) for chlorfenapyr and fenpyroximate and 0.5-600 ?g L(-1) for spirodiclofen, with correlation coefficients of 0.9994-0.9999. The enrichment factors were between 261 and 285. The limits of detection (LODs) were 0.02-0.06 ?g L(-1). Real fruit juice samples (at fortified levels of 10 ?g L(-1) and 30 ?g L(-1)) were successfully analyzed using the proposed method. The relative recoveries and enrichment factors were in the range of 92-104%. PMID:24054632

  11. Antitumour potential of a polysaccharide-rich substance from the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) on sarcoma 180 ascites tumour in mice.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, Eiichi; Hirazumi, Anne; Story, Stephen; Jensen, Jarakae

    2003-12-01

    An immunomodulatory polysaccharide-rich substance (Noni-ppt) from the fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia has been found to possess both prophylactic and therapeutic potentials against the immunomodulator sensitive Sarcoma 180 tumour system. The antitumour activity of Noni-ppt produced a cure rate of 25%-45% in allogeneic mice and its activity was completely abolished by the concomitant administration of specific inhibitors of macrophages (2-chloroadenosine), T cells (cyclosporine) or natural killer (NK) cells (anti-asialo GM1 antibody). Noni-ppt showed synergistic or additive beneficial effects when combined with a broad spectrum of chemotherapeutic drugs, including cisplatin, adriamycin, mitomycin-C, bleomycin, etoposide, 5- fl uorouracil, vincristine or camptothecin. It was not beneficial when combined with paclitaxel, cytosine arabinoside, or immunosuppressive anticancer drugs such as cyclophosphamide, methotrexate or 6-thioguanine. Noni-ppt also demonstrated beneficial effects when combined with the Th1 cytokine, interferon gamma, but its activity was abolished when combined with Th2 cytokines, interleukin-4 or interleukin-10, thereby suggesting that Noni-ppt induces a Th1 dominant immune status in vivo. The combination of Noni-ppt with imexon, a synthetic immunomodulator, also demonstrated beneficial effects, but not when combined with the MVE-2 copolymer, a high molecular weight immunomodulator. It was also not effective when combined with interleukin-2 or interleukin-12. PMID:14669249

  12. Synthesis and characterisation of nano-pore antimony imprinted polymer and its use in the extraction and determination of antimony in water and fruit juice samples.

    PubMed

    Shakerian, Farid; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Haji Shabani, Ali Mohammad; Nili Ahmad Abadi, Maryam

    2014-02-15

    A solid phase extraction method using antimony ion imprinted polymer (IIP) sorbent combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed for the extraction and speciation of antimony. The sorbent has been synthesised in the presence of Sb(III) and ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) using styrene as the monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross linker. The imprinted Sb(III) ions were removed by leaching with HCl (50%v/v) and the polymer was characterised by FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy. The maximum sorption capacity of the IIP for Sb(III) ions was found to be 6.7 mg g(-1). With preconcentration of 60 mL of sample, an enhancement factor of 232 and detection limit of 3.9 ng L(-1) was obtained. Total antimony was determined after the reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III). The method was successfully applied to the determination of antimony species in water samples and total antimony in fruit juices. PMID:24128516

  13. Two new antioxidant malonated caffeoylquinic acid isomers in fruits of wild eggplant relatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits of both the cultivated eggplant species Solanum melongena and its wild relative Solanum incanum have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates, which along with other phenylpropanoids are implicated in the human health benefits of various fruits and vegetables. Monocaffeoylquinic acid...

  14. Reduction of non-enzymatic browning of orange juice and semi-concentrates by removal of reaction substrate.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Satish K; Juyal, Shashibala; Rao, V K; Yadav, V K; Dixit, A K

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to standardize the technology for the removal of amino acids (one of the browning reaction substrates) from sweet orange cv. Malta Common juice to reduce colour and quality deterioration in single strength juice and during subsequent concentration. Juice of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) cv. Malta Common fruits was extracted by screw type juice extractor, preserved in 500ppm SO2 and clarified by using "Pectinase CCM" enzyme (0.2% for 2h at 50??2C). For removal of amino acids juice was passed under gravity through a glass column packed with an acidic cation exchange resin (CER), Dowex-50W and quantity to be treated in one lot was standardized. The CER treated and untreated juices were concentrated to 15 and 30Brix in a rotary vacuum evaporator. Results indicate that 121ml of orange juice when passed through a glass column (5cm internal diameter) packed with cation exchange resin (Dowex-50W) upto a height of 8cm, could remove about 98.4% of the amino acids with minimum losses in other juice constituents. With cation exchange resin treatment, the non-enzymatic browning and colour deterioration of orange juice semi-concentrates was reduced to about 3 folds in comparison to untreated counterparts. The retention of vitamin C and sugars was also better in semi-concentrates prepared from cation exchange resin treated juice. Thus, cation exchange resin treatment of orange juice prior to concentration and storage is highly beneficial in reduction of non-enzymatic browning, colour deterioration and retention of nutritional, sensory quality of product during preparation and storage. PMID:24966423

  15. Identification of candidate amino acids involved in the formation of pink-red pigments in onion (Allium cepa L.) juice and separation by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jin; Yoo, Kil Sun; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2010-10-01

    The formation of pink-red pigments ("pinking") by various amino acids was investigated by reacting amino acids with compounds present in onion juice. The unknown pink-red pigments were generated and separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a diode array detector (DAD) in the range of 200 to 700 nm. To generate pink-red pigments, we developed several reaction systems using garlic alliinase, purified 1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (1-PeCSO), onion thiosulfinate, natural onion juice, and 21 free amino acids. The compound 1-PeCSO was a key compound associated with pinking in the presence of both the alliinase and amino acids. Numerous naturally occurring pink-red pigments were detected and separated from pink onion juice using the HPLC-DAD system at 515 nm. Most free amino acids, with the exceptions of histidine, serine, and cysteine, formed various pink-red pigments when reacted with onion thiosulfinate. This observation indicated that onion pinking is caused not by a single pigment, but by many. Furthermore, more than one color compound could be produced from a single amino acid; this explains, in part, why there were many pink-red compound peaks in the chromatogram of discolored natural onion juice. We presumed that the complexity of the pink-red pigments was due to the involvement of more than 21 natural amino acids as well as several derivatives of the color products produced from each amino acid. We observed that the pinking process in onion juice is very similar to that of the greening process in crushed garlic, emphasizing that both thiosulfinate from flavor precursors and free amino acids are absolutely required for the discoloration. PMID:21535486

  16. Taurine is absent from amino components in fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hatem Salama Mohamed; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman Saleh; Brckner, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Juices of edible fruits from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, commonly named prickly pears or Indian figs, were analysed for amino acids using an automated amino acid analyser run in the high-resolution physiological mode. Emphasis was put on the detection of free taurine (Tau), but Tau could be detected neither in different cultivars of prickly pears from Italy, South Africa and the Near East nor in commercially available prickly pear juices from the market. PMID:25485199

  17. A comparison of solid-phase microextraction and stir bar sorptive extraction coupled to liquid chromatography for the rapid analysis of resveratrol isomers in wines, musts and fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Viñas, Pilar; Campillo, Natalia; Hernández-Pérez, Mónica; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2008-03-17

    A comparison of direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (DI-SPME) and stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) coupled to liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorimetric detection for the rapid analysis of resveratrol isomers is described. For DI-SPME, a polar Carbowax-template resin (CW/TPR) 50mum fiber was the most efficient and optimum extraction conditions were 40 degrees C and an extraction time of 30min, stirring in the presence of 5% (m/v) sodium chloride and 0.07M acetate/acetic acid buffer (pH 6). Desorption was carried out using the static mode for 10min. Linearity was obtained in the 5-150 and 2-150ngmL(-1) ranges for trans- and cis-resveratrol, with detection limits of 2 and 0.5ngmL(-1), respectively. When using SBSE, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) twister provided best extraction by means of a derivatization reaction in the presence of acetic anhydride and potassium carbonate. The same time and temperature were used for the extraction step in the presence of 2.5% (m/v) sodium chloride, and liquid desorption was performed with 150microL of a 50/50 (v/v) acetonitrile/1% (v/v) acetic acid solution in a desorption time of 15min. Linearity was now between 0.5 and 50ngmL(-1) for trans-resveratrol with a detection limit of 0.1ngmL(-1), while cis-resveratrol could not be extracted. The proposed methods were successfully applied to determining the resveratrol isomer content of wine, must and fruit juices. PMID:18298976

  18. Phytochemical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of different citrus juice concentrates.

    PubMed

    Oikeh, Ehigbai I; Omoregie, Ehimwenma S; Oviasogie, Faith E; Oriakhi, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    The search for new antimicrobial compounds is ongoing. Its importance cannot be overemphasized in an era of emerging resistant pathogenic organisms. This study therefore investigated the phytochemical composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of different citrus juice concentrates. Fruit juices of Citrus tangerine (tangerine), Citrus paradisi (grape), Citrus limon (lemon), and Citrus aurantifolia (lime) were evaluated. Antimicrobial activities against five bacterial and three fungal strains were evaluated. The results revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and reducing sugars in all the juice concentrates. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging capacities varied with tangerine and grape juices having better scavenging capacities than lemon and lime juices. Grape juice was observed to have a significantly higher (P<0.05) ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) value (364.210.25?mol/L Fe(II)/g of the extract) than the reference antioxidant, ascorbic acid (312.885.61?mol/L). Antimicrobial studies revealed differential antimicrobial activities against different microbial strains. Zones of inhibition ranging from 4 to 26mm were observed for the antibacterial tests with 0-24mm for antifungal test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bacteriostatic concentrations (MBC) for concentrates against bacterial strains ranged from 12.5 to 200?g/mL. Lemon and lime juice concentrates had lower MIC and MBC values with orange and tangerine having the highest values. Minimum fungicidal concentrations ranged from 50 to 200?g/mL. The results of this study suggest that these juice concentrates may have beneficial antimicrobial roles that can be exploited in controlling unwanted microbial growth. PMID:26788316

  19. Antimicrobial efficacy of emulsified essential oil components against weak acid-adapted spoilage yeasts in clear and cloudy apple juice.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Myriam; Beiser, Sophia; Suriyarak, Sarisa; Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

    2014-08-01

    The antimicrobial activity of oil-in-water emulsions containing dual combinations of the essential oil components cinnamaldehyde, perillaldehyde, and citral was examined against two acid-resistant yeast strains (Zygosaccharomyces bailii) in beverage systems composed of diluted clear or cloudy apple juice and in a Sabouraud dextrose broth model. Antimicrobial properties of an encapsulated oil-in-water emulsion and of essential oil components dissolved in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide were compared using plate counts and turbidity measurements. Growth curves were modulated to qualitatively assess differences in antimicrobial efficacy. The impact of the presence of a beverage emulsion without essential oils (unloaded; 5% oil and 1% modified starch, pH 3.0) on the antimicrobial efficacy also was investigated. Dual combinations of essential oil components were sufficient to completely inhibit and/or kill yeast cells in diluted apple juice and Sabouraud dextrose broth systems at very low concentrations (100 to 200 ?g/ml). However, the combination of perillaldehyde and citral had the weakest antimicrobial effect; a concentration of 400 ?g/ml was necessary to prevent yeast growth in beverages, and up to 800 ?g/ml was required in systems to which an unloaded emulsion had been added. The antimicrobial activity of essential oil components did not differ in diluted clear and cloudy apple juices and was not affected by being added in emulsified form or dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide as long as there was no unloaded emulsion also present. These results indicate that formulations of essential oil combinations encapsulated together in emulsions are highly effective for inhibiting and/or killing microorganisms in real beverage systems. PMID:25198593

  20. Biotransformation of Momordica charantia fresh juice by Lactobacillus plantarum BET003 and its putative anti-diabetic potential

    PubMed Central

    Mazlan, Farhaneen Afzal; Annuar, M. Suffian M.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum BET003 isolated from Momordica charantia fruit was used to ferment its juice. Momordica charantia fresh juice was able to support good growth of the lactic acid bacterium. High growth rate and cell viability were obtained without further nutrient supplementation. In stirred tank reactor batch fermentation, agitation rate showed significant effect on specific growth rate of the bacterium in the fruit juice. After the fermentation, initially abundant momordicoside 23-O-β-Allopyranosyle-cucurbita-5,24-dien-7α,3β,22(R),23(S)-tetraol-3-O-β-allopyranoside was transformed into its corresponding aglycone in addition to the emergence of new metabolites. The fermented M. charantia juice consistently reduced glucose production by 27.2%, 14.5%, 17.1% and 19.2% at 15-minute intervals respectively, when compared against the negative control. This putative anti-diabetic activity can be attributed to the increase in availability and concentration of aglycones as well as other phenolic compounds resulting from degradation of glycosidic momordicoside. Biotransformation of M. charantia fruit juice via lactic acid bacterium fermentation reduced its bitterness, reduced its sugar content, produced aglycones and other metabolites as well as improved its inhibition of α-glucosidase activity compared with the fresh, non-fermented juice. PMID:26539336

  1. Biotransformation of Momordica charantia fresh juice by Lactobacillus plantarum BET003 and its putative anti-diabetic potential.

