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Sample records for acoel isodiametra pulchra

  1. Characterization of the stem cell system of the acoel Isodiametra pulchra

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Tissue plasticity and a substantial regeneration capacity based on stem cells are the hallmark of several invertebrate groups such as sponges, cnidarians and Platyhelminthes. Traditionally, Acoela were seen as an early branching clade within the Platyhelminthes, but became recently positioned at the base of the Bilateria. However, little is known on how the stem cell system in this new phylum is organized. In this study, we wanted to examine if Acoela possess a neoblast-like stem cell system that is responsible for development, growth, homeostasis and regeneration. Results We established enduring laboratory cultures of the acoel Isodiametra pulchra (Acoela, Acoelomorpha) and implemented in situ hybridization and RNA interference (RNAi) for this species. We used BrdU labelling, morphology, ultrastructure and molecular tools to illuminate the morphology, distribution and plasticity of acoel stem cells under different developmental conditions. We demonstrate that neoblasts are the only proliferating cells which are solely mesodermally located within the organism. By means of in situ hybridisation and protein localisation we could demonstrate that the piwi-like gene ipiwi1 is expressed in testes, ovaries as well as in a subpopulation of somatic stem cells. In addition, we show that germ cell progenitors are present in freshly hatched worms, suggesting an embryonic formation of the germline. We identified a potent stem cell system that is responsible for development, homeostasis, regeneration and regrowth upon starvation. Conclusions We introduce the acoel Isodiametra pulchra as potential new model organism, suitable to address developmental questions in this understudied phylum. We show that neoblasts in I. pulchra are crucial for tissue homeostasis, development and regeneration. Notably, epidermal cells were found to be renewed exclusively from parenchymally located stem cells, a situation known only from rhabditophoran flatworms so far. For further comparison, it will be important to analyse the stem cell systems of other key-positioned understudied taxa. PMID:20017953

  2. Mesodermal Gene Expression in the Acoel Isodiametra pulchra Indicates a Low Number of Mesodermal Cell Types and the Endomesodermal Origin of the Gonads

    PubMed Central

    Chiodin, Marta; Børve, Aina; Berezikov, Eugene; Ladurner, Peter; Martinez, Pedro; Hejnol, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Acoelomorphs are bilaterally symmetric small marine worms that lack a coelom and possess a digestive system with a single opening. Two alternative phylogenetic positions of this group within the animal tree are currently debated. In one view, Acoelomorpha is the sister group to all remaining Bilateria and as such, is a morphologically simple stepping stone in bilaterian evolution. In the other, the group is a lineage within the Deuterostomia, and therefore, has derived a simple morphology from a more complex ancestor. Acoels and the closely related Nemertodermatida and Xenoturbellida, which together form the Acoelomorpha, possess a very limited number of cell types. To further investigate the diversity and origin of mesodermal cell types we describe the expression pattern of 12 orthologs of bilaterian mesodermal markers including Six1/2, Twist, FoxC, GATA4/5/6, in the acoel Isodiametra pulchra. All the genes are expressed in stem cells (neoblasts), gonads, and at least subsets of the acoel musculature. Most are expressed in endomesodermal compartments of I. pulchra developing embryos similar to what has been described in cnidarians. Our molecular evidence indicates a very limited number of mesodermal cell types and suggests an endomesodermal origin of the gonads and the stem cell system. We discuss our results in light of the two prevailing phylogenetic positions of Acoelomorpha. PMID:23405161

  3. Posterior regeneration in Isodiametra pulchra (Acoela, Acoelomorpha)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Regeneration is a widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom, but the capacity to restore damaged or missing tissue varies greatly between different phyla and even within the same phylum. However, the distantly related Acoelomorpha and Platyhelminthes share a strikingly similar stem-cell system and regenerative capacity. Therefore, comparing the underlying mechanisms in these two phyla paves the way for an increased understanding of the evolution of this developmental process. To date, Isodiametra pulchra is the most promising candidate as a model for the Acoelomorpha, as it reproduces steadily under laboratory conditions and is amenable to various techniques, including the silencing of gene expression by RNAi. In order to provide an essential framework for future studies, we report the succession of regeneration events via the use of cytochemical, histological and microscopy techniques, and specify the total number of cells in adult individuals. Results Isodiametra pulchra is not capable of regenerating a new head, but completely restores all posterior structures within 10 days. Following amputation, the wound closes via the contraction of local muscle fibres and an extension of the dorsal epidermis. Subsequently, stem cells and differentiating cells invade the wound area and form a loosely delimited blastema. After two days, the posterior end is re-patterned with the male (and occasionally the female) genital primordium being apparent. Successively, these primordia differentiate into complete copulatory organs. The size of the body and also of the male and female copulatory organs, as well as the distance between the copulatory organs, progressively increase and by nine days copulation is possible. Adult individuals with an average length of 670 ?m consist of approximately 8100 cells. Conclusion Isodiametra pulchra regenerates through a combination of morphallactic and epimorphic processes. Existing structures are “re-modelled” and provide a framework onto which newly differentiating cells are added. Growth proceeds through the intercalary addition of structures, mirroring the embryonic and post-embryonic development of various organ systems. The suitability of Isodiametra pulchra for laboratory techniques, the fact that its transcriptome and genome data will soon be available, as well as its small size and low number of cells, make it a prime candidate subject for research into the cellular mechanisms that underlie regeneration in acoelomorphs. PMID:24160844

  4. The nervous system of Isodiametra pulchra (Acoela) with a discussion on the neuroanatomy of the Xenacoelomorpha and its evolutionary implications

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Acoels are microscopic marine worms that have become the focus of renewed debate and research due to their placement at the base of the Bilateria by molecular phylogenies. To date, Isodiametra pulchra is the most promising “model acoel” as it can be cultured and gene knockdown can be performed with double-stranded RNA. Despite its well-known morphology data on the nervous system are scarce. Therefore we examined this organ using various microscopic techniques, including histology, conventional histochemistry, electron microscopy, and immunocytochemistry in combination with CLSM and discuss our results in light of recently established phylogenies. Results The nervous system of Isodiametra pulchra consists of a bilobed brain with a dorsal posterior commissure, a frontal ring and tracts, four pairs of longitudinal neurite bundles, as well as a supramuscular and submuscular plexus. Serotonin-like immunoreactivity (SLI) is displayed in parts of the brain, the longitudinal neurite bundles and a large part of the supramuscular plexus, while FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity (RFLI) is displayed in parts of the brain and a distinct set of neurons, the longitudinal neurite bundles and the submuscular plexus. Despite this overlap SLI and RFLI are never colocalized. Most remarkable though is the presence of a distinct functional neuro-muscular system consisting of the statocyst, tracts, motor neurons and inner muscles, as well as the presence of various muscles that differ with regard to their ultrastructure and innervation. Conclusions The nervous system of Isodiametra pulchra consists of an insunk, bilobed brain, a peripheral part for perception and innervation of the smooth body-wall musculature as well as tracts and motor neurons that together with pseudostriated inner muscles are responsible for steering and quick movements. The insunk, bilobed brains with two to three commissures found in numerous acoels are homologous and evolved from a ring-commissural brain that was present in the stem species of acoelomorphs. The acoelomorph brain is bipartite, consisting of a Six3/6-dependend animal pole nervous system that persists throughout adulthood and an axial nervous system that does not develop by exhibiting a staggered pattern of conserved regulatory genes as in other bilaterians but by a nested pattern of these genes. This indicates that acoelomorphs stem from an ancestor with a simple brain or with a biphasic life cycle. PMID:23072457

  5. To Be or Not to Be a Flatworm: The Acoel Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, Detlev; Borgonie, Gaëtan; Funayama, Noriko; Gschwentner, Robert; Hartenstein, Volker; Hobmayer, Bert; Hooge, Matthew; Hrouda, Martina; Ishida, Sachiko; Kobayashi, Chiyoko; Kuales, Georg; Nishimura, Osamu; Pfister, Daniela; Rieger, Reinhard; Salvenmoser, Willi; Smith, Julian; Technau, Ulrich; Tyler, Seth; Agata, Kiyokazu; Salzburger, Walter; Ladurner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Since first described, acoels were considered members of the flatworms (Platyhelminthes). However, no clear synapomorphies among the three large flatworm taxa - the Catenulida, the Acoelomorpha and the Rhabditophora - have been characterized to date. Molecular phylogenies, on the other hand, commonly positioned acoels separate from other flatworms. Accordingly, our own multi-locus phylogenetic analysis using 43 genes and 23 animal species places the acoel flatworm Isodiametra pulchra at the base of all Bilateria, distant from other flatworms. By contrast, novel data on the distribution and proliferation of stem cells and the specific mode of epidermal replacement constitute a strong synapomorphy for the Acoela plus the major group of flatworms, the Rhabditophora. The expression of a piwi-like gene not only in gonadal, but also in adult somatic stem cells is another unique feature among bilaterians. These two independent stem-cell-related characters put the Acoela into the Platyhelminthes-Lophotrochozoa clade and account for the most parsimonious evolutionary explanation of epidermal cell renewal in the Bilateria. Most available multigene analyses produce conflicting results regarding the position of the acoels in the tree of life. Given these phylogenomic conflicts and the contradiction of developmental and morphological data with phylogenomic results, the monophyly of the phylum Platyhelminthes and the position of the Acoela remain unresolved. By these data, both the inclusion of Acoela within Platyhelminthes, and their separation from flatworms as basal bilaterians are well-supported alternatives. PMID:19430533

  6. Functional brain regeneration in the acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis.

    PubMed

    Sprecher, Simon G; Bernardo-Garcia, F Javier; van Giesen, Lena; Hartenstein, Volker; Reichert, Heinrich; Neves, Ricardo; Bailly, Xavier; Martinez, Pedro; Brauchle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The ability of some animals to regrow their head and brain after decapitation provides a striking example of the regenerative capacity within the animal kingdom. The acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis can regrow its head, brain and sensory head organs within only a few weeks after decapitation. How rapidly and to what degree it also reacquires its functionality to control behavior however remains unknown. We provide here a neuroanatomical map of the brain neuropils of the adult S. roscoffensis and show that after decapitation a normal neuroanatomical organization of the brain is restored in the majority of animals. By testing different behaviors we further show that functionality of both sensory perception and the underlying brain architecture are restored within weeks after decapitation. Interestingly not all behaviors are restored at the same speed and to the same extent. While we find that phototaxis recovered rapidly, geotaxis is not restored within 7?weeks. Our findings show that regeneration of the head, sensory organs and brain result in the restoration of directed navigation behavior, suggesting a tight coordination in the regeneration of certain sensory organs with that of their underlying neural circuits. Thus, at least in S. roscoffensis, the regenerative capacity of different sensory modalities follows distinct paths. PMID:26581588

  7. Functional brain regeneration in the acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis

    PubMed Central

    Sprecher, Simon G.; Bernardo-Garcia, F. Javier; van Giesen, Lena; Hartenstein, Volker; Reichert, Heinrich; Neves, Ricardo; Bailly, Xavier; Martinez, Pedro; Brauchle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ability of some animals to regrow their head and brain after decapitation provides a striking example of the regenerative capacity within the animal kingdom. The acoel worm Symsagittifera roscoffensis can regrow its head, brain and sensory head organs within only a few weeks after decapitation. How rapidly and to what degree it also reacquires its functionality to control behavior however remains unknown. We provide here a neuroanatomical map of the brain neuropils of the adult S. roscoffensis and show that after decapitation a normal neuroanatomical organization of the brain is restored in the majority of animals. By testing different behaviors we further show that functionality of both sensory perception and the underlying brain architecture are restored within weeks after decapitation. Interestingly not all behaviors are restored at the same speed and to the same extent. While we find that phototaxis recovered rapidly, geotaxis is not restored within 7 weeks. Our findings show that regeneration of the head, sensory organs and brain result in the restoration of directed navigation behavior, suggesting a tight coordination in the regeneration of certain sensory organs with that of their underlying neural circuits. Thus, at least in S. roscoffensis, the regenerative capacity of different sensory modalities follows distinct paths. PMID:26581588

  8. Graptemys pulchra Baur 1893: Alabama Map Turtle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Godwin, James C.; McCoy, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    The Alabama Map Turtle, Graptemys pulchra (Family Emydidae), is a moderately large riverine species endemic to the Mobile Bay drainage system of Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi. Sexual size dimorphism is pronounced, with adult females (carapace length [CL] to 273 mm) attaining more than twice the size of adult males (CL to 117 mm). The species is an inhabitant of relatively large, swift creeks and rivers, often with wide sandbars. Stream sections open to the sun and with abundant basking sites in the form of logs and brush are preferred. Six to seven clutches of 4–7 eggs are laid each year on river sandbars. Although the species is locally abundant, populations are threatened by habitat destruction, declines in their prey base, commercial collection, and vandalism. It is listed as a Species of Special Concern in Alabama.

  9. Whole-body acoel regeneration is controlled by Wnt and Bmp-Admp signaling.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Mansi; Mazza-Curll, Kathleen L; van Wolfswinkel, Josien C; Reddien, Peter W

    2014-05-19

    Whole-body regeneration is widespread in the Metazoa, yet little is known about how underlying molecular mechanisms compare across phyla. Acoels are an enigmatic phylum of invertebrate worms that can be highly informative about many questions in bilaterian evolution, including regeneration. We developed the three-banded panther worm, Hofstenia miamia, as a new acoelomorph model system for molecular studies of regeneration. Hofstenia were readily cultured, with accessible embryos, juveniles, and adults for experimentation. We developed molecular resources and tools for Hofstenia, including a transcriptome and robust systemic RNAi. We report the identification of molecular mechanisms that promote whole-body regeneration in Hofstenia. Wnt signaling controls regeneration of the anterior-posterior axis, and Bmp-Admp signaling controls regeneration of the dorsal-ventral axis. Perturbation of these pathways resulted in regeneration-abnormal phenotypes involving axial feature duplication, such as the regeneration of two heads following Wnt perturbation or the regeneration of ventral cells in place of dorsal ones following bmp or admp RNAi. Hofstenia regenerative mechanisms are strikingly similar to those guiding regeneration in planarians. However, phylogenetic analyses using the Hofstenia transcriptome support an early branching position for acoels among bilaterians, with the last common ancestor of acoels and planarians being the ancestor of the Bilateria. Therefore, these findings identify similar whole-body regeneration mechanisms in animals separated by more than 550 million years of evolution. PMID:24768051

  10. Coordinated spatial and temporal expression of Hox genes during embryogenesis in the acoel Convolutriloba longifissura

    PubMed Central

    Hejnol, Andreas; Martindale, Mark Q

    2009-01-01

    Background Hox genes are critical for patterning the bilaterian anterior-posterior axis. The evolution of their clustered genomic arrangement and ancestral function has been debated since their discovery. As acoels appear to represent the sister group to the remaining Bilateria (Nephrozoa), investigating Hox gene expression will provide an insight into the ancestral features of the Hox genes in metazoan evolution. Results We describe the expression of anterior, central and posterior class Hox genes and the ParaHox ortholog Cdx in the acoel Convolutriloba longifissura. Expression of all three Hox genes begins contemporaneously after gastrulation and then resolves into staggered domains along the anterior-posterior axis, suggesting that the spatial coordination of Hox gene expression was present in the bilaterian ancestor. After early surface ectodermal expression, the anterior and central class genes are expressed in small domains of putative neural precursor cells co-expressing ClSoxB1, suggesting an evolutionary early function of Hox genes in patterning parts of the nervous system. In contrast, the expression of the posterior Hox gene is found in all three germ layers in a much broader posterior region of the embryo. Conclusion Our results suggest that the ancestral set of Hox genes was involved in the anterior-posterior patterning of the nervous system of the last common bilaterian ancestor and were later co-opted for patterning in diverse tissues in the bilaterian radiation. The lack of temporal colinearity of Hox expression in acoels may be due to a loss of genomic clustering in this clade or, alternatively, temporal colinearity may have arisen in conjunction with the expansion of the Hox cluster in the Nephrozoa. PMID:19796382

  11. The chimerical and multifaceted marine acoel Symsagittifera roscoffensis: from photosymbiosis to brain regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bailly, Xavier; Laguerre, Laurent; Correc, Gaëlle; Dupont, Sam; Kurth, Thomas; Pfannkuchen, Anja; Entzeroth, Rolf; Probert, Ian; Vinogradov, Serge; Lechauve, Christophe; Garet-Delmas, Marie-José; Reichert, Heinrich; Hartenstein, Volker

    2014-01-01

    A remarkable example of biological engineering is the capability of some marine animals to take advantage of photosynthesis by hosting symbiotic algae. This capacity, referred to as photosymbiosis, is based on structural and functional complexes that involve two distantly unrelated organisms. These stable photosymbiotic associations between metazoans and photosynthetic protists play fundamental roles in marine ecology as exemplified by reef communities and their vulnerability to global changes threats. Here we introduce a photosymbiotic tidal acoel flatworm, Symsagittifera roscoffensis, and its obligatory green algal photosymbiont, Tetraselmis convolutae (Lack of the algal partner invariably results in acoel lethality emphasizing the mandatory nature of the photosymbiotic algae for the animal's survival). Together they form a composite photosymbiotic unit, which can be reared in controlled conditions that provide easy access to key life-cycle events ranging from early embryogenesis through the induction of photosymbiosis in aposymbiotic juveniles to the emergence of a functional “solar-powered” mature stage. Since it is possible to grow both algae and host under precisely controlled culture conditions, it is now possible to design a range of new experimental protocols that address the mechanisms and evolution of photosymbiosis. S. roscoffensis thus represents an emerging model system with experimental advantages that complement those of other photosymbiotic species, in particular corals. The basal taxonomic position of S. roscoffensis (and acoels in general) also makes it a relevant model for evolutionary studies of development, stem cell biology and regeneration. Finally, it's autotrophic lifestyle and lack of calcification make S. roscoffensis a favorable system to study the role of symbiosis in the response of marine organisms to climate change (e.g., ocean warming and acidification). In this article we summarize the state of knowledge of the biology of S. roscoffensis and its algal partner from studies dating back over a century, and provide an overview of ongoing research efforts that take advantage of this unique system. PMID:25324833

  12. The chimerical and multifaceted marine acoel Symsagittifera roscoffensis: from photosymbiosis to brain regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bailly, Xavier; Laguerre, Laurent; Correc, Gaëlle; Dupont, Sam; Kurth, Thomas; Pfannkuchen, Anja; Entzeroth, Rolf; Probert, Ian; Vinogradov, Serge; Lechauve, Christophe; Garet-Delmas, Marie-José; Reichert, Heinrich; Hartenstein, Volker

    2014-01-01

    A remarkable example of biological engineering is the capability of some marine animals to take advantage of photosynthesis by hosting symbiotic algae. This capacity, referred to as photosymbiosis, is based on structural and functional complexes that involve two distantly unrelated organisms. These stable photosymbiotic associations between metazoans and photosynthetic protists play fundamental roles in marine ecology as exemplified by reef communities and their vulnerability to global changes threats. Here we introduce a photosymbiotic tidal acoel flatworm, Symsagittifera roscoffensis, and its obligatory green algal photosymbiont, Tetraselmis convolutae (Lack of the algal partner invariably results in acoel lethality emphasizing the mandatory nature of the photosymbiotic algae for the animal's survival). Together they form a composite photosymbiotic unit, which can be reared in controlled conditions that provide easy access to key life-cycle events ranging from early embryogenesis through the induction of photosymbiosis in aposymbiotic juveniles to the emergence of a functional "solar-powered" mature stage. Since it is possible to grow both algae and host under precisely controlled culture conditions, it is now possible to design a range of new experimental protocols that address the mechanisms and evolution of photosymbiosis. S. roscoffensis thus represents an emerging model system with experimental advantages that complement those of other photosymbiotic species, in particular corals. The basal taxonomic position of S. roscoffensis (and acoels in general) also makes it a relevant model for evolutionary studies of development, stem cell biology and regeneration. Finally, it's autotrophic lifestyle and lack of calcification make S. roscoffensis a favorable system to study the role of symbiosis in the response of marine organisms to climate change (e.g., ocean warming and acidification). In this article we summarize the state of knowledge of the biology of S. roscoffensis and its algal partner from studies dating back over a century, and provide an overview of ongoing research efforts that take advantage of this unique system. PMID:25324833

  13. Development of real-time PCR assay for genetic identification of the mottled skate, Beringraja pulchra.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Kwan; Lee, Hae Young; Kim, Min-Hee; Jo, Hyun-Su; Choi, Dong-Ho; Kang, Pil-Won; Lee, Yang-Han; Cho, Nam-Soo; Park, Ki-Won; Chae, Ho Zoon

    2015-10-01

    The mottled skate, Beringraja pulchra is one of the commercially important fishes in the market today. However, B. pulchra identification methods have not been well developed. The current study reports a novel real-time PCR method based on TaqMan technology developed for the genetic identification of B. pulchra. The mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) nucleotide sequences of 29 B. pulchra, 157 skates and rays reported in GenBank DNA database were comparatively analyzed and the COI sequences specific to B. pulchra was identified. Based on this information, a system of specific primers and Minor Groove Binding (MGB) TaqMan probe were designed. The assay successfully discriminated in 29 specimens of B. pulchra and 27 commercial samples with unknown species identity. For B. pulchra DNA, an average Threshold Cycle (Ct) value of 19.1±0.1 was obtained. Among 27 commercial samples, two samples showed average Ct values 19.1±0.0 and 26.7±0.1, respectively and were confirmed to be B. pulchra based on sequencing. The other samples tested showed undetectable or extremely weak signals for the target fragment, which was also consistent with the sequencing results. These results reveal that the method developed is a rapid and efficient tool to identify B. pulchra and might prevent fraud or mislabeling during the distribution of B. pulchra products. PMID:26092191

  14. Stable Photosymbiotic Relationship under CO2-Induced Acidification in the Acoel Worm Symsagittifera Roscoffensis

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Sam; Moya, Aurélie; Bailly, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, oceans are becoming more acidic, a phenomenon known as ocean acidification. Many marine species predicted to be sensitive to this stressor are photosymbiotic, including corals and foraminifera. However, the direct impact of ocean acidification on the relationship between the photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic organism remains unclear and is complicated by other physiological processes known to be sensitive to ocean acidification (e.g. calcification and feeding). We have studied the impact of extreme pH decrease/pCO2 increase on the complete life cycle of the photosymbiotic, non-calcifying and pure autotrophic acoel worm, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. Our results show that this species is resistant to high pCO2 with no negative or even positive effects on fitness (survival, growth, fertility) and/or photosymbiotic relationship till pCO2 up to 54 K µatm. Some sub-lethal bleaching is only observed at pCO2 up to 270 K µatm when seawater is saturated by CO2. This indicates that photosymbiosis can be resistant to high pCO2. If such a finding would be confirmed in other photosymbiotic species, we could then hypothesize that negative impact of high pCO2 observed on other photosymbiotic species such as corals and foraminifera could occur through indirect impacts at other levels (calcification, feeding). PMID:22253736

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Microhyla pulchra (Amphidia, Anura, Microhylidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoyou; Li, Yongmin; Zhang, Huabin; Yan, Long; Wu, Xiao-Bing

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Microhyl pulchra was determined in this work. This mitogenome was 16,744?bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region (CR). The following four distinctive features were observed: a protein-coding gene (ND1) began with GTG as start codon; eight protein-coding genes (ND1, COII, ATP6, COIII, ND3, ND4, ND5 and Cytb) ended with incomplete stop codon T; four tRNA genes positions (tRNA-Leu (CUN)/tRNA-Thr/Trna-Pro/tRNA-Phe) located between CR and 12S rRNA genes, which was a novel mtDNA gene rearrangement in amphibians; there was no significant repeat regions in the CR. PMID:24438273

  16. Structure of the central nervous system of a juvenile acoel, Symsagittifera roscoffensis

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Albert; Martinez, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    The neuroarchitecture of Acoela has been at the center of morphological debates. Some authors, using immunochemical tools, suggest that the nervous system in Acoela is organized as a commissural brain that bears little resemblance to the central, ganglionic type brain of other flatworms, and bilaterians in general. Others, who used histological staining on paraffin sections, conclude that it is a compact structure (an endonal brain; e.g., Raikova 2004; von Graff 1891; Delage Arch Zool Exp Gén 4:109-144, 1886). To address this question with modern tools, we have obtained images from serial transmission electron microscopic sections of the entire hatchling of Symsagittifera roscoffensis. In addition, we obtained data from wholemounts of hatchlings labeled with markers for serotonin and tyrosinated tubulin. Our data show that the central nervous system of a juvenile S. roscoffensis consists of an anterior compact brain, formed by a dense, bilobed mass of neuronal cell bodies surrounding a central neuropile. The neuropile flanks the median statocyst and contains several types of neurites, classified according to their types of synaptic vesicles. The neuropile issues three pairs of nerve cords that run at different dorso-ventral positions along the whole length of the body. Neuronal cell bodies flank the cords, and neuromuscular synapses are abundant. The TEM analysis also reveals different classes of peripheral sensory neurons and provides valuable information about the spatial relationships between neurites and other cell types within the brain and nerve cords. We conclude that the acoel S. roscoffensis has a central brain that is comparable in size and architecture to the brain of other (rhabditophoran) flatworms. PMID:20549514

  17. Kaempulchraols P-T, Diterpenoids from Kaempferia pulchra Rhizomes Collected in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Win, Nwet Nwet; Ito, Takuya; Aimaiti, Simayijiang; Kodama, Takeshi; Tanaka, Masami; Ngwe, Hla; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Abe, Ikuro; Morita, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-25

    The isolation of the oily fraction obtained from the CHCl3-soluble extract of the rhizomes of Kaempferia pulchra afforded five new isopimarane diterpenoids, kaempulchraols P-T (1-5), along with two known analogues. The structures were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques, including 2D NMR spectroscopy. PMID:26335161

  18. Metabolic molecular markers of the tidal clock in the marine crustacean Eurydice pulchra

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, John Stuart; Lee, Kate D.; Zhang, Lin; Feeney, Kevin; Webster, Simon George; Blades, Matthew James; Kyriacou, Charalambos Panayiotis; Hastings, Michael Harvey; Wilcockson, David Charles

    2015-01-01

    Summary In contrast to the well mapped molecular orchestration of circadian timekeeping in terrestrial organisms, the mechanisms that direct tidal and lunar rhythms in marine species are entirely unknown. Using a combination of biochemical and molecular approaches we have identified a series of metabolic markers of the tidal clock of the intertidal isopod Eurydice pulchra. Specifically, we show that the overoxidation of peroxiredoxin (PRX), a conserved marker of circadian timekeeping in terrestrial eukaryotes [1], follows a circatidal (approximately 12.4 hours) pattern in E. pulchra, in register with the tidal pattern of swimming. In parallel, we show that mitochondrially encoded genes are expressed with a circatidal rhythm. Together, these findings demonstrate that PRX overoxidation rhythms are not intrinsically circadian; rather they appear to resonate with the dominant metabolic cycle of an organism, regardless of its frequency. Moreover, they provide the first molecular leads for dissecting the tidal clockwork. PMID:25898100

  19. Expanding our Understanding of the Seaweed Holobiont: RNA Viruses of the Red Alga Delisea pulchra

    PubMed Central

    Lachnit, Tim; Thomas, Torsten; Steinberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Marine seaweeds are holobionts comprised of the macroalgal hosts and their associated microbiota. While the composition of the bacterial component of seaweed microbiomes is increasingly studied, almost nothing is known about the presence, diversity and composition of viruses in macroalgae in situ. In this study, we characterize for the first time the viruses associated with a red macroalga, Delisea pulchra. Using transmission electron microscopy we identified diverse morphotypes of virus-like particles in D. pulchra ranging from icosahedral to bacilliform to coiled pleomorphic as well as bacteriophages. Virome sequencing revealed the presence of a diverse group of dsRNA viruses affiliated to the genus Totivirus, known to infect plant pathogenic fungi. We further identified a ssRNA virus belonging to the order Picornavirales with a close phylogenetic relationship to a pathogenic virus infecting marine diatoms. The results of this study shed light on a so far neglected part of the seaweed holobiont, and suggest that some of the identified viruses may be possible pathogens for a host that is already known to be significantly impacted by bacterial infections. PMID:26779145

  20. Expanding our Understanding of the Seaweed Holobiont: RNA Viruses of the Red Alga Delisea pulchra.

    PubMed

    Lachnit, Tim; Thomas, Torsten; Steinberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Marine seaweeds are holobionts comprised of the macroalgal hosts and their associated microbiota. While the composition of the bacterial component of seaweed microbiomes is increasingly studied, almost nothing is known about the presence, diversity and composition of viruses in macroalgae in situ. In this study, we characterize for the first time the viruses associated with a red macroalga, Delisea pulchra. Using transmission electron microscopy we identified diverse morphotypes of virus-like particles in D. pulchra ranging from icosahedral to bacilliform to coiled pleomorphic as well as bacteriophages. Virome sequencing revealed the presence of a diverse group of dsRNA viruses affiliated to the genus Totivirus, known to infect plant pathogenic fungi. We further identified a ssRNA virus belonging to the order Picornavirales with a close phylogenetic relationship to a pathogenic virus infecting marine diatoms. The results of this study shed light on a so far neglected part of the seaweed holobiont, and suggest that some of the identified viruses may be possible pathogens for a host that is already known to be significantly impacted by bacterial infections. PMID:26779145

  1. A new species of Centris ( Centris) (Fabricius) from northeastern Brazil, with taxonomic notes on C. ( C.) pulchra Moure, Oliveira & Viana (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Mahlmann, Thiago; de Oliveira, Favízia Freitas

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new species of the bee genus Centris, Centris (Centris) byrsonimae Mahlmann & Oliveira sp. n., whose name has appeared as a nomen nudum in the literature since 1985. Further, a new species group of Centris s.str. is proposed, the pulchra group, based on morphological characters, which comprises the species Centris pulchra Moure, Oliveira & Viana, 2003 and Centris byrsonimaesp. n..Based on information from specimen labels studied and data from the literature, a list of plant species visited by the pulchra group is presented. The male genitalia and hidden metasomal sterna 7 and 8 of Centris pulchra are described for the first time. Typographic errors pertaining to the paratype labels reported in the original description of Centris pulchra are corrected. One female paratype of Centris pulchra is designated herein as a paratype of Centris byrsonimaesp. n. An updated list of species of Centris s.str. from northeastern Brazil is provided including references about geographic distributions as well as an identification key to the pulchra species group. PMID:23459508

  2. A new species of Centris ( Centris) (Fabricius) from northeastern Brazil, with taxonomic notes on C. ( C.) pulchra Moure, Oliveira & Viana (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mahlmann, Thiago; de Oliveira, Favízia Freitas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of the bee genus Centris, Centris (Centris) byrsonimae Mahlmann & Oliveira sp. n., whose name has appeared as a nomen nudum in the literature since 1985. Further, a new species group of Centris s.str. is proposed, the pulchra group, based on morphological characters, which comprises the species Centris pulchra Moure, Oliveira & Viana, 2003 and Centris byrsonimae sp. n..Based on information from specimen labels studied and data from the literature, a list of plant species visited by the pulchra group is presented. The male genitalia and hidden metasomal sterna 7 and 8 of Centris pulchra are described for the first time. Typographic errors pertaining to the paratype labels reported in the original description of Centris pulchra are corrected. One female paratype of Centris pulchra is designated herein as a paratype of Centris byrsonimae sp. n. An updated list of species of Centris s.str. from northeastern Brazil is provided including references about geographic distributions as well as an identification key to the pulchra species group. PMID:23459508

  3. Community Structure and Functional Gene Profile of Bacteria on Healthy and Diseased Thalli of the Red Seaweed Delisea pulchra

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Neil; Steinberg, Peter; Rusch, Doug; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Thomas, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Disease is increasingly viewed as a major factor in the ecology of marine communities and its impact appears to be increasing with environmental change, such as global warming. The temperate macroalga Delisea pulchra bleaches in Southeast Australia during warm summer periods, a phenomenon which previous studies have indicated is caused by a temperature induced bacterial disease. In order to better understand the ecology of this disease, the bacterial communities associated with threes type of samples was investigated using 16S rRNA gene and environmental shotgun sequencing: 1) unbleached (healthy) D. pulchra 2) bleached parts of D. pulchra and 3) apparently healthy tissue adjacent to bleached regions. Phylogenetic differences between healthy and bleached communities mainly reflected relative changes in the taxa Colwelliaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Thalassomonas and Parvularcula. Comparative metagenomics showed clear difference in the communities of healthy and diseased D. pulchra as reflected by changes in functions associated with transcriptional regulation, cation/multidrug efflux and non-ribosomal peptide synthesis. Importantly, the phylogenetic and functional composition of apparently healthy tissue adjacent to bleached sections of the thalli indicated that changes in the microbial communities already occur in the absence of visible tissue damage. This shift in unbleached sections might be due to the decrease in furanones, algal metabolites which are antagonists of bacterial quorum sensing. This study reveals the complex shift in the community composition associated with bleaching of Delisea pulchra and together with previous studies is consistent with a model in which elevated temperatures reduce levels of chemical defenses in stressed thalli, leading to colonization or proliferation by opportunistic pathogens or scavengers. PMID:23226544

  4. Induction of metamorphosis in the sea urchin Holopneustes purpurascens by a metabolite complex from the algal host Delisea pulchra.

