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Sample records for acoustic desorption combined

  1. Ambient pressure laser desorption and laser-induced acoustic desorption ion mobility spectrometry detection of explosives.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Sven; Walte, Andreas; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2013-11-19

    The development of fast, mobile, and sensitive detection systems for security-relevant substances is of enormous importance. Because of the low vapor pressures of explosives and improvised explosive devices, adequate sampling procedures are crucial. Ion mobility spectrometers (IMSs) are fast and sensitive instruments that are used as detection systems for explosives. Ambient pressure laser desorption (APLD) and ambient pressure laser-induced acoustic desorption (AP-LIAD) are new tools suitable to evaporate explosives in order to detect them in the vapor phase. Indeed, the most important advantage of APLD or AP-LIAD is the capability to sample directly from the surface of interest without any transfer of the analyte to other surfaces such as wipe pads. A much more gentle desorption, compared to classical thermal-based desorption, is possible with laser-based desorption using very short laser pulses. With this approach the analyte molecules are evaporated in a very fast process, comparable to a shock wave. The thermal intake is reduced considerably. The functionality of APLD and AP-LIAD techniques combined with a hand-held IMS system is shown for a wide range of common explosives such as EGDN (ethylene glycol dinitrate), urea nitrate, PETN (pentaerythritol tetranitrate), HMTD (hexamethylene triperoxide diamine), RDX (hexogen), tetryl (2,4,6-trinitrophenylmethylnitramine), and TNT (trinitrotoluene). Detection limits down to the low nanogram range are obtained. The successful combination of IMS detection and APLD/AP-LIAD sampling is shown. PMID:24116702

  2. Laser-Induced Acoustic Desorption of Natural and Functionalized Biochromophores

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) has recently been established as a tool for analytical chemistry. It is capable of launching intact, neutral, or low charged molecules into a high vacuum environment. This makes it ideally suited to mass spectrometry. LIAD can be used with fragile biomolecules and very massive compounds alike. Here, we apply LIAD time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) to the natural biochromophores chlorophyll, hemin, bilirubin, and biliverdin and to high mass fluoroalkyl-functionalized porphyrins. We characterize the variation in the molecular fragmentation patterns as a function of the desorption and the VUV postionization laser intensity. We find that LIAD can produce molecular beams an order of magnitude slower than matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALD), although this depends on the substrate material. Using titanium foils we observe a most probable velocity of 20 m/s for functionalized molecules with a mass m = 10 000 Da. PMID:25946522

  3. Combined acoustic and optical trapping

    PubMed Central

    Thalhammer, G.; Steiger, R.; Meinschad, M.; Hill, M.; Bernet, S.; Ritsch-Marte, M.

    2011-01-01

    Combining several methods for contact free micro-manipulation of small particles such as cells or micro-organisms provides the advantages of each method in a single setup. Optical tweezers, which employ focused laser beams, offer very precise and selective handling of single particles. On the other hand, acoustic trapping with wavelengths of about 1 mm allows the simultaneous trapping of many, comparatively large particles. With conventional approaches it is difficult to fully employ the strengths of each method due to the different experimental requirements. Here we present the combined optical and acoustic trapping of motile micro-organisms in a microfluidic environment, utilizing optical macro-tweezers, which offer a large field of view and working distance of several millimeters and therefore match the typical range of acoustic trapping. We characterize the acoustic trapping forces with the help of optically trapped particles and present several applications of the combined optical and acoustic trapping, such as manipulation of large (75 μm) particles and active particle sorting. PMID:22025990

  4. Laser-driven acoustic desorption of organic molecules from back-irradiated solid foils.

    SciTech Connect

    Zinovev, A. V.; Veryovkin, I. V.; Moore, J. F.; Pellin, M. J.; Materials Science Division; Mass Think

    2007-11-01

    Laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) from thin metal foils is a promising technique for gentle and efficient volatilization of intact organic molecules from surfaces of solid substrates. Using the single-photon ionization method combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we have examined the neutral component of the desorbed flux in LIAD and compared it to that from direct laser desorption. These basic studies of LIAD, conducted for molecules of various organic dyes (rhodamine B, fluorescein, anthracene, coumarin, BBQ), have demonstrated detection of intact parent molecules of the analyte even at its surface concentrations corresponding to a submonolayer coating. In some cases (rhodamine B, fluorescein, BBQ), the parent molecular ion peak was accompanied by a few fragmentation peaks of comparable intensity, whereas for others, only peaks corresponding to intact parent molecules were detected. At all measured desorbing laser intensities (from 100 to 500 MW/cm{sup 2}), the total amount of desorbed parent molecules depended exponentially on the laser intensity. Translational velocities of the desorbed intact molecules, determined for the first time in this work, were of the order of hundreds of meters per second, less than what has been observed in our experiments for direct laser desorption, but substantially greater than the possible perpendicular velocity of the substrate foil surface due to laser-generated acoustic waves. Moreover, these velocities did not depend on the desorbing laser intensity, which implies the presence of a more sophisticated mechanism of energy transfer than direct mechanical or thermal coupling between the laser pulse and the adsorbed molecules. Also, the total flux of desorbed intact molecules as a function of the total number of desorbing laser pulses, striking the same point on the target, decayed following a power law rather than an exponential function, as would have been predicted by the shake-off model. To summarize, the

  5. A Combined Desorption Ionization by Charge Exchange (DICE) and Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI) Source for Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chang-Ching; Bolgar, Mark S.; Miller, Scott A.; Attygalle, Athula B.

    2011-01-01

    A source that couples the desorption ionization by charge exchange (DICE) and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) techniques together was demonstrated to broaden the range of compounds that can be analyzed in a single mass spectrometric experiment under ambient conditions. A tee union was used to mix the spray reagents into a partially immiscible blend before this mixture was passed through a conventional electrospray (ES) probe capillary. Using this technique, compounds that are ionized more efficiently by the DICE method and those that are ionized better with the DESI procedure could be analyzed simultaneously. For example, hydroquinone, which is not detected when subjected to DESI-MS in the positive-ion generation mode, or the sodium adduct of guaifenesin, which is not detected when examined by DICE-MS, could both be detected in one experiment when the two techniques were combined. The combined technique was able to generate the molecular ion, proton and metal adduct from the same compound. When coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer, the combined source enabled the generation of product ion spectra from the molecular ion and the [M + H]+ or [M + metal]+ ions of the same compound without the need to physically change the source from DICE to DESI. The ability to record CID spectra of both the molecular ion and adduct ions in a single mass spectrometric experiment adds a new dimension to the array of mass spectrometric methods available for structural studies.

  6. A combined desorption ionization by charge exchange (DICE) and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) source for mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chang-Ching; Bolgar, Mark S; Miller, Scott A; Attygalle, Athula B

    2011-01-01

    A source that couples the desorption ionization by charge exchange (DICE) and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) techniques together was demonstrated to broaden the range of compounds that can be analyzed in a single mass spectrometric experiment under ambient conditions. A tee union was used to mix the spray reagents into a partially immiscible blend before this mixture was passed through a conventional electrospray (ES) probe capillary. Using this technique, compounds that are ionized more efficiently by the DICE method and those that are ionized better with the DESI procedure could be analyzed simultaneously. For example, hydroquinone, which is not detected when subjected to DESI-MS in the positive-ion generation mode, or the sodium adduct of guaifenesin, which is not detected when examined by DICE-MS, could both be detected in one experiment when the two techniques were combined. The combined technique was able to generate the molecular ion, proton and metal adduct from the same compound. When coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer, the combined source enabled the generation of product ion spectra from the molecular ion and the [M + H](+) or [M + metal](+) ions of the same compound without the need to physically change the source from DICE to DESI. The ability to record CID spectra of both the molecular ion and adduct ions in a single mass spectrometric experiment adds a new dimension to the array of mass spectrometric methods available for structural studies. PMID:21472555

  7. Laser-Induced Acoustic Desorption/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jinshan; Borton, David J.; Owen, Benjamin C.; Jin, Zhicheng; Hurt, Matt; Amundson, Lucas M.; Madden, Jeremy T.; Qian, Kuangnan; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2010-01-01

    Laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) was successfully coupled to a conventional atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source in a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (LQIT). Model compounds representing a wide variety of different types, including basic nitrogen and oxygen compounds, aromatic and aliphatic compounds, as well as unsaturated and saturated hydrocarbons, were tested separately and as a mixture. These model compounds were successfully evaporated into the gas phase by using LIAD and then ionized by using APCI with different reagents. Four APCI reagent systems were tested: the traditionally used mixture of methanol and water, neat benzene, neat carbon disulfide, and nitrogen gas (no liquid reagent). The mixture of methanol and water produced primarily protonated molecules, as expected. However, only the most basic compounds yielded ions under these conditions. In sharp contrast, using APCI with either neat benzene or neat carbon disulfide as the reagent resulted in the ionization of all the analytes studied to predominantly yield stable molecular ions. Benzene yielded a larger fraction of protonated molecules than carbon disulfide, which is a disadvantage. A similar amount of fragmentation was observed for these reagents. When the experiment was performed without a liquid reagent(nitrogen gas was the reagent), more fragmentation was observed. Analysis of a known mixture as well as a petroleum cut was also carried out. In summary, the new experiment presented here allows the evaporation of thermally labile compounds, both polar and nonpolar, without dissociation or aggregation, and their ionization to form stable molecular ions. PMID:21472571

  8. Laser-Induced Acoustic Desorption/Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jinshan; Borton, David J.; Owen, Benjamin C.; Jin, Zhicheng; Hurt, Matt; Amundson, Lucas M.; Madden, Jeremy T.; Qian, Kuangnan; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2011-03-01

    Laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) was successfully coupled to a conventional atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source in a commercial linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (LQIT). Model compounds representing a wide variety of different types, including basic nitrogen and oxygen compounds, aromatic and aliphatic compounds, as well as unsaturated and saturated hydrocarbons, were tested separately and as a mixture. These model compounds were successfully evaporated into the gas phase by using LIAD and then ionized by using APCI with different reagents. From the four APCI reagent systems tested, neat carbon disulfide provided the best results. The mixture of methanol and water produced primarily protonated molecules, as expected. However, only the most basic compounds yielded ions under these conditions. In sharp contrast, using APCI with either neat benzene or neat carbon disulfide as the reagent resulted in the ionization of all the analytes studied to predominantly yield stable molecular ions. Benzene yielded a larger fraction of protonated molecules than carbon disulfide, which is a disadvantage. A similar but minor amount of fragmentation was observed for these two reagents. When the experiment was performed without a liquid reagent (nitrogen gas was the reagent), more fragmentation was observed. Analysis of a known mixture as well as a petroleum cut was also carried out. In summary, the new experiment presented here allows the evaporation of thermally labile compounds, both polar and nonpolar, without dissociation or aggregation, and their ionization to predominantly form stable molecular ions.

  9. A combined whelk watch suggests repeated TBT desorption pulses.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J M; Albaina, N; Carro, B; Barreiro, R

    2015-01-01

    Environmental quality in coastal Europe has improved since the complete 2003 ban on the use of tributyltin (TBT) in antifouling paints. However, there is evidence that TBT is entering the water column, presumably from illegal practices. We determined the concentration of butyltins (BTs: TBT and derivatives) in populations of two gastropods, the rock snail Nucella lapillus (n=17) and the mud snail Nassarius reticulatus (n=18) at regular intervals from pre-ban times until 2009 and 2011, respectively, in NW Spain. Although a substantial decline in TBT occurred shortly after the ban, no significant changes were observed in either species over the last 3-year period of study. In addition, the proportion of TBT relative to the sum of BTs (a marker of recent pollution) in the most recent rock snail samples unexpectedly increased; this proportion therefore showed a generally decreasing but oscillatory trend over time. The results are consistent with the theoretical expectation of BT desorption from sediments; however, this natural phenomenon is now interpreted as a recurrent episode rather than a unique, transient event. Evidence of this subtle input improves our understanding of TBT persistence in the environment in Europe and worldwide. PMID:25260162

  10. Atmospheric pressure laser-induced acoustic desorption chemical ionization mass spectrometry for analysis of saturated hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Nyadong, Leonard; Quinn, John P; Hsu, Chang S; Hendrickson, Christopher L; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G

    2012-08-21

    We present atmospheric pressure laser-induced acoustic desorption chemical ionization (AP/LIAD-CI) with O(2) carrier/reagent gas as a powerful new approach for the analysis of saturated hydrocarbon mixtures. Nonthermal sample vaporization with subsequent chemical ionization generates abundant ion signals for straight-chain, branched, and cycloalkanes with minimal or no fragmentation. [M - H](+) is the dominant species for straight-chain and branched alkanes. For cycloalkanes, M(+•) species dominate the mass spectrum at lower capillary temperature (<100 °C) and [M - H](+) at higher temperature (>200 °C). The mass spectrum for a straight-chain alkane mixture (C(21)-C(40)) shows comparable ionization efficiency for all components. AP/LIAD-CI produces molecular weight distributions similar to those for gel permeation chromatography for polyethylene polymers, Polywax 500 and Polywax 655. Coupling of the technique to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) for the analysis of complex hydrocarbon mixtures provides unparalleled mass resolution and accuracy to facilitate unambiguous elemental composition assignments, e.g., 1754 peaks (rms error = 175 ppb) corresponding to a paraffin series (C(12)-C(49), double-bond equivalents, DBE = 0) and higher DBE series corresponding to cycloparaffins containing one to eight rings. Isoabundance-contoured plots of DBE versus carbon number highlight steranes (DBE = 4) of carbon number C(27)-C(30) and hopanes of C(29)-C(35) (DBE = 5), with sterane-to-hopane ratio in good agreement with field ionization (FI) mass spectrometry analysis, but performed at atmospheric pressure. The overall speciation of nonpolar, aliphatic hydrocarbon base oil species offers a promising diagnostic probe to characterize crude oil and its products. PMID:22881221

  11. Acoustic emission and sorptive deformation induced in coals of various rank by the sorption-desorption of gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewska, Zofia; Ziętek, Jerzy

    2007-09-01

    Simultaneous measurements of acoustic emission (AE) and expansion/contraction of coal samples subjected to gas sorption-desorption processes were conducted on high-and medium-rank coal. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the coal rank and type of sorbate on measured AE and strain characteristics. The experimental equipment employed in this study consisted of a pressure vessel and associated pressurisation and monitoring units. The arrangement of pressure-vacuum valves permitted the coal sample to be pressurised and depressurised. Carbon-dioxide and methane were used as sorbats. Acoustic emission and strains were recorded continuously for a period of 50 hours during sorption and for at least 12 hours during the desorption process. Tests were conducted on cylindrical coal samples at 298 K. The experimental data were presented as plots of AE basic parameters versus time and in strain diagrams. These studies lead to the following conclusions: 1. There are significant differences in AE and strain characteristics for the two systems (coal-CO2 and coal-CH4); 2. There is a direct influence of rank and type of coal on its behaviour during the sorption-desorption of gas. An attempt has been made to interpret the results obtained on the grounds of the copolymer model of coal structure. More research is needed into this topic in order to get a quantitative description of the observed facts.

  12. Coupling Laser Diode Thermal Desorption with Acoustic Sample Deposition to Improve Throughput of Mass Spectrometry-Based Screening.

    PubMed

    Haarhoff, Zuzana; Wagner, Andrew; Picard, Pierre; Drexler, Dieter M; Zvyaga, Tatyana; Shou, Wilson

    2016-02-01

    The move toward label-free screening in drug discovery has increased the demand for mass spectrometry (MS)-based analysis. Here we investigated the approach of coupling acoustic sample deposition (ASD) with laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). We assessed its use in a cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition assay, where a decrease in metabolite formation signifies CYP inhibition. Metabolite levels for 3 CYP isoforms were measured as CYP3A4-1'-OH-midazolam, CYP2D6-dextrorphan, and CYP2C9-4'-OH-diclofenac. After incubation, samples (100 nL) were acoustically deposited onto a stainless steel 384-LazWell plate, then desorbed by an infrared laser directly from the plate surface into the gas phase, ionized by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), and analyzed by MS/MS. Using this method, we achieved a sample analysis speed of 2.14 s/well, with bioanalytical performance comparable to the current online solid-phase extraction (SPE)-based MS method. An even faster readout speed was achieved when postreaction sample multiplexing was applied, where three reaction samples, one for each CYP, were transferred into the same well of the LazWell plate. In summary, LDTD coupled with acoustic sample deposition and multiplexing significantly decreased analysis time to 0.7 s/sample, making this MS-based approach feasible to support high-throughput screening (HTS) assays. PMID:26420787

  13. Speaker verification using combined acoustic and EM sensor signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Gable, T J; Holzrichter, J F

    2000-11-10

    Low Power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference. This greatly enhances the quality and quantity of information for many speech related applications. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J. Acoustic. SOC. Am . 103 ( 1) 622 (1998). By combining the Glottal-EM-Sensor (GEMS) with the Acoustic-signals, we've demonstrated an almost 10 fold reduction in error rates from a speaker verification system experiment under a moderate noisy environment (-10dB).

  14. Combined Photoacoustic-Acoustic Technique for Crack Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakrzewski, J.; Chigarev, N.; Tournat, V.; Gusev, V.

    2010-01-01

    Nonlinear imaging of a crack by combination of a common photoacoustic imaging technique with additional acoustic loading has been performed. Acoustic signals at two different fundamental frequencies were launched in the sample, one photoacoustically through heating of the sample surface by the intensity-modulated scanning laser beam and another by a piezoelectrical transducer. The acoustic signal at mixed frequencies, generated due to system nonlinearity, has been detected by an accelerometer. Different physical mechanisms of the nonlinearity contributing to the contrast in linear and nonlinear photoacoustic imaging of the crack are discussed.

  15. Development of combined Opto-Acoustical sensor Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enzenhöfer, A.; Anton, G.; Graf, K.; Hößl, J.; Katz, U.; Lahmann, R.; Neff, M.; Richardt, C.

    2012-01-01

    The faint fluxes of cosmic neutrinos expected at very high energies require large instrumented detector volumes. The necessary volumes in combination with a sufficient shielding against background constitute forbidding and complex environments (e.g. the deep sea) as sites for neutrino telescopes. To withstand these environments and to assure the data quality, the sensors have to be reliable and their operation has to be as simple as possible. A compact sensor module design including all necessary components for data acquisition and module calibration would simplify the detector mechanics and ensures the long term operability of the detector. The compact design discussed here combines optical and acoustical sensors inside one module, therefore reducing electronics and additional external instruments for calibration purposes. In this design the acoustical sensor is primary used for acoustic positioning of the module. The module may also be used for acoustic particle detection and marine science if an appropriate acoustical sensor is chosen.First tests of this design are promising concerning the task of calibration. To expand the field of application also towards acoustic particle detection further improvements concerning electromagnetic shielding and adaptation of the single components are necessary.

  16. Combination of acoustical radiosity and the image source method.

    PubMed

    Koutsouris, Georgios I; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Jacobsen, Finn

    2013-06-01

    A combined model for room acoustic predictions is developed, aiming to treat both diffuse and specular reflections in a unified way. Two established methods are incorporated: acoustical radiosity, accounting for the diffuse part, and the image source method, accounting for the specular part. The model is based on conservation of acoustical energy. Losses are taken into account by the energy absorption coefficient, and the diffuse reflections are controlled via the scattering coefficient, which defines the portion of energy that has been diffusely reflected. The way the model is formulated allows for a dynamic control of the image source production, so that no fixed maximum reflection order is required. The model is optimized for energy impulse response predictions in arbitrary polyhedral rooms. The predictions are validated by comparison with published measured data for a real music studio hall. The proposed model turns out to be promising for acoustic predictions providing a high level of detail and accuracy. PMID:23742350

  17. Mercury Sorption and Desorption on Gold: A Comparative Analysis of Surface Acoustic Wave and Quartz Crystal Microbalance-Based Sensors.

    PubMed

    Kabir, K M Mohibul; Sabri, Ylias M; Esmaielzadeh Kandjani, Ahmad; Matthews, Glenn I; Field, Matthew; Jones, Lathe A; Nafady, Ayman; Ippolito, Samuel J; Bhargava, Suresh K

    2015-08-01

    Microelectromechanical sensors based on surface acoustic wave (SAW) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) transducers possess substantial potential as online elemental mercury (Hg(0)) vapor detectors in industrial stack effluents. In this study, a comparison of SAW- and QCM-based sensors is performed for the detection of low concentrations of Hg(0) vapor (ranging from 24 to 365 ppbv). Experimental measurements and finite element method (FEM) simulations allow the comparison of these sensors with regard to their sensitivity, sorption and desorption characteristics, and response time following Hg(0) vapor exposure at various operating temperatures ranging from 35 to 75 °C. Both of the sensors were fabricated on quartz substrates (ST and AT cut quartz for SAW and QCM devices, respectively) and employed thin gold (Au) layers as the electrodes. The SAW-based sensor exhibited up to ∼111 and ∼39 times higher response magnitudes than did the QCM-based sensor at 35 and 55 °C, respectively, when exposed to Hg(0) vapor concentrations ranging from 24 to 365 ppbv. The Hg(0) sorption and desorption calibration curves of both sensors were found to fit well with the Langmuir extension isotherm at different operating temperatures. Furthermore, the Hg(0) sorption and desorption rate demonstrated by the SAW-based sensor was found to decrease as the operating temperature increased, while the opposite trend was observed for the QCM-based sensor. However, the SAW-based sensor reached the maximum Hg(0) sorption rate faster than the QCM-based sensor regardless of operating temperature, whereas both sensors showed similar response times (t90) at various temperatures. Additionally, the sorption rate data was utilized in this study in order to obtain a faster response time from the sensor upon exposure to Hg(0) vapor. Furthermore, comparative analysis of the developed sensors' selectivity showed that the SAW-based sensor had a higher overall selectivity (90%) than did the QCM

  18. Characterization of Nonpolar Lipids and Selected Steroids by Using Laser-Induced Acoustic Desorption/Chemical Ionization, Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization, and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry†

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhicheng; Daiya, Shivani; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2011-01-01

    Laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) combined with ClMn(H2O)+ chemical ionization (CI) was tested for the analysis of nonpolar lipids and selected steroids in a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR). The nonpolar lipids studied, cholesterol, 5α-cholestane, cholesta-3,5-diene, squalene, and β-carotene, were found to solely form the desired water replacement product (adduct-H2O) with the ClMn(H2O)+ ions. The steroids, androsterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), estrone, estradiol, and estriol, also form abundant adduct-H2O ions, but less abundant adduct-2H2O ions were also observed. Neither (+)APCI nor (+)ESI can ionize the saturated hydrocarbon lipid, cholestane. APCI successfully ionizes the unsaturated hydrocarbon lipids to form exclusively the intact protonated analytes. However, it causes extensive fragmentation for cholesterol and the steroids. The worst case is cholesterol that does not produce any stable protonated molecules. On the other hand, ESI cannot ionize any of the hydrocarbon analytes, saturated or unsaturated. However, ESI can be used to protonate the oxygen-containing analytes with substantially less fragmentation than for APCI in all cases except for cholesterol and estrone. In conclusion, LIAD/ClMn(H2O)+ chemical ionization is superior over APCI and ESI for the mass spectrometric characterization of underivatized nonpolar lipids and steroids. PMID:21528012

  19. An acoustical array combining microphones and piezoelectric devices.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Hashimoto, Shuji

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes an acoustical array combining microphones and piezoelectric devices. Conventional microphone arrays have been widely utilized to realize noise reduction, sound separation and direction of arrival estimation system. However, when a conventional microphone array is mounted on a real system, such as a machine, vehicle or robot, the microphones are set extremely close to the system's actual body. In such cases, the noise from the system itself, such as motors, gears, and engines, namely internal noise, often becomes a troublesome problem. It is difficult to reduce internal noise utilizing a conventional microphone array because internal noise sources are extremely close to the microphones. As internal noise is not always stationary, statistically independent or sparse, most useful blind source separation approaches, such as independent component analysis and the sparseness approach, cannot be employed. Our aim is to reduce internal noise utilizing microphones and piezoelectric devices attached to the internal noise source. In this paper, a general description of the acoustical array is formulated and the characteristic features of microphones and piezoelectric devices in an acoustical array are given. An acoustical array combining microphones and piezoelectric devices is also described with some experimental results. PMID:18397019

  20. Acoustical comfort of vehicles: A combination of sound and vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genuit, Klaus; Schutte-Fortkamp, Brigitte; Fiebig, Andre

    2005-09-01

    As vehicles become more and more quiet, the customer's sensitivity to acoustical comfort increases. The acoustical comfort is not independent of the vibrations the driver can feel in the seat and at the steering. The passenger of a vehicle must be regarded as part of a vibro-acoustic system. Correspondingly, the subjective judgement which passengers make about their impression of levels of acoustic comfort encompasses both sound and vibration. Achievement in this field depends on obtaining knowledge about the interaction between sound and vibration and how these factors impact subjective evaluation. To save time and money prediction tools for the estimation of sound and vibration contributions into the vehicle cabin are very important in order to simulate the final comfort with respect to sound and vibration. Based on the binaural transfer path analysis in combination with the binaural transfer path synthesis a sound and vibration reproduction in a so-called SoundCar can be realized with a very good simulation of a real situation of a car. First research tests completed for the European research project OBELICS (Objective Evaluation of Interior Car Sound) have shown that the use of SoundCar may result in more reliable sound characteristic and quality evaluation.

  1. Combining whistle acoustic parameters to discriminate Mediterranean odontocetes during passive acoustic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Azzolin, Marta; Gannier, Alexandre; Lammers, Marc O; Oswald, Julie N; Papale, Elena; Buscaino, Giuseppa; Buffa, Gaspare; Mazzola, Salvatore; Giacoma, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic observation can complement visual observation to more effectively monitor occurrence and distribution of marine mammals. For effective acoustic censuses, calibration methods must be determined by joint visual and acoustic studies. Research is still needed in the field of acoustic species identification, particularly for smaller odontocetes. From 1994 to 2012, whistles of four odontocete species were recorded in different areas of the Mediterranean Sea to determine how reliably these vocalizations can be classified to species. Recordings were attributed to species by simultaneous visual observation. The results of this study highlight that the frequency parameters, which are linked to physical features of animals, show lower variability than modulation parameters, which are likely to be more dependent on complex eco-ethological contexts. For all the studied species, minimum and maximum frequencies were linearly correlated with body size. DFA and Classification Tree Analysis (CART) show that these parameters were the most important for classifying species; however, both statistical methods highlighted the need for combining them with the number of contour minima and contour maxima for correct classification. Generally, DFA and CART results reflected both phylogenetic distance (especially for common and striped dolphins) and the size of the species. PMID:24437790

  2. Design and Characterization of a High-power Laser-induced Acoustic Desorption (LIAD) Probe Coupled with a Fourier-transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Ryan C.; Habicht, Steven C.; Vaughn, Weldon E.; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2008-01-01

    We report here the construction and characterization of a high-power laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) probe designed for Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometers to facilitate analysis of non-volatile, thermally labile compounds. This “next generation” LIAD probe offers significant improvements in sensitivity and desorption efficiency for analytes with larger molecular weights via the use of higher laser irradiances. Unlike the previous probes which utilized a power limiting optical fiber to transmit the laser pulses through the probe, this probe employs a set of mirrors and a focusing lens. At the end of the probe, the energy from the laser pulses propagates through a thin metal foil as an acoustic wave, resulting in desorption of neutral molecules from the opposite side of the foil. Following desorption, the molecules can be ionized by electron impact or chemical ionization. Almost an order of magnitude greater power density (up to 5.0 × 109 W/cm2) is achievable on the backside of the foil with the high-power LIAD probe compared to the earlier LIAD probes (maximum power density ~9.0 × 108 W/cm2). The use of higher laser irradiances is demonstrated not to cause fragmentation of the analyte. The use of higher laser irradiances increases sensitivity since it results in the evaporation of a greater number of molecules per laser pulse. Measurement of the average velocities of LIAD evaporated molecules demonstrates that higher laser irradiances do not correlate with higher velocities of the gaseous analyte molecules. PMID:17319645

  3. Experimental investigations of the internal energy of molecules evaporated via laser-induced acoustic desorption into a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Shea, Ryan C; Petzold, Christopher J; Liu, Ji-Ang; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I

    2007-03-01

    The internal energy of neutral gas-phase organic and biomolecules, evaporated by means of laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) into a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer, was investigated through several experimental approaches. The desorbed molecules were demonstrated not to undergo degradation during the desorption process by collecting LIAD-evaporated molecules and subjecting them to analysis by electrospray ionization/quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry. Previously established gas-phase basicity values were remeasured for LIAD-evaporated organic molecules and biomolecules with the use of the bracketing method. No endothermic reactions were observed. The remeasured basicity values are in close agreement with the values reported in the literature. The amount of internal energy deposited during LIAD is concluded to be less than a few kilocalories per mole. Chemical ionization with a series of proton-transfer reagents was employed to obtain a breakdown curve for a protonated dipeptide, Val-Pro, evaporated by LIAD. Comparison of this breakdown curve with a previously published analogous curve obtained by using substrate-assisted laser desorption (SALD) to evaporate the peptide suggests that the molecules evaporated via LIAD have a similar internal energy as those evaporated via SALD. PMID:17263513

  4. Characterization of carbon surface chemistry by combined temperature programmed desorption with in situ X-ray photoelectron spectrometry and temperature programmed desorption with mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Brender, Patrice; Gadiou, Roger; Rietsch, Jean-Christophe; Fioux, Philippe; Dentzer, Joseph; Ponche, Arnaud; Vix-Guterl, Cathie

    2012-03-01

    The analysis of the surface chemistry of carbon materials is of prime importance in numerous applications, but it is still a challenge to identify and quantify the surface functional groups which are present on a given carbon. Temperature programmed desorption with mass spectrometry analysis (TPD-MS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with an in situ heating device (TPD-XPS) were combined in order to improve the characterization of carbon surface chemistry. TPD-MS analysis allowed the quantitative analysis of the released gases as a function of temperature, while the use of a TPD device inside the XPS setup enabled the determination of the functional groups that remain on the surface at the same temperatures. TPD-MS results were then used to add constraints on the deconvolution of the O1s envelope of the XPS spectra. Furthermore, a better knowledge of the evolution of oxygen functional groups with temperature during a thermal treatment could be obtained. Hence, we show here that the combination of these two methods allows to increase the reliability of the analysis of the surface chemistry of carbon materials. PMID:22242697

  5. Hybrid acoustic energy harvesting using combined electromagnetic and piezoelectric conversion.

    PubMed

    Khan, Farid Ullah; Izhar

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports a novel hybrid acoustic energy harvester. The harvester utilizes both the electromagnetic and piezoelectric conversion mechanisms simultaneously to convert the ambient acoustical noise into electrical power for self-powered wireless sensor nodes. The proposed harvester is comprised of a Helmholtz resonator, two magnets mounted on a piezoelectric plate, and a wound coil located under the magnets. The harvester is characterized both under harmonic and real random acoustical excitations. In-lab, under harmonic acoustical excitation at a sound pressure level of 130 dB and frequency of 2.1 kHz, an optimum power of 2.86 μW (at 114 Ω optimum load) is obtained from electromagnetic conversion and 50 μW (at 1000 Ω optimum load) is generated by the piezoelectric harvester's part. Moreover, in real acoustical environment of a domestic electric generator the peak voltages of 40 and 123 mV are produced by the electromagnetic and piezoelectric portions of the acoustic energy harvester. PMID:26931884

  6. Hybrid acoustic energy harvesting using combined electromagnetic and piezoelectric conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Farid Ullah; Izhar

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports a novel hybrid acoustic energy harvester. The harvester utilizes both the electromagnetic and piezoelectric conversion mechanisms simultaneously to convert the ambient acoustical noise into electrical power for self-powered wireless sensor nodes. The proposed harvester is comprised of a Helmholtz resonator, two magnets mounted on a piezoelectric plate, and a wound coil located under the magnets. The harvester is characterized both under harmonic and real random acoustical excitations. In-lab, under harmonic acoustical excitation at a sound pressure level of 130 dB and frequency of 2.1 kHz, an optimum power of 2.86 μW (at 114 Ω optimum load) is obtained from electromagnetic conversion and 50 μW (at 1000 Ω optimum load) is generated by the piezoelectric harvester's part. Moreover, in real acoustical environment of a domestic electric generator the peak voltages of 40 and 123 mV are produced by the electromagnetic and piezoelectric portions of the acoustic energy harvester.