    PubMed

    Mazlan, Farhaneen Afzal; Annuar, M Suffian M; Sharifuddin, Yusrizam

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum BET003 isolated from Momordica charantia fruit was used to ferment its juice. Momordica charantia fresh juice was able to support good growth of the lactic acid bacterium. High growth rate and cell viability were obtained without further nutrient supplementation. In stirred tank reactor batch fermentation, agitation rate showed significant effect on specific growth rate of the bacterium in the fruit juice. After the fermentation, initially abundant momordicoside 23-O-?-Allopyranosyle-cucurbita-5,24-dien-7?,3?,22(R),23(S)-tetraol-3-O-?-allopyranoside was transformed into its corresponding aglycone in addition to the emergence of new metabolites. The fermented M. charantia juice consistently reduced glucose production by 27.2%, 14.5%, 17.1% and 19.2% at 15-minute intervals respectively, when compared against the negative control. This putative anti-diabetic activity can be attributed to the increase in availability and concentration of aglycones as well as other phenolic compounds resulting from degradation of glycosidic momordicoside. Biotransformation of M. charantia fruit juice via lactic acid bacterium fermentation reduced its bitterness, reduced its sugar content, produced aglycones and other metabolites as well as improved its inhibition of ?-glucosidase activity compared with the fresh, non-fermented juice. PMID:26539336

  2. Analytical monitoring of citrus juices by using capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Cancalon, P F

    1999-01-01

    A capillary electrophoretic method was developed to analyze simultaneously most citrus juice components in a single procedure. After filtration, sample components are separated with an uncoated capillary tubing and a 35 mM sodium borate buffer (pH 9.3) containing 5% (v/v) acetonitrile. Analyses were run at 21 kV and 23 degrees C. Compounds monitored regularly were the biogenic amine synephrine, some flavonoids (didymin, hesperidin, narirutin, neohesperidin, and naringin), the polyphenol phlorin, 3 UV-absorbing amino acids (tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine), ascorbic acid, an unidentified peak generated by heat and storage, and the preservatives sorbate and benzoate that can be added to citrus products. Separation can be achieved in 20 min, and each compound can be subsequently quantitated. Didymin, narirutin, and phlorin peaks were used with an artificial neural network to assess the volume of added pulp wash, a by-product of juice preparation. This method allows rapid monitoring of citrus juices, giving information on quality, freshness, and possible adulteration of the product. Similar procedures could be used to monitor other fruit juices and quantitate diverse juice blends. PMID:10028677

  3. An analysis on organic acids contents in ripe fruits of fifteen Mao Luang (Antidesma bunius) cultivars, harvested from dipterocarp forest of Phupan Valley in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Samappito, S; Butkhup, L

    2008-04-01

    This experiment was carried out in the rainy season (May-October) of the 2006 at the Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 44000, Thailand to analyse organic acids contents in ripe fruits of fifteen Mao Luang cultivars harvested from dipterocarp forest, Phupan Valley, Sakon Nakhon, Northeast Thailand. The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) with four replications. The fifteen Mao Luang cultivars were used as treatments. The results showed that there were two groups of organic acids contents in ripe fruits of Mao Luang cultivars i.e., major and minor. The major group of organic acids includes: tartaric acid (7.97-12.16 mg g(-1) of fresh weight), ascorbic acid (10.01-16.55 mg g(-1) of fresh weight), citric acid (4.44-11.73 mg g(-1) of fresh weight) and benzoic acid (8.13-17.43 mg g(-1) of fresh weight) and the minor group includes malic acid (3.05-4.52 mg g(-1) of fresh weight), lactic acid (1.12-4.09 mg g(-1) of fresh weight), oxalic acid (1.00-1.45 mg g(-1) of fresh weight) and acetic acid (0.19-0.69 mg g(-1) of fresh weight). Khumlhai cultivar gave the highest amount of ascorbic acid followed by Lompat, Phuchong, Sangkrow 2 and Maelookdog cultivars. Sangkrow 2 and Phuchong cultivars gave the highest ratio between tartaric and malic acids. Total soluble solid content (TSS%) was highest with Sangkrow 5 cultivar, whilst Total Organic Acids (TOA) was highest with Phuchong cultivar and ratio between TSS:TOA was highest with Sangkrow 2 cultivar. Juice % was highest with both Sangkrow 2 and 3 cultivars, whilst Fapratan and Lompat cultivars ranked the second. PMID:18810965

  4. Effects of dietary fibre-rich juice colloids from apple pomace extraction juices on intestinal fermentation products and microbiota in rats.

    PubMed

    Sembries, Sabine; Dongowski, Gerhard; Jacobasch, Gisela; Mehrländer, Katri; Will, Frank; Dietrich, Helmut

    2003-09-01

    Effects of colloids isolated from apple pomace extraction juices (so-called B-juices) produced by enzymic liquefaction on food intake, body and faecal weights, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profile and selected intestinal microbiota were investigated in rats. Ten male Wistar rats per group were fed diets without any apple dietary fibre (DF) (control) or supplement with 5 % B-juice colloids or an alcohol-insoluble substance (AIS) from apples for 6 weeks. Rats fed with apple DF (5 % B-juice colloids or AIS) gained less weight than control rats (P<0.05). B-juice colloids did not affect food intake, whereas feeding AIS resulted in a 10 % higher food consumption than in control rats. Both juice colloids and AIS increased the weight of caecal contents in rats and lowered luminal pH values (P<0.05). In addition, SCFA concentrations and total yields were also raised (P<0.05) in caecum of these rats indicating good fermentability of apple substrates by gut microflora. Distinctly higher concentrations of acetate and propionate were found in intestinal contents of juice colloid-fed rats (P<0.05), whereas AIS also increased butyrate yield. Changes in microbiota due to apple DF in diets were restricted in the caecum to the Eubacterium rectale cluster (AIS; P<0.05) and in faeces to the Bacteroidaceae (juice colloids and AIS; P<0.05). The present study shows the physiological effects of apple DF isolated from pomace extraction juices produced by enzymic liquefaction on intestinal fermentation. Results may be helpful for the development of such innovative juice products that are rich in DF of fruit origin. PMID:13129467

  5. Evolution of the aroma volatiles of pear fruits supplemented with fatty acid metabolic precursors.

    PubMed

    Qin, Gaihua; Tao, Shutian; Zhang, Huping; Huang, Wenjiang; Wu, Juyou; Xu, Yiliu; Zhang, Shaoling

    2014-01-01

    To examine the biochemical metabolism of aroma volatiles derived from fatty acids, pear fruits were incubated in vitro with metabolic precursors of these compounds. Aroma volatiles, especially esters, were significantly increased, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in pear fruits fed on fatty acid metabolic precursors. Cultivars having different flavor characteristics had distinctly different aroma volatile metabolisms. More esters were formed in fruity-flavored "Nanguoli" fruits than in green-flavored "Dangshansuli" fruits fed on the same quantities of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Hexanal and hexanol were more efficient metabolic intermediates for volatile synthesis than linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Hexyl esters were the predominant esters produced by pear fruits fed on hexanol, and their contents in "Dangshansuli" fruits were higher than in "Nanguoli" fruits. Hexyl esters and hexanoate esters were the primary esters produced in pear fruits fed on hexanal, however the content of hexyl ester in "Dangshansuli" was approximately three times that in "Nanguoli". The higher contents of hexyl esters in "Dangshansuli" may have resulted from a higher level of hexanol derived from hexanal. In conclusion, the synthesis of aroma volatiles was largely dependent on the metabolic precursors presented. PMID:25474290

  6. Changes in physicochemical characteristics and free amino acids of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) fruits during maturation.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Qin; Hu, Qing-Ping; Xu, Jian-Guo

    2015-05-15

    In this study, changes in physicochemical characteristics associated with fruit quality and free amino acids were investigated during maturation of hawthorn fruits. Significant differences in these parameters were found during maturation. The color turned progressively from mature green to semi-red, to reach bright red; the shape changed gradually from oval to round or approached round; the size, weight, and edible part (flesh/core ratio) of hawthorns increased while the density of intact fruits did not change. The content of moisture, total soluble sugars, soluble pectin, reduced ascorbic acid, total ascorbic acid, fructose, and sucrose increased while crude protein content decreased significantly. The levels of starch, sucrose, titratable acidity, protopectin, pectin, total free amino acids, and total essential amino acids initially increased and then decreased gradually during maturation. The outcomes of this study provide additional and useful information for fresh consumption and processing as well as utilization of dropped unripe hawthorn fruits. PMID:25577050

  7. Concentrations of Abscisic Acid and Indoleacetic Acid in Cotton Fruits and Their Abscission Zones in Relation to Fruit Retention

    PubMed Central

    Guinn, Gene; Brummett, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with field-grown cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) to determine the effects of drought and an increase in available photosynthate on the abscisic acid (ABA) and indoleacetic acid (IAA) contents of 3-day-old bolls and their abscission zones. Photosynthate availability was manipulated by removing about two-thirds of the plants to permit increased irradiance, and thus photosynthesis, in the plant canopy. The demand for photosynthate was decreased by removing all bolls from the remaining plants. The thinning and defruiting operations were performed about 3 weeks after first flower. Control plants were neither thinned nor defruited. Effects of water deficit were observed by making three harvests at different times during a 2-week irrigation cycle. Increasing the availability of photosynthate increased boll retention, but had relatively little effect on the concentrations of ABA and IAA in bolls. However, it did increase the concentration of IAA in abscission zones. Water deficit increased the ABA content of bolls and abscission zones and decreased the IAA content of bolls and abscission zones. Across all treatments, the IAA content of abscission zones was positively correlated, and the ABA content of bolls was negatively correlated, with boll retention. The results indicate that stresses change the hormonal balance in ways that are consistent with observed increases in fruit abscission. PMID:16665202

  8. Effects of Cultivar, Fruit Number and Reflected Photosynthetically Active Radiation on Fragaria ananassa Productivity and Fruit Ellagic Acid and Ascorbic Acid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    ATKINSON, C. J.; DODDS, P. A. A.; FORD, Y. Y.; LE MIRE, J.; TAYLOR, J. M.; BLAKE, P. S.; PAUL, N.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Aims A number of strawberry varieties were surveyed for their total ellagic acid concentration, and attempts were made to determine if ellagic acid and ascorbic acid concentrations of two strawberry cultivars could be increased by polythene reflective mulches. Methods After adjusting crop yields and cultivation using polythene mulches with two different PAR reflective capacities, field- and polytunnel-grown strawberries were analysed for ellagic acid and ascorbic acid concentrations by HPLC. Comparative measurements of yield and fruit quality were determined along with plant developmental changes. Key Results Ellagic acid concentration varied widely with strawberry cultivar (60341?g g?1 frozen weight), as did the ratio of conjugated ellagic acid?:?free ellagic acid. Also, there was significant year-to-year variation in total ellagic acid concentration with some cultivars. Mulches with different reflective capacities impacted on strawberry production; highly reflective mulches significantly increased growth and yield, the latter due to increases in fruit size and number. Conclusions Highly reflective mulches significantly increased total concentrations of ellagic acid and ascorbic acid relative to control in fruit of different cultivars. The potential of agronomic practices to enhance the concentration and amounts of these important dietary bioactive compounds is discussed. PMID:16423867

  9. Simultaneous determination of salicylic, 3-methyl salicylic, 4-methyl salicylic, acetylsalicylic and benzoic acids in fruit, vegetables and derived beverages by SPME-LC-UV/DAD.

    PubMed

    Aresta, Antonella; Zambonin, Carlo

    2016-03-20

    Salicylic and benzoic acid are phenolic acids occurring in plant cells, thus they can be present in fruit and vegetables at various levels. They possess anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, however they may induce symptoms and health problems in a small percentage of the population. Therefore, a low phenolic acid diet may be of clinical benefit to such individuals. In order to achieve this goal, the concentration of these substances in different food and beverages should be assessed. The present work describes for the first time a new method, based on solid phase microextraction (polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene fiber) coupled to liquid chromatography with UV diode array detection, for the simultaneous determination of salicylic acid, 3-methyl salicylic acid, 4-methyl salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid and benzoic acid in selected fruit, vegetables and beverages. All the aspects influencing fiber adsorption (time, temperature, pH, salt addition) and desorption (desorption and injection time, desorption solvent mixture composition) of the analytes have been investigated. An isocratic separation was performed using an acetonitrile-phosphate buffer (pH 2.8; 2mM) mixture (70:30, v/v) as the mobile phase. The estimated LOD and LOQ values (μg/mL) were in the range 0.002-0.028 and 0.007-0.095. The within-day and day-to-day precision values (RSD%) were between 4.7-6.1 and 6.6-9.4, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of fava beans, blueberries, kiwi, tangerines, lemons, oranges and fruit juice (lemon and blueberry) samples. The major advantage of the method is that it only requires simple homogenization and/or centrifugation and dilution steps prior to SPME and injection in the LC system. PMID:26775020

  10. L-Ascorbic acid metabolism during fruit development in an ascorbate-rich fruit crop chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt).

