Background Tissue plasticity and a substantial regeneration capacity based on stem cells are the hallmark of several invertebrate groups such as sponges, cnidarians and Platyhelminthes. Traditionally, Acoela were seen as an early branching clade within the Platyhelminthes, but became recently positioned at the base of the Bilateria. However, little is known on how the stem cell system in this new phylum is organized. In this study, we wanted to examine if Acoela possess a neoblast-like stem cell system that is responsible for development, growth, homeostasis and regeneration. Results We established enduring laboratory cultures of the acoel Isodiametra pulchra (Acoela, Acoelomorpha) and implemented in situ hybridization and RNA interference (RNAi) for this species. We used BrdU labelling, morphology, ultrastructure and molecular tools to illuminate the morphology, distribution and plasticity of acoel stem cells under different developmental conditions. We demonstrate that neoblasts are the only proliferating cells which are solely mesodermally located within the organism. By means of in situ hybridisation and protein localisation we could demonstrate that the piwi-like gene ipiwi1 is expressed in testes, ovaries as well as in a subpopulation of somatic stem cells. In addition, we show that germ cell progenitors are present in freshly hatched worms, suggesting an embryonic formation of the germline. We identified a potent stem cell system that is responsible for development, homeostasis, regeneration and regrowth upon starvation. Conclusions We introduce the acoel Isodiametra pulchra as potential new model organism, suitable to address developmental questions in this understudied phylum. We show that neoblasts in I. pulchra are crucial for tissue homeostasis, development and regeneration. Notably, epidermal cells were found to be renewed exclusively from parenchymally located stem cells, a situation known only from rhabditophoran flatworms so far. For further comparison, it will be important to analyse the stem cell systems of other key-positioned understudied taxa.
Acoelomorphs are bilaterally symmetric small marine worms that lack a coelom and possess a digestive system with a single opening. Two alternative phylogenetic positions of this group within the animal tree are currently debated. In one view, Acoelomorpha is the sister group to all remaining Bilateria and as such, is a morphologically simple stepping stone in bilaterian evolution. In the other, the group is a lineage within the Deuterostomia, and therefore, has derived a simple morphology from a more complex ancestor. Acoels and the closely related Nemertodermatida and Xenoturbellida, which together form the Acoelomorpha, possess a very limited number of cell types. To further investigate the diversity and origin of mesodermal cell types we describe the expression pattern of 12 orthologs of bilaterian mesodermal markers including Six1/2, Twist, FoxC, GATA4/5/6, in the acoel Isodiametra pulchra. All the genes are expressed in stem cells (neoblasts), gonads, and at least subsets of the acoel musculature. Most are expressed in endomesodermal compartments of I. pulchra developing embryos similar to what has been described in cnidarians. Our molecular evidence indicates a very limited number of mesodermal cell types and suggests an endomesodermal origin of the gonads and the stem cell system. We discuss our results in light of the two prevailing phylogenetic positions of Acoelomorpha.
Chiodin, Marta; B?rve, Aina; Berezikov, Eugene; Ladurner, Peter; Martinez, Pedro; Hejnol, Andreas
Acoelomorphs are bilaterally symmetric small marine worms that lack a coelom and possess a digestive system with a single opening. Two alternative phylogenetic positions of this group within the animal tree are currently debated. In one view, Acoelomorpha is the sister group to all remaining Bilateria and as such, is a morphologically simple stepping stone in bilaterian evolution. In the other, the group is a lineage within the Deuterostomia, and therefore, has derived a simple morphology from a more complex ancestor. Acoels and the closely related Nemertodermatida and Xenoturbellida, which together form the Acoelomorpha, possess a very limited number of cell types. To further investigate the diversity and origin of mesodermal cell types we describe the expression pattern of 12 orthologs of bilaterian mesodermal markers including Six1/2, Twist, FoxC, GATA4/5/6, in the acoel Isodiametra pulchra. All the genes are expressed in stem cells (neoblasts), gonads, and at least subsets of the acoel musculature. Most are expressed in endomesodermal compartments of I. pulchra developing embryos similar to what has been described in cnidarians. Our molecular evidence indicates a very limited number of mesodermal cell types and suggests an endomesodermal origin of the gonads and the stem cell system. We discuss our results in light of the two prevailing phylogenetic positions of Acoelomorpha. PMID:23405161
Chiodin, Marta; Børve, Aina; Berezikov, Eugene; Ladurner, Peter; Martinez, Pedro; Hejnol, Andreas
Inferring the ancestral function of the posterior Hox gene within the bilateria: controlling the maintenance of reproductive structures, the musculature and the nervous system in the acoel flatworm Isodiametra pulchra.
Molecular phylogenies place the acoel flatworms as the sister-group to the remaining Bilateria, a position that should prove very valuable when trying to understand the evolutionary origins of the bilaterian body plan. A major feature characterizing Bilateria is the presence of two, orthogonal, body axis. In this article we aim at tackling the problem of how the bilaterian anterior-posterior (AP) axis is organized, and how this axis have been established over evolutionary time. To this purpose we have studied the role of some key regulatory genes involved in the control of the AP axis, the Hox family of transcription factors. All acoels studied to date contain a minimal complement of three Hox genes that are all expressed in nested domains along this major axis, providing the oldest evidence for a "Hox vectorial system" working in Bilateria. However, this proposition is not based in the analysis of Hox functions. Here we document the specific roles of one posterior Hox gene, IpHoxPost, in the postembryonic development of the acoel Isodiametra pulchra. The analysis has been done using RNA interference technologies, for the first time in acoels, and we demonstrate that the functions of this gene are restricted to the posterior region of the animal, within the muscular and neural tissues. We conclude, therefore, that the posterior Hox genes were used to specify and maintain defined anatomical regions within the AP axis of animals since the beginning of bilaterian evolution. PMID:20565536
Moreno, Eduardo; De Mulder, Katrien; Salvenmoser, Willi; Ladurner, Peter; Martínez, Pedro
BACKGROUND: Tissue plasticity and a substantial regeneration capacity based on stem cells are the hallmark of several invertebrate groups such as sponges, cnidarians and Platyhelminthes. Traditionally, Acoela were seen as an early branching clade within the Platyhelminthes, but became recently positioned at the base of the Bilateria. However, little is known on how the stem cell system in this new
Katrien De Mulder; Georg Kuales; Daniela Pfister; Maxime Willems; Bernhard Egger; Willi Salvenmoser; Marlene Thaler; Anne-Kathrin Gorny; Martina Hrouda; Gaëtan Borgonie; Peter Ladurner
Since first described, acoels were considered members of the flatworms (Platyhelminthes). However, no clear synapomorphies among the three large flatworm taxa -- the Catenulida, the Acoelomorpha and the Rhabditophora -- have been characterized to date. Molecular phylogenies, on the other hand, commonly positioned acoels separate from other flatworms. Accordingly, our own multi-locus phylogenetic analysis using 43 genes and 23 animal species places the acoel flatworm Isodiametra pulchra at the base of all Bilateria, distant from other flatworms. By contrast, novel data on the distribution and proliferation of stem cells and the specific mode of epidermal replacement constitute a strong synapomorphy for the Acoela plus the major group of flatworms, the Rhabditophora. The expression of a piwi-like gene not only in gonadal, but also in adult somatic stem cells is another unique feature among bilaterians. These two independent stem-cell-related characters put the Acoela into the Platyhelminthes-Lophotrochozoa clade and account for the most parsimonious evolutionary explanation of epidermal cell renewal in the Bilateria. Most available multigene analyses produce conflicting results regarding the position of the acoels in the tree of life. Given these phylogenomic conflicts and the contradiction of developmental and morphological data with phylogenomic results, the monophyly of the phylum Platyhelminthes and the position of the Acoela remain unresolved. By these data, both the inclusion of Acoela within Platyhelminthes, and their separation from flatworms as basal bilaterians are well-supported alternatives. PMID:19430533
Egger, Bernhard; Steinke, Dirk; Tarui, Hiroshi; De Mulder, Katrien; Arendt, Detlev; Borgonie, Gaëtan; Funayama, Noriko; Gschwentner, Robert; Hartenstein, Volker; Hobmayer, Bert; Hooge, Matthew; Hrouda, Martina; Ishida, Sachiko; Kobayashi, Chiyoko; Kuales, Georg; Nishimura, Osamu; Pfister, Daniela; Rieger, Reinhard; Salvenmoser, Willi; Smith, Julian; Technau, Ulrich; Tyler, Seth; Agata, Kiyokazu; Salzburger, Walter; Ladurner, Peter
Since first described, acoels were considered members of the flatworms (Platyhelminthes). However, no clear synapomorphies among the three large flatworm taxa - the Catenulida, the Acoelomorpha and the Rhabditophora - have been characterized to date. Molecular phylogenies, on the other hand, commonly positioned acoels separate from other flatworms. Accordingly, our own multi-locus phylogenetic analysis using 43 genes and 23 animal species places the acoel flatworm Isodiametra pulchra at the base of all Bilateria, distant from other flatworms. By contrast, novel data on the distribution and proliferation of stem cells and the specific mode of epidermal replacement constitute a strong synapomorphy for the Acoela plus the major group of flatworms, the Rhabditophora. The expression of a piwi-like gene not only in gonadal, but also in adult somatic stem cells is another unique feature among bilaterians. These two independent stem-cell-related characters put the Acoela into the Platyhelminthes-Lophotrochozoa clade and account for the most parsimonious evolutionary explanation of epidermal cell renewal in the Bilateria. Most available multigene analyses produce conflicting results regarding the position of the acoels in the tree of life. Given these phylogenomic conflicts and the contradiction of developmental and morphological data with phylogenomic results, the monophyly of the phylum Platyhelminthes and the position of the Acoela remain unresolved. By these data, both the inclusion of Acoela within Platyhelminthes, and their separation from flatworms as basal bilaterians are well-supported alternatives.
Arendt, Detlev; Borgonie, Gaetan; Funayama, Noriko; Gschwentner, Robert; Hartenstein, Volker; Hobmayer, Bert; Hooge, Matthew; Hrouda, Martina; Ishida, Sachiko; Kobayashi, Chiyoko; Kuales, Georg; Nishimura, Osamu; Pfister, Daniela; Rieger, Reinhard; Salvenmoser, Willi; Smith, Julian; Technau, Ulrich; Tyler, Seth; Agata, Kiyokazu; Salzburger, Walter; Ladurner, Peter
Acoel and platyhelminth worms are particularly attractive invertebrate models for stem-cell research because their bodies are continually renewed from large pools of somatic stem cells. Several recent studies, including one in BMC Developmental Biology, are beginning to reveal the cellular dynamics and molecular basis of stem-cell function in these animals. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-213X/9/69.
The Alabama Map Turtle, Graptemys pulchra (Family Emydidae), is a moderately large riverine species endemic to the Mobile Bay drainage system of Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi. Sexual size dimorphism is pronounced, with adult females (carapace length [CL] to 273 mm) attaining more than twice the size of adult males (CL to 117 mm). The species is an inhabitant of relatively large, swift creeks and rivers, often with wide sandbars. Stream sections open to the sun and with abundant basking sites in the form of logs and brush are preferred. Six to seven clutches of 4–7 eggs are laid each year on river sandbars. Although the species is locally abundant, populations are threatened by habitat destruction, declines in their prey base, commercial collection, and vandalism. It is listed as a Species of Special Concern in Alabama.
Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Godwin, James C.; McCoy, C. J.
