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1

Mesodermal Gene Expression in the Acoel Isodiametra pulchra Indicates a Low Number of Mesodermal Cell Types and the Endomesodermal Origin of the Gonads  

PubMed Central

Acoelomorphs are bilaterally symmetric small marine worms that lack a coelom and possess a digestive system with a single opening. Two alternative phylogenetic positions of this group within the animal tree are currently debated. In one view, Acoelomorpha is the sister group to all remaining Bilateria and as such, is a morphologically simple stepping stone in bilaterian evolution. In the other, the group is a lineage within the Deuterostomia, and therefore, has derived a simple morphology from a more complex ancestor. Acoels and the closely related Nemertodermatida and Xenoturbellida, which together form the Acoelomorpha, possess a very limited number of cell types. To further investigate the diversity and origin of mesodermal cell types we describe the expression pattern of 12 orthologs of bilaterian mesodermal markers including Six1/2, Twist, FoxC, GATA4/5/6, in the acoel Isodiametra pulchra. All the genes are expressed in stem cells (neoblasts), gonads, and at least subsets of the acoel musculature. Most are expressed in endomesodermal compartments of I. pulchra developing embryos similar to what has been described in cnidarians. Our molecular evidence indicates a very limited number of mesodermal cell types and suggests an endomesodermal origin of the gonads and the stem cell system. We discuss our results in light of the two prevailing phylogenetic positions of Acoelomorpha. PMID:23405161

Chiodin, Marta; Børve, Aina; Berezikov, Eugene; Ladurner, Peter; Martinez, Pedro; Hejnol, Andreas

2013-01-01

2

The nervous system of Isodiametra pulchra (Acoela) with a discussion on the neuroanatomy of the Xenacoelomorpha and its evolutionary implications  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acoels are microscopic marine worms that have become the focus of renewed debate and research due to their placement at the base of the Bilateria by molecular phylogenies. To date, Isodiametra pulchra is the most promising “model acoel” as it can be cultured and gene knockdown can be performed with double-stranded RNA. Despite its well-known morphology data on the nervous system are scarce. Therefore we examined this organ using various microscopic techniques, including histology, conventional histochemistry, electron microscopy, and immunocytochemistry in combination with CLSM and discuss our results in light of recently established phylogenies. Results The nervous system of Isodiametra pulchra consists of a bilobed brain with a dorsal posterior commissure, a frontal ring and tracts, four pairs of longitudinal neurite bundles, as well as a supramuscular and submuscular plexus. Serotonin-like immunoreactivity (SLI) is displayed in parts of the brain, the longitudinal neurite bundles and a large part of the supramuscular plexus, while FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity (RFLI) is displayed in parts of the brain and a distinct set of neurons, the longitudinal neurite bundles and the submuscular plexus. Despite this overlap SLI and RFLI are never colocalized. Most remarkable though is the presence of a distinct functional neuro-muscular system consisting of the statocyst, tracts, motor neurons and inner muscles, as well as the presence of various muscles that differ with regard to their ultrastructure and innervation. Conclusions The nervous system of Isodiametra pulchra consists of an insunk, bilobed brain, a peripheral part for perception and innervation of the smooth body-wall musculature as well as tracts and motor neurons that together with pseudostriated inner muscles are responsible for steering and quick movements. The insunk, bilobed brains with two to three commissures found in numerous acoels are homologous and evolved from a ring-commissural brain that was present in the stem species of acoelomorphs. The acoelomorph brain is bipartite, consisting of a Six3/6-dependend animal pole nervous system that persists throughout adulthood and an axial nervous system that does not develop by exhibiting a staggered pattern of conserved regulatory genes as in other bilaterians but by a nested pattern of these genes. This indicates that acoelomorphs stem from an ancestor with a simple brain or with a biphasic life cycle. PMID:23072457

2012-01-01

3

Embryonic Muscle Development of Convoluta pulchra (Turbellaria–Acoelomorpha, Platyhelminthes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the embryonic development of body-wall musculature in the acoel turbellarian Convoluta pulchra by fluorescence microscopy using phalloidin-bound stains for F-actin. During stage 1, which we define as development prior to 50% of the time between egg-laying and hatching, actin was visible only in zonulae adhaerentes of epidermal cells. Subsequent development of muscle occurred in two distinct phases: first,

Peter Ladurner; Reinhard Rieger

2000-01-01

4

Acoel development supports a simple planula-like urbilaterian.  

PubMed

Molecular approaches to the study of development and evolution have had profound effects on our understanding of the nature of the evolutionary process. Developmental biologists became intoxicated with fanciful notions of reconstructing genetic pathways of morphogenesis while evolutionary biologists were sobered by the fallacy of reconstructing organismal relationships along increasing grades of morphological complexity. Increased taxon sampling and improvements in analytical techniques are providing a new approach and are forcing biologists to move past historical biases to allow more accurate mapping of morphological and developmental characters through evolutionary time. Here, we discuss the possible developmental and morphological features of the 'urbilaterian', the triploblastic animal with anterior-posterior and dorsoventral axes and predecessor of the protostome-deuterostome ancestor. We argue that this animal, with features resembling acoelomorph flatworms, was far simpler morphologically than the protostome-deuterostome ancestor despite possessing a nearly complete eubilaterian genome. We show that the deployment of some genes expected to pattern the protostome-deuterostome ancestor is not deployed in acoels in the predicted manner and thus might have been co-opted after the evolution of the urbilaterian. We also identify the developmental changes related to gastrulation that gave rise to the urbilaterian from a simpler cnidarian-like ancestor. PMID:18192185

Hejnol, Andreas; Martindale, Mark Q

2008-04-27

5

Graptemys pulchra Baur 1893: Alabama Map Turtle  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Alabama Map Turtle, Graptemys pulchra (Family Emydidae), is a moderately large riverine species endemic to the Mobile Bay drainage system of Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi. Sexual size dimorphism is pronounced, with adult females (carapace length [CL] to 273 mm) attaining more than twice the size of adult males (CL to 117 mm). The species is an inhabitant of relatively large, swift creeks and rivers, often with wide sandbars. Stream sections open to the sun and with abundant basking sites in the form of logs and brush are preferred. Six to seven clutches of 4–7 eggs are laid each year on river sandbars. Although the species is locally abundant, populations are threatened by habitat destruction, declines in their prey base, commercial collection, and vandalism. It is listed as a Species of Special Concern in Alabama.

Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Godwin, James C.; McCoy, C.J.

2014-01-01

6

The Effect of Light on Rates of Cloning of the Symbiont-Bearing Acoel Convolutriloba longifissura  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acoel turbellarian Convolutriloba longifissura reproduces primarily by asexual fission and engages in an obligate symbiotic relationship with unicellular algae belonging to the genus Tetraselrnis. The obligate nature of the symbiosis between these species suggests that algal photosynthesis may influence rates of flatworm asexual reproduction. To test this hypothesis we explored the effect of light on C. longifissura 's ability

Rahim Sara

2004-01-01

7

Centaurea solstitialis Invasion Success Is Influenced by Nassella pulchra Size  

E-print Network

Centaurea solstitialis Invasion Success Is Influenced by Nassella pulchra Size Kimberly J. Reever starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis), a deep-rooted invasive thistle, can use this water to invade annual continue as long as a C. solstitialis seed source is present. Key words: Centaurea solstitialis, grassland

Rice, Kevin

8

Molecular Architecture of Muscles in an Acoel and Its Evolutionary Implications  

PubMed Central

We have characterized the homologs of an actin, a troponin I, and a tropomyosin gene in the acoel Symsagittifera roscoffensis. These genes are expressed in muscles and most likely coexpressed in at least a subset of them. In addition, and for the first time for Acoela, we have produced a species-specific muscular marker, an antibody against the tropomyosin protein. We have followed tropomyosin gene and protein expression during postembryonic development and during the posterior regeneration of amputated adults, showing that preexisting muscle fibers contribute to the wound closure. The three genes characterized in this study interact in the striated muscles of vertebrates and invertebrates, where troponin I and tropomyosin are key regulators of the contraction of the sarcomere. S. roscoffensis and all other acoels so far described have only smooth muscles, but the molecular architecture of these is the same as that of striated fibers of other bilaterians. Given the proposed basal position of acoels within the Bilateria, we suggest that sarcomeric muscles arose from a smooth muscle type, which had the molecular repertoire of striated musculature already in place. We discuss this model in a broad comparative perspective. PMID:21538843

CHIODIN, MARTA; ACHATZ, JOHANNES G.; WANNINGER, ANDREAS; MARTINEZ, PEDRO

2011-01-01

9

The chimerical and multifaceted marine acoel Symsagittifera roscoffensis: from photosymbiosis to brain regeneration  

PubMed Central

A remarkable example of biological engineering is the capability of some marine animals to take advantage of photosynthesis by hosting symbiotic algae. This capacity, referred to as photosymbiosis, is based on structural and functional complexes that involve two distantly unrelated organisms. These stable photosymbiotic associations between metazoans and photosynthetic protists play fundamental roles in marine ecology as exemplified by reef communities and their vulnerability to global changes threats. Here we introduce a photosymbiotic tidal acoel flatworm, Symsagittifera roscoffensis, and its obligatory green algal photosymbiont, Tetraselmis convolutae (Lack of the algal partner invariably results in acoel lethality emphasizing the mandatory nature of the photosymbiotic algae for the animal's survival). Together they form a composite photosymbiotic unit, which can be reared in controlled conditions that provide easy access to key life-cycle events ranging from early embryogenesis through the induction of photosymbiosis in aposymbiotic juveniles to the emergence of a functional “solar-powered” mature stage. Since it is possible to grow both algae and host under precisely controlled culture conditions, it is now possible to design a range of new experimental protocols that address the mechanisms and evolution of photosymbiosis. S. roscoffensis thus represents an emerging model system with experimental advantages that complement those of other photosymbiotic species, in particular corals. The basal taxonomic position of S. roscoffensis (and acoels in general) also makes it a relevant model for evolutionary studies of development, stem cell biology and regeneration. Finally, it's autotrophic lifestyle and lack of calcification make S. roscoffensis a favorable system to study the role of symbiosis in the response of marine organisms to climate change (e.g., ocean warming and acidification). In this article we summarize the state of knowledge of the biology of S. roscoffensis and its algal partner from studies dating back over a century, and provide an overview of ongoing research efforts that take advantage of this unique system. PMID:25324833

Bailly, Xavier; Laguerre, Laurent; Correc, Gaëlle; Dupont, Sam; Kurth, Thomas; Pfannkuchen, Anja; Entzeroth, Rolf; Probert, Ian; Vinogradov, Serge; Lechauve, Christophe; Garet-Delmas, Marie-José; Reichert, Heinrich; Hartenstein, Volker

2014-01-01

10

Coordinated spatial and temporal expression of Hox genes during embryogenesis in the acoel Convolutriloba longifissura  

PubMed Central

Background Hox genes are critical for patterning the bilaterian anterior-posterior axis. The evolution of their clustered genomic arrangement and ancestral function has been debated since their discovery. As acoels appear to represent the sister group to the remaining Bilateria (Nephrozoa), investigating Hox gene expression will provide an insight into the ancestral features of the Hox genes in metazoan evolution. Results We describe the expression of anterior, central and posterior class Hox genes and the ParaHox ortholog Cdx in the acoel Convolutriloba longifissura. Expression of all three Hox genes begins contemporaneously after gastrulation and then resolves into staggered domains along the anterior-posterior axis, suggesting that the spatial coordination of Hox gene expression was present in the bilaterian ancestor. After early surface ectodermal expression, the anterior and central class genes are expressed in small domains of putative neural precursor cells co-expressing ClSoxB1, suggesting an evolutionary early function of Hox genes in patterning parts of the nervous system. In contrast, the expression of the posterior Hox gene is found in all three germ layers in a much broader posterior region of the embryo. Conclusion Our results suggest that the ancestral set of Hox genes was involved in the anterior-posterior patterning of the nervous system of the last common bilaterian ancestor and were later co-opted for patterning in diverse tissues in the bilaterian radiation. The lack of temporal colinearity of Hox expression in acoels may be due to a loss of genomic clustering in this clade or, alternatively, temporal colinearity may have arisen in conjunction with the expansion of the Hox cluster in the Nephrozoa. PMID:19796382

Hejnol, Andreas; Martindale, Mark Q

2009-01-01

11

The chimerical and multifaceted marine acoel Symsagittifera roscoffensis: from photosymbiosis to brain regeneration.  

PubMed

A remarkable example of biological engineering is the capability of some marine animals to take advantage of photosynthesis by hosting symbiotic algae. This capacity, referred to as photosymbiosis, is based on structural and functional complexes that involve two distantly unrelated organisms. These stable photosymbiotic associations between metazoans and photosynthetic protists play fundamental roles in marine ecology as exemplified by reef communities and their vulnerability to global changes threats. Here we introduce a photosymbiotic tidal acoel flatworm, Symsagittifera roscoffensis, and its obligatory green algal photosymbiont, Tetraselmis convolutae (Lack of the algal partner invariably results in acoel lethality emphasizing the mandatory nature of the photosymbiotic algae for the animal's survival). Together they form a composite photosymbiotic unit, which can be reared in controlled conditions that provide easy access to key life-cycle events ranging from early embryogenesis through the induction of photosymbiosis in aposymbiotic juveniles to the emergence of a functional "solar-powered" mature stage. Since it is possible to grow both algae and host under precisely controlled culture conditions, it is now possible to design a range of new experimental protocols that address the mechanisms and evolution of photosymbiosis. S. roscoffensis thus represents an emerging model system with experimental advantages that complement those of other photosymbiotic species, in particular corals. The basal taxonomic position of S. roscoffensis (and acoels in general) also makes it a relevant model for evolutionary studies of development, stem cell biology and regeneration. Finally, it's autotrophic lifestyle and lack of calcification make S. roscoffensis a favorable system to study the role of symbiosis in the response of marine organisms to climate change (e.g., ocean warming and acidification). In this article we summarize the state of knowledge of the biology of S. roscoffensis and its algal partner from studies dating back over a century, and provide an overview of ongoing research efforts that take advantage of this unique system. PMID:25324833

Bailly, Xavier; Laguerre, Laurent; Correc, Gaëlle; Dupont, Sam; Kurth, Thomas; Pfannkuchen, Anja; Entzeroth, Rolf; Probert, Ian; Vinogradov, Serge; Lechauve, Christophe; Garet-Delmas, Marie-José; Reichert, Heinrich; Hartenstein, Volker

2014-01-01

12

Coordinated spatial and temporal expression of Hox genes during embryogenesis in the acoel Convolutriloba longifissura  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  \\u000a Hox genes are critical for patterning the bilaterian anterior-posterior axis. The evolution of their clustered genomic arrangement\\u000a and ancestral function has been debated since their discovery. As acoels appear to represent the sister group to the remaining\\u000a Bilateria (Nephrozoa), investigatingHox gene expression will provide an insight into the ancestral features of theHox genes in metazoan evolution.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  We describe the

Andreas Hejnol; Mark Q Martindale

2009-01-01

13

Localisation and surface quantification of secondary metabolites in the red alga Delisea pulchra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The localisation of halogenated furanones, the biologically active secondary metabolites from the red alga Delisea pulchra (Greville), was determined by a combination of fluorescence microscopy, culture studies and quantitative chemical analyses.\\u000a All types of evidence showed that furanones are localised in the central vesicle of gland cells in D. pulchra. These cells release furanones onto the surface of the plant,

S. A. Dworjanyn; R. De Nys; P. D. Steinberg

1999-01-01

14

Formation of the hinge in the podocopan ostracode Loxoconcha pulchra.  

PubMed

The hinge structure in the podocopan ostracode Loxconcha pulchra was examined throughout its molt cycle using ultrastructural and histological procedures. The structure consists of ligament and hingement, and develops along the attached margin of the right and left valves. In Stage C the hingement of both valves interdigitates beneath the ligament, and a series of outer epidermal cells (dorsal epidermal cells), exhibiting abundant granules, underlie the hinge structure. Apolysis occurs at Stage D1, and electron-dense granular materials of variable diameter are seen within the ecdysial space. Epicuticle formation begins at Stage D2 and is complete before Stage D4. In Stage D2 the new epicuticle appears as a dotted line consisting of numerous grain-like materials. The dorsal epidermal cells, which actively secrete the numerous granules during molting, increase their size and reveal the electron-dense substances in the cytoplasm from Stage D2. At early Stage D3 the procuticle deposition of ligament commences inside the epicuticle, and is completed in Stage D4. In Stage D4 the uncalcified procuticle is secreted under the whole area of carapace, and the new carapace is then ready for ecdysis. After ecdysis, calcification of the carapace commences from the dorsal and ventral marginal areas towards the central area. During Stage A there is no further cuticle deposition in the ligament, although the dorsal epidermal cells secrete as actively in the postmolt stage as in premolt. The dorsal epidermal cells begin to form the hingement just after ecdysis. Cuticle deposition of the hingement proceeds asynchronously in the two valves: the hingement of the right valve is formed prior to that of left one in L. pulchra. The right hingement functions as a mold for the left hingement to form the precise interdigitated structure in L. pulchra. These observations suggest that the ostracode ligament is a unique cuticle, which should not be confused with the cuticles of other arthropods. The work establishes, for the first time, a description of the formation of the hingement in podocopan ostracodes. PMID:17394209

Yamada, Shinnosuke

2007-05-01

15

Stable Photosymbiotic Relationship under CO2-Induced Acidification in the Acoel Worm Symsagittifera Roscoffensis  

PubMed Central

As a consequence of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, oceans are becoming more acidic, a phenomenon known as ocean acidification. Many marine species predicted to be sensitive to this stressor are photosymbiotic, including corals and foraminifera. However, the direct impact of ocean acidification on the relationship between the photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic organism remains unclear and is complicated by other physiological processes known to be sensitive to ocean acidification (e.g. calcification and feeding). We have studied the impact of extreme pH decrease/pCO2 increase on the complete life cycle of the photosymbiotic, non-calcifying and pure autotrophic acoel worm, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. Our results show that this species is resistant to high pCO2 with no negative or even positive effects on fitness (survival, growth, fertility) and/or photosymbiotic relationship till pCO2 up to 54 K µatm. Some sub-lethal bleaching is only observed at pCO2 up to 270 K µatm when seawater is saturated by CO2. This indicates that photosymbiosis can be resistant to high pCO2. If such a finding would be confirmed in other photosymbiotic species, we could then hypothesize that negative impact of high pCO2 observed on other photosymbiotic species such as corals and foraminifera could occur through indirect impacts at other levels (calcification, feeding). PMID:22253736

Dupont, Sam; Moya, Aurélie; Bailly, Xavier

2012-01-01

16

Development and metamorphosis of the planktotrophic larvae of Rostanga pulchra (Mollusca: Nudibranchia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rostanga pulchra MacFarland, a small (1 to 2 cm) dorid nudibranch, lays an average of 7000 eggs in the laboratory during a period of 30 days in the summer. The veligers hatch 15 to 16 days after oviposition and it takes another 35 to 40 days to become competent for metamorphosis at a temperature of 10° to 15°C. Larval cultures

F. S. Chia; R. Koss

1978-01-01

17

Broad spectrum effects of secondary metabolites from the red alga delisea pulchra in antifouling assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the antifouling activity was investigated of a series of chemically related, halogenated furanones isolated from Delisea pulchra (Greville) Montagne, a red alga which is rarely fouled in the field. The metabolites were tested in laboratory assays against representatives of the three major groups of fouling organisms, the barnacle Balanus amphitrite amphitirite Darwin, the macroalga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus

R. De Nys; P. D. Steinberg; P. Willemsen; S. A. Dworjanyn; C. L. Gabelish; R. J. King

1995-01-01

18

Monanchomycalin C, a new pentacyclic guanidine alkaloid from the far-eastern marine sponge Monanchora pulchra.  