  7. Combination of HPLC and 252-Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry for identifying composition of ginseng tinctures.

    PubMed

    Elkin, Y N; Makhankov, V V; Uvarova, N L; Bondarenko, P V; Zubarev, R A; Knysh, A N

    1993-03-01

    The 252-Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry (252-Cf PDMS) determination or confirmation of the ginsenoside saponins has been proposed to investigate the composition of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) peaks of ginseng tinctures and galenic preparations. That ionization technique is well suitable for the analysis of natural mixtures of these saponins. The 252-Cf PD mass spectra of standard ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Re, Rg1, Rd, NG-R2, Z-R1 contain the peaks of two types of ions, namely, molecular adduct ions (MAI) and aglycone ions. By mass the latter may be referred to either protopanaxadiol or protopanaxatriol. The masses of MAI and aglycone ions are determined by the carbohydrate chains. The collected HPLC fractions of P ginseng tincture can be tested for content of ginsenosides. After studying two MAI peaks from the 252-Cf PD mass spectra of the basic ginsenosides, an example of distinction between two galenic preparations from different Panax has been shown. PMID:8352021

  8. A procedure for combining acoustically induced and mechanically induced loads (first passage failure design criterion)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, D. R.; Henricks, W.

    1983-01-01

    The combined load statistics are developed by taking the acoustically induced load to be a random population, assumed to be stationary. Each element of this ensemble of acoustically induced loads is assumed to have the same power spectral density (PSD), obtained previously from a random response analysis employing the given acoustic field in the STS cargo bay as a stationary random excitation. The mechanically induced load is treated as either (1) a known deterministic transient, or (2) a nonstationary random variable of known first and second statistical moments which vary with time. A method is then shown for determining the probability that the combined load would, at any time, have a value equal to or less than a certain level. Having obtained a statistical representation of how the acoustic and mechanical loads are expected to combine, an analytical approximation for defining design levels for these loads is presented using the First Passage failure criterion.

  9. Enhancement of reverse transfection efficiency by combining stimulated DNA surface desorption and electroporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creasey, Rhiannon; Hook, Andrew; Thissen, Helmut; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

    2007-12-01

    Transfection cell microarrays (TCMs) are a high-throughput, miniaturised cell-culture system utilising reverse transfection, in which cells are seeded onto a DNA array resulting in localised regions of transfected cells. TCMs are useful for the analysis of gene expression, and can be used to identify genes involved in many cellular processes. This is of significant interest in fields such as tissue engineering, diagnostic screening, and drug testing [1, 2]. Low transfection efficiency has so far limited the application and utility of this technique. Recently, the transfection efficiency of TCMs was improved by an application of a high voltage for a short period of time to the DNA array resulting in the electroporation of cells attached to the surface [3, 4]. Furthermore, application of a low voltage for a longer period of time to the DNA array was shown to improve the transfection efficiency by stimulating the desorption of attached DNA, increasing the concentration of DNA available for cellular uptake [5]. In the present study, the optimisation of the uptake of adsorbed DNA vectors by adherent cells, utilising a voltage bias without compromising cell viability was investigated. This was achieved by depositing negatively charged DNA plasmids onto a positively charged allylamine plasma polymer (ALAPP) layer deposited on highly doped p-type silicon wafers either using a pipettor or a microarray contact printer. Surface-dependant human embryonic kidney (HEK 293 line) cells were cultured onto the DNA vector loaded ALAPP spots and the plasmid transfection events were detected by fluorescence microscopy. Cell viability assays, including fluorescein diacetate (FDA) / Hoechst DNA labelling, were carried out to determine the number of live adherent cells before and after application of a voltage. A protocol was developed to screen for voltage biases and exposure times in order to optimise transfection efficiency and cell viability. Cross-contamination between the microarray

  10. Denoising of human speech using combined acoustic and em sensor signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Burnett, G C; Holzrichter, J F; Gable, T J

    1999-11-29

    Low Power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference. This greatly enhances the quality and quantify of information for many speech related applications. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J. Acoustic. Soc. Am. 103 (1) 622 (1998). By using combined Glottal-EM- Sensor- and Acoustic-signals, segments of voiced, unvoiced, and no-speech can be reliably defined. Real-time Denoising filters can be constructed to remove noise from the user's corresponding speech signal.

  11. Speech and melody recognition in binaurally combined acoustic and electric hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Ying-Yee; Stickney, Ginger S.; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2005-03-01

    Speech recognition in noise and music perception is especially challenging for current cochlear implant users. The present study utilizes the residual acoustic hearing in the nonimplanted ear in five cochlear implant users to elucidate the role of temporal fine structure at low frequencies in auditory perception and to test the hypothesis that combined acoustic and electric hearing produces better performance than either mode alone. The first experiment measured speech recognition in the presence of competing noise. It was found that, although the residual low-frequency (<1000 Hz) acoustic hearing produced essentially no recognition for speech recognition in noise, it significantly enhanced performance when combined with the electric hearing. The second experiment measured melody recognition in the same group of subjects and found that, contrary to the speech recognition result, the low-frequency acoustic hearing produced significantly better performance than the electric hearing. It is hypothesized that listeners with combined acoustic and electric hearing might use the correlation between the salient pitch in low-frequency acoustic hearing and the weak pitch in the envelope to enhance segregation between signal and noise. The present study suggests the importance and urgency of accurately encoding the fine-structure cue in cochlear implants. .

  12. Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The acoustics research activities of the DLR fluid-mechanics department (Forschungsbereich Stroemungsmechanik) during 1988 are surveyed and illustrated with extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs. Particular attention is given to studies of helicopter rotor noise (high-speed impulsive noise, blade/vortex interaction noise, and main/tail-rotor interaction noise), propeller noise (temperature, angle-of-attack, and nonuniform-flow effects), noise certification, and industrial acoustics (road-vehicle flow noise and airport noise-control installations).

  13. Rapid identification of siderophores by combined thin-layer chromatography/matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hayen, Heiko; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2005-01-01

    The investigation of a combined thin-layer chromatography/matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (TLC/MALDI-MS) method for the analysis of siderophores from microbial samples is described. The investigated siderophores were enterobactin, ferrioxamine B, ferrichrome, ferrirhodin, rhodotorulic acid and coprogen. Solid-phase extraction was employed to recover the siderophores from the microbial samples. After visualization of the spots via spraying with ferric chloride or chrome azurol sulfonate assay solution, the MALDI matrix was applied to the gel surface. Several TLC/MALDI experimental parameters were optimized, such as type and concentration of MALDI matrix, as well as the type and composition of solvent to facilitate analyte transport from the inside of the TLC gel to the surface. The impact of these parameters on sensitivity, precision and ion formation of the various siderophores was studied. The detection limits for the investigated siderophores were in the range 1-4 pmol. These values were about 4-24 times higher than the detection limits obtained directly from stainless steel MALDI targets. The differences were most likely due to incomplete transport of the 'trapped' analyte molecules from the deeper layers of the TLC gel to the surface and into the matrix layer. In addition, chromatographic band broadening spread the analyte further in TLC as compared with the steel plates, resulting in less analyte per surface area. The identification of the siderophores was aided by concurrently applying a Ga(III) nitrate solution to the TLC plate during the visualization step. The resulting formation of Ga(III) complexes lead to distinctive (69)Ga/(71)Ga isotope patterns in the mass spectra. The versatility of the TLC/MALDI-MS assay was demonstrated by using it to analyze siderophores in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa sample. An iron-binding compound was identified in the sample, namely pyochelin (2-(2-o-hydroxyphenyl-2-thiazolin-4-yl)-3

  14. Evaluation of combined matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry experiments for peptide mass fingerprinting analysis.

    PubMed

    da Silva, David; Wasselin, Thierry; Carré, Vincent; Chaimbault, Patrick; Bezdetnaya, Lina; Maunit, Benoît; Muller, Jean-François

    2011-07-15

    Peptide Mass Fingerprinting (PMF) is still of significant interest in proteomics because it allows a large number of complex samples to be rapidly screened and characterized. The main part of post-translational modifications is generally preserved. In some specific cases, PMF suffers from ambiguous or unsuccessful identification. In order to improve its reliability, a combined approach using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTICRMS) was evaluated. The study was carried out on bovine serum albumin (BSA) digest. The influence of several important parameters (the matrix, the sample preparation method, the amount of the analyte) on the MOWSE score and the protein sequence coverage were evaluated to allow the identification of specific effects. A careful investigation of the sequence coverage obtained by each kind of experiment ensured the detection of specific peptides for each experimental condition. Results highlighted that DHB-FTICRMS and DHB- or CHCA-TOFMS are the most suited combinations of experimental conditions to achieve PMF analysis. The association (convolution) of the data obtained by each of these techniques ensured a significant increase in the MOWSE score and the protein sequence coverage. PMID:21638364

  15. Combined prenatal and chronic postnatal vitamin D deficiency in rats impairs prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle.

    PubMed

    Burne, Thomas H J; Féron, François; Brown, Jillanne; Eyles, Darryl W; McGrath, John J; Mackay-Sim, Alan

    2004-06-01

    There is growing evidence that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is involved in normal brain development. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of prenatal and postnatal hypovitaminosis D on prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle in adult rats. We compared six groups of rats: control rats with normal vitamin D throughout life and normal litter size (Litter); control rats with normal vitamin D but with a reduced litter size of two (Control); offspring from reduced litters of vitamin D deplete mothers who were repleted at birth (Birth), repleted at weaning (Weaning) or remained on a deplete diet until 10 weeks of age (Life); or control rats that were placed on a vitamin D-deficient diet from 5 to 10 weeks of age (Adult). All rats were tested in acoustic startle chambers at 5 and 10 weeks of age for acoustic startle responses and for PPI. There were no significant group differences at 5 weeks of age on the acoustic startle response or on PPI. At 10 weeks of age, rats in the Life group only had impaired PPI despite having normal acoustic startle responses. We conclude that combined prenatal and chronic postnatal hypovitaminosis D, but not early life hypovitaminosis D, alters PPI. PMID:15178159

  16. Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    The acoustics environment in space operations is important to maintain at manageable levels so that the crewperson can remain safe, functional, effective, and reasonably comfortable. High acoustic levels can produce temporary or permanent hearing loss, or cause other physiological symptoms such as auditory pain, headaches, discomfort, strain in the vocal cords, or fatigue. Noise is defined as undesirable sound. Excessive noise may result in psychological effects such as irritability, inability to concentrate, decrease in productivity, annoyance, errors in judgment, and distraction. A noisy environment can also result in the inability to sleep, or sleep well. Elevated noise levels can affect the ability to communicate, understand what is being said, hear what is going on in the environment, degrade crew performance and operations, and create habitability concerns. Superfluous noise emissions can also create the inability to hear alarms or other important auditory cues such as an equipment malfunctioning. Recent space flight experience, evaluations of the requirements in crew habitable areas, and lessons learned (Goodman 2003; Allen and Goodman 2003; Pilkinton 2003; Grosveld et al. 2003) show the importance of maintaining an acceptable acoustics environment. This is best accomplished by having a high-quality set of limits/requirements early in the program, the "designing in" of acoustics in the development of hardware and systems, and by monitoring, testing and verifying the levels to ensure that they are acceptable.

  17. Nonlinear Response of Composite Panels Under Combined Acoustic Excitation and Aerodynamic Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Motagaly, K.; Duan, B.; Mei, C.

    1999-01-01

    A finite element formulation is presented for the analysis of large deflection response of composite panels subjected to aerodynamic pressure- at supersonic flow and high acoustic excitation. The first-order shear deformation theory is considered for laminated composite plates, and the von Karman nonlinear strain-displacement relations are employed for the analysis of large deflection panel response. The first-order piston theory aerodynamics and the simulated Gaussian white noise are employed for the aerodynamic and acoustic loads, respectively. The nonlinear equations of motion for an arbitrarily laminated composite panel subjected to a combined aerodynamic and acoustic pressures are formulated first in structure node degrees-of-freedom. The system equations are then transformed and reduced to a set of coupled nonlinear equations in modal coordinates. Modal participation is defined and the in-vacuo modes to be retained in the analysis are based on the modal participation values. Numerical results include root mean square values of maximum deflections, deflection and strain response time histories, probability distributions, and power spectrum densities. Results showed that combined acoustic and aerodynamic loads have to be considered for panel analysis and design at high dynamic pressure values.

  18. Optimizing the Combination of Acoustic and Electric Hearing in the Implanted Ear

    PubMed Central

    Karsten, Sue A.; Turner, Christopher W.; Brown, Carolyn J.; Jeon, Eun Kyung; Abbas, Paul J.; Gantz, Bruce J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine an optimal approach to program combined acoustic plus electric (A+E) hearing devices in the same ear to maximize speech-recognition performance. Design Ten participants with at least 1 year of experience using Nucleus Hybrid (short electrode) A+E devices were evaluated across three different fitting conditions that varied in the frequency ranges assigned to the acoustically and electrically presented portions of the spectrum. Real-ear measurements were used to optimize the acoustic component for each participant, and the acoustic stimulation was then held constant across conditions. The lower boundary of the electric frequency range was systematically varied to create three conditions with respect to the upper boundary of the acoustic spectrum: Meet, Overlap, and Gap programming. Consonant recognition in quiet and speech recognition in competing-talker babble were evaluated after participants were given the opportunity to adapt by using the experimental programs in their typical everyday listening situations. Participants provided subjective ratings and evaluations for each fitting condition. Results There were no significant differences in performance between conditions (Meet, Overlap, Gap) for consonant recognition in quiet. A significant decrement in performance was measured for the Overlap fitting condition for speech recognition in babble. Subjective ratings indicated a significant preference for the Meet fitting regimen. Conclusions Participants using the Hybrid ipsilateral A+E device generally performed better when the acoustic and electric spectra were programmed to meet at a single frequency region, as opposed to a gap or overlap. Although there is no particular advantage for the Meet fitting strategy for recognition of consonants in quiet, the advantage becomes evident for speech recognition in competing-talker babble and in patient preferences. PMID:23059851

  19. Detection and quantification of bacterial biofilms combining high-frequency acoustic microscopy and targeted lipid microparticles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Immuno-compromised patients such as those undergoing cancer chemotherapy are susceptible to bacterial infections leading to biofilm matrix formation. This surrounding biofilm matrix acts as a diffusion barrier that binds up antibiotics and antibodies, promoting resistance to treatment. Developing non-invasive imaging methods that detect biofilm matrix in the clinic are needed. The use of ultrasound in conjunction with targeted ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) may provide detection of early stage biofilm matrix formation and facilitate optimal treatment. Results Ligand-targeted UCAs were investigated as a novel method for pre-clinical non-invasive molecular imaging of early and late stage biofilms. These agents were used to target, image and detect Staphylococcus aureus biofilm matrix in vitro. Binding efficacy was assessed on biofilm matrices with respect to their increasing biomass ranging from 3.126 × 103 ± 427 UCAs per mm2 of biofilm surface area within 12 h to 21.985 × 103 ± 855 per mm2 of biofilm matrix surface area at 96 h. High-frequency acoustic microscopy was used to ultrasonically detect targeted UCAs bound to a biofilm matrix and to assess biofilm matrix mechanoelastic physical properties. Acoustic impedance data demonstrated that biofilm matrices exhibit impedance values (1.9 MRayl) close to human tissue (1.35 - 1.85 MRayl for soft tissues). Moreover, the acoustic signature of mature biofilm matrices were evaluated in terms of integrated backscatter (0.0278 - 0.0848 mm-1 × sr-1) and acoustic attenuation (3.9 Np/mm for bound UCAs; 6.58 Np/mm for biofilm alone). Conclusions Early diagnosis of biofilm matrix formation is a challenge in treating cancer patients with infection-associated biofilms. We report for the first time a combined optical and acoustic evaluation of infectious biofilm matrices. We demonstrate that acoustic impedance of biofilms is similar to the impedance of human tissues, making in vivo imaging and detection of biofilm

  20. Experimental Investigations of the Internal Energy of Molecules Evaporated via Laser-induced Acoustic Desorption into a Fourier-transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (LIAD/FT-ICR)

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Ryan C.; Petzold, Christopher J.; Liu, Ji-ang; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2008-01-01

    The internal energy of neutral gas-phase organic and biomolecules, evaporated by means of laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) into a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR), was investigated through several experimental approaches. The desorbed molecules were demonstrated not to undergo degradation during the desorption process by collecting LIAD-evaporated molecules and subjecting them to analysis by electrospray ionization/quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry. Previously established gas-phase basicity (GB) values were remeasured for LIAD-evaporated organic molecules and biomolecules with the use of the bracketing method. No endothermic reactions were observed. The remeasured basicity values are in close agreement with the values reported in the literature. The amount of internal energy deposited during LIAD is concluded to be less than a few kcal/mol. Chemical ionization with a series of proton transfer reagents was employed to obtain a breakdown curve for a protonated dipeptide, val-pro, evaporated by LIAD. Comparison of this breakdown curve with a previously published analogous curve obtained by using substrate-assisted laser desorption (SALD) to evaporate the peptide suggests that the molecules evaporated via LIAD have less internal energy than those evaporated via SALD. PMID:17263513

  1. Adsorption and desorption of U(VI) on functionalized graphene oxides: a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yubing; Yang, Shubin; Chen, Yue; Ding, Congcong; Cheng, Wencai; Wang, Xiangke

    2015-04-01

    The adsorption and desorption of U(VI) on graphene oxides (GOs), carboxylated GOs (HOOC-GOs), and reduced GOs (rGOs) were investigated by batch experiments, EXAFS technique, and computational theoretical calculations. Isothermal adsorptions showed that the adsorption capacities of U(VI) were GOs > HOOC-GOs > rGOs, whereas the desorbed amounts of U(VI) were rGOs > GOs > HOOC-GOs by desorption kinetics. According to EXAFS analysis, inner-sphere surface complexation dominated the adsorption of U(VI) on GOs and HOOC-GOs at pH 4.0, whereas outer-sphere surface complexation of U(VI) on rGO was observed at pH 4.0, which was consistent with surface complexation modeling. Based on the theoretical calculations, the binding energy of [G(···)UO2](2+) (8.1 kcal/mol) was significantly lower than those of [HOOC-GOs(···)UO2](2+) (12.1 kcal/mol) and [GOs-O(···)UO2](2+) (10.2 kcal/mol), suggesting the physisorption of UO2(2+) on rGOs. Such high binding energy of [GOs-COO(···)UO2](+) (50.5 kcal/mol) revealed that the desorption of U(VI) from the -COOH groups was much more difficult. This paper highlights the effect of the hydroxyl, epoxy, and carboxyl groups on the adsorption and desorption of U(VI), which plays an important role in designing GOs for the preconcentration and removal of radionuclides in environmental pollution cleanup applications. PMID:25761122

  2. Combining Passive Thermography and Acoustic Emission for Large Area Fatigue Damage Growth Assessment of a Composite Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Horne, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.; Burke, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    Passive thermography and acoustic emission data were obtained for improved real time damage detection during fatigue loading. A strong positive correlation was demonstrated between acoustic energy event location and thermal heating, especially if the structure under load was nearing ultimate failure. An image processing routine was developed to map the acoustic emission data onto the thermal imagery. This required removing optical barrel distortion and angular rotation from the thermal data. The acoustic emission data were then mapped onto thermal data, revealing the cluster of acoustic emission event locations around the thermal signatures of interest. By combining both techniques, progression of damage growth is confirmed and areas of failure are identified. This technology provides improved real time inspections of advanced composite structures during fatigue testing.Keywords: Thermal nondestructive evaluation, fatigue damage detection, aerospace composite inspection, acoustic emission, passive thermography

  3. Early detection of melanoma with the combined use of acoustic microscopy, infrared reflectance and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiannis, Georgios T.; Grivas, Ioannis; Tsingotjidou, Anastasia; Apostolidis, Georgios K.; Grigoriadou, Ifigeneia; Dori, I.; Poulatsidou, Kyriaki-Nefeli; Doumas, Argyrios; Wesarg, Stefan; Georgoulias, Panagiotis

    2015-03-01

    Malignant melanoma is a form of skin cancer, with increasing incidence worldwide. Early diagnosis is crucial for the prognosis and treatment of the disease. The objective of this study is to develop a novel animal model of melanoma and apply a combination of the non-invasive imaging techniques acoustic microscopy, infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies, for the detection of developing tumors. Acoustic microscopy provides information about the 3D structure of the tumor, whereas, both spectroscopic modalities give qualitative insight of biochemical changes during melanoma development. In order to efficiently set up the final devices, propagation of ultrasonic and electromagnetic waves in normal skin and melanoma simulated structures was performed. Synthetic and grape-extracted melanin (simulated tumors), endermally injected, were scanned and compared to normal skin. For both cases acoustic microscopy with central operating frequencies of 110MHz and 175MHz were used, resulting to the tomographic imaging of the simulated tumor, while with the spectroscopic modalities IR and Raman differences among spectra of normal and melanin- injected sites were identified in skin depth. Subsequently, growth of actual tumors in an animal melanoma model, with the use of human malignant melanoma cells was achieved. Acoustic microscopy and IR and Raman spectroscopies were also applied. The development of tumors at different time points was displayed using acoustic microscopy. Moreover, the changes of the IR and Raman spectra were studied between the melanoma tumors and adjacent healthy skin. The most significant changes between healthy skin and the melanoma area were observed in the range of 900-1800cm-1 and 350-2000cm-1, respectively.

  4. Fundamental frequency is critical to speech perception in noise in combined acoustic and electric hearinga

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Jeff; Tiaden, Stephanie; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2011-01-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) users have been shown to benefit from residual low-frequency hearing, specifically in pitch related tasks. It remains unclear whether this benefit is dependent on fundamental frequency (F0) or other acoustic cues. Three experiments were conducted to determine the role of F0, as well as its frequency modulated (FM) and amplitude modulated (AM) components, in speech recognition with a competing voice. In simulated CI listeners, the signal-to-noise ratio was varied to estimate the 50% correct response. Simulation results showed that the F0 cue contributes to a significant proportion of the benefit seen with combined acoustic and electric hearing, and additionally that this benefit is due to the FM rather than the AM component. In actual CI users, sentence recognition scores were collected with either the full F0 cue containing both the FM and AM components or the 500-Hz low-pass speech cue containing the F0 and additional harmonics. The F0 cue provided a benefit similar to the low-pass cue for speech in noise, but not in quiet. Poorer CI users benefited more from the F0 cue than better users. These findings suggest that F0 is critical to improving speech perception in noise in combined acoustic and electric hearing. PMID:21973360

  5. Acoustic detection of DNA conformation in genetic assays combined with PCR.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, G; Tsortos, A; Kordas, A; Tiniakou, I; Morou, E; Vontas, J; Kardassis, D; Gizeli, E

    2013-01-01

    Application of PCR to multiplexing assays is not trivial; it requires multiple fluorescent labels for amplicon detection and sophisticated software for data interpretation. Alternative PCR-free methods exploiting new concepts in nanotechnology exhibit high sensitivities but require multiple labeling and/or amplification steps. Here, we propose to simplify the problem of simultaneous analysis of multiple targets in genetic assays by detecting directly the conformation, rather than mass, of target amplicons produced in the same PCR reaction. The new methodology exploits acoustic wave devices which are shown to be able to characterize in a fully quantitative manner multiple double stranded DNAs of various lengths. The generic nature of the combined acoustic/PCR platform is shown using real samples and, specifically, during the detection of SNP genotyping in Anopheles gambiae and gene expression quantification in treated mice. The method possesses significant advantages to TaqMan assay and real-time PCR regarding multiplexing capability, speed, simplicity and cost. PMID:23778520

  6. Acoustic detection of DNA conformation in genetic assays combined with PCR

    PubMed Central

    Papadakis, G.; Tsortos, A.; Kordas, A.; Tiniakou, I.; Morou, E.; Vontas, J.; Kardassis, D.; Gizeli, E.

    2013-01-01

    Application of PCR to multiplexing assays is not trivial; it requires multiple fluorescent labels for amplicon detection and sophisticated software for data interpretation. Alternative PCR-free methods exploiting new concepts in nanotechnology exhibit high sensitivities but require multiple labeling and/or amplification steps. Here, we propose to simplify the problem of simultaneous analysis of multiple targets in genetic assays by detecting directly the conformation, rather than mass, of target amplicons produced in the same PCR reaction. The new methodology exploits acoustic wave devices which are shown to be able to characterize in a fully quantitative manner multiple double stranded DNAs of various lengths. The generic nature of the combined acoustic/PCR platform is shown using real samples and, specifically, during the detection of SNP genotyping in Anopheles gambiae and gene expression quantification in treated mice. The method possesses significant advantages to TaqMan assay and real-time PCR regarding multiplexing capability, speed, simplicity and cost. PMID:23778520

  7. Quasi-steady acoustic response of wall perforations subject to a grazing-bias flow combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonon, D.; Moers, E. M. T.; Hirschberg, A.

    2013-04-01

    Well known examples of acoustical dampers are the aero-engine liners, the IC-engine exhaust mufflers, and the liners in combustion chambers. These devices comprise wall perforations, responsible for their sound absorbing features. Understanding the effect of the flow on the acoustic properties of a perforation is essential for the design of acoustic dampers. In the present work the effect of a grazing-bias flow combination on the impedance of slit shaped wall perforations is experimentally investigated by means of a multi-microphone impedance tube. Measurements are carried out for perforation geometries relevant for in technical applications. The focus of the experiments is on the low Strouhal number (quasi-steady) behavior. Analytical models of the steady flow and of the low frequency aeroacoustic behavior of a two-dimensional wall perforation are proposed for the case of a bias flow directed from the grazing flow towards the opposite side of the perforated wall. These theoretical results compare favorably with the experiments, when a semi-empirical correction is used to obtain the correct limit for pure bias flow.