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin

    2014-09-01

    Chestnut rose (Rosa roxburghii Tratt) is a fruit crop that contains unusually high levels of l-ascorbic acid (AsA; ?1300 mg 100g(-1) FW). To explore the mechanisms underlying AsA metabolism, we investigated the distribution and abundance of AsA during fruit development. We also analyzed gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and content of metabolites related to AsA biosynthesis and recycling. AsA first accumulated during late fruit development and continued to accumulate during ripening, with the highest accumulation rate near fruit maturity. The redox state of AsA in fruit was also enhanced during late fruit development, while leaf and other tissues had much lower levels of AsA and the redox state of AsA was lower. In mature fruit, AsA was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm of the mesocarp. Correlation analysis suggested that the gene expression patterns, enzyme activities, and related metabolite concentrations involved in the l-galactose pathway showed relatively high correlations with the accumulation rate of AsA. The gene expression pattern and activity of dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) correlated strongly with AsA concentration, possibly indicating the crucial role of DHAR in the accumulation of high levels of AsA in chestnut rose fruit. Over expression of DHAR in Arabidopsis significantly increased the reduced AsA content and redox state. This was more effective than over expression of the l-galactose pathway gene GDP-d-mannose-3,5-epimerase (EC 5.1.3.18). These findings will enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating accumulation of AsA in chestnut rose. PMID:25019249

  11. Effect of the hydroalcoholic extract and juice of Prunus divaricata fruit on blood glucose and serum lipids of normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Minaiyan, M.; Ghannadi, A.; Movahedian, A.; Ramezanlou, P.; Osooli, F.S.

    2014-01-01

    Prunus divaricata (Alloocheh) is a small tree cultivating in Iran, Middle East and central Asia. Prunus genus has many species with anti-oxidant, anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-hyperglycemia effects. In the present study the anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of P. divaricata fruits were examined in normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Both groups, control and reference rats received normal saline and glibenclamide respectively. Test groups were treated with Prunus freeze dried juice (PFDJ, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg) and Prunus freeze dried extract (PFDE, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg) started at the 3rd day of the experiment and continued for 27 days thereafter. Weight changes of animals were checked periodically. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) level as well as serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were determined. Different treatments had no significant effect on body weight increments of normal rats, while in diabetic rats, PFDJ (800 mg/kg) and PFDE (400 mg/kg) opposed with weight loss. In acute phase of experiment (0-8 h of 3rd day), none of tested fractions were effective in reducing FBG and serum lipids of normal rats. During the sub-acute phase (13th and 30th days) however, the greatest test doses of PFDJ (800 mg/kg) and PFDE (400 mg/kg) induced hypoglycema. In diabetic groups, PFDJ and PFDE, at all test doses, could diminish FBG during sub-acute phase of the experiment. In addition, PFDJ and PFDE at most examined doses could diminish TG significantly and they were also effective on cholesterol derivatives in different magnitude. PMID:26339257

  12. Pulsed electric fields-processed orange juice consumption increases plasma vitamin C and decreases F2-isoprostanes in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Snchez-Moreno, Concepcin; Cano, M Pilar; de Ancos, Begoa; Plaza, Luca; Olmedilla, Begoa; Granado, Fernando; Elez-Martnez, Pedro; Martn-Belloso, Olga; Martn, Antonio

    2004-10-01

    Orange juice, a rich source of vitamin C, accounts for 60% of all fruit juices and juice-based drinks consumed in western Europe. Orange juice preservation is currently accomplished by traditional pasteurization. Pulsed electric fields (PEF) have been studied as a nonthermal food preservation method. Food technology needs in the area of processing are driven by nutrition. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to assess the bioavailability of vitamin C from pulsed electric fields-treated orange juice in comparison with freshly squeezed orange juice and its impact on 8-epiPGF(2alpha) concentrations (biomarker of lipid peroxidation) in a healthy human population. Six subjects consumed 500 mL/day of pulsed electric fields-treated orange juice and six subjects consumed 500 mL/day of freshly squeezed orange juice for 14 days, corresponding to an intake of about 185 mg/day of ascorbic acid. On the first day of the study, subjects drank the juice in one dose, and on days 2-14 they consumed 250 mL in the morning and 250 mL in the afternoon. Blood was collected every hour for 6 hours on the first day and again on days 7 and 14. In the dose-response study, the maximum increase in plasma vitamin C occurred 4 hours postdose. Vitamin C remained significantly higher on days 7 and 14 in both orange juice groups. Plasma 8-epiPGF(2alpha) concentrations was lower at the end of the study (P < 0.001) in both groups. Plasma levels of vitamin C and 8-epiPGF(2alpha) were inversely correlated. Pulsed electric fields-preservation of orange juice retains the vitamin C bioavailability and antioxidant properties of fresh juice with a longer shelf-life. PMID:15542351

  13. Isolation and characterization of six peach cDNAs encoding key proteins in organic acid metabolism and solute accumulation: involvement in regulating peach fruit acidity.

    PubMed

    Etienne, Christelle; Moing, Annick; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth; Raymond, Philippe; Monet, Ren; Rothan, Christophe

    2002-02-01

    As in many other fleshy fruits, the predominant organic acids in ripe peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) fruit are malic and citric acids. The accumulation of these metabolites in fruit flesh is regulated during fruit development. Six peach fruit-related genes implicated in organic acid metabolism (mitochondrial citrate synthase; cytosolic NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase, and cytosolic NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase) and storage (vacuolar proton translocating pumps: one vacuolar H+-ATPase, and two vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatases) were cloned. Five of these peach genes were homologous to genes isolated from fruit in other fleshy fruit species. Phylogenetic and expression analyses suggested the existence of a particular vacuolar pyrophosphatase highly expressed in fruit. The sixth gene was the first cytosolic NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase gene isolated from fruit. Gene expression was studied during the fruit development of two peach cultivars, a normal-acid (Fantasia) and a low-acid (Jalousia) cultivar. The overall expression patterns of the organic acid-related genes appeared strikingly similar for the two cultivars. The genes involved in organic acid metabolism showed a stronger expression in ripening fruit than during the earlier phases of development, but their expression patterns were not necessarily correlated with the changes in organic acid contents. The tonoplast proton pumps showed a biphasic expression pattern more consistent with the patterns of organic acid accumulation, and the tonoplast pyrophosphatases were more highly expressed in the fruit of the low-acid cultivar during the second rapid growth phase of the fruit. PMID:11903973

  14. Investigation of Antioxidant Activity of Pomegranate Juices by Means of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and UV-Vis Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kozik, Violetta; Jarzembek, Krystyna; J?drzejowska, Agnieszka; B?k, Andrzej; Polak, Justyna; Bartoszek, Mariola; Pytlakowska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L.) is a source of numerous phenolic compounds, and it contains flavonoids such as anthocyanins, anthocyanidins, cyanidins, catechins and other complexes of flavonoids, ellagitannins, and hydrolyzed tannins. Pomegranate juice shows antioxidant, antiproliferative, and anti-atherosclerotic properties. The antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the pomegranate juices was measured using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as a source of free radicals, and the total phenolic (TP) content was measured using UV-Vis spectroscopy. All the examined pomegranate juices exhibited relatively high antioxidant properties. The TEAC values determined by means of EPR spectroscopy using Trolox (TE) as a free radical scavenger were in the range of 463.12 to 1911.91 ?mol TE/100 mL juice. The TP content measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, using gallic acid (GA) as a free radical scavenger, widely varied in the investigated pomegranate juice samples and ranged from 1673.62 to 5263.87 mg GA/1 L juice. The strongest antioxidant properties were observed with the fresh pomegranate juices obtained from the fruits originating from Israel, Lebanon, and Azerbaijan. Correlation analysis of numerical data obtained by means of EPR spectroscopy (TEAC) and UV-Vis spectroscopy (TP) gave correlation coefficient (r)=0.90 and determination coefficient (r2)=0.81 (P<0.05). PMID:26268964

  15. Stilbene, ellagic acid, flavonol, and phenolic content of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antioxidant properties, ellagic acid, and polyphenolic were evaluated in 19 muscadine cultivars and 2 muscadine selections. Analysis was carried out on muscadine fruit skin, pulp and juice partitions. The major phenolics in muscadine juice, pulp and skins were identified by their retention times ...

  16. Red grape juice inhibits iron availability: application of an in vitro digestion/caco-2 cell model.

    PubMed

    Boato, Francesca; Wortley, Gary M; Liu, Rui Hai; Glahn, Raymond P

    2002-11-01

    Adequate bioavailable Fe intake is essential for optimal growth and intellectual development of infants and children. Fruit juices are nutritious and popular drinks for infants and children and are known to contain Fe uptake inhibitors (e.g., polyphenolic compounds) and a dominant promoter, ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid is naturally present in fruit juices and is added during processing to almost all juices found in supermarkets. With these facts taken into account, an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model was developed to compare the effects of apple, pear, white grape, red grape, prune, grapefruir, and orange juices on iron bioavailability. In two series of experiments, juices from a local supermarket were combined with FeCl(3) or commercial infant cereal fortified with elemental iron and subject to simulated gastric and intestinal digestion. Caco-2 cell ferritin formation in response to exposure to the digests served as the measure of Fe uptake. The pear, apple, grapefruit, orange, and white grape juice significantly increased Fe bioavailability from FeCl(3). For the infant cereal studies, the apple, orange, pear, and white grape juices increased the Fe bioavailability of the infant cereal. In contrast, the red grape juice and prune juice had profound inhibitory effects on iron bioavailability. These inhibitory effects were likely due to high levels of polyphenolic compounds that bind and thereby prevent absorption of soluble Fe. These inhibitory compounds appeared to counteract the promotional effects of ascorbic acid as they were in considerable molar excess relative to ascorbic acid and Fe in the digest. From a nutritional standpoint, the results suggest that individuals in need of optimal Fe absorption should avoid red grape and prune juice or at least vary the types of juices consumed. Alternatively, individuals seeking to limit Fe uptake (e.g., hemochromatitics and astronauts) may be able to utilize red grape or prune juice as effective inhibitors of Fe uptake. Consumers should be aware that the compounds that inhibit Fe availability are also linked to anticancer benefits; thus, a dietary balance of the above juices may be optimal. PMID:12405800

  17. Reducing patulin contamination in apple juice by using inactive yeast.

    PubMed

    Yue, Tianli; Dong, Qinfang; Guo, Caixia; Worobo, Randy W

    2011-01-01

    The mycotoxin, patulin (4-hydroxy-4H-furo[3,2c]pyran-2[6H]-one), is a secondary metabolite produced mainly in rotten parts of fruits and vegetables, most notably apples and apple products, by a wide range of fungal species in the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Byssochlamys. Due to its mutagenic and teratogenic nature and possible health risks to consumers, many countries have regulations to reduce levels of patulin in apple products. In the present study, reduction of patulin contamination in apple juice by using 10 different inactivated yeast strains was assessed. Our results indicated that nearly twofold differences in biomass existed among the 10 yeast strains. Eight of the 10 inactivated yeast strains could provide >50% patulin reduction in apple juice within 24 h, with the highest reduction rate being >72%. Furthermore, juice quality parameters, i.e., degrees Brix, total sugar, titratable acidity, color value, and clarity, of the treated apple juice were very similar to those of the untreated patulin-free juice. Potential applications of using inactivated yeast strain for patulin control are also discussed. PMID:21219779

  18. The effective use of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative contrast agents for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in children.

    PubMed

    Bittman, Mark E; Callahan, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is commonly performed in the evaluation of known or suspected pancreaticobiliary disease in children. The administration of a negative oral contrast agent can improve the quality of the examination without significant additional cost. We describe our experience with certain brands of acai juice, blueberry juice and pineapple juice as negative oral contrast agents in children. We believe these fruit juices are safe, palatable and may improve MRCP image quality. PMID:24573534

  19. Physiological effects of extraction juices from apple, grape, and red beet pomaces in rats.

    PubMed

    Sembries, Sabine; Dongowski, Gerhard; Mehrländer, Katri; Will, Frank; Dietrich, Helmut

    2006-12-27

    In comparison to classical fruit juice processing, polyphenols and dietary fiber can be extracted from pomace by means of pectinases and cellulases. In the present study, rats were fed with such produced extraction juices from apples, grapes, and red beets as drinking fluids instead of water for 4 weeks to evaluate their physiological effects. In all test groups, the intake of extraction juices was greater as compared to control (water intake), resulting in a higher urine excretion. In the apple and grape group, pH values in feces was lower than control. Administration of extraction juices from apples increased fecal counts of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. More acetate and total short-chain fatty acids appeared in intestinal contents of the apple and red beet group. Furthermore, the intestinal contents of test groups contained higher concentrations of primary bile acids, cholesterol, and cholesterol metabolites but lower concentrations of secondary bile acids. The total amount of steroids excreted by these groups was also greater than control. Quercetin and isorhamnetin appeared in urine of rats fed extraction juices from apples and grapes; in urine of the former group, phloretin was found also. Administration of the extraction juices, enriched in secondary plant metabolites and dietary fiber, resulted in beneficial nutritional effects in rats. PMID:17177570

  20. FRUIT QUALITY OF THE USDA OPUNTIA GERMPLASM COLLECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fruit of several Opuntia species (prickly pear) are a good source of calcium, potassium, and ascorbic acid and are consumed fresh or processed as juices or preserves. Plants of Opuntia may be grown in arid and semiarid environments on marginal soils. Various cultivars, particularly in the speci...