PubMed

A new pentacyclic guanidine alkaloid, monanchomycalin C (1), along with the earlier known ptilomycalin A (2), were isolated from the Far-Eastern marine sponge Monanchora pulchra. The structure of 1 was elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic and ma ss spectrometric da ta. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited cytotoxic activities against human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 values of 8.2 microM and 4.3 pM, respectively. PMID:24354184

Tabakmakher, Ksenya M; Denisenko, Vladimir A; Guzii, Alla G; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Dyshlovoy, Sergey A; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Makarieva, Tatyana N

2013-10-01

19

A new species of Centris ( Centris) (Fabricius) from northeastern Brazil, with taxonomic notes on C. ( C.) pulchra Moure, Oliveira & Viana (Hymenoptera, Apidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract We describe a new species of the bee genus Centris, Centris (Centris) byrsonimae Mahlmann & Oliveira sp. n., whose name has appeared as a nomen nudum in the literature since 1985. Further, a new species group of Centris s.str. is proposed, the pulchra group, based on morphological characters, which comprises the species Centris pulchra Moure, Oliveira & Viana, 2003 and Centris byrsonimae sp. n..Based on information from specimen labels studied and data from the literature, a list of plant species visited by the pulchra group is presented. The male genitalia and hidden metasomal sterna 7 and 8 of Centris pulchra are described for the first time. Typographic errors pertaining to the paratype labels reported in the original description of Centris pulchra are corrected. One female paratype of Centris pulchra is designated herein as a paratype of Centris byrsonimae sp. n. An updated list of species of Centris s.str. from northeastern Brazil is provided including references about geographic distributions as well as an identification key to the pulchra species group. PMID:23459508

Mahlmann, Thiago; de Oliveira, Favízia Freitas

2012-01-01

20

Characteristics of hemolytic activity induced by skin secretions of the frog Kaloula pulchra hainana  

PubMed Central

Background The hemolytic activity of skin secretions obtained by stimulating the frog Kaloula pulchra hainana with diethyl ether was tested using human, cattle, rabbit, and chicken erythrocytes. The skin secretions had a significant concentration-dependent hemolytic effect on erythrocytes. The hemolytic activity of the skin secretions was studied in the presence of osmotic protectants (polyethylene glycols and carbohydrates), cations (Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Cu2+, and K+), or antioxidants (ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione, and cysteine). Results Depending on their molecular mass, osmotic protectants effectively inhibited hemolysis. The inhibition of skin hemolysis was observed after treatment with polyethylene glycols (1000, 3400, and 6000 Da). Among divalent cations, only 1 mM Cu2+ markedly inhibited hemolytic activity. Antioxidant compounds slightly reduced the hemolytic activity. Conclusions The results suggested that skin secretions of K. pulchra hainana induce a pore-forming mechanism to form pores with a diameter of 1.36-2.0 nm rather than causing oxidative damage to the erythrocyte membrane. PMID:24499077

2013-01-01

21

Pulchranins B and C, new acyclic guanidine alkaloids from the Far-Eastern marine sponge Monanchora pulchra.  

PubMed

New marine natural products, pulchranins B and C (2 and 3), were isolated from the marine sponge Monanchora pulchra and their structures were established using NMR and MS analysis. Compounds 2 and 3 were moderately active as inhibitors of TRPV1 (EC50 value of 95 and 183 microM, respectively) and less potent against TRPV3 and TRPA1 receptors. PMID:24273853

Makarieva, Tatyana N; Ogurtsova, Ekaterina K; Korolkova, Yuliya V; Andreev, Yaroslav A; Mosharova, Irina V; Tabakmakher, Ksenya M; Guzii, Alla G; Denisenko, Vladimir A; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Grishin, Eugene V; Stonik, Valentin A

2013-09-01

22

Growth rates, biomass and distribution of selected woody plant roots in Burkea africana-Ochna pulchra savanna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Woody plants in an African Burkea africana-Ochna pulchra savanna on deep sandy soil were found to have characteristically bimorphic root systems. The shallow lateral root component was often well developed and roots extended up to seven times the extent of the plant canopy in several species. Exponential tapering of lateral roots was found in Terminalia sericea. The wide-ranging roots, together

M. C. Rutherford

1983-01-01

23

Induction of metamorphosis in the sea urchin Holopneustes purpurascens by a metabolite complex from the algal host Delisea pulchra.  

PubMed

Most benthic invertebrates have complex life cycles with planktonic larvae that return to the substratum to settle and metamorphose into a benthic stage. Although naturally produced chemical cues have long been thought to be important for the settlement or metamorphosis of invertebrate larvae, few ecologically relevant chemical cues have been clearly identified. The marine echinoid Holopneustes purpurascens has a complex life cycle, with a planktonic, nonfeeding dispersive larva that metamorphoses into a benthic stage that lives in the canopy of subtidal benthic algae such as the red alga Delisea pulchra and the kelp Ecklonia radiata. Recently recruited juveniles are found primarily on D. pulchra, and we hypothesized that this was in response to a chemical cue produced by this alga. Competent larvae metamorphosed in the presence of D. pulchra, or seawater surrounding this alga, but not in response to the presence of E. radiata or its extracts. A cue for metamorphosis was isolated and characterized from D. pulchra and found to be a water-soluble complex of the sugar floridoside and isethionic acid in a 1:1 molar ratio. The floridoside-isethionic acid complex also triggered settlement in H. purpurascens; however, this response was less specific than metamorphosis and was reversible. Larvae of H. purpurascens also metamorphosed in the presence of several other species of red, but not brown or green, algae from their habitat. Floridoside is found only in red algae, suggesting that the floridoside-isethionic acid complex may be acting as a cue for metamorphosis in other red algae as well as in D. pulchra. PMID:10897447

Williamson, J E; De Nys, R; Kumar, N; Carson, D G; Steinberg, P D

2000-06-01

24

Calcium isotope fractionation in coccoliths of cultured Calcidiscus leptoporus, Helicosphaera carteri, Syracosphaera pulchra and Umbilicosphaera foliosa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four species of marine calcifying algae, the coccolithophores Calcidiscus leptoporus, Helicosphaera carteri, Syracosphaera pulchra and Umbilicosphaera foliosa were grown in laboratory cultures under temperatures varying between 14 and 23 °C, and one species, C. leptoporus, under varying [CO 32-], ranging from 105 to 219 ?mol/kg. Calcium isotope compositions of the coccoliths resemble in both absolute fractionation and temperature sensitivity previous calibrations of marine calcifying species e.g. Emiliania huxleyi (coccolithophores) and Orbulina universa (planktonic foraminifera) as well as inorganically precipitated CaCO 3, but also reveal small species specific differences. In contrast to inorganically precipitated calcite, but similar to E. huxleyi and O. universa, the carbonate ion concentration of the medium has no statistically significant influence on the Ca isotope fractionation of C. leptoporus coccoliths; however, combined data of E. huxleyi and C. leptoporus indicate that the observed trends might be related to changes of the calcite saturation state of the medium. Since coccoliths constitute a significant portion of the global oceanic CaCO 3 export production, the Ca isotope fractionation in these biogenic structures is important for defining the isotopic composition of the Ca sink of the ocean, one of the key parameters for modelling changes to the marine Ca budget over time. For the present ocean our results are in general agreement with the previously postulated and applied mean value of the oceanic Ca sink (? sed) of about - 1.3‰, but the observed inter- and intra-species differences point to possible changes in ? sed through earth history, due to changing physico-chemical conditions of the ocean and shifts in floral and faunal assemblages.

Gussone, Nikolaus; Langer, Gerald; Geisen, Markus; Steel, Blair A.; Riebesell, Ulf

2007-08-01

25

Rapid Development of Microsatellite Markers with 454 Pyrosequencing in a Vulnerable Fish, the Mottled Skate, Raja pulchra  

PubMed Central

The mottled skate, Raja pulchra, is an economically valuable fish. However, due to a severe population decline, it is listed as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. To analyze its genetic structure and diversity, microsatellite markers were developed using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 17,033 reads containing dinucleotide microsatellite repeat units (mean, 487 base pairs) were identified from 453,549 reads. Among 32 loci containing more than nine repeat units, 20 primer sets (62%) produced strong PCR products, of which 14 were polymorphic. In an analysis of 60 individuals from two R. pulchra populations, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 1–10, and the mean allelic richness was 4.7. No linkage disequilibrium was found between any pair of loci, indicating that the markers were independent. The Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium test showed significant deviation in two of the 28 single-loci after sequential Bonferroni’s correction. Using 11 primer sets, cross-species amplification was demonstrated in nine related species from four families within two classes. Among the 11 loci amplified from three other Rajidae family species; three loci were polymorphic. A monomorphic locus was amplified in all three Rajidae family species and the Dasyatidae family. Two Rajidae polymorphic loci amplified monomorphic target DNAs in four species belonging to the Carcharhiniformes class, and another was polymorphic in two Carcharhiniformes species. PMID:22837688

Kang, Jung-Ha; Park, Jung-Youn; Jo, Hyun-Su

2012-01-01

26

Redescription and taxonomical considerations about Aonchotheca (Aonchotheca) pulchra n. comb. (Enoplida: Trichuridae), a nematode of Nyctinomops spp.  

PubMed

Pterothominx pulchra (Freitas, 1934) are little known gastric nematodes of Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae). Information about the occurrence and host range of these parasites in Neotropical region is still scanty, and the only two morphological descriptions available in the literature are divergent about the presence or absence of a spiny spicular sheath in males, which may lead to incorrect taxonomical positioning, since this feature represents the main difference between the genera Pterothominx and Aonchotheca. Based on the absence of this morphological feature in specimens of this nematode obtained from N. laticaudatus and Nyctinomops macrotis bats captured in two municipalities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, the present study reclassifies the aforementioned species in the genus Aonchotheca and allocates it to the subgenus Aonchotheca. Additional morphometric data and new host and locality records are also provided. PMID:25271463

Cardia, Daniel Fontana Ferreira; Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme Lux; Tebaldi, José Hairton; Fornazari, Felipe; Menozzi, Benedito Donizete; Langoni, Helio; Nascimento, Adjair Antônio do; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

2014-01-01

27

Chemopreventive flavonoids from Millettia pulchra Kurz var-laxior (Dunn) Z.Wei (Yulangsan) function as Michael reaction acceptors.  

PubMed

Natural NQO1 [NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase 1] inducing agents play a critical role in cancer chemoprevention. The expression of NQO1 is regulated by Michael reaction acceptors (MRAs) via the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway. The aims of this study were to identify and characterize novel effective chemopreventive agents from naturally occurring products. Using bioassay-guided isolation approaches 16 bioactive MRAs from Millettia pulchra Kurz var-laxior (Dunn) Z.Wei, also called Yulangsan as a famous Zhuang medicine. The structures were elucidated as chalcone (1-7), flavonone (8-14), flavanone (15) and isoflavan (16). Their electrophilic abilities and NQO1 inducing activity were assessed using GSH (glutathione) rapid screening, and in vitro cell-based (Hepa 1c1c7 cells) assay, respectively. Compounds 3, 4, 6, 13, and 14 showed to have NQO1 inducing activity. Among them, compounds 4 and 14 interact with NQO1 at Gly 149, Gly 150, Phe 106, Typ 105 and His 161, revealed by molecular docking studies. PMID:25630222

Wang, Wenli; Wang, Jian; Li, Ning; Zhang, Xiangrong; Zhao, Weihong; Li, Jiayuan; Si, Yingying

2015-03-01

28

Establishing the redox potential of Tibouchina pulchra (Cham.) Cogn., a native tree species from the Atlantic Rain Forest, in the vicinity of an oil refinery in SE Brazil.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to establish the seasonal variations in the redox potential ranges of young Tibouchina pulchra plants growing in the Cubatão region (SE Brazil) under varying levels of oxidative stress caused by air pollutants. The plants were exposed to filtered air (FA) and non-filtered air (NFA) in open-top chambers installed next to an oil refinery in Cubatão during six exposure periods of 90 days each, which included the winter and summer seasons. After exposure, several analyses were performed, including the foliar concentrations of ascorbic acid and glutathione in its reduced (AsA and GSH), total (totAA and totG) and oxidized forms (DHA and GSSG); their ratios (AsA/totAA and GSH/totG); the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR); and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA). The range of antioxidant responses in T. pulchra plants varied seasonally and was stimulated by high or low air pollutant concentrations and/or air temperatures. Glutathione and APX were primarily responsible for increasing plant tolerance to oxidative stress originating from air pollution in the region. The high or low air temperatures mainly affected enzymatic activity. The content of MDA increased in response to increasing ozone concentration, thus indicating that the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance may not have been reached. PMID:24407781

Esposito, Marisia Pannia; Domingos, Marisa

2014-04-01

29

Response of stress indicators and growth parameters of Tibouchina pulchra Cogn. exposed to air and soil pollution near the industrial complex of Cubatão, Brazil.  

PubMed

The present study was performed in the vicinity of the industrial complex of Cubatão, São Paulo, Brazil, in order to evaluate the response of 'manaca da serra' Tibouchina pulchra Cogn. (Melastomataceae), a common species of secondary Atlantic Rain Forest vegetation, to the impact of complex air pollution. Emphasis was given to changes of biochemical parameters such as ascorbic acid concentration, peroxidase activity, contents of water-soluble thiols, pH of leaf extract and buffering capacity. These plant factors are often used as early indicators of air pollution stress. Field experiments included sampling of leaves from mature trees in areas with different air pollution load (passive monitoring), exposure of saplings cultivated in uniform soil at these areas (active monitoring) and a study on the combined effects of contaminated soil and air pollution. In general, metabolic response of saplings was more accentuated than that of mature trees. Leaf extract pH and buffering capacity showed no or only small alterations in plants exposed to industrial emissions. In contrast, air pollution resulted in a distinct decrease in ascorbic acid contents and an increase in peroxidase activity and thiol concentrations in leaves. Cultivation of saplings in soil types from contaminated regions frequently caused the same modifications or enhanced the effects produced by air pollution. Growth analysis of exposed saplings demonstrated that a change of the relationship between above-ground and below-ground plant parts was the most obvious effect of air pollution and soil contamination. The experiments showed that even T. pulchra, a species considered resistant to air pollution, suffers metabolic disturbances by the present ambient air and soil quality. Although biochemical and physiological alterations were not related to a certain air pollution type, they could be used to estimate the overall pollution load and to map zones with different air quality. PMID:10682379

Klumpp, G; Furlan, C M; Domingos, M; Klumpp, A

2000-01-31

30

Physiological responses of the tropical tree Tibouchina pulchra Cogn under the influence of combustion of crude oil and natural gas at an oil refinery.  

PubMed

A refinery located on the slopes of a mountain range in the city of Cubatão (SE-Brazil) is the main source of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) in the region. For this reason, the refinery replaced a system in which energy was produced from crude oil combustion in boilers with a system of energy and vapor co-generation in a thermoelectric power plant fueled by natural gas. The aim of this study was to investigate the responses of Tibouchina pulchra to the fuel switching. Saplings planted in pots were distributed throughout monitoring sites around the polluting source (sites I, II, III and IV) and in a site (V) far from emissions. Changes on the plants responses occur along the three fuel switching phases. During the last phase, increased carbon assimilation (Asat) and decreased stomatal conductance (gs) were observed in plants growing in sites II and III; as a consequence, intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) increased. However, the increase in Asat did not promote growth increase suggesting that changes at the refinery did not result in better air quality, but only in a change in the main contaminants. PMID:23352657

Silva, Daiane T; Moraes, Regina M

2013-04-01

31

The redifferentiation of nutritive cells in galls induced by Lepidoptera on Tibouchina pulchra (Cham.) Cogn. reveals predefined patterns of plant development.  