  8. Fabrication of capacitive acoustic resonators combining 3D printing and 2D inkjet printing techniques.

    PubMed

    Haque, Rubaiyet Iftekharul; Ogam, Erick; Loussert, Christophe; Benaben, Patrick; Boddaert, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    A capacitive acoustic resonator developed by combining three-dimensional (3D) printing and two-dimensional (2D) printed electronics technique is described. During this work, a patterned bottom structure with rigid backplate and cavity is fabricated directly by a 3D printing method, and then a direct write inkjet printing technique has been employed to print a silver conductive layer. A novel approach has been used to fabricate a diaphragm for the acoustic sensor as well, where the conductive layer is inkjet-printed on a pre-stressed thin organic film. After assembly, the resulting structure contains an electrically conductive diaphragm positioned at a distance from a fixed bottom electrode separated by a spacer. Measurements confirm that the transducer acts as capacitor. The deflection of the diaphragm in response to the incident acoustic single was observed by a laser Doppler vibrometer and the corresponding change of capacitance has been calculated, which is then compared with the numerical result. Observation confirms that the device performs as a resonator and provides adequate sensitivity and selectivity at its resonance frequency. PMID:26473878

  9. Fabrication of Capacitive Acoustic Resonators Combining 3D Printing and 2D Inkjet Printing Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Rubaiyet Iftekharul; Ogam, Erick; Loussert, Christophe; Benaben, Patrick; Boddaert, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    A capacitive acoustic resonator developed by combining three-dimensional (3D) printing and two-dimensional (2D) printed electronics technique is described. During this work, a patterned bottom structure with rigid backplate and cavity is fabricated directly by a 3D printing method, and then a direct write inkjet printing technique has been employed to print a silver conductive layer. A novel approach has been used to fabricate a diaphragm for the acoustic sensor as well, where the conductive layer is inkjet-printed on a pre-stressed thin organic film. After assembly, the resulting structure contains an electrically conductive diaphragm positioned at a distance from a fixed bottom electrode separated by a spacer. Measurements confirm that the transducer acts as capacitor. The deflection of the diaphragm in response to the incident acoustic single was observed by a laser Doppler vibrometer and the corresponding change of capacitance has been calculated, which is then compared with the numerical result. Observation confirms that the device performs as a resonator and provides adequate sensitivity and selectivity at its resonance frequency. PMID:26473878

  10. Cochlear dead regions constrain the benefit of combining acoustic stimulation with electric stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Dorman, Michael F.; Gifford, Rene; Moore, Brian C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to (i) detect the presence and edge frequency (fe) of a cochlear dead region in the ear with residual acoustic hearing for bimodal cochlear implant (CI) users, and (ii) determine whether amplification based on the presence or absence of a dead region would improve speech understanding and sound quality. Design Twenty two listeners with a CI in one ear and residual acoustic hearing in the non-implanted ear were tested. Eleven listeners had a cochlear dead region in the acoustic-hearing ear and eleven did not. Dead regions were assessed with the threshold equalizing noise (TEN) and the sweeping noise, psychophysical tuning curve (SWPTC) tests. Speech understanding was assessed with monosyllabic words and the AzBio sentences at +10 dB signal-to-noise ratio. Speech and music quality judgments were obtained with the Judgment of Sound Quality questionnaire. Results For this population, using shifted tips of the PTCs as a basis for diagnosis, the TEN had high sensitivity (0.91) and poor specificity (0.55). The value of fe was lower when estimated with the SWPTC test than with the TEN test. For the listeners with cochlear dead regions, speech understanding, speech quality and music quality were best when no amplification was applied for frequencies within the dead region. For listeners without dead regions, speech understanding was best with full-bandwidth amplification and was reduced when amplification was not applied when the audiometric threshold exceeded 80 dB HL. Conclusion Our data suggest that, to improve bimodal benefit for listeners who combine electric and acoustic stimulation, audiologists should routinely test for the presence of cochlear dead regions and determine amplification bandwidth accordingly. PMID:24950254

  11. Imaging living cells with a combined high-resolution multi-photon-acoustic microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenkl, Selma; Weiss, Eike; Stark, Martin; Stracke, Frank; Riemann, Iris; Lemor, Robert; König, Karsten

    2007-02-01

    With increasing demand for in-vivo observation of living cells, microscope techniques that do not need staining become more and more important. In this talk we present a combined multi-photon-acoustic microscope with the possibility to measure synchronously properties addressed by ultrasound and two-photon fluorescence. Ultrasound probes the local mechanical properties of a cell, while the high resolution image of the two-photon fluorescence delivers insight in cell morphology and activity. In the acoustic part of the microscope an ultrasound wave, with a frequency of GHz, is focused by an acoustic sapphire lens and detected by a piezo electric transducer assembled to the lens. The achieved lateral resolution is in the range of 1μm. Contrast in the images arises mainly from the local absorption of sound in the cells, related to properties, such as mass density, stiffness and viscose damping. Additionally acoustic microscopy can access the cell shape and the state of the cell membrane as it is a intrinsic volume scanning technique.The optical part bases on the emission of fluorescent biomolecules naturally present in cells (e.g. NAD(P)H, protophorphyrin IX, lipofuscin, melanin). The nonlinear effect of two-photon absorption provides a high lateral and axial resolution without the need of confocal detection. In addition, in the near-IR cell damages are drastically reduced in comparison to direct excitation in the visible or UV. Both methods can be considered as minimal invasive, as they relay on intrinsic contrast mechanisms and dispense with the need of staining. First results on living cells are presented and discussed.

  12. Combining passive thermography and acoustic emission for large area fatigue damage growth assessment of a composite structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Horne, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.; Burke, Eric R.

    2016-05-01

    Passive thermography and acoustic emission data were obtained for improved real time damage detection during fatigue loading. A strong positive correlation was demonstrated between acoustic energy event location and thermal heating, especially if the structure under load was nearing ultimate failure. An image processing routine was developed to map the acoustic emission data onto the thermal imagery. This required removing optical barrel distortion and angular rotation from the thermal data. The acoustic emission data were then mapped onto thermal data, revealing the cluster of acoustic emission event locations around the thermal signatures of interest. By combining both techniques, progression of damage growth is confirmed and areas of failure are identified. This technology provides improved real time inspections of advanced composite structures during fatigue testing.

  13. Unlocking the Potential of High-Throughput Drug Combination Assays Using Acoustic Dispensing.

    PubMed

    Chan, Grace Ka Yan; Wilson, Stacy; Schmidt, Stephen; Moffat, John G

    2016-02-01

    Assessment of synergistic effects of drug combinations in vitro is a critical part of anticancer drug research. However, the complexities of dosing and analyzing two drugs over the appropriate range of doses have generally led to compromises in experimental design that restrict the quality and robustness of the data. In particular, the use of a single dose response of combined drugs, rather than a full two-way matrix of varying doses, has predominated in higher-throughput studies. Acoustic dispensing unlocks the potential of high-throughput dose matrix analysis. We have developed acoustic dispensing protocols that enable compound synergy assays in a 384-well format. This experimental design is considerably more efficient and flexible with respect to time, reagent usage, and labware than is achievable using traditional serial-dilution approaches. Data analysis tools integrated in Genedata Screener were used to efficiently deconvolute the combination compound mapping scheme and calculate compound potency and synergy metrics. We have applied this workflow to evaluate interactions among drugs targeting different nodes of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in a panel of cancer cell lines. PMID:26160862

  14. Screening of the Binding of Small Molecules to Proteins by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Combined with Protein Microarray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Chenxi; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Buqing; He, Dacheng; Na, Na; Ouyang, Jin

    2015-11-01

    The interaction between bioactive small molecule ligands and proteins is one of the important research areas in proteomics. Herein, a simple and rapid method is established to screen small ligands that bind to proteins. We designed an agarose slide to immobilize different proteins. The protein microarrays were allowed to interact with different small ligands, and after washing, the microarrays were screened by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI MS). This method can be applied to screen specific protein binding ligands and was shown for seven proteins and 34 known ligands for these proteins. In addition, a high-throughput screening was achieved, with the analysis requiring approximately 4 s for one sample spot. We then applied this method to determine the binding between the important protein matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and 88 small compounds. The molecular docking results confirmed the MS results, demonstrating that this method is suitable for the rapid and accurate screening of ligands binding to proteins.

  15. Delivering an Automated and Integrated Approach to Combination Screening Using Acoustic-Droplet Technology.

    PubMed

    Cross, Kevin; Craggs, Richard; Swift, Denise; Sitaram, Anesh; Daya, Sandeep; Roberts, Mark; Hawley, Shaun; Owen, Paul; Isherwood, Bev

    2016-02-01

    Drug combination testing in the pharmaceutical industry has typically been driven by late-stage opportunistic strategies rather than by early testing to identify drug combinations for clinical investigation that may deliver improved efficacy. A rationale for combinations exists across a number of diseases in which pathway redundancy or resistance to therapeutics are evident. However, early assays are complicated by the absence of both assay formats representative of disease biology and robust infrastructure to screen drug combinations in a medium-throughput capacity. When applying drug combination testing studies, it may be difficult to translate a study design into the required well contents for assay plates because of the number of compounds and concentrations involved. Dispensing these plates increases in difficulty as the number of compounds and concentration points increase and compounds are subsequently rolled onto additional labware. We describe the development of a software tool, in conjunction with the use of acoustic droplet technology, as part of a compound management platform, which allows the design of an assay incorporating combinations of compounds. These enhancements to infrastructure facilitate the design and ordering of assay-ready compound combination plates and the processing of combinations data from high-content organotypic assays. PMID:25835292

  16. NH{sub 3} adsorption and decomposition on Ir(110): A combined temperature programmed desorption and high resolution fast x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study

    SciTech Connect

    Weststrate, C.J.; Bakker, J.W.; Rienks, E.D.L.; Lizzit, S.; Petaccia, L.; Baraldi, A.; Vinod, C.P.; Nieuwenhuys, B.E.

    2005-05-08

    The adsorption and decomposition of NH{sub 3} on Ir(110) has been studied in the temperature range from 80 K to 700 K. By using high-energy resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy it is possible to distinguish chemically different surface species. At low temperature a NH{sub 3} multilayer, which desorbs at {approx}110 K, was observed. The second layer of NH{sub 3} molecules desorbs around 140 K, in a separate desorption peak. Chemisorbed NH{sub 3} desorbs in steps from the surface and several desorption peaks are observed between 200 and 400 K. A part of the NH{sub 3ad} decomposes into NH{sub ad} between 225 and 300 K. NH{sub ad} decomposes into N{sub ad} between 400 K and 500 K and the hydrogen released in this process immediately desorbs. N{sub 2} desorption takes place between 500 and 700 K via N{sub ad} combination. The steady state decomposition reaction of NH{sub 3} starts at 500 K. The maximum reaction rate is observed between 540 K and 610 K. A model is presented to explain the occurrence of a maximum in the reaction rate. Hydrogenation of N{sub ad} below 400 K results in NH{sub ad}. No NH{sub 2ad} or NH{sub 3ad}/NH{sub 3} were observed. The hydrogenation of NH{sub ad} only takes place above 400 K. On the basis of the experimental findings an energy scheme is presented to account for the observations.

  17. Music-induced emotions can be predicted from a combination of brain activity and acoustic features.

    PubMed

    Daly, Ian; Williams, Duncan; Hallowell, James; Hwang, Faustina; Kirke, Alexis; Malik, Asad; Weaver, James; Miranda, Eduardo; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2015-12-01

    It is widely acknowledged that music can communicate and induce a wide range of emotions in the listener. However, music is a highly-complex audio signal composed of a wide range of complex time- and frequency-varying components. Additionally, music-induced emotions are known to differ greatly between listeners. Therefore, it is not immediately clear what emotions will be induced in a given individual by a piece of music. We attempt to predict the music-induced emotional response in a listener by measuring the activity in the listeners electroencephalogram (EEG). We combine these measures with acoustic descriptors of the music, an approach that allows us to consider music as a complex set of time-varying acoustic features, independently of any specific music theory. Regression models are found which allow us to predict the music-induced emotions of our participants with a correlation between the actual and predicted responses of up to r=0.234,p<0.001. This regression fit suggests that over 20% of the variance of the participant's music induced emotions can be predicted by their neural activity and the properties of the music. Given the large amount of noise, non-stationarity, and non-linearity in both EEG and music, this is an encouraging result. Additionally, the combination of measures of brain activity and acoustic features describing the music played to our participants allows us to predict music-induced emotions with significantly higher accuracies than either feature type alone (p<0.01). PMID:26544602

  18. Isocurvature modes and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations II: gains from combining CMB and Large Scale Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Carbone, Carmelita; Mangilli, Anna; Verde, Licia E-mail: anna.mangilli@icc.ub.edu

    2011-09-01

    We consider cosmological parameters estimation in the presence of a non-zero isocurvature contribution in the primordial perturbations. A previous analysis showed that even a tiny amount of isocurvature perturbation, if not accounted for, could affect standard rulers calibration from Cosmic Microwave Background observations such as those provided by the Planck mission, affect Baryon Acoustic Oscillations interpretation, and introduce biases in the recovered dark energy properties that are larger than forecasted statistical errors from future surveys. Extending on this work, here we adopt a general fiducial cosmology which includes a varying dark energy equation of state parameter and curvature. Beside Baryon Acoustic Oscillations measurements, we include the information from the shape of the galaxy power spectrum and consider a joint analysis of a Planck-like Cosmic Microwave Background probe and a future, space-based, Large Scale Structure probe not too dissimilar from recently proposed surveys. We find that this allows one to break the degeneracies that affect the Cosmic Microwave Background and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations combination. As a result, most of the cosmological parameter systematic biases arising from an incorrect assumption on the isocurvature fraction parameter f{sub iso}, become negligible with respect to the statistical errors. We find that the Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure combination gives a statistical error σ(f{sub iso}) ∼ 0.008, even when curvature and a varying dark energy equation of state are included, which is smaller that the error obtained from Cosmic Microwave Background alone when flatness and cosmological constant are assumed. These results confirm the synergy and complementarity between Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure, and the great potential of future and planned galaxy surveys.

  19. Novel characterization of the adsorption sites in large pore metal-organic frameworks: combination of X-ray powder diffraction and thermal desorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Soleimani-Dorcheh, Ali; Dinnebier, Robert E; Kuc, Agnieszka; Magdysyuk, Oxana; Adams, Frank; Denysenko, Dmytro; Heine, Thomas; Volkmer, Dirk; Donner, Wolfgang; Hirscher, Michael

    2012-10-01

    The preferred adsorption sites of xenon in the recently synthesized metal-organic framework MFU-4l(arge) possessing a bimodal pore structure (with pore sizes of 12 Å and 18.6 Å) were studied via the combination of low temperature thermal desorption spectroscopy and in situ X-ray powder diffraction. The diffraction patterns were collected at 110 K and 150 K according to the temperature of the desorption maxima. The maximum entropy method was used to reconstruct the electron density distribution of the structure and to localize the adsorbed xenon using refined data of the Xe-filled and empty sample. First principles calculations revealed that Xe atoms exclusively occupy the Wyckoff 32f position at approximately 2/3 2/3 2/3 along the body diagonal of the cubic crystal structure. At 110 K, Xe atoms occupy all 32 f positions (8 atoms per pore) while at 150 K the occupancy descends to 25% (2 atoms per pore). No Xe occupation of the small pores is observed by neither experimental measurements nor theoretical studies. PMID:22895492

  20. Numerical simulation of the nonlinear response of composite plates under combined thermal and acoustic loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Chuh; Moorthy, Jayashree

    1995-01-01

    A time-domain study of the random response of a laminated plate subjected to combined acoustic and thermal loads is carried out. The features of this problem also include given uniform static inplane forces. The formulation takes into consideration a possible initial imperfection in the flatness of the plate. High decibel sound pressure levels along with high thermal gradients across thickness drive the plate response into nonlinear regimes. This calls for the analysis to use von Karman large deflection strain-displacement relationships. A finite element model that combines the von Karman strains with the first-order shear deformation plate theory is developed. The development of the analytical model can accommodate an anisotropic composite laminate built up of uniformly thick layers of orthotropic, linearly elastic laminae. The global system of finite element equations is then reduced to a modal system of equations. Numerical simulation using a single-step algorithm in the time-domain is then carried out to solve for the modal coordinates. Nonlinear algebraic equations within each time-step are solved by the Newton-Raphson method. The random gaussian filtered white noise load is generated using Monte Carlo simulation. The acoustic pressure distribution over the plate is capable of accounting for a grazing incidence wavefront. Numerical results are presented to study a variety of cases.

  1. An Optimized Adsorbent Sampling Combined to Thermal Desorption GC-MS Method for Trimethylsilanol in Industrial Environments

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Hwan; Jia, Chunrong; Kim, Yong Doo; Kim, Hong Hyun; Pham, Tien Thang; Choi, Young Seok; Seo, Young Un; Lee, Ike Woo

    2012-01-01

    Trimethylsilanol (TMSOH) can cause damage to surfaces of scanner lenses in the semiconductor industry, and there is a critical need to measure and control airborne TMSOH concentrations. This study develops a thermal desorption (TD)-gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) method for measuring trace-level TMSOH in occupational indoor air. Laboratory method optimization obtained best performance when using dual-bed tube configuration (100 mg of Tenax TA followed by 100 mg of Carboxen 569), n-decane as a solvent, and a TD temperature of 300°C. The optimized method demonstrated high recovery (87%), satisfactory precision (<15% for spiked amounts exceeding 1 ng), good linearity (R2 = 0.9999), a wide dynamic mass range (up to 500 ng), low method detection limit (2.8 ng m−3 for a 20-L sample), and negligible losses for 3-4-day storage. The field study showed performance comparable to that in laboratory and yielded first measurements of TMSOH, ranging from 1.02 to 27.30 μg/m3, in the semiconductor industry. We suggested future development of real-time monitoring techniques for TMSOH and other siloxanes for better maintenance and control of scanner lens in semiconductor wafer manufacturing. PMID:22966229

  2. Screening of the binding of small molecules to proteins by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry combined with protein microarray.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chenxi; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Buqing; He, Dacheng; Na, Na; Ouyang, Jin

    2015-11-01

    The interaction between bioactive small molecule ligands and proteins is one of the important research areas in proteomics. Herein, a simple and rapid method is established to screen small ligands that bind to proteins. We designed an agarose slide to immobilize different proteins. The protein microarrays were allowed to interact with different small ligands, and after washing, the microarrays were screened by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI MS). This method can be applied to screen specific protein binding ligands and was shown for seven proteins and 34 known ligands for these proteins. In addition, a high-throughput screening was achieved, with the analysis requiring approximately 4 s for one sample spot. We then applied this method to determine the binding between the important protein matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and 88 small compounds. The molecular docking results confirmed the MS results, demonstrating that this method is suitable for the rapid and accurate screening of ligands binding to proteins. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:26174365

  3. Ultra trace detection of perfluorocarbon tracers in reservoir gases by adsorption/thermal desorption in combination with NICI-GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Galdiga, C U; Greibrokk, T

    2000-05-01

    A new method for the analysis of perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) in reservoir samples based on adsorption/thermal desorption in combination with NICI-GC/MS is presented. The tracer compounds were trapped in tubes filled with a carbon molecular sieve and in a two-step procedure thermally desorbed before they were analyzed with NICI-GC/MS. The chromatographic background noise, visible on GC/ECD-systems, due to compounds normally present in petroleum reservoir gases, could not be seen with NICI-GC/MS. Determination of the perfluorocarbons in reservoir gas samples confirmed the applicability of the method. Tracer concentrations as low as 42 femtoliter/liter were detected. PMID:11227432

  4. Uptake of gaseous formaldehyde by soil surfaces: a combination of adsorption/desorption equilibrium and chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guo; Su, Hang; Li, Xin; Kuhn, Uwe; Meusel, Hannah; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Ammann, Markus; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shao, Min; Cheng, Yafang

    2016-08-01

    Gaseous formaldehyde (HCHO) is an important precursor of OH radicals and a key intermediate molecule in the oxidation of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Budget analyses reveal large discrepancies between modeled and observed HCHO concentrations in the atmosphere. Here, we investigate the interactions of gaseous HCHO with soil surfaces through coated-wall flow tube experiments applying atmospherically relevant HCHO concentrations of ˜ 10 to 40 ppbv. For the determination of uptake coefficients (γ), we provide a Matlab code to account for the diffusion correction under laminar flow conditions. Under dry conditions (relative humidity = 0 %), an initial γ of (1.1 ± 0.05) × 10-4 is determined, which gradually drops to (5.5 ± 0.4) × 10-5 after 8 h experiments. Experiments under wet conditions show a smaller γ that drops faster over time until reaching a plateau. The drop of γ with increasing relative humidity as well as the drop over time can be explained by the adsorption theory in which high surface coverage leads to a reduced uptake rate. The fact that γ stabilizes at a non-zero plateau suggests the involvement of irreversible chemical reactions. Further back-flushing experiments show that two-thirds of the adsorbed HCHO can be re-emitted into the gas phase while the residual is retained by the soil. This partial reversibility confirms that HCHO uptake by soil is a complex process involving both adsorption/desorption and chemical reactions which must be considered in trace gas exchange (emission or deposition) at the atmosphere-soil interface. Our results suggest that soil and soil-derived airborne particles can either act as a source or a sink for HCHO, depending on ambient conditions and HCHO concentrations.

  5. Damage characterization in engineering materials using a combination of optical, acoustic, and thermal techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tragazikis, I. K.; Exarchos, D. A.; Dalla, P. T.; Matikas, T. E.

    2016-04-01

    This paper deals with the use of complimentary nondestructive methods for the evaluation of damage in engineering materials. The application of digital image correlation (DIC) to engineering materials is a useful tool for accurate, noncontact strain measurement. DIC is a 2D, full-field optical analysis technique based on gray-value digital images to measure deformation, vibration and strain a vast variety of materials. In addition, this technique can be applied from very small to large testing areas and can be used for various tests such as tensile, torsion and bending under static or dynamic loading. In this study, DIC results are benchmarked with other nondestructive techniques such as acoustic emission for damage localization and fracture mode evaluation, and IR thermography for stress field visualization and assessment. The combined use of these three nondestructive methods enables the characterization and classification of damage in materials and structures.

  6. Combined Immersed-Boundary/High-Order Finite Difference Methods For Simulations of Acoustic Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias-Ramirez, Walter; Olson, Britton; Wolf, William; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Team; University of Campinas Team

    2015-11-01

    The suitability of a continuing forcing immersed boundary method (IBM) combined with a high-order finite difference method is examined on several acoustic scattering problems. A suite of two-dimensional numerical simulations of canonical cases are conducted with the aim of analyzing the error behavior associated with the IBM, through wave reflection, wave diffraction, and the shock-boundary layer interaction phenomena. The compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using the Miranda code developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Comparison of analytical solution against numerical results is shown for different flow parameters. Preliminary results indicate that the continuing forcing approach has the largest error in wave reflection compared to analytical solution. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. Kiwi fruit (Actinidia chinensis) quality determination based on surface acoustic wave resonator combined with electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liu; Guohua, Hui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, electronic nose (EN) combined with a 433 MHz surface acoustic wave resonator (SAWR) was used to determine Kiwi fruit quality under 12-day storage. EN responses to Kiwi samples were measured and analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and stochastic resonance (SR) methods. SAWR frequency eigen values were also measured to predict freshness. Kiwi fruit sample's weight loss index and human sensory evaluation were examined to characteristic its quality and freshness. Kiwi fruit's quality predictive models based on EN, SAWR, and EN combined with SAWR were developed, respectively. Weight loss and human sensory evaluation results demonstrated that Kiwi fruit's quality decline and overall acceptance decrease during the storage. Experiment result indicated that the PCA method could qualitatively discriminate all Kiwi fruit samples with different storage time. Both SR and SAWR frequency analysis methods could successfully discriminate samples with high regression coefficients (R = 0.98093 and R = 0.99014, respectively). The validation experiment results showed that the mixed predictive model developed using EN combined with SAWR present higher quality prediction accuracy than the model developed either by EN or by SAWR. This method exhibits some advantages including high accuracy, non-destructive, low cost, etc. It provides an effective way for fruit quality rapid analysis. PMID:25551334

  8. Full skin quantitative optical coherence elastography achieved by combining vibration and surface acoustic wave methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunhui; Guan, Guangying; Huang, Zhihong; Wang, Ruikang K.; Nabi, Ghulam

    2015-03-01

    By combining with the phase sensitive optical coherence tomography (PhS-OCT), vibration and surface acoustic wave (SAW) methods have been reported to provide elastography of skin tissue respectively. However, neither of these two methods can provide the elastography in full skin depth in current systems. This paper presents a feasibility study on an optical coherence elastography method which combines both vibration and SAW in order to give the quantitative mechanical properties of skin tissue with full depth range, including epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous fat. Experiments are carried out on layered tissue mimicking phantoms and in vivo human forearm and palm skin. A ring actuator generates vibration while a line actuator were used to excited SAWs. A PhS-OCT system is employed to provide the ultrahigh sensitive measurement of the generated waves. The experimental results demonstrate that by the combination of vibration and SAW method the full skin bulk mechanical properties can be quantitatively measured and further the elastography can be obtained with a sensing depth from ~0mm to ~4mm. This method is promising to apply in clinics where the quantitative elasticity of localized skin diseases is needed to aid the diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Kiwi fruit (Actinidia chinensis) quality determination based on surface acoustic wave resonator combined with electronic nose

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Liu; Guohua, Hui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, electronic nose (EN) combined with a 433 MHz surface acoustic wave resonator (SAWR) was used to determine Kiwi fruit quality under 12-day storage. EN responses to Kiwi samples were measured and analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and stochastic resonance (SR) methods. SAWR frequency eigen values were also measured to predict freshness. Kiwi fruit sample's weight loss index and human sensory evaluation were examined to characteristic its quality and freshness. Kiwi fruit's quality predictive models based on EN, SAWR, and EN combined with SAWR were developed, respectively. Weight loss and human sensory evaluation results demonstrated that Kiwi fruit's quality decline and overall acceptance decrease during the storage. Experiment result indicated that the PCA method could qualitatively discriminate all Kiwi fruit samples with different storage time. Both SR and SAWR frequency analysis methods could successfully discriminate samples with high regression coefficients (R = 0.98093 and R = 0.99014, respectively). The validation experiment results showed that the mixed predictive model developed using EN combined with SAWR present higher quality prediction accuracy than the model developed either by EN or by SAWR. This method exhibits some advantages including high accuracy, non-destructive, low cost, etc. It provides an effective way for fruit quality rapid analysis. PMID:25551334

  10. Development of a combined surface plasmon resonance/surface acoustic wave device for the characterization of biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Florian; Roach, Paul; Tsortos, Achilleas; Papadakis, George; Newton, Michael I.; McHale, Glen; Gizeli, Electra

    2009-12-01

    It is known that acoustic sensor devices, if operated in liquid phase, are sensitive not just to the mass of the analyte but also to various other parameters, such as size, shape, charge and elastic constants of the analyte as well as bound and viscously entrained water. This can be used to extract valuable information about a biomolecule, particularly if the acoustic device is combined with another sensor element which is sensitive to the mass or amount of analyte only. The latter is true in good approximation for various optical sensor techniques. This work reports on the development of a combined surface plasmon resonance/surface acoustic wave sensor system which is designed for the investigation of biomolecules such as proteins or DNA. Results for the deposition of neutravidin and DNA are reported.

  11. Identification of thymol phase I metabolites in human urine by headspace sorptive extraction combined with thermal desorption and gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Thalhamer, Bernhard; Buchberger, Wolfgang; Waser, Mario

    2011-08-25

    Development of a novel highly sensitive headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE) method in combination with thermal desorption gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (TD-GC/MS) allowed the identification of thymol and several phase I metabolites in human urine. Combined with an enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronated or sulphated phase II metabolites of thymol and of the respective phase I metabolites prior to analysis, even trace quantities of hitherto not detected thymol phase I metabolites could be identified in urine samples of test persons after oral administration of 50mg thymol. It was proven, that human metabolism leads to a hydroxylation of the aromatic ring as well as of the iso-propyl side chain. Hydroxylation of the iso-propyl group results in the formation of the rather unstable p-cymene-3,8-diol and the corresponding dehydration product p-cymene-3-ol-8-ene which could be clearly detected in human urine samples. Furthermore, the aromatic hydroxylation products p-cymene-2,5-diol, its oxidation product p-cymene-2,5-dione and p-cymene-2,3-diol were also unambiguously identified by comparison with synthesized reference compounds. PMID:21620603

  12. Combining COMSOL modeling with acoustic pressure maps to design sono-reactors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zongsu; Weavers, Linda K

    2016-07-01

    Scaled-up and economically viable sonochemical systems are critical for increased use of ultrasound in environmental and chemical processing applications. In this study, computational simulations and acoustic pressure maps were used to design a larger-scale sono-reactor containing a multi-stepped ultrasonic horn. Simulations in COMSOL Multiphysics showed ultrasonic waves emitted from the horn neck and tip, generating multiple regions of high acoustic pressure. The volume of these regions surrounding the horn neck were larger compared with those below the horn tip. The simulated acoustic field was verified by acoustic pressure contour maps generated from hydrophone measurements in a plexiglass box filled with water. These acoustic pressure contour maps revealed an asymmetric and discrete distribution of acoustic pressure due to acoustic cavitation, wave interaction, and water movement by ultrasonic irradiation. The acoustic pressure contour maps were consistent with simulation results in terms of the effective scale of cavitation zones (∼ 10 cm and <5 cm above and below horn tip, respectively). With the mapped acoustic field and identified cavitation location, a cylindrically-shaped sono-reactor with a conical bottom was designed to evaluate the treatment capacity (∼ 5 L) for the multi-stepped horn using COMSOL simulations. In this study, verification of simulation results with experiments demonstrates that coupling of COMSOL simulations with hydrophone measurements is a simple, effective and reliable scientific method to evaluate reactor designs of ultrasonic systems. PMID:26964976

  13. Cryogenic oxygen jet response to transverse acoustic excitation with the first transverse and the first combined longitudinal-transverse modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardi, J. S.; Oschwald, M.

    2016-07-01

    The intact length of the dense oxygen core from an oxygen-hydrogen shear coaxial rocket injector was measured. The measurements were made in a rectangular rocket combustor with optical access and acoustic forcing. The combustor was operated at chamber pressures of 40 and 60 bar, with either ambient temperature or cryogenic hydrogen. The multielement injection spray is subjected to forced transverse gas oscillations of two different acoustic resonance modes; the first transverse (1T) mode at 4200 Hz and the first combined longitudinal-transverse (1L1T) at 5500 Hz. Intact core length is measured from high-speed shadowgraph imaging. The dependence of intact core length with increasing acoustic amplitude is compared for the two modes of excitation.

  14. Combined Electric and Contralateral Acoustic Hearing: Word and Sentence Recognition with Bimodal Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gifford, Rene H.; Dorman, Michael F.; McKarns, Sharon A.; Spahr, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The authors assessed whether (a) a full-insertion cochlear implant would provide a higher level of speech understanding than bilateral low-frequency acoustic hearing, (b) contralateral acoustic hearing would add to the speech understanding provided by the implant, and (c) the level of performance achieved with electric stimulation plus…

  15. Combined action of phase-mixing and Landau damping causing strong decay of geodesic acoustic modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palermo, F.; Biancalani, A.; Angioni, C.; Zonca, F.; Bottino, A.

    2016-07-01

    We report evidence of a new mechanism able to damp very efficiently geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in the presence of a nonuniform temperature profile in a toroidally confined plasma. This represents a particular case of a general mechanism that we have found and that can be observed whenever the phase-mixing acts in the presence of a damping effect that depends on the wave number k r . Here, in particular, the combined effect of the Landau and continuum damping is found to quickly redistribute the GAM energy in phase-space, due to the synergy of the finite orbit width of the passing ions and the cascade in wave number given by the phase-mixing. This damping mechanism is investigated analytically and numerically by means of global gyrokinetic simulations. When realistic parameter values of plasmas at the edge of a tokamak are used, damping rates up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than the Landau damping alone are obtained. We find in particular that, for temperature and density profiles characteristic of the high confinement mode, the so-called H-mode, the GAM decay time becomes comparable to or lower than the nonlinear drive time, consistently with experimental observations (Conway G. D. et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 106 (2011) 065001).