Whole-body regeneration is widespread in the Metazoa, yet little is known about how underlying molecular mechanisms compare across phyla. Acoels are an enigmatic phylum of invertebrate worms that can be highly informative about many questions in bilaterian evolution, including regeneration. We developed the three-banded panther worm, Hofstenia miamia, as a new acoelomorph model system for molecular studies of regeneration. Hofstenia were readily cultured, with accessible embryos, juveniles, and adults for experimentation. We developed molecular resources and tools for Hofstenia, including a transcriptome and robust systemic RNAi. We report the identification of molecular mechanisms that promote whole-body regeneration in Hofstenia. Wnt signaling controls regeneration of the anterior-posterior axis, and Bmp-Admp signaling controls regeneration of the dorsal-ventral axis. Perturbation of these pathways resulted in regeneration-abnormal phenotypes involving axial feature duplication, such as the regeneration of two heads following Wnt perturbation or the regeneration of ventral cells in place of dorsal ones following bmp or admp RNAi. Hofstenia regenerative mechanisms are strikingly similar to those guiding regeneration in planarians. However, phylogenetic analyses using the Hofstenia transcriptome support an early branching position for acoels among bilaterians, with the last common ancestor of acoels and planarians being the ancestor of the Bilateria. Therefore, these findings identify similar whole-body regeneration mechanisms in animals separated by more than 550 million years of evolution. PMID:24768051
Srivastava, Mansi; Mazza-Curll, Kathleen L; van Wolfswinkel, Josien C; Reddien, Peter W
We used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs) to examine small-scale spatial genetic structure in the red alga Delisea pulchra (Greville) Montagne at two locations near Sydney, Australia. We examined genetic structure among plants at four spatial scales\\u000a ranging from 2?km apart down to <50?cm apart between locations, among sites within locations, among quadrats within sites,\\u000a and among plants within quadrats.
J. T. Wright; G. C. Zuccarello; P. D. Steinberg
The localisation of halogenated furanones, the biologically active secondary metabolites from the red alga Delisea pulchra (Greville), was determined by a combination of fluorescence microscopy, culture studies and quantitative chemical analyses.\\u000a All types of evidence showed that furanones are localised in the central vesicle of gland cells in D. pulchra. These cells release furanones onto the surface of the plant,
S. A. Dworjanyn; R. De Nys; P. D. Steinberg
Electron microscopy (EM) has long been indispensable for flatworm research, as most of these worms are microscopic in dimension and provide only a handful of characters recognizable by eye or light microscopy. Therefore, major progress in understanding the histology, systematics, and evolution of this animal group relied on methods capable of visualizing ultrastructure. The rise of molecular and cellular biology renewed interest in such ultrastructural research. In the light of recent developments, we offer a best-practice guide for users of transmission EM and provide a comparison of well-established chemical fixation protocols with cryo-processing methods (high-pressure freezing/freeze-substitution, HPF/FS). The organisms used in this study include the rhabditophorans Macrostomum lignano, Polycelis nigra and Dugesia gonocephala, as well as the acoel species Isodiametra pulchra. PMID:20869529
Salvenmoser, Willi; Egger, Bernhard; Achatz, Johannes G; Ladurner, Peter; Hess, Michael W
Convoluta pulchra is a small worm living in the surface sediment of mud flats where it feeds on diatoms. It is roughly teardrop in shape with\\u000a a ventral groove in which the mouth sits, and it can move in a variety of ways, readily distorting its body in bending, twisting,\\u000a and turning motions. Fluorescently labeled probes for filamentous actin revealed
S. Tyler; R. M. Rieger
Summary Background Tidal (12.4 hr) cycles of behavior and physiology adapt intertidal organisms to temporally complex coastal environments, yet their underlying mechanism is unknown. However, the very existence of an independent “circatidal” clock has been disputed, and it has been argued that tidal rhythms arise as a submultiple of a circadian clock, operating in dual oscillators whose outputs are held in antiphase i.e., ?12.4 hr apart. Results We demonstrate that the intertidal crustacean Eurydice pulchra (Leach) exhibits robust tidal cycles of swimming in parallel to circadian (24 hr) rhythms in behavioral, physiological and molecular phenotypes. Importantly, ?12.4 hr cycles of swimming are sustained in constant conditions, they can be entrained by suitable stimuli, and they are temperature compensated, thereby meeting the three criteria that define a biological clock. Unexpectedly, tidal rhythms (like circadian rhythms) are sensitive to pharmacological inhibition of Casein kinase 1, suggesting the possibility of shared clock substrates. However, cloning the canonical circadian genes of E. pulchra to provide molecular markers of circadian timing and also reagents to disrupt it by RNAi revealed that environmental and molecular manipulations that confound circadian timing do not affect tidal timing. Thus, competent circadian timing is neither an inevitable nor necessary element of tidal timekeeping. Conclusions We demonstrate that tidal rhythms are driven by a dedicated circatidal pacemaker that is distinct from the circadian system of E. pulchra, thereby resolving a long-standing debate regarding the nature of the circatidal mechanism.
Zhang, Lin; Hastings, Michael H.; Green, Edward W.; Tauber, Eran; Sladek, Martin; Webster, Simon G.; Kyriacou, Charalambos P.; Wilcockson, David C.
Abstract We describe a new species of the bee genus Centris, Centris (Centris) byrsonimae Mahlmann & Oliveira sp. n., whose name has appeared as a nomen nudum in the literature since 1985. Further, a new species group of Centris s.str. is proposed, the pulchra group, based on morphological characters, which comprises the species Centris pulchra Moure, Oliveira & Viana, 2003 and Centris byrsonimae sp. n..Based on information from specimen labels studied and data from the literature, a list of plant species visited by the pulchra group is presented. The male genitalia and hidden metasomal sterna 7 and 8 of Centris pulchra are described for the first time. Typographic errors pertaining to the paratype labels reported in the original description of Centris pulchra are corrected. One female paratype of Centris pulchra is designated herein as a paratype of Centris byrsonimae sp. n. An updated list of species of Centris s.str. from northeastern Brazil is provided including references about geographic distributions as well as an identification key to the pulchra species group.
Mahlmann, Thiago; de Oliveira, Favizia Freitas
Background The hemolytic activity of skin secretions obtained by stimulating the frog Kaloula pulchra hainana with diethyl ether was tested using human, cattle, rabbit, and chicken erythrocytes. The skin secretions had a significant concentration-dependent hemolytic effect on erythrocytes. The hemolytic activity of the skin secretions was studied in the presence of osmotic protectants (polyethylene glycols and carbohydrates), cations (Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Cu2+, and K+), or antioxidants (ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione, and cysteine). Results Depending on their molecular mass, osmotic protectants effectively inhibited hemolysis. The inhibition of skin hemolysis was observed after treatment with polyethylene glycols (1000, 3400, and 6000 Da). Among divalent cations, only 1 mM Cu2+ markedly inhibited hemolytic activity. Antioxidant compounds slightly reduced the hemolytic activity. Conclusions The results suggested that skin secretions of K. pulchra hainana induce a pore-forming mechanism to form pores with a diameter of 1.36-2.0 nm rather than causing oxidative damage to the erythrocyte membrane.
A polysaccharide (PMP) was isolated from Millettia pulchra and purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-75 chromatography. The results showed that PMP was composed of d-glucose and d-arabinose in a molar ratio of 90.79% and 9.21%, with an average molecular weight of about 14,301 Da. Furthermore, the effect of PMP on cognitive impairment induced by d-galactose in mice was evaluated. Treatment with PMP significantly reversed d-galactose-induced learning and memory impairments, as measured by behavioral tests. One of the potential mechanisms of this action was to reduce oxidative stress and suppress inflammatory responses. Furthermore, our results also showed that PMP markedly reduced the content and deposition of ?-amyloid peptide, improved the dysfunction of synaptic plasticity, increased the levels of acetylcholine, but decreased cholinesterase activity. These results suggest that PMP exerts an effective protection against d-galactose-induced cognitive impairment, and PMP may be a major bioactive ingredient in M. pulchra. PMID:24299809
Lin, Xing; Huang, Zhongshi; Chen, Xiaoyu; Rong, Yanping; Zhang, Shijun; Jiao, Yang; Huang, Quanfang; Huang, Renbin
Disease is increasingly viewed as a major factor in the ecology of marine communities and its impact appears to be increasing with environmental change, such as global warming. The temperate macroalga Delisea pulchra bleaches in Southeast Australia during warm summer periods, a phenomenon which previous studies have indicated is caused by a temperature induced bacterial disease. In order to better understand the ecology of this disease, the bacterial communities associated with threes type of samples was investigated using 16S rRNA gene and environmental shotgun sequencing: 1) unbleached (healthy) D. pulchra 2) bleached parts of D. pulchra and 3) apparently healthy tissue adjacent to bleached regions. Phylogenetic differences between healthy and bleached communities mainly reflected relative changes in the taxa Colwelliaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Thalassomonas and Parvularcula. Comparative metagenomics showed clear difference in the communities of healthy and diseased D. pulchra as reflected by changes in functions associated with transcriptional regulation, cation/multidrug efflux and non-ribosomal peptide synthesis. Importantly, the phylogenetic and functional composition of apparently healthy tissue adjacent to bleached sections of the thalli indicated that changes in the microbial communities already occur in the absence of visible tissue damage. This shift in unbleached sections might be due to the decrease in furanones, algal metabolites which are antagonists of bacterial quorum sensing. This study reveals the complex shift in the community composition associated with bleaching of Delisea pulchra and together with previous studies is consistent with a model in which elevated temperatures reduce levels of chemical defenses in stressed thalli, leading to colonization or proliferation by opportunistic pathogens or scavengers.
Fernandes, Neil; Steinberg, Peter; Rusch, Doug; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Thomas, Torsten
In this study, the effect of the methanol extract of Indigofera pulchra Willd. (Papillionaceae) was investigated against castor oil induced diarrheoa. Its effects on perfused isolated rabbit jejunum and guinea pig ileum were also evaluated. The extract produced a dose-dependent protection against the castor oil-induced diarrheoa in mice with the highest protection (100%), obtained at 200 mgkg?1 comparable to that of loperamide (5 mgkg?1), a standard antidiarrhoeal drug. The extract (0.4 – 6.4 mgml?1) produced a concentration relaxation of the rabbit jejunum. However, no observable effect was noticed when the guinea pig ileum was treated. The extract blocked the contractile effect of acetylcholine (2 × 10?8 gml?1) and histamine (4 × 10?7 gml?1) on both rabbit jejunum and guinea pig ileum. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins and steroids. The intraperitoneal median lethal dose (LD50) value for the extract was found to be 2154.0 mgkg?1. The results obtained revealed that the extract possesses pharmacologically active compounds with gastrointestinal relaxant and antidiarrhoeal activities and may possibly explain the use of the plant in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorder.
Sule, M.I.; Haruna, A. K.; Ilyas, M.; Iliya, I.; Yaro, A. H.; Magaji, M.G.
The mottled skate, Raja pulchra, is an economically valuable fish. However, due to a severe population decline, it is listed as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. To analyze its genetic structure and diversity, microsatellite markers were developed using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 17,033 reads containing dinucleotide microsatellite repeat units (mean, 487 base pairs) were identified from 453,549 reads. Among 32 loci containing more than nine repeat units, 20 primer sets (62%) produced strong PCR products, of which 14 were polymorphic. In an analysis of 60 individuals from two R. pulchra populations, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 1–10, and the mean allelic richness was 4.7. No linkage disequilibrium was found between any pair of loci, indicating that the markers were independent. The Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium test showed significant deviation in two of the 28 single-loci after sequential Bonferroni’s correction. Using 11 primer sets, cross-species amplification was demonstrated in nine related species from four families within two classes. Among the 11 loci amplified from three other Rajidae family species; three loci were polymorphic. A monomorphic locus was amplified in all three Rajidae family species and the Dasyatidae family. Two Rajidae polymorphic loci amplified monomorphic target DNAs in four species belonging to the Carcharhiniformes class, and another was polymorphic in two Carcharhiniformes species.