PubMed

Insect galls may present nutritive tissues with distinct cytological features related to the order of the gall inducer. Galling Lepidoptera larvae chew plant cells and induce the redifferentiation of parenchymatic cells into nutritive ones. The nutritive cells in the galls induced by a microlepidoptera on the leaves of Tibouchina pulchra (Cham.) Cogn. (Melastomataceae) are organelle-rich, with developed Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, polyribosomes, mitochondria, plastids, and one great central or several fragmented vacuoles. The nonobservance of the nuclei in the nutritive cells deserves special attention, and confers a similarity between the nutritive cells and the vascular conductive ones. The great amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, polyribosomes, and mitochondria is indicative of the high metabolic status of these cells. They are vascular cambium-like, with high protein synthesis and lipid storage. The proteins are essential to enzymatic metabolism, and secondarily, to larvae nutrition, similarly to the lipid droplets which confer energetic profile to these nutritive cells. The living enucleated cells receive mRNA from their neighbor ones, which may support the high metabolic profile of endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes observed in galls. Thus, the nutritive cells are stimulated by the galling larvae activity, generating a new cell type, whose redifferentiation includes a mix of intrinsic and common plant pathways. PMID:23779213

Vecchi, Claudia; Menezes, Nanuza Luiza; Oliveira, Denis Coelho; Ferreira, Bruno Garcia; Isaias, Rosy Mary Santos

2013-12-01

32

Skeleto-musculature of the mandible and its function in podocopid ostracodes exemplified by Loxoconcha pulchra (Cytheroidea: Loxoconchidae) and Fabaeformiscandona tyrolensis (Cypridoidea: Candonidae).  

PubMed

A new anatomical interpretation of the skeleto-musculature of the mandible in podocopid ostracodes is proposed based on ultrastructural observations of Loxoconcha pulchra Ishizaki, 1968 and Fabaeformiscandona tyrolensis (Löffler, 1963). Attachment cells with their numerous microfibers anchor the sclerotized lamella cuticle (chitinous rod) to the outer lamella cuticle via intracuticular fibers. A pan-shaped structure develops at the attachment area in the outer lamella cuticle and is responsible for the mandibular scar. The sclerotized lamella cuticle is continuous with the dorsal apex of the mandibular coxa, which touches the fulcral point directly without intermediate epidermis. The calcification of the fulcral point starts immediately after ecdysis and this rapid calcification suggests that the fulcral point must play a significant role in functional morphology of podocopid ostracodes. After 3D-reconstruction of the set of mandibular extrinsic muscles in a podocopid ostracode, we suggest that the fulcral point is a key character for carapace opening by transmitting the force from the mandibular coxa to the valve and at the same time functions as the stable fulcrum for mandibular movement during mastication. PMID:21688298

Yamada, Shinnosuke; Matzke-Karasz, Renate

2011-11-01

33

Effects of mid-season frost and elevated growing season temperature on stomatal conductance and specific xylem conductivity of the arctic shrub, Salix pulchra.  

PubMed

An increased risk of frost is expected during the growing season, as climate warming increases spring temperatures in the Arctic. Because deciduous species have a growth season limited in length and also have generally larger conduit volumes, they are more likely than evergreens to be injured by freeze-thaw-induced cavitation during the growing season. To test whether growth at elevated temperature increases susceptibility to freeze-thaw damage, we grew a deciduous arctic shrub species (Salix pulchra Cham.) in simulated Alaskan summer temperatures and at 5 degrees C above the ambient simulation (+5 degrees C plants) in controlled environments. Stem specific hydraulic conductivity (k(s)) and leaf stomatal conductance (g(s)) were measured in plants grown at both temperatures before and after a freeze treatment simulating a mid-season frost. Before the freeze treatment, specific xylem conductivity was 2.5 times higher and stomatal conductances were 1.3 times higher in +5 degrees C plants than in ambient-grown plants. Reductions in hydraulic conductivity and stomatal conductance as a result of the freeze were 3.5 and 1.8 times greater respectively in +5 degrees C plants than in ambient-grown plants. Many of the +5 degrees C plants showed extensive leaf damage. Plants grown in the two treatments also differed in comparative xylem anatomy; +5 degrees C plants had larger vessel diameters (25.4 versus 22.6 micro m) and higher vessel densities (71 versus 67.4 vessels mm(-2)) than ambient-grown plants. Our results suggest that higher growing season temperatures will increase the susceptibility of arctic deciduous shrubs to frost damage, which may offset their competitive growth advantage. PMID:12359530

Gorsuch, Dennis M; Oberbauer, Steven F

2002-10-01

34

Determination of five flavonoids in different parts of Fordia cauliflora by ultra performance liquid chromatography/triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry and chemical comparison with the root of Millettia pulchra var. laxior  

PubMed Central

Background The root of Fordia cauliflora Hemsl (FC) has long been used in southern China for the treatment of rheumatism, bruises, dementia in children, and valetudinarianism. However, sometimes it is mixed with other parts. And it has always been confused with the root of Millettia pulchra (Benth.) Kurz var. laxior (Dunn) Z. Wei (MP) by the local people. The chemical differences between the two ethnic drugs are not clear until now. The aim of this study is to develop a precise and accurate method to characterize and quantify multiple chemical components of FC, which is helpful for the quality evaluation and identification of FC. Results A method coupling ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (QqQ-MS) was first developed for simultaneous determination of five flavonoids in different parts of FC and the root of MP, based on a UPLC-diode array detection (DAD) fingerprint method. All calibration curves showed good linearity (R2>0.99) within test ranges. The overall LOD and LOQ were lower than 2.5 ng/mL and 5.0 ng/mL, respectively. The RSDs for intra- and inter-day of five analytes were less than 2.83% and 3.04%, respectively. Recovery studies for the quantified compounds were found to be within the range 93.6-99.8% with RSD less than 5.73%. The results suggest that the root, traditionally used medicinal part, yields the highest flavanoid content in FC. Pachycarin A, 3?,4?-dimethoxy(2??,3??:7,8) furanoflavone, karanjachromene and isoderricin A can be used to differentiate between FC and MP samples. Conclusions The present method is specific, precise and reliable, and is suitable for characterizing and quantifying multiple chemical components of FC. PMID:23870070

2013-01-01

35

Interception of nutrient rich submarine groundwater discharge seepage on European temperate beaches by the acoel flatworm, Symsagittifera roscoffensis.  

PubMed

Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) occurs in intertidal areas, representing a largely unquantified source of solute fluxes to adjacent coastal zones, with nitrogen being constantly the keynote chemical of concern. In Olhos de Água SGD is present as groundwater springs or merely sub-aerial runoff. The occurrence of the flatworm Symsagittifera roscoffensis is described for the first time in Olhos de Água in connection to seepage flows. To assess the impact of this symbiotic flatworm on the nitrogen associated to groundwater discharge flow at the beach, nitrate uptake experiments were conducted in laboratory microcosms. Our results show that S. roscoffensis actively uptakes nitrate at different rates depending on light availability, with rates ? 10 times higher than that of its symbiotic microalgae alone. This supports the hypothesis that S. roscoffensis could be an important in situ nitrate interceptor, potentially playing a biological role on the transformation of groundwater-borne nitrate loads at the land-ocean boundary. PMID:23948093

Carvalho, Liliana F; Rocha, Carlos; Fleming, Alexandra; Veiga-Pires, Cristina; Aníbal, Jaime

2013-10-15

36

The effects of oxalates produced by Salsola tragus on the phosphorus nutrition of Stipa pulchra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxalic acid is produced by some species of plants and mycorrhizal fungi and it may solubilize unavailable soil phosphorus (P) bound by cations (Ca++, Al++, Fe+++). Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to show whether oxalate produced by the annual Salsola tragus or added oxalic acid would solubilize P from the inorganic-bound soil P pool, making it available for uptake

J. P. Cannon; E. B. Allen; M. F. Allen; L. M. Dudley; J. J. Jurinak

1995-01-01

37

Du dcouplage l'assemblage non-anticip de composants Conception et mise en oeuvre du langage composants Scl  

E-print Network

Unicon Acme MALEVA Javabeans Koala EJB Bonobo SOFA ComponentJ Comet Javapod Services Web Fractal ACOEL Polylith C2 Wright Unicon Acme MALEVA Javabeans Koala EJB Bonobo SOFA ComponentJ Comet Javapod Services Web Unicon Acme MALEVA Javabeans Koala EJB Bonobo SOFA ComponentJ Comet Javapod Services Web Fractal ACOEL

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

38

Ecological Applications, 00(0), 0000, pp. 000000 0000 by the Ecological Society of America  

E-print Network

the impact of an invasive thistle (Centaurea solstitialis) on a native perennial bunchgrass (Nassella pulchra. solstitialis performance and ameliorated its negative effect on N. pulchra growth and reproduction. Higher water availability resulted in a stronger negative effect of C. solstitialis on N. pulchra in both

Rice, Kevin

39

Molecular systematics of the Acoela (Acoelomorpha, Platyhelminthes) and its concordance with morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylogenetic relationships of the lower worm group Acoela were investigated using newly obtained nuclear 18S rDNA sequences from 16 acoels in combination with 16 acoel sequences available on GenBank from other laboratories. Parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of the molecular data supported the concept that the Acoela is monophyletic; however, the gene tree produced by these analyses conflicts with

Matthew D. Hooge; Pilar A. Haye; Seth Tyler; Marian K. Litvaitis; Irv Kornfield

2002-01-01

40

California Department of Transportation New Technology and Research Program  

E-print Network

of four perennial grasses native to California (Elymus glaucus, Hordeum brachyantherum ssp. brachyantherum, Hordeum brachyantherum ssp. californicum and Nassella pulchra). Soil decompaction generally benefited

Brown, Cynthia S.

41

Competition and local adaptation 1 Effects of competition and life history stage on the expression of local adaptation  

E-print Network

and coastal populations of two California native bunchgrasses (Elymus glaucus and Nassella pulchra competition from the maturing vegetation at the site. Key words: breeding system, competition, Elymus glaucus

Rice, Kevin

42

Epidemiology of Powedery Mildew on Flowering Dogwood in Tennessee  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pulchra (syn. Microsphaera pulchra) is an important disease on flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) in the Eastern United States. Temporal progress of powdery mildew on flowering dogwood cultivars with different levels of resistance was investigated in the field in 2...

43

Epidemiology of Powdery Mildew on Resistant and Susceptible Flowering Dogwood Cultivars  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pulchra (syn. Microsphaera pulchra) is an important disease on flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) in the Eastern United States. Temporal progress of powdery mildew on flowering dogwood cultivars with different levels of resistance was investigated in the field in 2...

44

Mitochondrial genome data support the basal position of acoelomorpha and the polyphyly of the platyhelminthes  

SciTech Connect

We determined 9.7, 5.2, and 6.8 kb, respectively, of the mitochondrial genomes of the acoel Paratomella rubra, the nemertodermatid Nemertoderma westbladi and the free-living rhabditophoran platyhelminth Microstomum lineare. The identified gene arrangements are unique among metazoans, including each other, sharing no more than one or two single gene boundaries with a few distantly related taxa. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences inferred from the sequenced genes confirms that the acoelomorph flatworms (acoels + nemertodermatids) do not belong to the Platyhelminthes, but are, instead, the most basal extant bilaterian group. Therefore, the Platyhelminthes, as traditionally constituted, is a polyphyletic phylum.

Ruiz-Trillo, Inaki; Riutort, Marta; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Baguna, Jaume; Boore, Jeffrey L.

2004-05-01

45

Variation in Rates of Asexual Reproduction By Convolutriloba retrogemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Convolutriloba retrogemma, an acoel turbellarian (phylum Platyhelminthes), engages in an obligate symbiotic relationship with unicellular algae, This species reproduces asexually by budding from the posterior end of the parent individual. The rate of reproduction of 24 newly budded flatworms of various sizes was studied over a period of six weeks, Flatworms were individually placed into 6 mL of 0.2 ?m

Rahim Sara

2003-01-01

46

The day and night vertical distributions of calanoid copepods in the western Gulf of Mexico, with references to feeding relationships  

E-print Network

. 60. 61, 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. E. curti cauda Giesbrecht, 1888 E. maxima Wolf enden, 1905 E. messinensis (Claus, 1863) E. pseudotruncata Park3 E. pulchra (Lubbock, 1856) E. splendens Vervoort, 1963 Gaetanus armiger Giesbrecht, 1888...

Minello, Thomas Joseph

1974-01-01

47

Variation in resource availability changes the impact of invasive thistles on native bunchgrasses.  

PubMed

The threat posed by invasive nonnative plants to native plant populations is one of the largest challenges facing both conservation biology and restoration ecology. California has been highly impacted by invaders, although many relict stands of native plants are found on shallow, rocky soils with limited resources. The abiotic conditions of these sites may strongly influence the performance of an invasive plant and its effect on resident native species. In addition, the maturity of native plants in these sites may modulate an invader's impact; larger, well-established plants may be better able to resist invaders. In this study we examined how the impact of an invasive thistle (Centaurea solstitialis) on a native perennial bunchgrass (Nassella pulchra) changed in response to variation in soil depth, soil water availability, and bunchgrass maturity. We measured plant performance in terms of survival, growth, reproduction, and predawn water potential. We found that soil depth, water availability, and bunchgrass maturity acted in concert to influence the impact of the invasive thistle on the native bunchgrass. Both species performed better in deep soils, especially during dry years. The combination of shallow soil and low water availability reduced C. solstitialis performance and ameliorated its negative effect on N. pulchra growth and reproduction. Higher water availability resulted in a stronger negative effect of C. solstitialis on N. pulchra in both shallow and deep soils. However, as N. pulchra matured and increased in size, we saw a steady decline in C. solstitialis growth and reproductive output. Higher water availability increased the performance of C. solstitialis in shallow soils. C. solstitialis may thus have a stronger impact on N. pulchra and be more able to invade relict stands of N. pulchra in shallow soils during high-rainfall years. However, established stands of N. pulchra appear to be more resistant to invasion by C. solstitialis as N. pulchra plants grow older and larger. PMID:16711042

Morghan, Kimberly J Reever; Rice, Kevin J

2006-04-01

48

Inhibitory Effects of Secondary Metabolites from the Red Alga Delisea pulchraon Swarming Motility ofProteus mirabilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal,uncoordinatedswarmingmotilityoftheopportunistichumanpathogenProteusmirabiliswasseen when a crude extract of the Australian red alga Delisea pulchra was added to the medium. This occurred at concentrations at which growth rate, swimming motility, cell elongation, polynucleation, and hyperflagellation were not affected. One halogenated furanone from D. pulchra inhibited swarming motility at concentrations that did not affect growth rate and swimming motility. Other structurally similarD. pulchrafuranones had

LONE GRAM; ROCKY DENYS; RIA MAXIMILIEN; MICHAEL GIVSKOV; PETER STEINBERG; ANDSTAFFAN KJELLEBERG

1996-01-01

49

Determination of total sulfur in lichens and plants by combustion-infrared analysis. [Medicago sativa L. ; Vitis labruscana Bailey; Festuca sp. ; Fraxinum pennsylvanica Marsh. ; Paremelia chlorochroa Tuck. ; P. sulcata Tayl. ; Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. ; Artemisia tridentata Nuttl; Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. ; Triticum compactum Host; Agropyron smithii Rydb. ; Salix pulchra Cham  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur was determined in plants and lichens by combustion of the sample and infrared detection of evolved sulfur dioxide using an automated sulfur analyzer. Vanadium pentaoxide was used as a combustion accelerator. Pelletization of the sample prior to combustion was not found to be advantageous. Washing studies showed that leaching of sulfur was not a major factor in the sample preparation. The combustion-IR analysis usually gave higher sulfur content than the turbidimetric analysis as well as shorter analysis time. Relative standard deviations of less than 7% were obtained by the combustion-IR technique when sulfur levels in plant material range from 0.05 to 0.70%. Determination of sulfur in National Bureau of Standards botanical reference materials showed good agreement between the combustion-IR technique and other instrumental procedures. Seven NBS botanical reference materials were analyzed.

Jackson, L.L.; Engleman, E.E.; Peard, J.L.

1985-01-01

50

Determination of total sulfur in lichens and plants by combustion-infrared analysis. [Medicago sativa L. ; Vitis labruscana Bailey; Festuca sp. ; Fraxinum pennsylvanica Marsh. ; Paremelia chlorochroa Tuck. ; P. sulcata Tayl. ; Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. ; Artemisia tridentata Nuttl; Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. ; Triticum compactum Host; Agropyron smithii Rydb. ; Salix pulchra Cham  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur was determined in plants and lichens by combustion of the sample and infrared detection of evolved sulfur dioxide using an automated sulfur analyzer. Vanadium pentaoxide was used as a combustion accelerator. Pelletization of the sample prior to combustion was not found to be advantageous. Washing studies showed that leaching of sulfur was not a major factor in the sample

L. L. Jackson; E. E. Engleman; J. L. Peard

1985-01-01

51

The Acoela: on their kind and kinships, especially with nemertodermatids and xenoturbellids (Bilateria incertae sedis)  

PubMed Central

Acoels are among the simplest worms and therefore have often been pivotal in discussions of the origin of the Bilateria. Initially thought primitive because of their “planula-like” morphology, including their lumenless digestive system, they were subsequently dismissed by many morphologists as a specialized clade of the Platyhelminthes. However, since molecular phylogenies placed them outside the Platyhelminthes and outside all other phyla at the base of the Bilateria, they became the focus of renewed debate and research. We review what is currently known of acoels, including information regarding their morphology, development, systematics, and phylogenetic relationships, and put some of these topics in a historical perspective to show how the application of new methods contributed to the progress in understanding these animals. Taking all available data into consideration, clear-cut conclusions cannot be made; however, in our view it becomes successively clearer that acoelomorphs are a “basal” but “divergent” branch of the Bilateria. PMID:24098090

Chiodin, Marta; Salvenmoser, Willi; Tyler, Seth

2012-01-01

52

The Acoela: on their kind and kinships, especially with nemertodermatids and xenoturbellids (Bilateria incertae sedis).  