  16. Acoustic characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound fields: A combined measurement and modeling approach

    PubMed Central

    Canney, Michael S.; Bailey, Michael R.; Crum, Lawrence A.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.

    2008-01-01

    Acoustic characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) fields is important both for the accurate prediction of ultrasound induced bioeffects in tissues and for the development of regulatory standards for clinical HIFU devices. In this paper, a method to determine HIFU field parameters at and around the focus is proposed. Nonlinear pressure waveforms were measured and modeled in water and in a tissue-mimicking gel phantom for a 2 MHz transducer with an aperture and focal length of 4.4 cm. Measurements were performed with a fiber optic probe hydrophone at intensity levels up to 24 000 W∕cm2. The inputs to a Khokhlov–Zabolotskaya–Kuznetsov-type numerical model were determined based on experimental low amplitude beam plots. Strongly asymmetric waveforms with peak positive pressures up to 80 MPa and peak negative pressures up to 15 MPa were obtained both numerically and experimentally. Numerical simulations and experimental measurements agreed well; however, when steep shocks were present in the waveform at focal intensity levels higher than 6000 W∕cm2, lower values of the peak positive pressure were observed in the measured waveforms. This underrepresentation was attributed mainly to the limited hydrophone bandwidth of 100 MHz. It is shown that a combination of measurements and modeling is necessary to enable accurate characterization of HIFU fields. PMID:19062878

  17. To See or Not to See: Investigating Detectability of Ganges River Dolphins Using a Combined Visual-Acoustic Survey

    PubMed Central

    Richman, Nadia I.; Gibbons, James M.; Turvey, Samuel T.; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Ahmed, Benazir; Mahabub, Emile; Smith, Brian D.; Jones, Julia P. G.

    2014-01-01

    Detection of animals during visual surveys is rarely perfect or constant, and failure to account for imperfect detectability affects the accuracy of abundance estimates. Freshwater cetaceans are among the most threatened group of mammals, and visual surveys are a commonly employed method for estimating population size despite concerns over imperfect and unquantified detectability. We used a combined visual-acoustic survey to estimate detectability of Ganges River dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica) in four waterways of southern Bangladesh. The combined visual-acoustic survey resulted in consistently higher detectability than a single observer-team visual survey, thereby improving power to detect trends. Visual detectability was particularly low for dolphins close to meanders where these habitat features temporarily block the view of the preceding river surface. This systematic bias in detectability during visual-only surveys may lead researchers to underestimate the importance of heavily meandering river reaches. Although the benefits of acoustic surveys are increasingly recognised for marine cetaceans, they have not been widely used for monitoring abundance of freshwater cetaceans due to perceived costs and technical skill requirements. We show that acoustic surveys are in fact a relatively cost-effective approach for surveying freshwater cetaceans, once it is acknowledged that methods that do not account for imperfect detectability are of limited value for monitoring. PMID:24805782

  18. To see or not to see: investigating detectability of Ganges River dolphins using a combined visual-acoustic survey.

    PubMed

    Richman, Nadia I; Gibbons, James M; Turvey, Samuel T; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Ahmed, Benazir; Mahabub, Emile; Smith, Brian D; Jones, Julia P G

    2014-01-01

    Detection of animals during visual surveys is rarely perfect or constant, and failure to account for imperfect detectability affects the accuracy of abundance estimates. Freshwater cetaceans are among the most threatened group of mammals, and visual surveys are a commonly employed method for estimating population size despite concerns over imperfect and unquantified detectability. We used a combined visual-acoustic survey to estimate detectability of Ganges River dolphins (Platanista gangetica gangetica) in four waterways of southern Bangladesh. The combined visual-acoustic survey resulted in consistently higher detectability than a single observer-team visual survey, thereby improving power to detect trends. Visual detectability was particularly low for dolphins close to meanders where these habitat features temporarily block the view of the preceding river surface. This systematic bias in detectability during visual-only surveys may lead researchers to underestimate the importance of heavily meandering river reaches. Although the benefits of acoustic surveys are increasingly recognised for marine cetaceans, they have not been widely used for monitoring abundance of freshwater cetaceans due to perceived costs and technical skill requirements. We show that acoustic surveys are in fact a relatively cost-effective approach for surveying freshwater cetaceans, once it is acknowledged that methods that do not account for imperfect detectability are of limited value for monitoring. PMID:24805782

  19. In-source decay during matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization combined with the collisional process in an FTICR mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Daiki; Calligaris, David; Zimmerman, Tyler A; De Pauw, Edwin

    2013-08-20

    The type of ions detected after in-source decay (ISD) in a MALDI source differs according to the ion source pressure and on the mass analyzer used. We present the mechanism leading to the final ISD ions for a Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FTICR MS). The MALDI ion source was operated at intermediate pressure to cool the resulting ions and increase their lifetime during the long residence times in the FTICR ion optics. This condition produces not only c', z', and w fragments, but also a, y', and d fragments. In particular, d ions help to identify isobaric amino acid residues present near the N-terminal amino acid. Desorbed ions collide with background gas during desorption, leading to proton mobilization from Arg residues to a less favored protonation site. As a result, in the case of ISD with MALDI FTICR, the influence of the Arg residue in ISD fragmentation is less straightforward than for TOF MS and the sequence coverage is thus improved. MALDI-ISD combined with FTICR MS appears to be a useful method for sequencing of peptides and proteins including discrimination of isobaric amino acid residues and site determination of phosphorylation. Additionally we also used new software for in silico elimination of MALDI matrix peaks from MALDI-ISD FTICR mass spectra. The combination of high resolving power of an FTICR analyzer and matrix subtraction software helps to interpret the low m/z region of MALDI-ISD spectra. Finally, several of these developed methods are applied in unison toward a MALDI ISD FTICR imaging experiment on mouse brain to achieve better results. PMID:23879863

  20. Acoustic Oddball during NREM Sleep: A Combined EEG/fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Czisch, Michael; Wehrle, Renate; Stiegler, Andrea; Peters, Henning; Andrade, Katia; Holsboer, Florian; Sämann, Philipp G.

    2009-01-01

    Background A condition vital for the consolidation and maintenance of sleep is generally reduced responsiveness to external stimuli. Despite this, the sleeper maintains a level of stimulus processing that allows to respond to potentially dangerous environmental signals. The mechanisms that subserve these contradictory functions are only incompletely understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Using combined EEG/fMRI we investigated the neural substrate of sleep protection by applying an acoustic oddball paradigm during light NREM sleep. Further, we studied the role of evoked K-complexes (KCs), an electroencephalographic hallmark of NREM sleep with a still unknown role for sleep protection. Our main results were: (1) Other than in wakefulness, rare tones did not induce a blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal increase in the auditory pathway but a strong negative BOLD response in motor areas and the amygdala. (2) Stratification of rare tones by the presence of evoked KCs detected activation of the auditory cortex, hippocampus, superior and middle frontal gyri and posterior cingulate only for rare tones followed by a KC. (3) The typical high frontocentral EEG deflections of KCs were not paralleled by a BOLD equivalent. Conclusions/Significance We observed that rare tones lead to transient disengagement of motor and amygdala responses during light NREM sleep. We interpret this as a sleep protective mechanism to delimit motor responses and to reduce the sensitivity of the amygdala towards further incoming stimuli. Evoked KCs are suggested to originate from a brain state with relatively increased stimulus processing, revealing an activity pattern resembling novelty processing as previously reported during wakefulness. The KC itself is not reflected by increased metabolic demand in BOLD based imaging, arguing that evoked KCs result from increased neural synchronicity without altered metabolic demand. PMID:19707599

  1. Detection of dead regions in the cochlea: relevance for combined electric and acoustic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brian C J; Glasberg, Brian; Schlueter, Anne

    2010-01-01

    A dead region is a region in the cochlea where the inner hair cells and/or the auditory neurones are functioning very poorly, if at all. People who are being considered for a combination of a cochlear implant and a hearing aid typically have a dead region in the parts of the cochlea that normally respond to medium and high frequencies, but have some functional hearing at lower frequencies. For such people, it may be useful to determine the edge frequency, f(e), of any dead region. This may be relevant to choosing the most appropriate insertion depth of the electrode array, and to the way that frequencies in the input signal are mapped to acoustic and electric stimulation. It may also be helpful in interpreting the results of research studies. This paper reviews methods for diagnosing dead regions and defining the value of f(e). It is argued that the value of f(e) cannot be determined reliably from the audiogram, although a dead region is likely to be present at a given frequency when the hearing loss at that frequency is 70 dB or more. When a sinusoidal signal is reported as sounding highly distorted or noise-like, a dead region may be present at the signal frequency, but again this is not a reliable indicator. The TEN test is a simple clinical method for diagnosis of dead regions. Where this test gives a positive diagnosis, it is recommended that psychophysical tuning curves be measured to define the value of f(e) more precisely. PMID:19955720

  2. Small scale model static acoustic investigation of hybrid high lift systems combining upper surface blowing with the internally blown flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, T. W.; Rathburn, E. A.

    1974-01-01

    A static acoustic and propulsion test of a small radius Jacobs-Hurkamp and a large radius Flex Flap combined with four upper surface blowing (USB) nozzles was performed. Nozzle force and flow data, flap trailing edge total pressure survey data, and acoustic data were obtained. Jacobs-Hurkamp flap surface pressure data, flow visualization photographs, and spoiler acoustic data from the limited mid-year tests are reported. A pressure ratio range of 1.2 to 1.5 was investigated for the USB nozzles and for the auxiliary blowing slots. The acoustic data were scaled to a four-engine STOL airplane of roughly 110,000 kilograms or 50,000 pounds gross weight, corresponding to a model scale of approximately 0.2 for the nozzles without deflector. The model nozzle scale is actually reduced to about .17 with deflector although all results in this report assume 0.2 scale factor. Trailing edge pressure surveys indicated that poor flow attachment was obtained even at large flow impingement angles unless a nozzle deflector plate was used. Good attachment was obtained with the aspect ratio four nozzle with deflector, confirming the small scale wind tunnel tests.

  3. Direct analysis of pharmaceutical drug formulations using ion mobility spectrometry/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with desorption electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Weston, Daniel J; Bateman, Robert; Wilson, Ian D; Wood, Tim R; Creaser, Colin S

    2005-12-01

    A novel approach to the rapid analysis of pharmaceutical drug formulations using hyphenated ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToF-MS) that requires no sample pretreatment or chromatographic separation is described. A modified quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer containing an ion mobility drift cell was used for gas-phase electrophoretic separation of ions prior to ToF-MS detection. The generation of sample ions directly from tablets and cream formulations was effected by desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) using a modified electrospray ion source. The analysis of a range of over-the-counter and prescription tablet formulations is described, including histamine H2 receptor antagonist (ranitidine), analgesic (paracetamol), opiate (codeine), and aromatase inhibitor anticancer (anastrozole) drugs. The successful determination of active drugs from soft formulations, such as an antiseptic cream (chlorhexidine) and a nicotine-containing skin patch, is also presented. Limits of detection for the active drugs using the DESI/IMS/ToF-MS method fell within the high-picomole to nanomole range. In all cases, the use of ion mobility drift tube separation showed increased selectivity for active drug responses (present as low as 0.14% w/w) over excipient responses such as poly(ethylene glycol). Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of precursor ions separated by IMS allowed positive confirmation of active drugs with little loss of ion mobility efficiency. The ability to analyze hard or soft pharmaceutical formulations directly by DESI combined with ion mobility spectrometry/mass spectrometry in approximately 2 min demonstrates the potential applicability of this novel method to pharmaceutical screening of low-molecular-weight drug formulations with high selectivity over the formulation vehicle. PMID:16316164

  4. Direct Identification of Urinary Tract Pathogens from Urine Samples, Combining Urine Screening Methods and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Íñigo, Melania; Coello, Andreu; Fernández-Rivas, Gema; Rivaya, Belén; Hidalgo, Jessica; Quesada, María Dolores; Ausina, Vicente

    2016-04-01

    Early diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTIs) is essential to avoid inadequate or unnecessary empirical antibiotic therapy. Microbiological confirmation takes 24 to 48 h. The use of screening methods, such as cytometry and automated microscopic analysis of urine sediment, allows the rapid prediction of negative samples. In addition, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a widely established technique in clinical microbiology laboratories used to identify microorganisms. We evaluated the ability of MALDI-TOF MS to identify microorganisms from direct urine samples and the predictive value of automated analyzers for the identification of microorganisms in urine by MALDI-TOF MS. A total of 451 urine samples from patients with suspected UTIs were first analyzed using the Sysmex UF-1000iflow cytometer, an automatic sediment analyzer with microscopy (SediMax), culture, and then processed by MALDI-TOF MS with a simple triple-centrifuged procedure to obtain a pellet that was washed and centrifuged and finally applied directly to the MALDI-TOF MS plate. The organisms in 336 samples were correctly identified, mainly those with Gram-negative bacteria (86.10%). No microorganisms were misidentified, and noCandidaspp. were correctly identified. Regarding the data from autoanalyzers, the best bacteriuria cutoffs were 1,000 and 200 U/μl for UF-1000iand SediMax, respectively. It was concluded that the combination of a urine screening method and MALDI-TOF MS provided a reliable identification from urine samples, especially in those containing Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26818668

  5. Adsorption of acrolein, propanal, and allyl alcohol on Pd(111): a combined infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption study.

    PubMed

    Dostert, Karl-Heinz; O'Brien, Casey P; Mirabella, Francesca; Ivars-Barceló, Francisco; Schauermann, Swetlana

    2016-05-18

    Atomistic-level understanding of the interaction of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and their derivatives with late transition metals is of fundamental importance for the rational design of new catalytic materials with the desired selectivity towards C[double bond, length as m-dash]C vs. C[double bond, length as m-dash]O bond partial hydrogenation. In this study, we investigate the interaction of acrolein, and its partial hydrogenation products propanal and allyl alcohol, with Pd(111) as a prototypical system. A combination of infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments was applied under well-defined ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions to obtain detailed information on the adsorption geometries of acrolein, propanal, and allyl alcohol as a function of coverage. We compare the IR spectra obtained for multilayer coverages, reflecting the molecular structure of unperturbed molecules, with the spectra acquired for sub-monolayer coverages, at which the chemical bonds of the molecules are strongly distorted. Coverage-dependent IR spectra of acrolein on Pd(111) point to the strong changes in the adsorption geometry with increasing acrolein coverage. Acrolein adsorbs with the C[double bond, length as m-dash]C and C[double bond, length as m-dash]O bonds lying parallel to the surface in the low coverage regime and changes its geometry to a more upright orientation with increasing coverage. TPD studies indicate decomposition of the species adsorbed in the sub-monolayer regime upon heating. Similar strong coverage dependence of the IR spectra were found for propanal and allyl alcohol. For all investigated molecules a detailed assignment of vibrational bands is reported. PMID:27149902

  6. Monitoring N3 dye adsorption and desorption on TiO2 surfaces: a combined QCM-D and XPS study.

    PubMed

    Wayment-Steele, Hannah K; Johnson, Lewis E; Tian, Fangyuan; Dixon, Matthew C; Benz, Lauren; Johal, Malkiat S

    2014-06-25

    Understanding the kinetics of dye adsorption and desorption on semiconductors is crucial for optimizing the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) measures adsorbed mass in real time, allowing determination of binding kinetics. In this work, we characterize adsorption of the common RuBipy dye N3 to the native oxide layer of a planar, sputter-coated titanium surface, simulating the TiO2 substrate of a DSSC. We report adsorption equilibrium constants consistent with prior optical measurements of N3 adsorption. Dye binding and surface integrity were also verified by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We further study desorption of the dye from the native oxide layer on the QCM sensors using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAOH), a commonly used industrial desorbant. We find that using TBAOH as a desorbant does not fully regenerate the surface, though little ruthenium or nitrogen is observed by XPS after desorption, suggesting that carboxyl moieties of N3 remain bound. We demonstrate the native oxide layer of a titanium sensor as a valid and readily available planar TiO2 morphology to study dye adsorption and desorption and begin to investigate the mechanism of dye desorption in DSSCs, a system that requires further study. PMID:24848580

  7. Clinical and microbiological features of a cystic fibrosis patient chronically colonized with Pandoraea sputorum identified by combining 16S rRNA sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Olmos, A; Morosini, M I; Lamas, A; García-Castillo, M; García-García, L; Cantón, R; Máiz, L

    2012-03-01

    Clonal isolates identified as various nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli over a 5-year period from sputum cultures of a 30-year-old cystic fibrosis patient were successfully reidentified as Pandoraea sputorum by combining 16S rRNA sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Decreased lung function improved after 1 year of azithromycin and inhaled 7%-hypertonic saline treatment. PMID:22170922

  8. Development and validation of a combined phased acoustical radiosity and image source model for predicting sound fields in rooms.

    PubMed

    Marbjerg, Gerd; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Nilsson, Erling

    2015-09-01

    A model, combining acoustical radiosity and the image source method, including phase shifts on reflection, has been developed. The model is denoted Phased Acoustical Radiosity and Image Source Method (PARISM), and it has been developed in order to be able to model both specular and diffuse reflections with complex-valued and angle-dependent boundary conditions. This paper mainly describes the combination of the two models and the implementation of the angle-dependent boundary conditions. It furthermore describes how a pressure impulse response is obtained from the energy-based acoustical radiosity by regarding the model as being stochastic. Three methods of implementation are proposed and investigated, and finally, recommendations are made for their use. Validation of the image source method is done by comparison with finite element simulations of a rectangular room with a porous absorber ceiling. Results from the full model are compared with results from other simulation tools and with measurements. The comparisons of the full model are done for real-valued and angle-independent surface properties. The proposed model agrees well with both the measured results and the alternative theories, and furthermore shows a more realistic spatial variation than energy-based methods due to the fact that interference is considered. PMID:26428783

  9. Normal mode solutions for seismo-acoustic propagation resulting from shear and combined wave point sources.

    PubMed

    Nealy, Jennifer L; Collis, Jon M; Frank, Scott D

    2016-04-01

    Normal mode solutions to range-independent seismo-acoustic problems are benchmarked against elastic parabolic equation solutions and then used to benchmark the shear elastic parabolic equation self-starter [Frank, Odom, and Collis, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133, 1358-1367 (2013)]. The Pekeris waveguide with an elastic seafloor is considered for a point source located in the ocean emitting compressional waves, or in the seafloor, emitting both compressional and shear waves. Accurate solutions are obtained when the source is in the seafloor, and when the source is at the interface between the fluid and elastic layers. PMID:27106346

  10. Characterization of mechanical properties of hybrid contrast agents by combining atomic force microscopy with acoustic/optic assessments.

    PubMed

    Guo, Gepu; Tu, Juan; Guo, Xiasheng; Huang, Pintong; Wu, Junru; Zhang, Dong

    2016-02-01

    Multi-parameter fitting algorithms, which are currently used for the characterization of coated-bubbles, inevitably introduce uncertainty into the results. Therefore, a better technique that can accurately determine the microbubbles׳ mechanical properties is urgently needed. A comprehensive technology combining atomic force microscopy, optical, and acoustic measurements with simulations of coated-bubble dynamics was developed. Using this technique, the mechanical parameters (size distribution, shell thickness, elasticity, and viscosity) of hybrid (ultrasound/magnetic-resonance-imaging) contrast microbubbles and their structure-property relationship were determined. The measurements indicate that when more superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are embedded in the microbubbles׳ shells, their mean diameter and effective viscosity increase, and their elastic modulus decreases. This reduces the microbubbles׳ resonance frequency and thus enhances acoustic scattering and attenuation effects. PMID:26726783

  11. Laser-desorption mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry and the mechanism of desorption ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Zakett, D.; Schoen, A.E.; Cooks, R.G.; Hemberger, P.H.

    1981-03-11

    This paper reports sucrose mass spectra obtained by combining laser desorption with mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Remarkable similarities in fragmentation behavior with secondary ion mass spectra (SIMS) provide evidence for mechanistic similarities between SIMS and laser desorption (LD). Attachment of alkali metals to organic molecules (cationization) is a common feature of desorption ionization. This process also occurs during laser desorption of involatile compounds which further indicates the existence of underlying similarities between LD and SIMS. Steady ion currents (several thousand ions per laser pulse) of cationized sucrose are obtained for relatively long periods (minutes).

  12. Gulf stream velocity structure through combined inversion of hydrographic and acoustic Doppler data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, S. D.

    1986-01-01

    Near-surface velocities from an acoustic Doppler instrument are used in conjunction with CTD/O2 data to produce estimates of the absolute flow field off Cape Hatteras. The data set consists of two transects across the Gulf Stream made by the R/V Endeavor cruise EN88 in August 1982. An inverse procedure is applied which makes use of both the acoustic Doppler data and property conservation constraints. Velocity sections at approximately 73 deg. W and 71 deg. W are presented with formal errors of 1-2 cm/s. The net Gulf Stream transports are estimated to be 116 + or - 2 Sv across the south leg and 161 + or - 4 Sv across the north. A Deep Western Boundary Current transport of 4 + or - 1 Sv is also estimated. While these values do not necessarily represent the mean, they are accurate estimates of the synoptic flow field in the region.

  13. Combined Atomic Force Microscope-Based Topographical Imaging and Nanometer Scale Resolved Proximal Probe Thermal Desorption/Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Nikiforov, Maxim; Bradshaw, James A; Jesse, Stephen; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2011-01-01

    Nanometer scale proximal probe thermal desorption/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (TD/ESI-MS) was demonstrated for molecular surface sampling of caffeine from a thin film using a 30 nm diameter nano-thermal analysis (nano-TA) probe tip in an atomic force microscope (AFM) coupled via a vapor transfer line and ESI interface to a MS detection platform. Using a probe temperature of 350 C and a spot sampling time of 30 s, conical desorption craters 250 nm in diameter and 100 nm deep were created as shown through subsequent topographical imaging of the surface within the same system. Automated sampling of a 5 x 2 array of spots, with 2 m spacing between spots, and real time selective detection of the desorbed caffeine using tandem mass spectrometry was also demonstrated. Estimated from the crater volume (~2x106 nm3), only about 10 amol (2 fg) of caffeine was liberated from each thermal desorption crater in the thin film. These results illustrate a relatively simple experimental setup and means to acquire in automated fashion sub-micrometer scale spatial sampling resolution and mass spectral detection of materials amenable to TD. The ability to achieve MS-based chemical imaging with 250 nm scale spatial resolution with this system is anticipated.

  14. Validation of TOF-SIMS and FE-SEM/EDS Techniques Combined with Sorption and Desorption Experiments to Check Competitive and Individual Pb2+ and Cd2+ Association with Components of B Soil Horizons

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, María Luisa; Vega, Flora A.

    2015-01-01

    Sorption and desorption experiments were performed by the batch method on the B horizons of five natural soils: Umbric Cambisol, Endoleptic Luvisol, Mollic Umbrisol, Dystric Umbrisol, and Dystric Fluvisol. Individual and competitive sorption and desorption capacity and hysteresis were determined. The results showed that Pb2+ was sorbed and retained in a greater quantity than Cd2+ and that the hysteresis of the first was greater than that of the second. The most influential characteristics of the sorption and retention of Pb2+ were pH, ECEC, Fe and Mn oxides and clay contents. For Cd2+ they were mainly pH and, to a lesser extent, Mn oxides and clay content. The combined use of TOF-SIMS, FE-SEM/EDS and sorption and desorption analyses was suitable for achieving a better understanding of the interaction between soil components and the two heavy metals. They show the preferential association of Pb2+ with vermiculite, chlorite, Fe and Mn oxides, and of Cd2+ with the same components, although to a much lesser extent and intensity. This was due to the latter’s higher mobility as it competed unfavourably with the Pb2+ sorption sites. TOF-SIMS and FE-SEM/EDS techniques confirmed the results of the sorption experiments, and also provided valuable information on whether the soil components (individually or in association) retain Cd2+ and / or Pb2+; this could help to propose effective measures for the remediation of contaminated soils. PMID:25893518

  15. Validation of TOF-SIMS and FE-SEM/EDS Techniques Combined with Sorption and Desorption Experiments to Check Competitive and Individual Pb2+ and Cd2+ Association with Components of B Soil Horizons.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Beatriz; Arenas-Lago, Daniel; Andrade, María Luisa; Vega, Flora A

    2015-01-01

    Sorption and desorption experiments were performed by the batch method on the B horizons of five natural soils: Umbric Cambisol, Endoleptic Luvisol, Mollic Umbrisol, Dystric Umbrisol, and Dystric Fluvisol. Individual and competitive sorption and desorption capacity and hysteresis were determined. The results showed that Pb2+ was sorbed and retained in a greater quantity than Cd2+ and that the hysteresis of the first was greater than that of the second. The most influential characteristics of the sorption and retention of Pb2+ were pH, ECEC, Fe and Mn oxides and clay contents. For Cd2+ they were mainly pH and, to a lesser extent, Mn oxides and clay content. The combined use of TOF-SIMS, FE-SEM/EDS and sorption and desorption analyses was suitable for achieving a better understanding of the interaction between soil components and the two heavy metals. They show the preferential association of Pb2+ with vermiculite, chlorite, Fe and Mn oxides, and of Cd2+ with the same components, although to a much lesser extent and intensity. This was due to the latter's higher mobility as it competed unfavourably with the Pb2+ sorption sites. TOF-SIMS and FE-SEM/EDS techniques confirmed the results of the sorption experiments, and also provided valuable information on whether the soil components (individually or in association) retain Cd2+ and/or Pb2+; this could help to propose effective measures for the remediation of contaminated soils. PMID:25893518

  16. Numerical simulation of the nonlinear response of composite plates under combined thermal and acoustic loading. Final report, 15 March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, C.; Moorthy, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A time-domain study of the random response of a laminated plate subjected to combined acoustic and thermal loads is carried out. The features of this problem also include given uniform static inplane forces. The formulation takes into consideration a possible initial imperfection in the flatness of the plate. High decibel sound pressure levels along with high thermal gradients across thickness drive the plate response into nonlinear regimes. This calls for the analysis to use von Karman large deflection strain-displacement relationships. A finite element model that combines the von Karman strains with the first-order shear deformation plate theory is developed. The development of the analytical model can accommodate an anisotropic composite laminate built up of uniformly thick layers of orthotropic, linearly elastic laminae. The global system of finite element equations is then reduced to a modal system of equations. Numerical simulation using a single-step algorithm in the time-domain is then carried out to solve for the modal coordinates. Nonlinear algebraic equations within each time-step are solved by the Newton-Raphson method. The random gaussian filtered white noise load is generated using Monte Carlo simulation. The acoustic pressure distribution over the plate is capable of accounting for a grazing incidence wavefront. Numerical results are presented to study a variety of cases.

  17. Development of a loudness normalisation strategy for combined cochlear implant and acoustic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Francart, Tom; McDermott, Hugh J

    2012-12-01

    Users of a cochlear implant together with a hearing aid in the non-implanted ear currently use devices that were developed separately and are often fitted separately. This results in very different growth of loudness with level in the two ears, potentially leading to decreased wearing comfort and suboptimal perception of interaural level differences. A loudness equalisation strategy, named 'SCORE bimodal', is proposed. It equalises loudness growth for the two modalities using existing models of loudness for acoustic and electric stimulation, and is suitable for implementation in wearable devices. Loudness balancing experiments were performed with six bimodal listeners to validate the strategy. In a first set of experiments, the function of each loudness model used was validated by balancing the loudness of four harmonic complexes of different bandwidths, ranging from 200 Hz to 1000 Hz, separately for each ear. Both the electric and acoustic loudness models predicted the data well. In a second set of experiments, binaural balancing was done for the same stimuli. It was found that SCORE significantly improved binaural balance. PMID:23000118

  18. THERMAL DESORPTION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermal desorption is an ex situ means to physically separate volatile and some semivolatile contaminants from soil, sediments, sludges, and filter cakes. or wastes containing up to 10% organics or less, thermal desorption can be used alone for site remediation. t also may find a...

  19. Kinetic effects on geodesic acoustic mode from combined collisions and impurities

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shangchuan; Xie, Jinlin Liu, Wandong

    2015-04-15

    The dispersion relation for geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) is derived by applying a gyrokinetic model that accounts for the effects from both collisions and impurities. Based on the dispersion relation, an analysis is performed for the non-monotonic behavior of GAM damping versus the characteristic collision rate at various impurity levels. As the effective charge increases, the maximum damping rate is found to shift towards lower collision rates, nearer to the parameter range of a typical tokamak edge plasma. The relative strengths of ion-ion and impurity-induced collision effects, which are illustrated by numerical calculations, are found to be comparable. Impurity-induced collisions help decrease the frequency of GAM, while their effects on the damping rate are non-monotonic, resulting in a weaker total damping in the high collision regime. The results presented suggest considering collision effects as well as impurity effects in GAM analysis.

  20. Dislodgement and removal of dust-particles from a surface by a technique combining acoustic standing wave and airflow.

    PubMed

    Chen, Di; Wu, Junru

    2010-01-01

    It is known that there are many fine particles on the moon and Mars. Their existence may cause risk for the success of a long-term project for NASA, i.e., exploration and habitation of the moon and Mars. These dust-particles might cover the solar panels, making them fail to generate electricity, and they might also penetrate through seals on space suits, hatches, and vehicle wheels causing many incidents. The fine particles would be hazardous to human health if they were inhaled. Development of robust dust mitigation technology is urgently needed for the viable long-term exploration and habilitation of either the moon or Mars. A feasibility study to develop a dust removal technique, which may be used in space-stations or other enclosures for habitation, is reported. It is shown experimentally that the acoustic radiation force produced by a 13.8 kHz 128 dB sound-level standing wave between a 3 cm-aperture tweeter and a reflector separated by 9 cm is strong enough to overcome the van der Waals adhesive force between the dust-particles and the reflector-surface. Thus the majority of fine particles (>2 microm diameter) on a reflector-surface can be dislodged and removed by a technique combining acoustic levitation and airflow methods. The removal efficiency deteriorates for particles of less than 2 microm in size. PMID:20058949

  1. Determination of the covalent structure of an N- and C-terminally blocked glycoprotein from endocuticle of Locusta migratoria. Combined use of plasma desorption mass spectrometry and Edman degradation to study post-translationally modified proteins.