  1. Modulation of organic acids and sugar content in tomato fruits by an abscisic acid-regulated transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Bastías, Adriana; López-Climent, María; Valcárcel, Mercedes; Rosello, Salvador; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Casaretto, José A

    2011-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a role in fruit development. ABA signaling components of developmental programs and responses to stress conditions include the group of basic leucine zipper transcriptional activators known as ABA-response element binding factors (AREBs/ABFs). AREB transcription factors mediate ABA-regulated gene expression involved in desiccation tolerance and are expressed mainly in seeds and in vegetative tissues under stress; however, they are also expressed in some fruits such as tomato. In order to get an insight into the role of ABA signaling in fruit development, the expression of two AREB-like factors were investigated during different developmental stages. In addition, tomato transgenic lines that overexpress and downregulate one AREB-like transcription factor, SlAREB1, were used to determine its effect on the levels of some metabolites determining fruit quality. Higher levels of citric acid, malic acid, glutamic acid, glucose and fructose were observed in SlAREB1-overexpressing lines compared with those in antisense suppression lines in red mature fruit pericarp. The higher hexose concentration correlated with increased expression of genes encoding a vacuolar invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) and a sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13). No significant changes were found in ethylene content which agrees with the normal ripening phenotype observed in transgenic fruits. These results suggest that an AREB-mediated ABA signal affects the metabolism of these compounds during the fruit developmental program. PMID:21128945

  2. New 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in fruit of the wild eggplant relative Solanum viarum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit of cultivated eggplant (Solanum melongena) and several wild relatives (S. aethiopicum, S. macrocarpon, S. anguivi, and S. incanum) have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) conjugates. Typically, caffeoylquinic acid esters predominate, and in particular chlorogenic acid [5-O-(E)-caffeo...

  3. Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty-acids, carotenoids, amino-acids as well as terpenes. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino- and a-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds be...

  4. Light avoidance reduces ascorbic acid accumulation in the peel of Citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Lado, Joanna; Als, Enriqueta; Rodrigo, Mara Jess; Zacaras, Lorenzo

    2015-02-01

    Citrus fruits are highly consumed worldwide and represent one of the most important sources of ascorbic acid (AsA). However, information about the molecular mechanisms regulating AsA accumulation in Citrus fruit and the effects of environmental factors is scarce. In this study we have investigated the effect of fruit shading on AsA content and the expression of AsA biosynthetic, degrading and recycling genes in fruits of different Citrus species. Immature-green fruits were covered at the end of the cell enlargement phase and AsA concentration in the flavedo declined and remained at low levels as compared with light-exposed fruits. Fruit shading marginally altered the expression of genes from the l-galactose pathway and this effect was variable in the four Citrus species. However, specific isoforms (GalUR8 or GalUR12) from the l-galacturonic acid pathway were significantly repressed paralleling the reduction in AsA concentration. No significant effect of shading was detected in transcription of genes of the myo-inositol and l-gulose pathways as well as recycling and degradation. Collectively, results indicate that light avoidance inhibited accumulation of AsA in the flavedo of Citrus fruits and suggest that the l-galacturonic acid pathway has a relevant contribution to AsA content in this tissue. PMID:25575999

  5. Phenotypic and fine genetic characterization of the D locus controlling fruit acidity in peach

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Acidity is an essential component of the organoleptic quality of fleshy fruits. However, in these fruits, the physiological and molecular mechanisms that control fruit acidity remain unclear. In peach the D locus controls fruit acidity; low-acidity is determined by the dominant allele. Using a peach progeny of 208 F2 trees, the D locus was mapped to the proximal end of linkage group 5 and co-localized with major QTLs involved in the control of fruit pH, titratable acidity and organic acid concentration and small QTLs for sugar concentration. To investigate the molecular basis of fruit acidity in peach we initiated the map-based cloning of the D locus. Results In order to generate a high-resolution linkage map in the vicinity of the D locus, 1,024 AFLP primer combinations were screened using DNA of bulked acid and low-acid segregants. We also screened a segregating population of 1,718 individuals for chromosomal recombination events linked to the D locus and identified 308 individuals with recombination events close to D. Using these recombinant individuals we delimited the D locus to a genetic interval of 0.4 cM. We also constructed a peach BAC library of 52,000 clones with a mean insert size of 90 kb. The screening of the BAC library with markers tightly linked to D locus indicated that 1 cM corresponds to 250 kb at the vicinity of the D locus. Conclusion In the present work we presented the first high-resolution genetic map of D locus in peach. We also constructed a peach BAC library of approximately 15 genome equivalent. This fine genetic and physical characterization of the D locus is the first step towards the isolation of the gene(s) underlying fruit acidity in peach. PMID:19445673

  6. Antioxidant effects of heated garlic juice on cadmium-induced liver damage in rats as compared to ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Olalekan Lawal, Akeem; Lawal, Adetola Folusho; Ologundudu, Augustine; Adeniran, Olawale Yakubu; Omonkhua, Akhere; Obi, Federick

    2011-10-01

    The antioxidant efficacy of heated garlic juice (HGJ) in liver was evaluated with that of ascorbic acid (AA) in rats exposed to acute dose of cadmium (4 mg kg(-1) bd. wt). The rats were either given HGJ (100 mg kg(-1) bd. wt) orally, daily for 4 weeks or AA (100 mg kg(-1) bd. wt) orally, daily for 4 weeks or both or cadmium (4 mg kg(-1) bd. wt) intraperitoneally for 3 days. Another group of rats was given cadmium (4 mg kg(-1) bd. wt) intraperitoneally for 3 days after pretreatment with either HGJ (100 mg kg(-1) bd. wt) or ascorbic acid (100 mg kg(-1) bd. wt) for 4 weeks and the liver excised. The results obtained show that AA and HGJ significantly reduced the level of liver malondialdehyde (MDA) induced by cadmium compared to control (p < 0.05) but AA tends to be more potent when compared with HGJ. The presence of either HGJ or AA also significantly reduced the levels of ROS in the presence of cadmium (Cd). The presence of either AA or HGJ pre-treatment produced significant increase in liver SOD and Catalase activities when compared with rats treated with Cd alone. There was no significant reduction in the activities of these enzymes in the presence of cadmium compared to control. Western blot shows that the expressions of Nrf2 and NQO1 in the liver were significantly increase by 3 and 1.7-fold respectively in the AA pretreated mice when compared with Cd. However no significant changes were seen in HGJ pretreated rats. The expression of HO-1 was not significantly increase in the AA pretreated rats. The results show that though both ascorbic acid and HGJ are efficient in preventing Cd-induced damage in the rat liver, ascorbic acid appeared to be a more powerful antioxidant than heated garlic juice in preventing cadmium-induced oxidative damage in liver and its action may be mediated in parts via Nrf2-keap1 pathway. PMID:22008531

  7. Polyphenol profiling of a red-fleshed apple cultivar and evaluation of the color extractability and stability in the juice.

    PubMed

    Malec, Marta; Le Qur, Jean-Michel; Sotin, Hlne; Kolodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Bauduin, Rmi; Guyot, Sylvain

    2014-07-23

    Red-fleshed apples can be used for the production of innovative products such as ros juices and ciders. Phenolic compounds including procyanidins (i.e., condensed tannins) and anthocyanins were quantified in the fruits and juices of a red-fleshed apple cultivar by chromatography coupled to UV-visible and mass spectrometry. Juice color was characterized by colorimetry. The influence of oxygen, pH, sulfites, ascorbic acid, and copper on the color stability of the juice was studied in an experimental design. Fruits were rich in polyphenols (0.5 g/100 g FW), with anthocyanins and procyanidins accounting for 9 and 73% of total polyphenols, respectively. Extractability of anthocyanins in the juice was 26%. Juice storage under air atmosphere at 35 C resulted in significant browning with the anthocyanin level decreasing up to 86% after 14 days. In contrast, color was stable for storage under argon atmosphere. Sulfites, ascorbic acid, and copper have only a slightly influence on color stability in those conditions. PMID:24655330

  8. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Method of juice extraction. 51.1179 Section 51.1179 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... juice extraction. The juice used in the determining of solids, acids and juice content shall...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1179 - Method of juice extraction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Method of juice extraction. 51.1179 Section 51.1179 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... juice extraction. The juice used in the determining of solids, acids and juice content shall...

  10. Effect of acid adaptation and acid shock on thermal tolerance and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and O111 in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Usaga, Jessie; Worobo, Randy W; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I

    2014-10-01

    Gradual exposure to moderate acidic environments may enhance the thermal tolerance and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in acid and acidified foods. Limited studies comparing methodologies to induce this phenomenon have been performed. The effects of strain and physiological state on thermal tolerance and survival of E. coli in apple juice were studied. The decimal reduction time (D-value) at 56°C [D56°C] was determined for E. coli O157:H7 strains C7927 and ATCC 43895 and E. coli O111 at four physiological states: unadapted, acid-shocked (two methodologies used), and acid-adapted cells. The effect of acidulant was also evaluated by determining the D56°C for the O157:H7 strains subjected to acid shock during 18 h in Trypticase soy broth (TSB), with pH 5 adjusted with hydrochloric, lactic, and malic acids. Survival of the three strains at four physiological states was determined at 1 ± 1°C and 24 ± 2°C. Experiments were performed in triplicate. For thermal inactivation, a significant interaction was found between strain and physiological state (P < 0.0001). Highest thermal tolerance was observed for the 43895 strain subjected to acid shock during 18 h in TSB acidified with HCl (D56°C of 3.0 ± 0.1 min) and the lowest for the acid-shocked C7927 strain treated for 4 h in TSB acidified with HCl (D56°C of 0.45 ± 0.06 min). Acidulants did not alter the heat tolerance of strain C7927 (D56°C of 1.9 ± 0.1 min; P > 0.05) but significantly affected strain 43895 (P < 0.05), showing the greatest tolerance when malic acid was used (D56°C of 3.7 ± 0.3 min). A significant interaction between strain, storage temperature, and physiological state was noted during the survival experiments (P < 0.05). E. coli O111 was the most resistant strain, surviving 6 and 23 days at 24 and 1°C, respectively. Our findings may assist in designing challenge studies for juices and other pH-controlled products, where Shiga toxin-producing E. coli represents the pathogen of concern. PMID:25285481

  11. 7 CFR 51.1177 - U.S. Grade A Juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. Grade A Juice. 51.1177 Section 51.1177... Juice. Any lot of oranges, the juice content of which meets the following requirements, may be designated U.S. Grade A Juice: (a) Each lot of fruit shall contain an average of not less than 41/2...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1177 - U.S. Grade A Juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. Grade A Juice. 51.1177 Section 51.1177... Juice. Any lot of oranges, the juice content of which meets the following requirements, may be designated U.S. Grade A Juice: (a) Each lot of fruit shall contain an average of not less than 41/2...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1176 - U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A). 51.1176 Section 51... Juice (Double A). Any lot of oranges, the juice content of which meets the following requirements, may be designated U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A): (a) Each lot of fruit shall contain an average of...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1176 - U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A). 51.1176 Section 51... Juice (Double A). Any lot of oranges, the juice content of which meets the following requirements, may be designated U.S. Grade AA Juice (Double A): (a) Each lot of fruit shall contain an average of...

  15. Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit

    PubMed Central

    Gonda, Itay; Bar, Einat; Portnoy, Vitaly; Lev, Shery; Burger, Joseph; Schaffer, Arthur A.; Tadmor, Ya'akov; Gepstein, Shimon; Giovannoni, James J.; Katzir, Nurit; Lewinsohn, Efraim

    2010-01-01

    The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty acids, carotenoids, amino acids, and terpenes. Although amino acids are known precursors of aroma compounds in the plant kingdom, the initial steps in the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles have received little attention. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino acids and ?-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds bearing the side chain of the exogenous amino or keto acid supplied. Moreover, L-[13C6]phenylalanine was also incorporated into aromatic volatile compounds. Amino acid transaminase activities extracted from the flesh of mature melon fruits converted L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-valine, L-methionine, or L-phenylalanine into their respective ?-keto acids, utilizing ?-ketoglutarate as the amine acceptor. Two novel genes were isolated and characterized (CmArAT1 and CmBCAT1) encoding 45.6?kDa and 42.7?kDa proteins, respectively, that displayed aromatic and branched-chain amino acid transaminase activities, respectively, when expressed in Escherichia coli. The expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 was low in vegetative tissues, but increased in flesh and rind tissues during fruit ripening. In addition, ripe fruits of climacteric aromatic cultivars generally showed high expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 in contrast to non-climacteric non-aromatic fruits. The results presented here indicate that in melon fruit tissues, the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles can initiate through a transamination mechanism, rather than decarboxylation or direct aldehyde synthesis, as has been demonstrated in other plants. PMID:20065117

  16. Physicochemical characterization of pure persimmon juice: nutritional quality and food acceptability.

    PubMed

    González, Eva; Vegara, Salud; Martí, Nuria; Valero, Manuel; Saura, Domingo

    2015-03-01

    Technological process for production of non-astringent persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb. cv. "Rojo Brillante") juice was described. The degree of fruit ripening expressed as color index (CI) varied between 12.37 and 16.33. Persimmon juice was characterized by determining physicochemical quality parameters as yield, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), organic acids, and main sugars. A thermal treatment of 90 ºC for 10 s was effective in controlling naturally occurring microorganisms for at least 105 d of storage without significantly affecting production of soluble brown pigments (BPs) and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (5-HMF), total phenolic compounds (TPC), antioxidant capacity and acceptability of juice by panelists. Storage time affected all and each of the above parameters, reducing BPs, TPC and antioxidant capacity but increasing 5-HMF content. Refrigerated storage enhanced the acceptability of the juices. This information may be used by the juice industry as a starting point for production of pure persimmon juices. PMID:25619747

  17. Low temperature storage affects the ascorbic acid metabolism of cherry tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Tsaniklidis, Georgios; Delis, Costas; Nikoloudakis, Nikolaos; Katinakis, Panagiotis; Aivalakis, Georgios