PubMed

Acoels are among the simplest worms and therefore have often been pivotal in discussions of the origin of the Bilateria. Initially thought primitive because of their "planula-like" morphology, including their lumenless digestive system, they were subsequently dismissed by many morphologists as a specialized clade of the Platyhelminthes. However, since molecular phylogenies placed them outside the Platyhelminthes and outside all other phyla at the base of the Bilateria, they became the focus of renewed debate and research. We review what is currently known of acoels, including information regarding their morphology, development, systematics, and phylogenetic relationships, and put some of these topics in a historical perspective to show how the application of new methods contributed to the progress in understanding these animals. Taking all available data into consideration, clear-cut conclusions cannot be made; however, in our view it becomes successively clearer that acoelomorphs are a "basal" but "divergent" branch of the Bilateria. PMID:24098090

Achatz, Johannes G; Chiodin, Marta; Salvenmoser, Willi; Tyler, Seth; Martinez, Pedro

2013-06-01

53

Mitochondrial genome data support the basal position of Acoelomorpha and the polyphyly of the Platyhelminthes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined 9.7, 5.2, and 6.8kb, respectively, of the mitochondrial genomes of the acoel Paratomella rubra, the nemertodermatid Nemertoderma westbladi, and the free-living rhabditophoran platyhelminth Microstomum lineare. The identified gene arrangements are unique among metazoans, including each other, sharing no more than one or two single gene boundaries with a few distantly related taxa. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid

Iñaki Ruiz-Trillo; Marta Riutort; H. Matthew Fourcade; Jaume Baguñà; Jeffrey L. Boore

2004-01-01

54

Combined large and small subunit ribosomal RNA phylogenies support a basal position of the acoelomorph flatworms.  

PubMed Central

The phylogenetic position of the phylum Platyhelminthes has been re-evaluated in the past decade by analysis of diverse molecular datasets. The consensus is that the Rhabditophora + Catenulida, which includes most of the flatworm taxa, are not primitively simple basal bilaterians but are related to coelomate phyla such as molluscs. The status of two other groups of acoelomate worms, Acoela and Nemertodermatida, is less clear. Although many characteristics unite these two groups, initial molecular phylogenetic studies placed the Nemertodermatida within the Rhabditophora, but placed the Acoela at the base of the Bilateria, distant from other flatworms. This contradiction resulted in scepticism about the basal position of acoels and led to calls for further data. We have sequenced large subunit ribosomal RNA genes from 13 rhabditophorans + catenulids, three acoels and one nemertodermatid, tripling the available data. Our analyses strongly support a basal position of both acoels and nemertodermatids. Alternative hypotheses are significantly less well supported by the data. We conclude that the Nemertodermatida and Acoela are basal bilaterians and, owing to their unique body plan and embryogenesis, should be recognized as a separate phylum, the Acoelomorpha. PMID:12803898

Telford, Maximilian J; Lockyer, Anne E; Cartwright-Finch, Chloë; Littlewood, D Timothy J

2003-01-01

55

Induction of settlement of larvae of the sea urchin Holopneustes purpurascens by histamine from a host alga.  

PubMed

Larvae of the Australian sea urchin Holopneustes purpurascens are induced to settle and metamorphose (termed settlement herein) by a water-soluble compound produced by the red alga Delisea pulchra, the main host plant of new recruits. The settlement cue for H. purpurascens had previously been identified as a floridoside-isethionic acid complex, and this paper presents new evidence correcting that finding. The actual settlement cue produced by D. pulchra was isolated from the polar extract by cation-exchange chromatography and identified as histamine, using one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. The chemical identity of the cue was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Synthetic histamine and histamine at 4.5 microM isolated from D. pulchra both induced rapid settlement in 80%-100% of the larvae of H. purpurascens. Lower concentrations of histamine (0.9-2.3 micro M) induced larval settlement, but this response varied from 0%-90%. The histamine content of two host plants of H. purpurascens--D. pulchra and Ecklonia radiata--and of four other common species was quantified using GC-MS. D. pulchra had the highest histamine content, which is consistent with H. purpurascens recruiting to this species. Histamine was also detected in the seawater surrounding these host algae. This is the first time that a settlement cue has been quantified in the habitat of a marine organism. PMID:15198942

Swanson, Rebecca L; Williamson, Jane E; de Nys, Rocky; Kumar, Naresh; Bucknall, Martin P; Steinberg, Peter D

2004-06-01

56

COMPONENTS OF RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW IN FLOWERING DOWGOOD  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Differences in resistance to powdery mildew were observed on detached leaf disks of six flowering dogwood lines inoculated with conidia of Erysiphe pulchra. Significant differences (P < 0.02) in germinated conidia with branched hyphae, infection efficiency, latent period and sporulation were detecte...

57

Gastropod Herbivore Preference for Seedlings of Two Native and Two Exotic Grass Species  

E-print Network

for native Bromus carinatus, while native Nassella pulchra and exotic B. hordeaceus were moderately preferred. Avena fatua is very common in California grasslands while B. carinatus is relatively rare. Our results suggest that the high level of snail preference for B. carinatus and aversion to A. fatua, coupled

Orrock, John

58

Recent Records of Alien Anurans on the Pacific Island of Guam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight anuran species were recorded for the first time in Guam in the period May 2003-December 2005, all apparently the result of arrivals to the island since 2000. Three of the eight species (Rana guentheri, Polypedates megacephalus, and Eleutherodactylus planirostris) had well-established breeding populations by 2005. A further three (Fejervarya cf. limnocharis, Fejervarya cancri- vora, and Microhyla pulchra) were recorded

Michelle T. Christy; Craig S. Clark; David E. Gee II; Diane Vice; Daniel S. Vice; Mitchell P. Warner; Claudine L. Tyrrell; Gordon H. Rodda; Julie A. Savidge

2007-01-01

59

Effects of simulated herbivory in three old field Compositae with different inflorescence architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of simulated herbivory (early or late defoliation and cutting of the flowering shoot) on the growth and reproduction of three species of monocarpic composite forbs (Crepis pulchra, Picris hieracioides and C. foetida) with different inflorescence architectures were studied in experimental plots. For the three species studied, early defoliation had no significant effect on subsequent growth. In contrast, late

J. Escarré; J. Lepart; J. J. Sentuc

1996-01-01

60

SOIL FUNGI AND THE EFFECTS OF AN INVASIVE FORB ON GRASSES: NEIGHBOR IDENTITY MATTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of soil fungi on interactions between Centaurea mel- itensis, an exotic invasive weed in central California, and two co-occurring grasses, Nassella pulchra and Avena barbata. The fungicide benomyl reduced the abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in plant roots but did not affect non-AM fungi. Centaurea plants grown alone were .50% smaller with the resident microbial

Ragan M. Callaway; Bruce E. Mahall; Chris Wicks; Joel Pankey; Catherine Zabinski

2003-01-01

61

Compensatory growth and competitive ability of an invasive weed are enhanced by soil fungi and native neighbours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compensatory responses to herbivory by invasive weeds may foil attempts to arrest their spread with biological controls. We conducted an experiment to study the effects of defoliation and soil fungi on interactions between Centaurea melitensis, an invasive annual from Eurasia, and Nassella pulchra, a native Californian bunchgrass. Defoliation of C. melitensis reduced its final biomass in all species-fungicide treatments, except

Ragan M. Callaway; Beth Newingham; Cathy A. Zabinski; Bruce E. Mahall

2001-01-01

62

Herpetological Conservation and Biology 2(1):61-64 Submitted: 5 January 2007; Accepted: 8 April 2007  

E-print Network

to the literature on hatchling emergence in sea turtles, the emergence behavior of freshwater turtle hatchlings of beach nesting behavior of sea turtles. Examples include three species of map turtles (Graptemys pulchra of hatchling turtles have been conducted mainly on sea turtles. A survey of sea turtle emergence studies

Plummer, Michael V.

63

Development of Erysiphe Pulchram, the Causal Agent of Powdery Mildew, on Leaf Disks of Susceptible and Resistant Flowering Dogwood (Cornus Florida)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Differences in resistance to powdery mildew were observed on detached leaf disks of six flowering dogwood lines inoculated with conidia of Erysiphe pulchra. Significant differences (P < 0.02) in germinated conidia with branched hyphae, infection efficiency, latent period and sporulation were detect...

64

Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella.  

PubMed

Xenoturbellida and Acoelomorpha are marine worms with contentious ancestry. Both were originally associated with the flatworms (Platyhelminthes), but molecular data have revised their phylogenetic positions, generally linking Xenoturbellida to the deuterostomes and positioning the Acoelomorpha as the most basally branching bilaterian group(s). Recent phylogenomic data suggested that Xenoturbellida and Acoelomorpha are sister taxa and together constitute an early branch of Bilateria. Here we assemble three independent data sets-mitochondrial genes, a phylogenomic data set of 38,330 amino-acid positions and new microRNA (miRNA) complements-and show that the position of Acoelomorpha is strongly affected by a long-branch attraction (LBA) artefact. When we minimize LBA we find consistent support for a position of both acoelomorphs and Xenoturbella within the deuterostomes. The most likely phylogeny links Xenoturbella and Acoelomorpha in a clade we call Xenacoelomorpha. The Xenacoelomorpha is the sister group of the Ambulacraria (hemichordates and echinoderms). We show that analyses of miRNA complements have been affected by character loss in the acoels and that both groups possess one miRNA and the gene Rsb66 otherwise specific to deuterostomes. In addition, Xenoturbella shares one miRNA with the ambulacrarians, and two with the acoels. This phylogeny makes sense of the shared characteristics of Xenoturbellida and Acoelomorpha, such as ciliary ultrastructure and diffuse nervous system, and implies the loss of various deuterostome characters in the Xenacoelomorpha including coelomic cavities, through gut and gill slits. PMID:21307940

Philippe, Hervé; Brinkmann, Henner; Copley, Richard R; Moroz, Leonid L; Nakano, Hiroaki; Poustka, Albert J; Wallberg, Andreas; Peterson, Kevin J; Telford, Maximilian J

2011-02-10

65

Back in time: a new systematic proposal for the Bilateria.  

PubMed

Conventional wisdom suggests that bilateral organisms arose from ancestors that were radially, rather than bilaterally, symmetrical and, therefore, had a single body axis and no mesoderm. The two main hypotheses on how this transformation took place consider either a simple organism akin to the planula larva of extant cnidarians or the acoel Platyhelminthes (planuloid-acoeloid theory), or a rather complex organism bearing several or most features of advanced coelomate bilaterians (archicoelomate theory). We report phylogenetic analyses of bilaterian metazoans using quantitative (ribosomal, nuclear and expressed sequence tag sequences) and qualitative (HOX cluster genes and microRNA sets) markers. The phylogenetic trees obtained corroborate the position of acoel and nemertodermatid flatworms as the earliest branching extant members of the Bilateria. Moreover, some acoelomate and pseudocoelomate clades appear as early branching lophotrochozoans and deuterostomes. These results strengthen the view that stem bilaterians were small, acoelomate/pseudocoelomate, benthic organisms derived from planuloid-like organisms. Because morphological and recent gene expression data suggest that cnidarians are actually bilateral, the origin of the last common bilaterian ancestor has to be put back in time earlier than the cnidarian-bilaterian split in the form of a planuloid animal. A new systematic scheme for the Bilateria that includes the Cnidaria is suggested and its main implications discussed. PMID:18192186

Baguñà, Jaume; Martinez, Pere; Paps, Jordi; Riutort, Marta

2008-04-27

66

Development and juvenile anatomy of the nemertodermatid Meara stichopi (Bock) Westblad 1949 (Acoelomorpha)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Nemertodermatida is the sister group of the Acoela, which together form the Acoelomorpha, a taxon that comprises bilaterally symmetric, small aquatic worms. While there are several descriptions of the embryology of acoel species, descriptions of nemertodermatid development are scarce. To be able to reconstruct the ground pattern of the Acoelomorpha it is crucial to gain more information about the development of several nemertodermatid species. Here we describe the development of the nemertodermatid Meara stichopi using light and fluorescent microscopic methods. Results We have collected Meara stichopi during several seasons and reconstruct the complex annual reproductive cycle dependent on the sea cucumber Parastichopus tremulus. Using common fluorescent markers for musculature (BODIPY FL-phallacidin) and neurons (antibodies against FMRFamide, serotonin, tyrosinated-tubulin) and live imaging techniques, we followed embryogenesis which takes approximately 9–10 weeks. The cleavage pattern is stereotypic up to the 16-cell stage. Ring- and longitudinal musculature start to develop during week 6, followed by the formation of the basiepidermal nervous system. The juvenile is hatching without mouth opening and has a basiepidermal nerve net with two dorsal neurite bundles and an anterior condensation. Conclusions The development of Meara stichopi differs from the development of Acoela in that it is less stereotypic and does not follow the typical acoel duet cleavage program. During late development Meara stichopi does not show a temporal anterior to posterior gradient during muscle and nervous system formation. PMID:25024737

2014-01-01

67

Results of Surveys for Special Status Reptiles at the Site 300 Facilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to present the results of a live-trapping and visual surveys for special status reptiles at the Site 300 Facilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The survey was conducted under the authority of the Federal recovery permit of Swaim Biological Consulting (PRT-815537) and a Memorandum of Understanding issued from the California Department of Fish and Game. Site 300 is located between Livermore and Tracy just north of Tesla road (Alameda County) and Corral Hollow Road (San Joaquin County) and straddles the Alameda and San Joaquin County line (Figures 1 and 2). It encompasses portions of the USGS 7.5 minute Midway and Tracy quadrangles (Figure 2). Focused surveys were conducted for four special status reptiles including the Alameda whipsnake (Masticophis lateralis euryxanthus), the San Joaquin Whipsnake (Masticophis Hagellum ruddock), the silvery legless lizard (Anniella pulchra pulchra), and the California horned lizard (Phrynosoma coronanum frontale).

Woollett, J J

2008-09-18

68

[Species study on Chinese medicine leech and discussion on its resource sustainable utilization].  

PubMed

Through systemically sorting and studying literature of Chinese medicine, this article pointed out that leech used by the traditional Chinese medicine in ancient time has the features of small, living in water, able to suck blood of animal and people. The species of leeches having these features were Hirudo nipponia Whitman, H. pulchra Song, Poecilobdella nanjingensis sp. Nov. , P. manillensis (Lesson) and P. hubeiensis Yang, which were not fully coincidence with the species recorded in Chinese Pharmacopeia of 2010 edition. We suggests that species of leech in Chinese Pharmacopeia be revised: H. nipponica Whitman should be kept, P. manillensis (Lesson) should be added in, Whitmania pigra Whitman and W. acranulata Whitma should be temporarily reserved, and H. pulchra Song, P. nanjingensis sp. Nov. , and P. hubeiensis Yang should be considered. PMID:23717979

Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Xian; Li, Jian; Liang, Fei; Qian, Zhong-Zhi

2013-03-01

69

Differential gene expression shows natural brominated furanones interfere with the autoinducer-2 bacterial signaling system ofEscherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quorum sensing disrupter (5Z)-4-bromo- 5-(bromomethylene)-3-butyl-2(5H)-furanone (furanone) of the alga Delisea pulchra was previously found by us (En- viron Microbiol 3:731-736, 2001) to inhibit quorum sensing in Escherichia coli via autoinducer-2 (AI-2, pro- duced by LuxS). In this study, DNA microarrays were used to study the genetic basis of this natural furanone inhibi- tion of AI-2 signaling (significant values with

Dacheng Ren; Laura A. Bedzyk; Rick W. Ye; Stuart M. Thomas; Thomas K. Wood

2004-01-01

70

Compensatory growth and competitive ability of an invasive weed are enhanced by soil fungi and native neighbours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Compensatory,responses to herbivory by invasive weeds may foil attempts to arrest their spread with biological controls. We conducted,an experiment,to study the effects of defoliation and soil fungi on interactions between Centaurea melitensis, an invasive annual from Eurasia, and Nassella pulchra, a native Californian bunchgrass. Defoliation of C. melitensis reduced its final biomass in all species?fungicide treatments, except when C.

Ragan M. Callaway; A Cathy; Bruce E. Mahall; Evolutionary Biology; Montana State

71

Karyotype and DNA-content evolution in ten species of Crepis (Asteraceae) distributed in Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten Crepis species from Bulgaria—five perennials (C. viscidula, C. paludosa, C. conyzaefolia, C. bithynica, C. schachtii), four annuals (C. pulchra, C. sancta, C. setosa, C. zacintha) and one biennial (C. biennis)—were analysed karyologically using haematoxylin staining, Feulgen cytophotometry (scanning densitometry and video-based image analysis), and DNA flow cytometry with propidium iodide. All taxa but the biennial are diploids with descending

DESSISLAVA DIMITROVA; JOHANN GREILHUBER

2000-01-01

72

Effects of initial climatic conditions on growth and accumulation of fluoride and nitrogen in leaves of two tropical tree species exposed to industrial air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saplings of Tibouchina pulchra and Psidium guajava, cultivated under standardized soil conditions, were placed in two sites at Cubatão (state of São Paulo, southeast Brazil) to study the effects of air pollution on growth, biomass allocation and foliar nitrogen and fluoride concentrations. Thirty-six potted plants were maintained over two periods of one year (Jul\\/00 to Jun\\/01; Dec\\/00 to Nov\\/01) at

Cláudia Maria Furlan; Marisa Domingos; Antonio Salatino

2007-01-01

73

High resistance of Acropora coral gametes facing copper exposure.  

PubMed

Pollution by heavy metals remains today an important threat to the health of humans and ecosystems, but there is still a paucity of data on the response of early life stages of key organisms. In this context, the present work assessed the fertilization success rate of two Acropora species (A. cytherea and A. pulchra) from the French Polynesia reefs exposed to six increasing copper concentrations in seawater. The two species showed a relatively high tolerance to copper (4h30-EC50 was 69.4 ± 4.8 ?g L(-1) and 75.4 ± 6.4 ?g L(-1) for A. cytherea and A. pulchra, respectively). As Cu concentration increases, an increasing proportion of deformed embryos was recorded (67.6% and 58.5% for A. cytherea and A. pulchra, respectively, at 220 ?g Cu L(-1)). These results demonstrated thus, that high levels of copper could negatively impair the normal fertilization process of coral gametes and therefore alter the renewal of coral populations. Since the two Acropora species investigated in this study displayed a high resistance to copper, these results should be considered in the context of multiple stressors associated with climate change, where rising temperature or ocean acidification may significantly exacerbate copper toxicity. PMID:25462298

Puisay, Antoine; Pilon, Rosanne; Hédouin, Laetitia

2015-02-01

74

A comprehensive analysis of the microbial communities of healthy and diseased marine macroalgae and the detection of known and potential bacterial pathogens  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms are increasingly being recognized as the causative agents in the diseases of marine higher organisms, such as corals, sponges, and macroalgae. Delisea pulchra is a common, temperate red macroalga, which suffers from a bleaching disease. Two bacterial strains, Nautella italica R11 and Phaeobacter gallaeciensis LSS9, have been shown in vitro to cause bleaching symptoms, but previous work has failed to detect them during a natural bleaching event. To provide a link between in vitro observations and natural occurrences of the disease, we employ here deep-sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to comprehensively analyze the community composition of healthy and diseased D. pulchra samples from two separate locations. We observed operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with 100% identity and coverage to the 16S RNA gene sequence of both in vitro pathogens, but only the OTU with similarity to strain LSS9 showed a statistically significant higher abundance in diseased samples. Our analysis also reveals the existence of other bacterial groups within the families Rhodobacteraceae and Flavobacteriaceae that strongly contribute to difference between diseased and healthy samples and thus these groups potentially contain novel macroalgal pathogens and/or saprophytes. Together our results provide evidence for the ecological relevance of one kind of in vitro pathogen, but also highlight the possibility that multiple opportunistic pathogens are involved in the bleaching disease of D. pulchra.