Kang, Jung-Ha; Park, Jung-Youn; Jo, Hyun-Su
Two marine urostylid ciliates, Anteholosticha multicirrata n. sp. and Anteholosticha pulchra (Kahl, 1932) Berger, 2003, were collected from South Korea. These species were identified based on morphology, morphogenesis, and SSU rRNA gene sequence comparison. Anteholosticha multicirrata n. sp. is characterized by the following features: body size 90-125 × 30-45 ?m in vivo, shape slender to ellipsoidal in outline, with yellow-greenish cortical granules distributed along and between dorsal kineties and cirri; single contractile vacuole positioned on left at mid-body; three frontal, five to seven frontoterminal, one buccal, one to two pretransverse and four to six transverse cirri; three complete dorsal kineties; one left and one right marginal cirral row; about 117 macronuclear nodules; and three to four micronuclei observed during morphogenesis. In addition, based on the observations of morphogenesis, we found that A. pulchra has pretransverse cirri, which were not described in detail in previous studies. Nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene was used to analyse their phylogenetic relationship, and the gene tree supports that the genus Anteholosticha is a highly polyphyletic group. PMID:23865642
Park, Kyung-min; Jung, Jae-ho; Min, Gi-sik
The present study aimed to establish the seasonal variations in the redox potential ranges of young Tibouchina pulchra plants growing in the Cubatão region (SE Brazil) under varying levels of oxidative stress caused by air pollutants. The plants were exposed to filtered air (FA) and non-filtered air (NFA) in open-top chambers installed next to an oil refinery in Cubatão during six exposure periods of 90 days each, which included the winter and summer seasons. After exposure, several analyses were performed, including the foliar concentrations of ascorbic acid and glutathione in its reduced (AsA and GSH), total (totAA and totG) and oxidized forms (DHA and GSSG); their ratios (AsA/totAA and GSH/totG); the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR); and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA). The range of antioxidant responses in T. pulchra plants varied seasonally and was stimulated by high or low air pollutant concentrations and/or air temperatures. Glutathione and APX were primarily responsible for increasing plant tolerance to oxidative stress originating from air pollution in the region. The high or low air temperatures mainly affected enzymatic activity. The content of MDA increased in response to increasing ozone concentration, thus indicating that the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance may not have been reached. PMID:24407781
Esposito, Marisia Pannia; Domingos, Marisa
A refinery located on the slopes of a mountain range in the city of Cubatão (SE-Brazil) is the main source of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) in the region. For this reason, the refinery replaced a system in which energy was produced from crude oil combustion in boilers with a system of energy and vapor co-generation in a thermoelectric power plant fueled by natural gas. The aim of this study was to investigate the responses of Tibouchina pulchra to the fuel switching. Saplings planted in pots were distributed throughout monitoring sites around the polluting source (sites I, II, III and IV) and in a site (V) far from emissions. Changes on the plants responses occur along the three fuel switching phases. During the last phase, increased carbon assimilation (Asat) and decreased stomatal conductance (gs) were observed in plants growing in sites II and III; as a consequence, intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) increased. However, the increase in Asat did not promote growth increase suggesting that changes at the refinery did not result in better air quality, but only in a change in the main contaminants. PMID:23352657
Silva, Daiane T; Moraes, Regina M
Determination of five flavonoids in different parts of Fordia cauliflora by ultra performance liquid chromatography/triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry and chemical comparison with the root of Millettia pulchra var. laxior
Background The root of Fordia cauliflora Hemsl (FC) has long been used in southern China for the treatment of rheumatism, bruises, dementia in children, and valetudinarianism. However, sometimes it is mixed with other parts. And it has always been confused with the root of Millettia pulchra (Benth.) Kurz var. laxior (Dunn) Z. Wei (MP) by the local people. The chemical differences between the two ethnic drugs are not clear until now. The aim of this study is to develop a precise and accurate method to characterize and quantify multiple chemical components of FC, which is helpful for the quality evaluation and identification of FC. Results A method coupling ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (QqQ-MS) was first developed for simultaneous determination of five flavonoids in different parts of FC and the root of MP, based on a UPLC-diode array detection (DAD) fingerprint method. All calibration curves showed good linearity (R2>0.99) within test ranges. The overall LOD and LOQ were lower than 2.5 ng/mL and 5.0 ng/mL, respectively. The RSDs for intra- and inter-day of five analytes were less than 2.83% and 3.04%, respectively. Recovery studies for the quantified compounds were found to be within the range 93.6-99.8% with RSD less than 5.73%. The results suggest that the root, traditionally used medicinal part, yields the highest flavanoid content in FC. Pachycarin A, 3?,4?-dimethoxy(2??,3??:7,8) furanoflavone, karanjachromene and isoderricin A can be used to differentiate between FC and MP samples. Conclusions The present method is specific, precise and reliable, and is suitable for characterizing and quantifying multiple chemical components of FC.
Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) occurs in intertidal areas, representing a largely unquantified source of solute fluxes to adjacent coastal zones, with nitrogen being constantly the keynote chemical of concern. In Olhos de Água SGD is present as groundwater springs or merely sub-aerial runoff. The occurrence of the flatworm Symsagittifera roscoffensis is described for the first time in Olhos de Água in connection to seepage flows. To assess the impact of this symbiotic flatworm on the nitrogen associated to groundwater discharge flow at the beach, nitrate uptake experiments were conducted in laboratory microcosms. Our results show that S. roscoffensis actively uptakes nitrate at different rates depending on light availability, with rates ? 10 times higher than that of its symbiotic microalgae alone. This supports the hypothesis that S. roscoffensis could be an important in situ nitrate interceptor, potentially playing a biological role on the transformation of groundwater-borne nitrate loads at the land-ocean boundary. PMID:23948093
Carvalho, Liliana F; Rocha, Carlos; Fleming, Alexandra; Veiga-Pires, Cristina; Aníbal, Jaime
Oxalic acid is produced by some species of plants and mycorrhizal fungi and it may solubilize unavailable soil phosphorus (P) bound by cations (Ca++, Al++, Fe+++). Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to show whether oxalate produced by the annual Salsola tragus or added oxalic acid would solubilize P from the inorganic-bound soil P pool, making it available for uptake
J. P. Cannon; E. B. Allen; M. F. Allen; L. M. Dudley; J. J. Jurinak
High deposition of gaseous\\/particulate fluorides and other air pollutants has resulted in an acidification and probable formation of soluble AlFx complexes in the soil in the vicinity of the industrial complex of Cubatão, SE Brazil. With the present field study we aimed at determining the contribution of F and Al uptake from fluoride-contaminated soil, supposedly as AlFx complexes, to the
M. Domingos; A. Klumpp; M. C. S. Rinaldi; I. F. Modesto; G. Klumpp; W. B. C. Delitti
In California's Mediterranean type grasslands, native perennial grasses such as Nassella pulchra are surrounded by introduced annual species and these annuals are thought to have displaced natives through much of their range. Amongst other invaders, two grasses Lolium multiflorum and Bromus hordeaceus, commonly dominate portions of the grassland with potential for N. pulchra restoration. We hypothesized that competitor species differences
Jeffrey S. Fehmi; Kevin J. Rice; Emilio A. Laca
Background Acoels are simply organized unsegmented worms, lacking hindgut and anus. Several publications over recent years challenge the long-held view that acoels are early offshoots of the flatworms. Instead a basal position as sister group to all other bilaterian animals was suggested, mainly based on molecular evidence. This led to the view that features of acoels might reflect those of the last common ancestor of Bilateria, and resulted in several evo-devo studies trying to interpret bilaterian evolution using acoels as a proxy model for the "Urbilateria". Results We describe the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a member of the Acoela, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. Gene content and circular organization of the mitochondrial genome does not significantly differ from other bilaterian animals. However, gene order shows no similarity to any other mitochondrial genome within the Metazoa. Phylogenetic analyses of concatenated alignments of amino acid sequences from protein coding genes support a position of Acoela and Nemertodermatida as the sister group to all other Bilateria. Our data provided no support for a sister group relationship between Xenoturbellida and Acoela or Acoelomorpha. The phylogenetic position of Xenoturbella bocki as sister group to or part of the deuterostomes was also unstable. Conclusions Our phylogenetic analysis supports the view that acoels and nemertodermatids are the earliest divergent extant lineage of Bilateria. As such they remain a valid source for seeking primitive characters present in the last common ancestor of Bilateria. Gene order of mitochondrial genomes seems to be very variable among Acoela and Nemertodermatida and the groundplan for the metazoan mitochondrial genome remains elusive. More data are needed to interpret mitochondrial genome evolution at the base of Bilateria.
Determination of total sulfur in lichens and plants by combustion-infrared analysis. [Medicago sativa L. ; Vitis labruscana Bailey; Festuca sp. ; Fraxinum pennsylvanica Marsh. ; Paremelia chlorochroa Tuck. ; P. sulcata Tayl. ; Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. ; Artemisia tridentata Nuttl; Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. ; Triticum compactum Host; Agropyron smithii Rydb. ; Salix pulchra Cham
Sulfur was determined in plants and lichens by combustion of the sample and infrared detection of evolved sulfur dioxide using an automated sulfur analyzer. Vanadium pentaoxide was used as a combustion accelerator. Pelletization of the sample prior to combustion was not found to be advantageous. Washing studies showed that leaching of sulfur was not a major factor in the sample preparation. The combustion-IR analysis usually gave higher sulfur content than the turbidimetric analysis as well as shorter analysis time. Relative standard deviations of less than 7% were obtained by the combustion-IR technique when sulfur levels in plant material range from 0.05 to 0.70%. Determination of sulfur in National Bureau of Standards botanical reference materials showed good agreement between the combustion-IR technique and other instrumental procedures. Seven NBS botanical reference materials were analyzed.
Jackson, L.L.; Engleman, E.E.; Peard, J.L.
A 62-membered novel polyol macrolide with a molecular weight of 2859mu, symbiodinolide, was isolated from the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. Symbiodinolide exhibited a potent voltage-dependent N-type Ca2+ channel-opening activity at 7nM and immediately ruptured the tissue surface of the acoel flatworm Amphiscolops sp. at 2.5?M. The planar structure of symbiodinolide was elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and chemical degradations including hydrolysis
Masaki Kita; Nao Ohishi; Kaori Konishi; Mikiko Kondo; Tomoyuki Koyama; Makoto Kitamura; Kaoru Yamada; Daisuke Uemura
This is the first quantitative study on the prevalence of epizoic Waminoa sp. acoel worms and their association with corals in the Wakatobi Marine National Park (WMNP), South-East Sulawesi, Indonesia.\\u000a Three replicate transects were laid on the reef crest, flat and slope at six sites in 2006 and eight sites in 2007. Four of\\u000a the sites were common in both
Jessica Haapkylä; Adrian S. Seymour; Orit Barneah; Itzchak Brickner; Sebastian Hennige; David Suggett; David Smith
To control biofilms, we have synthesized the natural biofilm inhibitor (5Z)-4-bromo-5- (bromomethylene) -3-butyl-2(5H)-furanone from the red alga Delisea pulchra and determined that it functions by disrupting quorum sensing in Vibrio harveyi by blocking a...