    2014-11-01

    Tomato fruits are an important source of l-Ascorbic acid, which is an essential compound of human diet. The effect of the widespread practice of cold storing (5-10 °C) tomato fruits was monitored to determine its impact on the concentration and redox status of l-Ascorbic acid. Total l-Ascorbic acid levels were well maintained in both attached fruits and cold treated fruits, while in other treatments its levels were considerably reduced. However, low temperature storage conditions enhanced the expression of most genes coding for enzymes involved in l-Ascorbic acid biosynthesis and redox reactions. The findings suggest that the transcriptional up-regulation under chilling stress conditions of most genes coding for l-Ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase, GDP-d-mannose 3,5-epimerase but also for the isoenzymes of ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase enzyme, glutathione reductase that are strongly correlated to the l-Ascorbic redox status. Moreover, fruits stored at 10 °C exhibited higher levels of transcript accumulation of MDHAR2, DHAR1, DHAR2, GR1 and GR2 genes, pointing to a better ability to manage chilling stress in comparison to fruits stored at 5 °C. PMID:25282013

  18. Fruit acids do not enhance sodium lauryl sulphate-induced cumulative irritant contact dermatitis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Schliemann-Willers, Sibylle; Fuchs, Silke; Kleesz, Peter; Grieshaber, Romano; Elsner, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Combined exposure to different irritants in the workplace may lead to irritant contact dermatitis, which is the main type of occupational dermatitis among bakers and confectioners. Following previous work on "tandem irritation", a panel of healthy volunteers was exposed twice daily for 4 days to the organic fruit acids: citric, malic, and lactic acid, either alone or in tandem application with 0.5% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) in a repetitive irritation test. Irritant cutaneous reactions were quantified by visual scoring and non-invasive measurement of transepidermal water loss and skin colour reflectance. Twice daily application of either citric or malic acid alone did not induce a significant irritant reaction. Combined exposure to one of the fruit acids and SLS caused marked barrier disturbance, but the latter irritant effect was smaller than that obtained by combined exposure to SLS and water. Thus, combined exposure to the above-mentioned fruit acids and SLS did not enhance cumulative skin irritation. PMID:16040403

  19. Changes in water-soluble vitamins and antioxidant capacity of fruit juice-milk beverages as affected by high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) or heat during chilled storage.

    PubMed

    Salvia-Trujillo, Laura; Morales-de la Pea, Mariana; Rojas-Gra, Alejandra; Martn-Belloso, Olga

    2011-09-28

    The effect of high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) or thermal processes and refrigerated storage on water-soluble vitamins and antioxidant capacity of beverages containing fruit juices and whole (FJ-WM) or skim milk (FJ-SM) was assessed. Peroxidase (POD) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inactivation as well as color changes were also studied. High vitamin C retention was observed in HIPEF and thermally treated beverages, but a significant depletion of the vitamin during storage occurred, which was correlated with antioxidant capacity. HIPEF treatment did not affect the concentration of group B vitamins, which also remained constant over time, but thermally treated beverages showed lower riboflavin (vitamin B2) concentration. With regard to enzyme activity, thermal processing was more effective than HIPEF on POD and LOX inactivation. The color of the beverages was maintained after HIPEF processing and during storage. Consequently, HIPEF processing could be a feasible technology to attain beverages with fruit juices and milk with high vitamin content and antioxidant potential. PMID:21846104

  20. Characteristics of organic acids in the fruit of different pumpkin species.

    PubMed

    Nawirska-Olsza?ska, Agnieszka; Biesiada, Anita; Sok?-??towska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the composition of organic acids in fruit of different cultivars of three pumpkin species. The amount of acids immediately after fruit harvest and after 3 months of storage was compared. The content of organic acids in the examined pumpkin cultivars was assayed using the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Three organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, and fumaric acid) were identified in the cultivars, whose content considerably varied depending on a cultivar. Three-month storage resulted in decreased content of the acids in the case of cultivars belonging to Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita pepo species, while a slight increase was recorded for Cucurbita moschata species. PMID:24262577

  1. Eletrochemical reduction of patulin and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in both neutral and acid non-aqueous media. Their electroanalytical determination in apple juices.

    PubMed

    Damin Chanique, Gerardo; Heraldo Arvalo, Alejandro; Alicia Zon, Mara; Fernndez, Hctor

    2013-07-15

    The electro-reduction of patulin mycotoxin and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural at glassy carbon electrodes in acetonitrile +0.1 mol L(-1) tetrabutylammonium perchlorate, in both the absence and the presence of different aliquots of trifluoroacetic acid is reported. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural is the most common interference in the determination of patulin in products derived from apples. The electrochemical techniques were cyclic and square wave voltammetries, and controlled potential bulk electrolysis. The number of electrons exchanged in the patulin electro-reduction of n=1 could be inferred from controlled potential bulk electrolysis measurements. Ultraviolet-visible and infrared spectroscopies were used to identify patulin electro-reduction product/s. A value of (2.10.1)10(-5) cm(2) s(-1) for the patulin diffusion coefficient was calculated from convoluted cyclic voltammograms. A method based on square wave voltammetry was developed for the quantitative determination of patulin in both fresh, and commercial apple juices in the presence of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Calibration curves obtained from solutions of the commercial reagent, and commercial apple juices were linear in the range from 3.010(-7) to 2.210(-5) mol L(-1). The lowest concentration measured experimentally for a signal to noise ratio of 3:1 was 310(-7) mol L(-1) (45 ppb) and a recovery percent of 84% was determined for commercial apple juices. This electroanalytical methodology appears as a good screening method for the determination of patulin in apple juices. PMID:23622529

  2. Fatty acids composition of Tunisian Ziziphus lotus L. (Desf.) fruits and variation in biological activities between leaf and fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Ghazghazi, Hanene; Aouadhi, Chedia; Riahi, Leila; Maaroufi, Abderrazak; Hasnaoui, Brahim

    2014-01-01

    This study was conceived to evaluate the essential fatty acids, secondary metabolites, antiradical and antimicrobial activities of unexploited Tunisian Ziziphus lotus L. The obtained results indicated that the major components of fatty acids were oleic acid (88.12%) and elaidic acid (7.88%). Leaves contained higher amount of total phenols, flavonoids and tannins than fruits, although both methanolic extracts had significant antioxidant activities. Significant correlations were observed between the total phenol or flavonoid contents in methanolic extracts and antioxidant activity estimated by using both 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic radical-scavenging methods. In addition, both methanolic extracts exhibited strong antibacterial and antifungal activities. The inhibition zone diameters and the minimal inhibition concentration values were in the range of 10-17 mm and 3.1-50 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:24805194

  3. Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality

    SciTech Connect

    Forsline, P.L.; Musselman, R.C.; Kender, W.J.; Dee, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Mature 'McIntosh', 'Empire', and 'Golden Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and in 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0 and pH 3.5. Apple foliage had no acid rain lesions at any of the pH levels tested. Pollen germination was reduced at ph 2.5 in 'Empire'. Slight fruit set reduction at pH 2.5 was observed in 'McIntosh'. The incidence of russetting on 'Golden Delicious' fruits was ameliorated by the presence of rain-exclusion chambers but was not affected by acid rain. With season-long sprays at pH 2.75, there was a slight delay in maturity and lower weight of 'McIntosh' apples. Even at the lowest pH levels no detrimental effects of simulated acid rain were found on apple tree productivity and fruit quality when measured as fruit set, seed number per fruit, and fruit size and appearance.

  4. Characterization of polyphenols, sugars, and other polar compounds in persimmon juices produced under different technologies and their assessment in terms of compositional variations.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Sánchez, Cecilia; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Marti, Nuria; Saura, Domingo; Valero, Manuel; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    Persimmon juice is emerging in the global juice market as a new wholesome commercial juice that could effectively complement a healthy diet, given the epidemiological evidence linking a diet rich in fruits and vegetables with reduced incidences of chronic diseases. However, little data are available on the persimmon-juice composition or on the effect of the technological treatment employed for its production. The present work performs a complete qualitative analytical characterization through high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS) of the diverse persimmon juices produced under different technologies in a pilot plant (clarification, astringency removal, flash vacuum expansion, centrifugation and pasteurization) in order to evaluate the effect of the different production procedures on the polar chemical profile of persimmon juice. Persimmon-juice extracts have been found to be a source of sugars, protein derivatives, organic acids, vitamins, and polyphenols, including simple polyphenols (phenolic acids and flavonoids) and polymerized flavan-3-ols. A marked influence of processing on the composition of the juices has been noticed. Extracts 3 and 7 (undergoing the combinations of clarification and centrifugation, and astringency removal, centrifugation and pasteurization, respectively) contained more polyphenols, which may help reduce risk of chronic diseases. PMID:25842339

  5. International multidimensional authenticity specification (IMAS) algorithm for detection of commercial pomegranate juice adulteration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Krueger, Dana; Durst, Robert; Lee, Rupo; Wang, David; Seeram, Navindra; Heber, David

    2009-03-25

    The pomegranate fruit ( Punica granatum ) has become an international high-value crop for the production of commercial pomegranate juice (PJ). The perceived consumer value of PJ is due in large part to its potential health benefits based on a significant body of medical research conducted with authentic PJ. To establish criteria for authenticating PJ, a new International Multidimensional Authenticity Specifications (IMAS) algorithm was developed through consideration of existing databases and comprehensive chemical characterization of 45 commercial juice samples from 23 different manufacturers in the United States. In addition to analysis of commercial juice samples obtained in the United States, data from other analyses of pomegranate juice and fruits including samples from Iran, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Syria, India, and China were considered in developing this protocol. There is universal agreement that the presence of a highly constant group of six anthocyanins together with punicalagins characterizes polyphenols in PJ. At a total sugar concentration of 16 degrees Brix, PJ contains characteristic sugars including mannitol at >0.3 g/100 mL. Ratios of glucose to mannitol of 4-15 and of glucose to fructose of 0.8-1.0 are also characteristic of PJ. In addition, no sucrose should be present because of isomerase activity during commercial processing. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry as > -25 per thousand assures that there is no added corn or cane sugar added to PJ. Sorbitol was present at <0.025 g/100 mL; maltose and tartaric acid were not detected. The presence of the amino acid proline at >25 mg/L is indicative of added grape products. Malic acid at >0.1 g/100 mL indicates adulteration with apple, pear, grape, cherry, plum, or aronia juice. Other adulteration methods include the addition of highly concentrated aronia, blueberry, or blackberry juices or natural grape pigments to poor-quality juices to imitate the color of pomegranate juice, which results in abnormal anthocyanin profiles. To adjust the astringent taste of poor-quality juice or peel extract, addition of nonpomegranate sugars is a commonly detected adulteration method. The profile generated from these analyses combined with information from existing databases and published literature has been integrated into a validated IMAS for PJ, which can be utilized to detect PJ adulteration. In this survey of commercial pomegranate juices, only 6 of 23 strictly met all of the IMAS criteria. PMID:19249817

  6. Supplementation of orange juice with docosahexaenoic acid improves plasma phospholipid DHA content of children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a long-chain, polyunsaturated fatty acid that is important for brain and retinal development. Its principal dietary source in children is fish. Since many children have a low fish intake, there is concern that they do not receive adequate DHA. In older children, it may ...

  7. Efficacy of salicylic acid to reduce Penicillium expansum inoculum and preserve apple fruits.

    PubMed

    da Rocha Neto, Argus Cezar; Luiz, Caroline; Maraschin, Marcelo; Di Piero, Robson Marcelo

    2016-03-16

    Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits worldwide. Blue mold (Penicillium expansum) is one of the major diseases in apples postharvest, leading to wide use of fungicides and the search for alternative products to control the pathogen. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the potential of salicylic acid (SA) as an alternative product to control blue mold and to preserve the physicochemical characteristics of apple fruit postharvest. The antimicrobial effect of SA was determined both in vitro and in situ, by directly exposing conidia to solutions of different concentrations SA or by inoculating the fruit with P. expansum and treating them curatively, eradicatively, or preventively with a 2.5mM SA solution. The physiological effects of SA on fruit were determined by quantifying the weight loss, total soluble solids content, and titratable acidity. In addition, the accumulation of SA in the fruit was determined by HPLC. SA (2.5mM) inhibited 100% of fungal germination in vitro and also controlled blue mold in situ when applied eradicatively. In addition, HPLC analysis demonstrated that SA did not persist in apple fruit. SA also maintained the physicochemical characteristics of fruit of different quality categories. Thus, SA may be an alternative to the commercial fungicides currently used against P. expansum. PMID:26808096

  8. Colour stabilities of sour cherry juice concentrates enhanced with gallic acid and various plant extracts during storage.