Zozaya-Valdes, Enrique; Egan, Suhelen; Thomas, Torsten

2015-01-01

75

Mortality of exotic and native seeds in invaded and uninvaded habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined seed survival in exotic- and native-dominated grasslands by placing seeds of a once-pervasive native grass species, Nassella pulchra, and two of the most common, widespread exotic grass species, Avena fatua and Bromus hordeaceus, in mesh bags in the field for 3 months. Compared to germination of unexposed seeds not placed in the field, exotic species experienced an approximately 40% reduction in viability, whereas the mortality experienced by the native species was <20%. Despite these differences, germination rates of exposed seeds were similar between native and exotic species because native N. pulchra seeds had lower initial viability prior to entering the seed bank. Seed mortality did not differ based on whether seeds were placed in habitats dominated by exotic or native grasses. Rather, our results suggest that re-establishment of native N. pulchra must focus on maximizing seed viability and survival, and that A. fatua and B. hordeaceus overcome relatively higher losses of viable seeds in the seed bank, potentially by producing large numbers of highly viable seeds.

Orrock, John L.; Hoisington-López, Jessica L.

2009-09-01

76

Ancestor-descendant relationships in evolution: origin of the extant pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata.  

PubMed

Ancestor-descendant relationships (ADRs), involving descent with modification, are the fundamental concept in evolution, but are usually difficult to recognize. We examined the cladistic relationship between the only reported fossil pygmy right whale, †Miocaperea pulchra, and its sole living relative, the enigmatic pygmy right whale Caperea marginata, the latter represented by both adult and juvenile specimens. †Miocaperea is phylogenetically bracketed between juvenile and adult Caperea marginata in morphologically based analyses, thus suggesting a possible ADR-the first so far identified within baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti). The †Miocaperea-Caperea lineage may show long-term morphological stasis and, in turn, punctuated equilibrium. PMID:25589485

Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

2015-01-01

77

Competition and soil resource environment alter plant–soil feedbacks for native and exotic grasses  

PubMed Central

Feedbacks between plants and soil biota are increasingly identified as key determinants of species abundance patterns within plant communities. However, our understanding of how plant–soil feedbacks (PSFs) may contribute to invasions is limited by our understanding of how feedbacks may shift in the light of other ecological processes. Here we assess how the strength of PSFs may shift as soil microbial communities change along a gradient of soil nitrogen (N) availability and how these dynamics may be further altered by the presence of a competitor. We conducted a greenhouse experiment where we grew native Stipa pulchra and exotic Avena fatua, alone and in competition, in soils inoculated with conspecific and heterospecific soil microbial communities conditioned in low, ambient and high N environments. Stipa pulchra decreased in heterospecific soil and in the presence of a competitor, while the performance of the exotic A. fatua shifted with soil microbial communities from altered N environments. Moreover, competition and soil microbial communities from the high N environment eliminated the positive PSFs of Stipa. Our results highlight the importance of examining how individual PSFs may interact in a broader community context and contribute to the establishment, spread and dominance of invaders. PMID:25425557

Larios, Loralee; Suding, Katharine N.

2015-01-01

78

Plant neighborhood control of arbuscular mycorrhizal community composition.  

PubMed

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important root symbionts that can provide benefits to plant hosts, yet we understand little about how neighboring hosts in a plant community contribute to the composition of the AMF community. We hypothesized that the composition of the plant neighborhood, including the identities of both host and neighbor, would alter AMF community composition. We tested this in a glasshouse experiment in which a native perennial grass (Nassella pulchra) and three annual grasses (Avena barbata, Bromus hordeaceaous and Vulpia microstachys) were grown in two neighborhoods: conspecific monocultures and heterospecific perennial-annual mixtures. To identify AMF taxa colonizing plant roots, we used a combination of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and cloning. Both host and neighbor were important in structuring AMF communities. Unique AMF communities were associated with each plant host in monoculture. In heterospecific neighborhoods, the annual neighbors V. microstachys, A. barbata, and B. hordeaceus influenced N. pulchra AMF in different ways (synergistic, controlling, or neutral) and the reciprocal effect was not always symmetric. Our findings support a community approach to AMF studies, which can be used to increase our understanding of processes such as invasion and succession. PMID:19496954

Hausmann, Natasha Teutsch; Hawkes, Christine V

2009-01-01

79

Recent records of alien anurans on the Pacific Island of Guam  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eight anuran species were recorded for the first time in Guam in the period May 2003-December 2005, all apparently the result of arrivals to the island since 2000. Three of the eight species (Rana guentheri, Polypedates megacephalus, and Eleutherodactylus planirostris) had well-established breeding populations by 2005. A further three (Fejevarya cf. livinocharis, Fejervarya cancrivora, and Microhyla pulchra) were recorded from a number of individuals, but it is not known whether these species have established breeding populations. Two species (Kaloula pulchra and Eleutherodactylus coqui) appear to be incidental transportations to the island that have not established. Before 2003, five anuran species, all introductions, had been recorded from Guam. Three of these, Polypedates leucomystax, Pseudacris regilla, and Kaloula picta, were detected on Guam in incoming cargo but destroyed. Two species established: Bufo marinus was deliberately introduced and the Australian hylid Litoria fallax was probably an accidental introduction. Successful establishment of anurans on Guam has increased the risk of frog introductions to nearby islands. By providing additional food sources for the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis), anuran introductions have increased the chance that B. irregularis might substantially increase in numbers and in turn increase the risk of the snake being accidentally transported to other islands. ?? 2007 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.

Christy, M.T.; Clark, C.S.; Gee, D.E., II; Vice, D.; Vice, D.S.; Warner, M.P.; Tyrrell, C.L.; Rodda, G.H.; Savidge, J.A.

2007-01-01

80

Competition and soil resource environment alter plant-soil feedbacks for native and exotic grasses.  

PubMed

Feedbacks between plants and soil biota are increasingly identified as key determinants of species abundance patterns within plant communities. However, our understanding of how plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) may contribute to invasions is limited by our understanding of how feedbacks may shift in the light of other ecological processes. Here we assess how the strength of PSFs may shift as soil microbial communities change along a gradient of soil nitrogen (N) availability and how these dynamics may be further altered by the presence of a competitor. We conducted a greenhouse experiment where we grew native Stipa pulchra and exotic Avena fatua, alone and in competition, in soils inoculated with conspecific and heterospecific soil microbial communities conditioned in low, ambient and high N environments. Stipa pulchra decreased in heterospecific soil and in the presence of a competitor, while the performance of the exotic A. fatua shifted with soil microbial communities from altered N environments. Moreover, competition and soil microbial communities from the high N environment eliminated the positive PSFs of Stipa. Our results highlight the importance of examining how individual PSFs may interact in a broader community context and contribute to the establishment, spread and dominance of invaders. PMID:25425557

Larios, Loralee; Suding, Katharine N

2014-01-01

81

Fluxes of isoprene and monoterpenes from a tundra ecosystem.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whole system fluxes of isoprene from a moist acidic tundra ecosystem and leaf level emission rates of isoprene and monoterpenes from two important species in that same ecosystem ( Salix pulchra and Betula nana) were measured during the summer of 2005 to assess the contribution of biogenic volatile organic compounds on the chemistry of the Arctic atmosphere. The measurements took place in the Imnavait Creek watershed near the Toolik Field Station on the north slope of the Brooks Range (69° N, 149° W). The whole system fluxes were measured in conjunction with a project that is determining the net carbon exchange of the ecosystem through both atmospheric and hydrological processes (Marc Steiglitz, PI). The maximum rate of isoprene flux measured was over 1 mg C m-2 hr-1 with an air temperature of 22° C and a PAR level over 2000 ?mol m-2 s-1. Leaf level isoprene emission rates for S. pulchra reached 20 nmol m-2 s-1 (38 ug C gdw -1 hr-1 ), which was over 1% of the net carbon assimilated. These significant rates of isoprene emission need to be further investigated in field studies and will have major impacts of efforts to model tropospheric chemistry in the Arctic.

Potosnak, M.; Griffin, K.; Stieglitz, M.; Kling, G.; Schimel, J.; Hobbie, J.

2005-12-01

82

Differential ecophysiological response of deciduous shrubs and a graminoid to long-term experimental snow reductions and additions in moist acidic tundra, Northern Alaska.  

PubMed

Changes in winter precipitation that include both decreases and increases in winter snow are underway across the Arctic. In this study, we used a 14-year experiment that has increased and decreased winter snow in the moist acidic tussock tundra of northern Alaska to understand impacts of variation in winter snow depth on summer leaf-level ecophysiology of two deciduous shrubs and a graminoid species, including: instantaneous rates of leaf gas exchange, and ?(13)C, ?(15)N, and nitrogen (N) concentrations of Betula nana, Salix pulchra, and Eriophorum vaginatum. Leaf-level measurements were complemented by measurements of canopy leaf area index (LAI) and depth of thaw. Reductions in snow lowered summer leaf photosynthesis, conductance, and transpiration rates by up to 40% compared to ambient and deep snow conditions for Eriophorum vaginatum, and reduced Salix pulchra conductance and transpiration by up to 49%. In contrast, Betula nana exhibited no changes in leaf gas exchange in response to lower or deeper snow. Canopy LAI increased with added snow, while reduced winter snow resulted in lower growing season soil temperatures and reduced thaw depths. Our findings indicate that the spatial and temporal variability of future snow depth will have individualistic consequences for leaf-level C fixation and water flux by tundra species, and that these responses will be manifested over the longer term by changes in canopy traits, depth of thaw, soil C and N processes, and trace gas (CO2 and H2O) exchanges between the tundra and the atmosphere. PMID:24052332

Pattison, Robert R; Welker, Jeffrey M

2014-02-01

83

Four newly recorded free-living marine nematodes (Comesomatidae) from the East China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three species in genus Sabatieria and one in genus Cervonema from the East China Sea were recorded. S. breviseta is characterized by uniformly punctuated coarse dots, large amphids of 5.5 turns (?) and prominent gubernaculum median piece. The characters of S. breviseta agree quite well with the European original descriptions and only differ in the male amphid turns (5.5 vs. 4.0 turns) and unmodified preanal supplements (5-7 vs. 6). S. pulchra can be recognized by amphid 2.75 turns, irregularly arranged lateral dots, and the first three supplements anterior to the anus, which are more widely spaced than the following ones. The excretory system of S. breviseta and S. pulchra shows sexual dimorphism. S. celtica is defined by amphids 2.00-2.25 turns, weakly developed pharyngeal bulb, curved apophyses and 12-13 conspicuous supplements. C. deltensis is characterized by amphids 4.75 turns, ovate pharyngeal posterior bulb, sperm dimorphism, 7 thin preanal supplements, and long tail cylindrical portion (50%-53% of tail length). All the three Sabatieria species are for the first time recorded in Chinese waters. C. deltensis was originally isolated from the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea and newly recorded in the East China Sea.

Hua, Er; Zhang, Zhinan

2007-01-01

84

Benthonic foraminiferal paleoecology of the Brasso Formation ( Globorotalia fohsi lobata and Globorotalia fohsi robusta [N11-N12] Zones), Trinidad, West Indies: A transect through an oxygen minimum zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benthonic foraminifera indicate that part of the Middle Miocene Brasso Formation, central Trinidad (planktonic foraminiferal Zones N11-N12), was deposited during a regression. A stratigraphic sequence of five foraminiferal assemblages reflects changes in paleodepth and dissolved oxygen concentration and indicates that the relative fall in sea level brought the seabed into contact with an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ): (1) Assemblage 1 ( Uvigerina quesqueyana, Siphonina pulchra) lived in upper bathyal, moderately oxygenated water beneath the OMZ; (2) Assemblage 2 ( S. pulchra, Cassidulina laevigata, lesser Globocassidulina subglobosa) lived in outer neritic, moderately oxygenated water below the OMZ; (3) Assemblage 3 ( U. subperegrina) occupied the outer neritic, lower margin of the OMZ; (4) Assemblage 4 ( Brizalina subaenariensis, U. subperegrina) lived at the core of the OMZ and rates the lowest on the Benthonic Foraminiferal Oxygen Index; and (5) Assemblage 5 (middle-neritic species with few Uvigerina spp. and Brizalina spp.) lived in well-oxygenated water above the OMZ. The onset of the severest oxygen depletion was abrupt and occurred shortly after the N11-N12 boundary. Previous work on the Brasso Formation has reported a similar sequence of benthonic assemblages in planktonic foraminiferal Zones N8-N10. These assemblages may be useful for local correlation of the Brasso Formation.

Wilson, Brent

2007-01-01

85

The nervous system of Xenacoelomorpha: a genomic perspective.  

PubMed

Xenacoelomorpha is, most probably, a monophyletic group that includes three clades: Acoela, Nemertodermatida and Xenoturbellida. The group still has contentious phylogenetic affinities; though most authors place it as the sister group of the remaining bilaterians, some would include it as a fourth phylum within the Deuterostomia. Over the past few years, our group, along with others, has undertaken a systematic study of the microscopic anatomy of these worms; our main aim is to understand the structure and development of the nervous system. This research plan has been aided by the use of molecular/developmental tools, the most important of which has been the sequencing of the complete genomes and transcriptomes of different members of the three clades. The data obtained has been used to analyse the evolutionary history of gene families and to study their expression patterns during development, in both space and time. A major focus of our research is the origin of 'cephalized' (centralized) nervous systems. How complex brains are assembled from simpler neuronal arrays has been a matter of intense debate for at least 100 years. We are now tackling this issue using Xenacoelomorpha models. These represent an ideal system for this work because the members of the three clades have nervous systems with different degrees of cephalization; from the relatively simple sub-epithelial net of Xenoturbella to the compact brain of acoels. How this process of 'progressive' cephalization is reflected in the genomes or transcriptomes of these three groups of animals is the subject of this paper. PMID:25696825

Perea-Atienza, Elena; Gavilán, Brenda; Chiodin, Marta; Abril, Josep F; Hoff, Katharina J; Poustka, Albert J; Martinez, Pedro

2015-02-15

86

Mechanisms of maternal inheritance of dinoflagellate symbionts in the acoelomorph worm Waminoa litus.  

PubMed

Waminoa litus is a zooxanthella-bearing acoel worm that infests corals. It is unique to Bilateria in that it transmits its algal symbionts vertically via eggs irrespective of the heterogeneity of the symbionts. It simultaneously harbors two dinoflagellate genera: Symbiodinium and Amphidinium. In this study, we examined the timing and vertical transmission pathway of algal symbionts in W. litus using light and electron microscopy. The oogenesis of the worm can be divided into three stages: stage I, in which the ovary is absent; stage II, the early vitellogenic zone containing immature oocytes formed in the ovary; and stage III, with both early and late vitellogenic zones in the body. In the early vitellogenic zone at stage II, oocytes are surrounded by accessory-follicle cells (AFCs). Both Symbiodinium and Amphidinium symbionts are not initially observed in the oocytes, but are observed in the AFCs. In the late vitellogenic zone at stage III, oocytes are enveloped by a complete sheath of AFCs; the algal symbionts are taken up by the late vitellogenic oocytes. These observations suggest that AFCs mediate the transfer of the algae from the parent to the oocytes. Ribotype analyses of the Symbiodinium symbionts revealed that they differ from those harbored by coral in the same experimental aquarium. These results indicate that W. litus has an active algal transport pathway and maintains a specific lineage of Symbiodinium via vertical transmission. PMID:22943779

Hikosaka-Katayama, Tomoe; Koike, Kanae; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Hikosaka, Akira; Koike, Kazuhiko

2012-09-01

87

Survey of the marine benthic infauna collected from the United States radioactive waste disposal sites off the Farallon Islands, California. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Benthic biological samples were taken in 1977 from the vicinity of the Farallon Islands radioactive waste disposal sites for characterization of the infaunal macroinvertebrates and foraminifera. A total of 120 invertebrate species were collected, of which 75 species (63 percent) were polychaetes. Forty-three of these polychaete species have not previously been reported from depths greater than 1000m. A total of 1044 macroinvertebrate specimens were collected of which 54 percent were polychates. Only the nematods were present at all six benthic stations, but the community structure was dominated by the polychaetes Tauberia gracilis, Allia pulchra, Chaetozone setosa, and Cossura candida. Living and dead foraminifera were reported. The possible role of polychaetes in bioturbation and in the marine food chain is briefly discussed with respect to the various polychaete feeding mechanisms.

Reish, D.J.

1983-01-01

88

Tundra in the rain: differential vegetation responses to three years of experimentally doubled summer precipitation in Siberian shrub and Swedish bog tundra.  

PubMed

Precipitation amounts and patterns at high latitude sites have been predicted to change as a result of global climatic changes. We addressed vegetation responses to three years of experimentally increased summer precipitation in two previously unaddressed tundra types: Betula nana-dominated shrub tundra (northeast Siberia) and a dry Sphagnum fuscum-dominated bog (northern Sweden). Positive responses to approximately doubled ambient precipitation (an increase of 200 mm year(-1)) were observed at the Siberian site, for B. nana (30 % larger length increments), Salix pulchra (leaf size and length increments) and Arctagrostis latifolia (leaf size and specific leaf area), but none were observed at the Swedish site. Total biomass production did not increase at either of the study sites. This study corroborates studies in other tundra vegetation types and shows that despite regional differences at the plant level, total tundra plant productivity is, at least at the short or medium term, largely irresponsive to experimentally increased summer precipitation. PMID:22864700

Keuper, Frida; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W; Blok, Daan; van Bodegom, Peter M; Dorrepaal, Ellen; van Hal, Jurgen R; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Aerts, Rien

2012-01-01

89

Variability in the effects of macroalgae on the survival and growth of corals: the consumer connection.  