    PubMed

    Williamson, J E; De Nys, R; Kumar, N; Carson, D G; Steinberg, P D

    2000-06-01

    Most benthic invertebrates have complex life cycles with planktonic larvae that return to the substratum to settle and metamorphose into a benthic stage. Although naturally produced chemical cues have long been thought to be important for the settlement or metamorphosis of invertebrate larvae, few ecologically relevant chemical cues have been clearly identified. The marine echinoid Holopneustes purpurascens has a complex life cycle, with a planktonic, nonfeeding dispersive larva that metamorphoses into a benthic stage that lives in the canopy of subtidal benthic algae such as the red alga Delisea pulchra and the kelp Ecklonia radiata. Recently recruited juveniles are found primarily on D. pulchra, and we hypothesized that this was in response to a chemical cue produced by this alga. Competent larvae metamorphosed in the presence of D. pulchra, or seawater surrounding this alga, but not in response to the presence of E. radiata or its extracts. A cue for metamorphosis was isolated and characterized from D. pulchra and found to be a water-soluble complex of the sugar floridoside and isethionic acid in a 1:1 molar ratio. The floridoside-isethionic acid complex also triggered settlement in H. purpurascens; however, this response was less specific than metamorphosis and was reversible. Larvae of H. purpurascens also metamorphosed in the presence of several other species of red, but not brown or green, algae from their habitat. Floridoside is found only in red algae, suggesting that the floridoside-isethionic acid complex may be acting as a cue for metamorphosis in other red algae as well as in D. pulchra. PMID:10897447

  5. Kaempulchraols A-H, Diterpenoids from the Rhizomes of Kaempferia pulchra Collected in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Win, Nwet Nwet; Ito, Takuya; Aimaiti, Simayijiang; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Ngwe, Hla; Abe, Ikuro; Morita, Hiroyuki

    2015-05-22

    Eight new diterpenoids, kaempulchraols A-H (1-8), along with five known analogues were isolated from the CHCl3-soluble extract of rhizomes of Kaempferia pulchra of Myanmar. The structures of these compounds were elucidated using extensive spectroscopic techniques including X-ray diffraction analysis. All the isolates were tested for their antiproliferative activity against a panel of five human cancer cell lines (A549, human lung cancer; HeLa, human cervix cancer; PANC-1 and PSN-1, human pancreatic cancer; MDA-MB-231, human breast cancer) and TIG-3, normal human primary fibroblast cells. Kaempulchraol F (6) exhibited weak activity against the human pancreatic PSN-1 cell line with an IC50 value of 12.3 ?M. PMID:25919052

  6. Effects of Temperature Stress and Aquarium Conditions on the Red Macroalga Delisea pulchra and its Associated Microbial Community

    PubMed Central

    Zozaya-Valdés, Enrique; Roth-Schulze, Alexandra J.; Thomas, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the rate and severity of diseases affecting habitat-forming marine organisms, such as corals, sponges, and macroalgae. Delisea pulchra is a temperate red macroalga that suffers from a bleaching disease that is more frequent during summer, when seawater temperatures are elevated and the alga’s chemical defense is weakened. A bacterial cause for the disease is implied by previous studies showing that some isolated strains can cause bleaching in vitro and that host-associated microbial communities are distinct between diseased and healthy individuals. However, nothing is known about the successional events in the microbial community that occur during the development of the disease. To study this aspect in the future, we aimed here to develop an experimental setup to study the bleaching disease in a controllable aquarium environment. Application of a temperature stress (up to 27°C) did not cause a clear and consistent pattern of bleaching, suggesting that temperature alone might not be the only or main factor to cause the disease. The results also showed that the aquarium conditions alone are sufficient to produce bleaching symptoms. Microbial community analysis based on 16S rRNA gene fingerprinting and sequencing showed significant changes after 15 days in the aquarium, indicating that the native microbial associates of D. pulchra are not stably maintained. Microbial taxa that were enriched in the aquarium-held D. pulchra thalli, however, did not match on a taxonomic level those that have been found to be enriched in natural bleaching events. Together our observations indicate that environmental factors, other than the ones investigated here, might drive the bleaching disease in D. pulchra and that the aquarium conditions have substantial impact on the alga-associated microbiome. PMID:26925036

  7. Trees as huge flowers and flowers as oversized floral guides: the role of floral color change and retention of old flowers in Tibouchina pulchra

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Vinícius L. G.; Weynans, Kevin; Sazima, Marlies; Lunau, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Floral color changes and retention of old flowers are frequently combined phenomena restricted to the floral guide or single flowers in few-flowered inflorescences. They are thought to increase the attractiveness over long distances and to direct nearby pollinators toward the rewarding flowers. In Tibouchina pulchra, a massively flowering tree, the whole flower changes its color during anthesis. On the first day, the flowers are white and on the next 3 days, they change to pink. This creates a new large-scale color pattern in which the white pre-changed flowers contrast against the pink post-changed ones over the entire tree. We describe the spectral characteristics of floral colors of T. pulchra and test bumblebees’ response to this color pattern when viewed at different angles (simulating long and short distances). The results indicated the role of different color components in bumblebee attraction and the possible scenario in which this flower color pattern has evolved. We tested bumblebees’ preference for simulated trees with 75% pink and 25% white flowers resembling the color patterns of T. pulchra, and trees with green leaves and pink flowers (control) in long-distance approach. We also compared an artificial setting with three pink flowers and one white flower (T. pulchra model) against four pink flowers with white floral guides (control) in short-distance approach. Bumblebees spontaneously preferred the simulated T. pulchra patterns in both approaches despite similar reward. Moreover, in short distances, pollinator visits to peripheral, non-rewarding flowers occurred only half as frequently in the simulated T. pulchra when compared to the control. Thefore, this exceptional floral color change and the retention of old flowers in T. pulchra favors the attraction of pollinators over long distances in a deception process while it honestly directs them toward the rewarding flowers at short distances possibly exploring their innate color preferences. PMID:26052335

  8. Isopimarane diterpenoids from Kaempferia pulchra rhizomes collected in Myanmar and their Vpr inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Win, Nwet Nwet; Ito, Takuya; Matsui, Takashi; Aimaiti, Simayijiang; Kodama, Takeshi; Ngwe, Hla; Okamoto, Yasuko; Tanaka, Masami; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Abe, Ikuro; Morita, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    Viral protein R (Vpr), an accessory gene of HIV-1, plays important roles in viral pathogenesis. Screening of Myanmar medicinal plants that are popular as primary treatments for HIV/AIDS and for HIV-related problems revealed the potent anti-Vpr activity of the CHCl3-soluble extract of Kaempferia pulchra rhizomes, in comparison with that of the positive control, damnacanthal. Fractionation of the active CHCl3-soluble extract led to the identification of 30 isopimarane diterpenoids, including kaempulchraols A-W (1-23). All isolates were assayed for anti-Vpr activity against TREx-HeLa-Vpr cells, in which Vpr expression is tightly regulated by tetracycline. Kaempulchraols B (2), D (4), G (7), Q (17), T (20), U (21), and W (23) exhibited potent anti-Vpr activity, at concentrations ranging from 1.56 to 6.25μM. The structure-activity relationships of the active kaempulchraols suggested that the presence of a hydroxy group at C-14 in an isopimara-8(9),15-diene skeleton and the presence of an acetoxy group at C-1 or C-7 in an isopimara-8(14),15-diene skeleton are the critical factors for the inhibitory effects against TREx-HeLa-Vpr cells. PMID:26916438

  9. Normonanchocidins A, B and D, New Pentacyclic Guanidine Alkaloids from the Far-Eastern Marine Sponge Monanchora pulchra.

    PubMed

    Tabakmakher, Ksenya M; Makarieva, Tatyana N; Denisenko, Vladimir A; Guzii, Alla G; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Kuzmich, Aleksandra S; Stonik, Valentin A

    2015-06-01

    New pentacyclic guanidine alkaloids, normonanchocidins A, B and D (1-3) along with the earlier known monanchocidin A were isolated from the Far-Eastern marine sponge Monanchora pulchra. Structures of 1-3 were elucidated using ID- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data. Compound 1 and a mixture of 2 and 3 (1:1) exhibited cytotoxic activities against human leukemia THP-1 cells with IC50 values of 2.1 ?M and 3.7 ?M, respectively, and against cervix epithelial carcinoma HeLa cells with IC50 of 3.8 ?M and 6.8 ?M, respectively. PMID:26197514

  10. Genomes and Virulence Factors of Novel Bacterial Pathogens Causing Bleaching Disease in the Marine Red Alga Delisea pulchra

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Neil; Case, Rebecca J.; Longford, Sharon R.; Seyedsayamdost, Mohammad R.; Steinberg, Peter D.; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Thomas, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    Nautella sp. R11, a member of the marine Roseobacter clade, causes a bleaching disease in the temperate-marine red macroalga, Delisea pulchra. To begin to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underpinning the ability of Nautella sp. R11 to colonize, invade and induce bleaching of D. pulchra, we sequenced and analyzed its genome. The genome encodes several factors such as adhesion mechanisms, systems for the transport of algal metabolites, enzymes that confer resistance to oxidative stress, cytolysins, and global regulatory mechanisms that may allow for the switch of Nautella sp. R11 to a pathogenic lifestyle. Many virulence effectors common in phytopathogenic bacteria are also found in the R11 genome, such as the plant hormone indole acetic acid, cellulose fibrils, succinoglycan and nodulation protein L. Comparative genomics with non-pathogenic Roseobacter strains and a newly identified pathogen, Phaeobacter sp. LSS9, revealed a patchy distribution of putative virulence factors in all genomes, but also led to the identification of a quorum sensing (QS) dependent transcriptional regulator that was unique to pathogenic Roseobacter strains. This observation supports the model that a combination of virulence factors and QS-dependent regulatory mechanisms enables indigenous members of the host alga's epiphytic microbial community to switch to a pathogenic lifestyle, especially under environmental conditions when innate host defence mechanisms are compromised. PMID:22162749

  11. Rapid Development of Microsatellite Markers with 454 Pyrosequencing in a Vulnerable Fish, the Mottled Skate, Raja pulchra

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Park, Jung-Youn; Jo, Hyun-Su

    2012-01-01

    The mottled skate, Raja pulchra, is an economically valuable fish. However, due to a severe population decline, it is listed as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. To analyze its genetic structure and diversity, microsatellite markers were developed using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 17,033 reads containing dinucleotide microsatellite repeat units (mean, 487 base pairs) were identified from 453,549 reads. Among 32 loci containing more than nine repeat units, 20 primer sets (62%) produced strong PCR products, of which 14 were polymorphic. In an analysis of 60 individuals from two R. pulchra populations, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 1–10, and the mean allelic richness was 4.7. No linkage disequilibrium was found between any pair of loci, indicating that the markers were independent. The Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium test showed significant deviation in two of the 28 single-loci after sequential Bonferroni’s correction. Using 11 primer sets, cross-species amplification was demonstrated in nine related species from four families within two classes. Among the 11 loci amplified from three other Rajidae family species; three loci were polymorphic. A monomorphic locus was amplified in all three Rajidae family species and the Dasyatidae family. Two Rajidae polymorphic loci amplified monomorphic target DNAs in four species belonging to the Carcharhiniformes class, and another was polymorphic in two Carcharhiniformes species. PMID:22837688

  12. Rapid development of microsatellite markers with 454 pyrosequencing in a vulnerable fish, the mottled skate, Raja pulchra.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Park, Jung-Youn; Jo, Hyun-Su

    2012-01-01

    The mottled skate, Raja pulchra, is an economically valuable fish. However, due to a severe population decline, it is listed as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. To analyze its genetic structure and diversity, microsatellite markers were developed using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 17,033 reads containing dinucleotide microsatellite repeat units (mean, 487 base pairs) were identified from 453,549 reads. Among 32 loci containing more than nine repeat units, 20 primer sets (62%) produced strong PCR products, of which 14 were polymorphic. In an analysis of 60 individuals from two R. pulchra populations, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 1-10, and the mean allelic richness was 4.7. No linkage disequilibrium was found between any pair of loci, indicating that the markers were independent. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test showed significant deviation in two of the 28 single-loci after sequential Bonferroni's correction. Using 11 primer sets, cross-species amplification was demonstrated in nine related species from four families within two classes. Among the 11 loci amplified from three other Rajidae family species; three loci were polymorphic. A monomorphic locus was amplified in all three Rajidae family species and the Dasyatidae family. Two Rajidae polymorphic loci amplified monomorphic target DNAs in four species belonging to the Carcharhiniformes class, and another was polymorphic in two Carcharhiniformes species. PMID:22837688

  13. The genus Nephtys (Polychaeta: Phyllodocida) of northern Europe: A review of species, including the description of N. pulchra sp. n. and a key to the Nephtyidae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainer, S. F.

    1991-03-01

    Twelve species of Nephtys now known from northern Europe are described, including one new species, N. pulchra sp. n. A key is provided to the 14 species of Nephtyidae, from the region. Geographic changes in the setiger in which interramal cirri first occur are recognized in N. caeca (Fabricius), N. ciliata (Müller), N. hombergii Savigny and N. pente Rainer.

  14. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of an extract, fractions, and compounds isolated from Gochnatia pulchra aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Lucarini, R; Tozatti, M G; Silva, M L A; Gimenez, V M M; Pauletti, P M; Groppo, M; Turatti, I C C; Cunha, W R; Martins, C H G

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports on the in vitro antibacterial and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties of a hydroethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gochnatia pulchra (HEGP). It also describes the antibacterial activity of HEGP fractions and of the isolated compounds genkwanin, scutellarin, apigenin, and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, as evaluated by a broth microdilution method. While HEGP and its fractions did not provide promising results, the isolated compounds exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity. The most sensitive microorganism was Streptococcus pyogenes, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 100, 50 and 25 µg/mL for genkwanin and the flavonoids apigenin and scutellarin, respectively. Genkwanin produced an MIC value of 25 µg/mL against Enterococcus faecalis. A paw edema model in rats and a pleurisy inflammation model in mice aided investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of HEGP. This study also evaluated the ability of HEGP to modulate carrageenan-induced interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production. Orally administered HEGP (250 and 500 mg/kg) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Regarding carrageenan-induced pleurisy, HEGP at 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg diminished leukocyte migration by 71.43%, 69.24%, and 73.34% (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP suppressed IL-1β and MCP-1 production by 55% and 50% at 50 mg/kg (P<0.05) and 60% and 25% at 100 mg/kg (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP abated TNF-α production by macrophages by 6.6%, 33.3%, and 53.3% at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and MCP-1. PMID:26200228

  15. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of an extract, fractions, and compounds isolated from Gochnatia pulchra aerial parts

    PubMed Central

    Lucarini, R.; Tozatti, M.G.; Silva, M.L.A.; Gimenez, V.M.M.; Pauletti, P.M.; Groppo, M.; Turatti, I.C.C.; Cunha, W.R.; Martins, C.H.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the in vitro antibacterial and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties of a hydroethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gochnatia pulchra (HEGP). It also describes the antibacterial activity of HEGP fractions and of the isolated compounds genkwanin, scutellarin, apigenin, and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, as evaluated by a broth microdilution method. While HEGP and its fractions did not provide promising results, the isolated compounds exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity. The most sensitive microorganism was Streptococcus pyogenes, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 100, 50 and 25 µg/mL for genkwanin and the flavonoids apigenin and scutellarin, respectively. Genkwanin produced an MIC value of 25 µg/mL against Enterococcus faecalis. A paw edema model in rats and a pleurisy inflammation model in mice aided investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of HEGP. This study also evaluated the ability of HEGP to modulate carrageenan-induced interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production. Orally administered HEGP (250 and 500 mg/kg) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Regarding carrageenan-induced pleurisy, HEGP at 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg diminished leukocyte migration by 71.43%, 69.24%, and 73.34% (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP suppressed IL-1β and MCP-1 production by 55% and 50% at 50 mg/kg (P<0.05) and 60% and 25% at 100 mg/kg (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP abated TNF-α production by macrophages by 6.6%, 33.3%, and 53.3% at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and MCP-1. PMID:26200228

  16. Establishing the redox potential of Tibouchina pulchra (Cham.) Cogn., a native tree species from the Atlantic Rain Forest, in the vicinity of an oil refinery in SE Brazil.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Marisia Pannia; Domingos, Marisa

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to establish the seasonal variations in the redox potential ranges of young Tibouchina pulchra plants growing in the Cubatão region (SE Brazil) under varying levels of oxidative stress caused by air pollutants. The plants were exposed to filtered air (FA) and non-filtered air (NFA) in open-top chambers installed next to an oil refinery in Cubatão during six exposure periods of 90 days each, which included the winter and summer seasons. After exposure, several analyses were performed, including the foliar concentrations of ascorbic acid and glutathione in its reduced (AsA and GSH), total (totAA and totG) and oxidized forms (DHA and GSSG); their ratios (AsA/totAA and GSH/totG); the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR); and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA). The range of antioxidant responses in T. pulchra plants varied seasonally and was stimulated by high or low air pollutant concentrations and/or air temperatures. Glutathione and APX were primarily responsible for increasing plant tolerance to oxidative stress originating from air pollution in the region. The high or low air temperatures mainly affected enzymatic activity. The content of MDA increased in response to increasing ozone concentration, thus indicating that the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance may not have been reached. PMID:24407781

  17. Response of stress indicators and growth parameters of Tibouchina pulchra Cogn. exposed to air and soil pollution near the industrial complex of Cubatão, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Klumpp, G; Furlan, C M; Domingos, M; Klumpp, A

    2000-01-31

    The present study was performed in the vicinity of the industrial complex of Cubatão, São Paulo, Brazil, in order to evaluate the response of 'manaca da serra' Tibouchina pulchra Cogn. (Melastomataceae), a common species of secondary Atlantic Rain Forest vegetation, to the impact of complex air pollution. Emphasis was given to changes of biochemical parameters such as ascorbic acid concentration, peroxidase activity, contents of water-soluble thiols, pH of leaf extract and buffering capacity. These plant factors are often used as early indicators of air pollution stress. Field experiments included sampling of leaves from mature trees in areas with different air pollution load (passive monitoring), exposure of saplings cultivated in uniform soil at these areas (active monitoring) and a study on the combined effects of contaminated soil and air pollution. In general, metabolic response of saplings was more accentuated than that of mature trees. Leaf extract pH and buffering capacity showed no or only small alterations in plants exposed to industrial emissions. In contrast, air pollution resulted in a distinct decrease in ascorbic acid contents and an increase in peroxidase activity and thiol concentrations in leaves. Cultivation of saplings in soil types from contaminated regions frequently caused the same modifications or enhanced the effects produced by air pollution. Growth analysis of exposed saplings demonstrated that a change of the relationship between above-ground and below-ground plant parts was the most obvious effect of air pollution and soil contamination. The experiments showed that even T. pulchra, a species considered resistant to air pollution, suffers metabolic disturbances by the present ambient air and soil quality. Although biochemical and physiological alterations were not related to a certain air pollution type, they could be used to estimate the overall pollution load and to map zones with different air quality. PMID:10682379

  18. Physiological responses of the tropical tree Tibouchina pulchra Cogn under the influence of combustion of crude oil and natural gas at an oil refinery.

    PubMed

    Silva, Daiane T; Moraes, Regina M

    2013-04-01

    A refinery located on the slopes of a mountain range in the city of Cubatão (SE-Brazil) is the main source of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) in the region. For this reason, the refinery replaced a system in which energy was produced from crude oil combustion in boilers with a system of energy and vapor co-generation in a thermoelectric power plant fueled by natural gas. The aim of this study was to investigate the responses of Tibouchina pulchra to the fuel switching. Saplings planted in pots were distributed throughout monitoring sites around the polluting source (sites I, II, III and IV) and in a site (V) far from emissions. Changes on the plants responses occur along the three fuel switching phases. During the last phase, increased carbon assimilation (Asat) and decreased stomatal conductance (gs) were observed in plants growing in sites II and III; as a consequence, intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) increased. However, the increase in Asat did not promote growth increase suggesting that changes at the refinery did not result in better air quality, but only in a change in the main contaminants. PMID:23352657

  19. A novel form of pigment-dispersing hormone in the central nervous system of the intertidal marine isopod, Eurydice pulchra (leach).

    PubMed

    Wilcockson, David C; Zhang, Lin; Hastings, Michael H; Kyriacou, Charalambos P; Webster, Simon G

    2011-02-15

    Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is well known as a circadian clock output factor, which drives daily activity rhythms in many insects. The role of its homologue, pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH), in the regulation of circadian and/or circatidal rhythmicity in crustaceans is, however, poorly understood. The intertidal isopod crustacean, Eurydice pulchra has well-defined circatidal (12.4-hour) activity rhythms. In this study we show that this runs parallel to a circadian (24-hour) cycle of chromatophore dispersion. As a first step in determining the potential role of PDH in these rhythms, we have identified a novel form of PDH expressed in this species. Because conventional homology cloning was unsuccessful, we employed immuno-identification and Edman microsequencing to determine the primary structure of this peptide. From this, cDNA cloning identified the nucleotide encoding sequence and thus facilitated description of PDH neurons by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. We show them to be morphologically similar to those that co-ordinate circadian activity rhythms in insects. In animals expressing both tidal (activity) and circadian (chromatophore) rhythms, however, there was no evidence for a corresponding periodicity in the expression of pdh transcript, as determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in Eurydice heads. It is therefore suggested that any role for PDH in daily/tidal timing in Eurydice is not mediated at the transcriptional level, rather rhythms in neurohemal release may be important in such co-ordination. PMID:21192084

  20. Spawning Characteristics and Artificial Hatching of Female Mottled Skate, Beringraja pulchra in the West Coast of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee-Woong; Jo, Yeong-Rok; Kang, Duk-Yong; Jeong, Gyeong-Suk; Jo, Hyun-Su

    2013-09-01

    The gonadsomatic index (GSI) of mottled skate was the highest in April, GSI and HSI showed a reverse phase for its reproductive cycle. The fish had one pair of egg capsules, having 1 to 7 fertilized eggs, and spawned all the year round. When surveying the reproductive characteristics of females over 63 ? in disc width, we found the spawning peak was between April to June, and the appearance ratio of egg capsules was the highest in May (32.1%). The eggs were hatched at 8°C, 13°C, 18°C, water temperature (12.8 to 24.2°C), and the best hatching temperature was 18°C. The number of fish hatched was 4 to 5 fish/egg capsules, and the hatching rate was 100%. The sex ratios of hatching larvae were 45.5% female and 54.5% male. Therefore this study will provide fundamental data and information for artificial reproduction of the mottled skate. PMID:25949140

  1. Mitochondrial genome data support the basal position of acoelomorpha and the polyphyly of the platyhelminthes

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz-Trillo, Inaki; Riutort, Marta; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Baguna, Jaume; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2004-05-01

    We determined 9.7, 5.2, and 6.8 kb, respectively, of the mitochondrial genomes of the acoel Paratomella rubra, the nemertodermatid Nemertoderma westbladi and the free-living rhabditophoran platyhelminth Microstomum lineare. The identified gene arrangements are unique among metazoans, including each other, sharing no more than one or two single gene boundaries with a few distantly related taxa. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences inferred from the sequenced genes confirms that the acoelomorph flatworms (acoels + nemertodermatids) do not belong to the Platyhelminthes, but are, instead, the most basal extant bilaterian group. Therefore, the Platyhelminthes, as traditionally constituted, is a polyphyletic phylum.

  2. Epidemiology of Powdery Mildew on Resistant and Susceptible Flowering Dogwood Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pulchra (syn. Microsphaera pulchra) is an important disease on flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) in the Eastern United States. Temporal progress of powdery mildew on flowering dogwood cultivars with different levels of resistance was investigated in the field in 2...

  3. Epidemiology of Powedery Mildew on Flowering Dogwood in Tennessee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe pulchra (syn. Microsphaera pulchra) is an important disease on flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) in the Eastern United States. Temporal progress of powdery mildew on flowering dogwood cultivars with different levels of resistance was investigated in the field in 2...

  4. The phylogenetic position of Acoela as revealed by the complete mitochondrial genome of Symsagittifera roscoffensis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Acoels are simply organized unsegmented worms, lacking hindgut and anus. Several publications over recent years challenge the long-held view that acoels are early offshoots of the flatworms. Instead a basal position as sister group to all other bilaterian animals was suggested, mainly based on molecular evidence. This led to the view that features of acoels might reflect those of the last common ancestor of Bilateria, and resulted in several evo-devo studies trying to interpret bilaterian evolution using acoels as a proxy model for the "Urbilateria". Results We describe the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a member of the Acoela, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. Gene content and circular organization of the mitochondrial genome does not significantly differ from other bilaterian animals. However, gene order shows no similarity to any other mitochondrial genome within the Metazoa. Phylogenetic analyses of concatenated alignments of amino acid sequences from protein coding genes support a position of Acoela and Nemertodermatida as the sister group to all other Bilateria. Our data provided no support for a sister group relationship between Xenoturbellida and Acoela or Acoelomorpha. The phylogenetic position of Xenoturbella bocki as sister group to or part of the deuterostomes was also unstable. Conclusions Our phylogenetic analysis supports the view that acoels and nemertodermatids are the earliest divergent extant lineage of Bilateria. As such they remain a valid source for seeking primitive characters present in the last common ancestor of Bilateria. Gene order of mitochondrial genomes seems to be very variable among Acoela and Nemertodermatida and the groundplan for the metazoan mitochondrial genome remains elusive. More data are needed to interpret mitochondrial genome evolution at the base of Bilateria. PMID:20942955

  5. Determination of total sulfur in lichens and plants by combustion-infrared analysis. [Medicago sativa L. ; Vitis labruscana Bailey; Festuca sp. ; Fraxinum pennsylvanica Marsh. ; Paremelia chlorochroa Tuck. ; P. sulcata Tayl. ; Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. ; Artemisia tridentata Nuttl; Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. ; Triticum compactum Host; Agropyron smithii Rydb. ; Salix pulchra Cham

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, L.L.; Engleman, E.E.; Peard, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfur was determined in plants and lichens by combustion of the sample and infrared detection of evolved sulfur dioxide using an automated sulfur analyzer. Vanadium pentaoxide was used as a combustion accelerator. Pelletization of the sample prior to combustion was not found to be advantageous. Washing studies showed that leaching of sulfur was not a major factor in the sample preparation. The combustion-IR analysis usually gave higher sulfur content than the turbidimetric analysis as well as shorter analysis time. Relative standard deviations of less than 7% were obtained by the combustion-IR technique when sulfur levels in plant material range from 0.05 to 0.70%. Determination of sulfur in National Bureau of Standards botanical reference materials showed good agreement between the combustion-IR technique and other instrumental procedures. Seven NBS botanical reference materials were analyzed.

  6. Variation in resource availability changes the impact of invasive thistles on native bunchgrasses.

    PubMed

    Morghan, Kimberly J Reever; Rice, Kevin J

    2006-04-01

    The threat posed by invasive nonnative plants to native plant populations is one of the largest challenges facing both conservation biology and restoration ecology. California has been highly impacted by invaders, although many relict stands of native plants are found on shallow, rocky soils with limited resources. The abiotic conditions of these sites may strongly influence the performance of an invasive plant and its effect on resident native species. In addition, the maturity of native plants in these sites may modulate an invader's impact; larger, well-established plants may be better able to resist invaders. In this study we examined how the impact of an invasive thistle (Centaurea solstitialis) on a native perennial bunchgrass (Nassella pulchra) changed in response to variation in soil depth, soil water availability, and bunchgrass maturity. We measured plant performance in terms of survival, growth, reproduction, and predawn water potential. We found that soil depth, water availability, and bunchgrass maturity acted in concert to influence the impact of the invasive thistle on the native bunchgrass. Both species performed better in deep soils, especially during dry years. The combination of shallow soil and low water availability reduced C. solstitialis performance and ameliorated its negative effect on N. pulchra growth and reproduction. Higher water availability resulted in a stronger negative effect of C. solstitialis on N. pulchra in both shallow and deep soils. However, as N. pulchra matured and increased in size, we saw a steady decline in C. solstitialis growth and reproductive output. Higher water availability increased the performance of C. solstitialis in shallow soils. C. solstitialis may thus have a stronger impact on N. pulchra and be more able to invade relict stands of N. pulchra in shallow soils during high-rainfall years. However, established stands of N. pulchra appear to be more resistant to invasion by C. solstitialis as N. pulchra plants grow older and larger. PMID:16711042

  7. ‘Appalachian Joy’ is a supernumery, white-bracted cultivar of cornus florida resistant to powdery mildew

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wholesale nursery industry in Tennessee contributes more than $200 million to the annual economy of the state and are in excess of $50 million annually for flowering dogwood (Cornus florida). Two fungal diseases, dogwood anthracnose and powdery mildew (Discula destructiva and Erysiphe pulchra, r...

  8. A phylogenetic analysis of myosin heavy chain type II sequences corroborates that Acoela and Nemertodermatida are basal bilaterians

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Trillo, I.; Paps, J.; Loukota, M.; Ribera, C.; Jondelius, U.; Baguñà, J.; Riutort, M.