    PubMed

    Talbo, G; Højrup, P; Rahbek-Nielsen, H; Andersen, S O; Roepstorff, P

    1991-01-30

    The complete structure of protein isolated from endocuticle of sexually mature locusts, Locusta migratoria, has been determined by a combination of automatic Edman degradation and plasma desorption mass spectrometry. The protein is extensively post-translationally modified. The N-terminal is 5-oxoproline (pyroglutamic acid) and the C-terminal proline residue is amidated. Furthermore, the protein is glycosylated by a single N-acetyl-galactosamine residue at one, two or three threonines. The N-terminal sequence was obtained by analysing the N-acetylated N,O-permethylated derivative using plasma desorption mass spectrometry. The position and type of carbohydrate were determined by combining an HPLC-based carbohydrate analysis with the peak pattern of the phenylthiohydantoin derivative in automatic sequencing and with mass information on peptides. The protein has pronounced similarity to cuticular proteins from larvae of diptera and lepidoptera, but only slight resemblance to the previously sequenced locust exocuticular proteins. This indicates a similarity between soft larval cuticles and locust endocuticle, a similarity which may extend to their mechanical properties. PMID:1997327

  2. Combining AFM and Acoustic Probes to Reveal Changes in the Elastic Stiffness Tensor of Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nijenhuis, Nadja; Zhao, Xuegen; Carisey, Alex; Ballestrem, Christoph; Derby, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of how the elastic stiffness of a cell affects its communication with its environment is of fundamental importance for the understanding of tissue integrity in health and disease. For stiffness measurements, it has been customary to quote a single parameter quantity, e.g., Young’s modulus, rather than the minimum of two terms of the stiffness tensor required by elasticity theory. In this study, we use two independent methods (acoustic microscopy and atomic force microscopy nanoindentation) to characterize the elastic properties of a cell and thus determine two independent elastic constants. This allows us to explore in detail how the mechanical properties of cells change in response to signaling pathways that are known to regulate the cell’s cytoskeleton. In particular, we demonstrate that altering the tensioning of actin filaments in NIH3T3 cells has a strong influence on the cell's shear modulus but leaves its bulk modulus unchanged. In contrast, altering the polymerization state of actin filaments influences bulk and shear modulus in a similar manner. In addition, we can use the data to directly determine the Poisson ratio of a cell and show that in all cases studied, it is less than, but very close to, 0.5 in value. PMID:25296302

  3. Experimental study of ultra-thin films mechanical integrity by combined nanoindentation and nano-acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zihou

    Advancement of interconnect technology has imposed significant challenge on interface characterization and reliability for blurred interfaces between layers. There is a need for material properties and these miniaturized length scales and assessment of reliability; including the intrinsic film fracture toughness and the interfacial fracture toughness. The nano-meter range of film thicknesses currently employed, impose significant challenges on evaluating these physical quantities and thereby impose significant challenge on the design cycle. In this study we attempted to use a combined nano-indentation and nano-acoustic emission to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize the failure modes in ultra-thin blanket films on Si substrates or stakes of different characteristics. We have performed and analyzed an exhaustive group of testes that cove many diverge combination of film-substrate combination, provided by both Intel and IBM. When the force-indentation depth curve shows excursion, a direct measure of the total energy release rate is estimated. The collected acoustic emission signal is then used to partition the total energy into two segments, one associated with the cohesive fracture toughness of the film and the other is for the adhesive fracture toughness of the interface. The acoustic emission signal is analyzed in both the time and frequency domain to achieve such energy division. In particular, the signal time domain analysis for signal skewness, time of arrival and total energy content are employed with the proper signal to noise ratio. In the frequency domain, an expansive group of acoustic emission signals are utilized to construct the details of the power spectral density. A bank of band-pass filters are designed to sort the individual signals to those associated with adhesive interlayer cracking, cohesive channel cracking, or other system induced noise. The attenuation time and the energy content within each spectral frequency were the key elements

  4. Detection of bacteria from biological mixtures using immunomagnetic separation combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madonna, A.J.; Basile, F.; Furlong, E.; Voorhees, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    A rapid method for identifying specific bacteria from complex biological mixtures using immunomagnetic separation coupled to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been developed. The technique employs commercially available magnetic beads coated with polycolonal antibodies raised against specific bacteria and whole cell analysis by MALDI-MS. A suspension of a bacterial mixture is mixed with the immunomagnetic beads specific for the target microorganism. After a short incubation period (20 mins) the bacteria captured by the beads are washed, resuspended in deionized H2O and directly applied onto a MALDI probe. Liquid suspensions containing bacterial mixtures can be screened within 1 h total analysis time. Positive tests result in the production of a fingerprint mass spectrum primarily consisting of protein biomarkers characteristic of the targeted microorganism. Using this procedure, Salmonella choleraesuis was isolated and detected from standard bacterial mixtures and spiked samples of river water, human urine, and chicken blood. Copyright ?? 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Akoto, Lawrence; Vreuls, René J J; Irth, Hubertus; Pel, Roel; Stellaard, Frans

    2008-04-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal desorption (DTD) interface was used to profile the fatty acid composition of human plasma and whole human blood of eight volunteers in a procedure omitting the usual lipid extraction steps that precede sample methylation in the traditional (off-line) protocols. Trimethylsulfonium hydroxide (TMSH) was used as reagent for thermally assisted methylation. In a fully automated manner, the liner of the GC injector is used as a sample-and-reaction container with the aid of the DTD interface. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles obtained using this novel approach, were very identical to those obtained when the traditional off-line protocol was applied. FAME yields obtained in the at-line DTD method were found to be very similar for saturated fatty acids, but significantly higher for polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to off-line yields. As a result of the contribution of circulating cell membranes in blood, substantial differences were observed when the amount of FAMEs obtained in whole human blood and human plasma samples were compared after their analysis. Thanks to the fully automated operation of this novel procedure, large series of analyses can easily be performed. PMID:17889883

  6. Analysis of complex phthalic acid based polyesters by the combination of size exclusion chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, Nadine O; Rode, Karsten; Simpson, Jaylin M; Pasch, Harald

    2014-01-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used in conjunction with size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to investigate a model polyester system based on phthalic anhydride-1,2-propylene glycol. The polyesters were synthesized with a 30% molar excess of glycol, with kinetic samples being removed during different intervals of the polyesterification reaction. SEC was used to track the course of the reaction by determining the molecular weight and molecular weight distributions before subsequent off-line coupling with MALDI-TOF MS as a selective detection method to determine the chemical composition, identify the functionality type distributions as well as assist in assigning structural conformations. Mass spectrometry analysis proved to be a highly effective tool to facilitate the identification of the narrowly dispersed fractions obtained from the chromatographic separations as well as serve as a core method to investigate the heterogeneous nature of the bulk kinetic samples. Through the hyphenation of these sophisticated polymer characterization techniques, information on the molecular heterogeneity of the model polyesters, showing a complex variety of possible distributions, was obtained. PMID:24370096

  7. Combining Capillary Electrophoresis Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Stable Isotopic Labeling Techniques for Comparative Crustacean Peptidomics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junhua; Zhang, Yuzhuo; Xiang, Feng; Zhang, Zichuan; Li, Lingjun

    2010-01-01

    Herein we describe a sensitive and straightforward off-line capillary electrophoresis (CE) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) interface in conjunction with stable isotopic labeling (SIL) technique for comparative neuropeptidomic analysis in crustacean model organisms. Two SIL schemes, including a binary H/D formaldehyde labeling technique and novel, laboratory-developed multiplexed dimethylated leucine-based isobaric tagging reagents, have been evaluated in these proof-of-concept experiments. We employ these isotopic labeling techniques in conjunction with CE-MALDI MS for quantitative peptidomic analyses of the pericardial organs isolated from two crustacean species, the European green crab Carcinus maenas and the blue crab Callinectes sapidus. Isotopically labeled peptide pairs are found to co-migrate in CE fractions and quantitative changes in relative abundances of peptide pairs are obtained by comparing peak intensities of respective peptide pairs. Several neuropeptide families exhibit changes in response to salinity stress, suggesting potential physiological functions of these signaling peptides. PMID:20334868

  8. Flow patterns and transport in Rayleigh surface acoustic wave streaming: combined finite element method and raytracing numerics versus experiments.

    PubMed

    Frommelt, Thomas; Gogel, Daniel; Kostur, Marcin; Talkner, Peter; Hänggi, Peter; Wixforth, Achim

    2008-10-01

    This work presents an approach for determining the streaming patterns that are generated by Rayleigh surface acoustic waves in arbitrary 3-D geometries by finite element method (FEM) simulations. An efficient raytracing algorithm is applied on the acoustic subproblem to avoid the unbearable memory demands and computational time of a conventional FEM acoustics simulation in 3-D. The acoustic streaming interaction is modeled by a body force term in the Stokes equation. In comparisons between experiments and simulated flow patterns, we demonstrate the quality of the proposed technique. PMID:18986877

  9. Patch nearfield acoustic holography combined with sound field separation technique applied to a non-free field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, ChuanXing; Jing, WenQian; Zhang, YongBin; Xu, Liang

    2015-02-01

    The conventional nearfield acoustic holography (NAH) is usually based on the assumption of free-field conditions, and it also requires that the measurement aperture should be larger than the actual source. This paper is to focus on the problem that neither of the above-mentioned requirements can be met, and to examine the feasibility of reconstructing the sound field radiated by partial source, based on double-layer pressure measurements made in a non-free field by using patch NAH combined with sound field separation technique. And also, the sensitivity of the reconstructed result to the measurement error is analyzed in detail. Two experiments involving two speakers in an exterior space and one speaker inside a car cabin are presented. The experimental results demonstrate that the patch NAH based on single-layer pressure measurement cannot obtain a satisfied result due to the influences of disturbing sources and reflections, while the patch NAH based on double-layer pressure measurements can successfully remove these influences and reconstruct the patch sound field effectively.

  10. Effect of Digital Frequency Compression (DFC) on Speech Recognition in Candidates for Combined Electric and Acoustic Stimulation (EAS)

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, René H.; Dorman, Michael F.; Spahr, Anthony J.; McKarns, Sharon A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effects of conventional amplification (CA) and digital frequency compression (DFC) amplification on the speech recognition abilities of candidates for a partial-insertion cochlear implant, that is, candidates for combined electric and acoustic stimulation (EAS). Method The participants were 6 patients whose audiometric thresholds at 500 Hz and below were ≤60 dB HL and whose thresholds at 2000 Hz and above were ≥80 dB HL. Six tests of speech understanding were administered with CA and DFC. The Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) was also administered following use of CA and DFC. Results Group mean scores were not statistically different in the CA and DFC conditions. However, 2 patients received substantial benefit in DFC conditions. APHAB scores suggested increased ease of communication, but also increased aversive sound quality. Conclusion Results suggest that a relatively small proportion of individuals who meet EAS candidacy will receive substantial benefit from a DFC hearing aid and that a larger proportion will receive at least a small benefit when speech is presented against a background of noise. This benefit, however, comes at a cost—aversive sound quality. PMID:17905905

  11. Effective finite-difference modelling methods with 2D acoustic wave equation using a combination of cross and rhombus stencils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Enjiang; Liu, Yang; Sen, Mrinal K.

    2016-07-01

    The 2D acoustic wave equation is commonly solved numerically by finite-difference (FD) methods in which the accuracy of solution is significantly affected by the FD stencils. The commonly used cross stencil can reach either only second-order accuracy for space domain dispersion-relation-based FD method or (2 M)th-order accuracy along eight specific propagation directions for time-space domain dispersion-relation-based FD method, if the conventional (2 M)th-order spatial FD and second-order temporal FD are used to discretize the equation. One other newly developed rhombus stencil can reach arbitrary even-order accuracy. However, this stencil adds significantly computational cost when the operator length is large. To achieve a balance between the solution accuracy and efficiency, we develop a new FD stencil to solve the 2D acoustic wave equation. This stencil is a combination of the cross stencil and rhombus stencil. A cross stencil with an operator length parameter M is used to approximate the spatial partial derivatives while a rhombus stencil with an operator length parameter N together with the conventional 2nd-order temporal FD is employed in approximating the temporal partial derivatives. Using this stencil, a new FD scheme is developed; we demonstrate that this scheme can reach (2 M)th-order accuracy in space and (2 N)th-order accuracy in time when spatial FD coefficients and temporal FD coefficients are derived from respective dispersion relation using Taylor-series expansion (TE) method. To further increase the accuracy, we derive the FD coefficients by employing the time-space domain dispersion relation of this FD scheme using TE. We also use least-squares (LS) optimization method to reduce dispersion at high wavenumbers. Dispersion analysis, stability analysis and modelling examples demonstrate that our new scheme has greater accuracy and better stability than conventional FD schemes, and thus can adopt large time steps. To reduce the extra computational

  12. Laser-induced desorption of organic molecules from front- and back-irradiated metal foils

    SciTech Connect

    Zinovev, Alexander V.; Veryovkin, Igor V.; Pellin, Michael J.

    2009-03-17

    Laser-Induced Acoustic Desorption (LIAD) from thin metal foils is a promising technique for gentle and efficient volatilization of intact organic molecules from surfaces of solid substrates. Using the Single Photon Ionization (SPI) method combined with time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (TOF MS), desorbed flux in LIAD was examined and compared to that from direct laser desorption (LD). Molecules of various organic dyes were used in experiments. Translational velocities of the desorbed intact molecules did not depend on the desorbing laser intensity, which implies the presence of more sophisticated mechanism of energy transfer than the direct mechanical or thermal coupling between the laser pulse and the adsorbed molecules. The results of our experiments indicate that the LIAD phenomenon cannot be described in terms of a simple mechanical shake-off nor the direct laser desorption. Rather, they suggest that multi-step energy transfer processes are involved. Possible qualitative mechanism of LIAD that are based on formation of non-equilibrium energy states in the adsorbate-substrate system are proposed and discussed.

  13. Laser-induced desorption of organic molecules from front- and back-irradiated metal foils.

    SciTech Connect

    Zinovev, A. V.; Veryovkin, I. V.; Pellin, M. J.; Materials Science Division

    2009-01-01

    Laser-Induced Acoustic Desorption (LIAD) from thin metal foils is a promising technique for gentle and efficient volatilization of intact organic molecules from surfaces of solid substrates. Using the Single Photon Ionization (SPI) method combined with time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (TOF MS), desorbed flux in LIAD was examined and compared to that from direct laser desorption (LD). Molecules of various organic dyes were used in experiments. Translational velocities of the desorbed intact molecules did not depend on the desorbing laser intensity, which implies the presence of more sophisticated mechanism of energy transfer than the direct mechanical or thermal coupling between the laser pulse and the adsorbed molecules. The results of our experiments indicate that the LIAD phenomenon cannot be described in terms of a simple mechanical shake-off nor the direct laser desorption. Rather, they suggest that multi-step energy transfer processes are involved. Possible qualitative mechanism of LIAD that are based on formation of non-equilibrium energy states in the adsorbate-substrate system are proposed and discussed.

  14. Tunneling Desorption of Single Hydrogen on the Surface of Titanium Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Minato, Taketoshi; Kajita, Seiji; Pang, Chi-Lun; Asao, Naoki; Yamamoto, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Takashi; Kawai, Maki; Kim, Yousoo

    2015-07-28

    We investigated the reaction mechanism of the desorption of single hydrogen from a titanium dioxide surface excited by the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Analysis of the desorption yield, in combination with theoretical calculations, indicates the crucial role played by the applied electric field. Instead of facilitating desorption by reducing the barrier height, the applied electric field causes a reduction in the barrier width, which, when coupled with the electron excitation induced by the STM tip, leads to the tunneling desorption of the hydrogen. A significant reduction in the desorption yield was observed when deuterium was used instead of hydrogen, providing further support for the tunneling-desorption mechanism. PMID:26158720

  15. Acoustic neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    Vestibular schwannoma; Tumor - acoustic; Cerebellopontine angle tumor; Angle tumor ... Acoustic neuromas have been linked with the genetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Acoustic neuromas are uncommon.

  16. Mass Spectrometry of Acoustically Levitated Droplets

    PubMed Central

    Westphall, Michael S.; Jorabchi, Kaveh; Smith, Lloyd M.

    2008-01-01

    Containerless sample handling techniques such as acoustic levitation offer potential advantages for mass spectrometry, by eliminating surfaces where undesired adsorption/desorption processes can occur. In addition, they provide a unique opportunity to study fundamental aspects of the ionization process as well as phenomena occurring at the air–droplet interface. Realizing these advantages is contingent, however, upon being able to effectively interface levitated droplets with a mass spectrometer, a challenging task that is addressed in this report. We have employed a newly developed charge and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (CALDI) technique to obtain mass spectra from a 5-μL acoustically levitated droplet containing peptides and an ionic matrix. A four-ring electrostatic lens is used in conjunction with a corona needle to produce bursts of corona ions and to direct those ions toward the droplet, resulting in droplet charging. Analyte ions are produced from the droplet by a 337-nm laser pulse and detected by an atmospheric sampling mass spectrometer. The ion generation and extraction cycle is repeated at 20 Hz, the maximum operating frequency of the laser employed. It is shown in delayed ion extraction experiments that both positive and negative ions are produced, behavior similar to that observed for atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser absorption/ionization. No ion signal is observed in the absence of droplet charging. It is likely, although not yet proven, that the role of the droplet charging is to increase the strength of the electric field at the surface of the droplet, reducing chargere combination after ion desorption. PMID:18582090

  17. Desorption from interstellar grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, A.; Jura, M.; Omont, A.

    1985-01-01

    Different desorption mechanisms from interstellar grains are considered to resolve the conflict between the observed presence of gaseous species in molecular clouds and their expected depletion onto grains. The physics of desorption is discussed with particular reference to the process of grain heating and the specific heat of the dust material. Impulsive heating by X-rays and cosmic rays is addressed. Spot heating of the grains by cosmic rays and how this can lead to desorption of mantles from very large grains is considered. It is concluded that CO depletion on grains will be small in regions with A(V) less than five from the cloud surface and n(H) less than 10,000, in agreement with observations and in contrast to expectations from pure thermal equilibrium. Even in very dense and obscured regions and in the absence of internal ultraviolet sources, the classical evaporation of CO or N2 and O2-rich mantles by cosmic rays is important.

  18. Beryllium Desorption from Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschi, V.; Willenbring, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    Beryllium isotopes have provided a useful tool in the field of geochronology and geomorphology over the last 25 years. The amount of cosmogenic meteoric 10Be and native 9Be absorbed to soils often scales with the residence time and chemical weathering of sediments in a landscape, respectively. Thus, the concentrations in river sediment may be used to quantify the denudation of specific watersheds. When deposited in ocean sediment, these concentrations are thought to record the history of denudation on Earth over the last ~10 Ma. The use of both isotopes often relies on the premise of beryllium retention to sediment surfaces in order to preserve a landscape's erosion and weathering signature. Changes in setting, en route from the soil to fluvial system to the ocean, can cause beryllium desorption and may preclude some applications of the 10Be/9Be system. Four mechanisms were tested to determine the desorption potential of beryllium including a reduction in pH, an increase in ionic strength and complexation with soluble organic and inorganic species. These processes have the potential to mobilize beryllium into solution. For example, by both reducing the pH and increasing the ionic strength, competition for adsorption sites increases, potentially liberating beryllium from the sediment surface. In addition, organic and inorganic ligands can complex beryllium causing it to become mobilized. To determine which of these alterations influence beryllium desorption and to quantify the effect, we prepared separate solutions of beryllium bound to minerals and organic compounds and measured beryllium concentrations in solution before and after adjusting the pH, ionic strength, and changing inorganic and organic ligand concentrations. We conclude from our observations that overall, beryllium sorbed to organic compounds was more resistant to desorption relative to mineral-associated beryllium. Among the methods tested, a reduction in pH resulted in the greatest amount of

  19. Evaluation of the solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge method in combination with thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) for the analysis of different VOCs in liquid matrices in varying pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the solid-phase extraction (SPE) method combined with thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) method is evaluated for the analysis of liquid-phase volatile organic compounds (LVOCs). Calibration experiments were performed on a number of polar and nonpolar LVOCs (including aromatic compounds, ester, ketones, and alcohol) as a function of solution pH. If the relative sensitivity of the SPE-TD-GC-MS method is compared between different VOCs across a wide range of pH (1, 4, 7, 10, and 13), optimum sensitivities for most VOCs are derived at the neutral pH. However, there were some exceptions to the general trend with the maximum sensitivity occurring either at a moderately basic pH (methyl isobutyl ketone and butyl acetate) or extremely acidic conditions (isobutyl alcohol). It was also noticed that the relative ordering of sensitivity was changed, as the pH conditions of the solution vary. The use of internal standard (IS: chlorobenzene) resulted in a notable improvement in both relative sensitivity and reproducibility for most compounds. PMID:22865756

  20. Combining tissue extraction and off-line capillary electrophoresis matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry for neuropeptide analysis in individual neuronal organs using 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid as a multi-functional agent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junhua; Jiang, Xiaoyue; Sturm, Robert M; Li, Lingjun

    2009-11-20

    In this study we report an improved protocol that combines simplified sample preparation and micro-scale separation for mass spectrometric analysis of neuropeptides from individual neuroendocrine organs of crab Cancer borealis. A simple, one-step extraction method with commonly used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) matrix, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), in saturated aqueous solution, is employed for improved extraction of neuropeptides. Furthermore, a novel use of DHB as background electrolyte for capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation in the off-line coupling of CE to MALDI-Fourier transform mass spectrometric (FT-MS) detection is also explored. The new CE electrolyte exhibits full compatibility with MALDI-MS analysis of neuropeptides in that both the peptide extraction process and MALDI detection utilize DHB. In addition, enhanced resolving power and improved sensitivity are also observed for CE-MALDI-MS of peptide mixture analysis. Collectively, the use of DHB has simplified the extraction and reduced the sample loss by elimination of homogenizing, drying, and desalting processes. In the mean time, the concurrent use of DHB as CE separation buffer and subsequent MALDI matrix offers improved spectral quality by eliminating the interferences from typical CE electrolyte in MALDI detection. PMID:19473662

  1. Altered processing of acoustic stimuli during sleep: reduced auditory activation and visual deactivation detected by a combined fMRI/EEG study.

    PubMed

    Czisch, Michael; Wetter, Thomas C; Kaufmann, Christian; Pollmächer, Thomas; Holsboer, Florian; Auer, Dorothee P

    2002-05-01

    Although there is evidence that acoustic stimuli are processed differently during sleep and wakefulness, little is known about the underlying neuronal mechanisms. In the present study, the processing of an acoustic stimulus was investigated during different non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep stages using a combined EEG/fMRI approach in healthy human volunteers: A text stimulus was presented to sleep-deprived subjects prior to and after the onset of sleep, and single-slice silent fMRI were acquired. We found significantly different blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast responses during sleep compared to wakefulness. During NREM sleep stages 1 and 2 and during slow wave sleep (SWS) we observed reduced activation in the auditory cortex and a pronounced negative signal in the visual cortex and precuneus. Acoustic stimulation during sleep was accompanied by an increase in EEG frequency components in the low delta frequency range. Provided that neurovascular coupling is not altered during sleep, the negative transmodal BOLD response which is most pronounced during NREM sleep stages 1 and 2 reflects a deactivation predominantly in the visual cortex suggesting that this decrease in neuronal activity protects the brain from the arousing effects of external stimulation during sleep not only in the primary targeted sensory cortex but also in other brain regions. PMID:11969332

  2. A new strategy toward Internet of Things: structural health monitoring using a combined fiber optic and acoustic emission wireless sensor platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, A. D.; Page, C.; Wilson, C. L.

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates a new low-power structural health monitoring (SHM) strategy where fiber Bragg grating (FBG) rosettes can be used to continuously monitor for changes in a host structure's principal strain direction, suggesting damage and thus enabling the immediate triggering of a higher power acoustic emissions (AE) sensor to provide for better characterization of the damage. Unlike traditional "always on" AE platforms, this strategy has the potential for low power, while the wireless communication between different sensor types supports the Internet of Things (IoT) approach. A combination of fiber-optic sensor rosettes for strain monitoring and a fiber-optic sensor for acoustic emissions monitoring was attached to a sample and used to monitor crack initiation. The results suggest that passive principal strain direction monitoring could be used as a damage initiation trigger for other active sensing elements such as acoustic emissions. In future work, additional AE sensors can be added to provide for damage location; and a strategy where these sensors can be powered on periodically to further establish reliability while preserving an energy efficient scheme can be incorporated.

  3. Real-time temperature estimation and monitoring of HIFU ablation through a combined modeling and passive acoustic mapping approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, C. R.; Cleveland, R. O.; Coussios, C. C.

    2013-09-01

    Passive acoustic mapping (PAM) has been recently demonstrated as a method of monitoring focused ultrasound therapy by reconstructing the emissions created by inertially cavitating bubbles (Jensen et al 2012 Radiology 262 252-61). The published method sums energy emitted by cavitation from the focal region within the tissue and uses a threshold to determine when sufficient energy has been delivered for ablation. The present work builds on this approach to provide a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment monitoring software that displays both real-time temperature maps and a prediction of the ablated tissue region. This is achieved by determining heat deposition from two sources: (i) acoustic absorption of the primary HIFU beam which is calculated via a nonlinear model, and (ii) absorption of energy from bubble acoustic emissions which is estimated from measurements. The two sources of heat are used as inputs to the bioheat equation that gives an estimate of the temperature of the tissue as well as estimates of tissue ablation. The method has been applied to ex vivo ox liver samples and the estimated temperature is compared to the measured temperature and shows good agreement, capturing the effect of cavitation-enhanced heating on temperature evolution. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that by using PAM and predictions of heating it is possible to produce an evolving estimate of cell death during exposure in order to guide treatment for monitoring ablative HIFU therapy. Portions presented at the 13th International Symposium on Therapeutic Ultrasound, Heidelberg, Germany (2012).

  4. Combining Two-Dimensional Diffusion-Ordered Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Imaging Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry, and Direct Analysis in Real-Time Mass Spectrometry for the Integral Investigation of Counterfeit Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Nyadong, Leonard; Harris, Glenn A.; Balayssac, Stéphane; Galhena, Asiri S.; Malet-Martino, Myriam; Martino, Robert; Parry, R. Mitchell; Wang, May Dongmei; Fernández, Facundo M.; Gilard, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    During the past decade, there has been a marked increase in the number of reported cases involving counterfeit medicines in developing and developed countries. Particularly, artesunate-based antimalarial drugs have been targeted, because of their high demand and cost. Counterfeit antimalarials can cause death and can contribute to the growing problem of drug resistance, particularly in southeast Asia. In this study, the complementarity of two-dimensional diffusion-ordered 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D DOSY 1H NMR) with direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART MS) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI MS) was assessed for pharmaceutical forensic purposes. Fourteen different artesunate tablets, representative of what can be purchased from informal sources in southeast Asia, were investigated with these techniques. The expected active pharmaceutical ingredient was detected in only five formulations via both nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) methods. Common organic excipients such as sucrose, lactose, stearate, dextrin, and starch were also detected. The graphical representation of DOSY 1H NMR results proved very useful for establishing similarities among groups of samples, enabling counterfeit drug “chemotyping”. In addition to bulk- and surface-average analyses, spatially resolved information on the surface composition of counterfeit and genuine antimalarial formulations was obtained using DESI MS that was performed in the imaging mode, which enabled one to visualize the homogeneity of both genuine and counterfeit drug samples. Overall, this study suggests that 2D DOSY 1H NMR, combined with ambient MS, comprises a powerful suite of instrumental analysis methodologies for the integral characterization of counterfeit antimalarials. PMID:19453162

  5. OTEC gas desorption studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, F. C.; Golshani, A.

    1982-02-01

    Experiments on deaeration in packed columns and barometric intake systems, and with hydraulic air compression for open-cycle OTEC systems are reported. A gas desorption test loop consisting of water storage tanks, a vacuum system, a liquid recirculating system, an air supply, a column test section, and two barometric leg test sections was used to perform the tests. The aerated water was directed through columns filled with either ceramic Raschig rings or plastic pall rings, and the system vacuum pressure, which drives the deaeration process, was found to be dependent on water velocity and intake pipe height. The addition of a barometric intake pipe increased the deaeration effect 10%, and further tests were run with lengths of PVC pipe as potential means for noncondensibles disposal through hydraulic air compression. Using the kinetic energy from the effluent flow to condense steam in the noncondensible stream improved the system efficiency.