PubMed

Shifts in dominance from corals to macroalgae are occurring in many coral reefs worldwide. Macroalgal canopies, while competing for space with coral colonies, may also form a barrier to herbivorous and corallivorous fish, offering protection to corals. Thus, corals could either suffer from enhanced competition with canopy-forming and understorey macroalgae or benefit from predator exclusion. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the effects of the brown, canopy-forming macroalga, Turbinaria ornata, on the survival and growth of corals can vary according to its cover, to the presence or absence of herbivorous and corallivorous fish and to the morphological types of corals. Over a period of 66 days, two coral species differing in growth form, Acropora pulchra and Porites rus, were exposed to three different covers of T. ornata (absent versus medium versus high), in the presence or absence of fish. Irrespective of the cover of T. ornata, fish exclusion reduced mortality rates of A. pulchra. Following fish exclusion, a high cover of T. ornata depressed the growth of this branched coral, whilst it had no effect when fish species were present. P. rus suffered no damage from corallivorous fish, but its growth was decreased by high covers of T. ornata, irrespective of the presence or absence of fish. These results show that negative effects of T. ornata on some coral species are subordinate to those of fish predation and are, therefore, likely to manifest only on reefs severely depleted of predators. In contrast, space dominance by T. ornata may decrease the growth of other coral species regardless of predation intensity. In general, this study shows that susceptibility to predation may determine the severity of the effects of canopy-forming macroalgae on coral growth. PMID:24260290

Bulleri, Fabio; Couraudon-Réale, Marine; Lison de Loma, Thierry; Claudet, Joachim

2013-01-01

90

Variability in the Effects of Macroalgae on the Survival and Growth of Corals: The Consumer Connection  

PubMed Central

Shifts in dominance from corals to macroalgae are occurring in many coral reefs worldwide. Macroalgal canopies, while competing for space with coral colonies, may also form a barrier to herbivorous and corallivorous fish, offering protection to corals. Thus, corals could either suffer from enhanced competition with canopy-forming and understorey macroalgae or benefit from predator exclusion. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the effects of the brown, canopy-forming macroalga, Turbinaria ornata, on the survival and growth of corals can vary according to its cover, to the presence or absence of herbivorous and corallivorous fish and to the morphological types of corals. Over a period of 66 days, two coral species differing in growth form, Acropora pulchra and Porites rus, were exposed to three different covers of T. ornata (absent versus medium versus high), in the presence or absence of fish. Irrespective of the cover of T. ornata, fish exclusion reduced mortality rates of A. pulchra. Following fish exclusion, a high cover of T. ornata depressed the growth of this branched coral, whilst it had no effect when fish species were present. P. rus suffered no damage from corallivorous fish, but its growth was decreased by high covers of T. ornata, irrespective of the presence or absence of fish. These results show that negative effects of T. ornata on some coral species are subordinate to those of fish predation and are, therefore, likely to manifest only on reefs severely depleted of predators. In contrast, space dominance by T. ornata may decrease the growth of other coral species regardless of predation intensity. In general, this study shows that susceptibility to predation may determine the severity of the effects of canopy-forming macroalgae on coral growth. PMID:24260290

Bulleri, Fabio; Couraudon-Réale, Marine; Lison de Loma, Thierry; Claudet, Joachim

2013-01-01

91

Hyposalinity stress compromises the fertilization of gametes more than the survival of coral larvae.  

PubMed

The life cycle of coral is affected by natural and anthropogenic perturbations occurring in the marine environment. In the context of global changes, it is likely that rainfall events will be more intense and that coastal reefs will be exposed to sudden drops in salinity. Therefore, a better understanding of how corals-especially during the pelagic life stages-are able to deal with declines in salinity is crucial. To fill this knowledge gap, this work investigated how gametes and larva stages of two species of Acropora (Acropora cytherea and Acropora pulchra) from French Polynesia cope with drops in salinity. An analysis of collected results highlights that both Acropora coral gametes displayed the same resistance to salinity changes, with 4h30-ES50 (effective salinity that decrease by 50% the fertilization success after 4h30 exposure) of 26.6 ± 0.1 and 27.5 ± 0.3‰ for A. cytherea and A. pulchra, respectively. This study also revealed that coral gametes were more sensitive to decreases in salinity than larvae, for which significant changes are only observed at 26‰ for A. cytherea after 14 d of exposure. Although rising seawater temperatures and ocean acidification are often perceived as the main threat for the survival of coral reefs, our work indicates that 70% of the gametes could be killed during a single night of spawning by a rainfall event that decreases salinity to 26‰. This suggests that changes in the frequency and intensity of rainfall events associated with climate changes should be taken seriously in efforts to both preserve coral gametes and ensure the persistence and renewal of coral populations. PMID:25562765

Hédouin, Laetitia; Pilon, Rosanne; Puisay, Antoine

2015-03-01

92

Spatial polychaeta habitat potential mapping using probabilistic models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to apply probabilistic models to the mapping of the potential polychaeta habitat area in the Hwangdo tidal flat, Korea. Remote sensing techniques were used to construct spatial datasets of ecological environments and field observations were carried out to determine the distribution of macrobenthos. Habitat potential mapping was achieved for two polychaeta species, Prionospio japonica and Prionospio pulchra, and eight control factors relating to the tidal macrobenthos distribution were selected. These included the intertidal digital elevation model (DEM), slope, aspect, tidal exposure duration, distance from tidal channels, tidal channel density, spectral reflectance of the near infrared (NIR) bands and surface sedimentary facies from satellite imagery. The spatial relationships between the polychaeta species and each control factor were calculated using a frequency ratio and weights-of-evidence combined with geographic information system (GIS) data. The species were randomly divided into a training set (70%) to analyze habitat potential using frequency ratio and weights-of-evidence, and a test set (30%) to verify the predicted habitat potential map. The relationships were overlaid to produce a habitat potential map with a polychaeta habitat potential (PHP) index value. These maps were verified by comparing them to surveyed habitat locations such as the verification data set. For the verification results, the frequency ratio model showed prediction accuracies of 77.71% and 74.87% for P. japonica and P. pulchra, respectively, while those for the weights-of-evidence model were 64.05% and 62.95%. Thus, the frequency ratio model provided a more accurate prediction than the weights-of-evidence model. Our data demonstrate that the frequency ratio and weights-of-evidence models based upon GIS analysis are effective for generating habitat potential maps of polychaeta species in a tidal flat. The results of this study can be applied towards conservation and management initiatives for the macrofauna of tidal flats.

Choi, Jong-Kuk; Oh, Hyun-Joo; Koo, Bon Joo; Ryu, Joo-Hyung; Lee, Saro

2011-06-01

93

Free-Nematodes in the NW Black Sea meiobenthos - diversity, abundance, distribution and importance as indicator of hypoxic waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study performed within EU FP7 Hypox Project was to get deeper knowledge about species of nematodes that could be indicators for stressful biotic conditions as low oxygen concentration due to phenomena of seasonal hypoxia. The Nematodes come from meiobenthos sampling (using a multi corer with 4 tubes, Mark II type, lowered into the sea from R/V "Mare Nigrum" board) performed in May and September 2010 and April 2011 along four transects crossing the Romanian continental shelf from where 87 meiobenthos samples were collected. In the studied area 96 species of nematodes were found. The authors analyzed the nematodes populations' distribution on four profiles: Sf. Gheorghe, Portita, Constanta and Mangalia. The qualitative and quantitative structure of nematodes populations was compared. 41 species were found on Mangalia profile, 47 species on Portita profile, 48 species on Constanta profile and 85 species on Sf. Gheorghe profile. The greatest densities were found on Constanta profile with an average of 369.607indvs/m-2. The most frequent and abundant species were: Sabatieria pulchra, Sabatieria abyssalis, Terschellingia longicaudata, Viscosia cobbi, Axonolaimus ponticus. The species assemblages were assessed for depth gradient distribution, 7 depth intervals being set from 20 to 210 m. The greatest diversity was noted in 61-100 m depth interval, while the lowest between 0-20 m. On the contrary, in terms of density of individuals (indvs/m-2), highest densities were obtained in shallow waters between 21-30 m. As far as the depth increases, the species assemblages change, becoming more favorable to species like Halalaimus ponticus, Metachromadora macrouthera, Halanonchus bullatus, Linhomoneidae species. However, on the first place still remained Sabatieria abyssalis. The vertical distribution of nematodes in sediments was analyzed for the surface layer 0-5 cm and sub-surface layer 5-10 cm, the dominant species in both layers being: Sabatieria pulchra, S. abyssalis, Terschellingia longicaudata, Viscosia cobbi, Axonolaimus ponticus, Metalinhomoeus zosterae, Enoplus euxinus, Eleutherolaimus longus. The density decreases in 5-10 cm layer as compared to 0-5 cm layer. Results show that a dominant nematodes community tolerant to eutrophication conditions, organic loading and hypoxic conditions, made up of species of Sabatieria pulchra, Sabatieria abyssalis, Terschellingia longicaudata etc., is spread throughout the whole investigated area, from the shallow waters to the deepest bottoms at the limit of the metazoan life development. Literature confirms the ubiquitous distribution of these species, often found in areas of low O2 concentration. The taxonomic diversity increases with depth, which may suggest that the nematodes in the Black Sea, under unfavorable conditions, may have an adaptive strategy in response to the lack of resources or in the presence of physiological stress factors.

Muresan, M.; Gomoiu, M.-T.

2012-04-01

94

Quantifying the physiology of structurally complex arctic vegetation and implications for carbon cycling in a shrubbier tundra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The arctic is undergoing a warming trend that is more extreme compared to lower latitudes. As one major consequence, repeat aerial photographs reveal that in recent decades woody deciduous shrubs have increased in dominance in valley bottoms and riparian areas of northern Alaska. Advancing shrub canopies are growing taller and more structurally complex, presumably increasing self-shading and reducing light availability with canopy depth. According to canopy optimization theory, plants will preferentially allocate nutrient resources to sun-exposed canopy leaves to enhance photosynthetic efficiency in order to take advantage of greater light availability. While canopy optimization has been studied in other, mainly forested ecosystems, this theory has yet to be tested in the arctic tundra. We made a series of measurements on canopy leaves located in high to low light environments, from three common woody deciduous shrubs on the North Slope of Alaska: dwarf birch (Betula nana), tealeaf willow (Salix pulchra), and feltleaf willow (Salix alaxensis). For each selected leaf, we measured the canopy leaf area index at its canopy position in order to quantify the amount of light intercepted by the leaf surface, and in situ chlorophyll fluorescence to evaluate its photosynthetic efficiency through calculation of leaf maximum electron transport rate. The same leaves were then removed and measured for leaf area, dry mass, and carbon to nitrogen ratio. Our data show trends that are consistent with the development of canopy optimization. Leaf nitrogen decreases significantly from the upper to lower terciles of leaf area index values (56% in Salix alaxensis, 41% in Salix pulchra, 46% in Betula nana). Similarly, there were significant reductions in the leaf maximum electron transport rate for two species (44% in Salix alaxensis, 40% Betula nana). These findings suggest that structurally complex arctic shrubs may be redistributing leaf nitrogen to more exposed parts of the canopy where light is more abundant, which combined with higher photosynthetic efficiencies suggests that plants may be investing more nitrogen into photosynthetic machinery. Future work should focus on the relationship between chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf-level CO2 exchange in order to determine the relationship between the observed gradients in photosynthetic efficiency and measured carbon exchange. This study suggests that because the arctic tundra is becoming more structurally complex, ecosystem-level carbon models should include within-canopy gradients in light intensity and consequent gradients in leaf physiological traits.

Formica, A. F.; Griffin, K. L.; Boelman, N.

2013-12-01

95

The Influence Of Water Tracks And Hillslope Position On The Physiology Of The Dominant Plant Species In The Imnavait Creek Watershed, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within a small arctic tundra watershed located on the north slope of Alaska, we asked if plant abundance and physiological performance are linked to hillslope position by the hydrologic processes controlling nutrient availability. Our prediction was that down slope sites and within water track sites should have the greatest nutrient availability resulting in the highest photosynthetic capacity and productivity. To examine these relationships, two transects were established in the Imnavait Creek watershed, running from the northern ridge crest to a beaded stream. In total, 16 sites, one water track (WT) and one non water track (NWT), from 8 locations, each 100 m apart were examined. At each site, soil moisture, thaw depth, canopy water status (from spectral reflectance) and species diversity were recorded. Chlorophyll fluorescence was used assess the maximum capacity of each species to transport electrons within the photosynthetic membranes of individual leaves (ETRMAX), a variable we expect to reflect both leaf N and general photosynthetic capacity. Significant differences were found within and among the major functional groups of plants growing in the watershed. In the two deciduous shrubs, Betula nana and Salix pulchra, ETRMAX generally decreased down slope but no significant difference were found between the WT and NWT sites. By contrast, ETRMAX in Rubus chamaemors, also a deciduous species, showed an initial decrease at the first two locations, but then remained constant further down slope and between WT and NWT sites. In the evergreen plants, Ledum palustre differed in that the maximum ETRMAX was found at the mid-slope locations while Vaccinium vitis-idaea had a characteristic decrease in ETRMAX down slope, with a large difference between WT and NWT at the first location. The forb Petasites frigidus displayed a unique pattern, with large difference in ETRMAX between WT and NWT at sites 4 and 5, the last two locations at which this species could be found. Finally, the only graminoid species studied, Eriophorum vaginatu, ETRMAX decrease down slope in a linear fashion and had the highest absolute ETRMAX. Additionally leaf gas-exchange was measured in Salix pulchra and leaf N and canopy reflectance was measured at each site. Together, our results demonstrate that while hillsope position has a significant effect on the physiology, growth and diversity of species, the relationships were not as hypothesized. Clearly other ecological, morphological or environmental factors are contributing to the productivity of the watershed and ultimately impacting the biogeochemistry of this important ecosystem.

Griffin, K. L.; Epstein, D. J.; Shapiro, J. B.; Boelman, N. T.; Stieglitz, M.

2003-12-01

96

Characterizing Variation of Isotopic Markers in Northern Alaskan Caribou Forages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic markers in feces and tissues are a potential tool for monitoring the importance of feeding areas for migratory herbivores such as caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Many of these techniques are currently limited by gaps in our knowledge of how these isotopic signatures vary over the landscape. We collected seven species of preferred caribou forages along a latitudinal gradient in the summer ranges of the Central Arctic (9 sites) and Teshekpuk Lake (4 sites) caribou herds during 2011 and 2012. We analyzed forages at peak protein content and at the end of the season to characterize temporal, species-specific, and spatial variation in isotopic markers. The availability of C and N was measured by digestion in vitro. Isotopic signatures of digested samples were used to calculate fractionation that would bias the isotopic signature of feces. The range of values for isotopes (all values ‰) of nitrogen (?15N -9.5 - +4.3), and sulfur (?34S -3.6 - +15.5) were greater than those for carbon (?13C -30.5 - -24.9). Small declines in forage ?13C with latitude (Carex aquatilis, Eriophorum vaginatum, Salix pulchra, and S. richardsonii [all P < 0.01]), season (all species except C. bigelowii [all P ? 0.01]), and season x year (S. richardsonii; P = 0.01) were probably associated with changes in water availability. Fractionation of ?13C in early season forages was 0.1 × 1.0 and positively related to C availability (58% × 15%; P < 0.01) with the greatest fractionation for the highly digestible forb Pedicularis langsdorfii (1.43 × 0.44; P < 0.01). Sedges (Carex and Eriophorum) were significantly higher in ?15N than Salix spp. and other dicots (2.0 × 1.1 vs. -2.9 × 2.2; P < 0.01). For Salix spp., ?15N was consistent over the season and between years. Fractionation of ?15N in early season forages was 0.2 × 1.8 and not related to N availability (60% × 17%). For S. pulchra, ?34S may indicate usage of coastal habitats over foothills because ?34S was higher on the coastal plain than in the foothills (11.1 × 3.3 and 3.1 × 2.6; P < 0.01). Isotopic ratios in N and S show the greatest promise for tracking diet and location of migratory caribou whereas the narrow range in ?13C is affected by species, season and location.

VanSomeren, L.; Barboza, P. S.; Gustine, D. D.; Parrett, L. S.; Stricker, C. A.

2013-12-01

97

Species-level diversity of belowground structure in savanna woody plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using compressed air, we excavated individual trees and shrubs and mapped their coarse root systems on a three-dimensional grid system up to 1.5 m depth. We excavated four woody savanna species at three sites spanning a climate gradient on the Kalahari Transect in southern Africa. Overall, species was more important than site in determining both large-scale and small-scale root system structure. The species excavated fell into two groups that coexisted across the climate gradient. Acacia mellifera and Terminalia sericea had straight roots in a laterally-extensive and relatively shallow system. Boscia albitrunca and Ochna pulchra had sinuous roots that were mostly concentrated beneath the canopy and were more prevalent in deep than near-surface soil layers, departing from the conventional model of decreasing root abundance with depth. The shallow-rooted species had small taproots, though it is unlikely that they reached the water table. Deep- and shallow-rootedness appear to correlate with other characteristics such as growth form (tree or shrub) and drought deciduousness. Acacia mellifera Boscia albitrunca

O'Donnell, F. C.; Caylor, K. K.; Bhattachan, A.; Dintwe, K.; D'Odorico, P.; Okin, G. S.

2013-05-01

98

Revision, cladistic analysis and biogeography of Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae).  