    2002-01-01

    Bilateria are currently subdivided into three superclades: Deuterostomia, Ecdysozoa, and Lophotrochozoa. Within this new taxonomic frame, acoelomate Platyhelminthes, for a long time held to be basal bilaterians, are now considered spiralian lophotrochozoans. However, recent 18S rDNA [small subunit (SSU)] analyses have shown Platyhelminthes to be polyphyletic with two of its orders, the Acoela and the Nemertodermatida, as the earliest extant bilaterians. To corroborate such position and avoid the criticisms of saturation and long-branch effects thrown on the SSU molecule, we have searched for independent molecular data bearing good phylogenetic information at deep evolutionary nodes. Here we report a phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences from the myosin heavy chain type II (myosin II) gene from a large set of metazoans, including acoels and nemertodermatids. Our study demonstrates, both for the myosin II data set alone and for a combined SSU + myosin II data set, that Platyhelminthes are polyphyletic and that acoels and nemertodermatids are the extant earliest bilaterians. Hence, the common bilaterian ancestor was not, as currently held, large and complex but small, simple, and likely with direct development. This scenario has far-reaching implications for understanding the evolution of major body plans and for perceptions of the Cambrian evolutionary explosion. PMID:12177440

  9. Distinctive features of cilia in metazoans and their significance for systematics.

    PubMed

    Tyler, S

    1979-01-01

    A comparative study of epidermal cilia in the Turbellaria and Nemertea has revealed features in these organelles that are specific to certain taxonomic groups. Turbellarians of the order Acoela, in particular, have a characteristic pattern of axonemal filament termination in the distal tips of their cilia and a characteristic ciliary rootlet system that is not seen in other turbellarian orders nor in other metazoans. Each epidermal cilium in acoels has a typical 9 + 2 axonemal pattern through the main part of its length, but near its distal tip there is an abrupt shelf-life narrowing at which filaments 4-7 terminate; filaments 1, 2, 8 and 9 continue into the thinner distal-most part of the shaft along with singlet microtubules from the axonemal center. The rootlet system in acoel cilia involves an interconnecting pattern with lateral connectives. The unique structure of these cilia has systematic and phylogenetic significance for the Acoela, and it is argued that ultrastructural characters in general, including characters of organelles, can be validly applied to the phylogeny and systematics of the Metazoa. PMID:494232

  10. Development and juvenile anatomy of the nemertodermatid Meara stichopi (Bock) Westblad 1949 (Acoelomorpha)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nemertodermatida is the sister group of the Acoela, which together form the Acoelomorpha, a taxon that comprises bilaterally symmetric, small aquatic worms. While there are several descriptions of the embryology of acoel species, descriptions of nemertodermatid development are scarce. To be able to reconstruct the ground pattern of the Acoelomorpha it is crucial to gain more information about the development of several nemertodermatid species. Here we describe the development of the nemertodermatid Meara stichopi using light and fluorescent microscopic methods. Results We have collected Meara stichopi during several seasons and reconstruct the complex annual reproductive cycle dependent on the sea cucumber Parastichopus tremulus. Using common fluorescent markers for musculature (BODIPY FL-phallacidin) and neurons (antibodies against FMRFamide, serotonin, tyrosinated-tubulin) and live imaging techniques, we followed embryogenesis which takes approximately 9–10 weeks. The cleavage pattern is stereotypic up to the 16-cell stage. Ring- and longitudinal musculature start to develop during week 6, followed by the formation of the basiepidermal nervous system. The juvenile is hatching without mouth opening and has a basiepidermal nerve net with two dorsal neurite bundles and an anterior condensation. Conclusions The development of Meara stichopi differs from the development of Acoela in that it is less stereotypic and does not follow the typical acoel duet cleavage program. During late development Meara stichopi does not show a temporal anterior to posterior gradient during muscle and nervous system formation. PMID:25024737

  11. Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Hervé; Brinkmann, Henner; Copley, Richard R; Moroz, Leonid L; Nakano, Hiroaki; Poustka, Albert J; Wallberg, Andreas; Peterson, Kevin J; Telford, Maximilian J

    2011-02-10

    Xenoturbellida and Acoelomorpha are marine worms with contentious ancestry. Both were originally associated with the flatworms (Platyhelminthes), but molecular data have revised their phylogenetic positions, generally linking Xenoturbellida to the deuterostomes and positioning the Acoelomorpha as the most basally branching bilaterian group(s). Recent phylogenomic data suggested that Xenoturbellida and Acoelomorpha are sister taxa and together constitute an early branch of Bilateria. Here we assemble three independent data sets-mitochondrial genes, a phylogenomic data set of 38,330 amino-acid positions and new microRNA (miRNA) complements-and show that the position of Acoelomorpha is strongly affected by a long-branch attraction (LBA) artefact. When we minimize LBA we find consistent support for a position of both acoelomorphs and Xenoturbella within the deuterostomes. The most likely phylogeny links Xenoturbella and Acoelomorpha in a clade we call Xenacoelomorpha. The Xenacoelomorpha is the sister group of the Ambulacraria (hemichordates and echinoderms). We show that analyses of miRNA complements have been affected by character loss in the acoels and that both groups possess one miRNA and the gene Rsb66 otherwise specific to deuterostomes. In addition, Xenoturbella shares one miRNA with the ambulacrarians, and two with the acoels. This phylogeny makes sense of the shared characteristics of Xenoturbellida and Acoelomorpha, such as ciliary ultrastructure and diffuse nervous system, and implies the loss of various deuterostome characters in the Xenacoelomorpha including coelomic cavities, through gut and gill slits. PMID:21307940

  12. A phylogenetic analysis of myosin heavy chain type II sequences corroborates that Acoela and Nemertodermatida are basal bilaterians.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Trillo, I; Paps, J; Loukota, M; Ribera, C; Jondelius, U; Baguna, J; Riutort, M

    2002-08-20

    Bilateria are currently subdivided into three superclades: Deuterostomia, Ecdysozoa, and Lophotrochozoa. Within this new taxonomic frame, acoelomate Platyhelminthes, for a long time held to be basal bilaterians, are now considered spiralian lophotrochozoans. However, recent 18S rDNA [small subunit (SSU)] analyses have shown Platyhelminthes to be polyphyletic with two of its orders, the Acoela and the Nemertodermatida, as the earliest extant bilaterians. To corroborate such position and avoid the criticisms of saturation and long-branch effects thrown on the SSU molecule, we have searched for independent molecular data bearing good phylogenetic information at deep evolutionary nodes. Here we report a phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences from the myosin heavy chain type II (myosin II) gene from a large set of metazoans, including acoels and nemertodermatids. Our study demonstrates, both for the myosin II data set alone and for a combined SSU + myosin II data set, that Platyhelminthes are polyphyletic and that acoels and nemertodermatids are the extant earliest bilaterians. Hence, the common bilaterian ancestor was not, as currently held, large and complex but small, simple, and likely with direct development. This scenario has far-reaching implications for understanding the evolution of major body plans and for perceptions of the Cambrian evolutionary explosion. PMID:12177440

  13. Xenacoelomorpha: a case of independent nervous system centralization?

    PubMed

    Gavilán, Brenda; Perea-Atienza, Elena; Martínez, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Centralized nervous systems (NSs) and complex brains are among the most important innovations in the history of life on our planet. In this context, two related questions have been formulated: How did complex NSs arise in evolution, and how many times did this occur? As a step towards finding an answer, we describe the NS of several representatives of the Xenacoelomorpha, a clade whose members show different degrees of NS complexity. This enigmatic clade is composed of three major taxa: acoels, nemertodermatids and xenoturbellids. Interestingly, while the xenoturbellids seem to have a rather 'simple' NS (a nerve net), members of the most derived group of acoel worms clearly have ganglionic brains. This interesting diversity of NS architectures (with different degrees of compaction) provides a unique system with which to address outstanding questions regarding the evolution of brains and centralized NSs. The recent sequencing of xenacoelomorph genomes gives us a privileged vantage point from which to analyse neural evolution, especially through the study of key gene families involved in neurogenesis and NS function, such as G protein-coupled receptors, helix-loop-helix transcription factors and Wnts. We finish our manuscript proposing an adaptive scenario for the origin of centralized NSs (brains). PMID:26598722

  14. A Flatworm from the Genus Waminoa (Acoela: Convolutidae) Associated with Bleached Corals in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Crystal; Clode, Peta L; Thomson, Damian P; Stat, Michael

    2015-10-01

    A flatworm isolated from bleached colonies of the coral Coscinaraea marshae at Rottnest Island, Western Australia, is described using a combination of morphological and molecular systematics. This flatworm shares morphological features characteristic of the genus Waminoa (Acoelomorpha: Acoela), including the presence of two algal symbionts, but appears to have genital regions different from those of other described species of Waminoa. The design of new oligonucleotide primers enabled the amplification of partial 18S rDNA of the Rottnest Island acoel specimens, and phylogenetic analysis positioned them within Waminoa, confirming their placement in the genus. Furthermore, Waminoa specimens from Rottnest Island grouped into a sister clade to Waminoa brickneri, indicating that the morphological and genetic differences observed are most likely intraspecific and due to geographic variation. As such, we name these Rottnest Island specimens W. cf. brickneri, but highlight that key differences warrant further exploration before assignment to this species can be confirmed. This is the first acoel flatworm described from Western Australia and contributes to our understanding of the diversity and evolutionary relationship of the Acoela. PMID:26428725

  15. Contribution to the study of Chinese Tersilochinae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae).

    PubMed

    Khalaim, Andrey I; Sheng, Mao-Ling

    2015-01-01

    New data on Chinese Tersilochinae are provided: one species, Tersilochus scutatus sp. n., is described from Liaoning province of China and the Russian Far East, and two species, Barycnemis bellator (Müller) and Tersilochus curvator Horstmann, are new records from China. Thus, this work raises the total number of known Chinese species to 31. Two close species, Diaparsis pulchra Khalaim and D. rara (Horstmann), are compared; specimens previously treated as  D. rara, var. from the Russian Far East are found to belong to D. pulchra. Tersilochine faunas of China, South Korea and Primorskiy region of Russia are discussed. The fauna of Palaearctic China is still poorly known, being represented by an equal number of genera and somewhat fewer species than the fauna of South Korea, and it is half the size of the fauna of Primorskiy Region of Russia; the Oriental fauna of China, with only four described species, is virtually unknown. PMID:26623898

  16. Results of Surveys for Special Status Reptiles at the Site 300 Facilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Woollett, J J

    2008-09-18

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of a live-trapping and visual surveys for special status reptiles at the Site 300 Facilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The survey was conducted under the authority of the Federal recovery permit of Swaim Biological Consulting (PRT-815537) and a Memorandum of Understanding issued from the California Department of Fish and Game. Site 300 is located between Livermore and Tracy just north of Tesla road (Alameda County) and Corral Hollow Road (San Joaquin County) and straddles the Alameda and San Joaquin County line (Figures 1 and 2). It encompasses portions of the USGS 7.5 minute Midway and Tracy quadrangles (Figure 2). Focused surveys were conducted for four special status reptiles including the Alameda whipsnake (Masticophis lateralis euryxanthus), the San Joaquin Whipsnake (Masticophis Hagellum ruddock), the silvery legless lizard (Anniella pulchra pulchra), and the California horned lizard (Phrynosoma coronanum frontale).

  17. Differential physiological responses of two congeneric scleractinian corals to mineral accretion and an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borell, E. M.; Romatzki, S. B. C.; Ferse, S. C. A.

    2010-03-01

    Despite increasing popularity of ‘electric’ reefs as a means for reef restoration, there is a distinct lack of quantitative evidence supporting the alleged benefits of this method. This study investigated the effects of an electric field versus an electric field in combination with a cathode on coral growth (skeletal extension) rates, coral survival, zooxanthella densities, chlorophyll a (chl a) concentrations, and chlorophyll fluorescence of Acropora pulchra and A. yongei. Coral transplants were grown for 4 months under three treatment conditions: (1) on an iron cathode, (2) on bamboo inside an electric field, or (3) on bamboo in the absence of an electric field. Contrary to predictions, coral growth rates of both species were highest inside the electric field and not on the cathode. Except for chl a concentrations, the cathode had a significant adverse effect on all measured variables for A. yongei but not for A. pulchra. Treatment had no effect on the survival of A. pulchra, while mortality rates of A. yongei were significantly higher in the presence of mineral accretion compared to the electric field and control. A. yongei on the cathode featured low zooxanthella densities, depressed electron transport rates (rETR) and maximum quantum yield ( F v/ F m), and reduced growth. By contrast, treatment had no effect on the fluorescence characteristics of A. pulchra, and zooxanthella densities were highest for corals on the cathode, coincident with high growth rates relative to the control. Overall, the data indicate that the proposed benefits of the mineral accretion technology to meet important objectives of reef rehabilitation with regard to colony growth and survival should be considered with caution.

  18. New Derivatives of Natural Acyclic Guanidine Alkaloids with TRPV Receptor-Regulating Properties.

    PubMed

    Ogurtsova, Ekaterina K; Makarieva, Tatyana N; Korolkova, Yuliya V; Andreev, Yaroslav A; Mosharova, Irina V; Denisenko, Vladimir A; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Lee, Yeon-Ju; Grishin, Eugene V; Stonik, Valentin A

    2015-07-01

    The guanidine alkaloids, dihydropulchranin A (2), prepared from pulchranin A from the sponge Monanchora pulchra, and hexadecylguanidine (3), a synthetic analog of pulchranins, were studied for their TRPV channel-regulating activities. Compound 2 was active as an inhibitor of rTRPV1 and hTRPV3 receptors with EC50 values of 24.3 and 59.1 ?M, respectively. Hexadecylguanidine (3) was not active against these receptors. PMID:26411002

  19. Selective Extraction of Bacterial DNA from the Surfaces of Macroalgae▿

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Catherine; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Thomas, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    A novel method has been developed for the selective extraction of DNA from surface-associated bacterial communities from the two model marine benthic algae Ulva australis and Delisea pulchra. The extracted DNA had no detectable contamination with host DNA, was recovered in high yield and quality, and was representative of the bacterial community on the algal surfaces. The DNA is suitable for a variety of subsequent applications, including the construction of large-insert clone libraries and metagenomic sequencing. PMID:18978081

  20. What are the main climate drivers for shrub growth in Northeastern Siberian tundra?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blok, D.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Schaepman-Strub, G.; Heijmans, M. M. P. D.; Sauren, P.; Berendse, F.

    2011-05-01

    Deciduous shrubs are expected to rapidly expand in the Arctic during the coming decades due to climate warming. A transition towards more shrub-dominated tundra may have large implications for the regional surface energy balance, permafrost stability and carbon storage capacity, with consequences for the global climate system. However, little information is available on the natural long-term shrub growth response to climatic variability. Our aim was to determine the climate factor and time period that are most important to annual shrub growth in our research site in NE-Siberia. Therefore, we determined annual radial growth rates in Salix pulchra and Betula nana shrubs by measuring ring widths. We constructed shrub ring width chronologies and compared growth rates to regional climate and remotely sensed greenness data. Early summer temperature was the most important factor influencing ring width of S. pulchra (Pearson's r = 0.73, p < 0.001) and B. nana (Pearson's r = 0.46, p < 0.001). No effect of winter precipitation on shrub growth was observed. In contrast, summer precipitation of the previous year correlated positively with B. nana ring width (Pearson's r = 0.42, p < 0.01), suggesting that wet summers facilitate shrub growth in the following growing season. S. pulchra ring width correlated positively with peak summer NDVI, despite the small coverage of S. pulchra shrubs (< 5 % surface cover) in our research area. We provide the first climate-growth study on shrubs for Northeast Siberia, the largest tundra region in the world. We show that two deciduous shrub species with markedly different growth forms have a similar growth response to changes in climate. The obtained shrub growth response to climate variability in the past increases our understanding of the mechanisms underlying current shrub expansion, which is required to predict future climate-driven tundra vegetation shifts.

  1. What are the main climate drivers for shrub growth in Northeastern Siberian tundra?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blok, D.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Schaepman-Strub, G.; Heijmans, M. M. P. D.; Sauren, P.; Berendse, F.

    2011-01-01

    Deciduous shrubs are expected to rapidly expand in the Arctic during the coming decades due to climate warming. A transition towards more shrub-dominated tundra may have large implications for the regional surface energy balance, permafrost stability and carbon storage capacity, with consequences for the global climate system. However, little information is available on the natural long-term shrub growth response to climatic variability. Our aim was to determine the climate factor and time period that are most important to annual shrub growth in our research site in NE-Siberia. Therefore, we determined annual radial growth rates in Salix pulchra and Betula nana shrubs by measuring ring widths. We constructed shrub ring width chronologies and compared growth rates to regional climate and remotely sensed greenness data. Early summer temperature was the most important factor influencing ring width of S. pulchra (Pearson's r=0.73, p<0.001) and B. nana (Pearson's r=0.46, p<0.001). No effect of winter precipitation on shrub growth was observed. In contrast, summer precipitation of the previous year correlated positively with B. nana ring width (r=0.42, p<0.01), suggesting that wet summers facilitate shrub growth in the following growing season. S. pulchra ring width correlated positively with peak summer NDVI, despite the small coverage of S. pulchra shrubs (<5% surface cover) in our research area. We provide the first climate-growth study on shrubs for Northeast Siberia, the largest tundra region in the world. We show that two deciduous shrub species with markedly different growth forms have a similar growth response to changes in climate. The obtained shrub growth response to climate variability in the past increases our understanding of the mechanisms underlying current shrub expansion, which is required to predict future climate-driven tundra vegetation shifts.

  2. Eukaryotic interference with homoserine lactone-mediated prokaryotic signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Givskov, M; de Nys, R; Manefield, M; Gram, L; Maximilien, R; Eberl, L; Molin, S; Steinberg, P D; Kjelleberg, S

    1996-01-01

    Acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) play a widespread role in intercellular communication among bacteria. The Australian macroalga Delisea pulchra produces secondary metabolites which have structural similarities to AHL molecules. We report here that these metabolites inhibited AHL-controlled processes in prokaryotes. Our results suggest that the interaction between higher organisms and their surface-associated bacteria may be mediated by interference with bacterial regulatory systems. PMID:8932319

  3. Myogenesis in the basal bilaterian Symsagittifera roscoffensis (Acoela)

    PubMed Central

    Semmler, Henrike; Bailly, Xavier; Wanninger, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Background In order to increase the weak database concerning the organogenesis of Acoela – a clade regarded by many as the earliest extant offshoot of Bilateria and thus of particular interest for studies concerning the evolution of animal bodyplans – we analyzed the development of the musculature of Symsagittifera roscoffensis using F-actin labelling, confocal laserscanning microscopy, and 3D reconstruction software. Results At 40% of development between egg deposition and hatching short subepidermal fibres form. Muscle fibre development in the anterior body half precedes myogenesis in the posterior half. At 42% of development a grid of outer circular and inner longitudinal muscles is present in the bodywall. New circular muscles either branch off from present fibres or form adjacent to existing ones. The number of circular muscles is higher than that of the longitudinal muscles throughout all life cycle stages. Diagonal, circular and longitudinal muscles are initially rare but their number increases with time. The ventral side bears U-shaped muscles around the mouth, which in addition is surrounded by a sphincter muscle. With the exception of the region of the statocyst, dorsoventral muscles are present along the entire body of juveniles and adults, while adults additionally exhibit radially oriented internal muscles in the anterior tip. Outer diagonal muscles are present at the dorsal anterior tip of the adult. In adult animals, the male gonopore with its associated sexual organs expresses distinct muscles. No specific statocyst muscles were found. The muscle mantles of the needle-shaped sagittocysts are situated along the lateral edges of the animal and in the posterior end close to the male gonopore. In both juveniles and adults, non-muscular filaments, which stain positively for F-actin, are associated with certain sensory cells outside the bodywall musculature. Conclusion Compared to the myoanatomy of other acoel taxa, Symsagittifera roscoffensis shows a very complex musculature. Although data on presumably basal acoel clades are still scarce, the information currently available suggests an elaborated musculature with longitudinal, circular and U-shaped muscles as being part of the ancestral acoel bodyplan, thus increasing the possibility that Urbilateria likewise had a relatively complicated muscular ground pattern. PMID:18803837

  4. Twin oil sacs facilitate the evolution of a novel type of pollination unit (meranthium) in a South African orchid.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Kim E

    2010-02-01

    The unique floral morphology of the South African orchid H. pulchra, with its twin meranthia, is best explained as an adaptation to pollination by oil-collecting bees. Flowers consisting of meranthia (floral parts that function as single pollination units; commonly observed in garden Iris) are extremely rare among the angiosperms and their significance poorly understood. Unlike all other known examples of meranthia, the novel type described for H. pulchra is not bilabiate. All Huttonaea species are unique in having twin petal sacs with glandular verrucae that secrete oil and are pollinated by Rediviva (Melittidae) oil-collecting bees. But only Huttonaea pulchra has long and widely divergent petal claws that place the oil sacs well beyond the reach of a centrally positioned bee. The wide separation of these sacs forces the pollinator, R. colorata, to visit each side of the flower independently and effectively divides the flower into two meranthia. Molecular data indicate that the evolution of the Huttonaea-type meranthium was dependent on the prior evolution of the oil flower/oil bee relationship. Meranthium evolution was also facilitated by the presence of oil in two separate structures (petal sacs) that were not physically constrained to remain in close proximity. PMID:21622392

  5. A comprehensive analysis of the microbial communities of healthy and diseased marine macroalgae and the detection of known and potential bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Zozaya-Valdes, Enrique; Egan, Suhelen; Thomas, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are increasingly being recognized as the causative agents in the diseases of marine higher organisms, such as corals, sponges, and macroalgae. Delisea pulchra is a common, temperate red macroalga, which suffers from a bleaching disease. Two bacterial strains, Nautella italica R11 and Phaeobacter gallaeciensis LSS9, have been shown in vitro to cause bleaching symptoms, but previous work has failed to detect them during a natural bleaching event. To provide a link between in vitro observations and natural occurrences of the disease, we employ here deep-sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to comprehensively analyze the community composition of healthy and diseased D. pulchra samples from two separate locations. We observed operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with 100% identity and coverage to the 16S RNA gene sequence of both in vitro pathogens, but only the OTU with similarity to strain LSS9 showed a statistically significant higher abundance in diseased samples. Our analysis also reveals the existence of other bacterial groups within the families Rhodobacteraceae and Flavobacteriaceae that strongly contribute to difference between diseased and healthy samples and thus these groups potentially contain novel macroalgal pathogens and/or saprophytes. Together our results provide evidence for the ecological relevance of one kind of in vitro pathogen, but also highlight the possibility that multiple opportunistic pathogens are involved in the bleaching disease of D. pulchra. PMID:25759688

  6. High resistance of Acropora coral gametes facing copper exposure.

    PubMed

    Puisay, Antoine; Pilon, Rosanne; Hédouin, Laetitia

    2015-02-01

    Pollution by heavy metals remains today an important threat to the health of humans and ecosystems, but there is still a paucity of data on the response of early life stages of key organisms. In this context, the present work assessed the fertilization success rate of two Acropora species (A. cytherea and A. pulchra) from the French Polynesia reefs exposed to six increasing copper concentrations in seawater. The two species showed a relatively high tolerance to copper (4h30-EC50 was 69.4 ± 4.8 μg L(-1) and 75.4 ± 6.4 μg L(-1) for A. cytherea and A. pulchra, respectively). As Cu concentration increases, an increasing proportion of deformed embryos was recorded (67.6% and 58.5% for A. cytherea and A. pulchra, respectively, at 220 μg Cu L(-1)). These results demonstrated thus, that high levels of copper could negatively impair the normal fertilization process of coral gametes and therefore alter the renewal of coral populations. Since the two Acropora species investigated in this study displayed a high resistance to copper, these results should be considered in the context of multiple stressors associated with climate change, where rising temperature or ocean acidification may significantly exacerbate copper toxicity. PMID:25462298

  7. Ancestor-descendant relationships in evolution: origin of the extant pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2015-01-01

    Ancestor-descendant relationships (ADRs), involving descent with modification, are the fundamental concept in evolution, but are usually difficult to recognize. We examined the cladistic relationship between the only reported fossil pygmy right whale, †Miocaperea pulchra, and its sole living relative, the enigmatic pygmy right whale Caperea marginata, the latter represented by both adult and juvenile specimens. †Miocaperea is phylogenetically bracketed between juvenile and adult Caperea marginata in morphologically based analyses, thus suggesting a possible ADR-the first so far identified within baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti). The †Miocaperea-Caperea lineage may show long-term morphological stasis and, in turn, punctuated equilibrium. PMID:25589485

  8. A taxonomic study of the beetle cockroaches (Diploptera Saussure) from China, with notes on the genus and species worldwide (Blattodea: Blaberidae: Diplopterinae).

    PubMed

    Li, Xinran; Wang, Zongqing

    2015-01-01

    Four taxa of beetle cockroaches (Diploptera Saussure, 1864) from South China are described and illustrated, viz., two new species D. elliptica sp. n. and D. naevus sp. n., one new subspecies D. nigrescens guani subsp. n. and one widespread known species D. punctata (Eschscholtz, 1822). The genus and known species from around the world are discussed based on types and other specimens. D. pulchra Anisyutkin, 2007 is now regarded as a junior synonym of D. bicolor Hanitsch, 1925. Whether the populations of D. punctata represent or not different species needs to be studied in the future. A key, a distribution map, and photos of species are provided. PMID:26624027

  9. Ancestor–descendant relationships in evolution: origin of the extant pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2015-01-01

    Ancestor–descendant relationships (ADRs), involving descent with modification, are the fundamental concept in evolution, but are usually difficult to recognize. We examined the cladistic relationship between the only reported fossil pygmy right whale, †Miocaperea pulchra, and its sole living relative, the enigmatic pygmy right whale Caperea marginata, the latter represented by both adult and juvenile specimens. †Miocaperea is phylogenetically bracketed between juvenile and adult Caperea marginata in morphologically based analyses, thus suggesting a possible ADR—the first so far identified within baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti). The †Miocaperea–Caperea lineage may show long-term morphological stasis and, in turn, punctuated equilibrium. PMID:25589485

  10. Plant neighborhood control of arbuscular mycorrhizal community composition.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Natasha Teutsch; Hawkes, Christine V

    2009-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important root symbionts that can provide benefits to plant hosts, yet we understand little about how neighboring hosts in a plant community contribute to the composition of the AMF community. We hypothesized that the composition of the plant neighborhood, including the identities of both host and neighbor, would alter AMF community composition. We tested this in a glasshouse experiment in which a native perennial grass (Nassella pulchra) and three annual grasses (Avena barbata, Bromus hordeaceaous and Vulpia microstachys) were grown in two neighborhoods: conspecific monocultures and heterospecific perennial-annual mixtures. To identify AMF taxa colonizing plant roots, we used a combination of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and cloning. Both host and neighbor were important in structuring AMF communities. Unique AMF communities were associated with each plant host in monoculture. In heterospecific neighborhoods, the annual neighbors V. microstachys, A. barbata, and B. hordeaceus influenced N. pulchra AMF in different ways (synergistic, controlling, or neutral) and the reciprocal effect was not always symmetric. Our findings support a community approach to AMF studies, which can be used to increase our understanding of processes such as invasion and succession. PMID:19496954

  11. Does beach nourishment have long-term effects on intertidal macroinvertebrate species abundance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leewis, Lies; van Bodegom, Peter M.; Rozema, Jelte; Janssen, Gerard M.

    2012-11-01

    Coastal squeeze is the largest threat for sandy coastal areas. To mitigate seaward threats, erosion and sea level rise, sand nourishment is commonly applied. However, its long-term consequences for macroinvertebrate fauna, critical to most ecosystem services of sandy coasts, are still unknown. Seventeen sandy beaches - nourished and controls - were sampled along a chronosequence to investigate the abundance of four dominant macrofauna species and their relations with nourishment year and relevant coastal environmental variables. Dean's parameter and latitude significantly explained the abundance of the spionid polychaete Scolelepis squamata, Beach Index (BI), sand skewness, beach slope and latitude explained the abundance of the amphipod Haustorius arenarius and Relative Tide Range (RTR), recreation and sand sorting explained the abundance of Bathyporeia sarsi. For Eurydice pulchra, no environmental variable explained its abundance. For H. arenarius, E. pulchra and B. sarsi, there was no relation with nourishment year, indicating that recovery took place within a year after nourishment. Scolelepis squamata initially profited from the nourishment with "over-recolonisation". This confirms its role as an opportunistic species, thereby altering the initial community structure on a beach after nourishment. We conclude that the responses of the four dominant invertebrates studied in the years following beach nourishment are species specific. This shows the importance of knowing the autecology of the sandy beach macroinvertebrate fauna in order to be able to mitigate the effects of beach nourishment and other environmental impacts.

  12. VarR controls colonization and virulence in the marine macroalgal pathogen Nautella italica R11

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Melissa; Fernandes, Neil D.; Nowakowski, Dennis; Raftery, Mark; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Zhong, Ling; Thomas, Torsten; Egan, Suhelen

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that macroalgae (seaweeds) are susceptible to infectious disease. However, to date, little is known about the mechanisms that facilitate the colonization and virulence of microbial seaweed pathogens. One well-described example of a seaweed disease is the bleaching of the red alga Delisea pulchra, which can be caused by the bacterium Nautella italica R11, a member of the Roseobacter clade. This pathogen contains a unique luxR-type gene, varR, which we hypothesize controls its colonization and virulence. We show here that a varR knock-out strain is deficient in its ability to cause disease in D. pulchra and is defective in biofilm formation and attachment to a common algal polysaccharide. Moreover complementation of the varR gene in trans can restore these functions to the wild type levels. Proteomic analysis of bacterial cells in planktonic and biofilm growth highlight the potential importance of nitrogen scavenging, mobilization of energy reserves, and stress resistance in the biofilm lifestyle of N. italica R11. Moreover, we show that VarR regulates the expression of a specific subset of biofilm-associated proteins. Taken together these data suggest that VarR controls colonization and persistence of N. italica R11 on the surface of a macroalgal host and that it is an important regulator of virulence. PMID:26528274

  13. Four newly recorded free-living marine nematodes (Comesomatidae) from the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Er; Zhang, Zhinan

    2007-01-01

    Three species in genus Sabatieria and one in genus Cervonema from the East China Sea were recorded. S. breviseta is characterized by uniformly punctuated coarse dots, large amphids of 5.5 turns (?) and prominent gubernaculum median piece. The characters of S. breviseta agree quite well with the European original descriptions and only differ in the male amphid turns (5.5 vs. 4.0 turns) and unmodified preanal supplements (5-7 vs. 6). S. pulchra can be recognized by amphid 2.75 turns, irregularly arranged lateral dots, and the first three supplements anterior to the anus, which are more widely spaced than the following ones. The excretory system of S. breviseta and S. pulchra shows sexual dimorphism. S. celtica is defined by amphids 2.00-2.25 turns, weakly developed pharyngeal bulb, curved apophyses and 12-13 conspicuous supplements. C. deltensis is characterized by amphids 4.75 turns, ovate pharyngeal posterior bulb, sperm dimorphism, 7 thin preanal supplements, and long tail cylindrical portion (50%-53% of tail length). All the three Sabatieria species are for the first time recorded in Chinese waters. C. deltensis was originally isolated from the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea and newly recorded in the East China Sea.