  6. Effectiveness of 4-hydroxy phenyl N-tert-butylnitrone (4-OHPBN) alone and in combination with other antioxidant drugs in the treatment of acute acoustic trauma in chinchilla.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chul-Hee; Chen, Kejian; Vasquez-Weldon, Angelica; Jackson, Ronald L; Floyd, Robert A; Kopke, Richard D

    2008-05-01

    Acute acoustic trauma (AAT) results in oxidative stress to the cochlea through overproduction of cellular reactive oxygen, nitrogen, and other free radical species appearing from 1 h to 10 days after noise exposure. It has been shown that N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a glutathione prodrug, and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR), a mitochondrial biogenesis agent, are effective in reducing noise-induced hearing loss. Phenyl N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN), a nitrone-based free radical trap, appears to suppress oxidative stress in a variety of disorders and several biological models. In this study, we tested whether 4-hydroxy PBN (4-OHPBN), a major metabolite of PBN, administered 4 h after noise exposure is effective in treating noise-induced hearing loss and whether a combination of antioxidant drugs (4-OHPBN plus NAC and 4-OHPBN plus NAC plus ALCAR) provides greater efficacy in attenuating AAT since each agent addresses different injury mechanisms. Chinchilla were exposed to a 105 dB octave-band noise centered at 4 kHz for 6 h. 4-OHPBN and combinations of antioxidant drugs were intraperitoneally administered beginning 4 h after noise exposure. Hearing threshold shifts in auditory brainstem responses and missing outer hair cell counts were obtained. 4-OHPBN reduced threshold shifts in a dose-dependent manner while both drug combinations showed greater effects. These results demonstrate that 4-OHPBN and combinations of antioxidants can effectively treat acute acoustic trauma and drug combinations may increase the effectiveness of treatment and decrease the required individual medication dose. PMID:18328271

  7. Introducing DIASCoPE: Directly Integrated Acoustic System Combined with Pressure Experiments — Changing the Paradigm from Product to Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, M. L.; Baldwin, K. J.; Huebsch, W. B.; Tercé, N.; Bejina, F.; Bystricky, M.; Chen, H.; Vaughan, M. T.; Weidner, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the properties and behaviors of materials and multi-phase aggregates under conditions of high pressure and temperature is vital to unraveling the mysteries that lie beneath the surface of the planet. Advances in in situexperimental techniques using synchrotron radiation at these extreme conditions have helped to provide answers to fundamental questions that were previously unattainable. Synchrotron-based ultrasonic interferometry measurements have proven to be especially important in determining acoustic velocities and thermoelastic properties of materials at high pressures and temperatures. However, due to relatively slow data collection times, it has been difficult to measure the effects of processes as they occur, and instead the measurement is made on the end product of these processes. DIASCoPE is an important step toward addressing this problem.Over the last three years, we have designed and developed an on-board ultrasonic acoustic velocity measurement system that cuts data collection time down by over an order of magnitude. We can now measure P- and S-wave travel times in samples at extreme conditions in less than one second. Moreover, the system has been fully integrated with the multi-anvil apparatus and the EPICS control system at beamline X17B2 of the National Synchrotron Light Source, allowing for greater ease of control andfull automation of experimental data collection. The DIASCoPE has completed the testing and commissioning phase, and the first data collected using this powerful new system will be presented here.DIASCoPE represents a major step forward in acoustic velocity collection time reduction that will finally allow us to begin to witness what effects various processes in the deep Earth may have on the physical properties of materials at extreme conditions as they occur. These new capabilities will allow us to change the focus of study from the product to the process itself and will lead to a greater understanding of the

  8. Combined optical and acoustical method for determination of thickness and porosity of transparent organic layers below the ultra-thin film limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodenhausen, K. B.; Kasputis, T.; Pannier, A. K.; Gerasimov, J. Y.; Lai, R. Y.; Solinsky, M.; Tiwald, T. E.; Wang, H.; Sarkar, A.; Hofmann, T.; Ianno, N.; Schubert, M.

    2011-10-01

    Analysis techniques are needed to determine the quantity and structure of materials composing an organic layer that is below an ultra-thin film limit and in a liquid environment. Neither optical nor acoustical techniques can independently distinguish between thickness and porosity of ultra-thin films due to parameter correlation. A combined optical and acoustical approach yields sufficient information to determine both thickness and porosity. We describe application of the combinatorial approach to measure single or multiple organic layers when the total layer thickness is small compared to the wavelength of the probing light. The instrumental setup allows for simultaneous in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry and quartz crystal microbalance dynamic measurements, and it is combined with a multiple-inlet fluid control system for different liquid solutions to be introduced during experiments. A virtual separation approach is implemented into our analysis scheme, differentiated by whether or not the organic adsorbate and liquid ambient densities are equal. The analysis scheme requires that the film be assumed transparent and rigid (non-viscoelastic). We present and discuss applications of our approach to studies of organic surfactant adsorption, self-assembled monolayer chemisorption, and multiple-layer target DNA sensor preparation and performance testing.

  9. Combined optical and acoustical method for determination of thickness and porosity of transparent organic layers below the ultra-thin film limit.

    PubMed

    Rodenhausen, K B; Kasputis, T; Pannier, A K; Gerasimov, J Y; Lai, R Y; Solinsky, M; Tiwald, T E; Wang, H; Sarkar, A; Hofmann, T; Ianno, N; Schubert, M

    2011-10-01

    Analysis techniques are needed to determine the quantity and structure of materials composing an organic layer that is below an ultra-thin film limit and in a liquid environment. Neither optical nor acoustical techniques can independently distinguish between thickness and porosity of ultra-thin films due to parameter correlation. A combined optical and acoustical approach yields sufficient information to determine both thickness and porosity. We describe application of the combinatorial approach to measure single or multiple organic layers when the total layer thickness is small compared to the wavelength of the probing light. The instrumental setup allows for simultaneous in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry and quartz crystal microbalance dynamic measurements, and it is combined with a multiple-inlet fluid control system for different liquid solutions to be introduced during experiments. A virtual separation approach is implemented into our analysis scheme, differentiated by whether or not the organic adsorbate and liquid ambient densities are equal. The analysis scheme requires that the film be assumed transparent and rigid (non-viscoelastic). We present and discuss applications of our approach to studies of organic surfactant adsorption, self-assembled monolayer chemisorption, and multiple-layer target DNA sensor preparation and performance testing. PMID:22047284

  10. Highly directional acoustic receivers.

    PubMed

    Cray, Benjamin A; Evora, Victor M; Nuttall, Albert H

    2003-03-01

    The theoretical directivity of a single combined acoustic receiver, a device that can measure many quantities of an acoustic field at a collocated point, is presented here. The formulation is developed using a Taylor series expansion of acoustic pressure about the origin of a Cartesian coordinate system. For example, the quantities measured by a second-order combined receiver, denoted a dyadic sensor, are acoustic pressure, the three orthogonal components of acoustic particle velocity, and the nine spatial gradients of the velocity vector. The power series expansion, which can be of any order, is cast into an expression that defines the directivity of a single receiving element. It is shown that a single highly directional dyadic sensor can have a directivity index of up to 9.5 dB. However, there is a price to pay with highly directive sensors; these sensors can be significantly more sensitive to nonacoustic noise sources. PMID:12656387

  11. Combined acoustic radiation force impulse, aminotransferase to platelet ratio index and Forns index assessment for hepatic fibrosis grading in hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chang-Feng; Xiao, Jia; Shan, Ling-Bo; Li, Han-Ying; Xiong, Yong-Jia; Yang, Gui-Lin; Liu, Jing; Yao, Si-Min; Li, Sha-Xi; Le, Xiao-Hua; Yuan, Jing; Zhou, Bo-Ping; Tipoe, George L; Liu, Ying-Xia

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the combined diagnostic accuracy of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI), aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) and Forns index for a non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: In this prospective study, 206 patients had CHB with liver fibrosis stages F0-F4 classified by METAVIR and 40 were healthy volunteers were measured by ARFI, APRI and Forns index separately or combined as indicated. RESULTS: ARFI, APRI or Forns index demonstrated a significant correlation with the histological stage (all P < 0.001). According to the AUROC of ARFI and APRI for evaluating fibrotic stages more than F2, ARFI showed an enhanced diagnostic accuracy than APRI (P < 0.05). The combined measurement of ARFI and APRI exhibited better accuracy than ARFI alone when evaluating ≥ F2 fibrotic stage (Z = 2.77, P = 0.006). Combination of ARFI, APRI and Forns index did not obviously improve the diagnostic accuracy compared to the combination of ARFI and APRI (Z = 0.958, P = 0.338). CONCLUSION: ARFI + APRI showed enhanced diagnostic accuracy than ARFI or APRI alone for significant liver fibrosis and ARFI + APRI + Forns index shows the same effect with ARFI + APRI. PMID:27190578

  12. Novel Cell Design for Combined In Situ Acoustic Emission and X-ray Diffraction of Cycling Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, Kevin J; Kirkham, Melanie J; Meisner, Roberta Ann; Parish, Chad M; Dudney, Nancy J; Daniel, Claus

    2011-01-01

    An in situ acoustic emission (AE) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) cell for use in the study of battery electrode materials has been devised and tested. This cell uses commercially available coin cell hardware retrofitted with a metalized polyethylene terephthalate (PET) disk which acts as both an X-ray window and a current collector. In this manner the use of beryllium and its associated cost and hazard is avoided. An AE sensor may be affixed to the cell face opposite the PET window in order to monitor degradation effects, such as particle fracture, during cell cycling. Silicon particles which were previously studied by the AE technique were tested in this cell as a model material. The performance of these cells compared well with unmodified coin cells while providing information about structural changes in the active material as the cell is repeatedly charged and discharged.

  13. Novel cell design for combined in situ acoustic emission and x-ray diffraction study during electrochemical cycling of batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, Kevin; Meisner, Roberta; Daniel, Claus; Kirkham, Melanie; Parish, Chad M.; Dudney, Nancy

    2011-07-15

    An in situ acoustic emission (AE) and x-ray diffraction cell for use in the study of battery electrode materials has been designed and tested. This cell uses commercially available coin cell hardware retrofitted with a metalized polyethylene terephthalate (PET) disk, which acts as both an x-ray window and a current collector. In this manner, the use of beryllium and its associated cost and hazards is avoided. An AE sensor may be affixed to the cell face opposite the PET window in order to monitor degradation effects, such as particle fracture, during cell cycling. Silicon particles, which were previously studied by the AE technique, were tested in this cell as a model material. The performance of these cells compared well with unmodified coin cells, while providing information about structural changes in the active material as the cell is repeatedly charged and discharged.

  14. Screen-printed digital microfluidics combined with surface acoustic wave nebulization for hydrogen-deuterium exchange measurements.

    PubMed

    Monkkonen, Lucas; Edgar, J Scott; Winters, Daniel; Heron, Scott R; Mackay, C Logan; Masselon, Christophe D; Stokes, Adam A; Langridge-Smith, Patrick R R; Goodlett, David R

    2016-03-25

    An inexpensive digital microfluidic (DMF) chip was fabricated by screen-printing electrodes on a sheet of polyimide. This device was manually integrated with surface acoustic wave nebulization (SAWN) MS to conduct hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) of peptides. The HDX experiment was performed by DMF mixing of one aqueous droplet of angiotensin II with a second containing various concentrations of D2O. Subsequently, the degree of HDX was measured immediately by SAWN-MS. As expected for a small peptide, the isotopically resolved mass spectrum for angiotensin revealed that maximum deuterium exchange was achieved using 50% D2O. Additionally, using SAWN-MS alone, the global HDX kinetics of ubiquitin were found to be similar to published NMR data and back exchange rates for the uncooled apparatus using high inlet capillary temperatures was less than 6%. PMID:26826755

  15. Light-induced atomic desorption: recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, E.; Atutov, S. N.; Biancalana, Valerio; Bocci, S.; Burchianti, A.; Marinelli, C.; Nasyrov, K. A.; Pieragnoli, B.; Moi, L.

    2001-04-01

    Light induced atomic desorption (LIAD) is an impressive manifestation of a new class of phenomena involving alkali atoms, dielectric films and light. LIAD consists of a huge emission of alkali atoms (experimentally proved for sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium) from siloxane films when illuminated by laser or ordinary light. Most of the experiments have been performed in glass cells suitably coated by a thin film (of the order of 10 micrometer) either of poly - (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), a polymer, or of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OCT), a crown molecule. LIAD is a combination of two processes: direct photo-desorption from the surface and diffusion within the siloxane layer. The photo-desorbed atoms are replaced by fresh atoms diffusing to the surface. Moreover, from the experimental data it comes out that the desorbing light increases atomic diffusion and hence the diffusion coefficient. To our knowledge this is the first time that such an effect is clearly observed, measured and discussed: LIAD represents a new class of photo-effects characterized by two simultaneous phenomena due to the light: surface desorption and fastened bulk diffusion.

  16. The Acoustic Lens Design and in Vivo Use of a Multifunctional Catheter Combining Intracardiac Ultrasound Imaging and Electrophysiology Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Douglas N.; Cannata, Jonathan; Liu, Ruibin; Zhao, Jian Zhong; Shung, K. Kirk; Nguyen, Hien; Chia, Raymond; Dentinger, Aaron; Wildes, Douglas; Thomenius, Kai E.; Mahajan, Aman; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Kim, Kang; O’Donnell, Matthew; Sahn, David

    2009-01-01

    A multifunctional 9F intracardiac imaging and electrophysiology mapping catheter was developed and tested to help guide diagnostic and therapeutic intracardiac electrophysiology (EP) procedures. The catheter tip includes a 7.25-MHz, 64-element, side-looking phased array for high resolution sector scanning. Multiple electrophysiology mapping sensors were mounted as ring electrodes near the array for electrocardiographic synchronization of ultrasound images. The catheter array elevation beam performance in particular was investigated. An acoustic lens for the distal tip array designed with a round cross section can produce an acceptable elevation beam shape; however, the velocity of sound in the lens material should be approximately 155 m/s slower than in tissue for the best beam shape and wide bandwidth performance. To help establish the catheter’s unique ability for integration with electrophysiology interventional procedures, it was used in vivo in a porcine animal model, and demonstrated both useful intracardiac echocardiographic visualization and simultaneous 3-D positional information using integrated electroanatomical mapping techniques. The catheter also performed well in high frame rate imaging, color flow imaging, and strain rate imaging of atrial and ventricular structures. PMID:18407850

  17. Ocean acoustic hurricane classification.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Joshua D; Makris, Nicholas C

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical evidence are combined to show that underwater acoustic sensing techniques may be valuable for measuring the wind speed and determining the destructive power of a hurricane. This is done by first developing a model for the acoustic intensity and mutual intensity in an ocean waveguide due to a hurricane and then determining the relationship between local wind speed and underwater acoustic intensity. From this it is shown that it should be feasible to accurately measure the local wind speed and classify the destructive power of a hurricane if its eye wall passes directly over a single underwater acoustic sensor. The potential advantages and disadvantages of the proposed acoustic method are weighed against those of currently employed techniques. PMID:16454274

  18. Cochlear bionic acoustic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Fuyin; Wu, Jiu Hui; Huang, Meng; Fu, Gang; Bai, Changan

    2014-11-01

    A design of bionic acoustic metamaterial and acoustic functional devices was proposed by employing the mammalian cochlear as a prototype. First, combined with the experimental data in previous literatures, it is pointed out that the cochlear hair cells and stereocilia cluster are a kind of natural biological acoustic metamaterials with the negative stiffness characteristics. Then, to design the acoustic functional devices conveniently in engineering application, a simplified parametric helical structure was proposed to replace actual irregular cochlea for bionic design, and based on the computational results of such a bionic parametric helical structure, it is suggested that the overall cochlear is a local resonant system with the negative dynamic effective mass characteristics. There are many potential applications in the bandboard energy recovery device, cochlear implant, and acoustic black hole.

  19. Hybrid optical and acoustic force based sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Mahoney, Paul; Brodie, Graham W.; Wang, Han; Demore, Christine E. M.; Cochran, Sandy; Spalding, Gabriel C.; MacDonald, Michael P.

    2014-09-01

    We report the combined use of optical sorting and acoustic levitation to give particle sorting. Differing sizes of microparticles are sorted optically both with and without the aid of acoustic levitation, and the results compared to show that the use of acoustic trapping can increase sorting efficiency. The use of a transparent ultrasonic transducer is also shown to streamline the integration of optics and acoustics. We also demonstrate the balance of optical radiation pressure and acoustic levitation to achieve vertical sorting.

  20. The study of 'microsurfaces' using thermal desorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, M. E.; Poppa, H.; Pound, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    The use of a newly combined ultrahigh vacuum technique for studying continuous and particulate evaporated thin films using thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and transmission electron diffraction (TED) is discussed. It is shown that (1) CO thermal desorption energies of epitaxially deposited (111) Ni and (111) Pd surfaces agree perfectly with previously published data on bulk (111) single crystal, (2) contamination and surface structural differences can be detected using TDS as a surface probe and TEM as a complementary technique, and (3) CO desorption signals from deposited metal coverages of one-thousandth of a monolayer should be detectable. These results indicate that the chemisorption properties of supported 'microsurfaces' of metals can now be investigated with very high sensitivity. The combined use of TDS and TEM-TED experimental methods is a very powerful technique for fundamental studies in basic thin film physics and in catalysis.

  1. Using Combined X-ray Computed Tomography and Acoustic Resonance to Understand Supercritical CO2 Behavior in Fractured Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneafsey, T. J.; Nakagawa, S.

    2015-12-01

    Distribution of supercritical (sc) CO2 has a large impact on its flow behavior as well as on the properties of seismic waves used for monitoring. Simultaneous imaging of scCO2 distribution in a rock core using X-ray computed tomography (CT) and measurements of seismic waves in the laboratory can help understand how the distribution evolves as scCO2 invades through rock, and the resulting seismic signatures. To this end, we performed a series of laboratory scCO2 core-flood experiments in intact and fractured anisotropic Carbon Tan sandstone samples. In these experiments, we monitored changes in the CO2 saturation distribution and sonic-frequency acoustic resonances (yielding both seismic velocity and attenuation) over the course of the floods. A short-core resonant bar test system (Split-Hopkinson Resonant Bar Apparatus) custom fit into a long X-ray transparent pressure vessel was used for the seismic measurements, and a modified General Electric medical CT scanner was used to acquire X-ray CT data from which scCO2 saturation distributions were determined. The focus of the experiments was on the impact of single fractures on the scCO2 distribution and the seismic properties. For this reason, we examined several cases including 1. intact, 2. a closely mated fracture along the core axis, 3. a sheared fracture along the core axis (both vertical and horizontal for examining the buoyancy effect), and 4. a sheared fracture perpendicular to the core axis. For the intact and closely mated fractured cores, Young's modulus declined with increasing CO2 saturation, and attenuation increased up to about 15% CO2 saturation after which attenuation declined. For cores having wide axial fractures, the Young's modulus was lower than for the intact and closely mated cases, however did not change much with CO2 pore saturation. Much lower CO2 pore saturations were achieved in these cases. Attenuation increased more rapidly however than for the intact sample. For the core

  2. Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that develops on the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. ... can press against the brain, becoming life-threatening. Acoustic neuroma can be difficult to diagnose, because the ...

  3. Investigations into ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption

    SciTech Connect

    Heise, T.W.

    1993-07-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALD) is a technique for converting large biomolecules into gas phase ions. Some characteristics of the commonly used uv matrices are determined. Solubilities in methanol range from 0.1 to 0.5 M. Solid phase absorption spectra are found to be similar to solution, but slightly red-shifted. Acoustic and quartz crystal microbalance signals are investigated as possible means of uv-MALD quantitation. Evidence for the existence of desorption thresholds is presented. Threshold values are determined to be in the range of 2 to 3 MW/cm{sup 2}. A transient imaging technique based on laser-excited fluorescence for monitoring MALD plumes is described. Sensitivity is well within the levels required for studying matrix-assisted laser desorption, where analyte concentrations are significantly lower than those in conventional laser desorption. Results showing the effect of film morphology, particularly film thickness, on plume dynamics are presented. In particular, MALD plumes from thicker films tend to exhibit higher axial velocities. Fluorescent labeling of protein and of DNA is used to allow imaging of their uv-MALD generated plumes. Integrated concentrations are available with respect to time, making it possible to assess the rate of fragmentation. The spatial and temporal distributions are important for the design of secondary ionization schemes to enhance ion yields and for the optimization of ion collection in time-of-flight MS instruments to maximize resolution. Such information could also provide insight into whether ionization is closely associated with the desorption step or whether it is a result of subsequent collisions with the matrix gas (e.g., proton transfer). Although the present study involves plumes in a normal atmosphere, adaptation to measurements in vacuum (e.g., inside a mass spectrometer) should be straightforward.

  4. Acoustic Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a sealing device having an acoustic resonator. The acoustic resonator is adapted to create acoustic waveforms to generate a sealing pressure barrier blocking fluid flow from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area. The sealing device permits noncontacting sealing operation. The sealing device may include a resonant-macrosonic-synthesis (RMS) resonator.

  5. Acoustic seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a sealing device having an acoustic resonator. The acoustic resonator is adapted to create acoustic waveforms to generate a sealing pressure barrier blocking fluid flow from a high pressure area to a lower pressure area. The sealing device permits noncontacting sealing operation. The sealing device may include a resonant-macrosonic-synthesis (RMS) resonator.

  6. Investigating the role of combined acoustic-visual feedback in one-dimensional synchronous brain computer interfaces, a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gargiulo, Gaetano D; Mohamed, Armin; McEwan, Alistair L; Bifulco, Paolo; Cesarelli, Mario; Jin, Craig T; Ruffo, Mariano; Tapson, Jonathan; van Schaik, André

    2012-01-01

    Feedback plays an important role when learning to use a brain computer interface (BCI), particularly in the case of synchronous feedback that relies on the interaction subject. In this preliminary study, we investigate the role of combined auditory-visual feedback during synchronous μ rhythm-based BCI sessions to help the subject to remain focused on the selected imaginary task. This new combined feedback, now integrated within the general purpose BCI2000 software, has been tested on eight untrained and three trained subjects during a monodimensional left-right control task. In order to reduce the setup burden and maximize subject comfort, an electroencephalographic device suitable for dry electrodes that required no skin preparation was used. Quality and index of improvement was evaluated based on a personal self-assessment questionnaire from each subject and quantitative data based on subject performance. Results for this preliminary study show that the combined feedback was well tolerated by the subjects and improved performance in 75% of the naïve subjects compared with visual feedback alone. PMID:23152713

  7. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: THERMAL DESORPTION TREATMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermal desorption is an EX SITU means to physically separate volatile and some semivolatile contaminants from soil, sediments, sludge, and filter cakes by heating them at temperatures high enough to volatilize the organic contaminants. For wastes containing up to 10 percent orga...

  8. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: THERMAL DESORPTION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermal desorption is an EX SITU means to physically separate volatile and some semivolatile contaminants from soil, sediments, sludge, and filter cakes by heating them at temperatures high enough to volatilize the organic contaminants. or wastes containing up to 10 percent organ...

  9. Acoustic mapping velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muste, M.; Baranya, S.; Tsubaki, R.; Kim, D.; Ho, H.; Tsai, H.; Law, D.

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of sediment dynamics in rivers is of great importance for various practical purposes. Despite its high relevance in riverine environment processes, the monitoring of sediment rates remains a major and challenging task for both suspended and bed load estimation. While the measurement of suspended load is currently an active area of testing with nonintrusive technologies (optical and acoustic), bed load measurement does not mark a similar progress. This paper describes an innovative combination of measurement techniques and analysis protocols that establishes the proof-of-concept for a promising technique, labeled herein Acoustic Mapping Velocimetry (AMV). The technique estimates bed load rates in rivers developing bed forms using a nonintrusive measurements approach. The raw information for AMV is collected with acoustic multibeam technology that in turn provides maps of the bathymetry over longitudinal swaths. As long as the acoustic maps can be acquired relatively quickly and the repetition rate for the mapping is commensurate with the movement of the bed forms, successive acoustic maps capture the progression of the bed form movement. Two-dimensional velocity maps associated with the bed form migration are obtained by implementing algorithms typically used in particle image velocimetry to acoustic maps converted in gray-level images. Furthermore, use of the obtained acoustic and velocity maps in conjunction with analytical formulations (e.g., Exner equation) enables estimation of multidirectional bed load rates over the whole imaged area. This paper presents a validation study of the AMV technique using a set of laboratory experiments.

  10. Erbium hydride thermal desorption : controlling kinetics.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

    2007-08-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report show that hydride film processing parameters directly impact thermal stability. Issues to be addressed include desorption kinetics for dihydrides and trihydrides, and the effect of film growth parameters, loading parameters, and substrate selection on desorption kinetics.

  11. Infrared Laser Desorption: Mechanisms and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maechling, Claude Ricketts

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of two-step laser mass spectrometry (L^2MS), a combination of infrared (IR) laser desorption with resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry, to investigate (1) the mechanism of IR laser desorption, (2) the composition of aromatic molecules in extraterrestrial samples, and (3) the measurement of compound-specific carbon isotope ratios. First, a description of the mechanism of IR laser desorption of monolayer and submonolayer coverages of molecules adsorbed to an insulator surface is presented. The vibrational and translational energy distributions of aniline-d7 molecules desorbed from single-crystal sapphire (Al_2 O_3) are recorded using L ^2MS. The energy distributions are found to be in equilibrium with each other and with the temperature of the surface at the time of desorption. The translational and angular distributions of monolayer coverages are altered by the collisions of desorbing molecules with each other. Second, spatial and chemical analyses of the carbonaceous components in chondritic meteorites are presented. A microprobe L^2MS instrument (mu L^2MS) capable of analyzing samples with a spatial resolution of 40 mu m and zeptomole (10^{-21} mole) sensitivity is described and used to investigate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in small particles and heterogeneous samples. PAH distributions are used to distinguish between samples from different meteorite classes, and the effects of thermal processing within a given meteorite class are observed. Sliced wafers of meteorite are found to contain an inhomogeneous distribution of PAHs. muL^2MS studies of meteorite samples are coordinated with scanning electron microscopy studies, and the abundances of aromatic compounds across the surface of a sample are consistent with gross structural features but not with elemental or mineralogical features. Third, a description of a method for performing compound-specific carbon isotope

  12. Topological Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Fei; Shi, Xihang; Lin, Xiao; Gao, Zhen; Chong, Yidong; Zhang, Baile

    2015-03-01

    The manipulation of acoustic wave propagation in fluids has numerous applications, including some in everyday life. Acoustic technologies frequently develop in tandem with optics, using shared concepts such as waveguiding and metamedia. It is thus noteworthy that an entirely novel class of electromagnetic waves, known as "topological edge states," has recently been demonstrated. These are inspired by the electronic edge states occurring in topological insulators, and possess a striking and technologically promising property: the ability to travel in a single direction along a surface without backscattering, regardless of the existence of defects or disorder. Here, we develop an analogous theory of topological fluid acoustics, and propose a scheme for realizing topological edge states in an acoustic structure containing circulating fluids. The phenomenon of disorder-free one-way sound propagation, which does not occur in ordinary acoustic devices, may have novel applications for acoustic isolators, modulators, and transducers.

  13. Topological acoustics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Fei; Shi, Xihang; Lin, Xiao; Gao, Zhen; Chong, Yidong; Zhang, Baile

    2015-03-20

    The manipulation of acoustic wave propagation in fluids has numerous applications, including some in everyday life. Acoustic technologies frequently develop in tandem with optics, using shared concepts such as waveguiding and metamedia. It is thus noteworthy that an entirely novel class of electromagnetic waves, known as "topological edge states," has recently been demonstrated. These are inspired by the electronic edge states occurring in topological insulators, and possess a striking and technologically promising property: the ability to travel in a single direction along a surface without backscattering, regardless of the existence of defects or disorder. Here, we develop an analogous theory of topological fluid acoustics, and propose a scheme for realizing topological edge states in an acoustic structure containing circulating fluids. The phenomenon of disorder-free one-way sound propagation, which does not occur in ordinary acoustic devices, may have novel applications for acoustic isolators, modulators, and transducers. PMID:25839273

  14. Acoustic neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    Vestibular schwannoma; Tumor - acoustic; Cerebellopontine angle tumor; Angle tumor ... 177. Battista RA. Gamma knife radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma. Otolaryngol Clin North Am . 2009;42:635-654. ...

  15. Acoustic emission monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    Romrell, Delwin M.

    1977-07-05

    Methods and apparatus for identifying the source location of acoustic emissions generated within an acoustically conductive medium. A plurality of acoustic receivers are communicably coupled to the surface of the medium at a corresponding number of spaced locations. The differences in the reception time of the respective sensors in response to a given acoustic event are measured among various sensor combinations prescribed by the monitoring mode employed. Acoustic reception response encountered subsequent to the reception by a predetermined number of the prescribed sensor combinations are inhibited from being communicated to the processing circuitry, while the time measurements obtained from the prescribed sensor combinations are translated into a position measurement representative of the location on the surface most proximate the source of the emission. The apparatus is programmable to function in six separate and five distinct operating modes employing either two, three or four sensory locations. In its preferred arrangement the apparatus of this invention will re-initiate a monitoring interval if the predetermined number of sensors do not respond to a particular emission within a given time period.

  16. Musical Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, Colin

    This chapter provides an introduction to the physical and psycho-acoustic principles underlying the production and perception of the sounds of musical instruments. The first section introduces generic aspects of musical acoustics and the perception of musical sounds, followed by separate sections on string, wind and percussion instruments.