PubMed

Three aviculariine genera endemic to Brazil are revised. Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850 is resurrected, including five species; Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 includes two species; and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, six species. Nine species are newly described: Typhochlaena ammasp. n., Typhochlaena costaesp. n., Typhochlaena curumimsp. n., Typhochlaena paschoalisp. n., Pachistopelma bromelicolasp. n., Iridopelma katiaesp. n., Iridopelma marcoisp. n., Iridopelma oliveiraisp. n. and Iridopelma vaninisp. n. Three new synonymies are established: Avicularia pulchra Mello-Leitão, 1933 and Avicularia recifiensis Struchen & Brändle, 1996 are junior synonyms of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 syn. n., and Avicularia palmicola Mello-Leitão, 1945 is a junior synonym of Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 syn. n.Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947 is transferred to Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, making the new combination Tapinauchenius concolor (Caporiacco, 1947)comb. n. Lectotypes are newly designed for Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 , Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 and Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix comprising 62 characters and 38 terminal taxa. The chosen cladogram found with X-Pee-Wee and concavity 6 suggests they are monophyletic. All species are keyed and mapped and information on species habitat and area cladograms are presented. Discussion on biogeography and conservation is provided. PMID:23166476

Bertani, Rogério

2012-01-01

99

2(5H)-Furanone, epigallocatechin gallate, and a citric-based disinfectant disturb quorum-sensing activity and reduce motility and biofilm formation of Campylobacter jejuni.  

PubMed

Brominated furanone and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) are naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds that can be derived from sources such as Delisea pulchra algae and green tea, respectively. These compounds may have potential health benefits and antimicrobial properties. Biofilm formation and bacterial motility are virulence factors that seem to be involved in the autoinducer 2 (AI-2)-mediated quorum sensing (QS) response of Campylobacter. In this study, the anti-QS activities of 2(5H)-furanone, EGCG, and a citric-based disinfectant were tested against Campylobacter jejuni. The minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) was determined by a microdilution method, and the AI-2 activity was measured by bioluminescence. For motility tests, subinhibitory concentrations of each compound were mixed with semisolid Muller Hinton agar. Biofilm formation was quantified in broth-containing microplates after staining with safranin. The MBC of tested compounds ranged from 0.3 to 310 ?g/mL. Subinhibitory concentrations of all of the antimicrobial compounds significantly decreased (19 to 62 %) the bacterial motility and reduced biofilm formation. After treatment with EGCG, furanone, and the disinfectant, AI-2 activity was decreased by 60 to 99 % compared to control. In conclusion, 2(5H)-furanone, EGCG, and the disinfectant exert bactericidal effects against C. jejuni and disturb QS activity and reduce motility and biofilm formation. These compounds may be naturally occurring alternatives to control C. jejuni. PMID:25231135

Castillo, Sandra; Heredia, Norma; García, Santos

2015-01-01

100

Can methane suppression during digestion of woody and leafy browse compensate for energy costs of detoxification of plant secondary compounds? A test with muskoxen fed willows and birch.  

PubMed

Digestion and metabolism of woody and leafy browse requires detoxification of plant secondary compounds that can incur an energy cost. Browse, however, inhibits methane (CH(4)) production and therefore could offset some costs of detoxification. We measured an index of heat increment of feeding (HIFi) and CH(4) production in muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) given a single test meal (at 10 g/kg BM(0.75)) composed of hay mixed with one of three browse species (Willow: Salix alaxensis, S. pulchra; Birch: Betula nana). Detoxification cost was estimated as HIFi of browse diet-HIFi of hay diet and CH(4) compensation as CH(4) production of hay diet-CH(4) production of browse diet. CH(4) compensation was noted in 47% of 15 trials in which a detoxification cost was evident; six trials were with woody browse and one with leafy browse. Separate controls were responsible for the difference in CH(4) compensation for leafy browse vs. woody browse. Detoxification costs for twigs and leaves of B. nana were underestimated because of their low digestibility. In only one of six treatments was CH(4) compensation documented for B. nana. We conclude that energy saved by CH(4) suppression was small (<6%) compared with detoxification costs. PMID:12443941

White, R G; Lawler, J P

2002-11-01

101

Characterization of fatty acid composition in healthy and bleached corals from Okinawa, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under bleaching conditions, corals lose their symbiotic zooxanthellae, and thus, the ability to synthesize fatty acids (FAs) from photosynthetically derived carbon. This study investigated the lipid content and FA composition in healthy and bleached corals from the Odo reef flat in Okinawa, southern Japan, following a bleaching event. It was hypothesized that the FA composition and abundance would change as algae are lost or die, and possibly microbial abundance would increase in corals as a consequence of bleaching. The lipid content and FA composition of three healthy coral species ( Pavona frondifera, Acropora pulchra, and Goniastrea aspera) and of partially bleached and completely bleached colonies of P. frondifera were examined. The FA composition did not differ among healthy corals, but differed significantly among healthy, partially bleached, and completely bleached specimens of P. frondifera. Completely bleached corals contained significantly lower lipid and total FA content, as well as lower relative amounts of polyunsaturated FAs and higher relative amounts of saturated FAs, than healthy and partially bleached corals. Furthermore, there was a significantly higher relative concentration of monounsaturated FAs and odd-numbered branched FAs in completely bleached corals, indicating an increase in bacterial colonization in the bleached corals.

Bachok, Zainudin; Mfilinge, Prosper; Tsuchiya, Makoto

2006-11-01

102

Hybridization of two megacephalic map turtles (testudines: emydidae: Graptemys) in the Choctawhatchee River drainage of Alabama and Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Map turtles of the genus Graptemys are highly aquatic and rarely undergo terrestrial movements, and limited dispersal among drainages has been hypothesized to drive drainage-specific endemism and high species richness of this group in the southeastern United States. Until recently, two members of the megacephalic “pulchra clade,” Graptemys barbouri andGraptemys ernsti, were presumed to be allopatric with a gap in both species' ranges in the Choctawhatchee River drainage. In this paper, we analyzed variation in morphology (head and shell patterns) and genetics (mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite loci) from G. barbouri, G. ernsti, and Graptemys sp. collected from the Choctawhatchee River drainage, and we document the syntopic occurrence of those species and back-crossed individuals of mixed ancestry in the Choctawhatchee River drainage. Our results provide a first counter-example to the pattern of drainage-specific endemism in megacephalic Graptemys. Geologic events associated with Pliocene and Pleistocene sea level fluctuations and the existence of paleo-river systems appear to have allowed the invasion of the Choctawhatchee system by these species, and the subsequent introgression likely predates any potential human-mediated introduction.

Godwin, James; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Kreiser, Brian R.; Folt, Brian; Lechowicz, Chris

2014-01-01

103

Effects of initial climatic conditions on growth and accumulation of fluoride and nitrogen in leaves of two tropical tree species exposed to industrial air pollution.  

PubMed

Saplings of Tibouchina pulchra and Psidium guajava, cultivated under standardized soil conditions, were placed in two sites at Cubatão (state of São Paulo, southeast Brazil) to study the effects of air pollution on growth, biomass allocation and foliar nitrogen and fluoride concentrations. Thirty-six potted plants were maintained over two periods of one year (Jul/00 to Jun/01; Dec/00 to Nov/01) at each of two experimental sites with distinct levels of air pollution: Pilões River Valley (PV) with vegetation virtually unaffected by air pollution; and Mogi River Valley (MV) severely affected by pollutants released mainly by chemical, fertilizer, iron and steel industries. For both species, saplings growing at MV showed alterations of growth and biomass allocation, as well as increased leaf concentrations of nitrogen and fluoride. Comparing both experimental periods, the one starting in winter (the driest season in Southeastern Brazil) seemed to affect the saplings more severely, the differences of the measured parameters between MV and PV being higher than in the second period. Multivariate analysis revealed two groups of data: one representing the MV and the other the PV saplings. For both species, saplings growing at MV showed differences in chemical composition, growth and biomass allocation, compared with the PV saplings. The results suggested that seasonal conditions of the first months of sapling exposure (summer or winter) modulate the intensity of responses to pollution stress. PMID:17289116

Furlan, Cláudia Maria; Domingos, Marisa; Salatino, Antonio

2007-03-15

104

SPECIES COMPOSITION OF CARRION BLOW FLIES IN NORTHERN THAILAND: ALTITUDE APPRAISAL  

PubMed Central

Distribution and occurrence of blow flies of forensic importance was performed during 2007 and 2008 in Chiang Mai and Lampang Provinces, northern Thailand. Surveys were conducted in forested areas for 30 minutes using a sweep net to collected flies attracted to a bait. A total of 2,115 blow flies belonging to six genera and 14 species were collected; Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (44.7%), C. pinguis (Walker) (15.1%), C. chani Kurahashi (9.3%), C. thanomthini Kurahashi & Tumrasvin (0.3%); Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) (10.5%), A. villeneuvi (Patton) (2.2%); Lucilia papuensis Macquart (2.2%), L. porphyrina (Walker) (12.4%), L. sinensis Aubertin (0.7%); Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) (1.3%), H. pulchra (Wiedemann) (0.1%); Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot) (0.6%), Hy. tumrasvini Kurahashi (0.2%) and Ceylonomyia nigripes Aubertin (0.4%). Among them, C. megacephala was the predominant species collected, particularly in the summer. The species likely to prevail in highland areas are C. pinguis, C. thanomthini, Hy. tumrasvini, L. papuensis and L. porphyrina. PMID:24626423

Moophayak, Kittikhun; Klong-Klaew, Tunwadee; Sukontason, Kom; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Sukontason, Kabkaew L.

2014-01-01

105

A new species of Moennigia (Trichostrongylina: Molineidae) a parasite of Chaetophractus spp. (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) from Argentina.  

PubMed

Moennigia celinae n. sp. collected from the small intestine of Chaetophractus vellerosus and Chaetophractus villosus (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae) from Argentina is herein described. This new species belongs to the genus Moennigia because it possesses a short uterus with few eggs, atrophied distal branch of the ovejector, vulva near the anus, and a conical tail. The new species has a synlophe with 17 symmetrical ridges and slight ventro-dorsal orientation. The spicule length:body length ratio is similar to that of the other species parasitic of Dasypodidae; however, Moennigia celinae n. sp. differs from Moennigia pintoi and Moennigia lutzi because the latter lack a gubernaculum, and from Moennigia complexus, Moennigia moennigi, Moennigia filamentosus, Moennigia intrusa, Moennigia littlei, Moennigia pulchra and Moennigia dessetae by the latter having very complex spicules with 2 or 3 points at the distal extremity. Moreover, Moennigia celinae n. sp. differs from Moennigia virilis by the length and shape of its spicules. Moennigia celinae n. sp. can be distinguished from Moennigia travassosi by the shape of the dorsal ray of the caudal bursa. Moennigia celinae n. sp. resembles Moennigia pseudopulchra but the gubernaculum of the latter is V-shaped. This is the second report of a species of Moennigia in Argentina and the first for the genus Chaetophractus. PMID:24552210

Ezquiaga, María C; Navone, Graciela T

2014-08-01

106

Historical biogeography and speciation in the neotropical highlands: molecular phylogenetics of the jay genus Cyanolyca.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic relationships were studied in the genus Cyanolyca, an assemblage of jays distributed from Mexico south to Bolivia. Given its fragmented distribution along the humid forests of the Neotropics, the genus Cyanolyca is a model group for exploring hypotheses on biogeography and speciation. Phylogenetic analyses were based on two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci; taxon sampling includes all species in the genus and most subspecies. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses produced trees that were congruent and highly robust at both terminal and deep nodes of the phylogeny. Cyanolyca comprises two major clades: one contains the Mesoamerican "dwarf" jays, and the other consists of two main groups--C. cucullata+C. pulchra and the "core" South American species. Prior hypotheses of relationships were explored statistically using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian approaches. Dispersal-Vicariance analysis revealed the importance of the Northern Andes as a major center for biological diversification, and the effects of dispersal across the Panamanian Land Bridge in the composition of South American and Mesoamerican avifaunas. Phylogenetic patterns are highly congruent with an allopatric mode of speciation. Implications of these results are discussed in the context of the biogeography of Neotropical montane forests. PMID:19135159

Bonaccorso, Elisa

2009-03-01

107

Revision of the genus Turris Batsch, 1789 (Gastropoda: Conoidea: Turridae) with the description of six new species  

PubMed Central

The taxonomy of the genus Turris Batsch, 1789, type genus of the family Turridae, widespread in shallow-water habitats of tropic Indo-Pacific, is revised. A total of 31 species of Turris, are here recognized as valid. New species described: Turris chaldaea, Turris clausifossata, Turris guidopoppei, Turris intercancellata, Turris kantori, T. kathiewayae. Homonym renamed: Turris bipartita nom. nov. for Pleurotoma variegata Kiener, 1839 (non Philippi, 1836). New synonymies: Turris ankaramanyensis Bozzetti, 2006 = Turris tanyspira Kilburn, 1975; Turris imperfecti, T. nobilis, T. pulchra and T. tornatum Röding, 1798, and Turris assyria Olivera, Seronay & Fedosov, 2010 = T. babylonia; Turris dollyi Olivera, 2000 = Pleurotoma crispa Lamarck, 1816; Turris totiphyllis Olivera, 2000 = Turris hidalgoi Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco, 2000; Turris kilburni Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco, 2000 = Turris pagasa Olivera, 2000; Turris (Annulaturris) munizi Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco, 2000 = Gemmula lululimi Olivera, 2000. Revised status: Turris intricata Powell, 1964, Pleurotoma variegata Kiener, 1839 (non Philippi, 1836) and Pleurotoma yeddoensis Jousseaume, 1883, are regarded as full species (not subspecies of Turris crispa). Neotype designated: For Pleurotoma garnonsii Reeve, 1843, to distinguish it from Turris garnonsii of recent authors, type locality emended to Zanzibar. New combination: Turris orthopleura Kilburn, 1983, is transferred to genus Makiyamaia, family Clavatulidae. PMID:23847408

Kilburn, Richard N.; Fedosov, Alexander E.; Olivera, Baldomero M.

2012-01-01

108

Effects of increased snow on growth response and allocation patterns of arctic plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Warming in the Arctic has led to an increase in shrub cover on the tundra that has been well documented in arctic Alaska. Fall and winter precipitation are also predicted to increase in arctic regions under continued climate change, resulting in greater snow depths and insulating winter soil, thus facilitating overwinter nitrogen mineralization by microbes. We predict that this increased microbial activity will enhance plant growth because more nutrients will be available for plant uptake at spring thaw. We studied the effect of increased snow on plant growth and nutrient allocation patterns using snow fences located across a gradient of shrub height and density at Toolik Field Station on the north slope of Alaska's Brooks Range. We compared growth and nutrient content of deciduous shrubs, evergreen shrubs, and graminoids on either side of the fences. Species behaved individualistically, with some showing increased growth with snow addition, others showing decreased growth, and some showing no effect of snow at all. The biggest increases in growth were seen in deciduous shrubs, particularly Salix pulchra, due to increases in secondary, or radial, growth which allowed plants to support more branches and thus more leaves. This provides a preliminary mechanistic explanation for the widespread increase in shrub cover across the northern latitudes. In addition, species that experienced increases in biomass due to snow also generally displayed increased nitrogen and carbon content in both leaves and stems, indicating that plants which got bigger were also better able to capture available resources. We conclude that faster growing species with the ability to respond rapidly to changes in nutrient availability will likely dominate under continued climate change, and may alter important ecosystem processes such as carbon and nitrogen storage.

Addis, C. E.; Bret-Harte, M. S.

2013-12-01

109

The Effects of 17-Methoxyl-7-Hydroxy-Benzene-Furanchalcone on the Pressure Overload-Induced Progression of Cardiac Hypertrophy to Cardiac Failure  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effects of 17-methoxyl-7-hydroxy-benzene-furanchalcone (MHBFC), which was isolated from the roots of Millettia pulchra (Benth.) Kurz var. Laxior (Dunn) Z.Wei (Papilionaceae) (MKL), on the progression of cardiac hypertrophy to failure in a rat model of abdominal aortic banding (AAB)-induced pressure overloading. Endothelial dysfunction is central to pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and failure. It would be useful to clarify whether MHBFC could prevent this dysfunction. The effects of pressure overload were assessed in male Sprague–Dawley rats 6 weeks after AAB using the progression of cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure as the endpoint. The AAB-treated rats exhibited a greater progression to heart failure and had significantly elevated blood pressure, systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction, and evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). LVH was characterized by increases in the ratios of heart and left ventricular weights to body weight, increased myocyte cross-sectional areas, myocardial and perivascular fibrosis, and elevated cardiac hydroxyproline. These symptoms could be prevented by treatment with MHBFC at daily oral doses of 6 and 12 mg/kg for 6 weeks. The progression to cardiac failure, which was demonstrated by increases in relative lung and right ventricular weights, cardiac function disorders and overexpression of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) mRNA, could also be prevented. Furthermore, MHBFC partialy rescued the downregulated nitric oxide signaling system, whereas inhibited the upregulated endothelin signaling system, normalizing the balance between these two systems. MHBFC protected the endothelium and prevented the pressure overload-induced progression of cardiac hypertrophy to cardiac failure. PMID:24622486

Liang, Xingmei; Wen, Qingwei; Zhang, Shijun; Xuan, Feifei; Jian, Jie; Lin, Xing; Huang, Renbin

2014-01-01

110

Annotated type catalogue of the Chrysididae (Insecta, Hymenoptera) deposited in the collection of Radoszkowski in the Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków  

PubMed Central

Abstract A critical and annotated catalogue of 183 types of Hymenoptera Chrysididae belonging to 124 taxa housed in the Radoszkowski collection is given. Radoszkowski type material from other institutes has also been checked. Six lectotypes are designated in Kraków (ISEA-PAN): Chrysis acceptabilis Radoszkowski, 1891; Chrysis persica Radoczkowsky, 1881; Chrysis daphnis Mocsáry, 1889; Chrysis lagodechii Radoszkowski, 1889; Chrysis remota Mocsáry, 1889 and Chrysis vagans Radoszkowski, 1877. The lectotype of Brugmoia pellucida Radoszkowski, 1877 is designated in Moscow (MMU). Four new combinations are proposed: Philoctetes araraticus (Radoszkowski, 1890), comb. n.; Pseudomalus hypocrita (du Buysson, 1893), comb. n.; Chrysis eldari (Radoszkowski, 1893), comb. n.; and Chrysura mlokosewitzi (Radoszkowski, 1889), comb. n.. Ten new synonyms are given: Chrysis auropunctata Mocsáry, 1889, syn. n. of Chrysis angolensis Radoszkovsky, 1881; Chrysis chrysochlora Mocsáry, 1889, syn. n. and Chrysis viridans Radoszkowski, 1891, syn. n. of Chrysis keriensis Radoszkowski, 1887; Chrysis angustifrons var. ignicollis Trautmann, 1926, syn. n. of Chrysis eldari (Radoszkowski, 1893); Chrysis maracandensis var. simulatrix Radoszkowski, 1891, syn. n. of Chrysis maracandensis Radoszkowski, 1877; Chrysis pulchra Radoszkovsky, 1880, syn. n. of Spinolia dallatorreana (Mocsáry, 1896); Chrysis rubricollis du Buysson, 1900, syn. n. of Chrysis eldari (Radoszkowski, 1893); Chrysis subcoerulea Radoszkowski, 1891, syn. n. of Chrysis chlorochrysa Mocsáry, 1889; Chrysis therates Mocsáry, 1889, syn. n. of Chrysis principalis Smith, 1874; and Notozus komarowi Radoszkowski, 1893, syn. n. of Elampus obesus (Mocsáry, 1890). One species is revaluated: Chrysis chalcochrysa Mocsáry, 1887. Chrysis kizilkumiana Rosa is the new name for Chrysis uljanini Radoszkowski & Mocsáry, 1889 nec Radoszkowski, 1877. Pictures of seventy-seven type specimens are given.