T. K. Wood
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a main cause of bacterial food-borne diseases. As Salmonella can form biofilms in which it is better protected against antimicrobial agents on a wide diversity of surfaces, it is of interest to explore ways to inhibit biofilm formation. Brominated furanones, originally extracted from the marine alga Delisea pulchra, are known to interfere with biofilm formation
Joost C. A. Janssens; Hans Steenackers; Stijn Robijns; Edith Gellens; Jeremy Levin; Hui Zhao; Kim Hermans; David De Coster; Tine L. Verhoeven; Kathleen Marchal; Jos Vanderleyden; D. E. De Vos; S. C. J. De Keersmaecker
The red alga Delisea pulchra has been a model organism for antifoulants. Furanones are produced by the plant and delivered to the understanding the ecological role of secondary metabolites as natural surface at a concentration where they regulate bacterial colonisation and the settlement of epibiota. This biological understanding has led to the application of furanones as inhibitors of bacterial- and
R. de Nys; M. Givskov; N. Kumar; S. Kjelleberg; P. D. Steinberg
Host-pathogen interactions have been widely studied in humans and terrestrial plants, but are much less well explored in marine systems. Here we show that a marine macroalga, Delisea pulchra, utilizes a chemical defence - furanones - to inhibit colonization and infection by a novel bacterial pathogen, Ruegeria sp. R11, and that infection by R11 is temperature dependent. Ruegeria sp. R11 formed biofilms, invaded and bleached furanone-free, but not furanone-producing D. pulchra thalli, at high (24°C) but not low (19°C) temperatures. Bleaching is commonly observed in natural populations of D. pulchra near Sydney, Australia, during the austral summer when ocean temperatures are at their peak and the chemical defences of the alga are reduced. Furanones, produced by D. pulchra as a chemical defence, inhibit quorum sensing (QS) in bacteria, and this may play a role in furanone inhibition of R11 infection of furanone-free thalli as R11 produces QS signals. This interplay between temperature, an algal chemical defence mechanism and bacterial virulence demonstrates the complex impact environmental change can have on an ecosystem. PMID:20946533
Case, Rebecca J; Longford, Sharon R; Campbell, Alexandra H; Low, Adrian; Tujula, Niina; Steinberg, Peter D; Kjelleberg, Staffan
Xenoturbellida and Acoelomorpha are marine worms with contentious ancestry. Both were originally associated with the flatworms (Platyhelminthes), but molecular data haverevised their phylogenetic positions, generally linking Xenoturbellida to the deuterostomes1,2 and positioning the Acoelomorpha as the most basally branching bilaterian group(s)3–6. Recent phylogenomic data suggested that Xenoturbellida and Acoelomorpha are sister taxa and together constitute an early branch of Bilateria7. Here we assemble three independent data sets—mitochondrial genes, a phylogenomic data set of 38,330 amino-acid positions and new microRNA (miRNA) complements—and show that the position of Acoelomorpha is strongly affected by a long-branch attraction (LBA) artefact. When we minimize LBA we find consistent support for a position of both acoelomorphs and Xenoturbella within the deuterostomes. The most likely phylogeny links Xenoturbella and Acoelomorpha in a clade we call Xenacoelomorpha. The Xenacoelomorpha is the sister group of the Ambulacraria (hemichordates and echinoderms). We show that analyses of miRNA complements8 have been affected by character loss in the acoels and that both groups possess one miRNA and the gene Rsb66 otherwise specific to deuterostomes. In addition, Xenoturbella shares one miRNA with the ambulacrarians, and two with the acoels. This phylogeny makes sense of the shared characteristics of Xenoturbellida and Acoelomorpha, such as ciliary ultrastructure and diffuse nervous system, and implies the loss of various deuterostome characters in the Xenacoelomorpha including coelomic cavities, through gut and gill slits.
Philippe, Herve; Brinkmann, Henner; Copley, Richard R.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Nakano, Hiroaki; Poustka, Albert J.; Wallberg, Andreas; Peterson, Kevin J.; Telford, Maximilian J.
Introduction Nemertodermatida is the sister group of the Acoela, which together form the Acoelomorpha, a taxon that comprises bilaterally symmetric, small aquatic worms. While there are several descriptions of the embryology of acoel species, descriptions of nemertodermatid development are scarce. To be able to reconstruct the ground pattern of the Acoelomorpha it is crucial to gain more information about the development of several nemertodermatid species. Here we describe the development of the nemertodermatid Meara stichopi using light and fluorescent microscopic methods. Results We have collected Meara stichopi during several seasons and reconstruct the complex annual reproductive cycle dependent on the sea cucumber Parastichopus tremulus. Using common fluorescent markers for musculature (BODIPY FL-phallacidin) and neurons (antibodies against FMRFamide, serotonin, tyrosinated-tubulin) and live imaging techniques, we followed embryogenesis which takes approximately 9–10 weeks. The cleavage pattern is stereotypic up to the 16-cell stage. Ring- and longitudinal musculature start to develop during week 6, followed by the formation of the basiepidermal nervous system. The juvenile is hatching without mouth opening and has a basiepidermal nerve net with two dorsal neurite bundles and an anterior condensation. Conclusions The development of Meara stichopi differs from the development of Acoela in that it is less stereotypic and does not follow the typical acoel duet cleavage program. During late development Meara stichopi does not show a temporal anterior to posterior gradient during muscle and nervous system formation.
The purpose of this report is to present the results of a live-trapping and visual surveys for special status reptiles at the Site 300 Facilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The survey was conducted under the authority of the Federal recovery permit of Swaim Biological Consulting (PRT-815537) and a Memorandum of Understanding issued from the California Department of Fish and Game. Site 300 is located between Livermore and Tracy just north of Tesla road (Alameda County) and Corral Hollow Road (San Joaquin County) and straddles the Alameda and San Joaquin County line (Figures 1 and 2). It encompasses portions of the USGS 7.5 minute Midway and Tracy quadrangles (Figure 2). Focused surveys were conducted for four special status reptiles including the Alameda whipsnake (Masticophis lateralis euryxanthus), the San Joaquin Whipsnake (Masticophis Hagellum ruddock), the silvery legless lizard (Anniella pulchra pulchra), and the California horned lizard (Phrynosoma coronanum frontale).
Woollett, J J
Acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) play a widespread role in intercellular communication among bacteria. The Australian macroalga Delisea pulchra produces secondary metabolites which have structural similarities to AHL molecules. We report here that these metabolites inhibited AHL-controlled processes in prokaryotes. Our results suggest that the interaction between higher organisms and their surface-associated bacteria may be mediated by interference with bacterial regulatory systems.
Givskov, M; de Nys, R; Manefield, M; Gram, L; Maximilien, R; Eberl, L; Molin, S; Steinberg, P D; Kjelleberg, S
A CARD-FISH protocol was developed and applied to analyse surface-associated bacteria on the marine algae Ulva lactuca, Delisea pulchra, Corallina officinalis, Amphiroa anceps, Porphyra sp. and Sargassum linearifolium. The combination of Alexa(546)-labelled tyramide as the reporter molecule with SYBR Green II counterstain allowed for superior detection of the hybridised probe fluorescence against plant tissue from which pigment autofluorescence has been reduced. PMID:16216355
Tujula, Niina A; Holmström, Carola; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Crocetti, Gregory R
The effects of cadmium (3CdSO4·8H2O), zinc (ZnSO4·7H2O) and lead [Pb (NO3)2] on mortality, and cadmium, zinc and mercury (HgCl2) on osmoregulation, have been recorded for marine and estuarine species of isopods (Crustacea). The marine species studied were Idotea baltica, I. neglecta, I. emarginata and Eurydice pulchra, which were adapted to 100, 80, 60 and 40% sea water (SW) (100% SW
M. B. Jones
Ten Crepis species from Bulgaria—five perennials (C. viscidula, C. paludosa, C. conyzaefolia, C. bithynica, C. schachtii), four annuals (C. pulchra, C. sancta, C. setosa, C. zacintha) and one biennial (C. biennis)—were analysed karyologically using haematoxylin staining, Feulgen cytophotometry (scanning densitometry and video-based image analysis), and DNA flow cytometry with propidium iodide. All taxa but the biennial are diploids with descending
DESSISLAVA DIMITROVA; JOHANN GREILHUBER
This study examined the interactive effects of grazing intensity and burning on a remnant population of the California native\\u000a bunchgrass Nassella pulchra. We measured growth, reproduction and mortality of permanently marked bunchgrasses and measured bunchgrass seedling recruitment\\u000a and density in permanent quadrats. We burned half of the treatment plots in late spring 1998. Grazing treatments were implemented\\u000a in 1998, 1999
Jaymee T. Marty; Sharon K. Collinge; Kevin J. Rice
A CARD–FISH protocol was developed and applied to analyse surface-associated bacteria on the marine algae Ulva lactuca, Delisea pulchra, Corallina officinalis, Amphiroa anceps, Porphyra sp. and Sargassum linearifolium. The combination of Alexa546-labelled tyramide as the reporter molecule with SYBR Green II counterstain allowed for superior detection of the hybridised probe fluorescence against plant tissue from which pigment autofluorescence has been
Niina A. Tujula; Carola Holmström; Marc Mußmann; Rudolf Amann; Staffan Kjelleberg; Gregory R. Crocetti
Summary The quorum-sensing disrupter (5Z)-4-bromo-5-(bro- momethylene)-3-butyl-2(5H)-furanone (furanone) of the alga Delisea pulchra was found to inhibit the swarming motility of Escherichia coli completely at 13 m gc m 22 (also at 20 m gm l 21 ) but did not inhibit its growth rate at 13-52 m gc m 22 or from 20 to 100 m gm l 21 .
Dacheng Ren; James J. Sims; Thomas K. Wood
Diseases affecting natural ecosystems are increasing in frequency and severity, but unless obviously catastrophic, the consequences of disease outbreaks are often overlooked, relative to other ecological processes (e.g., predation, competition). Disease can have profound effects on individuals and can also strongly influence interactions between infected hosts and their natural enemies. We investigated whether a novel bleaching disease affected the survival or performance of a habitat-forming red seaweed, Delisea pulchra. In addition, we investigated bidirectional, multipartite interactions between this seaweed host, its pathogens, and consumers. Although we found no negative impacts of disease on survival of D. pulchra, bleaching had substantial, negative consequences for affected individuals, including a dramatic drop in fecundity and a significant decrease in size. In the first direct demonstration of bacterial disease-mediated herbivory of seaweeds, herbivores generally preferred to consume bleached tissue in feeding trials, and we also found higher densities of herbivores on bleached than co-occurring, healthy algae at sites where herbivores were abundant. In a conceptually reciprocal test of the effects of herbivores on infection, we showed that simulated herbivory increased susceptibility to bleaching when algae were also exposed to cultures of a bacterial pathogen. Given the high proportions of D. pulchra affected by bleaching during peak periods, the impacts of this disease are likely to have important implications at the population level. This work highlights complex interactions between habitat-forming organisms and their natural enemies and further emphasizes the need to consider disease in ecological research. PMID:24649654
Campbell, Alexandra H; Vergés, Adriana; Steinberg, Peter D
The unique floral morphology of the South African orchid H. pulchra, with its twin meranthia, is best explained as an adaptation to pollination by oil-collecting bees. Flowers consisting of meranthia (floral parts that function as single pollination units; commonly observed in garden Iris) are extremely rare among the angiosperms and their significance poorly understood. Unlike all other known examples of meranthia, the novel type described for H. pulchra is not bilabiate. All Huttonaea species are unique in having twin petal sacs with glandular verrucae that secrete oil and are pollinated by Rediviva (Melittidae) oil-collecting bees. But only Huttonaea pulchra has long and widely divergent petal claws that place the oil sacs well beyond the reach of a centrally positioned bee. The wide separation of these sacs forces the pollinator, R. colorata, to visit each side of the flower independently and effectively divides the flower into two meranthia. Molecular data indicate that the evolution of the Huttonaea-type meranthium was dependent on the prior evolution of the oil flower/oil bee relationship. Meranthium evolution was also facilitated by the presence of oil in two separate structures (petal sacs) that were not physically constrained to remain in close proximity. PMID:21622392
Steiner, Kim E
Background In order to increase the weak database concerning the organogenesis of Acoela – a clade regarded by many as the earliest extant offshoot of Bilateria and thus of particular interest for studies concerning the evolution of animal bodyplans – we analyzed the development of the musculature of Symsagittifera roscoffensis using F-actin labelling, confocal laserscanning microscopy, and 3D reconstruction software. Results At 40% of development between egg deposition and hatching short subepidermal fibres form. Muscle fibre development in the anterior body half precedes myogenesis in the posterior half. At 42% of development a grid of outer circular and inner longitudinal muscles is present in the bodywall. New circular muscles either branch off from present fibres or form adjacent to existing ones. The number of circular muscles is higher than that of the longitudinal muscles throughout all life cycle stages. Diagonal, circular and longitudinal muscles are initially rare but their number increases with time. The ventral side bears U-shaped muscles around the mouth, which in addition is surrounded by a sphincter muscle. With the exception of the region of the statocyst, dorsoventral muscles are present along the entire body of juveniles and adults, while adults additionally exhibit radially oriented internal muscles in the anterior tip. Outer diagonal muscles are present at the dorsal anterior tip of the adult. In adult animals, the male gonopore with its associated sexual organs expresses distinct muscles. No specific statocyst muscles were found. The muscle mantles of the needle-shaped sagittocysts are situated along the lateral edges of the animal and in the posterior end close to the male gonopore. In both juveniles and adults, non-muscular filaments, which stain positively for F-actin, are associated with certain sensory cells outside the bodywall musculature. Conclusion Compared to the myoanatomy of other acoel taxa, Symsagittifera roscoffensis shows a very complex musculature. Although data on presumably basal acoel clades are still scarce, the information currently available suggests an elaborated musculature with longitudinal, circular and U-shaped muscles as being part of the ancestral acoel bodyplan, thus increasing the possibility that Urbilateria likewise had a relatively complicated muscular ground pattern.