    PubMed

    Navruz, Ayşe; Türkyılmaz, Meltem; Özkan, Mehmet

    2016-04-15

    Gallic acid (GA) and pomegranate rind extract (PRE), cherry stem extract (CSE) and green tea extract (GTE) were added to sour cherry juice concentrates (SCJCs) to enhance the colour. Effects of these copigment sources on anthocyanins, colour and turbidity were investigated during storage at -20, 4 and 20°C for 110 days. Cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside (cyd-3-glu-rut, 75%) was the major anthocyanin, followed by cyanidin-3-rutinoside (cyd-3-rut, 23%) and cyanidin-3-sophoroside (cyd-3-soph, 2%). While GA (37-53%), PRE (27-77%) and GTE (44-119%) increased the stabilities of cyd-3-rut and cyd-3-glu-rut, CSE reduced (12-24%) the stabilities of all anthocyanins. Polymeric colour and turbidity values increased after the addition of all extracts and GA. The lowest turbidity value after 110 days of storage at 20°C was determined in the SCJC enhanced with PRE. We recommend the addition of PRE to SCJC for the enhancement of anthocyanin stability and colour intensity, and the reduction in turbidity. PMID:26616935

  9. Rapid differentiation of commercial juices and blends by using sugar profiles obtained by capillary zone electrophoresis with indirect UV detection.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Pascual-Ahuir, Mara; Lerma-Garca, Mara Jess; Sim-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Herrero-Martnez, Jos Manuel

    2015-03-18

    A method for the determination of sugars in several fruit juices and nectars by capillary zone electrophoresis with indirect UV-vis detection has been developed. Under optimal conditions, commercial fruit juices and nectars from several fruits were analyzed, and the sugar and cyclamate contents were quantified in less than 6 min. A study for the detection of blends of high-value juices (orange and pineapple) with cheaper alternatives was also developed. For this purpose, different chemometric techniques, based on sugar content ratios, were applied. Linear discriminant analysis showed that fruit juices can be distinguished according to the fruit type, juice blends also being differentiated. Multiple linear regression models were also constructed to predict the adulteration of orange and pineapple juices with grape juice. This simple and reliable methodology provides a rapid analysis of fruit juices of economic importance, which is relevant for quality control purposes in food industries and regulatory agencies. PMID:25719749

  10. Metabolism of phenolic compounds by Lactobacillus spp. during fermentation of cherry juice and broccoli puree.

    PubMed

    Filannino, Pasquale; Bai, Yunpeng; Di Cagno, Raffaela; Gobbetti, Marco; Gnzle, Michael G

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the metabolism of phenolic acids and flavonoids during lactic acid fermentation of cherry juice and broccoli puree for potential food and pharmaceutical purposes. When fermenting cherry juice and broccoli puree, Lactobacillus spp. exhibited strain-specific metabolism of phenolic acid derivatives. The metabolism of protocatechuic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids through phenolic acid decarboxylases and reductases differed between mMRS and cherry juice and broccoli puree. The synthesis of reduced compounds was the highest during food fermentations and the substrate seemed to modulate the metabolism of phenolic compounds. The reduction of phenolic acids involves a hydrogen donor and the re-oxidation of the reduced co-factor NADH, which may provide a metabolic advantage through NAD(+) regeneration. Quinic acid reduction may replace fructose and pyruvate as hydrogen acceptors, and it may provide an energetic advantage to heterofermentative bacteria when growing in broccoli puree lacking of fructose. This study demonstrated that phenolics metabolism may confer a selective advantage for lactobacilli in vegetable and fruit fermentation, and the metabolic routes are strongly dependent on the intrinsic factors of substrate. Fermented cherry juice and broccoli puree, due to the selected bacterial bioconversion pathways, are enriched in phenolic derivative with high human bioavailability and biological activity. PMID:25475296

  11. Beneficial Effects of Citrus Juice Fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 on Japanese Cedar Pollinosis

    PubMed Central

    HARIMA-MIZUSAWA, Naomi; IINO, Tohru; ONODERA-MASUOKA, Norie; KATO-NAGAOKA, Noriko; KIYOSHIMA-SHIBATA, Junko; GOMI, Atsushi; SHIBAHARA-SONE, Harue; KANO, Mitsuyoshi; SHIDA, Kan; SAKAI, Masashi; MIYAZAKI, Kouji; ISHIKAWA, Fumiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the prevalence of allergies in Japan has been increasing. Certain types of fruit juice and lactic acid bacteria are known to alleviate allergic symptoms. Therefore, we examined whether citrus juice fermented by a specific lactic acid bacteria can improve the symptoms of Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCPsis). Lactobacillus plantarum YIT 0132 (LP0132) was selected based on its high proliferative activity in citrus juice and anti-inflammatory interleukin-10-inducing activity. Dietary administration of heat-killed LP0132 cells or citrus juice fermented with LP0132 was found to significantly suppress nasal rubbing in a JCPsis mouse model, indicating relief of allergy symptoms. To evaluate the effects of LP0132-fermented citrus juice on pollinosis symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in humans with JCPsis, a single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial was conducted. The participants were 42 adults with JCPsis. They ingested 100?mL of sterilized LP0132-fermented citrus juice (active group) or unfermented citrus juice (placebo group) once daily for 8 weeks. Immediately after the pollen peak when allergy symptoms and QOL loss were most severe, itchy eyes, itchy skin, and QOL loss by JCPsis were alleviated in the active group compared with the placebo group. At 10 weeks after starting the intervention, increased the levels of blood eosinophils were significantly suppressed in the active group compared with the placebo group. We conclude that continuous ingestion of citrus juice fermented with LP0132 may help alleviate the allergy symptoms and impaired QOL caused by JCPsis. PMID:25379362

  12. Effect of Processing, Post-Harvest Irradiation, and Production System on the Cytotoxicity and Mutagenicity of Vitis labrusca L. Juices in HTC Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dsman, Elisngela; de Almeida, Igor Vivian; Lucchetta, Luciano; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

    2014-01-01

    The juices of grapes (Vitis labrusca L.) are similar to the fruit itself because the main constituents of the fruit are present in the juice. However, their quality characteristics may be modified by the harsh technological processes used for the production of integral food, such as production systems of raw materials and post-harvest treatment of grapes with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Therefore, the present study analyzed juices produced naturally (by liquefying the fruit) or by the technological process of extraction by steam distillation (90C) of grapes from organic and conventional production systems that were untreated or treated with UV type C (65.6 J/m2 for 10 minutes). Using cultures of Rattus norvegicus hepatoma cells (HTC) in vitro, cytotoxic effects were assayed by the MTT test and by calculating the cytokinesis blocked proliferation index (CBPI), and mutagenic effects were measured by the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay. The results of the MTT assay and the CBPIs indicated that none of the juices were cytotoxic, including those that induced cell proliferation. The results of the micronucleus assay showed that none of the juices were mutagenic. However, the average number of micronuclei was lower in the juices produced from organic grapes, and cell proliferation, soluble acids and phenolic compounds were significantly higher. Compared with the natural juices, the integral juices of conventional grapes showed a higher average number of micronuclei as well as lower stimulation of cell proliferation and lower levels of bioactive compounds. The results demonstrate a beneficial effect of UV-C irradiation of post-harvest grapes in stimulating the synthesis of nutraceutical compounds without generating cytotoxic or mutagenic substances. Taken together, our findings support the consumption of grape juice and the application of food production techniques that enhance its nutritional value and promote its production, marketing and consumption. PMID:25244067

  13. New fatty acid, aromatic ester and monoterpenic benzyl glucoside from the fruits of Withania coagulans Dunal.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abuzer; Jameel, Mohammad; Ali, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The fruits of Withania coagulans Dunal (family: Solanaceae) are sweet, sedative, emetic, alterative and diuretic; used to treat asthma, biliousness, strangury, wounds, dyspepsia, flatulent colic, liver complaints and intestinal infections in the indigenous system of medicine. Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of W. coagulans fruits led to the isolation of a new fatty acid, an aromatic ester and a monoterpenic benzyl glucoside characterised as n-octatriacont-17-enoic acid (3), geranilan-10-olyl dihydrocinnamoate (4) and geranilan-8-oic acid-10-olyl salicyloxy-2-O-?-D-glucofuranosyl-(6??1?)-O-?-D-glucofuranosyl-6?-n-octadec-9?',11?'-dienoate (5) along with two known fatty acids, n-dotriacont-21-enoic acid (1) and n-tetratriacontanoic acid (2). The structures of isolated phytoconstituents were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, FT-IR, UV, and MS data and chemical means. PMID:25674818

  14. Effects of ultrasound treatment in purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) juice.

    PubMed

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Yadira; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Ramrez-Moreno, Esther; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Villanueva-Snchez, Javier; Alans-Garca, Ernesto

    2013-09-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit is a berry with a tasty pulp full of seeds that constitutes about 10-15% of the edible pulp. In Mexico, cactus pear is mainly consumed fresh, but also has the potential to be processed in other products such as juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ultrasound conditions at amplitude levels ranging (40% and 60% for 10, 15, 25 min; 80% for 3, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 25 min) on the characteristics of purple cactus pear juice. The evaluated parameters were related with the quality (stability, Brix, pH), microbial growth, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and % chelating activity) of purple cactus pear juices. The ultrasound treatment for time period of 15 and 25 min significantly reduced the microbial count in 15 and 25 min, without affecting the juice quality and its antioxidant properties. Juice treated at 80% of amplitude level showed an increased of antioxidant compounds. Our results demonstrated that sonication is a suitable technique for cactus pear processing. This technology allows the achievement of juice safety and quality standards without compromising the retention of antioxidant compounds. PMID:23545106

  15. 21 CFR 150.140 - Fruit jelly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... made from a mixture of one or a permitted combination of the fruit juice ingredients specified in... essence accompanying any optional fruit ingredient. (b)(1) Each of the fruit juice ingredients referred...

  16. Adhesion of Asaia bogorensis to Glass and Polystyrene in the Presence of Cranberry Juice.

    PubMed

    Antolak, Hubert; Kregiel, Dorota; Czyzowska, Agata

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the adhesion abilities of the acetic acid bacterium Asaia bogorensis to glass and polystyrene in the presence of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) juice. The strain of A. bogorensis used was isolated from spoiled commercial fruit-flavored drinking water. The cranberry juice was analyzed for polyphenols, organic acids, and carbohydrates using high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques. The adhesive abilities of bacterial cells in culture medium supplemented with cranberry juice were determined using luminometry and microscopy. The viability of adhered and planktonic bacterial cells was determined by the plate count method, and the relative adhesion coefficient was calculated. This strain of A. bogorensis was characterized by strong adhesion properties that were dependent upon the type of surface. The highest level of cell adhesion was found on the polystyrene. However, in the presence of 10% cranberry juice, attachment of bacterial cells was three times lower. Chemical analysis of juice revealed the presence of sugars, organic acids, and anthocyanins, which were identified as galactosides, glucosides, and arabinosides of cyanidin and peonidin. A-type proanthocyanidins responsible for the antiadhesion properties of V. macrocarpon also were detected. PMID:26038911

  17. Content variations of triterpenic acid, nucleoside, nucleobase, and sugar in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit during ripening.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Wu, Dawei; Su, Shulan; Wang, Hanqing; Zhao, Yunan

    2015-01-15

    Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) fruit is widely consumed as food and traditional Chinese medicine in Asian countries due to its potential effects for human health. To facilitate selection of the maturity stage providing optimum health benefits, jujube fruits were analysed at six stages of growth (S1-6) for triterpenic acids, nucleosides, nucleobases, and sugars by UHPLC-MS/MS or HPLC-ELSD methods. The content levels of most triterpenic acids and sugars increased with ripening, and reached the highest at S5 and S6, respectively. The accumulation of the cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) was mainly in the later stage of ripening (S5-6). Therefore, if taking triterpenic acids as the major quality indicator, S5 should be the ideal time to harvest jujube fruit, and the full ripen stage (S6) maybe the best choice when taking sugars and cyclic nucleotides as the most important components. PMID:25149013

  18. Interactions between cranberries and fungi: the proposed function of organic acids in virulence suppression of fruit rot fungi

    PubMed Central

    Tadych, Mariusz; Vorsa, Nicholi; Wang, Yifei; Bergen, Marshall S.; Johnson-Cicalese, Jennifer; Polashock, James J.; White, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Cranberry fruit are a rich source of bioactive compounds that may function as constitutive or inducible barriers against rot-inducing fungi. The content and composition of these compounds change as the season progresses. Several necrotrophic fungi cause cranberry fruit rot disease complex. These fungi remain mostly asymptomatic until the fruit begins to mature in late August. Temporal fluctuations and quantitative differences in selected organic acid profiles between fruit of six cranberry genotypes during the growing season were observed. The concentration of benzoic acid in fruit increased while quinic acid decreased throughout fruit development. In general, more rot-resistant genotypes (RR) showed higher levels of benzoic acid early in fruit development and more gradual decline in quinic acid levels than that observed in the more rot-susceptible genotypes. We evaluated antifungal activities of selected cranberry constituents and found that most bioactive compounds either had no effects or stimulated growth or reactive oxygen species (ROS) secretion of four tested cranberry fruit rot fungi, while benzoic acid and quinic acid reduced growth and suppressed secretion of ROS by these fungi. We propose that variation in the levels of ROS suppressive compounds, such as benzoic and quinic acids, may influence virulence by the fruit rot fungi. Selection for crops that maintain high levels of virulence suppressive compounds could yield new disease resistant varieties. This could represent a new strategy for control of disease caused by necrotrophic pathogens that exhibit a latent or endophytic phase. PMID:26322038

  19. Interactions between cranberries and fungi: the proposed function of organic acids in virulence suppression of fruit rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Tadych, Mariusz; Vorsa, Nicholi; Wang, Yifei; Bergen, Marshall S; Johnson-Cicalese, Jennifer; Polashock, James J; White, James F

    2015-01-01

    Cranberry fruit are a rich source of bioactive compounds that may function as constitutive or inducible barriers against rot-inducing fungi. The content and composition of these compounds change as the season progresses. Several necrotrophic fungi cause cranberry fruit rot disease complex. These fungi remain mostly asymptomatic until the fruit begins to mature in late August. Temporal fluctuations and quantitative differences in selected organic acid profiles between fruit of six cranberry genotypes during the growing season were observed. The concentration of benzoic acid in fruit increased while quinic acid decreased throughout fruit development. In general, more rot-resistant genotypes (RR) showed higher levels of benzoic acid early in fruit development and more gradual decline in quinic acid levels than that observed in the more rot-susceptible genotypes. We evaluated antifungal activities of selected cranberry constituents and found that most bioactive compounds either had no effects or stimulated growth or reactive oxygen species (ROS) secretion of four tested cranberry fruit rot fungi, while benzoic acid and quinic acid reduced growth and suppressed secretion of ROS by these fungi. We propose that variation in the levels of ROS suppressive compounds, such as benzoic and quinic acids, may influence virulence by the fruit rot fungi. Selection for crops that maintain high levels of virulence suppressive compounds could yield new disease resistant varieties. This could represent a new strategy for control of disease caused by necrotrophic pathogens that exhibit a latent or endophytic phase. PMID:26322038

  20. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation of orange juice increases plasma phospholipid DHA content of children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major dietary source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is fish, which is not widely consumed by children. There is concern, therefore, that children may not receive adequate DHA and so might benefit from dietary supplementation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of providing a...