Rosa, Paolo; Wi?niowski, Bogdan; Xu, Zai-fu

2015-01-01

111

Increasing leaf temperature reduces the suppression of isoprene emission by elevated CO? concentration.  

PubMed

Including algorithms to account for the suppression of isoprene emission by elevated CO2 concentration affects estimates of global isoprene emission for future climate change scenarios. In this study, leaf-level measurements of isoprene emission were made to determine the short-term interactive effect of leaf temperature and CO2 concentration. For both greenhouse plants and plants grown under field conditions, the suppression of isoprene emission was reduced by increasing leaf temperature. For each of the four different tree species investigated, aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), cottonwood (Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall), red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and tundra dwarf willow (Salix pulchra Cham.), the suppression of isoprene by elevated CO2 was eliminated at increased temperature, and the maximum temperature where suppression was observed ranged from 25 to 35°C. Hypotheses proposed to explain the short-term suppression of isoprene emission by increased CO2 concentration were tested against this observation. Hypotheses related to cofactors in the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway were consistent with reduced suppression at elevated leaf temperature. Also, reduced solubility of CO2 with increased temperature can explain the reduced suppression for the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase competition hypothesis. Some global models of isoprene emission include the short-term suppression effect, and should be modified to include the observed interaction. If these results are consistent at longer timescales, there are implications for predicting future global isoprene emission budgets and the reduced suppression at increased temperature could explain some of the variable responses observed in long-term CO2 exposure experiments. PMID:24614154

Potosnak, Mark J; Lestourgeon, Lauren; Nunez, Othon

2014-05-15

112

Experimental biological effects assessment associated with on-shore brine discharge from the creation of gas storage caverns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the studies on biological and ecological effects associated with brine discharge into the marine environment are related to the operation of desalination plants, for the production of freshwater. In this study we analysed the biological effects of a brine effluent from a completely different source, produced from the lixiviation of rock salt caves, for the creation of natural gas storage caverns. Lethal and sub-lethal endpoints following exposure to the brine were studied in a range of macrofauna species characteristic of the soft and hard bottom habitats in the vicinity of the discharge area, namely the isopod Eurydice pulchra, the annelids Sabellaria alveolata and Ophelia radiata, the sea-urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. In a first series of experiments, brine, with salinity above 300, was diluted in distilled water to a salinity value close to that of the seawater in the discharge area (salinity 36) and, surprisingly, none of the exposed species was able to survive or develop into viable larvae. A second series of experiments exposed the species to brine diluted with seawater, simulating more realistic discharge circumstances. All the tested species at all the measured endpoints (adult survival, larval abnormal development, sperm fertilization success) showed negative biological effects in brine solutes always at a lower salinity than that of a salinity control obtained with concentrated seawater. The sub-lethal experiments with larval development of P. lividus, S. alveolata and M. galloprovincialis, and the fertilization success of P. lividus gave EC 50 values for the brine solute with salinity in the range of 40.9-43.5, whereas the EC 50 values for the concentrated seawater were in the range of salinity 44.2-49.0. It is hypothesised that differences in the ionic composition of the brine cause the inability of the species to tolerate the exposure to brine.

Quintino, Victor; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Freitas, Rosa; Ré, Ana

2008-09-01

113

Arbuscular mycorrhizal assemblages in native plant roots change in the presence of invasive exotic grasses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Plant invasions have the potential to significantly alter soil microbial communities, given their often considerable aboveground effects. We examined how plant invasions altered the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of native plant roots in a grassland site in California and one in Utah. In the California site, we used experimentally created plant communities composed of exotic (Avena barbata, Bromus hordeaceus) and native (Nassella pulchra, Lupinus bicolor) monocultures and mixtures. In the Utah semi-arid grassland, we took advantage of invasion by Bromus tectorum into long-term plots dominated by either of two native grasses, Hilaria jamesii or Stipa hymenoides. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonizing roots were characterized with PCR amplification of the ITS region, cloning, and sequencing. We saw a significant effect of the presence of exotic grasses on the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi colonizing native plant roots. In the three native grasses, richness of mycorrhizal fungi decreased; in the native forb at the California site, the number of fungal RFLP patterns increased in the presence of exotics. The exotic grasses also caused the composition of the mycorrhizal community in native roots to shift dramatically both in California, with turnover of Glomus spp., and Utah, with replacement of Glomus spp. by apparently non-mycorrhizal fungi. Invading plants may be able to influence the network of mycorrhizal fungi in soil that is available to natives through either earlier root activity or differential carbon provision compared to natives. Alteration of the soil microbial community by plant invasion can provide a mechanism for both successful invasion and the resulting effects of invaders on the ecosystem. ?? Springer 2006.

Hawkes, C.V.; Belnap, J.; D'Antonio, C.; Firestone, M.K.

2006-01-01

114

Stage-dependent border cell and carbon flow from roots to rhizosphere.  

PubMed

Rising CO(2) levels in the atmosphere have drawn attention to the important role of soil in sequestering carbon. This project goal was to quantify soil carbon deposition associated with border cell release and exudation from root growth zones. Carbon was measured with a Carlo Erba C/N analyzer in soil from the rhizosphere of mature grasses and, in separate experiments, in soil collected around root growth zones. Root border cells in "rhizosphere soil" (silica sand) were counted using a compound microscope after soil sonication and extraction with surfactant. For sand-grown Bromus carinatus, Zea mays, and Cucumis sativus, young seedlings (with roots shorter than 2 cm) released thousands of border cells, while older root tips released only hundreds. For a variety of native annual and perennial grasses and invasive annual grasses (Nassella pulchra, B. carinatus, B. diandrus, B. hordeaceus, Vulpia microstachys, Aegilops triuncialis, Lolium multiflorum, Zea mays), the rhizosphere of mature root systems contained between 18 and 32 ?g C g(-1) sand more than that of the unplanted controls. Spatial analysis of the rhizosphere around the cucumber growth zone confirmed C enrichment there. The root tip provided C to the rhizosphere: 4.6 ?g C in front of the growing tip, with the largest deposition, 20.4 ?g C, to the rhizosphere surrounding the apical 3 mm (root cap/meristem). These numbers from laboratory studies represent the maximum C that might be released during flooding in soils. Scaling up from the organ scale to the field requires a growth analysis to quantify root tip distributions in space and time. PMID:21632368

Odell, Ryan E; Dumlao, Matthew R; Samar, Danial; Silk, Wendy K

2008-04-01

115

Unusually high food availability in Kaikoura Canyon linked to distinct deep-sea nematode community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kaikoura Canyon, on the eastern New Zealand continental margin, is the most productive, non-chemosynthetic deep-sea habitat described to date, with megafaunal biomass 100-fold higher than those of other deep-sea habitats. The present study, which focused on free-living nematodes, provides the first comparison of faunal community structure and diversity between Kaikoura Canyon and nearby open slope habitats. Results show substantially higher food availability in the canyon relative to open slope sediments, which probably reflects greater levels of primary productivity above the canyon, coupled with downwelling and/or topographically-induced channelling, which serves to concentrate surface-derived organic matter along the canyon axis. This high food availability appears to be responsible for the elevated nematode biomass in Kaikoura Canyon, with values exceeding all published nematode biomass data from canyons elsewhere. There was also markedly lower local species diversity of nematodes inside the canyon relative to the open slope habitat, as well as a distinct community structure. The canyon community was dominated by species, such as Sabateria pulchra, which were absent from the open slope and are typically associated with highly eutrophic and/or disturbed environments. The presence of these taxa, as well as the low observed diversity, is likely to reflect the high food availability, and potentially the high levels of physically and biologically induced disturbance within the canyon. Kaikoura Canyon is a relatively small habitat characterised by different environmental conditions that makes a disproportionate contribution to deep-sea diversity in the region, despite its low species richness.

Leduc, D.; Rowden, A. A.; Nodder, S. D.; Berkenbusch, K.; Probert, P. K.; Hadfield, M. G.

2014-06-01

116

Plant Community Responses of Alaskan Arctic Tundra After 14 Years of Experimental Warming and Snow Manipulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of greenhouse gases are expected to raise global mean temperature over the next century by 1.0- 3.5°C. Global warming trends are amplified at high latitudes because heating converts high-albedo (reflective) ice and snow surfaces to dark absorptive surfaces that absorb more solar energy and transfer it to the atmosphere. Furthermore, scientists have argued that ecological responses to this recent climate change will be complex and varied. For example, the warming of the Alaskan Arctic during the past 150 years has accelerated over the last three decades and is expected to increase vegetation productivity in tundra if shrubs become more abundant. Predicted vegetation changes in arctic tundra, because of climate change, have therefore been based on a warmer climate that is either drier or wetter than at present. In order to investigate how tundra vegetation may respond to increases in temperature and snow cover, we used 1m2 open-topped fiberglass chambers (OTC's) combined with large snow fences to artificially warm and modify winter snow regimes of a series of permanent vegetation plots established in Toolik Lake Field Station, Alaska. Fieldwork consisted in measuring the vegetation growth and height of plant species in these plots using the point-frame method. The snow cover and temperature manipulation was done in two ecosystem types, dry heath tundra and moist tussock tundra. The study sheds light on how the vegetation of these two tundra sites has responded after 14 years into the experiment and focuses in changes is species composition, relative abundance, diversity and canopy height. Preliminary results suggest major changes in vegetation composition in both tundra sites over the 14 year sampling period. Changes were more conspicuous in the moist tussock tundra site, where considerable increases in the abundance of the dominant species Betula nana, Eriophorum vaginatum, Salix pulchra and Carex bigelowii were detected consistently throughout the years. Instead, changes in the dry heath tundra show a recent decrease in the dominance of the species Arctostaphylos alpina and Dryas octopetala and an increase in the abundance of the species Louseleuria procumbens. Changes observed in the moist tundra supports the predictions of shrub/graminoid dominated tundra in a warmer global temperature scenario while changes in the dry heath tundra might suggest successional patterns in vegetation composition.

Mercado, J. A.; Gould, W. A.

2008-12-01

117

Assessing seedbank recruitment windows of opportunity in thaw slump thermokarsts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tall shrub thickets (>1m) of birch and willow have been observed in stabilized lobes of thaw slump thermokarsts (gullies cause by thawed permafrost) in the Low Arctic near Toolik Lake, Alaska. We tested whether there are differences in seedling recruitment and establishment in thermokarsts vs outside the disturbance by comparing in-situ seedling presence, greenhouse germination of natural seedbanks, and cohort age groups of willow (Salix spp.) and birch in two 50m transects sampled in thermokarst lobes of different age: one young lobe of 7 y.a. at Lake NE-14, and one older lobe of 22 y.a. at Lake I-minus 1 vs. two transects outside the lobes. Young thermokarsts may provide germination windows of opportunity for fast growing species like graminoids and deciduous shrubs. In-situ seedling observations generally agreed with expectations. Fifteen times as many live seedlings were observed in the young lobe vs. outside, composed mainly of graminoids and willows, and five times more seedlings were observed inside the older lobe vs. outside, including 25% birch. Germination trials of seedbanks, as expected, showed a reverse trend. The smaller seedbanks in the young lobe had far fewer germinants than outside: over 49 times more seedlings germinated in the outside seedbank compared to the thermokarst, and were composed mainly of longer-lived evergreen shrubs in the genera Ledum and Rhododendron. The older lobe, by contrast, showed seven times greater germination than outside and was composed mainly of graminoids. Birch made up only 5%, reflecting variation in species composition between sites. ANOVA of seedbank germination across sites showed unit increase in number of germinated seeds was negatively correlated to percent cover of bare soil, positively correlated to the amount of organic matter present in the surface soil as reflected in sample volume, and positively correlated to thaw depth. Reverse trends in germination trials vs. presence of live seedlings may be explained by lower seedbank quality but higher recruitment in younger lobes due to greater viable seed input and turnover, particularly of short-lived seeds such as willow, whereas older lobes and undisturbed tundra may have larger seedbanks whose recruitment of new individuals may be limited under natural conditions. Age cohort comparisons between willow species (Salix pulchra or S. glauca), as expected, found over 80% of individuals sampled at the young lobe between 3-4 y.a., while outside showed more variable distribution across six cohorts spanning five to 35 y.a. For both birch and willow, there was more cohort variability in the older lobe than outside, suggesting recruitment outcomes could have site-species interactions.

Huebner, D. C.; Bret-Harte, M. S.

2013-12-01

118

Solar forcing of Gulf of California climate during the past 2000??yr suggested by diatoms and silicoflagellates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High-resolution records of the past 2000??yr are compared in a north-south transect (28?? N to 24?? N) of three cores from the eastern slopes of the Guaymas, Carmen, and Pescadero Basins of the Gulf of California (hereafter referred to as the "Gulf"). Evenly-spaced samples from the varved sediments in each core allow sample resolution ranging from ?????16 to ?????37??yr. Diatoms and silicoflagellates capture the seasonal variation between a late fall to early spring period of high biosiliceous productivity, that is driven by northwest winds, and a summer period of warmer, more stratified waters during which these winds slacken and/or reverse direction (monsoonal flow). As these winds decrease, tropical waters enter the Gulf and spread northward. Individual samples represent a composite of 7 to 23??yr of deposition and are assumed to record the relative dominance of the winter vs. summer floral components. Intervals of enhanced summer incursion of tropical waters, alternating with periods of increased late fall to early spring biosiliceous productivity are recorded in all three cores. Regularly spaced cycles (?????100??yr duration) of Octactis pulchra, a silicoflagellate proxy for lower SST and high productivity, and Azpeitia nodulifera, a tropical diatom, occur between ?????A.D. 400 and ?????1700 in the more nearshore Carmen Basin core, NH01-21 (26.3?? N), suggesting a possible solar influence on coastal upwelling. Cores BAM80 E-17 (27.9?? N) and NH01-26 (24.3?? N) contain longer-duration cycles of diatoms and silicoflagellates. The early part of Medieval Climate Anomaly (?????A.D. 900 to 1200) is characterized by two periods of reduced productivity (warmer SST) with an intervening high productivity (cool) interval centered at ?????A.D. 1050. Reduced productivity and higher SST also characterize the record of the last ?????100 to 200??yr in these cores. Solar variability appears to be driving productivity cycles, as intervals of increased radiocarbon production (sunspot minima) correlate with intervals of enhanced productivity. It is proposed that increased winter cooling of the atmosphere above southwest U.S. during sunspot minima causes intensification of the northwest winds that blow down the Gulf during the late fall to early spring, leading to intensified overturn of surface waters and enhanced productivity. A new silicoflagellate species, Dictyocha franshepardii Bukry, is described and illustrated. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Barron, J.A.; Bukry, D.

2007-01-01

119

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Native Grass Riparian Buffer Strips to Reduce Pesticide Runoff  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organophosphate pesticides such as diazinon have been a major source of non-point source water pollution in the Sacramento Valley watershed of central California. Diazinon is commonly listed as a pollutant for many tributaries of the Sacramento River on the US Clean Water Act section 303(d) list of impaired waterways. This pesticide is applied either aerially or as a foliar spray to nut and stone-fruit orchards during dormancy, which coincides with the rainy season in northern California. A study was conducted to determine if planting native grasses in the riparian zone was effective in reducing the amount of diazinon entering the surface water in streams flowing through these orchards. Native grasses have deeper root systems and were hypothesized to be more effective in sorbing diazinon and preventing its runoff than non-native grasses. In 2004, nine 20 foot by 20 foot riparian buffer plots were constructed along the banks of the South Fork of Walker Creek, west of the town of Orland in the Sacramento Valley. Three of the nine plots were maintained as bare ground, three were left with resident weeds including dense non-native grasses, and three were planted with native grasses, which included purple needlegrass (Nassella pulchra), creeping wildrye (Elymus triticoides), and deergrass (Muhlenbergia rigens). The experimental design simulated orchard runoff by applying mixtures of water and diazinon at observed field concentrations. The pesticide load was evenly applied across the top of each buffer plot at a rate consistent with local runoff rates in an average storm. Rainfall on the buffer plots was simulated with overhead sprinklers at a rate of 0.75 inches per hour, also an average storm for this area. Runoff was monitored at the downslope side of the plots with flumes funneled to large holding tanks. From these tanks, composite water samples were collected after runoff had ceased. The samples were analyzed for diazinon concentration, nitrates, and total suspended sediment. Results were similar to a demonstration and reconnaissance project conducted in 2003, which concluded that vegetative plots were more effective than the bare ground control in removing pesticide. However, the native grasses were not significantly more effective in reducing the diazinon concentration than non-native grasses. Vegetated buffer strips can help reduce pesticide loadings from orchards to local surface water systems.

Grossman, K.; Brown, D. L.

2007-12-01