  17. DESORPTION OF PYRETHROIDS FROM SUSPENDED SOLIDS

    PubMed Central

    Fojut, Tessa L.; Young, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides have been widely detected in sediments at concentrations that can cause toxicity to aquatic organisms. Desorption rates play an important role in determining the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds, such as pyrethroids, because these compounds are more likely to be sorbed to solids in the environment and times to reach sorptive equilibrium can be long. In this study, sequential Tenax desorption experiments were performed with three sorbents, three aging times, and four pyrethroids. A biphasic rate model was fit to the desorption data with r2 > 0.99 and the rapid and slow compartment desorption rate constants and compartment fractions are reported. Suspended solids from irrigation runoff water collected from a field that had been sprayed with permethrin one day prior were used in the experiments to compare desorption rates for field-applied pyrethroids to those for laboratory-spiked materials. Suspended solids were used in desorption experiments because suspended solids can be a key source of hydrophobic compounds to surface waters. The rapid desorption rate parameters of field-applied permethrin were not statistically different than those of laboratory spiked permethrin, indicating that the desorption of the spiked pyrethroids is comparable to those added and aged in the field. Sorbent characteristics had the greatest effect on desorption rate parameters; as organic carbon content of the solids increased, the rapid desorption fractions and rapid desorption rate constants both decreased. The desorption rate constant of the slow compartment for sediment containing permethrin aged for 28 d was significantly different from those aged 1 d and 7 d, while desorption in the rapid and slow compartments did not differ between these treatments. PMID:21538493

  18. Stir-bar-sorptive extraction and liquid desorption combined with large-volume injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for ultra-trace analysis of musk compounds in environmental water matrices.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana Rita M; Nogueira, J M F

    2010-03-01

    Stir-bar-sorptive extraction with liquid desorption followed by large-volume injection and capillary gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring acquisition mode (SBSE-LD/LVI-GC-MS(SIM)) has been developed to monitor ultra-traces of four musks (celestolide (ADBI), galaxolide (HHCB), tonalide (AHTN) and musk ketone (MK)) in environmental water matrices. Instrumental calibration (LVI-GC-MS(SIM)) and experimental conditions that could affect the SBSE-LD efficiency are discussed. Assays performed on 30-mL water samples spiked at 200 ng L(-1) under optimized experimental conditions yielded recoveries ranging from 83.7 ± 8.1% (MK) to 107.6 ± 10.8% (HHCB). Furthermore, the experimental data were in very good agreement with predicted theoretical equilibria described by octanol-water partition coefficients (K (PDMS/W) ≈ K (O/W)). The methodology also showed excellent linear dynamic ranges for the four musks studied, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9961, limits of detection and quantification between 12 and 19 ng L(-1) and between 41 and 62 ng L(-1), respectively, and suitable precision (< 20%). Application of this method for analysis of the musks in real water matrices such as tap, river, sea, and urban wastewater samples resulted in convenient selectivity, high sensitivity and accuracy using the standard addition methodology. The proposed method (SBSE-LD/LVI-GC-MS(SIM)) was shown to be feasible and sensitive, with a low-sample volume requirement, for determination of musk compounds in environmental water matrices at the ultra-trace level, overcoming several disadvantages presented by other sample-preparation techniques. PMID:20049588

  19. Clinical feasibility study of combined opto-acoustic and ultrasonic imaging modality providing coregistered functional and anatomical maps of breast tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalev, Jason; Clingman, Bryan; Smith, Remie J.; Herzog, Don; Miller, Tom; Stavros, A. Thomas; Ermilov, Sergey; Conjusteau, André; Tsyboulski, Dmitri; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Kist, Kenneth; Dornbluth, N. C.; Otto, Pamela

    2013-03-01

    We report on findings from the clinical feasibility study of the ImagioTM. Breast Imaging System, which acquires two-dimensional opto-acoustic (OA) images co-registered with conventional ultrasound using a specialized duplex hand-held probe. Dual-wavelength opto-acoustic technology is used to generate parametric maps based upon total hemoglobin and its oxygen saturation in breast tissues. This may provide functional diagnostic information pertaining to tumor metabolism and microvasculature, which is complementary to morphological information obtained with conventional gray-scale ultrasound. We present co-registered opto-acoustic and ultrasonic images of malignant and benign tumors from a recent clinical feasibility study. The clinical results illustrate that the technology may have the capability to improve the efficacy of breast tumor diagnosis. In doing so, it may have the potential to reduce biopsies and to characterize cancers that were not seen well with conventional gray-scale ultrasound alone.

  20. Desorption kinetics of cesium from Fukushima soils.

    PubMed

    Murota, Kento; Saito, Takumi; Tanaka, Satoru

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the behaviors of Cs(+) in soils is crucial for evaluation of the impacts of disposal of soils contaminated by radiocesium, (137)Cs. The desorption rate of Cs(+) evaluated in relatively short periods of time may not be adequate for such a purpose. In this study, we investigated long-term desorption kinetics of (137)Cs and (133)Cs from soils collected in Fukushima Prefecture by batch desorption experiments in the presence of cation exchange resin as a sorbent. The sorbent can keep the concentration of Cs(+) in the aqueous phase low and prevent re-sorption of desorbed Cs(+). Up to 60% of (137)Cs was desorbed after 139 d in dilute KCl media, which was larger than the desorption by conventional short-term extraction with 1 M ammonium acetate. Desorption of (137)Cs continued even after this period. It was also found that high concentration of K(+) prevented desorption of Cs(+) in the initial stage of desorption, but the effect was alleviated with time. The desorbed fraction of stable Cs was smaller than that of (137)Cs. This indicated that (137)Cs may gradually move to more stable states in soils. The half-life of (137)Cs desorption from the slowest sorption site was estimated to be at least two years by a three-site desorption model. PMID:26773507

  1. Adsorption and desorption studies of cesium on sapphire surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Zavadil, K.R.; Ing, J.L.

    1993-12-01

    Adsorption/desorption were studied using combined surface analytical techniques. An approximate initial sticking coefficient for Cs on sapphire was measured using reflection mass spectrometry and found to be 0.9. Thermal Desorption Mass Spectrometry (TDMS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) were used to verify that a significant decrease in sticking coefficient occurs as the Cs coverage reaches a critical submonolayer value. TDMS analysis demonstrates that Cs is stabilized on a clean sapphire surface at temperatures (1200 K) in excess of the temperatures experienced by sapphire in a TOPAZ-2 thermionic fuel element (TFE). Surface contaminants on sapphire can enhance Cs adsorption relative to the clean surface. C contamination eliminates the high temperature state of Cs desorption found on clean sapphire but shifts the bulk of the C desorption from 400 to 620 K. Surface C is a difficult contaminant to remove from sapphire, requiring annealing above 1400 K. Whether Cs is stabilized on sapphire in a TFE environment will most likely depend on relation between surface contamination and surface structure.

  2. Thermal Programmed Desorption of C32 H 66

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisternas, M.; Del Campo, V.; Cabrera, A. L.; Volkmann, U. G.; Hansen, F. Y.; Taub, H.

    2011-03-01

    Alkanes are of interest as prototypes for more complex molecules and membranes. In this work we study the desorption kinetics of dotriacontane C32 adsorbed on Si O2 /Si substrate. We combine in our instrument High Resolution Ellipsometry (HRE) and Thermal Programmed Desorption (TPD). C32 monolayers were deposited in high vacuum from a Knudsen cell on the substrate, monitorizing sample thickness in situ with HRE. Film thickness was in the range of up to 100 AA, forming a parallel bilayer and perpendicular C32 layer. The Mass Spectrometer (RGA) of the TPD section was detecting the shift of the desorption peaks at different heating rates applied to the sample. The mass registered with the RGA was AMU 57 for parallel and perpendicular layers, due to the abundance of this mass value in the disintegration process of C32 in the mass spectrometers ionizer. Moreover, the AMU 57 signal does not interfere with other signals coming from residual gases in the vacuum chamber. The desorption energies obtained were ΔEdes = 11,9 kJ/mol for the perpendicular bilayer and ΔEdes = 23 ,5 kJ/mol for the parallel bilayer.

  3. Laser desorption in an ion trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Eiden, G.C.; Cisper, M.E.; Alexander, M.L.; Hemberger, P.H.; Nogar, N.S.

    1993-02-01

    Laser desorption in a ion-trap mass spectrometer shows significant promise for both qualitative and trace analysis. Several aspects of this methodology are discussed in this work. We previously demonstrated the generation of both negative and positive ions by laser desorption directly within a quadrupole ion trap. In the present work, we explore various combinations of d.c., r.f., and time-varying fields in order to optimize laser generated signals. In addition, we report on the application of this method to analyze samples containing compounds such as amines, metal complexes, carbon clusters, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. In some cases the ability to rapidly switch between positive and negative ion modes provides sufficient specificity to distinguish different compounds of a mixture with a single stage of mass spectrometry. In other experiments, we combined intensity variation studies with tandem mass spectrometry experiments and positive and negative ion detection to further enhance specificity.

  4. Room Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuttruff, Heinrich; Mommertz, Eckard

    The traditional task of room acoustics is to create or formulate conditions which ensure the best possible propagation of sound in a room from a sound source to a listener. Thus, objects of room acoustics are in particular assembly halls of all kinds, such as auditoria and lecture halls, conference rooms, theaters, concert halls or churches. Already at this point, it has to be pointed out that these conditions essentially depend on the question if speech or music should be transmitted; in the first case, the criterion for transmission quality is good speech intelligibility, in the other case, however, the success of room-acoustical efforts depends on other factors that cannot be quantified that easily, not least it also depends on the hearing habits of the listeners. In any case, absolutely "good acoustics" of a room do not exist.

  5. Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    ... slow growing tumor which arise primarily from the vestibular portion of the VIII cranial nerve and lie ... you have a "brain tumor" called acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma). You think you are the only one ...

  6. Underwater Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuperman, William A.; Roux, Philippe

    It is well underwater established that sound waves, compared to electromagnetic waves, propagate long distances in the ocean. Hence, in the ocean as opposed to air or a vacuum, one uses sound navigation and ranging (SONAR) instead navigation and ranging (SONAR) of radar, acoustic communication instead of radio, and acoustic imaging and tomography instead of microwave or optical imaging or X-ray tomography. Underwater acoustics is the science of sound in water (most commonly in the ocean) and encompasses not only the study of sound propagation, but also the masking of sound signals by interfering phenomenon and signal processing for extracting these signals from interference. This chapter we will present the basics physics of ocean acoustics and then discuss applications.

  7. Seamount acoustic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehlert, George W.

    The cover of the March 1 issue of Eos showed a time series of acoustic scattering above Southeast Hancock Seamount (29°48‧N, 178°05‧E) on July 17-18, 1984. In a comment on that cover Martin Hovland (Eos, August 2, p. 760) argued that gas or “other far reaching causes” may be involved in the observed acoustic signals. He favors a hypothesis that acoustic scattering observed above a seeping pockmark in the North Sea is a combination of bubbles, stable microbubbles, and pelagic organisms and infers that this may be a more general phenomenon and indeed plays a role in the attraction of organisms to seamounts

  8. Huge seafloor movements associated with the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake observed by GPS/acoustic combination technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, T.; Sato, M.; Ujihara, N.; Watanabe, S.; Fujita, M.; Mochizuki, M.; Asada, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department, Japan Coast Guard, have been developing precise seafloor positioning systems using the GPS/acoustic combination technique under technical cooperation with the Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo and carrying out campaign observations along the major trenches in the Pacific Ocean, such as the Japan Trench and the Nankai Trough. The primary purpose of these observations is to detect and monitor the crustal deformation caused by the subduction of the oceanic plate near the plate boundary where huge earthquakes repeatedly occur. On 11 March 2011, a large interplate earthquake [Mw = 9.0] occurred at the plate boundary off Miyagi Prefecture, northeastern Japan. Various studies have been under way to understand the mechanism of occurrence of this earthquake. For example, the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) has reported coseismic displacements on land, on the basis of the dense GPS network. The largest displacement has been detected at the Oshika peninsula, amounting to about 5 m toward ESE and about 1 m downward. Because the Oshika peninsula is located about 130 km away from the epicenter of the earthquake, it is preferable to measure crustal movements closer to the focal regions, that is, on the seafloor, to better constrain the focal mechanism of the event. In order to monitor crustal movements offshore, we have been carrying out seafloor geodetic observations. Five sea-floor reference points were installed off the Tohoku region between 2000 and 2004 with campaign observations carried out three times a year on average. After the event, we conducted observations at these sites. Comparison between before and after the event yielded coseismic displacements of 5 to 24 m toward ESE and -0.8 to 3 m upward. In particular, at reference point near the epicenter, we detected a huge coseismic displacement of about 24 m toward ESE and about 3 m upward. This is more than four times larger than that

  9. First-principles calculations of helium and neon desorption from cavities in silicon.

    PubMed

    Eddin, A Charaf; Pizzagalli, L

    2012-05-01

    Combining density functional theory, the nudged elastic band technique, and the ultradense fluid model, we investigated the desorption process of He and Ne in silicon. Our results show that the internal surfaces of gas-filled bubbles are not a limiting factor during desorption experiments, since the surface reconstruction opens diffusion paths easier than in the bulk. We show that the vibrational contribution to the energy of helium in the bulk has to be considered in order to determine realistic pressures in the bubbles, when comparing experiments and simulations. At the maximum of desorption, an average pressure of 1-2 GPa is computed. PMID:22481168

  10. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.

    1983-10-25

    This device relates to the concept of and means for performing Acoustic Emission Linear Pulse Holography, which combines the advantages of linear holographic imaging and Acoustic Emission into a single non-destructive inspection system. This unique system produces a chronological, linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. The innovation is the concept of utilizing the crack-generated acoustic emission energy to generate a chronological series of images of a growing crack by applying linear, pulse holographic processing to the acoustic emission data. The process is implemented by placing on a structure an array of piezoelectric sensors (typically 16 or 32 of them) near the defect location. A reference sensor is placed between the defect and the array.

  11. Integrated optical, acoustically tunable wavelength filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frangen, J.; Herrmann, H.; Ricken, R.; Seibert, H.; Sohler, W.

    1989-11-01

    A TM/TE convertor is combined with a TE-pass polarizer on a common LiNbO3 chip to obtain an integrated optical, acoustically tunable wavelength filter. Its tuning range is 1.45-1.57 micron wavelength with a filter half-width of 2.8 nm. Due to the combined acoustical/optical strip guide structure used in the mode convertor, a very low acoustic drive power of only 9 mW is required.

  12. Molecular dynamics calculations of nuclear stimulated desorption

    SciTech Connect

    Glikman, E.; Kelson, I. ); Doan, N.V. )

    1991-09-01

    Molecular dynamics calculations of nuclear stimulated desorption are carried out for a palladium crystal containing radioactive palladium atoms. The total desorption probability from various sites are computed, as well as the angular distribution of the desorbing atoms. The implications of the results to different experimental scenarios are discussed.

  13. Spiral Surface Growth without Desorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karma, Alain; Plapp, Mathis

    1998-11-01

    Spiral surface growth is well understood in the limit where the step motion is controlled by the local supersaturation of adatoms near the spiral ridge. In epitaxial thin-film growth, however, spirals can form in a step-flow regime where desorption of adatoms is negligible and the ridge dynamics is governed by the nonlocal diffusion field of adatoms on the whole surface. We investigate this limit numerically using a phase-field formulation of the Burton-Cabrera-Frank model, as well as analytically. Quantitative predictions, which differ strikingly from those of the local limit, are made for the selected step spacing as a function of the deposition flux, as well as for the dependence of the relaxation time to steady-state growth on the screw dislocation density.

  14. Desorption kinetics of {H}/{Mo(211) }

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopinski, G. P.; Prybyla, J. A.; Estrup, P. J.

    1994-08-01

    The desorption kinetics of the {H}/{Mo(211) } chemisorption system were studied by thermal desorption and measurement of adsorption isobars. Analysis of the steady-state measurements permits the independent determination of the desorption energy ( Ed) and prefactor ( v). These quantities are found to depend strongly on coverage, with ( Ed) varying continuously from 145 {kJ}/{mol} at low coverage to 65 {kJ}/{mol} near saturation. Three regions of hydrogen adsorption are clearly indicated by the isobars as well as the thermal desorption traces. These regions can be correlated with structural changes observed previously with HREELS and LEED. The coverage dependence of the kinetic parameters is attributed to hydrogen-induced local distortions of the substrate structure. By relating the desorption energy to the isosteric heat the partial molar entropy is also extracted from the data and indicates localized adsorption as well as significant adsorbate-induced changes in the substrate degrees of freedom.

  15. Acoustic biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Ronen; Seshia, Ashwin A.

    2016-01-01

    Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of cost, size and scalability, as well as potential additional features including integration with microfluidics and electronics, scaled sensitivities associated with smaller dimensions and higher operational frequencies, the ability to multiplex detection across arrays of hundreds of devices embedded in a single chip, increased throughput and the ability to interrogate a wider range of modes including within the same device. Additionally, device fabrication is often compatible with semiconductor volume batch manufacturing techniques enabling cost scalability and a high degree of precision and reproducibility in the manufacturing process. Integration with microfluidics handling also enables suitable sample pre-processing/separation/purification/amplification steps that could improve selectivity and the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Three device types are reviewed here: (i) bulk acoustic wave sensors, (ii) surface acoustic wave sensors, and (iii) micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) sensors. PMID:27365040

  16. Acoustic biosensors.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2016-06-30

    Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of cost, size and scalability, as well as potential additional features including integration with microfluidics and electronics, scaled sensitivities associated with smaller dimensions and higher operational frequencies, the ability to multiplex detection across arrays of hundreds of devices embedded in a single chip, increased throughput and the ability to interrogate a wider range of modes including within the same device. Additionally, device fabrication is often compatible with semiconductor volume batch manufacturing techniques enabling cost scalability and a high degree of precision and reproducibility in the manufacturing process. Integration with microfluidics handling also enables suitable sample pre-processing/separation/purification/amplification steps that could improve selectivity and the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Three device types are reviewed here: (i) bulk acoustic wave sensors, (ii) surface acoustic wave sensors, and (iii) micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) sensors. PMID:27365040

  17. Acoustic methodology review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    It is important for industry and NASA to assess the status of acoustic design technology for predicting and controlling helicopter external noise in order for a meaningful research program to be formulated which will address this problem. The prediction methodologies available to the designer and the acoustic engineer are three-fold. First is what has been described as a first principle analysis. This analysis approach attempts to remove any empiricism from the analysis process and deals with a theoretical mechanism approach to predicting the noise. The second approach attempts to combine first principle methodology (when available) with empirical data to formulate source predictors which can be combined to predict vehicle levels. The third is an empirical analysis, which attempts to generalize measured trends into a vehicle noise prediction method. This paper will briefly address each.

  18. Integrated Optical, Acoustically Tunable Wavelength Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frangen, J.; Herrmann, Harald; Ricken, Raimund; Seibert, Holger; Sohler, Wolfgang; Strake, E.

    1989-12-01

    An integrated optical, acoustically tunable wavelength filter, consisting of a combination of TM-TE converter and integrated polarizer in LiNbO3, is demonstrated. The filter bandwidth is 2.8 nm; the center wavelength can be tuned from λ = 1.45 pm to λ = 1.57 pm by adjusting the driving acoustic frequency. Due to the combined acoustical/optical strip guide structure, used in the mode converter, a very low acoustic drive power of only 9 mW is required.

  19. Granular acoustic switches and logic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Anzel, Paul; Yang, Jinkyu; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Daraio, Chiara

    2014-10-01

    Electrical flow control devices are fundamental components in electrical appliances and computers; similarly, optical switches are essential in a number of communication, computation and quantum information-processing applications. An acoustic counterpart would use an acoustic (mechanical) signal to control the mechanical energy flow through a solid material. Although earlier research has demonstrated acoustic diodes or circulators, no acoustic switches with wide operational frequency ranges and controllability have been realized. Here we propose and demonstrate an acoustic switch based on a driven chain of spherical particles with a nonlinear contact force. We experimentally and numerically verify that this switching mechanism stems from a combination of nonlinearity and bandgap effects. We also realize the OR and AND acoustic logic elements by exploiting the nonlinear dynamical effects of the granular chain. We anticipate these results to enable the creation of novel acoustic devices for the control of mechanical energy flow in high-performance ultrasonic devices.

  20. [Desorption isotherms in amaranth flours].

    PubMed

    Alvarado, J D; Toaza, E; Coloma, G

    1990-09-01

    In milled seeds amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus) samples locally known as "ataco or sangoracha" and harvested in two consecutive years, the vapor pressure at four temperatures (15 degrees, 20 degrees, 25 degrees, 30 degrees C) was determined in samples obtained for drying in oven at different times, within a range between 60 g water/100 g dry matter for fresh seeds to 10 g water/100 g dry matter or below, as measured in a Brabender equipment. Vapor pressure of distilled water was also determined for water activity calculation. The isotherms for each temperature are presented. Application of the G.A.B. model (Guggenheim-Anderson-De Boer) allowed to establish the water content of greater stability within a range of 9.9 to 7.6 g/100 g. The third degree polynomial equations presented, adjust satisfactorily with the experimental data, and can be used to calculate equilibrium moisture content from 0.15 to 0.95 water activity values. Water desorption isotherms of foods are important to determine the equilibrium relationship between the moisture content of foods and the water activity, information which permits to establish likely physical, chemical or biological changes. It is considered that the results obtained are useful in drying, milling or storing amaranth flour. PMID:2134142

  1. State resolved desorption measurements as a probe of surface reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, A.

    2000-01-01

    Surface reactions which lead directly to gas phase products can be investigated by using state resolved techniques to measure the energy released into the newly formed molecules. This technique has been used extensively to explore oxidation of CO and the dynamics of H 2 recombinative desorption at surfaces, but so far has been applied to few other reactions. Here we review the application of final state measurements and discuss the conditions under which dynamical information can be obtained for Langmuir-Hinshelwood type surface reactions. Combining resonance enhanced multiphoton ionisation with ion time of flight detection allows translational energy distributions to be measured for a wide range of products, with full quantum state resolution. The energy release reflects scattering from a thermally populated transition state, with the recombination dynamics determining how the product state distributions depart from a thermal distribution at the surface temperature. Using the principle of detailed balance the desorption dynamics can be related to the reverse process, dissociative chemisorption. Making the link between adsorption and desorption has two benefits. Firstly, it allows us to discuss quantitatively the influence of surface temperature on the product state distributions formed by surface reactions, allowing us to avoid naive models, which treat the transition state as having a unique, well-defined energy. Secondly, the desorption results can be used to obtain relative sticking probabilities with full quantum state and translational energy resolution, providing a way to determine how internal energy influences dissociation for both hydrogen and for heavy molecules, such as nitrogen. The conditions necessary to apply detailed balance successfully are discussed and the desorption distributions expected for different types of adsorption behaviour illustrated. The recombination/dissociation dynamics of hydrogen are summarised briefly and the energy

  2. Acoustic asymmetric transmission based on time-dependent dynamical scattering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; Yang, Yang; Ni, Xu; Xu, Ye-Long; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Chen, Ze-Guo; Feng, Liang; Liu, Xiao-ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2015-01-01

    An acoustic asymmetric transmission device exhibiting unidirectional transmission property for acoustic waves is extremely desirable in many practical scenarios. Such a unique property may be realized in various configurations utilizing acoustic Zeeman effects in moving media as well as frequency-conversion in passive nonlinear acoustic systems and in active acoustic systems. Here we demonstrate a new acoustic frequency conversion process in a time-varying system, consisting of a rotating blade and the surrounding air. The scattered acoustic waves from this time-varying system experience frequency shifts, which are linearly dependent on the blade’s rotating frequency. Such scattering mechanism can be well described theoretically by an acoustic linear time-varying perturbation theory. Combining such time-varying scattering effects with highly efficient acoustic filtering, we successfully develop a tunable acoustic unidirectional device with 20 dB power transmission contrast ratio between two counter propagation directions at audible frequencies. PMID:26038886

  3. Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry: Coming of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the history and development of Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry to determine molecular weights and structures of proteins and polymers. Outlines theory, instrumentation, and sample preparation commonly used. Gives several examples of resulting spectra. (ML)

  4. Hydrogen desorption from hydrogen fluoride and remote hydrogen plasma cleaned silicon carbide (0001) surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    King, Sean W. Tanaka, Satoru; Davis, Robert F.; Nemanich, Robert J.

    2015-09-15

    Due to the extreme chemical inertness of silicon carbide (SiC), in-situ thermal desorption is commonly utilized as a means to remove surface contamination prior to initiating critical semiconductor processing steps such as epitaxy, gate dielectric formation, and contact metallization. In-situ thermal desorption and silicon sublimation has also recently become a popular method for epitaxial growth of mono and few layer graphene. Accordingly, numerous thermal desorption experiments of various processed silicon carbide surfaces have been performed, but have ignored the presence of hydrogen, which is ubiquitous throughout semiconductor processing. In this regard, the authors have performed a combined temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) investigation of the desorption of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and various other oxygen, carbon, and fluorine related species from ex-situ aqueous hydrogen fluoride (HF) and in-situ remote hydrogen plasma cleaned 6H-SiC (0001) surfaces. Using XPS, the authors observed that temperatures on the order of 700–1000 °C are needed to fully desorb C-H, C-O and Si-O species from these surfaces. However, using TPD, the authors observed H{sub 2} desorption at both lower temperatures (200–550 °C) as well as higher temperatures (>700 °C). The low temperature H{sub 2} desorption was deconvoluted into multiple desorption states that, based on similarities to H{sub 2} desorption from Si (111), were attributed to silicon mono, di, and trihydride surface species as well as hydrogen trapped by subsurface defects, steps, or dopants. The higher temperature H{sub 2} desorption was similarly attributed to H{sub 2} evolved from surface O-H groups at ∼750 °C as well as the liberation of H{sub 2} during Si-O desorption at temperatures >800 °C. These results indicate that while ex-situ aqueous HF processed 6H-SiC (0001) surfaces annealed at <700 °C remain terminated by some surface C–O and

  5. Surface Electronic Spectra Detected by Atomic Desorption

    SciTech Connect

    Joly, Alan G.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Henyk, Matthias; Hess, Wayne P.; Sushko, Petr V.; Shluger, Alexander L.

    2003-10-10

    Using continuously tunable laser excitation of KI we measure the velocity profiles and the yield of desorbing hyperthermal iodine atoms as a function of photon energy. Based on the theoretical model of desorption we demonstrate that these spectra display a signature of a surface exciton and constitute a new sensitive method of surface specific desorption spectroscopy. Our results demonstrate that creation of surface excitions can be a much more general phenomenon than was previously thought based on extant spectroscopic measurements.

  6. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummer, Steven A.; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales. The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create effective material properties that are not possible with passive structures and have led to the development of dynamically reconfigurable, loss-compensating and parity-time-symmetric materials for sound manipulation. Challenges remain, including the development of efficient techniques for fabricating large-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview of future directions in the field.

  7. Effect of equilibration time on Pu desorption from goethite

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Jennifer C.; Zavarin, Mavrik; Begg, James D.; Kersting, Annie B.; Powell, Brian A.

    2015-01-28

    Strongly sorbing ions such as plutonium may become irreversibly bound to mineral surfaces over time implicates near- and far-field transport of Pu. Batch adsorption–desorption data were collected as a function of time and pH to study the surface stability of Pu on goethite. Pu(IV) was adsorbed to goethite over the pH range 4.2 to 6.6 for different periods of time (1, 6, 15, 34 and 116 d). Moreover, following adsorption, Pu was leached from the mineral surface with desferrioxamine B (DFOB), a complexant capable of effectively competing with the goethite surface for Pu. The amount of Pu desorbed from the goethite was found to vary as a function of the adsorption equilibration time, with less Pu removed from the goethite following longer adsorption periods. This effect was most pronounced at low pH. Logarithmic desorption distribution ratios for each adsorption equilibration time were fit to a pH-dependent model. Model slopes decreased between 1 and 116 d adsorption time, indicating that overall Pu(IV) surface stability on goethite surfaces becomes less dependent on pH with greater adsorption equilibration time. The combination of adsorption and desorption kinetic data suggest that non-redox aging processes affect Pu sorption behavior on goethite.

  8. Effect of equilibration time on Pu desorption from goethite

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wong, Jennifer C.; Zavarin, Mavrik; Begg, James D.; Kersting, Annie B.; Powell, Brian A.

    2015-01-28

    Strongly sorbing ions such as plutonium may become irreversibly bound to mineral surfaces over time implicates near- and far-field transport of Pu. Batch adsorption–desorption data were collected as a function of time and pH to study the surface stability of Pu on goethite. Pu(IV) was adsorbed to goethite over the pH range 4.2 to 6.6 for different periods of time (1, 6, 15, 34 and 116 d). Moreover, following adsorption, Pu was leached from the mineral surface with desferrioxamine B (DFOB), a complexant capable of effectively competing with the goethite surface for Pu. The amount of Pu desorbed from the goethitemore » was found to vary as a function of the adsorption equilibration time, with less Pu removed from the goethite following longer adsorption periods. This effect was most pronounced at low pH. Logarithmic desorption distribution ratios for each adsorption equilibration time were fit to a pH-dependent model. Model slopes decreased between 1 and 116 d adsorption time, indicating that overall Pu(IV) surface stability on goethite surfaces becomes less dependent on pH with greater adsorption equilibration time. The combination of adsorption and desorption kinetic data suggest that non-redox aging processes affect Pu sorption behavior on goethite.« less

  9. Acoustic transducer for acoustic microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.; Chou, Ching H.

    1990-01-01

    A shear acoustic transducer-lens system in which a shear polarized piezoelectric material excites shear polarized waves at one end of a buffer rod having a lens at the other end which excites longitudinal waves in a coupling medium by mode conversion at selected locations on the lens.

  10. Acoustic transducer for acoustic microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Khuri-Yakub, B.T.; Chou, C.H.

    1990-03-20

    A shear acoustic transducer-lens system is described in which a shear polarized piezoelectric material excites shear polarized waves at one end of a buffer rod having a lens at the other end which excites longitudinal waves in a coupling medium by mode conversion at selected locations on the lens. 9 figs.

  11. Acoustic 3D imaging of dental structures

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.K.; Hume, W.R.; Douglass, G.D.

    1997-02-01

    Our goals for the first year of this three dimensional electodynamic imaging project was to determine how to combine flexible, individual addressable; preprocessing of array source signals; spectral extrapolation or received signals; acoustic tomography codes; and acoustic propagation modeling code. We investigated flexible, individually addressable acoustic array material to find the best match in power, sensitivity and cost and settled on PVDF sheet arrays and 3-1 composite material.

  12. ACOUSTIC LINERS FOR TURBOFAN ENGINES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minner, G. L.

    1994-01-01

    This program was developed to design acoustic liners for turbofan engines. This program combines results from theoretical models of wave alternation in acoustically treated passages with experimental data from full-scale fan noise suppressors. By including experimentally obtained information, the program accounts for real effects such as wall boundary layers, duct terminations, and sound modal structure. The program has its greatest use in generating a number of design specifications to be used for evaluation of trade-offs. The program combines theoretical and empirical data in designing annular acoustic liners. First an estimate of the noise output of the fan is made based on basic fan aerodynamic design variables. Then, using a target noise spectrum after alternation and the estimated fan noise spectrum, a design spectrum is calculated as their difference. Next, the design spectrum is combined with knowledge of acoustic liner performance and the liner design variables to specify the acoustic design. Details of the liner design are calculated by combining the required acoustic impedance with a mathematical model relating acoustic impedance to the physical structure of the liner. Input to the noise prediction part of the program consists of basic fan operating parameters, distance that the target spectrum is to be measured and the target spectrum. The liner design portion of the program requires the required alternation spectrum, desired values of length to height and several option selection parameters. Output from the noise prediction portion is a noise spectrum consisting of discrete tones and broadband noise. This may be used as input to the liner design portion of the program. The liner design portion of the program produces backing depths, open area ratios, and face plate thicknesses. This program is written in FORTRAN V and has been implemented in batch mode on a UNIVAC 1100 series computer with a central memory requirement of 12K (decimal) of 36 bit words.