  1. Acetaldehyde stimulation of net gluconeogenic carbon movement from applied malic acid in tomato fruit pericarp tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Halinska, A.; Frenkel, C. )

    1991-03-01

    Applied acetaldehyde is known to lead to sugar accumulation in fruit including tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) presumably due to stimulation of gluconeogenesis. This conjecture was examined using tomato fruit pericarp discs as a test system and applied l-(U-{sup 14}C)malic acid as the source for gluconeogenic carbon mobilization. Results indicate that malic and perhaps other organic acids are carbon sources for gluconeogenesis occurring normally in ripening tomatoes. The process is stimulated by acetaldehyde apparently by attenuating the fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels. The mode of the acetaldehyde regulation of fructose-2,6-biphosphate metabolism awaits clarification.

  2. Vitamin C Content of Commercial Orange Juices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to confirm that newly purchased commercial orange juice contains sufficient ascorbic acid to meet government standards, and to establish the rate of aerial oxidation of this ascorbic acid when the juice is stored in a refrigerator. (MLH)

  3. ?-Aminobutyric acid induces resistance against Penicillium expansum by priming of defence responses in pear fruit.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chen; Zeng, Lizhen; Sheng, Kuang; Chen, Fangxia; Zhou, Tao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yu, Ting

    2014-09-15

    The results from this study showed that treatment with ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), at 100-1000 ?g/ml, induced strong resistance against blue mould rot caused by Penicillium expansum in pear fruit. Moreover, the activities of five defence-related enzymes (including chitinase, ?-1,3-glucanase, phenylalnine ammonialyase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase) and the expression of these corresponding genes were markedly and/or promptly enhanced in the treatment with GABA and inoculation with P. expansum compared with those that were treated with GABA or inoculated with pathogen alone. In addition, the treatment of pear with GABA had little adverse effect on the edible quality of the fruit. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that GABA can effectively reduce fungal disease of harvested fruit. Its mechanisms may be closely correlated with the induction of fruit resistance by priming activation and expression of defence-related enzymes and genes upon challenge with pathogen. PMID:24767023

  4. Characterisation of phenolic compounds in processed fibres from the juice industry.

    PubMed

    Delpino-Rius, Antoni; Eras, Jordi; Vilar, Francisca; Cubero, Miguel ngel; Balcells, Merc; Canela-Garayoa, Ramon

    2015-04-01

    The content of phenolic compounds was determined in nine industrially processed fibres derived from the juice industry. Apple, peach, and pear as non-citrus fruit fibres were examined, as well as orange peel and flesh, tangerine peel and flesh, and lemon flesh as citrus fruit fibres, and carrot as vegetable fibre. The extractable phenolic profile of all fibres was obtained by UPLC-PDA-FLR-MS/MS. Forty phenolic compounds were identified and their concentrations determined. In addition, bound phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins were measured in solid residues in order to determine the phenolic compounds remaining. Also, to allow the comparison of the profiles and contents in the fresh fruit and fibres, we analysed extractable and bound phenolic compounds in lyophilized peel and pulp from fresh fruit. The profile and phenolic content of the fibres was similar to that of the fresh fruit, except for flavan-3-ols, which registered lower values. PMID:25442594

  5. Bioaccessibility of tocopherols, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid from milk- and soy-based fruit beverages: influence of food matrix and processing.

    PubMed

    Cilla, Antonio; Alegra, Amparo; de Ancos, Begoa; Snchez-Moreno, Concepcin; Cano, M Pilar; Plaza, Luca; Clemente, Gonzalo; Lagarda, Mara J; Barber, Reyes

    2012-07-25

    A study was made of the effect of high-pressure processing (HPP) and thermal treatment (TT) on plant bioactive compounds (tocopherols, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid) in 12 fruit juice-milk beverages and of how the food matrix [whole milk (JW), skimmed milk (JS), and soy milk (JSy)] modulates their bioaccessibility (%). HPP (400 MPa/40 C/5 min) produced a significant decrease in carotenoid and ascorbic acid bioaccessibility in all three beverages and maintained the bioaccessibility of tocopherols in JW and JS while decreasing it in JSy. TT (90 C/30 s) produced a significant decrease in tocopherol and carotenoid bioaccessibility in all three beverages and increased the bioaccessibility of ascorbic acid. With regard to the food matrix, ?-tocopherol and ascorbic acid bioaccessibility was greatest in JW beverages and lowest in JSy beverages, whereas no significant differences were found among the three beverages in terms of carotenoid bioaccessibility. HPP-treated samples showed higher tocopherol and carotenoid bioaccessibility than TT-treated samples, thus indicating that HPP combined with a milk matrix positively modulates the bioaccessibility of certain types of bioactive components of food, mainly those of a lipophilic nature. PMID:22738607

  6. Chili pepper fruits: presumed precursors of fatty acids characteristic for capsaicinoids.

    PubMed

    Thiele, Roland; Mueller-Seitz, Erika; Petz, Michael

    2008-06-11

    Capsaicin is a molecule unique to fruits from the genus Capsicum. It is responsible for the pungent sensation and displays valuable pharmacological properties. Despite the fruits' economic importance and decades of research, the regulation of the content of capsaicinoids in individual fruits is not completely elucidated, and no agricultural cultivation of chili of defined pungency is assured. Precursor candidates of the fatty acid moiety of the capsaicinoids, especially for the unique 8-methyl- trans-6-nonenoic acid, were examined. Thioesters, acyl-ACP and acyl-CoA, were isolated from the placenta of Capsicum fruits by means of DEAE-Sepharose chromatography, selectively converted to the corresponding N-butylamides, and analyzed by GC-MS. Fatty acid moieties characteristic for capsaicinoids were identified. In two different varieties ( Capsicum chinense var. Habanero orange and Capsicum annuum var. Jalapeno) it was shown that the fatty acid pattern corresponds to the distribution pattern of the capsaicinoids formed up to this time. The acyl-thioester fractions contained already the 8-methyl- trans-6-nonenoic acid. PMID:18489121

  7. Effects of acid rain on apple tree productivity and fruit quality

    SciTech Connect

    Forsline, P.L.; Musselman, R.C.; Kender, W.J.; Dee, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Mature McIntosh, Empire, and Golden Delicious apple trees (Malus domestica) were sprayed with simulated acid rain solutions in the pH range of 2.5 to 5.5 at full bloom in 1980 and 1981. In 1981, weekly sprays were applied at pH 2.75 and pH 3.25. Necrotic lesions developed on apple petals at pH 2.5 with slight injury appearing at pH 3.0 and 3.5. Apple foliage had no acid rain lesions at any of the pH levels tested. Pollen germination was reduced at pH 2.5 in Empire. Slight fruit set reduction at pH 2.5 was observed in McIntosh. Even at the lowest pH levels no detrimental effects of simulated acid rain were found on apple tree productivity and fruit quality when measured as fruit set, seed number per fruit, and fruit size and appearance.

  8. A novel extraction method for β-carotene and other carotenoids in fruit juices using air-assisted, low-density solvent-based liquid-liquid microextraction and solidified floating organic droplets.

    PubMed

    Sricharoen, Phitchan; Limchoowong, Nunticha; Techawongstien, Suchila; Chanthai, Saksit

    2016-07-15

    Green extraction using air-assisted, low-density solvent-based liquid-liquid microextraction and solidified floating organic droplets (AA-LDS-LLME-SFOD) prior to spectrophotometry was successfully applied for quantitation of carotenoids in fruit juices. Under optimal conditions, β-carotene could be quantified with a linear response up to a concentration of 60μgmL(-1). The procedure was performed in a microcentrifuge tube with 40μL of 1-dodecanol as the extraction solvent and a 1.0mL juice sample containing 8% NaCl under seven extraction cycles of air pumping by syringe. This method was validated based on linearity (0.2-30μgmL(-1), R(2) 0.998), limit of detection (0.04μgmL(-1)) and limit of quantification (0.13μgmL(-1)). The precision, expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the calibration curve slope (n=12), for inter-day and intra-day analysis was 4.85% and 7.92%, respectively. Recovery of β-carotene was in the range of 93.6-101.5%. The newly proposed method is simple, rapid and environmentally friendly, particularly as a useful screening test for food analysis. PMID:26948629

  9. Flavor analysis of Hamlin and Valencia juice from greening (Huanglongbing) trees in 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Difference-from-control tests were run for healthy juice obtained from fruit harvested from 15 control non-Huanglongbing (HLB) symptomatic trees versus HLB juice from asymptomatic fruit harvested from 15 HLB-symptomatic trees within the same grove (~450 fruit for healthy and HLB). A trained panel ...

  10. HPLC method for the simultaneous quantification of the major organic acids in Angeleno plum fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanwei; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Wei; Zhao, Zhilei; Cao, Jiankang

    2014-08-01

    A method was developed to profile major organic acids in Angeleno fruit by high performance liquid chromatography. Organic acids in plum were extracted by water with ultra- sonication at 50°C for 30 min. The extracts were chromatographed on Waters Atlantis T3 C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with 0.01mol/L sulfuric acid and water as mobile phase, and flow rate was 0.5 ml/min. The column temperature was 40C, and chromatography was monitored by a diode array detector at 210 nm. The result showed that malic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid, pyruvic acid, acetic acid, succinic acid in Angeleno plum, and the malic acid was the major organic acids. The coefficient of determination of the standard calibration curve is R2 > 0.999. The organic acids recovery ranged from 99.11% for Malic acid to 106.70% for Oxalic acid, and CV (n=6) ranged from 0.95% for Malic acid to 6.23% for Oxalic acid, respectively. The method was accurate, sensitive and feasible in analyzing the organic acids in Angeleno plum.

  11. The abundant free-living amoeba, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, increases the survival of Campylobacter jejuni in milk and orange juice

    PubMed Central

    Olofsson, Jenny; Berglund, Petra Griekspoor; Olsen, Björn; Ellström, Patrik; Axelsson-Olsson, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Background Campylobacter jejuni is a common cause of human bacterial diarrhea in most parts of the world. Most C. jejuni infections are acquired from contaminated poultry, milk, and water. Due to health care costs and human suffering, it is important to identify all possible sources of infection. Unpasteurized milk has been associated with several outbreaks of C. jejuni infection. Campylobacter has been identified on fresh fruit, and other gastrointestinal pathogens such as Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7 and Cryptosporidium have been involved in fruit juice outbreaks. C. jejuni is sensitive to the acidic environment of fruit juice, but co-cultures with the amoeba, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, have previously been shown to protect C. jejuni at low pH. Methods To study the influence of A. polyphaga on the survival of C. jejuni in milk and juice, the bacteria were incubated in the two products at room temperature and at 4°C with the following treatments: A) C. jejuni preincubated with A. polyphaga before the addition of product, B) C. jejuni mixed with A. polyphaga after the addition of product, and C) C. jejuni in product without A. polyphaga. Bacterial survival was assessed by colony counts on blood agar plates. Results Co-culture with A. polyphaga prolonged the C. jejuni survival both in milk and juice. The effect of co-culture was most pronounced in juice stored at room temperature. On the other hand, A. polyphaga did not have any effect on C. jejuni survival during pasteurization of milk or orange juice, indicating that this is a good method for eliminating C. jejuni in these products. Conclusion Amoebae-associated C. jejuni in milk and juice might cause C. jejuni infections. PMID:26387556

  12. Effect of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria starters on health-promoting and sensory properties of tomato juices.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Surico, Rosalinda F; Paradiso, Annalisa; De Angelis, Maria; Salmon, Jean-Christophe; Buchin, Solange; De Gara, Laura; Gobbetti, Marco