Semmler, Henrike; Bailly, Xavier; Wanninger, Andreas
As part of a distributional study of freshwater ascomycetes in Florida, a number of new taxa were encountered. The new taxa include six Sordariomycetes, Aniptodera megaloascocarpa sp. nov., Flammispora pulchra sp. nov., Hanliniomyces hyaloapicalis gen. et sp. nov., Lockerbia striata sp. nov., Phomatospora triseptata sp. nov. and Physalospora limnetica sp. nov., and three Dothideomycetes, Caryospora obclavata sp. nov., Lepidopterella tangerina sp. nov. and Ophiobolus shoemakeri sp. nov. These taxa are described and illustrated. Six additional species are reported from Florida for the first time; among them, two species are new reports from freshwater habitats. PMID:18751554
Raja, Huzefa A; Shearer, Carol A
Whole system fluxes of isoprene from a moist acidic tundra ecosystem and leaf level emission rates of isoprene and monoterpenes from two important species in that same ecosystem ( Salix pulchra and Betula nana) were measured during the summer of 2005 to assess the contribution of biogenic volatile organic compounds on the chemistry of the Arctic atmosphere. The measurements took place in the Imnavait Creek watershed near the Toolik Field Station on the north slope of the Brooks Range (69° N, 149° W). The whole system fluxes were measured in conjunction with a project that is determining the net carbon exchange of the ecosystem through both atmospheric and hydrological processes (Marc Steiglitz, PI). The maximum rate of isoprene flux measured was over 1 mg C m-2 hr-1 with an air temperature of 22° C and a PAR level over 2000 ?mol m-2 s-1. Leaf level isoprene emission rates for S. pulchra reached 20 nmol m-2 s-1 (38 ug C gdw -1 hr-1 ), which was over 1% of the net carbon assimilated. These significant rates of isoprene emission need to be further investigated in field studies and will have major impacts of efforts to model tropospheric chemistry in the Arctic.
Potosnak, M.; Griffin, K.; Stieglitz, M.; Kling, G.; Schimel, J.; Hobbie, J.
Morphology and phylogenies of two hypotrichous brackish-water ciliates from China, Neourostylopsis orientalis n. sp. and Protogastrostyla sterkii (Wallengren, 1900) n. comb., with establishment of a new genus Neourostylopsis n. gen. (Protista, Ciliophora, Hypotrichia).
This paper investigates the morphology, infraciliature and small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences of two hypotrichous ciliates, Neourostylopsis orientalis n. sp., and Protogastrostyla sterkii (Wallengren, 1900) n. comb. (basionym Gastrostyla sterkii), collected from coastal waters in southern China. Neourostylopsis orientalis n. sp. is diagnosed mainly by the arrangement of brownish cortical granules, the numbers of adoral membranelles and frontal and transverse cirri and the characteristics of its midventral cirral pairs. The SSU rRNA gene phylogeny strongly supports the establishment of the new genus Neourostylopsis n. gen., which is characterized mainly by the following features: frontal and transverse cirri clearly differentiated, buccal cirri present, two frontoterminal cirri, midventral complex composed of midventral pairs only and not exceeding the halfway point of the cell, more than one row of marginal cirri on each side which derive from individual anlagen within each parental row, caudal cirri lacking. Thus, two new combinations are required: Neourostylopsis songi (Lei et al., 2005) n. comb., and Neourostylopsis flavicana (Wang et al., 2011) n. comb. Additionally, improved diagnoses for both Metaurostylopsis and Apourostylopsis are supplied in this study. Protogastrostyla sterkii (Wallengren, 1900) n. comb. differs from the similar congener Protogastrostyla pulchra mainly in body shape, ratio of buccal field to body length in vivo and molecular data. Based on the present studies, we conclude that the estuarine population of P. pulchra collected by J. Gong and others [Gong et al., J Eukaryot Microbiol (2007) 54, 468-478] is a population of P. sterkii. PMID:23355699
Chen, Xiangrui; Shao, Chen; Liu, Xihan; Huang, Jie; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S
Coastal squeeze is the largest threat for sandy coastal areas. To mitigate seaward threats, erosion and sea level rise, sand nourishment is commonly applied. However, its long-term consequences for macroinvertebrate fauna, critical to most ecosystem services of sandy coasts, are still unknown. Seventeen sandy beaches - nourished and controls - were sampled along a chronosequence to investigate the abundance of four dominant macrofauna species and their relations with nourishment year and relevant coastal environmental variables. Dean's parameter and latitude significantly explained the abundance of the spionid polychaete Scolelepis squamata, Beach Index (BI), sand skewness, beach slope and latitude explained the abundance of the amphipod Haustorius arenarius and Relative Tide Range (RTR), recreation and sand sorting explained the abundance of Bathyporeia sarsi. For Eurydice pulchra, no environmental variable explained its abundance. For H. arenarius, E. pulchra and B. sarsi, there was no relation with nourishment year, indicating that recovery took place within a year after nourishment. Scolelepis squamata initially profited from the nourishment with "over-recolonisation". This confirms its role as an opportunistic species, thereby altering the initial community structure on a beach after nourishment. We conclude that the responses of the four dominant invertebrates studied in the years following beach nourishment are species specific. This shows the importance of knowing the autecology of the sandy beach macroinvertebrate fauna in order to be able to mitigate the effects of beach nourishment and other environmental impacts.
Leewis, Lies; van Bodegom, Peter M.; Rozema, Jelte; Janssen, Gerard M.
Neuroglobins, previously thought to be restricted to vertebrate neurons, were detected in the brain of a photosymbiotic acoel, Symsagittifera roscoffensis, and in neurosensory cells of the jellyfish Clytia hemisphaerica. For the neuroglobin of S. roscoffensis, a member of a lineage that originated either at the base of the bilateria or of the deuterostome clade, we report the ligand binding properties, crystal structure at 2.3 ?, and brain immunocytochemical pattern. We also describe in situ hybridizations of two neuroglobins specifically expressed in differentiating nematocytes (neurosensory cells) and in statocytes (ciliated mechanosensory cells) of C. hemisphaerica, a member of the early branching animal phylum cnidaria. In silico searches using these neuroglobins as queries revealed the presence of previously unidentified neuroglobin-like sequences in most metazoan lineages. Because neural systems are almost ubiquitous in metazoa, the constitutive expression of neuroglobin-like proteins strongly supports the notion of an intimate association of neuroglobins with the evolution of animal neural systems and hints at the preservation of a vitally important function. Neuroglobins were probably recruited in the first protoneurons in early metazoans from globin precursors. Neuroglobins were identified in choanoflagellates, sponges, and placozoans and were conserved during nervous system evolution. Because the origin of neuroglobins predates the other metazoan globins, it is likely that neuroglobin gene duplication followed by co-option and subfunctionalization led to the emergence of globin families in protostomes and deuterostomes (i.e. convergent evolution).
Lechauve, Christophe; Jager, Muriel; Laguerre, Laurent; Kiger, Laurent; Correc, Gaelle; Leroux, Cedric; Vinogradov, Serge; Czjzek, Mirjam; Marden, Michael C.; Bailly, Xavier
This paper presents a description of new gastropods belonging to the superfamily Porcellioidea (Vetigastropoda) from the richly diverse Lower Devonian gastropod fauna of the Road River Formation in the Royal Creek area, Yukon Territory. This fauna belongs to Western Canada Province of the Old World Realm. The Pragian species Porcellia (Porcellia) yukonensis n. sp. and Porcellia (Paraporcellia) sp. represent the oldest presently known members of subgenera Porcellia (Porcellia) and Porcellia (Paraporcellia). Their simple shell ornamentation fits well with an earlier described evolutionary trend in shell morphology of the Porcellinae. Late Pragian to early Emsian Perryconcha pulchra n. gen. and n. sp. is the first member of the Porcellioidea bearing a row of tremata on adult teleoconch whorls. The occurrence of this shell feature in the Porcellioidea is additional evidence that the evolution of the apertural slit was much more complicated than has been proposed in classical models of Paleozoic gastropod evolution. Copyright ?? 2008, The Paleontological Society.
Fryda, J.; Blodgett, R. B.; Lenz, A. C.; Manda, S.
A survey was conducted to catalogue the diversity of anurans in District IV of the Muda Agriculture Development Authority Scheme (MADA) in Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia, from July 1996 to January 1997. Eight species of anurans from three families were present in the study area. Of these, the Common Grass Frog (Fejevarya limnocharis) was the most abundant, followed by Mangrove Frog (Fejevarya cancrivora), Long-legged Frog (Hylarana macrodactyla), and Common Toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus). Puddle Frog (Occidozyga lima), Taiwanese Giant Frog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus), and Banded Bullfrog (Kaluola pulchra) were rare during the sampling period, and only one Paddy Frog (Hylarana erythraea) was captured. A simple identification key for the anurans of this area is included for use by scientists and laymen alike.
Jaafar, Ibrahim; Chai, Teoh Chia; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Akil, Mohd Abdul Muin Md.