  14. Differential ecophysiological response of deciduous shrubs and a graminoid to long-term experimental snow reductions and additions in moist acidic tundra, Northern Alaska.

    PubMed

    Pattison, Robert R; Welker, Jeffrey M

    2014-02-01

    Changes in winter precipitation that include both decreases and increases in winter snow are underway across the Arctic. In this study, we used a 14-year experiment that has increased and decreased winter snow in the moist acidic tussock tundra of northern Alaska to understand impacts of variation in winter snow depth on summer leaf-level ecophysiology of two deciduous shrubs and a graminoid species, including: instantaneous rates of leaf gas exchange, and ?(13)C, ?(15)N, and nitrogen (N) concentrations of Betula nana, Salix pulchra, and Eriophorum vaginatum. Leaf-level measurements were complemented by measurements of canopy leaf area index (LAI) and depth of thaw. Reductions in snow lowered summer leaf photosynthesis, conductance, and transpiration rates by up to 40% compared to ambient and deep snow conditions for Eriophorum vaginatum, and reduced Salix pulchra conductance and transpiration by up to 49%. In contrast, Betula nana exhibited no changes in leaf gas exchange in response to lower or deeper snow. Canopy LAI increased with added snow, while reduced winter snow resulted in lower growing season soil temperatures and reduced thaw depths. Our findings indicate that the spatial and temporal variability of future snow depth will have individualistic consequences for leaf-level C fixation and water flux by tundra species, and that these responses will be manifested over the longer term by changes in canopy traits, depth of thaw, soil C and N processes, and trace gas (CO2 and H2O) exchanges between the tundra and the atmosphere. PMID:24052332

  15. Fluxes of isoprene and monoterpenes from a tundra ecosystem.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potosnak, M.; Griffin, K.; Stieglitz, M.; Kling, G.; Schimel, J.; Hobbie, J.

    2005-12-01

    Whole system fluxes of isoprene from a moist acidic tundra ecosystem and leaf level emission rates of isoprene and monoterpenes from two important species in that same ecosystem ( Salix pulchra and Betula nana) were measured during the summer of 2005 to assess the contribution of biogenic volatile organic compounds on the chemistry of the Arctic atmosphere. The measurements took place in the Imnavait Creek watershed near the Toolik Field Station on the north slope of the Brooks Range (69° N, 149° W). The whole system fluxes were measured in conjunction with a project that is determining the net carbon exchange of the ecosystem through both atmospheric and hydrological processes (Marc Steiglitz, PI). The maximum rate of isoprene flux measured was over 1 mg C m-2 hr-1 with an air temperature of 22° C and a PAR level over 2000 ?mol m-2 s-1. Leaf level isoprene emission rates for S. pulchra reached 20 nmol m-2 s-1 (38 ug C gdw -1 hr-1 ), which was over 1% of the net carbon assimilated. These significant rates of isoprene emission need to be further investigated in field studies and will have major impacts of efforts to model tropospheric chemistry in the Arctic.

  16. [Pelagic Mysidacea in East China Sea and its significance as the indicator of water mass].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhao-Li; Shen, Ang-Lü

    2007-10-01

    Based on the investigation data of four seasonal oceanographic censuses in the area 23 degrees 30' - 33 degrees N and 118 degrees 30' - 128 degrees E of East China Sea in 1997-2000, this paper studied the ecotypes and geographic and seasonal distribution of pelagic Mysidacea in this sea area, with its significance as the indicator of water mass approached. The results showed that among the species of pelagic Mysidacea, Acanthomysis latiscauda, Gastrosaccus pelagicus, Siriella sinensis and Hemisiriella pulchra were the coastal subtropical species with some features of warm temperate species, while Pseudanchialina pusilla, Promysis orientalis, Erythrops minuta and Anisomysis bipartoculata were the offshore subtropical species with some features of tropical species. Different from other zooplanktons, most of the pelagic Mysidacea species had lower optimal temperature and salinity and distributed more at near-shore in spring and winter, showing the features of warm temperate near-shore species. The areas with high abundance of A. latiscauda, S. sinensis and H. pulchra were just the converging areas of the Changjiang dilute waters and warm current masses and of coastal waters and offshore high salinity waters. Erythrops minuta and Anisomysis bipartoculata could be used as the indicators of warm current, P. orientalis and Doxomysis quadrispinosa were the indicators of the Taiwan warm current, while the rest were not good enough to be the indicators of water masses. PMID:18163322

  17. Recent records of alien anurans on the Pacific Island of Guam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christy, M.T.; Clark, C.S.; Gee, D.E., II; Vice, D.; Vice, D.S.; Warner, M.P.; Tyrrell, C.L.; Rodda, G.H.; Savidge, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Eight anuran species were recorded for the first time in Guam in the period May 2003-December 2005, all apparently the result of arrivals to the island since 2000. Three of the eight species (Rana guentheri, Polypedates megacephalus, and Eleutherodactylus planirostris) had well-established breeding populations by 2005. A further three (Fejevarya cf. livinocharis, Fejervarya cancrivora, and Microhyla pulchra) were recorded from a number of individuals, but it is not known whether these species have established breeding populations. Two species (Kaloula pulchra and Eleutherodactylus coqui) appear to be incidental transportations to the island that have not established. Before 2003, five anuran species, all introductions, had been recorded from Guam. Three of these, Polypedates leucomystax, Pseudacris regilla, and Kaloula picta, were detected on Guam in incoming cargo but destroyed. Two species established: Bufo marinus was deliberately introduced and the Australian hylid Litoria fallax was probably an accidental introduction. Successful establishment of anurans on Guam has increased the risk of frog introductions to nearby islands. By providing additional food sources for the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis), anuran introductions have increased the chance that B. irregularis might substantially increase in numbers and in turn increase the risk of the snake being accidentally transported to other islands. ?? 2007 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.

  18. Morphology and phylogenies of two hypotrichous brackish-water ciliates from China, Neourostylopsis orientalis n. sp. and Protogastrostyla sterkii (Wallengren, 1900) n. comb., with establishment of a new genus Neourostylopsis n. gen. (Protista, Ciliophora, Hypotrichia).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangrui; Shao, Chen; Liu, Xihan; Huang, Jie; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S

    2013-03-01

    This paper investigates the morphology, infraciliature and small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences of two hypotrichous ciliates, Neourostylopsis orientalis n. sp., and Protogastrostyla sterkii (Wallengren, 1900) n. comb. (basionym Gastrostyla sterkii), collected from coastal waters in southern China. Neourostylopsis orientalis n. sp. is diagnosed mainly by the arrangement of brownish cortical granules, the numbers of adoral membranelles and frontal and transverse cirri and the characteristics of its midventral cirral pairs. The SSU rRNA gene phylogeny strongly supports the establishment of the new genus Neourostylopsis n. gen., which is characterized mainly by the following features: frontal and transverse cirri clearly differentiated, buccal cirri present, two frontoterminal cirri, midventral complex composed of midventral pairs only and not exceeding the halfway point of the cell, more than one row of marginal cirri on each side which derive from individual anlagen within each parental row, caudal cirri lacking. Thus, two new combinations are required: Neourostylopsis songi (Lei et al., 2005) n. comb., and Neourostylopsis flavicana (Wang et al., 2011) n. comb. Additionally, improved diagnoses for both Metaurostylopsis and Apourostylopsis are supplied in this study. Protogastrostyla sterkii (Wallengren, 1900) n. comb. differs from the similar congener Protogastrostyla pulchra mainly in body shape, ratio of buccal field to body length in vivo and molecular data. Based on the present studies, we conclude that the estuarine population of P. pulchra collected by J. Gong and others [Gong et al., J Eukaryot Microbiol (2007) 54, 468-478] is a population of P. sterkii. PMID:23355699

  19. Competition and soil resource environment alter plant–soil feedbacks for native and exotic grasses

    PubMed Central

    Larios, Loralee; Suding, Katharine N.

    2015-01-01

    Feedbacks between plants and soil biota are increasingly identified as key determinants of species abundance patterns within plant communities. However, our understanding of how plant–soil feedbacks (PSFs) may contribute to invasions is limited by our understanding of how feedbacks may shift in the light of other ecological processes. Here we assess how the strength of PSFs may shift as soil microbial communities change along a gradient of soil nitrogen (N) availability and how these dynamics may be further altered by the presence of a competitor. We conducted a greenhouse experiment where we grew native Stipa pulchra and exotic Avena fatua, alone and in competition, in soils inoculated with conspecific and heterospecific soil microbial communities conditioned in low, ambient and high N environments. Stipa pulchra decreased in heterospecific soil and in the presence of a competitor, while the performance of the exotic A. fatua shifted with soil microbial communities from altered N environments. Moreover, competition and soil microbial communities from the high N environment eliminated the positive PSFs of Stipa. Our results highlight the importance of examining how individual PSFs may interact in a broader community context and contribute to the establishment, spread and dominance of invaders. PMID:25425557

  20. VarR controls colonization and virulence in the marine macroalgal pathogen Nautella italica R11.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Melissa; Fernandes, Neil D; Nowakowski, Dennis; Raftery, Mark; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Zhong, Ling; Thomas, Torsten; Egan, Suhelen

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that macroalgae (seaweeds) are susceptible to infectious disease. However, to date, little is known about the mechanisms that facilitate the colonization and virulence of microbial seaweed pathogens. One well-described example of a seaweed disease is the bleaching of the red alga Delisea pulchra, which can be caused by the bacterium Nautella italica R11, a member of the Roseobacter clade. This pathogen contains a unique luxR-type gene, varR, which we hypothesize controls its colonization and virulence. We show here that a varR knock-out strain is deficient in its ability to cause disease in D. pulchra and is defective in biofilm formation and attachment to a common algal polysaccharide. Moreover complementation of the varR gene in trans can restore these functions to the wild type levels. Proteomic analysis of bacterial cells in planktonic and biofilm growth highlight the potential importance of nitrogen scavenging, mobilization of energy reserves, and stress resistance in the biofilm lifestyle of N. italica R11. Moreover, we show that VarR regulates the expression of a specific subset of biofilm-associated proteins. Taken together these data suggest that VarR controls colonization and persistence of N. italica R11 on the surface of a macroalgal host and that it is an important regulator of virulence. PMID:26528274

  1. [Molecular phylogeny of gastrotricha based on 18S rRNA genes comparison: rejection of hypothesis of relatedness with nematodes].

    PubMed

    Petrov, N B; Pegova, A N; Manylov, O G; Vladychenskaia, N S; Miuge, N S; Aleshin, V V

    2007-01-01

    Gastrotrichs are meiobenthic free-living aquatic worms whose phylogenetic and intra-group relationships remain unclear despite some attempts to resolve them on the base of morphology or molecules. In this study we analysed complete sequences of the 18S rRNA gene of 15 taxa (8 new and 7 published) to test numerous hypotheses on gastrotrich phylogeny and to verify whether controversial interrelationships from previous molecular data could be due to the short region available for analysis and the poor taxa sampling. Data were analysed using both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. Results obtained suggest that gastrotrichs, together with Gnathostomulida, Plathelminthes, Syndermata (Rotifera + Acanthocephala), Nemertea and Lophotrochozoa, comprise a clade Spiralia. Statistical tests reject phylogenetic hypotheses regarding Gastrotricha as close relatives of Nematoda and other Ecdysozoa or placing them at the base of bilaterian tree close to acoels and nemertodermatides. Within Gastrotricha, Chaetonotida and Macrodasyida comprise two well supported clades. Our analysis confirmed the monophyly of the Chaetonotidae and Xenotrichulidae within Chaetonida as well as Turbanellidae and Thaumastodermatidae within Macrodasyida. Mesodasys is a sister group of the Turbanellidae, and Lepidodasyidae appears to be a polyphyletic group as Cephalodasys forms a separate lineage at the base of macrodasyids, whereas Lepidodasys groups with Neodasys between Thaumastodermatidae and Turbanellidae. To infer a more reliable Gastrotricha phylogeny many species and additional genes should be involved in future analyses. PMID:17685227

  2. Biodiversity Meets Neuroscience: From the Sequencing Ship (Ship-Seq) to Deciphering Parallel Evolution of Neural Systems in Omic's Era.

    PubMed

    Moroz, Leonid L

    2015-12-01

    The origins of neural systems and centralized brains are one of the major transitions in evolution. These events might occur more than once over 570-600 million years. The convergent evolution of neural circuits is evident from a diversity of unique adaptive strategies implemented by ctenophores, cnidarians, acoels, molluscs, and basal deuterostomes. But, further integration of biodiversity research and neuroscience is required to decipher critical events leading to development of complex integrative and cognitive functions. Here, we outline reference species and interdisciplinary approaches in reconstructing the evolution of nervous systems. In the "omic" era, it is now possible to establish fully functional genomics laboratories aboard of oceanic ships and perform sequencing and real-time analyses of data at any oceanic location (named here as Ship-Seq). In doing so, fragile, rare, cryptic, and planktonic organisms, or even entire marine ecosystems, are becoming accessible directly to experimental and physiological analyses by modern analytical tools. Thus, we are now in a position to take full advantages from countless "experiments" Nature performed for us in the course of 3.5 billion years of biological evolution. Together with progress in computational and comparative genomics, evolutionary neuroscience, proteomic and developmental biology, a new surprising picture is emerging that reveals many ways of how nervous systems evolved. As a result, this symposium provides a unique opportunity to revisit old questions about the origins of biological complexity. PMID:26163680

  3. Evolution of basal deuterostome nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Holland, Linda Z

    2015-02-15

    Understanding the evolution of deuterostome nervous systems has been complicated by the by the ambiguous phylogenetic position of the Xenocoelomorpha (Xenoturbellids, acoel flat worms, nemertodermatids), which has been placed either as basal bilaterians, basal deuterostomes or as a sister group to the hemichordate/echinoderm clade (Ambulacraria), which is a sister group of the Chordata. None of these groups has a single longitudinal nerve cord and a brain. A further complication is that echinoderm nerve cords are not likely to be evolutionarily related to the chordate central nervous system. For hemichordates, opinion is divided as to whether either one or none of the two nerve cords is homologous to the chordate nerve cord. In chordates, opposition by two secreted signaling proteins, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Nodal, regulates partitioning of the ectoderm into central and peripheral nervous systems. Similarly, in echinoderm larvae, opposition between BMP and Nodal positions the ciliary band and regulates its extent. The apparent loss of this opposition in hemichordates is, therefore, compatible with the scenario, suggested by Dawydoff over 65 years ago, that a true centralized nervous system was lost in hemichordates. PMID:25696827

  4. Neuroglobins, Pivotal Proteins Associated with Emerging Neural Systems and Precursors of Metazoan Globin Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Lechauve, Christophe; Jager, Muriel; Laguerre, Laurent; Kiger, Laurent; Correc, Gaëlle; Leroux, Cédric; Vinogradov, Serge; Czjzek, Mirjam; Marden, Michael C.; Bailly, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Neuroglobins, previously thought to be restricted to vertebrate neurons, were detected in the brain of a photosymbiotic acoel, Symsagittifera roscoffensis, and in neurosensory cells of the jellyfish Clytia hemisphaerica. For the neuroglobin of S. roscoffensis, a member of a lineage that originated either at the base of the bilateria or of the deuterostome clade, we report the ligand binding properties, crystal structure at 2.3 Å, and brain immunocytochemical pattern. We also describe in situ hybridizations of two neuroglobins specifically expressed in differentiating nematocytes (neurosensory cells) and in statocytes (ciliated mechanosensory cells) of C. hemisphaerica, a member of the early branching animal phylum cnidaria. In silico searches using these neuroglobins as queries revealed the presence of previously unidentified neuroglobin-like sequences in most metazoan lineages. Because neural systems are almost ubiquitous in metazoa, the constitutive expression of neuroglobin-like proteins strongly supports the notion of an intimate association of neuroglobins with the evolution of animal neural systems and hints at the preservation of a vitally important function. Neuroglobins were probably recruited in the first protoneurons in early metazoans from globin precursors. Neuroglobins were identified in choanoflagellates, sponges, and placozoans and were conserved during nervous system evolution. Because the origin of neuroglobins predates the other metazoan globins, it is likely that neuroglobin gene duplication followed by co-option and subfunctionalization led to the emergence of globin families in protostomes and deuterostomes (i.e. convergent evolution). PMID:23288852

  5. Genealogical correspondence of a forebrain centre implies an executive brain in the protostome-deuterostome bilaterian ancestor.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Gabriella H; Strausfeld, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    Orthologous genes involved in the formation of proteins associated with memory acquisition are similarly expressed in forebrain centres that exhibit similar cognitive properties. These proteins include cAMP-dependent protein kinase A catalytic subunit (PKA-Cα) and phosphorylated Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (pCaMKII), both required for long-term memory formation which is enriched in rodent hippocampus and insect mushroom bodies, both implicated in allocentric memory and both possessing corresponding neuronal architectures. Antibodies against these proteins resolve forebrain centres, or their equivalents, having the same ground pattern of neuronal organization in species across five phyla. The ground pattern is defined by olfactory or chemosensory afferents supplying systems of parallel fibres of intrinsic neurons intersected by orthogonal domains of afferent and efferent arborizations with local interneurons providing feedback loops. The totality of shared characters implies a deep origin in the protostome-deuterostome bilaterian ancestor of elements of a learning and memory circuit. Proxies for such an ancestral taxon are simple extant bilaterians, particularly acoels that express PKA-Cα and pCaMKII in discrete anterior domains that can be properly referred to as brains. PMID:26598732

  6. Macrofaunal sediment selectivity considerations for beach nourishment programmes.

    PubMed

    Van Tomme, J; Vanden Eede, S; Speybroeck, J; Degraer, S; Vincx, M

    2013-03-01

    Nowadays, beach nourishment is widely considered as a better alternative compared to the construction of hard structures to protect a sandy coast against detrimental erosive effects, both from an ecological and an engineering perspective. The rare studies conducted on the ecological impact of beach nourishment are short-term, post hoc monitoring investigations of the benthic macrofauna. Little is known of the biological processes during and after nourishment. To allow swift recolonization after nourishment, the characteristics of the nourished beach have to match the habitat demands of the benthic macrofauna. The sediment preference of the key intertidal species Scolelepis squamata, Eurydice pulchra, Bathyporeia pilosa and Bathyporeia sarsi, which dominate many West European sandy beaches, was investigated through laboratory experiments, both in single-species as well as combined-species treatments. While the former aimed at developing guidelines for impact mitigation of beach nourishment, the latter aimed at elucidating the role of biotic interactions in sediment preference. Results of the experiments indicated that B. pilosa and E. pulchra prefer the finest sediment, while B. sarsi had a broader preference and also occurred in medium-coarse sediments. However, the sediment preference of E. pulchra for fine sediments was not confirmed by other field and experimental studies. The polychaete S. squamata had the broadest preference and even showed a high occurrence in coarse sediments that are not naturally occurring on the sandy beaches where the animals were caught for this experiment. However, this polychaete is a cosmopolitan species, not only occurring on fine-grained beaches, but also on coarse-grained beaches worldwide. The preferences imply that beach nourishment with coarse sediment will have a major effect on B. pilosa while effects of coarse sediments on S. squamata will be minor. Finally, interspecific competition with the sympatrically occurring amphipod B. sarsi was found to change the sediment selection of the amphipod B. pilosa towards the coarser sediments where B. sarsi occurred in lower frequencies. PMID:23182894

  7. The scarab beetle tribe Pentodontini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) of Colombia: taxonomy, natural history, and distribution.

    PubMed

    López-García, Margarita M; Gasca-Álvarez, Héctor J; Amat-García, Germán

    2015-01-01

    Pentodontini is the most diverse tribe of Dynastinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), and most of the genera are restricted to a single biogeographic region. In this work, the taxonomic composition of the Pentodontini in Colombia was determined, and genera and species were diagnosed based on external morphology and male genitalia. Records of 1,580 specimens from 31 departments and 398 localities in Colombia were obtained from 24 species in the genera Bothynus Hope, Denhezia Dechambre, Euetheola Bates, Hylobothynus Ohaus, Oxyligyrus Arrow, Parapucaya Prell, Pucaya Ohaus, and Tomarus Erichson. Oxyligyrus cayennensis Endrödi, Tomarus cicatricosus (Prell), and T. pullus (Prell) are reported for the first time from Colombia. Pucaya punctata Endrödi is reduced to synonymy with Pucaya pulchra Arrow. Possible changes in the classification of Denhezia Dechambre are discussed. Dichotomous keys are provided for Colombian genera and species. Taxonomic descriptions and distribution maps are included for all species. PMID:26624762

  8. New porcellioidean gastropods from early Devonian of Royal Creek area, Yukon Territory, Canada, with notes on their early phylogeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fryda, J.; Blodgett, R.B.; Lenz, A.C.; Manda, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a description of new gastropods belonging to the superfamily Porcellioidea (Vetigastropoda) from the richly diverse Lower Devonian gastropod fauna of the Road River Formation in the Royal Creek area, Yukon Territory. This fauna belongs to Western Canada Province of the Old World Realm. The Pragian species Porcellia (Porcellia) yukonensis n. sp. and Porcellia (Paraporcellia) sp. represent the oldest presently known members of subgenera Porcellia (Porcellia) and Porcellia (Paraporcellia). Their simple shell ornamentation fits well with an earlier described evolutionary trend in shell morphology of the Porcellinae. Late Pragian to early Emsian Perryconcha pulchra n. gen. and n. sp. is the first member of the Porcellioidea bearing a row of tremata on adult teleoconch whorls. The occurrence of this shell feature in the Porcellioidea is additional evidence that the evolution of the apertural slit was much more complicated than has been proposed in classical models of Paleozoic gastropod evolution. Copyright ?? 2008, The Paleontological Society.

  9. Checklist and Simple Identification Key for Frogs and Toads from District IV of The MADA Scheme, Kedah, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Jaafar, Ibrahim; Chai, Teoh Chia; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Akil, Mohd Abdul Muin Md.

    2009-01-01

    A survey was conducted to catalogue the diversity of anurans in District IV of the Muda Agriculture Development Authority Scheme (MADA) in Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia, from July 1996 to January 1997. Eight species of anurans from three families were present in the study area. Of these, the Common Grass Frog (Fejevarya limnocharis) was the most abundant, followed by Mangrove Frog (Fejevarya cancrivora), Long-legged Frog (Hylarana macrodactyla), and Common Toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus). Puddle Frog (Occidozyga lima), Taiwanese Giant Frog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus), and Banded Bullfrog (Kaluola pulchra) were rare during the sampling period, and only one Paddy Frog (Hylarana erythraea) was captured. A simple identification key for the anurans of this area is included for use by scientists and laymen alike. PMID:24575178

  10. A taxonomic catalogue of Japanese nemerteans (phylum Nemertea).

    PubMed

    Kajihara, Hiroshi

    2007-04-01

    A literature-based taxonomic catalogue of the nemertean species (Phylum Nemertea) reported from Japanese waters is provided, listing 19 families, 45 genera, and 120 species as valid. Applications of the following species names to forms previously recorded from Japanese waters are regarded as uncertain: Amphiporus cervicalis, Amphiporus depressus, Amphiporus lactifloreus, Cephalothrix filiformis, Cephalothrix linearis, Cerebratulus fuscus, Lineus vegetus, Lineus bilineatus, Lineus gesserensis, Lineus grubei, Lineus longifissus, Lineus mcintoshii, Nipponnemertes pulchra, Oerstedia venusta, Prostoma graecense, and Prostoma grande. The identities of the taxa referred to by the following four nominal species require clarification through future investigations: Cosmocephala japonica, Dicelis rubra, Dichilus obscurus, and Nareda serpentina. The nominal species established from Japanese waters are tabulated. In addition, a brief history of taxonomic research on Japanese nemerteans is reviewed. PMID:17867829

  11. Marine alkaloid Monanchocidin a overcomes drug resistance by induction of autophagy and lysosomal membrane permeabilization

    PubMed Central

    Dyshlovoy, Sergey A.; Hauschild, Jessica; Amann, Kerstin; Tabakmakher, Ksenia M.; Venz, Simone; Walther, Reinhard; Guzii, Alla G.; Makarieva, Tatiana N.; Shubina, Larisa K.; Fedorov, Sergey N.; Stonik, Valentin A.; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Balabanov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Monanchocidin A (MonA) is a novel alkaloid recently isolated from the marine sponge Monanchora pulchra. The compound reveals cytotoxic activity in genitourinary cancers including cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant germ cell tumor (GCT) cell lines, hormone-sensitive and castration-resistant prostate carcinoma cell lines and different bladder carcinoma cell lines. In contrast, non-malignant cells were significantly less sensitive. MonA is highly synergistic with cisplatin in GCT cells. Induction of autophagy at lower and lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) at higher concentrations were identified as the dominating modes of action. Cytotoxicity and protein degradation could be inhibited by 3-methyladenine, an inhibitor of autophagy. LMP was confirmed by loss of acridine orange staining of lysosoms and by release of cathepsin B. In conclusion, MonA exerts cytotoxiс activity by mechanisms different from “classical” apoptosis, and could be a promising new compound to overcome resistance to standard therapies in genitourinary malignancies. PMID:26093146

  12. Tadpoles of three common anuran species from Thailand do not prey on mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Weterings, Robbie

    2015-12-01

    Tadpoles are often considered to be predators of mosquito larvae and are therefore beneficial for the control of certain disease vectors. Nevertheless, only a few species have actually been recorded to prey on mosquito larvae. The mosquito larvae predation rates of tadpoles of three common Thai anuran species (Bufo melanostictus, Kaloula pulchra and Hylarana raniceps) were experimentally tested. Tadpoles in varying developmental stages were used to assess a size/age effect on the predation rate. In addition, different instars of Culex quinquefasciatus were used in order to assess a prey size effect on the predation rates. All three species failed to show any evidence of mosquito larvae predation. Neither small nor large tadpoles fed on mosquito larvae. Prey size also did not affect predation. Although tadpoles do not feed on mosquito larvae, there may be other direct or indirect inter-specific interactions that adversely impact the development of larvae in shared habitats with tadpoles. PMID:26611955

  13. Study of Gryllacridinae (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae) from Thailand and
    adjacent countries: the genera Ultragryllacris gen. nov. and Capnogryllacris.

    PubMed

    Gorochov, Andrej V; Dawwrueng, Pattarawich; Artchawakom, Taksin

    2015-01-01

    A new material on the genera Ultragryllacris gen. nov. and Capnogryllacris Karny, 1937 from Thailand, Laos and Cambodia is considered. Five new species and subspecies are described: U. pulchra sp. nov.; U. p. alboclypeata subsp. nov.; C. thaica sp. nov.; C. sakaerat sp. nov.; C. phaeocephala cambodiensis subsp. nov. Capnogryllacris s. l. is divided into two possible subgenera (Capnogryllacris s. str. and Dictyogryllacris Karny, 1937, stat. nov.) as a minimum; the former genera Borneogryllacris Karny, 1937, syn. nov., Marthogryllacris Karny, 1937, syn. nov. and Erythrogryllacris Karny, 1937, syn. nov. are treated as synonyms of the subgenus Capnogryllacris. Previously unknown female for C. khmerica Gorochov, 2003 is described; neotype for C. martha (Griffini, 1914 ), type species of Marthogryllacris, is designated; C. erythrocephala Gorochov, 2003, sp. ressur. and C. e. borealis Gorochov, 2003, stat. ressur. are restored from synonyms of C. martha and from species status, respectively. PMID:26624154

  14. Tundra in the rain: differential vegetation responses to three years of experimentally doubled summer precipitation in Siberian shrub and Swedish bog tundra.