    2009-01-15

    Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Weissella cibaria/confusa, Lactobacillus brevis, Pediococcus pentosaceous, Lactobacillus sp. and Enterococcus faecium/faecalis were identified from raw tomatoes by Biolog System, partial 16S rRNA gene sequence and subjected to typing by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis. Ten autochthonous strains were singly used to ferment tomato juice (TJ) via a protocol which included fermentation at 25 degrees C for 17 h and further storage at 4 degrees C for 40 days. Unstarted TJ and TJ fermented with an allochthonous strain of L. plantarum were used as the controls. All autochthonous strains grew well in TJ reaching cell densities ca. 10,000 and 10 times higher than unstarted TJ and TJ fermented with the allochthonous strain. Viscosity of TJs fermented with autochthonous strains was generally the highest, especially when started with W. cibaria/confusa which synthesized exo-polysaccharides. Overall, unstarted TJ and TJ fermented with the allochthonous strain showed marked decreases of ascorbic acid (ASC), glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant activity (TTA) during storage. On the contrary, several TJs fermented with autochthonous strains, especially with L. plantarum POM1 and POM 35, maintained elevated values of ASC, GSH and TAA. The variation of color indexes mirrored the above behavior. TJs fermented with the above two autochthonous strains were compared to controls based on volatile components through Purge and Trap or Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (PT or SPME-GC/MS) analysis. As shown by Principal Component Analysis a large number of volatiles belonging to various chemical classes markedly differentiated TJs fermented with autochthonous strains with respect to controls. PMID:19028404

  13. Effects of carrot and tomato juice consumption on faecal markers relevant to colon carcinogenesis in humans.

    PubMed

    Schnbele, Kerstin; Briviba, Karlis; Bub, Achim; Roser, Silvia; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice L; Rechkemmer, Gerhard

    2008-03-01

    High intakes of carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables are associated with a reduced risk of various cancers including colon cancer. A human intervention study with carrot and tomato juice should show whether a diet rich in carotenoids, especially high in beta-carotene and lycopene, can modify luminal processes relevant to colon carcinogenesis. In a randomised cross-over trial, twenty-two healthy young men on a low-carotenoid diet consumed 330 ml tomato or carrot juice per d for 2 weeks. Intervention periods were preceded by 2-week depletion phases. At the end of each study period, faeces of twelve volunteers were collected for chemical analyses and use in cell-culture systems. Consumption of carrot juice led to a marked increase of beta-carotene and alpha-carotene in faeces and faecal water, as did lycopene after consumption of tomato juice. In the succeeding depletion phases, carotenoid contents in faeces and faecal water returned to their initial values. Faecal water showed high dose-dependent cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects on colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT29). These effects were not markedly changed by carrot and tomato juice consumption. Neither bile acid concentrations nor activities of the bacterial enzymes beta-glucosidase and beta-glucuronidase in faecal water changed after carrot and tomato juice consumption. Faecal water pH decreased only after carrot juice consumption. SCFA were probably not responsible for this effect, as SCFA concentrations and profiles did not change significantly. In summary, in the present study, 2-week interventions with carotenoid-rich juices led only to minor changes in investigated luminal biomarkers relevant to colon carcinogenesis. PMID:18254985

  14. Determination and stereochemistry of proteinogenic and non-proteinogenic amino acids in Saudi Arabian date fruits.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hatem Salama Mohamed; Alhaj, Omar Amin; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman Saleh; Brckner, Hans

    2014-09-01

    Whereas an abundance of literature is available on the occurrence of common proteinogenic amino acids (AAs) in edible fruits of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.), recent reports on non-proteinogenic (non-coded) AAs and amino components are scarce. With emphasis on these components we have analyzed total hydrolysates of twelve cultivars of date fruits using automated ion-exchange chromatography, HPLC employing a fluorescent aminoquinolyl label, and GC-MS of total hydrolysates using the chiral stationary phases Chirasil()-L-Val and Lipodex() E. Besides common proteinogenic AAs, relatively large amounts of the following non-proteinogenic amino acids were detected: (2S,5R)-5-hydroxypipecolic acid (1.4-4.0 g/kg dry matter, DM), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (1.3-2.6 g/kg DM), ?-amino-n-butyric acid (0.5-1.2 g/kg DM), (2S,4R)-4-hydroxyproline (130-230 mg/kg DM), L-pipecolic acid (40-140 mg/kg DM), and 2-aminoethanol (40-160 mg/kg DM) as well as low or trace amounts (<70 mg/kg DM) of L-ornithine, 5-hydroxylysine, ?-alanine, and in some samples (<20 mg/kg DM) of (S)-?-aminoisobutyric acid and (<10 mg/kg DM) L-allo-isoleucine. In one date fruit, traces of ?-aminoadipic acid could be determined. Enantiomeric analysis of 6 M DCl/D2O hydrolysates of AAs using chiral capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of very low amounts of D-Ala, D-Asp, D-Glu, D-Ser and D-Phe (1.2-0.4%, relative to the corresponding L-enantiomers), besides traces (0.2-1%) of other D-AAs. The possible relevance of non-proteinogenic amino acids in date fruits is briefly addressed. PMID:24938763

  15. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction for the determination of biogenic amines in fruit juices and alcoholic beverages after derivatization with 1-naphthylisothiocyanate and high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jain, Archana; Gupta, Manju; Verma, Krishna K

    2015-11-27

    A new method for determining biogenic amines in fruit juices and alcoholic beverages is described involving reaction of biogenic amines with 1-naphthylisothiocyanate followed by extraction of 1-naphthylthiourea derivatives with water-miscible organic solvent acetonitrile when solvents phase separation occurred using ammonium sulphate, a process called salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction. The extract was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection at 254nm. The new reagent avoided many of the inconveniences as observed with existing derivatizing agents, such as dansyl chloride and benzoyl chloride, in regard to their inselectivity, instability, adverse effect of excess reagent, and necessity to remove excess reagent. The procedure has been optimized with respect to reaction time and temperature, water-miscible extraction solvent, and salt for solvents phase separation. Use of reagent as dispersed phase in aqueous medium produced derivatives in high yield. A linear calibration was obtained between the amount of biogenic amines in range 1-1000μgL(-1) and peak areas of corresponding thioureas formed; the correlation coefficient was 0.9965, and the limit of detection and limit of quantification found were 1.1μgL(-1) and 3.2μgL(-1), respectively. The pre-concentration method gave an average enrichment factor of 94. The application of the method has been demonstrated in the determination of biogenic amines in commercial samples of fruit juices and alcoholic beverages. In spiking experiments to real samples, the average recovery found by the present method was 94.5% that agreed well with 95.8% obtained by established comparison methods. PMID:26518497

  16. Fatty acid and carotenoid composition of gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) fruit.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Betty K; Turner, Charlotta; Chapman, Mary H; McKeon, Thomas A

    2004-01-28

    In this study, we analyzed fatty acid and carotenoid composition of fruit tissues, including seed (which are surrounded by a bright red, oily aril) of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng, known as gac in Vietnam. Carotenoid content was analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC, using a C(30) column and a method separating cis- and trans-isomers of the major carotenoids in this fruit. Mean values obtained in aril tissues were 1342 microg trans-, 204 microg cis-, and 2227 microg total lycopene; 597 microg trans-, 39 microg cis-, and 718 microg total beta-carotene; and 107 microg alpha-carotene/g FW. Mesocarp contained 11 microg trans-, 5 microg cis-beta-carotene/g FW, trace amounts of alpha-carotene, and no lycopene. Gac aril contained 22% fatty acids by weight, composed of 32% oleic, 29% palmitic, and 28% linoleic acids. Seeds contained primarily stearic acid (60.5%), smaller amounts of linoleic (20%), oleic (9%), and palmitic (5-6%) acids, and trace amounts of arachidic, cis-vaccenic, linolenic, and palmitoleic, eicosa-11-enoic acids, and eicosa-13-enoic (in one fruit only) acids. PMID:14733508

  17. Effect of skin coatings on prolonging shelf life of kagzi lime fruits (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle).

    PubMed

    Bisen, Abhay; Pandey, Sailendra Kumar; Patel, Neha

    2012-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to assess the influence of chemical and oil coatings on storage life of kagzi lime fruits. Fruits were harvested at physiological light green mature stage and treated with different concentrations of chemicals viz., Cacl2 and KMnO4 and edible coatings viz., (coconut oil, mustard oil, sesamum oil, castor oil and liquid paraffin wax). After treatment, fruits were kept at ambient condition (25-30 °C, 60-70% RH) till 18 days and analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters like PLW, marketable fruits retained, TSS, acidity, ascorbic acid, juice content and also organoleptic values. The results revealed that edible oil emulsion coating particularly coconut oil had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) effect on reduction of the physiological loss in weight (9.67%) and maximum marketable fruits retained (70%), total soluble solids (8.43%), ascorbic acid (49.93 mg/100 ml juice), acidity (1.52%) and juice content (42.34%) of fruits. Similarly, application of this oil emulsion coating acceptable for sensory quality parameters such as appearance, flavour, taste, external colour and no incidence of moulds & their growth up to 18 days of storage. PMID:24293695

  18. Effects of location within the tree canopy on carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids and phenolic compounds in the fruit peel and flesh from three apple (Malus domestica) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Feng, Fengjuan; Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang; Cheng, Lailiang

    2014-01-01

    Fruits from three cultivars of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)-'McIntosh', 'Gala' and 'Mutsu'-were harvested from the exterior and interior of the tree canopy. Peel and flesh tissues were sampled separately to determine how the position of the fruit on the tree might affect the levels of the primary and secondary metabolites in the fruit. Fruit from the outer-canopy had a higher fresh weight and a higher soluble solids content compared with inner-canopy fruit. Both the flesh and peel of the outer-canopy fruit had higher concentrations of soluble sugars and sugar alcohols, but lower starch concentrations than the inner-canopy fruit. Canopy position did not significantly affect malic acid concentrations, except in the peel of 'McIntosh' and the flesh of 'Mutsu'. Although levels of ascorbic and succinic acids were higher in the peel of the outer-canopy fruit, the responses of other organic acids to canopy position depended on tissue type and cultivar. Except for histidine, lysine, threonine and glycine, most amino acids accumulated at higher concentrations in the inner-canopy fruit. By contrast, levels of phenolic compounds from both the peel and flesh were significantly higher in the outer-canopy fruit. The significant effects of location within the canopy on both primary metabolites and secondary metabolites demonstrate the importance of light exposure on apple fruit quality. PMID:26504536

  19. Effects of location within the tree canopy on carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids and phenolic compounds in the fruit peel and flesh from three apple (Malus domestica) cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Fengjuan; Li, Mingjun; Ma, Fengwang; Cheng, Lailiang

    2014-01-01

    Fruits from three cultivars of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.)McIntosh, Gala and Mutsuwere harvested from the exterior and interior of the tree canopy. Peel and flesh tissues were sampled separately to determine how the position of the fruit on the tree might affect the levels of the primary and secondary metabolites in the fruit. Fruit from the outer-canopy had a higher fresh weight and a higher soluble solids content compared with inner-canopy fruit. Both the flesh and peel of the outer-canopy fruit had higher concentrations of soluble sugars and sugar alcohols, but lower starch concentrations than the inner-canopy fruit. Canopy position did not significantly affect malic acid concentrations, except in the peel of McIntosh and the flesh of Mutsu. Although levels of ascorbic and succinic acids were higher in the peel of the outer-canopy fruit, the responses of other organic acids to canopy position depended on tissue type and cultivar. Except for histidine, lysine, threonine and glycine, most amino acids accumulated at higher concentrations in the inner-canopy fruit. By contrast, levels of phenolic compounds from both the peel and flesh were significantly higher in the outer-canopy fruit. The significant effects of location within the canopy on both primary metabolites and secondary metabolites demonstrate the importance of light exposure on apple fruit quality. PMID:26504536

  20. Thermal resistance parameters of acid-adapted and unadapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple-carrot juice blends: effect of organic acids and pH.

    PubMed

    Usaga, Jessie; Worobo, Randy W; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I

    2014-04-01

    Numerous outbreaks involving fresh juices contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 have occurred in the United States and around the world, raising concern for the safety of these products. Until now, only a few studies regarding the thermal tolerance of this pathogen in acidic juices over a wide range of pH values have been published. Therefore, the effect of varying the pH with different organic acids on the thermal inactivation of non-acid-adapted and acid-adapted E. coli O157:H7 (strain C7927) was determined. The decimal reduction times (D-values) and the change in temperature required for the thermal destruction curve to traverse 1 log cycle (z-values) were calculated for non-acid-adapted E. coli in an apple-carrot juice blend (80:20) adjusted to three pH values (3.3, 3.5, and 3.7) by the addition of lactic, malic, or acetic acid and at a pH of 4.5 adjusted with NaOH. Thermal parameters were also determined for acid-adapted cells in juices acidified with malic acid. The effect of the soluble solids content on the thermal tolerance was studied in samples with a pH of 3.7 at 9.4 to 11.5 °Brix. The D-values were determined at 54, 56, and 58 °C, and trials were conducted in triplicate. Non-acid-adapted E. coli exhibited the highest thermal tolerance at pH 4.5 (D-value at 54 °C [D54 °C] of 20 ± 4 min and z-value of 6.2 °C), although on average, the D-values increased significantly (P < 0.01) due to acid adaptation. In acidified juices, the highest tolerance was observed in acid-adapted E. coli in samples adjusted to pH 3.7 with malic acid (D54 °C of 9 ± 2 min and z-value of 5.4 °C) and the lowest in unadapted E. coli at pH 3.3 acidified with acetic acid (D58 °C of 0.03 ± 0.01 min and z-value of 10.4 °C). For juices acidified to the same endpoint pH with different acids, E. coli was found to be more tolerant in samples acidified with malic acid, followed by lactic and acetic acids. Increasing the soluble solids content from 9.4 to 11.5 °Brix showed no significant effect on the thermal tolerance of E. coli (P > 0.01). The data from this study will be useful for establishing critical limits for safe thermal processing of pH-controlled juices and similar products. PMID:24680067