Amphibian skin has been the source of a wide variety of biologically active substances, but less than one-third of the known genera of amphibians have been probed for such active substances. Skins of 21 genera of anurans from Thailand have now been investigated for noxious secretions, toxic substances, and alkaloids. Four genera of bufonid toads (Bufo, Ansonia, Leptophryne, Pedostipes) were toxic due to the presence of bufadienolides or bufadienolide-like compounds. Two species of ranid frogs (Rana raniceps, Rana signata) were toxic, perhaps due to the presence of toxic peptide(s). Two species of rhacophorid frogs (Polypedates) were slightly noxious/toxic. One species of microhylid frog (Kaloula pulchra) was noxious. Trace amounts of pumiliotoxin alkaloids were detected in a ranid frog (Limnonectes kuhli). A further 18 species did not exhibit noxious or toxic properties to a significant extent. PMID:15530960
Daly, John W; Noimai, Naratitt; Kongkathip, Boonsong; Kongkathip, Ngampong; Wilham, Jason M; Garraffo, H Martin; Kaneko, Tetsuo; Spande, Thomas F; Nimit, Yuth; Nabhitabhata, Jarujin; Chan-Ard, Tanya
Shifts in dominance from corals to macroalgae are occurring in many coral reefs worldwide. Macroalgal canopies, while competing for space with coral colonies, may also form a barrier to herbivorous and corallivorous fish, offering protection to corals. Thus, corals could either suffer from enhanced competition with canopy-forming and understorey macroalgae or benefit from predator exclusion. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the effects of the brown, canopy-forming macroalga, Turbinaria ornata, on the survival and growth of corals can vary according to its cover, to the presence or absence of herbivorous and corallivorous fish and to the morphological types of corals. Over a period of 66 days, two coral species differing in growth form, Acropora pulchra and Porites rus, were exposed to three different covers of T. ornata (absent versus medium versus high), in the presence or absence of fish. Irrespective of the cover of T. ornata, fish exclusion reduced mortality rates of A. pulchra. Following fish exclusion, a high cover of T. ornata depressed the growth of this branched coral, whilst it had no effect when fish species were present. P. rus suffered no damage from corallivorous fish, but its growth was decreased by high covers of T. ornata, irrespective of the presence or absence of fish. These results show that negative effects of T. ornata on some coral species are subordinate to those of fish predation and are, therefore, likely to manifest only on reefs severely depleted of predators. In contrast, space dominance by T. ornata may decrease the growth of other coral species regardless of predation intensity. In general, this study shows that susceptibility to predation may determine the severity of the effects of canopy-forming macroalgae on coral growth. PMID:24260290
Bulleri, Fabio; Couraudon-Réale, Marine; Lison de Loma, Thierry; Claudet, Joachim
Isotopic markers in feces and tissues are a potential tool for monitoring the importance of feeding areas for migratory herbivores such as caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Many of these techniques are currently limited by gaps in our knowledge of how these isotopic signatures vary over the landscape. We collected seven species of preferred caribou forages along a latitudinal gradient in the summer ranges of the Central Arctic (9 sites) and Teshekpuk Lake (4 sites) caribou herds during 2011 and 2012. We analyzed forages at peak protein content and at the end of the season to characterize temporal, species-specific, and spatial variation in isotopic markers. The availability of C and N was measured by digestion in vitro. Isotopic signatures of digested samples were used to calculate fractionation that would bias the isotopic signature of feces. The range of values for isotopes (all values ‰) of nitrogen (?15N -9.5 - +4.3), and sulfur (?34S -3.6 - +15.5) were greater than those for carbon (?13C -30.5 - -24.9). Small declines in forage ?13C with latitude (Carex aquatilis, Eriophorum vaginatum, Salix pulchra, and S. richardsonii [all P < 0.01]), season (all species except C. bigelowii [all P ? 0.01]), and season x year (S. richardsonii; P = 0.01) were probably associated with changes in water availability. Fractionation of ?13C in early season forages was 0.1 × 1.0 and positively related to C availability (58% × 15%; P < 0.01) with the greatest fractionation for the highly digestible forb Pedicularis langsdorfii (1.43 × 0.44; P < 0.01). Sedges (Carex and Eriophorum) were significantly higher in ?15N than Salix spp. and other dicots (2.0 × 1.1 vs. -2.9 × 2.2; P < 0.01). For Salix spp., ?15N was consistent over the season and between years. Fractionation of ?15N in early season forages was 0.2 × 1.8 and not related to N availability (60% × 17%). For S. pulchra, ?34S may indicate usage of coastal habitats over foothills because ?34S was higher on the coastal plain than in the foothills (11.1 × 3.3 and 3.1 × 2.6; P < 0.01). Isotopic ratios in N and S show the greatest promise for tracking diet and location of migratory caribou whereas the narrow range in ?13C is affected by species, season and location.
VanSomeren, L.; Barboza, P. S.; Gustine, D. D.; Parrett, L. S.; Stricker, C. A.
Saplings of Tibouchina pulchra and Psidium guajava, cultivated under standardized soil conditions, were placed in two sites at Cubatão (state of São Paulo, southeast Brazil) to study the effects of air pollution on growth, biomass allocation and foliar nitrogen and fluoride concentrations. Thirty-six potted plants were maintained over two periods of one year (Jul/00 to Jun/01; Dec/00 to Nov/01) at each of two experimental sites with distinct levels of air pollution: Pilões River Valley (PV) with vegetation virtually unaffected by air pollution; and Mogi River Valley (MV) severely affected by pollutants released mainly by chemical, fertilizer, iron and steel industries. For both species, saplings growing at MV showed alterations of growth and biomass allocation, as well as increased leaf concentrations of nitrogen and fluoride. Comparing both experimental periods, the one starting in winter (the driest season in Southeastern Brazil) seemed to affect the saplings more severely, the differences of the measured parameters between MV and PV being higher than in the second period. Multivariate analysis revealed two groups of data: one representing the MV and the other the PV saplings. For both species, saplings growing at MV showed differences in chemical composition, growth and biomass allocation, compared with the PV saplings. The results suggested that seasonal conditions of the first months of sapling exposure (summer or winter) modulate the intensity of responses to pollution stress. PMID:17289116
Furlan, Cláudia Maria; Domingos, Marisa; Salatino, Antonio
Using compressed air, we excavated individual trees and shrubs and mapped their coarse root systems on a three-dimensional grid system up to 1.5 m depth. We excavated four woody savanna species at three sites spanning a climate gradient on the Kalahari Transect in southern Africa. Overall, species was more important than site in determining both large-scale and small-scale root system structure. The species excavated fell into two groups that coexisted across the climate gradient. Acacia mellifera and Terminalia sericea had straight roots in a laterally-extensive and relatively shallow system. Boscia albitrunca and Ochna pulchra had sinuous roots that were mostly concentrated beneath the canopy and were more prevalent in deep than near-surface soil layers, departing from the conventional model of decreasing root abundance with depth. The shallow-rooted species had small taproots, though it is unlikely that they reached the water table. Deep- and shallow-rootedness appear to correlate with other characteristics such as growth form (tree or shrub) and drought deciduousness. Acacia mellifera Boscia albitrunca
O'Donnell, F. C.; Caylor, K. K.; Bhattachan, A.; Dintwe, K.; D'Odorico, P.; Okin, G. S.
Large, late-winter ptarmigan migrations heavily impact the patch, shrub, and branch morphology of shrubs that remain above the snow surface. Ptarmigan browsing on arctic shrubs was assessed in the vicinity of Toolik Lake, on the Arctic Slope of Alaska, by counting the fraction of browsed versus total bud locations on Salix alaxensis, Salix pulchra, Salix lanata, and Betula nana. Data were collected in early May 2007, at maximum snow depth, after the bulk of the ptarmigan migration had passed through the area. In an area of large shrubs, half of the buds were browsed by ptarmigan. Three percent of the buds that were buried beneath the snow were browsed, 97 percent of the buds that were within 25 cm of the maximum snow level were browsed, and 46 percent of the buds above that height were browsed. In other areas, where all the shrubs were buried by snow at the height of the migration, 35 percent of the buds were browsed. These data were qualitatively extrapolated by observation westward to the Nanushuk River and eastward to the Jago River, about 250 km across a series of north-flowing rivers with headwaters in the Brooks Range. Ptarmigan hedging shrub patches, and shrub expansion under a warmer climate, are competing forces mediated by snow distribution. The outcome of these competing forces varies spatially, and can be inferred by examining the morphology of shrub patches, individuals, and branches.
Tape, K.; Lord, R.; Bret-Harte, S.
Three aviculariine genera endemic to Brazil are revised. Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850 is resurrected, including five species; Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 includes two species; and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, six species. Nine species are newly described: Typhochlaena ammasp. n., Typhochlaena costaesp. n., Typhochlaena curumimsp. n., Typhochlaena paschoalisp. n., Pachistopelma bromelicolasp. n., Iridopelma katiaesp. n., Iridopelma marcoisp. n., Iridopelma oliveiraisp. n. and Iridopelma vaninisp. n. Three new synonymies are established: Avicularia pulchra Mello-Leitão, 1933 and Avicularia recifiensis Struchen & Brändle, 1996 are junior synonyms of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 syn. n., and Avicularia palmicola Mello-Leitão, 1945 is a junior synonym of Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 syn. n.Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947 is transferred to Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, making the new combination Tapinauchenius concolor (Caporiacco, 1947)comb. n. Lectotypes are newly designed for Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 , Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 and Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix comprising 62 characters and 38 terminal taxa. The chosen cladogram found with X-Pee-Wee and concavity 6 suggests they are monophyletic. All species are keyed and mapped and information on species habitat and area cladograms are presented. Discussion on biogeography and conservation is provided. PMID:23166476
Under bleaching conditions, corals lose their symbiotic zooxanthellae, and thus, the ability to synthesize fatty acids (FAs) from photosynthetically derived carbon. This study investigated the lipid content and FA composition in healthy and bleached corals from the Odo reef flat in Okinawa, southern Japan, following a bleaching event. It was hypothesized that the FA composition and abundance would change as algae are lost or die, and possibly microbial abundance would increase in corals as a consequence of bleaching. The lipid content and FA composition of three healthy coral species ( Pavona frondifera, Acropora pulchra, and Goniastrea aspera) and of partially bleached and completely bleached colonies of P. frondifera were examined. The FA composition did not differ among healthy corals, but differed significantly among healthy, partially bleached, and completely bleached specimens of P. frondifera. Completely bleached corals contained significantly lower lipid and total FA content, as well as lower relative amounts of polyunsaturated FAs and higher relative amounts of saturated FAs, than healthy and partially bleached corals. Furthermore, there was a significantly higher relative concentration of monounsaturated FAs and odd-numbered branched FAs in completely bleached corals, indicating an increase in bacterial colonization in the bleached corals.
Bachok, Zainudin; Mfilinge, Prosper; Tsuchiya, Makoto
So-called "typical" behavioural responses of coastal animals to particular stimuli have previously been shown often to vary cyclically in phase with diel or tidal cycles in the environment. Less well-studied are differences in the behaviour of adults and juveniles of the same species at the same time of day or tidal state, or in response to the same stimulus. Experimental studies of such differences in behaviour are reviewed and compared for three species of beach crustaceans, namely, the crab Carcinus maenas, the isopod Eurydice pulchra and the amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata. Juvenile, but not adult, Carcinus will entrain circatidal rhythmicity after exposure to artificial tidal cycles of immersion/emersion; juvenile, but not adult, Eurydice express pronounced free-running circatidal swimming rhythms at neap tides as well as at springs; and, in Orchestoidea, juveniles and adults express patterns of daily locomotor activity that are complementary, both on the shore and in the laboratory. These ontogenetic differences are discussed in relation to distributional and behavioural differences between adults and juveniles in each species, drawing attention to their adaptive significance and wider implications for coastal management and conservation.
Naylor, E.; Kennedy, F.
The taxonomy of the genus Turris Batsch, 1789, type genus of the family Turridae, widespread in shallow-water habitats of tropic Indo-Pacific, is revised. A total of 31 species of Turris, are here recognized as valid. New species described: Turris chaldaea, Turris clausifossata, Turris guidopoppei, Turris intercancellata, Turris kantori, T. kathiewayae. Homonym renamed: Turris bipartita nom. nov. for Pleurotoma variegata Kiener, 1839 (non Philippi, 1836). New synonymies: Turris ankaramanyensis Bozzetti, 2006 = Turris tanyspira Kilburn, 1975; Turris imperfecti, T. nobilis, T. pulchra and T. tornatum Röding, 1798, and Turris assyria Olivera, Seronay & Fedosov, 2010 = T. babylonia; Turris dollyi Olivera, 2000 = Pleurotoma crispa Lamarck, 1816; Turris totiphyllis Olivera, 2000 = Turris hidalgoi Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco, 2000; Turris kilburni Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco, 2000 = Turris pagasa Olivera, 2000; Turris (Annulaturris) munizi Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco, 2000 = Gemmula lululimi Olivera, 2000. Revised status: Turris intricata Powell, 1964, Pleurotoma variegata Kiener, 1839 (non Philippi, 1836) and Pleurotoma yeddoensis Jousseaume, 1883, are regarded as full species (not subspecies of Turris crispa). Neotype designated: For Pleurotoma garnonsii Reeve, 1843, to distinguish it from Turris garnonsii of recent authors, type locality emended to Zanzibar. New combination: Turris orthopleura Kilburn, 1983, is transferred to genus Makiyamaia, family Clavatulidae.