    PubMed

    Keuper, Frida; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W; Blok, Daan; van Bodegom, Peter M; Dorrepaal, Ellen; van Hal, Jurgen R; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Aerts, Rien

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation amounts and patterns at high latitude sites have been predicted to change as a result of global climatic changes. We addressed vegetation responses to three years of experimentally increased summer precipitation in two previously unaddressed tundra types: Betula nana-dominated shrub tundra (northeast Siberia) and a dry Sphagnum fuscum-dominated bog (northern Sweden). Positive responses to approximately doubled ambient precipitation (an increase of 200 mm year(-1)) were observed at the Siberian site, for B. nana (30 % larger length increments), Salix pulchra (leaf size and length increments) and Arctagrostis latifolia (leaf size and specific leaf area), but none were observed at the Swedish site. Total biomass production did not increase at either of the study sites. This study corroborates studies in other tundra vegetation types and shows that despite regional differences at the plant level, total tundra plant productivity is, at least at the short or medium term, largely irresponsive to experimentally increased summer precipitation. PMID:22864700

  15. Ethnobotanical study of some Ghanaian anti-malarial plants.

    PubMed

    Asase, Alex; Oteng-Yeboah, Alfred A; Odamtten, George T; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2005-06-01

    An ethnobotanical study was conducted in the Wechiau Community Hippopotamus Sanctuary area in Ghana, through interviews and quadrate studies, to investigate the range and abundance of species used in the treatment of malaria. Forty-one species belonging to 17 families were encountered during the study. Of the 17 families studied Leguminosae and Anacardiaceae predominated in terms of number of species used to treat malaria. Eight plant species namely, Afraegle paniculata (Rutaceae), Haematostaphis barteri (Anacardiaceae), Indigo era pulchra (Leguminosae), Monanthotaxis sp. (Annonaceae), Ozoroa insignis (Anacardiaceae), Strychnos innocua (Loganiaceae), Strychnos spinosa (Loganiaceae) and Xeroderris stuhlmannii (Leguminosae) have not previously been documented for the treatment of malaria in Ghana. The results are discussed and recommendations made for future research to support the conservation and sustainable harvesting of the species reported to have medicinal properties. PMID:15894138

  16. Hyposalinity stress compromises the fertilization of gametes more than the survival of coral larvae.

    PubMed

    Hédouin, Laetitia; Pilon, Rosanne; Puisay, Antoine

    2015-03-01

    The life cycle of coral is affected by natural and anthropogenic perturbations occurring in the marine environment. In the context of global changes, it is likely that rainfall events will be more intense and that coastal reefs will be exposed to sudden drops in salinity. Therefore, a better understanding of how corals-especially during the pelagic life stages-are able to deal with declines in salinity is crucial. To fill this knowledge gap, this work investigated how gametes and larva stages of two species of Acropora (Acropora cytherea and Acropora pulchra) from French Polynesia cope with drops in salinity. An analysis of collected results highlights that both Acropora coral gametes displayed the same resistance to salinity changes, with 4h30-ES50 (effective salinity that decrease by 50% the fertilization success after 4h30 exposure) of 26.6 ± 0.1 and 27.5 ± 0.3‰ for A. cytherea and A. pulchra, respectively. This study also revealed that coral gametes were more sensitive to decreases in salinity than larvae, for which significant changes are only observed at 26‰ for A. cytherea after 14 d of exposure. Although rising seawater temperatures and ocean acidification are often perceived as the main threat for the survival of coral reefs, our work indicates that 70% of the gametes could be killed during a single night of spawning by a rainfall event that decreases salinity to 26‰. This suggests that changes in the frequency and intensity of rainfall events associated with climate changes should be taken seriously in efforts to both preserve coral gametes and ensure the persistence and renewal of coral populations. PMID:25562765

  17. Nutrient fluxes in litterfall of a secondary successional alluvial rain forest in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Maurício Bergamini; Gatti, Gustavo; Wisniewski, Celina

    2011-12-01

    During forest succession, litterfall nutrient fluxes increase significantly. The higher inputs of organic matter and nutrients through litterfall affects positively soil fertility and the species composition, which are essential components in forest restoration and management programs. In the present study, the input of nutrients to the forest soil via litterfall components was estimated for two sites of different development stages, in an early successional alluvial rain forest in Brazil. Litterfall returned to the soil, in kg/ha, ca. 93 N, 79 Ca, 24 K, 15 Mg, 6 P, 1.7 Mn, 0.94 Fe, 0.18 Zn, 0.09 Cu and 11.2 Al, in the site where trees were more abundant and had higher values of basal area. In the other area, where trees where less abundant and values of basal area were comparatively low, litterfall returned < 50% of those amounts to the forest soil, except for Al. The amount of Al that returned to the soil was similar in both areas due to the high contribution of Tibouchina pulchra (82% of Al returned). Comparatively, high proportion of three dominant native tree species (Myrsine coriacea, T. pulchra and Cecropia pachystachya) explained better litter nutrient use efficiency (mainly N and P) in the site with the least advanced successional stage. Although litterfall of these species show lower nutrient concentrations than the other tree species, their nutrient fluxes were high in both sites, indicating a certain independence from soil essential nutrients. Such feature of the native species is very advantageous and should be considered in forest restoration programs. PMID:22208099

  18. Variability in the Effects of Macroalgae on the Survival and Growth of Corals: The Consumer Connection

    PubMed Central

    Bulleri, Fabio; Couraudon-Réale, Marine; Lison de Loma, Thierry; Claudet, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Shifts in dominance from corals to macroalgae are occurring in many coral reefs worldwide. Macroalgal canopies, while competing for space with coral colonies, may also form a barrier to herbivorous and corallivorous fish, offering protection to corals. Thus, corals could either suffer from enhanced competition with canopy-forming and understorey macroalgae or benefit from predator exclusion. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the effects of the brown, canopy-forming macroalga, Turbinaria ornata, on the survival and growth of corals can vary according to its cover, to the presence or absence of herbivorous and corallivorous fish and to the morphological types of corals. Over a period of 66 days, two coral species differing in growth form, Acropora pulchra and Porites rus, were exposed to three different covers of T. ornata (absent versus medium versus high), in the presence or absence of fish. Irrespective of the cover of T. ornata, fish exclusion reduced mortality rates of A. pulchra. Following fish exclusion, a high cover of T. ornata depressed the growth of this branched coral, whilst it had no effect when fish species were present. P. rus suffered no damage from corallivorous fish, but its growth was decreased by high covers of T. ornata, irrespective of the presence or absence of fish. These results show that negative effects of T. ornata on some coral species are subordinate to those of fish predation and are, therefore, likely to manifest only on reefs severely depleted of predators. In contrast, space dominance by T. ornata may decrease the growth of other coral species regardless of predation intensity. In general, this study shows that susceptibility to predation may determine the severity of the effects of canopy-forming macroalgae on coral growth. PMID:24260290

  19. Production, exportation and preservation of silicoflagellates in Alfonso Basin, Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-López, Aída; Álvarez-Gómez, Irela G.; Pérez-Cruz, Ligia; Verdugo-Díaz, Gerardo; Villegas-Aguilera, María Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    Limited areas of sea floor have the physiochemical conditions that allow for the formation and preservation of high resolution (yearly or close to yearly) laminated sediments that can function as a historic proxy for past oceanographic and climate conditions. We evaluated and established the fidelity of the sedimentary record in recording these signals by analyzing silicoflagellates production, changes in species composition, skeletal settling and their subsequent burial in bottom sediments at Alfonso Basin. The data series from December 2005 to February 2008 showed similar tendencies in both the vertical flux and overlying euphotic zone (Zeu) production of silicoflagellates. Both series were numerically dominated by Octactis pulchra with maxima values being recorded for the mixed water column period. Observed differences occurred during the studied years in both magnitude and in flux composition. The presence of a mixed assemblage with (warm-temperate-cold) species such as Dictyocha fibula var. robusta, Dictyocha epiodon and Distephanus speculum could be explained by a synchronization of trends between a predominantly positive Pacific Decadal Oscillation and a positive North Pacific Gyre Oscillation climate phases that were the background conditions underlying the early 2006 through 2007 El Niño event. A Morisita's similarity index value of 97.5% between winter trap and Zeu samples combined with an annualized settling factor of 0.45, suggests that Alfonso Basin is a favorable settling environment for silicoflagellates. However, core-top sediments showed an attenuation of record fidelity (burial factor = 0.25) resulting in a modified record for the production and settling of skeletons. O. pulchra that were not preserved in sediments as the dominant species and with this removal, the signal was also lost of the highest silicoflagellate production season (Mixing-cyclonic eddy periods) from the sedimentary record of the Alfonso Basin.

  20. Spatial polychaeta habitat potential mapping using probabilistic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jong-Kuk; Oh, Hyun-Joo; Koo, Bon Joo; Ryu, Joo-Hyung; Lee, Saro

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply probabilistic models to the mapping of the potential polychaeta habitat area in the Hwangdo tidal flat, Korea. Remote sensing techniques were used to construct spatial datasets of ecological environments and field observations were carried out to determine the distribution of macrobenthos. Habitat potential mapping was achieved for two polychaeta species, Prionospio japonica and Prionospio pulchra, and eight control factors relating to the tidal macrobenthos distribution were selected. These included the intertidal digital elevation model (DEM), slope, aspect, tidal exposure duration, distance from tidal channels, tidal channel density, spectral reflectance of the near infrared (NIR) bands and surface sedimentary facies from satellite imagery. The spatial relationships between the polychaeta species and each control factor were calculated using a frequency ratio and weights-of-evidence combined with geographic information system (GIS) data. The species were randomly divided into a training set (70%) to analyze habitat potential using frequency ratio and weights-of-evidence, and a test set (30%) to verify the predicted habitat potential map. The relationships were overlaid to produce a habitat potential map with a polychaeta habitat potential (PHP) index value. These maps were verified by comparing them to surveyed habitat locations such as the verification data set. For the verification results, the frequency ratio model showed prediction accuracies of 77.71% and 74.87% for P. japonica and P. pulchra, respectively, while those for the weights-of-evidence model were 64.05% and 62.95%. Thus, the frequency ratio model provided a more accurate prediction than the weights-of-evidence model. Our data demonstrate that the frequency ratio and weights-of-evidence models based upon GIS analysis are effective for generating habitat potential maps of polychaeta species in a tidal flat. The results of this study can be applied towards conservation and management initiatives for the macrofauna of tidal flats.

  1. A Stable Thoracic Hox Code and Epimorphosis Characterize Posterior Regeneration in Capitella teleta.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Danielle M; Seaver, Elaine C

    2016-01-01

    Regeneration, the ability to replace lost tissues and body parts following traumatic injury, occurs widely throughout the animal tree of life. Regeneration occurs either by remodeling of pre-existing tissues, through addition of new cells by cell division, or a combination of both. We describe a staging system for posterior regeneration in the annelid, Capitella teleta, and use the C. teleta Hox gene code as markers of regional identity for regenerating tissue along the anterior-posterior axis. Following amputation of different posterior regions of the animal, a blastema forms and by two days, proliferating cells are detected by EdU incorporation, demonstrating that epimorphosis occurs during posterior regeneration of C. teleta. Neurites rapidly extend into the blastema, and gradually become organized into discrete nerves before new ganglia appear approximately seven days after amputation. In situ hybridization shows that seven of the ten Hox genes examined are expressed in the blastema, suggesting roles in patterning the newly forming tissue, although neither spatial nor temporal co-linearity was detected. We hypothesized that following amputation, Hox gene expression in pre-existing segments would be re-organized to scale, and the remaining fragment would express the complete suite of Hox genes. Surprisingly, most Hox genes display stable expression patterns in the ganglia of pre-existing tissue following amputation at multiple axial positions, indicating general stability of segmental identity. However, the three Hox genes, CapI-lox4, CapI-lox2 and CapI-Post2, each shift its anterior expression boundary by one segment, and each shift includes a subset of cells in the ganglia. This expression shift depends upon the axial position of the amputation. In C. teleta, thoracic segments exhibit stable positional identity with limited morphallaxis, in contrast with the extensive body remodeling that occurs during regeneration of some other annelids, planarians and acoel flatworms. PMID:26894631

  2. A Stable Thoracic Hox Code and Epimorphosis Characterize Posterior Regeneration in Capitella teleta

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Danielle M.; Seaver, Elaine C.

    2016-01-01

    Regeneration, the ability to replace lost tissues and body parts following traumatic injury, occurs widely throughout the animal tree of life. Regeneration occurs either by remodeling of pre-existing tissues, through addition of new cells by cell division, or a combination of both. We describe a staging system for posterior regeneration in the annelid, Capitella teleta, and use the C. teleta Hox gene code as markers of regional identity for regenerating tissue along the anterior-posterior axis. Following amputation of different posterior regions of the animal, a blastema forms and by two days, proliferating cells are detected by EdU incorporation, demonstrating that epimorphosis occurs during posterior regeneration of C. teleta. Neurites rapidly extend into the blastema, and gradually become organized into discrete nerves before new ganglia appear approximately seven days after amputation. In situ hybridization shows that seven of the ten Hox genes examined are expressed in the blastema, suggesting roles in patterning the newly forming tissue, although neither spatial nor temporal co-linearity was detected. We hypothesized that following amputation, Hox gene expression in pre-existing segments would be re-organized to scale, and the remaining fragment would express the complete suite of Hox genes. Surprisingly, most Hox genes display stable expression patterns in the ganglia of pre-existing tissue following amputation at multiple axial positions, indicating general stability of segmental identity. However, the three Hox genes, CapI-lox4, CapI-lox2 and CapI-Post2, each shift its anterior expression boundary by one segment, and each shift includes a subset of cells in the ganglia. This expression shift depends upon the axial position of the amputation. In C. teleta, thoracic segments exhibit stable positional identity with limited morphallaxis, in contrast with the extensive body remodeling that occurs during regeneration of some other annelids, planarians and acoel flatworms. PMID:26894631

  3. The Contemporary State of Development of Free-living Nematodes of the Northwestern Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulakova, I.

    2007-05-01

    The work was carried out on samples taken during an expedition on the Black Sea Western shelf (Bulgarian, Romanian, Ukrainian) in October, 2003 in the framework of the UNDP-GEF Black Sea, Ecosystem Recovery Project. Nematodes due to specific biological characteristics (high productivity, short life cycles) quickly respond to environmental changes by reducing species diversity, increasing abundance and decreasing biomass. Our studies have confirmed this. For the western Black Sea shelf 67 nematode species of 6 orders have been recorded. Of the 12 groups of meiobenthos encountered on the western Black Sea shelf the frequency of the dominating group of nematodes made up 93.8-100%. Results show that quantitative and qualitative characteristics of nematodes in the study areas on the Black Sea shelf are heterogeneous. This is due to hydrological conditions. The Bulgarian and Romanian zone have great depths (from 15 to 125m), while 15-45m depths prevail on the Ukrainian shelf. Each shelf has specific sediment type. As observed earlier sediment type and depth determine the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of nematodes. For the Bulgarian and Romanian shelves there is a tendency for increasing diversity from shallows to deep water. On the Ukrainian shelf the species composition of nematodes is higher at small depth. Quantitative characteristics of nematodes increase from the Bulgarian to the Ukrainian shelf. The nematode fauna on the Bulgarian shelf has the greatest species similarity with that the Romanian. Under the influence of river runoff the species diversity is low in those areas of close proximity. In more distant areas the diversity increases. Key species communities are formed under the influence of the abiotic environmental factors and interrelations between organisms. The study of these key communities around which other species assemble is interesting. Sabatieria abissalis dominates among all key species on the Bulgarian shelf transects making up 37-50% of density of colonization. Besides Sabatieria abissalis on the Romanian shelf transects (35% of density), Sabatieria pulchra occurs from 12 to 35%. Sabatieria pulchra dominates on the Ukrainian shelf. Literature data have shown that the ecological niches of these close related species diverge spatially. Sabatieria abissalis prefer to inhabit the upper layers of sediment with adequate oxygen, while Sabatieria pulchra inhabits sediment layers with low oxygen content in silt sediments. At deep water stations where the anthropogenic load is less, k-dominance curves for species biomass and abundance (ABC curves) showing stable unpolluted nematode communities. The amount of dominating species increased with Sabatieria abissalis prevailing. The results of this study illustrate the part played by nematodes in the formation of quantitative parameters of meiobenthos in this area. This kind of meiobenthos is the most suitable for practical biological monitoring of the Black Sea. The increase or decrease in nematode species diversity gives evidence of the state of meiobenthos communities.

  4. Free-Nematodes in the NW Black Sea meiobenthos - diversity, abundance, distribution and importance as indicator of hypoxic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muresan, M.; Gomoiu, M.-T.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study performed within EU FP7 Hypox Project was to get deeper knowledge about species of nematodes that could be indicators for stressful biotic conditions as low oxygen concentration due to phenomena of seasonal hypoxia. The Nematodes come from meiobenthos sampling (using a multi corer with 4 tubes, Mark II type, lowered into the sea from R/V "Mare Nigrum" board) performed in May and September 2010 and April 2011 along four transects crossing the Romanian continental shelf from where 87 meiobenthos samples were collected. In the studied area 96 species of nematodes were found. The authors analyzed the nematodes populations' distribution on four profiles: Sf. Gheorghe, Portita, Constanta and Mangalia. The qualitative and quantitative structure of nematodes populations was compared. 41 species were found on Mangalia profile, 47 species on Portita profile, 48 species on Constanta profile and 85 species on Sf. Gheorghe profile. The greatest densities were found on Constanta profile with an average of 369.607indvs/m-2. The most frequent and abundant species were: Sabatieria pulchra, Sabatieria abyssalis, Terschellingia longicaudata, Viscosia cobbi, Axonolaimus ponticus. The species assemblages were assessed for depth gradient distribution, 7 depth intervals being set from 20 to 210 m. The greatest diversity was noted in 61-100 m depth interval, while the lowest between 0-20 m. On the contrary, in terms of density of individuals (indvs/m-2), highest densities were obtained in shallow waters between 21-30 m. As far as the depth increases, the species assemblages change, becoming more favorable to species like Halalaimus ponticus, Metachromadora macrouthera, Halanonchus bullatus, Linhomoneidae species. However, on the first place still remained Sabatieria abyssalis. The vertical distribution of nematodes in sediments was analyzed for the surface layer 0-5 cm and sub-surface layer 5-10 cm, the dominant species in both layers being: Sabatieria pulchra, S. abyssalis, Terschellingia longicaudata, Viscosia cobbi, Axonolaimus ponticus, Metalinhomoeus zosterae, Enoplus euxinus, Eleutherolaimus longus. The density decreases in 5-10 cm layer as compared to 0-5 cm layer. Results show that a dominant nematodes community tolerant to eutrophication conditions, organic loading and hypoxic conditions, made up of species of Sabatieria pulchra, Sabatieria abyssalis, Terschellingia longicaudata etc., is spread throughout the whole investigated area, from the shallow waters to the deepest bottoms at the limit of the metazoan life development. Literature confirms the ubiquitous distribution of these species, often found in areas of low O2 concentration. The taxonomic diversity increases with depth, which may suggest that the nematodes in the Black Sea, under unfavorable conditions, may have an adaptive strategy in response to the lack of resources or in the presence of physiological stress factors.

  5. Characterizing Variation of Isotopic Markers in Northern Alaskan Caribou Forages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanSomeren, L.; Barboza, P. S.; Gustine, D. D.; Parrett, L. S.; Stricker, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Isotopic markers in feces and tissues are a potential tool for monitoring the importance of feeding areas for migratory herbivores such as caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Many of these techniques are currently limited by gaps in our knowledge of how these isotopic signatures vary over the landscape. We collected seven species of preferred caribou forages along a latitudinal gradient in the summer ranges of the Central Arctic (9 sites) and Teshekpuk Lake (4 sites) caribou herds during 2011 and 2012. We analyzed forages at peak protein content and at the end of the season to characterize temporal, species-specific, and spatial variation in isotopic markers. The availability of C and N was measured by digestion in vitro. Isotopic signatures of digested samples were used to calculate fractionation that would bias the isotopic signature of feces. The range of values for isotopes (all values ‰) of nitrogen (?15N -9.5 - +4.3), and sulfur (?34S -3.6 - +15.5) were greater than those for carbon (?13C -30.5 - -24.9). Small declines in forage ?13C with latitude (Carex aquatilis, Eriophorum vaginatum, Salix pulchra, and S. richardsonii [all P < 0.01]), season (all species except C. bigelowii [all P ? 0.01]), and season x year (S. richardsonii; P = 0.01) were probably associated with changes in water availability. Fractionation of ?13C in early season forages was 0.1 × 1.0 and positively related to C availability (58% × 15%; P < 0.01) with the greatest fractionation for the highly digestible forb Pedicularis langsdorfii (1.43 × 0.44; P < 0.01). Sedges (Carex and Eriophorum) were significantly higher in ?15N than Salix spp. and other dicots (2.0 × 1.1 vs. -2.9 × 2.2; P < 0.01). For Salix spp., ?15N was consistent over the season and between years. Fractionation of ?15N in early season forages was 0.2 × 1.8 and not related to N availability (60% × 17%). For S. pulchra, ?34S may indicate usage of coastal habitats over foothills because ?34S was higher on the coastal plain than in the foothills (11.1 × 3.3 and 3.1 × 2.6; P < 0.01). Isotopic ratios in N and S show the greatest promise for tracking diet and location of migratory caribou whereas the narrow range in ?13C is affected by species, season and location.

  6. High resolution paleoceanography of the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California, during the past 15 000 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barron, J.A.; Bukry, D.; Bischoff, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 480 (27??54.10???N, 111??39.34???W; 655 m water depth) contains a high resolution record of paleoceanographic change of the past 15 000 years for the Guaymas Basin, a region of very high diatom productivity within the central Gulf of California. Analyses of diatoms and silicoflagellates were completed on samples spaced every 40-50 yr, whereas ICP-AES geochemical analyses were completed on alternate samples (sample spacing 80-100 yr). The B??lling-Aller??d interval (14.6-12.9 ka) (note, ka refers to 1000 calendar years BP throughout this report) is characterized by an increase in biogenic silica and a decline in calcium carbonate relative to surrounding intervals, suggesting conditions somewhat similar to those of today. The Younger Dryas event (12.9-11.6 ka) is marked by a major drop in biogenic silica and an increase in calcium carbonate. Increasing relative percentage contributions of Azpeitia nodulifera and Dictyocha perlaevis (a tropical diatom and silicoflagellate, respectively) and reduced numbers of the silicoflagellate Octactis pulchra are supportive of reduced upwelling of nutrient-rich waters. Between 10.6 and 10.0 ka, calcium carbonate and A. nodulifera abruptly decline at DSDP 480, while Roperia tesselata, a diatom indicative of winter upwelling in the modern-day Gulf, increases sharply in numbers. A nearly coincident increase in the silicoflagellate Dictyocha stapedia suggests that waters above DSDP 480 were more similar to the cooler and slightly more saline waters of the northern Gulf during much of the early and middle parts of the Holocene (???10 to 3.2 ka). At about 6.2 ka a stepwise increase in biogenic silica and the reappearance of the tropical diatom A. nodulifera marks a major change in oceanographic conditions in the Gulf. A winter shift to more northwesterly winds may have occurred at this time along with the onset of periodic northward excursions (El Nin??o-driven?) of the North Equatorial Countercurrent during the summer. Beginning between 2.8 and 2.4 ka, the amplitude of biogenic silica and wt% Fe, Al, and Ti (proxies of terrigenous input) increase, possibly reflecting intensification of ENSO cycles and the establishment of modern oceanographic conditions in the Gulf. Increased numbers of O. pulchra after 2.8 ka suggest enhanced spring upwelling. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Shrub growth response to climate change and feedbacks of vegetation change to permafrost thaw in the Siberian arctic tundra (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blok, D.; Schaepman-Strub, G.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Heijmans, M.; Bartholomeus, H.; Berendse, F.

    2010-12-01

    Background/Question/Methods The Siberian tundra is one of the key permafrost regions in the Arctic because of its large spatial extent and carbon-rich yedoma soils. Changes in permafrost thaw and concomitant carbon losses to the atmosphere can have large impacts on the global climate. Permafrost thaw is believed to strongly increase this century as a result of predicted increasing air temperature. At the same time, arctic vegetation growth and composition is predicted to respond to future climate change, which can have large implications for the stability of permafrost and can feedback to further vegetation changes. Deciduous shrubs are expected to benefit from climate warming by increasing growth and expanding their range to higher latitudes. However, observational evidence for recent increases in deciduous shrub cover in the arctic region is limited thus far to areas in Alaska. We examined if deciduous shrubs at our research site in Northeastern Siberia show a growth response to the main climate variables, temperature and precipitation. We constructed dendrochronological records for two key arctic deciduous shrub species, Betula nana and Salix pulchra, dating back roughly 60 years. The ring-width records are related to summer temperature and summer-precipitation data from the closest climate station in order to identify the main climate factor limiting shrub growth in this area. Remote sensing data are used to assess changes in panarctic vegetation productivity by vegetation type following the circumpolar arctic vegetation map (CAVM). Using a combined approach of dendrochronology and remote sensing provides the opportunity to study the vegetation response at different temporal and spatial scales. Results/Conclusions Our results indicate that growth of both Salix pulchra and Betula nana shrubs relates positively to summer temperature at our research site in Northeast Siberia. Secondary growth of both shrub species was most sensitive to early summer temperature (mid-June to mid-July). Annual shrub growth correlated positively with late-summer precipitation of the year preceding the ring formation. Panarctic vegetation productivity of the last 25 years shows a significant positive trend, especially in areas identified as shrub-dominated plant communities in the CAVM. Most climate model scenarios predict increasing summer temperature and precipitation in the arctic region. This implies that shrub growth will further increase. Finally, we present experimental evidence from a shrub removal experiment showing that shrub cover is negatively correlated with active layer thickness through shading of the soil surface. Expansion of deciduous shrubs, triggered by climate warming, may thus reduce summer permafrost thaw and partly offset the permafrost degradation expected to result from the air temperature rise predicted for the coming decades.

  8. Quantifying the physiology of structurally complex arctic vegetation and implications for carbon cycling in a shrubbier tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formica, A. F.; Griffin, K. L.; Boelman, N.

    2013-12-01

    The arctic is undergoing a warming trend that is more extreme compared to lower latitudes. As one major consequence, repeat aerial photographs reveal that in recent decades woody deciduous shrubs have increased in dominance in valley bottoms and riparian areas of northern Alaska. Advancing shrub canopies are growing taller and more structurally complex, presumably increasing self-shading and reducing light availability with canopy depth. According to canopy optimization theory, plants will preferentially allocate nutrient resources to sun-exposed canopy leaves to enhance photosynthetic efficiency in order to take advantage of greater light availability. While canopy optimization has been studied in other, mainly forested ecosystems, this theory has yet to be tested in the arctic tundra. We made a series of measurements on canopy leaves located in high to low light environments, from three common woody deciduous shrubs on the North Slope of Alaska: dwarf birch (Betula nana), tealeaf willow (Salix pulchra), and feltleaf willow (Salix alaxensis). For each selected leaf, we measured the canopy leaf area index at its canopy position in order to quantify the amount of light intercepted by the leaf surface, and in situ chlorophyll fluorescence to evaluate its photosynthetic efficiency through calculation of leaf maximum electron transport rate. The same leaves were then removed and measured for leaf area, dry mass, and carbon to nitrogen ratio. Our data show trends that are consistent with the development of canopy optimization. Leaf nitrogen decreases significantly from the upper to lower terciles of leaf area index values (56% in Salix alaxensis, 41% in Salix pulchra, 46% in Betula nana). Similarly, there were significant reductions in the leaf maximum electron transport rate for two species (44% in Salix alaxensis, 40% Betula nana). These findings suggest that structurally complex arctic shrubs may be redistributing leaf nitrogen to more exposed parts of the canopy where light is more abundant, which combined with higher photosynthetic efficiencies suggests that plants may be investing more nitrogen into photosynthetic machinery. Future work should focus on the relationship between chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf-level CO2 exchange in order to determine the relationship between the observed gradients in photosynthetic efficiency and measured carbon exchange. This study suggests that because the arctic tundra is becoming more structurally complex, ecosystem-level carbon models should include within-canopy gradients in light intensity and consequent gradients in leaf physiological traits.

  9. The Influence Of Water Tracks And Hillslope Position On The Physiology Of The Dominant Plant Species In The Imnavait Creek Watershed, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, K. L.; Epstein, D. J.; Shapiro, J. B.; Boelman, N. T.; Stieglitz, M.

    2003-12-01

    Within a small arctic tundra watershed located on the north slope of Alaska, we asked if plant abundance and physiological performance are linked to hillslope position by the hydrologic processes controlling nutrient availability. Our prediction was that down slope sites and within water track sites should have the greatest nutrient availability resulting in the highest photosynthetic capacity and productivity. To examine these relationships, two transects were established in the Imnavait Creek watershed, running from the northern ridge crest to a beaded stream. In total, 16 sites, one water track (WT) and one non water track (NWT), from 8 locations, each 100 m apart were examined. At each site, soil moisture, thaw depth, canopy water status (from spectral reflectance) and species diversity were recorded. Chlorophyll fluorescence was used assess the maximum capacity of each species to transport electrons within the photosynthetic membranes of individual leaves (ETRMAX), a variable we expect to reflect both leaf N and general photosynthetic capacity. Significant differences were found within and among the major functional groups of plants growing in the watershed. In the two deciduous shrubs, Betula nana and Salix pulchra, ETRMAX generally decreased down slope but no significant difference were found between the WT and NWT sites. By contrast, ETRMAX in Rubus chamaemors, also a deciduous species, showed an initial decrease at the first two locations, but then remained constant further down slope and between WT and NWT sites. In the evergreen plants, Ledum palustre differed in that the maximum ETRMAX was found at the mid-slope locations while Vaccinium vitis-idaea had a characteristic decrease in ETRMAX down slope, with a large difference between WT and NWT at the first location. The forb Petasites frigidus displayed a unique pattern, with large difference in ETRMAX between WT and NWT at sites 4 and 5, the last two locations at which this species could be found. Finally, the only graminoid species studied, Eriophorum vaginatu, ETRMAX decrease down slope in a linear fashion and had the highest absolute ETRMAX. Additionally leaf gas-exchange was measured in Salix pulchra and leaf N and canopy reflectance was measured at each site. Together, our results demonstrate that while hillsope position has a significant effect on the physiology, growth and diversity of species, the relationships were not as hypothesized. Clearly other ecological, morphological or environmental factors are contributing to the productivity of the watershed and ultimately impacting the biogeochemistry of this important ecosystem.

  10. The cell's view of animal body-plan evolution.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Deirdre C; Martindale, Mark Q; Srivastava, Mansi

    2014-10-01

    An adult animal's form is shaped by the collective behavior of cells during embryonic development. To understand the forces that drove the divergence of animal body-plans, evolutionary developmental biology has focused largely on studying genetic networks operating during development. However, it is less well understood how these networks modulate characteristics at the cellular level, such as the shape, polarity, or migration of cells. We organized the "Cell's view of animal body plan evolution" symposium for the 2014 The Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology meeting with the explicit goal of bringing together researchers studying the cell biology of embryonic development in diverse animal taxa. Using a broad range of established and emerging technologies, including live imaging, single-cell analysis, and mathematical modeling, symposium participants revealed mechanisms underlying cells' behavior, a few of which we highlight here. Shape, adhesion, and movements of cells can be modulated over the course of evolution to alter adult body-plans and a major theme explored during the symposium was the role of actomyosin in coordinating diverse behaviors of cells underlying morphogenesis in a myriad of contexts. Uncovering whether conserved or divergent genetic mechanisms guide the contractility of actomyosin in these systems will be crucial to understanding the evolution of the body-plans of animals from a cellular perspective. Many speakers presented research describing developmental phenomena in which cell division and tissue growth can control the form of the adult, and other presenters shared work on studying cell-fate specification, an important source of novelty in animal body-plans. Participants also presented studies of regeneration in annelids, flatworms, acoels, and cnidarians, and provided a unifying view of the regulation of cellular behavior during different life-history stages. Additionally, several presentations highlighted technological advances that glean mechanistic insights from new and emerging model systems, thereby providing the phylogenetic breadth so essential for studying animal evolution. Thus, we propose that an explicit study of cellular phenomena is now possible for a wide range of taxa, and that it will be highly informative for understanding the evolution of animal body-plans. PMID:25108284

  11. Studies on the chorionic structure of the eggs of Corixoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) with scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Konopko, Susana Amanda; Mazzucconi, Silvia Ana; Ruf, Monica Lopez

    2013-01-01

    The chorionic structure of the eggs of sixteen species of Corixoidea (Ectemnostega (Ectemnostega) quadrata (Signoret), E. (Ectemnostegella) quechua (Bachmann), Trichocorixa mendozana Jaczewski, Centrocorisa kollari (Fieber), Heterocorixa brasiliensis Hungerford, Sigara (Aphelosigara) tucma Bachmann, S. (Tropocorixa) denseconscripta (Breddin), S. (T.) platensis Bachmann, S. (T.) rubyae (Hungerford), S. (T.) santiagiensis (Hungerford), S. (T.) schadei (Hungerford), S. (T.) yala Bachmann, Tenagobia (Incertagobia) incerta Lundblad, T. (Fuscagobia) fuscata (Stål), T. (Schadeogobia) schadei Lundblad, and T. (Tenagobia) pulchra Hungerford) is described for the first time using scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the eggs of some of these species are described based on color and morphometry. The sculpturing of the chorion and the structure of the micropylar area here in studied using scanning electron microscopy together with the length of the stalk distinguish the eggs of the genera (except Sigara, genus without a uniform pattern on the sculpturing of the chorion) and subgenera (including Aphelosigara and Tropocorixa) of Corixoidea present in Argentina. The above mentioned characters, together with the egg length, proved to be useful for the identification of the Argentinian species. An identification key to the eggs of Argentinian species of Corixoidea based on the material herein studied, and additional data present in the literature, is provided. PMID:25112751

  12. Argyrogrammana Strand (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) from Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brazil, with the description of four new species.

    PubMed

    Dolibaina, Diego Rodrigo; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins

    2015-01-01

    The species of Argyrogrammana Strand, 1932 collected at the Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brazil (PNSD) are listed and detailed with behavioral notes. In total, 17 species were recorded, including 13 new records for Brazil (marked with an asterisk): A. alstonii (Smart, 1979)*, A. nurtia ludibunda Brévignon & Gallard, 1995*, A. pulchra (Talbot, 1929)*, A. bonita Hall & Willmott, 1995*, A. amalfreda (Staudinger, [1877])*, A. physis phyton (Stichel, 1911), A. halli Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.*, A. celata Hall & Willmott, 1995*, A. gallardi Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.*, A. aparamilla Hall & Willmott, 1995*, A. praestigiosa (Stichel, 1929), A. johannismarci Brévignon, 1995*, A. brevignoni Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.*, A. rameli (Stichel, 1930), A. willmotti Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.*, A. iracyi P. Jauffret & J. Jauffret, 2007 and A. saulensis tunari Gallard, 2008, comb. nov.*. Four new species are described, two from "amalfreda complex": A. halli Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov. and A. gallardi Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.; one from "trochilia complex": A. brevignoni Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.; and one from "stilbe complex": A. willmotti Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov. Argyrogrammana iracyi saulensis Gallard, 2008 is recognized as a valid species, A. saulensis saulensis, stat. nov., and a new combination is proposed to A. saulensis tunari Gallard, 2008, comb. nov. The females of A. iracyi P. Jauffret & J. Jauffret, 2007 and A. saulensis tunari are recognized and figured for the first time. The taxonomy of the species found at the PNSD is discussed and adults are figured, including illustrations of the genitalia. PMID:26624307

  13. Revision, cladistic analysis and biogeography of Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae)

    PubMed Central

    Bertani, Rogério

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Three aviculariine genera endemic to Brazil are revised. Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850 is resurrected, including five species; Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 includes two species; and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, six species. Nine species are newly described: Typhochlaena amma sp. n., Typhochlaena costae sp. n., Typhochlaena curumim sp. n., Typhochlaena paschoali sp. n., Pachistopelma bromelicola sp. n., Iridopelma katiae sp. n., Iridopelma marcoi sp. n., Iridopelma oliveirai sp. n. and Iridopelma vanini sp. n. Three new synonymies are established: Avicularia pulchra Mello-Leitão, 1933 and Avicularia recifiensis Struchen & Brändle, 1996 are junior synonyms of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 syn. n., and Avicularia palmicola Mello-Leitão, 1945 is a junior synonym of Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 syn. n. Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947 is transferred to Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, making the new combination Tapinauchenius concolor (Caporiacco, 1947) comb. n. Lectotypes are newly designed for Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 , Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 and Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix comprising 62 characters and 38 terminal taxa. The chosen cladogram found with X-Pee-Wee and concavity 6 suggests they are monophyletic. All species are keyed and mapped and information on species habitat and area cladograms are presented. Discussion on biogeography and conservation is provided. PMID:23166476

  14. Revision of the genus Turris Batsch, 1789 (Gastropoda: Conoidea: Turridae) with the description of six new species

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, Richard N.; Fedosov, Alexander E.; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2012-01-01

    The taxonomy of the genus Turris Batsch, 1789, type genus of the family Turridae, widespread in shallow-water habitats of tropic Indo-Pacific, is revised. A total of 31 species of Turris, are here recognized as valid. New species described: Turris chaldaea, Turris clausifossata, Turris guidopoppei, Turris intercancellata, Turris kantori, T. kathiewayae. Homonym renamed: Turris bipartita nom. nov. for Pleurotoma variegata Kiener, 1839 (non Philippi, 1836). New synonymies: Turris ankaramanyensis Bozzetti, 2006 = Turris tanyspira Kilburn, 1975; Turris imperfecti, T. nobilis, T. pulchra and T. tornatum Röding, 1798, and Turris assyria Olivera, Seronay & Fedosov, 2010 = T. babylonia; Turris dollyi Olivera, 2000 = Pleurotoma crispa Lamarck, 1816; Turris totiphyllis Olivera, 2000 = Turris hidalgoi Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco, 2000; Turris kilburni Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco, 2000 = Turris pagasa Olivera, 2000; Turris (Annulaturris) munizi Vera-Peláez, Vega-Luz & Lozano-Francisco, 2000 = Gemmula lululimi Olivera, 2000. Revised status: Turris intricata Powell, 1964, Pleurotoma variegata Kiener, 1839 (non Philippi, 1836) and Pleurotoma yeddoensis Jousseaume, 1883, are regarded as full species (not subspecies of Turris crispa). Neotype designated: For Pleurotoma garnonsii Reeve, 1843, to distinguish it from Turris garnonsii of recent authors, type locality emended to Zanzibar. New combination: Turris orthopleura Kilburn, 1983, is transferred to genus Makiyamaia, family Clavatulidae. PMID:23847408

  15. A new species of Moennigia (Trichostrongylina: Molineidae) a parasite of Chaetophractus spp. (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ezquiaga, María C; Navone, Graciela T

    2014-08-01

    Moennigia celinae n. sp. collected from the small intestine of Chaetophractus vellerosus and Chaetophractus villosus (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae) from Argentina is herein described. This new species belongs to the genus Moennigia because it possesses a short uterus with few eggs, atrophied distal branch of the ovejector, vulva near the anus, and a conical tail. The new species has a synlophe with 17 symmetrical ridges and slight ventro-dorsal orientation. The spicule length:body length ratio is similar to that of the other species parasitic of Dasypodidae; however, Moennigia celinae n. sp. differs from Moennigia pintoi and Moennigia lutzi because the latter lack a gubernaculum, and from Moennigia complexus, Moennigia moennigi, Moennigia filamentosus, Moennigia intrusa, Moennigia littlei, Moennigia pulchra and Moennigia dessetae by the latter having very complex spicules with 2 or 3 points at the distal extremity. Moreover, Moennigia celinae n. sp. differs from Moennigia virilis by the length and shape of its spicules. Moennigia celinae n. sp. can be distinguished from Moennigia travassosi by the shape of the dorsal ray of the caudal bursa. Moennigia celinae n. sp. resembles Moennigia pseudopulchra but the gubernaculum of the latter is V-shaped. This is the second report of a species of Moennigia in Argentina and the first for the genus Chaetophractus. PMID:24552210

  16. More than 35 years of studies on marine nematodes from Tunisia: a checklist of species and their distribution.

    PubMed

    Boufahja, Fehmi; Vitiello, Pierre; Aissa, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    This work provides an inventory of species of free-living nematodes from Tunisian waters, based on samples collected from September 1977 until March 2013. Sediment samples were taken from 8 ecosystems: the Lagoons of Bizerte, Ghar El Melh and Bou Ghrara, Northern and Southern Lakes of Tunis, Old Harbor of Bizerte, Bizerte Bay and Ichkeul Lake. A total of 31 families, 133 genera, and 249 species of marine nematodes are currently known from Tunisia. The Xyalidae (with 30 species), Cyatholaimidae (25), Chromadoridae and Linhomoeidae (each 21) and Comesomatidae (20) are the richest families. Among them, Daptonema (with 9 species), Pomponema and Sabatieria (with 7 each) are the most species-rich genera. Some species were recovered only from a specific type of ecosystem. In detail, 109 species were recovered from lagoons, 56 species from sandy beaches and 6 species from mudflats. The 78 remaining species were widely distributed in Tunisian waters and four of these (Terschellingia longicaudata, Oncholaimus campylocercoides, Sabatieria pulchra and Theristus flevensis) were present in most of the 8 ecosystems studied. PMID:24869538

  17. Leaves of Lolium multiflorum 'Lema' and tropical tree species as biomonitors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Mirian C S; Domingos, Marisa; Dias, Ana P L; Esposito, Jéssica B N; Pagliuso, Josmar D

    2012-05-01

    This study extends the current knowledge regarding the use of plants for the passive accumulation of anthropogenic PAHs that are present in the atmospheric total suspended particles (TSP) in the tropics and sub-tropics. It is of major relevance because the anthropic emissions of TSP containing PAHs are significant in these regions, but their monitoring is still scarce. We compared the biomonitor efficiency of Lolium multiflorum 'Lema' and tropical tree species (Tibouchina pulchra and Psidium guajava 'Paluma') that were growing in an intensely TSP-polluted site in Cubatão (SE Brazil), and established the species with the highest potential for alternative monitoring of PAHs. PAHs present in the TSP indicated that the region is impacted by various emission sources. L. multiflorum showed a greater efficiency for the accumulation of PAH compounds on their leaves than the tropical trees. The linear regression between the logBCF and logKoa revealed that L. multiflorum is an efficient biomonitor of the profile of light and heavy PAHs present in the particulate phase of the atmosphere during dry weather and mild temperatures. The grass should be used only for indicating the PAHs with higher molecular weight in warmer and wetter periods. PMID:22285658

  18. Synthesis, quorum sensing inhibition and docking studies of 1,5-dihydropyrrol-2-ones.

    PubMed

    Goh, Wai-Kean; Gardner, Christopher R; Chandra Sekhar, Kondapalli V G; Biswas, Nripendra N; Nizalapur, Shashidhar; Rice, Scott A; Willcox, Mark; Black, David StC; Kumar, Naresh

    2015-12-01

    Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli use N-acylated l-homoserine lactones (AHLs) as autoinducers (AIs) for quorum sensing (QS), a chief regulatory and cell-to-cell communication system. QS is responsible for social adaptation, virulence factor production, biofilm production and antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Fimbrolides, a class of halogenated furanones isolated from the red marine alga Delisea pulchra, have been shown to exhibit promising QS inhibitory activity against various Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains. In this work, various lactam analogues of fimbrolides viz., 1,5-dihydropyrrol-2-ones, were designed and synthesized via an efficient lactamization protocol. All the synthesized analogues were tested for QS inhibition against the E. coli AHL-monitor strain JB357 gfp (ASV). Compound 17a emerged as the most potent compound, followed by 9c, with AIC40 values (the ratio of synthetic inhibitor to natural AHL signaling molecule that is required to lower GFP expression to 40%) of 1.95 and 19.00, respectively. Finally, the potential binding interactions between the synthesized molecules and the LasR QS receptor were studied by molecular docking. Our results indicate that 1,5-dihydropyrrol-2-ones have the ability to serve as potential leads for the further development of novel QS inhibitors as antimicrobial therapeutics. PMID:26547407

  19. Morphology and molecular phylogeny of two new brackish-water species of Amphisiella (Ciliophora, Hypotrichia), with notes on morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xumiao; Shao, Chen; Lin, Xiaofeng; Clamp, John C; Song, Weibo

    2013-08-01

    Two new species of the taxonomically confused genus Amphisiella were isolated from brackish-water habitats in southern China, and their morphology and morphogenesis were investigated. The genes coding for small subunit (SSU) rRNA were sequenced in each species and included in a phylogenetic analysis with all data available from nominal species of Amphisiella and related hypotrichs. Both new species are diagnosed by an elongate body shape, yellow-brown/grey-brown cell color, one kind of cortical granule, and two macronuclear nodules. The cortical granules in A. pulchra sp. n. are grouped in small clusters which are irregularly distributed both ventrally and dorsally; in A. candida sp. n., they are irregularly and sparsely distributed ventrally and form longitudinal stripes dorsally. The ontogenetic processes of both species show similarities to those of other congeners. Phylogenetic trees based on SSU rRNA gene sequences suggest that the family Amphisiellidae is a paraphyletic assemblage. The results further demonstrate that two isolates identified as Amphisiella annulata (DQ832260 and GU170843) are very likely cryptic species, and a sequence identified as A. milnei (DQ845293) may belong to a genus other than Amphisiella. PMID:23295032

  20. Characterization of the adhesive areas in Sepia tuberculata (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    von Byern, Janek; Scott, Robyn; Griffiths, Charles; Micossi, Andrea; Grunwald, Ingo; Cyran, Norbert

    2011-10-01

    Adhesion in cephalopods is either mechanical, involving a reduced-pressure system of the arm and tentacle suckers, or is chemically mediated by special adhesive gland structures (as proposed for Euprymna, Idiosepius, and Nautilus). Four species of Sepia (S. typica, S. papillata, S. pulchra, and S. tuberculata) possess grooved structures on the ventral mantle surface and on the fourth arm pair, which are used to attach mechanically to the substratum. Because these areas are often partly covered with sand or debris, it has been hypothesized that chemical substances were involved in this attachment process. This study provides a histochemical and ultrastructural description of the glandular epithelium in the adhesive area of Sepia tuberculata. Two specific glandular cells (Type 1 and Type 2) are present in the epithelium, which differ clearly in their granule size and cellular structure. The aggregation of both cell types and their simultaneous secretion suggest that the secretions of both cell types work synergistically providing a two-component adhesive system which supports the primarily mechanical sucker adhesion by making the arm surface sticky. PMID:21688295

  1. Systematics and biology of Xylocopa subgenus Schonnherria (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Lucia, Mariano; Gonzalez, Victor H.; Abrahamovich, Alberto H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Biological information on the species of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa subgenus Schonnherria occurring in Argentina is revised. Based on the appraisal of museum specimens, the study of type material, and field surveys conducted across 15 provinces between 2007 and 2011, the following seven species are recognized for the country: Xylocopa bambusae Schrottky, Xylocopa chrysopoda Schrottky, Xylocopa macrops Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, Xylocopa simillima Smith Xylocopa splendidula Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, Xylocopa pulchra Smith, and Xylocopa viridis Smith. Previous literature records of Xylocopa dimidiata Latreille, Xylocopa subcyanea Pérez, and Xylocopa varians Smith for the province of Misiones appear to have been misidentified specimens, although the presence of these species in Argentina cannot be entirely ruled out given the proximity of this province to Brazil and Paraguay where they occur; Xylocopa boops Maidl was described from a male specimen with unusually enlarged eyes and is newly synonymized under Xylocopa macrops. Males and females of all species are diagnosed, described, and figured, including details of the male genitalia. Taxonomic comments, data on the geographical distribution and nesting substrates, and identification keys to all Argentinean species of Schonnherria are provided. The nesting biologies of Xylocopa splendidula and Xylocopa viridis are documented. PMID:26798288

  2. Assessing redox potential of a native tree from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest: a successful evaluation of oxidative stress associated to a new power generation source of an oil refinery.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Marisia Pannia; Pedroso, Andrea Nunes Vaz; Domingos, Marisa

    2016-04-15

    The antioxidant responses in saplings of Tibouchina pulchra (a native tree from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest) exposed around an oil refinery in the city of Cubatão (SE Brazil), varied during the exchange of its power generation source, from boilers fueled with oil to a thermoelectric fueled with natural gas. The redox potential changed in response to an interaction of air pollution and meteorological parameters, indicating that the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance was not reached after the exchange of the power generation system. The gain in environmental quality in the region was not achieved as expected due the technological modernization, at least relative to oxidative stressors. These conclusions were based on results of analyses of enzymatic antioxidants: superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR); non-enzymatic antioxidants: reduced, oxidized and total ascorbic acid (AsA, DHA, totAA) and glutathione (GSH, GSSG, totG), their redox state (AsA/totAA and GSH/totG) and an indicator of lipid peroxidation (MDA). We also applied exploratory multivariate statistics in order to verify if the temporal sequence of changes in the plant redox capacity coincided with changes in the profile of air pollution, climatic conditions or with their interactions and if the environmental benefits that would supposedly be promoted by the mentioned exchange of power generation system were achieved in the region. PMID:26851758

  3. Biogeochemical characterization of an undisturbed highly acidic, metal-rich bryophyte habitat, east-central Alaska, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, L.P.; Eppinger, R.G.; Briggs, P.H.; Giles, S.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the geochemistry of soil and bryophyte-laden sediment and on the biogeochemistry of willows growing in an undisturbed volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in the Alaska Range ecoregion of east-central Alaska. We also describe an unusual bryophyte assemblage found growing in the acidic metal-rich waters that drain the area. Ferricrete-cemented silty alluvial sediments within seeps and streams are covered with the liverwort Gymnocolea inflata whereas the mosses Polytrichum commune and P. juniperinum inhabit the area adjacent to the water and within the splash zone. Both the liverwort-encrusted sediment and Polytrichum thalli have high concentrations of major and trace metal cations (e.g., Al, As, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mn, Pb, and Zn). Soils in the area do not reflect the geochemical signature of the mineral deposit and we postulate they are influenced by the chemistry of eolian sediments derived from outside the deposit area. The willow, Salix pulchra, growing mostly within and adjacent to the larger streams, has much higher concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Fe, La, Pb, and Zn when compared to the same species collected in non-mineralized areas of Alaska. The Cd levels are especially high and are shown to exceed, by an order of magnitude, levels demonstrated to be toxic to ptarmigan in Colorado. Willow, growing in this naturally occurring metal-rich Red Mountain alteration zone, may adversely affect the health of browsing animals. ?? 2006 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  4. Species-level diversity of belowground structure in savanna woody plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, F. C.; Caylor, K. K.; Bhattachan, A.; Dintwe, K.; D'Odorico, P.; Okin, G. S.

    2013-05-01

    Using compressed air, we excavated individual trees and shrubs and mapped their coarse root systems on a three-dimensional grid system up to 1.5 m depth. We excavated four woody savanna species at three sites spanning a climate gradient on the Kalahari Transect in southern Africa. Overall, species was more important than site in determining both large-scale and small-scale root system structure. The species excavated fell into two groups that coexisted across the climate gradient. Acacia mellifera and Terminalia sericea had straight roots in a laterally-extensive and relatively shallow system. Boscia albitrunca and Ochna pulchra had sinuous roots that were mostly concentrated beneath the canopy and were more prevalent in deep than near-surface soil layers, departing from the conventional model of decreasing root abundance with depth. The shallow-rooted species had small taproots, though it is unlikely that they reached the water table. Deep- and shallow-rootedness appear to correlate with other characteristics such as growth form (tree or shrub) and drought deciduousness. Acacia mellifera Boscia albitrunca

  5. Thiophenone and furanone in control of Escherichia coli O103:H2 virulence.

    PubMed

    Witsø, Ingun L; Benneche, Tore; Vestby, Lene K; Nesse, Live L; Lönn-Stensrud, Jessica; Scheie, Anne A

    2014-04-01

    Escherichia coli are a mutual and foodborne pathogen, causing severe intestinal infections typically characterized by diarrhoea and vomiting. Biofilms are often a common source of pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria. Quorum sensing is a phenomenon where bacteria communicate and initiate the regulation of several virulence factors and biofilm formation. Thus, quorum sensing has been a new target in the fight against bacterial biofilms. In this study, we investigated the effect of two quorum-sensing inhibitors for preventing in vitro biofilm formation in wild-type E. coli O103:H2. Furanone F202 originates from the red algae Delisea pulchra, and thiophenone TF101 is a sulphur analogue of furanone. We also investigated the effect of thiophenone and furanone on virulence factors controlled by quorum sensing. Both TF101 and F202 interfered with biofilm formation, although TF101 was more effective. TF101 reduced motility presumably by interfering with flagella production, visualized by microscopic techniques. The expressions of flhd, which are involved in flagella synthesis, were affected by thiophenone. This is the first study exploring the effect of thiophenone on E. coli biofilm formation and virulence factors. PMID:24391047

  6. 2(5H)-Furanone, epigallocatechin gallate, and a citric-based disinfectant disturb quorum-sensing activity and reduce motility and biofilm formation of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Sandra; Heredia, Norma; García, Santos

    2015-01-01

    Brominated furanone and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) are naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds that can be derived from sources such as Delisea pulchra algae and green tea, respectively. These compounds may have potential health benefits and antimicrobial properties. Biofilm formation and bacterial motility are virulence factors that seem to be involved in the autoinducer 2 (AI-2)-mediated quorum sensing (QS) response of Campylobacter. In this study, the anti-QS activities of 2(5H)-furanone, EGCG, and a citric-based disinfectant were tested against Campylobacter jejuni. The minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) was determined by a microdilution method, and the AI-2 activity was measured by bioluminescence. For motility tests, subinhibitory concentrations of each compound were mixed with semisolid Muller Hinton agar. Biofilm formation was quantified in broth-containing microplates after staining with safranin. The MBC of tested compounds ranged from 0.3 to 310 ?g/mL. Subinhibitory concentrations of all of the antimicrobial compounds significantly decreased (19 to 62 %) the bacterial motility and reduced biofilm formation. After treatment with EGCG, furanone, and the disinfectant, AI-2 activity was decreased by 60 to 99 % compared to control. In conclusion, 2(5H)-furanone, EGCG, and the disinfectant exert bactericidal effects against C. jejuni and disturb QS activity and reduce motility and biofilm formation. These compounds may be naturally occurring alternatives to control C. jejuni. PMID:25231135

  7. Gas exchange, growth, and chemical parameters in a native Atlantic forest tree species in polluted areas of Cubatão, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moraes, R M; Delitti, W B C; Moraes, J A P V

    2003-03-01

    The Atlantic forest species near the industrial complex of Cubatão, Brazil have been subjected to heavy air pollution for decades. In this study, we used some physiological parameters (gas exchange, growth and chemical contents) to biomonitor the effects of air pollution on Tibouchina pulchra, one of the most common tree species in this forest. Under standardized conditions, saplings were exposed to the environment from April to July and from July to September of 1998, at three different sites in the vicinity of the industrial complex: the Valley of Pilões River (VP), the control area; the Valley of Mogi River (VM), near fertilizer, metallurgical, and cement industries sustaining high concentrations of fluorides, N and S oxides, and particulate materials; and Caminho do Mar (CM), near petrochemical industries under N and S oxides, photooxidants, and organic compounds. Plants exposed to CM and VM conditions presented visible injuries, reductions in net photosynthesis, growth parameters, and ascorbate concentrations, and increased F, N, and S foliar concentrations. These results indicate that the environmental conditions around these industries are still harmful to plants. PMID:12651190

  8. Temperature-dependent acute toxicity of methomyl pesticide on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species.

    PubMed

    Lau, Edward Tak Chuen; Karraker, Nancy Elizabeth; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee

    2015-10-01

    Relative to other animal taxa, ecotoxicological studies on amphibians are scarce, even though amphibians are experiencing global declines and pollution has been identified as an important threat. Agricultural lands provide important habitats for many amphibians, but often these lands are contaminated with pesticides. The authors determined the acute toxicity, in terms of 96-h median lethal concentrations, of the carbamate pesticide methomyl on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species, the Asian common toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus), the brown tree frog (Polypedates megacephalus), and the marbled pygmy frog (Microhyla pulchra), at 5 different temperatures (15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C, and 35 °C) to examine the relationships between temperature and toxicity. Significant interspecific variation in methomyl sensitivity and 2 distinct patterns of temperature-dependent toxicity were found. Because high proportions of malformation among the surviving tadpoles were observed, a further test was carried out on the tree frog to determine effect concentrations using malformation as the endpoint. Concentrations as low as 1.4% of the corresponding 96-h median lethal concentrations at 25 °C were sufficient to cause malformation in 50% of the test population. As the toxicity of pesticides may be significantly amplified at higher temperatures, temperature effects should not be overlooked in ecotoxicological studies and derivation of safety limits in environmental risk assessment and management. PMID:25959379

  9. SPECIES COMPOSITION OF CARRION BLOW FLIES IN NORTHERN THAILAND: ALTITUDE APPRAISAL

    PubMed Central

    Moophayak, Kittikhun; Klong-Klaew, Tunwadee; Sukontason, Kom; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Sukontason, Kabkaew L.

    2014-01-01

    Distribution and occurrence of blow flies of forensic importance was performed during 2007 and 2008 in Chiang Mai and Lampang Provinces, northern Thailand. Surveys were conducted in forested areas for 30 minutes using a sweep net to collected flies attracted to a bait. A total of 2,115 blow flies belonging to six genera and 14 species were collected; Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (44.7%), C. pinguis (Walker) (15.1%), C. chani Kurahashi (9.3%), C. thanomthini Kurahashi & Tumrasvin (0.3%); Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) (10.5%), A. villeneuvi (Patton) (2.2%); Lucilia papuensis Macquart (2.2%), L. porphyrina (Walker) (12.4%), L. sinensis Aubertin (0.7%); Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) (1.3%), H. pulchra (Wiedemann) (0.1%); Hypopygiopsis infumata (Bigot) (0.6%), Hy. tumrasvini Kurahashi (0.2%) and Ceylonomyia nigripes Aubertin (0.4%). Among them, C. megacephala was the predominant species collected, particularly in the summer. The species likely to prevail in highland areas are C. pinguis, C. thanomthini, Hy. tumrasvini, L. papuensis and L. porphyrina. PMID:24626423

  10. (5Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)-3-butyl-2(5H)-furanone reduces corrosion from Desulfotomaculum orientis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Dacheng; Wood, Thomas K

    2004-05-01

    (5Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)-3-butyl-2(5H)-furanone (furanone) from the red marine alga Delisea pulchra was found previously to inhibit the growth, swarming and biofilm formation of Gram-positive bacteria (Ren et al., 2002, Lett Appl Microbiol 34: 293-299). In the present study, the Gram-positive sulphate-reducing bacterium (SRB), Desulfotomaculum orientis, was used to study the inhibition of mild steel corrosion due to the addition of furanone. The weight loss from batch coupon experiments incubated with 40 microg x ml(-1) furanone was reduced fivefold compared with samples that lacked furanone. Analysis of the metal surface with environmental scanning electron microscopy further confirmed the protection afforded by the addition of furanone. In agreement with the corrosion inhibition, most probable number (MPN) analysis showed that 20 and 40 microg x ml(-1) furanone inhibited 58% and 96% of the D. orientis growth respectively. Hence, furanone has the potential to inhibit microbial-induced corrosion related to Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:15049927

  11. Hybridization of two megacephalic map turtles (testudines: emydidae: Graptemys) in the Choctawhatchee River drainage of Alabama and Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godwin, James; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Kreiser, Brian R.; Folt, Brian; Lechowicz, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Map turtles of the genus Graptemys are highly aquatic and rarely undergo terrestrial movements, and limited dispersal among drainages has been hypothesized to drive drainage-specific endemism and high species richness of this group in the southeastern United States. Until recently, two members of the megacephalic “pulchra clade,” Graptemys barbouri andGraptemys ernsti, were presumed to be allopatric with a gap in both species' ranges in the Choctawhatchee River drainage. In this paper, we analyzed variation in morphology (head and shell patterns) and genetics (mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite loci) from G. barbouri, G. ernsti, and Graptemys sp. collected from the Choctawhatchee River drainage, and we document the syntopic occurrence of those species and back-crossed individuals of mixed ancestry in the Choctawhatchee River drainage. Our results provide a first counter-example to the pattern of drainage-specific endemism in megacephalic Graptemys. Geologic events associated with Pliocene and Pleistocene sea level fluctuations and the existence of paleo-river systems appear to have allowed the invasion of the Choctawhatchee system by these species, and the subsequent introgression likely predates any potential human-mediated introduction.

  12. Can methane suppression during digestion of woody and leafy browse compensate for energy costs of detoxification of plant secondary compounds? A test with muskoxen fed willows and birch.

    PubMed

    White, R G; Lawler, J P

    2002-11-01

    Digestion and metabolism of woody and leafy browse requires detoxification of plant secondary compounds that can incur an energy cost. Browse, however, inhibits methane (CH(4)) production and therefore could offset some costs of detoxification. We measured an index of heat increment of feeding (HIFi) and CH(4) production in muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) given a single test meal (at 10 g/kg BM(0.75)) composed of hay mixed with one of three browse species (Willow: Salix alaxensis, S. pulchra; Birch: Betula nana). Detoxification cost was estimated as HIFi of browse diet-HIFi of hay diet and CH(4) compensation as CH(4) production of hay diet-CH(4) production of browse diet. CH(4) compensation was noted in 47% of 15 trials in which a detoxification cost was evident; six trials were with woody browse and one with leafy browse. Separate controls were responsible for the difference in CH(4) compensation for leafy browse vs. woody browse. Detoxification costs for twigs and leaves of B. nana were underestimated because of their low digestibility. In only one of six treatments was CH(4) compensation documented for B. nana. We conclude that energy saved by CH(4) suppression was small (<6%) compared with detoxification costs. PMID:12443941

  13. Differential Photosynthetic Responses of two Deciduous Shrub Species to Short and Long Term Snow Accumulation in the Arctic Tundra of Northern Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattison, R. R.; Welker, J.; Sveinbjornsson, B.; Sullivan, P. F.

    2007-12-01

    Shrub abundance is increasing in many ecosystems in the arctic. This change is likely to have large scale implications on carbon, water and energy balances both at local and global scales. A proposed mechanism underlying increased shrub abundance is a positive feedback where shrubs increase snow accumulation which insulates soils during the winter and increases nitrogen mineralization in these nutrient limited ecosystems. The deciduous shrub Betula nana has been implicated as the primary driver of changes in snow accumulation. We examined the leaf level photosynthetic rates of B. nana and another deciduous shrub species Salix pulchra after short (1 winter) and long-term (12 winters) snow accumulation treatments. Our results indicate differential photosynthetic responses of the two shrub species with B. nana showing a greater increase in photosynthesis in response to long term snow increases but not following 1 year of snow addition. Salix did not exhibit significant increases in leaf level photosynthesis in response to short or long term increases in snow depth. Higher leaf- level carbon fixation by Betula may partially explain it's gradual dominance under deeper snow conditions in winter and may be associated with greater N availability and higher leaf N.

  14. Snow-mediated Ptarmigan Browsing Controls Shrub Expansion in Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tape, K.; Lord, R.; Bret-Harte, S.

    2007-12-01

    Large, late-winter ptarmigan migrations heavily impact the patch, shrub, and branch morphology of shrubs that remain above the snow surface. Ptarmigan browsing on arctic shrubs was assessed in the vicinity of Toolik Lake, on the Arctic Slope of Alaska, by counting the fraction of browsed versus total bud locations on Salix alaxensis, Salix pulchra, Salix lanata, and Betula nana. Data were collected in early May 2007, at maximum snow depth, after the bulk of the ptarmigan migration had passed through the area. In an area of large shrubs, half of the buds were browsed by ptarmigan. Three percent of the buds that were buried beneath the snow were browsed, 97 percent of the buds that were within 25 cm of the maximum snow level were browsed, and 46 percent of the buds above that height were browsed. In other areas, where all the shrubs were buried by snow at the height of the migration, 35 percent of the buds were browsed. These data were qualitatively extrapolated by observation westward to the Nanushuk River and eastward to the Jago River, about 250 km across a series of north-flowing rivers with headwaters in the Brooks Range. Ptarmigan hedging shrub patches, and shrub expansion under a warmer climate, are competing forces mediated by snow distribution. The outcome of these competing forces varies spatially, and can be inferred by examining the morphology of shrub patches, individuals, and branches.

  15. Bacterial signals and antagonists: the interaction between bacteria and higher organisms.

    PubMed

    Rice, S A; Givskov, M; Steinberg, P; Kjelleberg, S

    1999-08-01

    It is now well established that bacteria communicate through the secretion and uptake of small diffusable molecules. These chemical cues, or signals, are often used by bacteria to coordinate phenotypic expression and this mechanism of regulation presumably provides them with a competitive advantage in their natural environment. Examples of coordinated behaviors of marine bacteria which are regulated by signals include swarming and exoprotease production, which are important for niche colonisation or nutrient acquisition (e.g. protease breakdown of substrate). While the current focus on bacterial signalling centers on N-Acylated homoserine lactones, the quorum sensing signals of gram-negative bacteria, these are not the only types of signals used by bacteria. Indeed, there appears to be many other types of signals produced by bacteria and it also appears that a bacterium may use multiple classes of signals for phenotypic regulation. Recent work in the area of marine microbial ecology has led to the observation that some marine eukaryotes secrete their own signals which compete with the bacterial signals and thus inhibit the expression of bacterial signalling phenotypes. This type of molecular mimicry has been well characterised for the interaction of marine prokaryotes with the red alga, Delisea pulchra. PMID:10941781

  16. Ontogeny of behavioural adaptations in beach crustaceans: some temporal considerations for integrated coastal zone management and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, E.; Kennedy, F.