Kilburn, Richard N.; Fedosov, Alexander E.; Olivera, Baldomero M.
This study extends the current knowledge regarding the use of plants for the passive accumulation of anthropogenic PAHs that are present in the atmospheric total suspended particles (TSP) in the tropics and sub-tropics. It is of major relevance because the anthropic emissions of TSP containing PAHs are significant in these regions, but their monitoring is still scarce. We compared the biomonitor efficiency of Lolium multiflorum 'Lema' and tropical tree species (Tibouchina pulchra and Psidium guajava 'Paluma') that were growing in an intensely TSP-polluted site in Cubatão (SE Brazil), and established the species with the highest potential for alternative monitoring of PAHs. PAHs present in the TSP indicated that the region is impacted by various emission sources. L. multiflorum showed a greater efficiency for the accumulation of PAH compounds on their leaves than the tropical trees. The linear regression between the logBCF and logKoa revealed that L. multiflorum is an efficient biomonitor of the profile of light and heavy PAHs present in the particulate phase of the atmosphere during dry weather and mild temperatures. The grass should be used only for indicating the PAHs with higher molecular weight in warmer and wetter periods. PMID:22285658
Rinaldi, Mirian C S; Domingos, Marisa; Dias, Ana P L; Esposito, Jéssica B N; Pagliuso, Josmar D
Frequent use of medical implants has led Staphylococcus epidermidis to develop into an opportunistic pathogen. The virulence is mainly linked to biofilm formation. Infections associated with biofilms are difficult to treat owing to enhanced resistance to antibiotics. Therefore, new and alternative treatments are called for. Bacterial communication is one of the regulatory mechanisms suggested to be involved in coordinating biofilm formation. In this study, we compared three communication inhibitors for preventing in vitro biofilm formation: a synthetic furanone, and two synthetic thiophenones, which are sulphur analogues of furanones. Furanones naturally source from the red macro alga Delisea pulchra. We also investigated the effect of thiophenone on transcriptional levels of genes associated with biofilm formation. We found that thiophenones were more effective in inhibiting biofilm formation than furanone, also in presence of albumin. We furthermore found that the thiophenones inhibited biofilm formation and bacterial communication more than furanones, and were less cytotoxic. The expression of the icaC and the lrgB genes, which are associated with biofilm formation, were affected by the thiophenone. PMID:22443118
Lönn-Stensrud, Jessica; Naemi, Ali-Oddin; Benneche, Tore; Petersen, Fernanda Cristina; Scheie, Anne Aamdal
Escherichia coli are a mutual and foodborne pathogen, causing severe intestinal infections typically characterized by diarrhoea and vomiting. Biofilms are often a common source of pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria. Quorum sensing is a phenomenon where bacteria communicate and initiate the regulation of several virulence factors and biofilm formation. Thus, quorum sensing has been a new target in the fight against bacterial biofilms. In this study, we investigated the effect of two quorum-sensing inhibitors for preventing in vitro biofilm formation in wild-type E. coli O103:H2. Furanone F202 originates from the red algae Delisea pulchra, and thiophenone TF101 is a sulphur analogue of furanone. We also investigated the effect of thiophenone and furanone on virulence factors controlled by quorum sensing. Both TF101 and F202 interfered with biofilm formation, although TF101 was more effective. TF101 reduced motility presumably by interfering with flagella production, visualized by microscopic techniques. The expressions of flhd, which are involved in flagella synthesis, were affected by thiophenone. This is the first study exploring the effect of thiophenone on E. coli biofilm formation and virulence factors. PMID:24391047
Witsø, Ingun L; Benneche, Tore; Vestby, Lene K; Nesse, Live L; Lönn-Stensrud, Jessica; Scheie, Anne A
Distribution and occurrence of blow flies of forensic importance was performed during 2007 and 2008 in Chiang Mai and Lampang Provinces, northern Thailand. Surveys were conducted in forested areas for 30 minutes using a sweep net to collected flies attracted to a bait. A total of 2,115 blow flies belonging to six genera and 14 species were collected; Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (44.7%), C. pinguis (Walker) (15.1%), C. chani Kurahashi (9.3%), C. thanomthini Kurahashi & Tumrasvin (0.3%); Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) (10.5%), A. villeneuvi (Patton) (2.2%); Lucilia papuensis Macquart (2.2%), L. porphyrina (Walker) (12.4%), L. sinensis Aubertin (0.7%); Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) (1.3%), H. pulchra (Wiedemann) (0.1%); Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot) (0.6%), Hy. tumrasvini Kurahashi (0.2%) and Ceylonomyia nigripes Aubertin (0.4%). Among them, C. megacephala was the predominant species collected, particularly in the summer. The species likely to prevail in highland areas are C. pinguis, C. thanomthini, Hy. tumrasvini, L. papuensis and L. porphyrina.
Moophayak, Kittikhun; Klong-Klaew, Tunwadee; Sukontason, Kom; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Sukontason, Kabkaew L.
Distribution and occurrence of blow flies of forensic importance was performed during 2007 and 2008 in Chiang Mai and Lampang Provinces, northern Thailand. Surveys were conducted in forested areas for 30 minutes using a sweep net to collected flies attracted to a bait. A total of 2,115 blow flies belonging to six genera and 14 species were collected; Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (44.7%), C. pinguis (Walker) (15.1%), C. chani Kurahashi (9.3%), C. thanomthini Kurahashi & Tumrasvin (0.3%); Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) (10.5%), A. villeneuvi (Patton) (2.2%); Lucilia papuensis Macquart (2.2%), L. porphyrina (Walker) (12.4%), L. sinensis Aubertin (0.7%); Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) (1.3%), H. pulchra (Wiedemann) (0.1%); Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot) (0.6%), Hy. tumrasvini Kurahashi (0.2%) and Ceylonomyia nigripes Aubertin (0.4%). Among them, C. megacephala was the predominant species collected, particularly in the summer. The species likely to prevail in highland areas are C. pinguis, C. thanomthini, Hy. tumrasvini, L. papuensis and L. porphyrina. PMID:24626423
Moophayak, Kittikhun; Klong-Klaew, Tunwadee; Sukontason, Kom; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sukontason, Kabkaew L
The red alga Delisea pulchra has been a model organism for understanding the ecological role of secondary metabolites as natural antifoulants. Furanones are produced by the plant and delivered to the surface at a concentration where they regulate bacterial colonisation and the settlement of epibiota. This biological understanding has led to the application of furanones as inhibitors of bacterial- and macro-fouling. Furanones inhibit bacterial colonisation and biofilm development through interference with a key bacterial quorum-sensing pathway, the acylated homoserine lactone regulatory system in Gram-negative bacteria. They also interfere with the alternative AI-2 signalling system in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Synthetic programs have developed a library of more than 200 furanone and furanone-analogues including surface attached-furanones. These furanone analogues are potent anti-infectives and inhibit pathogenic phenotypes in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as demonstrated in-vitro using gene microarrays, and in-vivo using mouse models. Additionally, furanones inhibit the expression of bacterial exo-enzymes that actively degrade components of the immune system thereby enhancing the immune response. Surface-attached furanones immobilised on catheters also inhibit bacterial attachment and retain activity for extended periods. Furanones are strong deterrents of the settlement and growth of macrofouling organisms and as such have potential application as a marine antifouling technology. Laboratory antifouling assays have been used to identify effective and safe furanone-analogues while field trials of furanones incorporated into coatings and polymers demonstrate efficacies similar to commercial biocides. Further development is required to control the release of compounds from suitable carriers to extend coating/polymer lifespans. This review summarises the extensive work on furanones focusing on their natural and applied antifouling activities. PMID:16805438
de Nys, R; Givskov, M; Kumar, N; Kjelleberg, S; Steinberg, P D
Climate change is facilitating the northward encroachment and expansion of woody shrub species into the Arctic tundra, which in turn is altering a number of physical and biogeochemical processes that are likely to affect how carbon is cycled in this region. Greater shrub presence also increases leaf area index and canopy complexity in the tundra, introducing the potential for vertical variation in nitrogen, photosynthesis, and respiration through the canopy. For these reasons, Arctic tundra shrub communities represent an ecologically relevant case study for investigating carbon cycling-nitrogen relationships and testing optimization models. Here, we measured photosynthesis, respiration in the dark and light, the light inhibition of respiration, stomatal conductance, leaf nitrogen, and related leaf traits at different heights representing variation in light availability in multiple Arctic Alaskan shrub communities dominated by Salix pulchra and Betula nana to examine if the relatively low-stature canopies exhibit vertical patterns. Highest rates of photosynthesis and respiration (P < 0.0001) were observed at the top of the canopy, suggesting substrate-limitation of respiration at lower, more shaded canopy levels. Leaves at the top of the canopy also exhibited the lowest inhibition of respiration by light (NS), and the highest nitrogen concentrations. (P < 0.05) implying a relationship between photosynthesis, nitrogen, and a relaxation of light-inhibition to optimize metabolic efficiency. Data from this study was also used to test leaf-level and canopy nitrogen optimization models. These data emphasize the need to include canopy complexity in tundra carbon models, as neglecting physiological differences through a canopy may lead to an underestimation of stored carbon.
Heskel, M.; Atkin, O.; Turnbull, M.; Rastetter, E.; Griffin, K. L.
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a main cause of bacterial food-borne diseases. As Salmonella can form biofilms in which it is better protected against antimicrobial agents on a wide diversity of surfaces, it is of interest to explore ways to inhibit biofilm formation. Brominated furanones, originally extracted from the marine alga Delisea pulchra, are known to interfere with biofilm formation in several pathogens. In this study, we have synthesized a small focused library of brominated furanones and tested their activity against S. enterica serovar Typhimurium biofilm formation. We show that several furanones inhibit Salmonella biofilm formation at non-growth-inhibiting concentrations. The most interesting compounds are (Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)-3-alkyl-2(5H)-furanones with chain lengths of two to six carbon atoms. A microarray study was performed to analyze the gene expression profiles of Salmonella in the presence of (Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)-3-ethyl-2(5H)-furanone. The induced genes include genes that are involved in metabolism, stress response, and drug sensitivity. Most of the repressed genes are involved in metabolism, the type III secretion system, and flagellar biosynthesis. Follow-up experiments confirmed that this furanone interferes with the synthesis of flagella by Salmonella. No evidence was found that furanones act on the currently known quorum-sensing systems in Salmonella. Interestingly, pretreatment with furanones rendered Salmonella biofilms more susceptible to antibiotic treatment. Conclusively, this work demonstrates that particular brominated furanones have potential in the prevention of biofilm formation by Salmonella serovar Typhimurium.
Janssens, Joost C. A.; Steenackers, Hans; Robijns, Stijn; Gellens, Edith; Levin, Jeremy; Zhao, Hui; Hermans, Kim; De Coster, David; Verhoeven, Tine L.; Marchal, Kathleen; Vanderleyden, Jos; De Vos, Dirk E.; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C. J.
Plant invasions have the potential to significantly alter soil microbial communities, given their often considerable aboveground effects. We examined how plant invasions altered the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of native plant roots in a grassland site in California and one in Utah. In the California site, we used experimentally created plant communities composed of exotic (Avena barbata, Bromus hordeaceus) and native (Nassella pulchra, Lupinus bicolor) monocultures and mixtures. In the Utah semi-arid grassland, we took advantage of invasion by Bromus tectorum into long-term plots dominated by either of two native grasses, Hilaria jamesii or Stipa hymenoides. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonizing roots were characterized with PCR amplification of the ITS region, cloning, and sequencing. We saw a significant effect of the presence of exotic grasses on the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi colonizing native plant roots. In the three native grasses, richness of mycorrhizal fungi decreased; in the native forb at the California site, the number of fungal RFLP patterns increased in the presence of exotics. The exotic grasses also caused the composition of the mycorrhizal community in native roots to shift dramatically both in California, with turnover of Glomus spp., and Utah, with replacement of Glomus spp. by apparently non-mycorrhizal fungi. Invading plants may be able to influence the network of mycorrhizal fungi in soil that is available to natives through either earlier root activity or differential carbon provision compared to natives. Alteration of the soil microbial community by plant invasion can provide a mechanism for both successful invasion and the resulting effects of invaders on the ecosystem. ?? Springer 2006.
Hawkes, C. V.; Belnap, J.; D'Antonio, C.; Firestone, M. K.
Kaikoura Canyon, on the eastern New Zealand continental margin, is the most productive, non-chemosynthetic deep-sea habitat described to date, with megafaunal biomass 100-fold higher than those of other deep-sea habitats. The present study, which focused on free-living nematodes, provides the first comparison of faunal community structure and diversity between Kaikoura Canyon and nearby open slope habitats. Results show substantially higher food availability in the canyon relative to open slope sediments, which probably reflects greater levels of primary productivity above the canyon, coupled with downwelling and/or topographically-induced channelling, which serves to concentrate surface-derived organic matter along the canyon axis. This high food availability appears to be responsible for the elevated nematode biomass in Kaikoura Canyon, with values exceeding all published nematode biomass data from canyons elsewhere. There was also markedly lower local species diversity of nematodes inside the canyon relative to the open slope habitat, as well as a distinct community structure. The canyon community was dominated by species, such as Sabateria pulchra, which were absent from the open slope and are typically associated with highly eutrophic and/or disturbed environments. The presence of these taxa, as well as the low observed diversity, is likely to reflect the high food availability, and potentially the high levels of physically and biologically induced disturbance within the canyon. Kaikoura Canyon is a relatively small habitat characterised by different environmental conditions that makes a disproportionate contribution to deep-sea diversity in the region, despite its low species richness.
Leduc, D.; Rowden, A. A.; Nodder, S. D.; Berkenbusch, K.; Probert, P. K.; Hadfield, M. G.
The species composition, densities, biomass and zonation patterns of the macrobenthos of sandy beaches are greatly influenced by the morphodynamics and morphology of the beaches. Macrobenthic zonation patterns along a small-scale morphodynamic gradient, comprising eight Belgian beach sites, were investigated. By taking into account the dimensionless fall velocity ( ?) and the relative tidal range, the beach sites were ordered along the gradient from the ultra-dissipative beach type (UD) to the low tide bar/rip beach type (LTBR). The resulting beach state index varied between 1.8 and 4.2 and the beach profiles were related with the beaches' morphodynamic state. In total 35 macrobenthic species, mainly polychaetes and crustaceans, were encountered, varying between 19 and 23 species per beach site. The species composition was quite similar among beach sites, with Scolelepis squamata being abundant at all eight sites. Furthermore, the macrobenthic distribution patterns were mainly related to elevation at all beach sites. Some remarkable difference in metrics, largely related to the beach morphodynamics and the consequent hydrodynamics, were found. At the hydrodynamically benign and consequently macrobenthos-rich UD beaches, the highest macrobenthic densities and biomass occurred on the upper beach, while at the hydrodynamically harsh and thus macrobenthos-poor LTBR beaches, the maximum densities and biomass occurred lower on the beach. Species, typically occurring on the upper UD beaches, such as Eurydice pulchra, S. squamata, and Bathyporeia sarsi, were restricted to the sub-optimal middle and lower beach zone at LTBR beaches. Only Bathyporeia pilosa was found on the upper beach of both UD and LTBR beaches. The more robust polychaete Ophelia rathkei and the interstitial polychaete Hesionides arenaria were exclusively found in the hydrodynamically harsh conditions of the middle LTBR beach zone.
Degraer, S.; Volckaert, A.; Vincx, M.
Including algorithms to account for the suppression of isoprene emission by elevated CO2 concentration affects estimates of global isoprene emission for future climate change scenarios. In this study, leaf-level measurements of isoprene emission were made to determine the short-term interactive effect of leaf temperature and CO2 concentration. For both greenhouse plants and plants grown under field conditions, the suppression of isoprene emission was reduced by increasing leaf temperature. For each of the four different tree species investigated, aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), cottonwood (Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall), red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and tundra dwarf willow (Salix pulchra Cham.), the suppression of isoprene by elevated CO2 was eliminated at increased temperature, and the maximum temperature where suppression was observed ranged from 25 to 35°C. Hypotheses proposed to explain the short-term suppression of isoprene emission by increased CO2 concentration were tested against this observation. Hypotheses related to cofactors in the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway were consistent with reduced suppression at elevated leaf temperature. Also, reduced solubility of CO2 with increased temperature can explain the reduced suppression for the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase competition hypothesis. Some global models of isoprene emission include the short-term suppression effect, and should be modified to include the observed interaction. If these results are consistent at longer timescales, there are implications for predicting future global isoprene emission budgets and the reduced suppression at increased temperature could explain some of the variable responses observed in long-term CO2 exposure experiments. PMID:24614154
Potosnak, Mark J; Lestourgeon, Lauren; Nunez, Othon
High-resolution upwelling records of the past 1,600 years are compared in a north-south transect (28 deg. N to 24 deg. N) of three cores from the eastern slopes of the Guaymas, Carmen, and Pescadero Basins of the Gulf of California. Evenly-spaced samples were collected from varved sediments in each core. Resolution ranges from ca.16 yr to ca. 37 yr. Diatoms and silicoflagellates capture the seasonal variation between a late fall to early spring upwelling period of high biosiliceous productivity, that is driven by northwest winds, and a summer period of warmer, more stratified waters during which these winds slacken and/or reverse direction. Northward incursions of tropical waters, which today are strongest during intense El Niño years, are recorded by increased numbers of Azpeitia nodulifera, a tropical diatom. Enhanced northward incursions of tropical waters, alternating with periods of increased late winter to early spring upwelling (indicated by abundant Octactis pulchra, a silicoflagellate), are recorded in regularly-spaced cycles of ca. 100 yr duration (possible solar cycles) between 400 A.D. and ca. 1700 A.D. in the Carmen Basin core, NH01-21 (26.3 deg. N). Disappearance of these cycles during the past ca. 200 yr may be indicative of changing surface water conditions in the modern Gulf of California. Azpeitia nodulifera records in northern core BAM80 E17 (27.9 deg. N), are evidence that the most intense of these tropical incursions appears to have occurred between ca. 940 A.D. and 1000 A.D., during the early part of the Medieval Warm Period and corresponding with the onset of expanded building in Chaco Canyon (New Mexico) by the Anasazi people. In the modern Gulf, a strong relationship exists between warmer SST in the northern Gulf and intensified monsoonal conditions in Arizona and New Mexico. We propose that a period of increased regularity of summer rains between ca. 940 A.D. and 1000 A.D would have benefited the Anasazi. Core NH01-26 (24.3 deg. N) near the mouth of the Gulf is dominated by tropical silicoflagellates and by Cyclotella spp., a diatom that indicates warm, stratified conditions. Between ca. 1280 A.D. and ca. 1820 A.D., however, Roperia tesselata, a diatom associated with enhanced late fall to early winter production in the central Gulf, becomes an important component of the diatom assemblages. Abundance cycles of R. tesselata approximate 60 yr. and may be indicative of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO).
Barron, J. A.; Bukry, D.
The Sr/Ca ratio of coccoliths was recently proposed as a potential indicator of past growth rates of coccolithophorids, marine algae, which play key roles in both the global carbonate and carbon cycles. We synthesize calibrations of this proxy through laboratory culture studies and analysis of monospecific coccolith assemblages from surface sediments. Cultures of coccolithophorids Helicosphaera carteri, Syracosphaera pulchra and Algirospira robusta confirm a 1-2% increase in Sr/Ca per degrees C previously identified in Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica. This effect is not due merely to increases in growth rate with temperature and must be considered in palaeoceanographic studies. In light-limited cultures of E. huxleyi, Calcidiscus leptoporus and G. oceanica at constant temperature, coccolith Sr/Ca ratios vary by 10% across the range of possible growth and calcification rates for a given species. Among different species under similar culture conditions, Sr/Ca ratios vary by 30%. Although the highest ratios are in the cells with highest calcification and organic carbon fixation rates, at lower rates there is much scatter, indicating that different mechanisms control interspecific and intraspecific coccolith Sr/Ca variations. In field studies in the Equatorial Pacific and Somalia coastal region, coccolith Sr/Ca correlates with upwelling intensity and productivity. A more dynamic response is observed in larger coccoliths like C. leptoporus (23-55% variation in Sr/Ca) than in smaller coccoliths of G. oceanica or Florisphaera profunda (6-15% variation in Sr/Ca). This response suggests that, despite temperature effects, coccolith Sr/Ca has potential as an indicator of coccolithophorid productivity. If the variable Sr/Ca response of different species accurately reflects their variable productivity response to upwelling (and not different slopes of Sr/Ca with productivity), coccolith Sr/Ca could provide useful data on past changes in coccolith ecology. The mechanism of coccolith Sr/Ca variations remains poorly understood but is probably more closely tied to biochemical cycles during carbon acquisition than to chemical kinetic effects on Sr incorporation in the calcite coccolith crystals. PMID:12804301
Stoll, Heather M; Ziveri, Patricia; Geisen, Markus; Probert, Ian; Young, Jeremy R
From July 2001 to May 2005, seawater samples were collected once a week at a fixed station in Lisbon bay (38°41'N, 09°24'W) in order to describe the ecological dynamics of the coccolithophore community. The seasonal and interannual distribution patterns of the different species and their relationships with environmental parameters are addressed. The present work aimed to identify potential proxies for different local water bodies and environmental conditions. Throughout the period of study, the upwelling events were weak and progressively more persistent. High sea surface temperatures (SST) were observed earlier in the year; summers and winters were gradually warmer and colder, respectively. Salinity variations reflected the different weather conditions as they are strongly influenced by rainfall and thus by the Tagus river flow. The extended periods of weak upwelling and the overall increase in SST resulted in the development of phytoplankton populations as measured by chlorophyll a. However, the persistence of the upwelling, and thus shorter convergence periods, favoured other phytoplankton groups than coccolithophore populations as these decreased towards the end of the sampling period. The annual structure of the coccolithophore assemblage showed a pronounced and recurrent seasonal variability, mainly related with the intensity and persistence of upwelling. The highest cell densities were recorded from spring to autumn. An overall preference by most species for mature upwelled waters and low turbulent conditions was observed associated with high temperatures and salinities, although the species develop in different windows with mismatching maxima. The coccolithophores observed were capable of withstanding coastal processes such as turbulence and were well adapted to an environment rich in nutrients provided by both continental runoff and upwelling. The consistency of the results enabled local oceanographic tracers to be defined. Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa species can be used as proxies of surface productivity waters during spring and summer while Coccolithus pelagicus indicates the presence of upwelling fronts. Calcidiscus leptoporus is a tracer of the convergence of subtropical oceanic waters onto the shelf, during winter while Coronosphaera mediterranea, Syracosphaera pulchra, Helicosphaera carteri and Rhabdosphaera clavigera revealed the presence of those waters during the short period that characterized the transition from upwelling to downwelling seasons.
Silva, A.; Palma, S.; Moita, M. T.