    2003-10-01

    So-called "typical" behavioural responses of coastal animals to particular stimuli have previously been shown often to vary cyclically in phase with diel or tidal cycles in the environment. Less well-studied are differences in the behaviour of adults and juveniles of the same species at the same time of day or tidal state, or in response to the same stimulus. Experimental studies of such differences in behaviour are reviewed and compared for three species of beach crustaceans, namely, the crab Carcinus maenas, the isopod Eurydice pulchra and the amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata. Juvenile, but not adult, Carcinus will entrain circatidal rhythmicity after exposure to artificial tidal cycles of immersion/emersion; juvenile, but not adult, Eurydice express pronounced free-running circatidal swimming rhythms at neap tides as well as at springs; and, in Orchestoidea, juveniles and adults express patterns of daily locomotor activity that are complementary, both on the shore and in the laboratory. These ontogenetic differences are discussed in relation to distributional and behavioural differences between adults and juveniles in each species, drawing attention to their adaptive significance and wider implications for coastal management and conservation.

  17. Revision, cladistic analysis and biogeography of Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae).

    PubMed

    Bertani, Rogério

    2012-01-01

    Three aviculariine genera endemic to Brazil are revised. Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850 is resurrected, including five species; Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901 includes two species; and Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, six species. Nine species are newly described: Typhochlaena ammasp. n., Typhochlaena costaesp. n., Typhochlaena curumimsp. n., Typhochlaena paschoalisp. n., Pachistopelma bromelicolasp. n., Iridopelma katiaesp. n., Iridopelma marcoisp. n., Iridopelma oliveiraisp. n. and Iridopelma vaninisp. n. Three new synonymies are established: Avicularia pulchra Mello-Leitão, 1933 and Avicularia recifiensis Struchen & Brändle, 1996 are junior synonyms of Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 syn. n., and Avicularia palmicola Mello-Leitão, 1945 is a junior synonym of Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 syn. n.Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947 is transferred to Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, making the new combination Tapinauchenius concolor (Caporiacco, 1947)comb. n. Lectotypes are newly designed for Pachistopelma rufonigrum Pocock, 1901 , Iridopelma hirsutum Pocock, 1901 and Pachistopelma concolor Caporiacco, 1947. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix comprising 62 characters and 38 terminal taxa. The chosen cladogram found with X-Pee-Wee and concavity 6 suggests they are monophyletic. All species are keyed and mapped and information on species habitat and area cladograms are presented. Discussion on biogeography and conservation is provided. PMID:23166476

  18. Macrobenthic zonation patterns along a morphodynamical continuum of macrotidal, low tide bar/rip and ultra-dissipative sandy beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degraer, S.; Volckaert, A.; Vincx, M.

    2003-03-01

    The species composition, densities, biomass and zonation patterns of the macrobenthos of sandy beaches are greatly influenced by the morphodynamics and morphology of the beaches. Macrobenthic zonation patterns along a small-scale morphodynamic gradient, comprising eight Belgian beach sites, were investigated. By taking into account the dimensionless fall velocity ( ?) and the relative tidal range, the beach sites were ordered along the gradient from the ultra-dissipative beach type (UD) to the low tide bar/rip beach type (LTBR). The resulting beach state index varied between 1.8 and 4.2 and the beach profiles were related with the beaches' morphodynamic state. In total 35 macrobenthic species, mainly polychaetes and crustaceans, were encountered, varying between 19 and 23 species per beach site. The species composition was quite similar among beach sites, with Scolelepis squamata being abundant at all eight sites. Furthermore, the macrobenthic distribution patterns were mainly related to elevation at all beach sites. Some remarkable difference in metrics, largely related to the beach morphodynamics and the consequent hydrodynamics, were found. At the hydrodynamically benign and consequently macrobenthos-rich UD beaches, the highest macrobenthic densities and biomass occurred on the upper beach, while at the hydrodynamically harsh and thus macrobenthos-poor LTBR beaches, the maximum densities and biomass occurred lower on the beach. Species, typically occurring on the upper UD beaches, such as Eurydice pulchra, S. squamata, and Bathyporeia sarsi, were restricted to the sub-optimal middle and lower beach zone at LTBR beaches. Only Bathyporeia pilosa was found on the upper beach of both UD and LTBR beaches. The more robust polychaete Ophelia rathkei and the interstitial polychaete Hesionides arenaria were exclusively found in the hydrodynamically harsh conditions of the middle LTBR beach zone.

  19. Inferring extinction of mammals from sighting records, threats, and biological traits.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Diana O; Blomberg, Simon P

    2012-02-01

    For species with five or more sightings, quantitative techniques exist to test whether a species is extinct on the basis of distribution of sightings. However, 70% of purportedly extinct mammals are known from fewer than five sightings, and such models do not include some important indicators of the likelihood of extinction such as threats, biological traits, search effort, and demography. Previously, we developed a quantitative method that we based on species' traits in which we used Cox proportional hazards regression to calculate the probability of rediscovery of species regarded as extinct. Here, we used two versions of the Cox regression model to determine the probability of extinction in purportedly extinct mammals and compared the results of these two models with those of stationary Poisson, nonparametric, and Weibull sighting-distribution models. For mammals with five or more sightings, the stationary Poisson model categorized all but two critically endangered (flagged as possibly extinct) species in our data set as extinct, and results with this model were consistent with current categories of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. The scores of probability of rediscovery for individual species in one version of our Cox regression model were correlated with scores assigned by the stationary Poisson model. Thus, we used this Cox regression model to determine the probability of extinction of mammals with sparse records. On the basis of the Cox regression model, the most likely mammals to be rediscovered were the Montane monkey-faced bat (Pteralopex pulchra), Armenian myotis (Myotis hajastanicus), Alcorn's pocket gopher (Pappogeomys alcorni), and Wimmer's shrew (Crocidura wimmeri). The Cox model categorized two species that have recently disappeared as extinct: the baiji (Lipotes vexillifer) and the Christmas Island pipistrelle (Pipistrellus murrayi). Our new method can be used to test whether species with few records or recent last-sighting dates are likely to be extinct. PMID:22136403

  20. Plant phenological responses to a long-term experimental extension of growing season and soil warming in the tussock tundra of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Khorsand Rosa, Roxaneh; Oberbauer, Steven F; Starr, Gregory; Parker La Puma, Inga; Pop, Eric; Ahlquist, Lorraine; Baldwin, Tracey

    2015-12-01

    Climate warming is strongly altering the timing of season initiation and season length in the Arctic. Phenological activities are among the most sensitive plant responses to climate change and have important effects at all levels within the ecosystem. We tested the effects of two experimental treatments, extended growing season via snow removal and extended growing season combined with soil warming, on plant phenology in tussock tundra in Alaska from 1995 through 2003. We specifically monitored the responses of eight species, representing four growth forms: (i) graminoids (Carex bigellowii and Eriophorum vaginatum); (ii) evergreen shrubs (Ledum palustre, Cassiope tetragona, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea); (iii) deciduous shrubs (Betula nana and Salix pulchra); and (iv) forbs (Polygonum bistorta). Our study answered three questions: (i) Do experimental treatments affect the timing of leaf bud break, flowering, and leaf senescence? (ii) Are responses to treatments species-specific and growth form-specific? and (iii) Which environmental factors best predict timing of phenophases? Treatment significantly affected the timing of all three phenophases, although the two experimental treatments did not differ from each other. While phenological events began earlier in the experimental plots relative to the controls, duration of phenophases did not increase. The evergreen shrub, Cassiope tetragona, did not respond to either experimental treatment. While the other species did respond to experimental treatments, the total active period for these species did not increase relative to the control. Air temperature was consistently the best predictor of phenology. Our results imply that some evergreen shrubs (i.e., C. tetragona) will not capitalize on earlier favorable growing conditions, putting them at a competitive disadvantage relative to phenotypically plastic deciduous shrubs. Our findings also suggest that an early onset of the growing season as a result of decreased snow cover will not necessarily result in greater tundra productivity. PMID:26183112

  1. Willow Shrub Expansion Following Tundra Fires in Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racine, C.

    2010-12-01

    Climate warming in the Arctic is predicted to result in the expansion of woody shrubs and increased frequency and size of tundra fires. How will fire influence this shrub expansion? Over a period of 32 years, following a 1977 tundra fire in the central Seward Peninsula, we sampled seven times the post-fire vegetation at eight permanently marked sites on a long (2 Km) hillslope (Nimrod Hill). We had previously sampled vegetation here in 1973 prior to the fire. By 2001, 24 years post-fire conspicuous willow shrubs (mostly Salix pulchra) had increased in numbers, size and cover over the entire slope in moist tussock-shrub tundra, well-drained heath, and wet meadow. Prior to fire, willow on this slope was largely restricted to small drainages or watertracks. Willows here have originated from both seed and vegetative resprouting - the latter mostly in moist tussock-shrub tundra from willows resprouting within one to three years post-fire. With fire-induced removal of vascular plant competition and Spagnum moss cover and litter in tussock-shrub tundra, both seedling and resprouting willows have grown rapidly to overtop tussocks by 30-40 cm. Similar rapid post-fire resprouting of willows has been observed in tussock-shrub tundra after the 2007 Anaktuvuk River tundra fire and after the 1977 tundra fires in the Noatak River basin. On Nimrod Hill the most striking willow expansion has occurred on the severely burned and well-drained backslope where willow establishment from seed 5-10 years after fire has resulted in up to 40% cover of rapidly growing willows of both upright and spreading growth form. At several sites along the slope there is evidence of continuing willow expansion from seedlings 24 to 32 years post-fire, when we might expect the effects of fire on seedbeds would have ceased. We conclude that tundra fire may promote shrub expansion in the Arctic.

  2. Identification, Characterization, and Diel Pattern of Expression of Canonical Clock Genes in Nephrops norvegicus (Crustacea: Decapoda) Eyestalk.

    PubMed

    Sbragaglia, Valerio; Lamanna, Francesco; M Mat, Audrey; Rotllant, Guiomar; Joly, Silvia; Ketmaier, Valerio; de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Aguzzi, Jacopo

    2015-01-01

    The Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, is a burrowing decapod with a rhythmic burrow emergence (24 h) governed by the circadian system. It is an important resource for European fisheries and its behavior deeply affects its availability. The current knowledge of Nephrops circadian biology is phenomenological as it is currently the case for almost all crustaceans. In attempt to elucidate the putative molecular mechanisms underlying circadian gene regulation in Nephrops, we used a transcriptomics approach on cDNA extracted from the eyestalk, a structure playing a crucial role in controlling behavior of decapods. We studied 14 male lobsters under 12-12 light-darkness blue light cycle. We used the Hiseq 2000 Illumina platform to sequence two eyestalk libraries (under light and darkness conditions) obtaining about 90 millions 100-bp paired-end reads. Trinity was used for the de novo reconstruction of transcriptomes; the size at which half of all assembled bases reside in contigs (N50) was equal to 1796 (light) and 2055 (darkness). We found a list of candidate clock genes and focused our attention on canonical ones: timeless, period, clock and bmal1. The cloning of assembled fragments validated Trinity outputs. The putative Nephrops clock genes showed high levels of identity (blastx on NCBI) with known crustacean clock gene homologs such as Eurydice pulchra (period: 47%, timeless: 59%, bmal1: 79%) and Macrobrachium rosenbergii (clock: 100%). We also found a vertebrate-like cryptochrome 2. RT-qPCR showed that only timeless had a robust diel pattern of expression. Our data are in accordance with the current knowledge of the crustacean circadian clock, reinforcing the idea that the molecular clockwork of this group shows some differences with the established model in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:26524198

  3. Increasing NDVI values in northern Alaska: studies that mix shrub density, spectral and CO2 exchange measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson-Smith, A.; Lewis, A.; Sullivan, P.; Welker, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Delineating the mechanisms and consequences of changes in tundra landscapes is central to predicting the functional ecology of Alaska in the 21st Century. Evidence has been mounting during the last decade that shrub communities are expanding in the Arctic and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values which measure surface greenness are rising. Several studies have suggested that NDVI increases are being driven by increases in shrub abundance. While it is clear that NDVI has increased across vegetation types, it is not clear that NDVI values are increasing in moist acidic tundra (MAT), the most extensive vegetation type in arctic Alaska and the one most likely to be changed by global warming. The MAT is important to large mammal herbivores such as caribou which provide subsistence for indigenous people. The focus of this research was to determine what rising NDVI values actually mean in the MAT. The degree to which tundra community composition affects NDVI is still very poorly understood. In order to clarify the role of shrub encroachment per se as opposed to other functional groups in driving increases in NDVI, we measured functional group composition in moist acidic tundra in conjunction with hand-held measures of NDVI and direct CO2 exchange measurements to explicitly link spectral properties, shrub, graminoid and bryophyte density and trace gas feedbacks to atmospheric chemistry. Point frame data shows a shrub coverage of Betula nana (Dwarf Birch) and Salix pulchra (Diamond Leaf Willow) combined of 5% to 35% in MAT. Our results seem to indicate that high shrub density (>30%) corresponds to peak season NDVI values greater than .75 whereas low shrub density correspond to values below .65 (R2=.66). Furthermore, NDVI is closely correlated with canopy leaf area and greater leaf area is associated with higher rates of gross and net ecosystem CO2 uptake.

  4. Examining vertical patterns in Arctic tundra shrub canopies: Implications for carbon cycling in a changing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heskel, M.; Atkin, O.; Turnbull, M.; Rastetter, E.; Griffin, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is facilitating the northward encroachment and expansion of woody shrub species into the Arctic tundra, which in turn is altering a number of physical and biogeochemical processes that are likely to affect how carbon is cycled in this region. Greater shrub presence also increases leaf area index and canopy complexity in the tundra, introducing the potential for vertical variation in nitrogen, photosynthesis, and respiration through the canopy. For these reasons, Arctic tundra shrub communities represent an ecologically relevant case study for investigating carbon cycling-nitrogen relationships and testing optimization models. Here, we measured photosynthesis, respiration in the dark and light, the light inhibition of respiration, stomatal conductance, leaf nitrogen, and related leaf traits at different heights representing variation in light availability in multiple Arctic Alaskan shrub communities dominated by Salix pulchra and Betula nana to examine if the relatively low-stature canopies exhibit vertical patterns. Highest rates of photosynthesis and respiration (P < 0.0001) were observed at the top of the canopy, suggesting substrate-limitation of respiration at lower, more shaded canopy levels. Leaves at the top of the canopy also exhibited the lowest inhibition of respiration by light (NS), and the highest nitrogen concentrations. (P < 0.05) implying a relationship between photosynthesis, nitrogen, and a relaxation of light-inhibition to optimize metabolic efficiency. Data from this study was also used to test leaf-level and canopy nitrogen optimization models. These data emphasize the need to include canopy complexity in tundra carbon models, as neglecting physiological differences through a canopy may lead to an underestimation of stored carbon.

  5. Increasing leaf temperature reduces the suppression of isoprene emission by elevated CO? concentration.

    PubMed

    Potosnak, Mark J; Lestourgeon, Lauren; Nunez, Othon

    2014-05-15

    Including algorithms to account for the suppression of isoprene emission by elevated CO2 concentration affects estimates of global isoprene emission for future climate change scenarios. In this study, leaf-level measurements of isoprene emission were made to determine the short-term interactive effect of leaf temperature and CO2 concentration. For both greenhouse plants and plants grown under field conditions, the suppression of isoprene emission was reduced by increasing leaf temperature. For each of the four different tree species investigated, aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), cottonwood (Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall), red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and tundra dwarf willow (Salix pulchra Cham.), the suppression of isoprene by elevated CO2 was eliminated at increased temperature, and the maximum temperature where suppression was observed ranged from 25 to 35°C. Hypotheses proposed to explain the short-term suppression of isoprene emission by increased CO2 concentration were tested against this observation. Hypotheses related to cofactors in the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway were consistent with reduced suppression at elevated leaf temperature. Also, reduced solubility of CO2 with increased temperature can explain the reduced suppression for the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase competition hypothesis. Some global models of isoprene emission include the short-term suppression effect, and should be modified to include the observed interaction. If these results are consistent at longer timescales, there are implications for predicting future global isoprene emission budgets and the reduced suppression at increased temperature could explain some of the variable responses observed in long-term CO2 exposure experiments. PMID:24614154

  6. The Genera of Fungi: fixing the application of type species of generic names.

    PubMed

    Crous, Pedro W; Giraldo, Alejandra; Hawksworth, David L; Robert, Vincent; Kirk, Paul M; Guarro, Josep; Robbertse, Barbara; Schoch, Conrad L; Damm, Ulrike; Trakunyingcharoen, Thippawan; Groenewald, Johannes Z

    2014-06-01

    To ensure a stable platform for fungal taxonomy, it is of paramount importance that the genetic application of generic names be based on their DNA sequence data, and wherever possible, not morphology or ecology alone. To facilitate this process, a new database, accessible at www.GeneraofFungi.org (GoF) was established, which will allow deposition of metadata linked to holo-, lecto-, neo- or epitype specimens, cultures and DNA sequence data of the type species of genera. Although there are presently more than 18 000 fungal genera described, we aim to initially focus on the subset of names that have been placed on the "Without-prejudice List of Protected Generic Names of Fungi" (see IMA Fungus 4(2): 381-443, 2013). To enable the global mycological community to keep track of typification events and avoid duplication, special MycoBank Typification identfiers (MBT) will be issued upon deposit of metadata in MycoBank. MycoBank is linked to GoF, thus deposited metadata of generic type species will be displayed in GoF (and vice versa), but will also be linked to Index Fungorum (IF) and the curated RefSeq Targeted Loci (RTL) database in GenBank at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). This initial paper focuses on eight genera of appendaged coelomycetes, the type species of which are neo- or epitypified here: Bartalinia (Bartalinia robillardoides; Amphisphaeriaceae, Xylariales), Chaetospermum (Chaetospermum chaetosporum, incertae sedis, Sebacinales), Coniella (Coniella fragariae, Schizoparmaceae, Diaporthales), Crinitospora (Crinitospora pulchra, Melanconidaceae, Diaporthales), Eleutheromyces (Eleutheromyces subulatus, Helotiales), Kellermania (Kellermania yuccigena, Planistromataceae, Botryosphaeriales), Mastigosporium (Mastigosporium album, Helotiales), and Mycotribulus (Mycotribulus mirabilis, Agaricales). Authors interested in contributing accounts of individual genera to larger multi-authored papers to be published in IMA Fungus, should contact the associate editors listed below for the major groups of fungi on the List of Protected Generic Names for Fungi. PMID:25083414

  7. Annotated type catalogue of the Chrysididae (Insecta, Hymenoptera) deposited in the collection of Radoszkowski in the Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Paolo; Wiśniowski, Bogdan; Xu, Zai-fu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A critical and annotated catalogue of 183 types of Hymenoptera Chrysididae belonging to 124 taxa housed in the Radoszkowski collection is given. Radoszkowski type material from other institutes has also been checked. Six lectotypes are designated in Kraków (ISEA-PAN): Chrysis acceptabilis Radoszkowski, 1891; Chrysis persica Radoczkowsky, 1881; Chrysis daphnis Mocsáry, 1889; Chrysis lagodechii Radoszkowski, 1889; Chrysis remota Mocsáry, 1889 and Chrysis vagans Radoszkowski, 1877. The lectotype of Brugmoia pellucida Radoszkowski, 1877 is designated in Moscow (MMU). Four new combinations are proposed: Philoctetes araraticus (Radoszkowski, 1890), comb. n.; Pseudomalus hypocrita (du Buysson, 1893), comb. n.; Chrysis eldari (Radoszkowski, 1893), comb. n.; and Chrysura mlokosewitzi (Radoszkowski, 1889), comb. n.. Ten new synonyms are given: Chrysis auropunctata Mocsáry, 1889, syn. n. of Chrysis angolensis Radoszkovsky, 1881; Chrysis chrysochlora Mocsáry, 1889, syn. n. and Chrysis viridans Radoszkowski, 1891, syn. n. of Chrysis keriensis Radoszkowski, 1887; Chrysis angustifrons var. ignicollis Trautmann, 1926, syn. n. of Chrysis eldari (Radoszkowski, 1893); Chrysis maracandensis var. simulatrix Radoszkowski, 1891, syn. n. of Chrysis maracandensis Radoszkowski, 1877; Chrysis pulchra Radoszkovsky, 1880, syn. n. of Spinolia dallatorreana (Mocsáry, 1896); Chrysis rubricollis du Buysson, 1900, syn. n. of Chrysis eldari (Radoszkowski, 1893); Chrysis subcoerulea Radoszkowski, 1891, syn. n. of Chrysis chlorochrysa Mocsáry, 1889; Chrysis therates Mocsáry, 1889, syn. n. of Chrysis principalis Smith, 1874; and Notozus komarowi Radoszkowski, 1893, syn. n. of Elampus obesus (Mocsáry, 1890). One species is revaluated: Chrysis chalcochrysa Mocsáry, 1887. Chrysis kizilkumiana Rosa is the new name for Chrysis uljanini Radoszkowski & Mocsáry, 1889 nec Radoszkowski, 1877. Pictures of seventy-seven type specimens are given. PMID:25829848

  8. Long-term deeper snow causes changes in litter quality, soil C and N storage in moist acidic tundra in Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, O.; Xu, D.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.; Welker, J. M.; Filley, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    Tundra ecosystems store over one third of the global terrestrial organic C pool and have the potential to release large amounts of CO2 as organic matter decomposition is expected to increase as climate warms and precipitation changes. However, a warming climate and increased snow pack soil thermal insulation is expected to shift dominant vegetative cover type affecting above and below ground litter quality, soil organic matter storage depth, and decomposition rates in respective soils. These changes can affect the magnitude and even direction of soil C storage in the Arctic tundra.. At a sixteen-year snow fence experiment at Toolik Lake, as part of the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX), increased snow pack resulted in a shift from a Sphagnum moss-dominated mixed graminoid-deciduous ecosystem (moist tussock tundra) to one covered largely by deciduous shrubs and Carex in more water-saturated soil conditions. We investigated relationships between shifting dominance of plant species and impacts to soils using a multiproxy isotope and biomarker approach in plants and soils from the areas with control, deep, intermediate, and low snow pack. A comparison of the same plant species (Betula nana, Carex bigelowii, Eriophorum vaginatum, Salix pulchra, and Sphagnum spp.) along the snow zones showed leaf tissue C-to-N ratio decreasing in the deep snow areas when compared to control and low snow pack areas, driven by an increase in plant N content. Root and stem tissue was impacted similarly across the experimental treatments. Changes in soil ?13C and ?15N values with depth and along the transect demonstrate impacts to C and N cycling. These results demonstrate litter quality and soil carbon storage feedbacks in response to snow pack thermal insulation that could influence litter accumulation, decay rates and the chemical nature of soil carbon under climate conditions with deeper snow in winter.

  9. Experimental biological effects assessment associated with on-shore brine discharge from the creation of gas storage caverns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintino, Victor; Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Freitas, Rosa; Ré, Ana

    2008-09-01

    Most of the studies on biological and ecological effects associated with brine discharge into the marine environment are related to the operation of desalination plants, for the production of freshwater. In this study we analysed the biological effects of a brine effluent from a completely different source, produced from the lixiviation of rock salt caves, for the creation of natural gas storage caverns. Lethal and sub-lethal endpoints following exposure to the brine were studied in a range of macrofauna species characteristic of the soft and hard bottom habitats in the vicinity of the discharge area, namely the isopod Eurydice pulchra, the annelids Sabellaria alveolata and Ophelia radiata, the sea-urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. In a first series of experiments, brine, with salinity above 300, was diluted in distilled water to a salinity value close to that of the seawater in the discharge area (salinity 36) and, surprisingly, none of the exposed species was able to survive or develop into viable larvae. A second series of experiments exposed the species to brine diluted with seawater, simulating more realistic discharge circumstances. All the tested species at all the measured endpoints (adult survival, larval abnormal development, sperm fertilization success) showed negative biological effects in brine solutes always at a lower salinity than that of a salinity control obtained with concentrated seawater. The sub-lethal experiments with larval development of P. lividus, S. alveolata and M. galloprovincialis, and the fertilization success of P. lividus gave EC 50 values for the brine solute with salinity in the range of 40.9-43.5, whereas the EC 50 values for the concentrated seawater were in the range of salinity 44.2-49.0. It is hypothesised that differences in the ionic composition of the brine cause the inability of the species to tolerate the exposure to brine.

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal assemblages in native plant roots change in the presence of invasive exotic grasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawkes, C.V.; Belnap, J.; D'Antonio, C.; Firestone, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Plant invasions have the potential to significantly alter soil microbial communities, given their often considerable aboveground effects. We examined how plant invasions altered the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of native plant roots in a grassland site in California and one in Utah. In the California site, we used experimentally created plant communities composed of exotic (Avena barbata, Bromus hordeaceus) and native (Nassella pulchra, Lupinus bicolor) monocultures and mixtures. In the Utah semi-arid grassland, we took advantage of invasion by Bromus tectorum into long-term plots dominated by either of two native grasses, Hilaria jamesii or Stipa hymenoides. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonizing roots were characterized with PCR amplification of the ITS region, cloning, and sequencing. We saw a significant effect of the presence of exotic grasses on the diversity of mycorrhizal fungi colonizing native plant roots. In the three native grasses, richness of mycorrhizal fungi decreased; in the native forb at the California site, the number of fungal RFLP patterns increased in the presence of exotics. The exotic grasses also caused the composition of the mycorrhizal community in native roots to shift dramatically both in California, with turnover of Glomus spp., and Utah, with replacement of Glomus spp. by apparently non-mycorrhizal fungi. Invading plants may be able to influence the network of mycorrhizal fungi in soil that is available to natives through either earlier root activity or differential carbon provision compared to natives. Alteration of the soil microbial community by plant invasion can provide a mechanism for both successful invasion and the resulting effects of invaders on the ecosystem. ?? Springer 2006.

  11. Differential Impacts of Virus Diversity on Biomass Production of a Native and an Exotic Grass Host

    PubMed Central

    Mordecai, Erin A.; Hindenlang, Madeleine; Mitchell, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens are common and diverse in natural communities and have been implicated in the success of host invasions. Yet few studies have experimentally measured how pathogens impact native versus exotic hosts, particularly when individual hosts are simultaneously coinfected by diverse pathogens. To estimate effects of interactions among multiple pathogens within host individuals on both transmission of pathogens and fitness consequences for hosts, we conducted a greenhouse experiment using California grassland species: the native perennial grass Nassella (Stipa) pulchra, the exotic annual grass Bromus hordeaceus, and three virus species, Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV, Barley yellow dwarf virus-MAV, and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV. In terms of virus transmission, the native host was less susceptible than the exotic host to MAV. Coinfection of PAV and MAV did not occur in any of the 157 co-inoculated native host plants. In the exotic host, PAV infection most strongly reduced root and shoot biomass, and coinfections that included PAV severely reduced biomass. Infection with single or multiple viruses did not affect biomass in the native host. However, in this species the most potentially pathogenic coinfections (PAV + MAV and PAV + MAV + RPV) did not occur. Together, these results suggest that interactions among multiple pathogens can have important consequences for host health, which may not be predictable from interactions between hosts and individual pathogens. This work addresses a key empirical gap in understanding the impact of multiple generalist pathogens on competing host species, with potential implications for population and community dynamics of native and exotic species. It also demonstrates how pathogens with relatively mild impacts independently can more substantially reduce host performance in coinfection. PMID:26230720

  12. Identification, Characterization, and Diel Pattern of Expression of Canonical Clock Genes in Nephrops norvegicus (Crustacea: Decapoda) Eyestalk

    PubMed Central

    Sbragaglia, Valerio; Lamanna, Francesco; M. Mat, Audrey; Rotllant, Guiomar; Joly, Silvia; Ketmaier, Valerio; de la Iglesia, Horacio O.; Aguzzi, Jacopo

    2015-01-01

    The Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, is a burrowing decapod with a rhythmic burrow emergence (24 h) governed by the circadian system. It is an important resource for European fisheries and its behavior deeply affects its availability. The current knowledge of Nephrops circadian biology is phenomenological as it is currently the case for almost all crustaceans. In attempt to elucidate the putative molecular mechanisms underlying circadian gene regulation in Nephrops, we used a transcriptomics approach on cDNA extracted from the eyestalk, a structure playing a crucial role in controlling behavior of decapods. We studied 14 male lobsters under 12–12 light-darkness blue light cycle. We used the Hiseq 2000 Illumina platform to sequence two eyestalk libraries (under light and darkness conditions) obtaining about 90 millions 100-bp paired-end reads. Trinity was used for the de novo reconstruction of transcriptomes; the size at which half of all assembled bases reside in contigs (N50) was equal to 1796 (light) and 2055 (darkness). We found a list of candidate clock genes and focused our attention on canonical ones: timeless, period, clock and bmal1. The cloning of assembled fragments validated Trinity outputs. The putative Nephrops clock genes showed high levels of identity (blastx on NCBI) with known crustacean clock gene homologs such as Eurydice pulchra (period: 47%, timeless: 59%, bmal1: 79%) and Macrobrachium rosenbergii (clock: 100%). We also found a vertebrate-like cryptochrome 2. RT-qPCR showed that only timeless had a robust diel pattern of expression. Our data are in accordance with the current knowledge of the crustacean circadian clock, reinforcing the idea that the molecular clockwork of this group shows some differences with the established model in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:26524198

  13. Effects of increased snow on growth response and allocation patterns of arctic plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addis, C. E.; Bret-Harte, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Warming in the Arctic has led to an increase in shrub cover on the tundra that has been well documented in arctic Alaska. Fall and winter precipitation are also predicted to increase in arctic regions under continued climate change, resulting in greater snow depths and insulating winter soil, thus facilitating overwinter nitrogen mineralization by microbes. We predict that this increased microbial activity will enhance plant growth because more nutrients will be available for plant uptake at spring thaw. We studied the effect of increased snow on plant growth and nutrient allocation patterns using snow fences located across a gradient of shrub height and density at Toolik Field Station on the north slope of Alaska's Brooks Range. We compared growth and nutrient content of deciduous shrubs, evergreen shrubs, and graminoids on either side of the fences. Species behaved individualistically, with some showing increased growth with snow addition, others showing decreased growth, and some showing no effect of snow at all. The biggest increases in growth were seen in deciduous shrubs, particularly Salix pulchra, due to increases in secondary, or radial, growth which allowed plants to support more branches and thus more leaves. This provides a preliminary mechanistic explanation for the widespread increase in shrub cover across the northern latitudes. In addition, species that experienced increases in biomass due to snow also generally displayed increased nitrogen and carbon content in both leaves and stems, indicating that plants which got bigger were also better able to capture available resources. We conclude that faster growing species with the ability to respond rapidly to changes in nutrient availability will likely dominate under continued climate change, and may alter important ecosystem processes such as carbon and nitrogen storage.

  14. Phytoplankton across Tropical and Subtropical Regions of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, Marta; Delgado, Maximino; Blasco, Dolors; Latasa, Mikel; Cabello, Ana María; Benítez-Barrios, Verónica; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Mozetič, Patricija; Vidal, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    We examine the large-scale distribution patterns of the nano- and microphytoplankton collected from 145 oceanic stations, at 3 m depth, the 20% light level and the depth of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum, during the Malaspina-2010 Expedition (December 2010-July 2011), which covered 15 biogeographical provinces across the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans, between 35°N and 40°S. In general, the water column was stratified, the surface layers were nutrient-poor and the nano- and microplankton (hereafter phytoplankton, for simplicity, although it included also heterotrophic protists) community was dominated by dinoflagellates, other flagellates and coccolithophores, while the contribution of diatoms was only important in zones with shallow nutriclines such as the equatorial upwelling regions. We applied a principal component analysis to the correlation matrix among the abundances (after logarithmic transform) of the 76 most frequent taxa to synthesize the information contained in the phytoplankton data set. The main trends of variability identified consisted of: 1) A contrast between the community composition of the upper and the lower parts of the euphotic zone, expressed respectively by positive or negative scores of the first principal component, which was positively correlated with taxa such as the dinoflagellates Oxytoxum minutum and Scrippsiella spp., and the coccolithophores Discosphaera tubifera and Syracosphaera pulchra (HOL and HET), and negatively correlated with taxa like Ophiaster hydroideus (coccolithophore) and several diatoms, 2) a general abundance gradient between phytoplankton-rich regions with high abundances of dinoflagellate, coccolithophore and ciliate taxa, and phytoplankton-poor regions (second principal component), 3) differences in dominant phytoplankton and ciliate taxa among the Atlantic, the Indian and the Pacific oceans (third principal component) and 4) the occurrence of a diatom-dominated assemblage (the fourth principal component assemblage), including several pennate taxa, Planktoniella sol, Hemiaulus hauckii and Pseudo-nitzschia spp., in the divergence regions. Our findings indicate that consistent assemblages of co-occurring phytoplankton taxa can be identified and that their distribution is best explained by a combination in different degrees of both environmental and historical influences. PMID:26982180

  15. Seasonal greening of an Arctic ecosystem in response to early snowmelt and climate warming: do plant community responses differ from species responses?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steltzer, H.; Weintraub, M. N.; Sullivan, P.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Schimel, J.; Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Shory, R.; Livensperger, C.; Melle, C.; Segal, A. D.; Daly, K.; Tsosie, T.

    2011-12-01

    In the Arctic and around the world, earlier plant growth and a longer growing season are indications that warmer temperatures or other global changes are changing the seasonality of the Earth's ecosystems. These changes in plant life histories have multi-trophic level consequences that affect food webs and biogeochemical cycles. Both the response of the plant community and of individual species can affect food and habitat resources for animals or nutrient resources for microbes. Our aim was to determine if the response of an Arctic plant community differs from individual species responses to climate change. For two years in an early snowmelt and climate warming experiment in moist acidic tussock tundra, we observed the seasonal greening of the ecosystem through near-surface measurements of surface greenness and through direct observations of the timing of plant life history events for five to eight common species that differ in growth form. In 2010 when snowmelt was accelerated by 4 days, earlier snowmelt alone or in combination with climate warming extended the life history of the dominant graminoids (E. vaginatum and C. bigelowii) and willow (S. pulchra) by 3 to 4 days. For these species, new leaf production began earlier, while the timing of senescence was similar to the controls. The effect of earlier snowmelt on the life histories of birch (B. nana) and cranberry (V. vitis-idaea) was less, but warming alone tended to increase life history duration. Warming led to earlier leaf expansion for birch and delayed senescence for cranberry. We found that the onset of greening for the plant community began four days earlier, due to the earlier loss of snow cover, and that warming accelerated the rate of greening. Peak season ended 4 days earlier in response to earlier snowmelt and climate warming, due to earlier senescence by birch. In 2011, our manipulation of the snowpack by increasing energy absorption accelerated snowmelt by 15 days and control plots were snowfree on almost the same date as in 2010. As a result greening began earlier and may have led to more varied effects on life history events among the species. In the Arctic, individual species and the plant community green up as soon as the snow is gone, creating food resources and hiding places for animals and a nutrient sink for available nitrogen. If warming temperatures also cue earlier animal development or arrival, resources should be available for most species. However, an early onset to growth can lead to early senescence for some plant species and shift the timing of peak season for the plant community. Animals that depend on late season resources may be affected, unless they can utilize the plant species for which senescence is delayed.

  16. Environmental Limits of Tall Shrubs in Alaska's Arctic National Parks.

    PubMed

    Swanson, David K

    2015-01-01

    We sampled shrub canopy volume (height times area) and environmental factors (soil wetness, soil depth of thaw, soil pH, mean July air temperature, and typical date of spring snow loss) on 471 plots across five National Park Service units in northern Alaska. Our goal was to determine the environments where tall shrubs thrive and use this information to predict the location of future shrub expansion. The study area covers over 80,000 km2 and has mostly tundra vegetation. Large canopy volumes were uncommon, with volumes over 0.5 m3/m2 present on just 8% of plots. Shrub canopy volumes were highest where mean July temperatures were above 10.5°C and on weakly acid to neutral soils (pH of 6 to 7) with deep summer thaw (>80 cm) and good drainage. On many sites, flooding helped maintain favorable soil conditions for shrub growth. Canopy volumes were highest where the typical snow loss date was near 20 May; these represent sites that are neither strongly wind-scoured in the winter nor late to melt from deep snowdrifts. Individual species varied widely in the canopy volumes they attained and their response to the environmental factors. Betula sp. shrubs were the most common and quite tolerant of soil acidity, cold July temperatures, and shallow thaw depths, but they did not form high-volume canopies under these conditions. Alnus viridis formed the largest canopies and was tolerant of soil acidity down to about pH 5, but required more summer warmth (over 12°C) than the other species. The Salix species varied widely from S. pulchra, tolerant of wet and moderately acid soils, to S. alaxensis, requiring well-drained soils with near neutral pH. Nearly half of the land area in ARCN has mean July temperatures of 10.5 to 12.5°C, where 2°C of warming would bring temperatures into the range needed for all of the potential tall shrub species to form large canopies. However, limitations in the other environmental factors would probably prevent the formation of large shrub canopies on at least half of the land area with newly favorable temperatures after 2°C of warming. PMID:26379243

  17. Plant Community Responses of Alaskan Arctic Tundra After 14 Years of Experimental Warming and Snow Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado, J. A.; Gould, W. A.

    2008-12-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases are expected to raise global mean temperature over the next century by 1.0- 3.5°C. Global warming trends are amplified at high latitudes because heating converts high-albedo (reflective) ice and snow surfaces to dark absorptive surfaces that absorb more solar energy and transfer it to the atmosphere. Furthermore, scientists have argued that ecological responses to this recent climate change will be complex and varied. For example, the warming of the Alaskan Arctic during the past 150 years has accelerated over the last three decades and is expected to increase vegetation productivity in tundra if shrubs become more abundant. Predicted vegetation changes in arctic tundra, because of climate change, have therefore been based on a warmer climate that is either drier or wetter than at present. In order to investigate how tundra vegetation may respond to increases in temperature and snow cover, we used 1m2 open-topped fiberglass chambers (OTC's) combined with large snow fences to artificially warm and modify winter snow regimes of a series of permanent vegetation plots established in Toolik Lake Field Station, Alaska. Fieldwork consisted in measuring the vegetation growth and height of plant species in these plots using the point-frame method. The snow cover and temperature manipulation was done in two ecosystem types, dry heath tundra and moist tussock tundra. The study sheds light on how the vegetation of these two tundra sites has responded after 14 years into the experiment and focuses in changes is species composition, relative abundance, diversity and canopy height. Preliminary results suggest major changes in vegetation composition in both tundra sites over the 14 year sampling period. Changes were more conspicuous in the moist tussock tundra site, where considerable increases in the abundance of the dominant species Betula nana, Eriophorum vaginatum, Salix pulchra and Carex bigelowii were detected consistently throughout the years. Instead, changes in the dry heath tundra show a recent decrease in the dominance of the species Arctostaphylos alpina and Dryas octopetala and an increase in the abundance of the species Louseleuria procumbens. Changes observed in the moist tundra supports the predictions of shrub/graminoid dominated tundra in a warmer global temperature scenario while changes in the dry heath tundra might suggest successional patterns in vegetation composition.

  18. Phytoplankton across Tropical and Subtropical Regions of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Marta; Delgado, Maximino; Blasco, Dolors; Latasa, Mikel; Cabello, Ana María; Benítez-Barrios, Verónica; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio; Mozetič, Patricija; Vidal, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    We examine the large-scale distribution patterns of the nano- and microphytoplankton collected from 145 oceanic stations, at 3 m depth, the 20% light level and the depth of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum, during the Malaspina-2010 Expedition (December 2010-July 2011), which covered 15 biogeographical provinces across the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans, between 35°N and 40°S. In general, the water column was stratified, the surface layers were nutrient-poor and the nano- and microplankton (hereafter phytoplankton, for simplicity, although it included also heterotrophic protists) community was dominated by dinoflagellates, other flagellates and coccolithophores, while the contribution of diatoms was only important in zones with shallow nutriclines such as the equatorial upwelling regions. We applied a principal component analysis to the correlation matrix among the abundances (after logarithmic transform) of the 76 most frequent taxa to synthesize the information contained in the phytoplankton data set. The main trends of variability identified consisted of: 1) A contrast between the community composition of the upper and the lower parts of the euphotic zone, expressed respectively by positive or negative scores of the first principal component, which was positively correlated with taxa such as the dinoflagellates Oxytoxum minutum and Scrippsiella spp., and the coccolithophores Discosphaera tubifera and Syracosphaera pulchra (HOL and HET), and negatively correlated with taxa like Ophiaster hydroideus (coccolithophore) and several diatoms, 2) a general abundance gradient between phytoplankton-rich regions with high abundances of dinoflagellate, coccolithophore and ciliate taxa, and phytoplankton-poor regions (second principal component), 3) differences in dominant phytoplankton and ciliate taxa among the Atlantic, the Indian and the Pacific oceans (third principal component) and 4) the occurrence of a diatom-dominated assemblage (the fourth principal component assemblage), including several pennate taxa, Planktoniella sol, Hemiaulus hauckii and Pseudo-nitzschia spp., in the divergence regions. Our findings indicate that consistent assemblages of co-occurring phytoplankton taxa can be identified and that their distribution is best explained by a combination in different degrees of both environmental and historical influences. PMID:26982180

  19. Climate change effects on vegetation in Northeastern Siberian tundra - How does shrub growth relate to local climate and what are potential effects of shrub expansion on permafrost thawing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blok, Daan; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela; Heijmans, Monique; Sass-Klaassen, Ute; Bartholomeus, Harm; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Berendse, Frank

    2010-05-01

    The Siberian tundra is one of the key permafrost regions in the Arctic because of its large spatial extent and carbon-rich yedoma soils. Changes in permafrost thaw and concomitant carbon losses to the atmosphere can have large impacts on the global climate. Permafrost thaw is believed to strongly increase this century as a result of predicted increasing air temperature. At the same time, Arctic vegetation growth and composition is predicted to respond to future climate change. Deciduous shrubs are expected to benefit most from climate warming by increasing growth and expanding their range to higher latitudes. Evidence for recent increases in deciduous shrub cover in the Arctic region is limited thus far to small areas in Alaska. We examined if deciduous shrubs at our research site in the Indigirka lowlands, Northeastern Siberia, show a growth response to the main climate variables, temperature and precipitation. We constructed tree-ring width chronologies for two key Arctic deciduous shrub species, Betula nana and Salix pulchra, dating back roughly 60 years. The ring widths records are compared to summer-warmth index and summer-precipitation data from the closest climate station, approximately 30 km from our site in order to detect the climate factor that mainly determines shrub growth. On a larger scale, recent increases in Arctic productivity, measured as Arctic greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI), suggest that shrubs may have expanded during the 80ies and 90ies of the last century. Spectral reflectance data of varying vegetation composition measured at the tundra site were reduced to NDVI to link up with long-term NDVI data. We used a multiple regression analysis to estimate how variation in NDVI is explained by plant fractional cover of different plant functional types (graminoids, deciduous shrubs, evergreen shrubs, forbs, mosses and lichens). Deciduous shrub cover was the only significant explanatory parameter in the model after parameter deletion and explained most of the variation in NDVI, with NDVI increasing with deciduous shrub cover. We used a monthly 25-year long AVHRR satellite leaf area index (LAI) record to analyze how the vegetation in our research area responded to changes in summer warmth index and summer precipitation. Both climate variables were found to have a significant positive effect on LAI. Finally, we present experimental evidence from a shrub removal experiment that shrub cover is negatively correlated with active layer thickness through shading of the soil surface and significantly reduces ground heat fluxes. These results show that an expansion of deciduous shrubs may stabilize permafrost at least on the short term, even under increasing air temperature.

  20. Estimating aboveground biomass of low-stature Arctic shrubs with terrestrial LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaves, H.; Vierling, L. A.; Eitel, J.; Boelman, N.; Griffin, K. L.; Magney, T. S.

    2014-12-01

    Arctic tundra ecosystems appear to be responding to rapid climatic warming via changes in vegetation composition and increased woody biomass, which may induce significant shifts in ecosystem structure and function. Although understanding these shifts is important for predicting ecosystem trajectories, establishing methods for quantifying and scaling woody plant biomass in low-stature biomes is challenging. We used LiDAR data from a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) to estimate harvested biomass and leaf area of two dominant low-stature (<1.5 m) Arctic shrub species (Salix pulchra Cham. and Betula nana L.) in small (0.64 m2) plots. We explored two biomass estimation approaches (volumetric surface differencing and voxel counting) applied to point clouds obtained from either close-range (2 m) or variable-range (<50 m) TLS scans. Relationships between harvested biomass and laser scan metrics were strong for all combinations of approaches. Voxel counting provided a marginally better result than surface differencing for close-range scans (R2 = 0.94 vs 0.92; RMSE = 102 g vs 117 g), while surface differencing proved stronger than voxel counting for variable-range scans (R2 = 0.90 vs 0.79; RMSE = 128 g vs 184 g). Strong relationships between total harvested biomass and total leaf dry mass (R2 = 0.93; RMSE = 13.4 g), and between leaf dry mass and leaf wet area (R2 = 0.99; RMSE = 9.01 cm2) justify estimation of shrub leaf area from TLS-derived shrub biomass. Our results show that rapidly acquired, repeatable terrestrial laser scans taken from multiple distance ranges can be processed using simple algorithms to yield aboveground biomass and leaf area estimates for low-stature shrubs at fine spatial scales (sub-meter to 50 + meters). These data have the fidelity required to monitor small but ecologically meaningful changes in tundra structure, and could be employed as ground reference data for broader scale remote sensing data collection to provide shrub biomass and leaf-area estimates at fine resolution over large spatial extents.

  1. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Native Grass Riparian Buffer Strips to Reduce Pesticide Runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, K.; Brown, D. L.

    2007-12-01

    Organophosphate pesticides such as diazinon have been a major source of non-point source water pollution in the Sacramento Valley watershed of central California. Diazinon is commonly listed as a pollutant for many tributaries of the Sacramento River on the US Clean Water Act section 303(d) list of impaired waterways. This pesticide is applied either aerially or as a foliar spray to nut and stone-fruit orchards during dormancy, which coincides with the rainy season in northern California. A study was conducted to determine if planting native grasses in the riparian zone was effective in reducing the amount of diazinon entering the surface water in streams flowing through these orchards. Native grasses have deeper root systems and were hypothesized to be more effective in sorbing diazinon and preventing its runoff than non-native grasses. In 2004, nine 20 foot by 20 foot riparian buffer plots were constructed along the banks of the South Fork of Walker Creek, west of the town of Orland in the Sacramento Valley. Three of the nine plots were maintained as bare ground, three were left with resident weeds including dense non-native grasses, and three were planted with native grasses, which included purple needlegrass (Nassella pulchra), creeping wildrye (Elymus triticoides), and deergrass (Muhlenbergia rigens). The experimental design simulated orchard runoff by applying mixtures of water and diazinon at observed field concentrations. The pesticide load was evenly applied across the top of each buffer plot at a rate consistent with local runoff rates in an average storm. Rainfall on the buffer plots was simulated with overhead sprinklers at a rate of 0.75 inches per hour, also an average storm for this area. Runoff was monitored at the downslope side of the plots with flumes funneled to large holding tanks. From these tanks, composite water samples were collected after runoff had ceased. The samples were analyzed for diazinon concentration, nitrates, and total suspended sediment. Results were similar to a demonstration and reconnaissance project conducted in 2003, which concluded that vegetative plots were more effective than the bare ground control in removing pesticide. However, the native grasses were not significantly more effective in reducing the diazinon concentration than non-native grasses. Vegetated buffer strips can help reduce pesticide loadings from orchards to local surface water systems.

  2. Coccolithophores in the upwelling waters of Portugal: Four years of weekly distribution in Lisbon bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A.; Palma, S.; Moita, M. T.

    2008-10-01

    From July 2001 to May 2005, seawater samples were collected once a week at a fixed station in Lisbon bay (38°41'N, 09°24'W) in order to describe the ecological dynamics of the coccolithophore community. The seasonal and interannual distribution patterns of the different species and their relationships with environmental parameters are addressed. The present work aimed to identify potential proxies for different local water bodies and environmental conditions. Throughout the period of study, the upwelling events were weak and progressively more persistent. High sea surface temperatures (SST) were observed earlier in the year; summers and winters were gradually warmer and colder, respectively. Salinity variations reflected the different weather conditions as they are strongly influenced by rainfall and thus by the Tagus river flow. The extended periods of weak upwelling and the overall increase in SST resulted in the development of phytoplankton populations as measured by chlorophyll a. However, the persistence of the upwelling, and thus shorter convergence periods, favoured other phytoplankton groups than coccolithophore populations as these decreased towards the end of the sampling period. The annual structure of the coccolithophore assemblage showed a pronounced and recurrent seasonal variability, mainly related with the intensity and persistence of upwelling. The highest cell densities were recorded from spring to autumn. An overall preference by most species for mature upwelled waters and low turbulent conditions was observed associated with high temperatures and salinities, although the species develop in different windows with mismatching maxima. The coccolithophores observed were capable of withstanding coastal processes such as turbulence and were well adapted to an environment rich in nutrients provided by both continental runoff and upwelling. The consistency of the results enabled local oceanographic tracers to be defined. Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa species can be used as proxies of surface productivity waters during spring and summer while Coccolithus pelagicus indicates the presence of upwelling fronts. Calcidiscus leptoporus is a tracer of the convergence of subtropical oceanic waters onto the shelf, during winter while Coronosphaera mediterranea, Syracosphaera pulchra, Helicosphaera carteri and Rhabdosphaera clavigera revealed the presence of those waters during the short period that characterized the transition from upwelling to downwelling seasons.

  3. Environmental Limits of Tall Shrubs in Alaska’s Arctic National Parks

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, David K.

    2015-01-01

    We sampled shrub canopy volume (height times area) and environmental factors (soil wetness, soil depth of thaw, soil pH, mean July air temperature, and typical date of spring snow loss) on 471 plots across five National Park Service units in northern Alaska. Our goal was to determine the environments where tall shrubs thrive and use this information to predict the location of future shrub expansion. The study area covers over 80,000 km2 and has mostly tundra vegetation. Large canopy volumes were uncommon, with volumes over 0.5 m3/m2 present on just 8% of plots. Shrub canopy volumes were highest where mean July temperatures were above 10.5°C and on weakly acid to neutral soils (pH of 6 to 7) with deep summer thaw (>80 cm) and good drainage. On many sites, flooding helped maintain favorable soil conditions for shrub growth. Canopy volumes were highest where the typical snow loss date was near 20 May; these represent sites that are neither strongly wind-scoured in the winter nor late to melt from deep snowdrifts. Individual species varied widely in the canopy volumes they attained and their response to the environmental factors. Betula sp. shrubs were the most common and quite tolerant of soil acidity, cold July temperatures, and shallow thaw depths, but they did not form high-volume canopies under these conditions. Alnus viridis formed the largest canopies and was tolerant of soil acidity down to about pH 5, but required more summer warmth (over 12°C) than the other species. The Salix species varied widely from S. pulchra, tolerant of wet and moderately acid soils, to S. alaxensis, requiring well-drained soils with near neutral pH. Nearly half of the land area in ARCN has mean July temperatures of 10.5 to 12.5°C, where 2°C of warming would bring temperatures into the range needed for all of the potential tall shrub species to form large canopies. However, limitations in the other environmental factors would probably prevent the formation of large shrub canopies on at least half of the land area with newly favorable temperatures after 2°C of warming. PMID:26379243

  4. Potential and limitations of Sr/Ca ratios in coccolith carbonate: new perspectives from cultures and monospecific samples from sediments.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Heather M; Ziveri, Patricia; Geisen, Markus; Probert, Ian; Young, Jeremy R

    2002-04-15

    The Sr/Ca ratio of coccoliths was recently proposed as a potential indicator of past growth rates of coccolithophorids, marine algae, which play key roles in both the global carbonate and carbon cycles. We synthesize calibrations of this proxy through laboratory culture studies and analysis of monospecific coccolith assemblages from surface sediments. Cultures of coccolithophorids Helicosphaera carteri, Syracosphaera pulchra and Algirospira robusta confirm a 1-2% increase in Sr/Ca per degrees C previously identified in Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica. This effect is not due merely to increases in growth rate with temperature and must be considered in palaeoceanographic studies. In light-limited cultures of E. huxleyi, Calcidiscus leptoporus and G. oceanica at constant temperature, coccolith Sr/Ca ratios vary by 10% across the range of possible growth and calcification rates for a given species. Among different species under similar culture conditions, Sr/Ca ratios vary by 30%. Although the highest ratios are in the cells with highest calcification and organic carbon fixation rates, at lower rates there is much scatter, indicating that different mechanisms control interspecific and intraspecific coccolith Sr/Ca variations. In field studies in the Equatorial Pacific and Somalia coastal region, coccolith Sr/Ca correlates with upwelling intensity and productivity. A more dynamic response is observed in larger coccoliths like C. leptoporus (23-55% variation in Sr/Ca) than in smaller coccoliths of G. oceanica or Florisphaera profunda (6-15% variation in Sr/Ca). This response suggests that, despite temperature effects, coccolith Sr/Ca has potential as an indicator of coccolithophorid productivity. If the variable Sr/Ca response of different species accurately reflects their variable productivity response to upwelling (and not different slopes of Sr/Ca with productivity), coccolith Sr/Ca could provide useful data on past changes in coccolith ecology. The mechanism of coccolith Sr/Ca variations remains poorly understood but is probably more closely tied to biochemical cycles during carbon acquisition than to chemical kinetic effects on Sr incorporation in the calcite coccolith crystals. PMID:12804301

  5. Assessing seedbank recruitment windows of opportunity in thaw slump thermokarsts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, D. C.; Bret-Harte, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Tall shrub thickets (>1m) of birch and willow have been observed in stabilized lobes of thaw slump thermokarsts (gullies cause by thawed permafrost) in the Low Arctic near Toolik Lake, Alaska. We tested whether there are differences in seedling recruitment and establishment in thermokarsts vs outside the disturbance by comparing in-situ seedling presence, greenhouse germination of natural seedbanks, and cohort age groups of willow (Salix spp.) and birch in two 50m transects sampled in thermokarst lobes of different age: one young lobe of 7 y.a. at Lake NE-14, and one older lobe of 22 y.a. at Lake I-minus 1 vs. two transects outside the lobes. Young thermokarsts may provide germination windows of opportunity for fast growing species like graminoids and deciduous shrubs. In-situ seedling observations generally agreed with expectations. Fifteen times as many live seedlings were observed in the young lobe vs. outside, composed mainly of graminoids and willows, and five times more seedlings were observed inside the older lobe vs. outside, including 25% birch. Germination trials of seedbanks, as expected, showed a reverse trend. The smaller seedbanks in the young lobe had far fewer germinants than outside: over 49 times more seedlings germinated in the outside seedbank compared to the thermokarst, and were composed mainly of longer-lived evergreen shrubs in the genera Ledum and Rhododendron. The older lobe, by contrast, showed seven times greater germination than outside and was composed mainly of graminoids. Birch made up only 5%, reflecting variation in species composition between sites. ANOVA of seedbank germination across sites showed unit increase in number of germinated seeds was negatively correlated to percent cover of bare soil, positively correlated to the amount of organic matter present in the surface soil as reflected in sample volume, and positively correlated to thaw depth. Reverse trends in germination trials vs. presence of live seedlings may be explained by lower seedbank quality but higher recruitment in younger lobes due to greater viable seed input and turnover, particularly of short-lived seeds such as willow, whereas older lobes and undisturbed tundra may have larger seedbanks whose recruitment of new individuals may be limited under natural conditions. Age cohort comparisons between willow species (Salix pulchra or S. glauca), as expected, found over 80% of individuals sampled at the young lobe between 3-4 y.a., while outside showed more variable distribution across six cohorts spanning five to 35 y.a. For both birch and willow, there was more cohort variability in the older lobe than outside, suggesting recruitment outcomes could have site-species interactions.

  6. The Regional Geochemistry of Soils and Willow in a Metamorphic Bedrock Terrain, Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 2005, and Its Possible Relation to Moose

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, L.P.; Lamothe, P.J.; Sanzolone, R.F.; Drew, L.J.; Maier, J.A.K.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005 willow leaves (all variants of Salix pulchra) and A-, B-, and C-horizon soils were sampled at 10 sites along a transect near the Quarry prospect and 11 sites along a transect near the Big Hurrah mine for the purpose of defining the spatial variability of elements and the regional geochemistry of willow and soil over Paleozoic metamorphic rocks potentially high in cadmium (Cd). Willow, a favorite browse of moose (Alces alces), has been shown by various investigators to bioaccumulate Cd. Moose in this region show clinical signs of tooth wear and breakage and are declining in population for unknown reasons. A trace element imbalance in their diet has been proposed as a possible cause for these observations. Cadmium, in high enough concentrations, is one dietary trace element that potentially could produce such symptoms. We report both the summary statistics for elements in willow and soils and the results of an unbalanced, one-way, hierarchical analysis of variance (ANOVA) (general linear model, GLM), which was constructed to measure the geochemical variability in willow (and soil) at various distance scales across the Paleozoic geologic unit high in bioavailable Cd. All of the geochemical data are presented in the Appendices. The two locations are separated by approximately 80 kilometers (km); sites within a location are approximately 0.5 kilometers apart. Duplicate soil samples collected within a site were separated by 0.05 km or slightly less. Results of the GLM are element specific and range from having very little regional variability to having most of their variance at the top (greater than 80 km) level. For willow, a significant proportion of the total variance occurred at the 'between locations' level for ash yield, barium (Ba), Cd, calcium (Ca), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn). For soils, concentrations of elements in all three soil horizons were similar in that most of the variability in the geochemical data occurred at the 'between locations' and the 'among sites at a location' GLM levels. Most of the variation in concentrations of Cd in soils occurred among sites (separated by 0.5 km) at both locations across all soil horizons and not between the two locations. Cd distribution across the landscape may be due to variation in soil mineralogy, especially the amount of graphite in soil, which has been associated with Cd. Although samples were collected on the same geologic unit, the geochemistry of soils was demonstrated to be uniform with depth but highly variable between locations separated by 80 km. This exploratory study establishes the presence of elevated levels of Cd in willow growing over Paleozoic bedrock in the Seward Peninsula. Further work is needed to definitively link these high Cd levels in willow browse to the health of moose.

  7. Influence of solar activity on the development of calcareous nannofossils from a Middle Holocene costal paleo-ria (SW Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Armand; Cachão, Mário; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Conceição Freitas, M.

    2015-04-01

    A 27 m long core was recovered from a present day flat-floored small fluvial valley, tributary of the Mira River (SW Portugal) allowing to span almost the complete Holocene sedimentary sequence directly overlaying Paleozoic schists and greywackes. A high resolution study of its micropaleontological content (Alday et al. 2006) was performed and 5 sedimentary stages were established: i) a coccolith-barren lower fluvial stage; ii) a coccolith intermittent lower estuarine stage; iii) a coccolith rich marine (ria) stage; iv) a coccolith intermittent upper estuarine/lagoonal stage and v) a coccolith-barren upper fluvial stage. The usefulness of calcareous nannofossils as natural tracers of the marine sedimentation contributing with valuable information for environmental reconstructions has been thoroughly demonstrated. Here, we present a high-resolution paleoenvironmental reconstruction from the interpreted marine (ria) section of the core, between 8.8k and 4.8k cal yr BP using most abundant calcareous nannofossils. Factor Analysis retrieved two major factors from the coccolith assemblages. Factor 1 (24% var.) is related to oceanic affinity community (e.g. Gephyrocapsa muellerae, Syracosphaera pulchra and Umbilicosphaera sibogae) whereas Factor 2 (23% var.) is linked to coastal neritic taxa (e.g. Ascidian spicules, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Coccolithus pelagicus braarudii, Heliscosphaera carteri and Braarudosphaera bigelowii). These scores showed the existence of two episodes (8.8k to 7.4k and 5.8k to 5.2k cal yr BP) of marine colonization inside the paleoecological succession of the Holocene paleo-ria (8.8k and 4.8k cal yr BP). In order to establish the relationship between the solar activity and calcareous nannofossils sedimentation, cyclicity on the studied time series was investigated by performing spectral analysis on Factor 1 (F1) and Factor 2 (F2) scores. F1 score periodogram discloses three significant periodicities (460, 350 and 236-yrs) whereas F2 score periodogram unveils only one significant periodicity (228-yrs). Phases with oceanic influence (downwelling) would be related to 450, 350 and 236-yrs frequencies and the phase with coastal influence (upwelling) would be linked to 228-yrs periodicity. These periodicities fit with previous solar activity reconstructions at millennial-to-centennial scale based on different proxies (Bond et al. 2001, Vaquero et al. 2002, Solanki et al. 2004), which, in turn, are conditioning the earth's climate system. Finally, performed time-frequency analyses on F1 and F2 scores show a higher activity of the 228-yrs periodicity during the whole studied period (spanning between 8.8k and 4.8k cal yr BP) with maximum values between 8k to 7k cal yr BP and 6k to 5k cal yr BP. By contrast, higher periodicities (450, 350 and 236-yrs) would be mainly confined to prior 7.5k cal yrs BP. These results highlight the possibility to use the calcareous nannofossils as indirect proxies of solar activity in cases of ultra-high resolution (centennial) sedimentary sequences. References Alday et al., Estuar Coast Shelf S, 66, 532 (2006). Bond et al., Science, 294, 2130 (2001). Solanki et al., Nature, 431, 1084 (2004). Vaquero et al., Geophys Res Lett, 29, 1997 (2002).