  13. Medical Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Kirk; Dunmire, Barbrina

    Medical acoustics can be subdivided into diagnostics and therapy. Diagnostics are further separated into auditory and ultrasonic methods, and both employ low amplitudes. Therapy (excluding medical advice) uses ultrasound for heating, cooking, permeablizing, activating and fracturing tissues and structures within the body, usually at much higher amplitudes than in diagnostics. Because ultrasound is a wave, linear wave physics are generally applicable, but recently nonlinear effects have become more important, even in low-intensity diagnostic applications.

  14. Acoustic chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Lauterborn, W.; Parlitz, U.; Holzfuss, J.; Billo, A.; Akhatov, I.

    1996-06-01

    Acoustic cavitation, a complex, spatio-temporal dynamical system, is investigated with respect to its chaotic properties. The sound output, the {open_quote}{open_quote}noise{close_quote}{close_quote}, is subjected to time series analysis. The spatial dynamics of the bubble filaments is captured by high speed holographic cinematography and subsequent digital picture processing from the holograms. Theoretical models are put forward for describing the pattern formation. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. A New Approach to Simulate the Kinetics of Metal Desorption from Mineral Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinnacher, R. M.; Powell, B. A.; Kersting, A. B.; Zavarin, M.

    2010-12-01

    The relevance of colloid-facilitated metal transport is largely dependent on metal sorption/desorption kinetics and the degree of reversibility of metal surface binding. Thus, transport predictions need to incorporate modeling concepts that can simulate time- and history-dependent surface processes on the microscale. In this study, we characterized the sorption and desorption kinetics of neptunium(V) reactions on goethite in a flow-cell experiment. Modeling was used to evaluate differences between sorption and desorption kinetics in terms of aging, hysteresis, and ‘irreversible’ sorption. First, aging represents a series of surface-chemical processes on the microscale that lead to changes in contaminant surface speciation over time. Second, hysteresis effects indicate fundamental, chemical differences in the microscopic pathways of reactions for net sorption and desorption processes. Both phenomena may result in a sorbed contaminant fraction that is not readily available for exchange with the solution phase (apparent irreversible sorption). Most currently available kinetic sorption/desorption models incorporate fundamental changes in adsorption and desorption behavior indirectly, e.g., by postulating surface sites with different kinetic rates or ‘irreversible’ sorption behavior. We propose a new approach that allows for the specific incorporation of changes in overall reaction pathways for (ad)sorption and desorption processes. Based on experimental results, observed rates for Np(V) desorption from goethite are substantially slower than for (ad)sorption processes. Differences in metal sorption and desorption kinetics can be simulated with a minimum number of fitting parameters by combining isotherm-based sorption rate laws with a modeling concept related to transition state theory (TST). This concept is based on the assumption that changes in reaction pathways for (ad)sorption and desorption processes lead to differences in overall driving forces and

  16. Acoustic Tooth Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Acoustically-energized water jet aids in plaque breakdown. Acoustic Wand includes acoustic transducer 1/4 wave plate, and tapered cone. Together elements energize solution of water containing mild abrasive injected into mouth to help prevent calculous buildup.

  17. Porous silicon bulk acoustic wave resonator with integrated transducer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We report that porous silicon acoustic Bragg reflectors and AlN-based transducers can be successfully combined and processed in a commercial solidly mounted resonator production line. The resulting device takes advantage of the unique acoustic properties of porous silicon in order to form a monolithically integrated bulk acoustic wave resonator. PMID:22776697

  18. Adsorption-Desorption Kinetics of Soft Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osberg, Brendan; Nuebler, Johannes; Gerland, Ulrich

    2015-08-01

    Adsorption-desorption processes are ubiquitous in physics, chemistry, and biology. Models usually assume hard particles, but within the realm of soft matter physics the adsorbing particles are compressible. A minimal 1D model reveals that softness fundamentally changes the kinetics: Below the desorption time scale, a logarithmic increase of the particle density replaces the usual Rényi jamming plateau, and the subsequent relaxation to equilibrium can be nonmonotonic and much faster than for hard particles. These effects will impact the kinetics of self-assembly and reaction-diffusion processes.

  19. Diffusion Analysis Of Hydrogen-Desorption Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, Merlin D.

    1988-01-01

    Distribution of hydrogen in metal explains observed desorption rate. Report describes application of diffusion theory to anaylsis of experimental data on uptake and elimination of hydrogen in high-strength alloys of 25 degree C. Study part of program aimed at understanding embrittlement of metals by hydrogen. Two nickel-base alloys, Rene 41 and Waspaloy, and one ferrous alloy, 4340 steel, studied. Desorption of hydrogen explained by distribution of hydrogen in metal. "Fast" hydrogen apparently not due to formation of hydrides on and below surface as proposed.

  20. BEAM PIPE DESORPTION RATE IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    HUANG, H.; FISCHER, W.; HE, P.; HSEUH, H.C.; IRISO, U.; PTITSYN, V.; TRBOJEVIC, D.; WEI, J.; YANG, S.Y.

    2006-06-23

    In the past, an increase of beam intensity in RHIC has caused several decades of pressure rises in the warm sections during operation. This has been a major factor limiting the RHIC luminosity. About 430 meters of NEG coated beam pipes have been installed in the warm sections to ameliorate this problem. Beam ion induced desorption is one possible cause of pressure rises. A series beam studies in RHIC has been dedicated to estimate the desorption rate of various beam pipes (regular and NEG coated) at various warm sections. Correctors were used to generate local beam losses and consequently local pressure rises. The experimental results are presented and analyzed in this paper.

  1. Electronic Desorption of gas from metals

    SciTech Connect

    Molvik, A W; Kollmus, H; Mahner, E; Covo, M K; Bender, M; Bieniosek, F M; Kramer, A; Kwan, J; Prost, L; Seidl, P A; Westenskow, G

    2006-11-02

    During heavy ion operation in several particle accelerators world-wide, dynamic pressure rises of orders of magnitude were triggered by lost beam ions that bombarded the vacuum chamber walls. This ion-induced molecular desorption, observed at CERN, GSI, and BNL, can seriously limit the ion beam lifetime and intensity of the accelerator. From dedicated test stand experiments we have discovered that heavy-ion induced gas desorption scales with the electronic energy loss (dE{sub e}/dx) of the ions slowing down in matter; but it varies only little with the ion impact angle, unlike electronic sputtering.

  2. 3D electrostatic charge distribution on finitely thick busbars in micro-acoustic devices: combined regularization in the near- and far-field.

    PubMed

    Baghai-Wadji, Alireza

    2015-06-01

    The original work for 3-D charge distributions in micro-acoustic devices has been manifestly extended to account for finitely thick busbars. The work has been initiated to create a platform for simulating the electric charge localization and field enhancement at the electrode/busbar gaps depending on the thickness of the metalization in submicrometer geometries. A recipe for the construction of relevant Green's functions has been provided. A universal function (UF) for setting up system matrices in the method-of-moments' implementations has been constructed. Universal functions (moments of Green's functions) are by construction highly smooth and easy to compute. This work also presents a comprehensive completion of earlier work. For the first time, the calculation of the UF for a 3-D problem has been presented in great detail, highlighting the underlying regularization techniques. It is shown that the singular Fourier-type integrals involved can be regularized simultaneously in the near- and far-field. The pinnacle of the work is the detailed demonstration of the property that Hadamard's finite part regularization naturally arises in the construction of UFs. Three lemmata facilitate the understanding of the underlying concepts. PMID:26067048

  3. Sounding out erosion on the Mekong river banks: insights from combined terrestrial laser scanning, multibeam echo sounding and acoustic Doppler profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, J.; Hackney, C. R.; Leyland, J.; Darby, S. E.; Parsons, D. R.; Aalto, R. E.; Nicholas, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of bank erosion processes and rates along very large rivers remains incomplete, primarily due to the difficulties of obtaining morphological and flow data close to the bank across various flow stages. Moreover, obtaining such process information through the entire flow and bank depth has also proved challenging. Here, we present data from a series of high spatial resolution topographic (Terrestrial Laser Scanner and Multibeam Echo Sounder) and flow (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) surveys undertaken on the Mekong River, Cambodia, which reveal the temporal and spatial evolution of a series of embayments on the outer bank of a large meander. These techniques yield unique data that reveal how the flow field responds to the morphology of the outer bank and subaqueous slump blocks. Specifically, we show that in the early stage of embayment growth, deposited slump blocks induce flow upwelling and bank-directed flow that enhances bank erosion. Our data also suggest that as the initial erosion process continues, a threshold embayment size is reached. Below this threshold, flow separation acts to enhance embayment growth along with the fluid dynamic effects of slump blocks, but above the threshold size, the separation zone in the embayments acts as a protective layer, thus slowing erosion. This field data allows proposition of a new conceptual model of embayment evolution.

  4. Quantifying fluxes and characterizing compositional changes of dissolved organic matter in aquatic systems in situ using combined acoustic and optical measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Downing, B.D.; Boss, E.; Bergamaschi, B.A.; Fleck, J.A.; Lionberger, M.A.; Ganju, N.K.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Fujii, R.

    2009-01-01

    Studying the dynamics and geochemical behavior of dissolved and particulate organic material is difficult because concentration and composition may rapidly change in response to aperiodic as well as periodic physical and biological forcing. Here we describe a method useful for quantifying fluxes and analyzing dissolved organic matter (DOM) dynamics. The method uses coupled optical and acoustic measurements that provide robust quantitative estimates of concentrations and constituent characteristics needed to investigate processes and calculate fluxes of DOM in tidal and other lotic environments. Data were collected several times per hour for 2 weeks or more, with the frequency and duration limited only by power consumption and data storage capacity. We assessed the capabilities and limitations of the method using data from a winter deployment in a natural tidal wetland of the San Francisco Bay estuary. We used statistical correlation of in situ optical data with traditional laboratory analyses of discrete water samples to calibrate optical properties suited as proxies for DOM concentrations and characterizations. Coupled with measurements of flow velocity, we calculated long-term residual horizontal fluxes of DOC into and out from a tidal wetland. Subsampling the dataset provides an estimate for the maximum sampling interval beyond which the error in flux estimate is significantly increased.?? 2009, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  5. Laser induced surface acoustic wave combined with phase sensitive optical coherence tomography for superficial tissue characterization: a solution for practical application

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunhui; Guan, Guangying; Zhang, Fan; Nabi, Ghulam; Wang, Ruikang K.; Huang, Zhihong

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical properties are important parameters that can be used to assess the physiologic conditions of biologic tissue. Measurements and mapping of tissue mechanical properties can aid in the diagnosis, characterisation and treatment of diseases. As a non-invasive, non-destructive and non-contact method, laser induced surface acoustic waves (SAWs) have potential to accurately characterise tissue elastic properties. However, challenge still exists when the laser is directly applied to the tissue because of potential heat generation due to laser energy deposition. This paper focuses on the thermal effect of the laser induced SAW on the tissue target and provides an alternate solution to facilitate its application in clinic environment. The solution proposed is to apply a thin agar membrane as surface shield to protect the tissue. Transient thermal analysis is developed and verified by experiments to study the effects of the high energy Nd:YAG laser pulse on the surface shield. The approach is then verified by measuring the mechanical property of skin in a Thiel mouse model. The results demonstrate a useful step toward the practical application of laser induced SAW method for measuring real elasticity of normal and diseased tissues in dermatology and other surface epithelia. PMID:24877004

  6. Acoustic transducer

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1997-12-30

    An acoustic transducer is described comprising a one-piece hollow mandrel into the outer surface of which is formed a recess with sides perpendicular to the central axis of the mandrel and separated by a first distance and with a bottom parallel to the central axis and within which recess are a plurality of washer-shaped discs of a piezoelectric material and at least one disc of a temperature-compensating material with the discs being captured between the sides of the recess in a pre-stressed interference fit, typically at 2,000 psi of compressive stress. The transducer also includes a power supply and means to connect to a measurement device. The transducer is intended to be used for telemetry between a measurement device located downhole in an oil or gas well and the surface. The transducer is of an construction that is stronger with fewer joints that could leak fluids into the recess holding the piezoelectric elements than is found in previous acoustic transducers. 4 figs.

  7. Acoustic transducer

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    1997-01-01

    An acoustic transducer comprising a one-piece hollow mandrel into the outer surface of which is formed a recess with sides perpendicular to the central axis of the mandrel and separated by a first distance and with a bottom parallel to the central axis and within which recess are a plurality of washer-shaped discs of a piezoelectric material and at least one disc of a temperature-compensating material with the discs being captured between the sides of the recess in a pre-stressed interference fit, typically at 2000 psi of compressive stress. The transducer also includes a power supply and means to connect to a measurement device. The transducer is intended to be used for telemetry between a measurement device located downhole in an oil or gas well and the surface. The transducer is of an construction that is stronger with fewer joints that could leak fluids into the recess holding the piezoelectric elements than is found in previous acoustic transducers.

  8. Wireless Acoustic Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Paul D.; Dorland, Wade D.; Jolly, Ronald L.

    2007-01-01

    A prototype wireless acoustic measurement system (WAMS) is one of two main subsystems of the Acoustic Prediction/ Measurement Tool, which comprises software, acoustic instrumentation, and electronic hardware combined to afford integrated capabilities for predicting and measuring noise emitted by rocket and jet engines. The other main subsystem is described in the article on page 8. The WAMS includes analog acoustic measurement instrumentation and analog and digital electronic circuitry combined with computer wireless local-area networking to enable (1) measurement of sound-pressure levels at multiple locations in the sound field of an engine under test and (2) recording and processing of the measurement data. At each field location, the measurements are taken by a portable unit, denoted a field station. There are ten field stations, each of which can take two channels of measurements. Each field station is equipped with two instrumentation microphones, a micro- ATX computer, a wireless network adapter, an environmental enclosure, a directional radio antenna, and a battery power supply. The environmental enclosure shields the computer from weather and from extreme acoustically induced vibrations. The power supply is based on a marine-service lead-acid storage battery that has enough capacity to support operation for as long as 10 hours. A desktop computer serves as a control server for the WAMS. The server is connected to a wireless router for communication with the field stations via a wireless local-area network that complies with wireless-network standard 802.11b of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The router and the wireless network adapters are controlled by use of Linux-compatible driver software. The server runs custom Linux software for synchronizing the recording of measurement data in the field stations. The software includes a module that provides an intuitive graphical user interface through which an operator at the control server

  9. Wireless Acoustic Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Paul D.; Dorland, Wade D.

    2005-01-01

    A prototype wireless acoustic measurement system (WAMS) is one of two main subsystems of the Acoustic Prediction/Measurement Tool, which comprises software, acoustic instrumentation, and electronic hardware combined to afford integrated capabilities for predicting and measuring noise emitted by rocket and jet engines. The other main subsystem is described in "Predicting Rocket or Jet Noise in Real Time" (SSC-00215-1), which appears elsewhere in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. The WAMS includes analog acoustic measurement instrumentation and analog and digital electronic circuitry combined with computer wireless local-area networking to enable (1) measurement of sound-pressure levels at multiple locations in the sound field of an engine under test and (2) recording and processing of the measurement data. At each field location, the measurements are taken by a portable unit, denoted a field station. There are ten field stations, each of which can take two channels of measurements. Each field station is equipped with two instrumentation microphones, a micro-ATX computer, a wireless network adapter, an environmental enclosure, a directional radio antenna, and a battery power supply. The environmental enclosure shields the computer from weather and from extreme acoustically induced vibrations. The power supply is based on a marine-service lead-acid storage battery that has enough capacity to support operation for as long as 10 hours. A desktop computer serves as a control server for the WAMS. The server is connected to a wireless router for communication with the field stations via a wireless local-area network that complies with wireless-network standard 802.11b of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The router and the wireless network adapters are controlled by use of Linux-compatible driver software. The server runs custom Linux software for synchronizing the recording of measurement data in the field stations. The software includes a module that

  10. MEMS Based Acoustic Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheplak, Mark (Inventor); Nishida, Toshikaza (Inventor); Humphreys, William M. (Inventor); Arnold, David P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention described and shown in the specification aid drawings include a combination responsive to an acoustic wave that can be utilized as a dynamic pressure sensor. In one embodiment of the present invention, the combination has a substrate having a first surface and an opposite second surface, a microphone positioned on the first surface of the substrate and having an input and a first output and a second output, wherein the input receives a biased voltage, and the microphone generates an output signal responsive to the acoustic wave between the first output and the second output. The combination further has an amplifier positioned on the first surface of the substrate and having a first input and a second input and an output, wherein the first input of the amplifier is electrically coupled to the first output of the microphone and the second input of the amplifier is electrically coupled to the second output of the microphone for receiving the output sinual from the microphone. The amplifier is spaced from the microphone with a separation smaller than 0.5 mm.

  11. North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Worcester, Peter F; Spindel, Robert C

    2005-03-01

    A series of long-range acoustic propagation experiments have been conducted in the North Pacific Ocean during the last 15 years using various combinations of low-frequency, wide-bandwidth transmitters and horizontal and vertical line array receivers, including a 2-dimensional array with a maximum vertical aperture of 1400 m and a horizontal aperture of 3600 m. These measurements were undertaken to further our understanding of the physics of low-frequency, broadband propagation and the effects of environmental variability on signal stability and coherence. In this volume some of the results are presented. In the present paper the central issues these experiments have addressed are briefly summarized. PMID:15810685

  12. Existence and stability of alternative ion-acoustic solitary wave solution of the combined MKdV-KdV-ZK equation in a magnetized nonthermal plasma consisting of warm adiabatic ions

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Jayasree; Bandyopadhyay, Anup; Das, K. P.

    2007-09-15

    The purpose of this paper is to present the recent work of Das et al. [J. Plasma Phys. 72, 587 (2006)] on the existence and stability of the alternative solitary wave solution of fixed width of the combined MKdV-KdV-ZK (Modified Korteweg-de Vries-Korteweg-de Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov) equation for the ion-acoustic wave in a magnetized nonthermal plasma consisting of warm adiabatic ions in a more generalized form. Here we derive the alternative solitary wave solution of variable width instead of fixed width of the combined MKdV-KdV-ZK equation along with the condition for its existence and find that this solution assumes the sech profile of the MKdV-ZK (Modified Korteweg-de Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov) equation, when the coefficient of the nonlinear term of the KdV-ZK (Korteweg-de Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov) equation tends to zero. The three-dimensional stability analysis of the alternative solitary wave solution of variable width of the combined MKdV-KdV-ZK equation shows that the instability condition and the first order growth rate of instability are exactly the same as those of the solitary wave solution (the sech profile) of the MKdV-ZK equation, when the coefficient of the nonlinear term of the KdV-ZK equation tends to zero.

  13. Asphaltene adsorption and desorption from mineral surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Dubey, S.T. ); Waxman, M.H.

    1991-02-01

    This paper reports results of asphaltene adsorption/desorption on clay minerals, silica, and carbonates. It also describes the effect of adsorbed asphaltenes on rock wettability and a screening pyrolysis-flame-ionization-detection (P-FID) test to evaluate the ability of solvents to remove asphaltene from kaolin and formation core material.

  14. Indaziflam sorption-desorption in diverse soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Indaziflam is a new preemergence-herbicide active ingredient, classified as a member of the new chemical class “alkylazine”. There is no published information on its fate and behavior in soil. This study is aimed at characterizing the adsorption and desorption of indaziflam in soils with different p...

  15. Quantum theory of laser-stimulated desorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slutsky, M. S.; George, T. F.

    1978-01-01

    A quantum theory of laser-stimulated desorption (LSDE) is presented and critically analyzed. It is shown how LSDE depends on laser-pulse characteristics and surface-lattice dynamics. Predictions of the theory for a Debye model of the lattice dynamics are compared to recent experimental results.

  16. A microsystems enabled field desorption source.

    SciTech Connect

    Hertz, Kristin L.; Resnick, Paul James; Schwoebel, Paul R.; Holland, Christopher E.; Chichester, David L.

    2010-07-01

    Technologies that have been developed for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have been applied to the fabrication of field desorption arrays. These techniques include the use of thick films for enhanced dielectric stand-off, as well as an integrated gate electrode. The increased complexity of MEMS fabrication provides enhanced design flexibility over traditional methods.

  17. Acoustic cryocooler

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W.; Martin, Richard A.; Radenbaugh, Ray

    1990-01-01

    An acoustic cryocooler with no moving parts is formed from a thermoacoustic driver (TAD) driving a pulse tube refrigerator (PTR) through a standing wave tube. Thermoacoustic elements in the TAD are spaced apart a distance effective to accommodate the increased thermal penetration length arising from the relatively low TAD operating frequency in the range of 15-60 Hz. At these low operating frequencies, a long tube is required to support the standing wave. The tube may be coiled to reduce the overall length of the cryocooler. One or two PTR's are located on the standing wave tube adjacent antinodes in the standing wave to be driven by the standing wave pressure oscillations. It is predicted that a heat input of 1000 W at 1000 K will maintian a cooling load of 5 W at 80 K.

  18. Acoustic transducer

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    2000-01-01

    An active acoustic transducer tool for use down-hole applications. The tool includes a single cylindrical mandrel including a shoulder defining the boundary of a narrowed portion over which is placed a sandwich-style piezoelectric tranducer assembly. The piezoelectric transducer assembly is prestressed by being placed in a thermal interference fit between the shoulder of the mandrel and the base of an anvil which is likewise positioned over the narrower portion of the mandrel. In the preferred embodiment, assembly of the tool is accomplished using a hydraulic jack to stretch the mandrel prior to emplacement of the cylindrical sandwich-style piezoelectric transducer assembly and anvil. After those elements are positioned and secured, the stretched mandrel is allowed to return substantially to its original (pre-stretch) dimensions with the result that the piezoelectric transducer elements are compressed between the anvil and the shoulder of the mandrel.

  19. Acoustic hemostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, L.; Andrew, M.; Bailey, M.; Beach, K.; Brayman, A.; Curra, F.; Kaczkowski, P.; Kargl, S.; Martin, R.; Vaezy, S.

    2003-04-01

    Over the past several years, the Center for Industrial and Medical Ultrasound (CIMU) at the Applied Physics Laboratory in the University of Washington has undertaken a broad research program in the general area of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU). Our principal emphasis has been on the use of HIFU to induce hemostasis; in particular, CIMU has sought to develop a small, lightweight, portable device that would use ultrasound for both imaging and therapy. Such a technology is needed because nearly 50% of combat casualty mortality results from exsanguinations, or uncontrolled bleeding. A similar percentage occurs for civilian death due to trauma. In this general review, a presentation of the general problem will be given, as well as our recent approaches to the development of an image-guided, transcutaneous, acoustic hemostasis device. [Work supported in part by the USAMRMC, ONR and the NIH.

  20. Acoustic telemetry.

    SciTech Connect

    Drumheller, Douglas Schaeffer; Kuszmaul, Scott S.

    2003-08-01

    Broadcasting messages through the earth is a daunting task. Indeed, broadcasting a normal telephone conversion through the earth by wireless means is impossible with todays technology. Most of us don't care, but some do. Industries that drill into the earth need wireless communication to broadcast navigation parameters. This allows them to steer their drill bits. They also need information about the natural formation that they are drilling. Measurements of parameters such as pressure, temperature, and gamma radiation levels can tell them if they have found a valuable resource such as a geothermal reservoir or a stratum bearing natural gas. Wireless communication methods are available to the drilling industry. Information is broadcast via either pressure waves in the drilling fluid or electromagnetic waves in the earth and well tubing. Data transmission can only travel one way at rates around a few baud. Given that normal Internet telephone modems operate near 20,000 baud, these data rates are truly very slow. Moreover, communication is often interrupted or permanently blocked by drilling conditions or natural formation properties. Here we describe a tool that communicates with stress waves traveling through the steel drill pipe and production tubing in the well. It's based on an old idea called Acoustic Telemetry. But what we present here is more than an idea. This tool exists, it's drilled several wells, and it works. Currently, it's the first and only acoustic telemetry tool that can withstand the drilling environment. It broadcasts one way over a limited range at much faster rates than existing methods, but we also know how build a system that can communicate both up and down wells of indefinite length.

  1. APPLICATION OF THERMAL DESORPTION TECHNOLOGIES TO HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermal desorption is a separation process frequently used to remediate many Superfund sites. Thermal desorption technologies are recommended and used because of (1) the wide range of organic contaminants effectively treated, (2) availability and mobility of commercial systems, ...

  2. Acoustic pressure-vector sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dehua; Elswick, Roy C.; McEachern, James F.

    2001-05-01

    Pressure-vector sensors measure both scalar and vector components of the acoustic field. December 2003 measurements at the NUWC Seneca Lake test facility verify previous observations that acoustic ambient noise spectrum levels measured by acoustic intensity sensors are reduced relative to either acoustic pressure or acoustic vector sensor spectrum levels. The Seneca measurements indicate a reduction by as much as 15 dB at the upper measurement frequency of 2500 Hz. A nonlinear array synthesis theory for pressure-vector sensors will be introduced that allows smaller apertures to achieve narrow beams. The significantly reduced ambient noise of individual pressure-vector elements observed in the ocean by others, and now at Seneca Lake, should allow a nonlinearly combined array to detect significantly lower levels than has been observed in previous multiplicative processing of pressure sensors alone. Nonlinear array synthesis of pressure-vector sensors differs from conventional super-directive algorithms that linearly combine pressure elements with positive and negative weights, thereby reducing the sensitivity of conventional super-directive arrays. The much smaller aperture of acoustic pressure-vector sensor arrays will be attractive for acoustic systems on underwater vehicles, as well as for other applications that require narrow beam acoustic receivers. [The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of ONR and NUWC.

  3. Investigation of water and hydroxyl groups associated with coal fly ash by thermal desorption and fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Seaverson, L.M.; McClelland, J.F.; Burnet, G.; Anderegg, J.W.; Iles, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    Thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS) and Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FT-IR/PAS) have been used in combination to analyze the water and hydroxyl groups associated with four coal fly ashes. Measurements using the former technique on these ashes resulted in identification of three water desorption regions in the temperature range from 25/sup 0/ to 1100/sup 0/C. The regions consisted of a small desorption peak at 50/sup 0/, a broad band from 180/sup 0/ to 400/sup 0/, and an intense peak from 400/sup 0/ to 590/sup 0/. No additional water desorption was observed up to 1100/sup 0/. A fourth ash gave a similar spectrum except that it lacked the intense last peak. The TDS spectra together with FT-IR/PAS spectra taken on samples exposed to pre- and post-desorption peak temperatures allowed the first TDS peak to be assigned to the desorption of physically adsorbed water, the broad band to desorption of hydrogenbonded surface hydroxyls, and the intense last peak to the decomposition of Ca(OH)/sub 2/.

  4. Seismicity triggered by the olivine-spinel transition: new insights from combined XRD and acoustic emission monitoring during deformation experiments in Mg2GeO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubnel, A.; Hilairet, N.; Brunet, F.; Gasc, J.; Cordier, P.; Wang, Y.; Green, H. W.

    2012-04-01

    Polycrystalline Mg2GeO4-olivine has been deformed (strain rates from 2.10-4/s to 10-5/s) in the deformation-DIA in 13-BM-D at GSECARS (Advanced Photon Source) at ca. 2 GPa confining pressure for temperatures between 973 and 1573 K (i.e., in the Mg2GeO4-ringwoodite field). Stress, advancement of transformation, and strain were measured in-situ using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and imaging, and acoustic emissions (AE) were recorded simultaneously. When differential stress is applied (ca. 1- to 2 GPa) and temperature is increased, the very beginning of the transformation to the ringwoodite structure (as evidenced by in situ XRD) is accompanied by AE bursts which locate within the sample. At high strain rates (>10-4/s) and low temperatures (800-900 degrees C), the number of AEs is comparable, if not larger, to that observed during the cold compression of quartz grains. The largest events always occur at a temperature slightly below that of appearance of the ringwoodite-structure phase on the XRD images patterns. This suggests that AEs are generated while the transition is still nucleation controlled (pseudo-martensitic stage). During stress-relaxation periods, the rate of AE triggering decreases, but does not completely vanish. Importantly, we still observed very large AEs at strain rates as low as approx. 10-5/ s, while at these early stages of the transformation, the samples did not show any macroscopic rheological weakening. Focal mechanism analysis of the largest AEs showed that they are all of shear type, some being even pure double couple. They radiate about the same amount of energy as typically recorded during fast crack propagation in amorphous glass material. Microstructural analysis (SEM, EBSD and TEM) highlights the presence of thin transformation bands, with plausible evidence of shear (grain distortion and grain size reduction). These bands are made of incoherent spinel and olivine nano-grains which run across germanium-olivine grain boundaries. These bands

  5. Seismicity triggered by the olivine-spinel transition: new insights from combined XRD and acoustic emission monitoring during deformation experiments in Mg2GeO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubnel, A. J.; Hilairet, N.; Brunet, F.; Héripré, E.; Cordier, P.; Wang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Polycrystalline Mg2GeO4-olivine has been deformed (strain rates from 2.10-4/s to 10-5/s) in the deformation-DIA in 13-BM-D at GSECARS (Advanced Photon Source) at ca. 2 GPa confining pressure for temperatures between 973 and 1573 K (i.e., in the Mg2GeO4-ringwoodite field). Stress, advancement of transformation, and strain were measured in-situ using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and imaging, and acoustic emissions (AE) were recorded simultaneously. When differential stress is applied (ca. 1- to 2 GPa) and temperature is increased, the very beginning of the transformation to the ringwoodite structure (as evidenced by in situ XRD) is accompanied by AE bursts which locate within the sample. At high strain rates (>10-4/s) and low temperatures (800-900 degrees C), the number of AEs is comparable, if not larger, to that observed during the cold compression of quartz grains. The largest events always occur at a temperature slightly below that of appearance of the ringwoodite-structure phase on the XRD images patterns. This suggests that AEs are generated while the transition is still nucleation controlled (pseudo-martensitic stage). During stress-relaxation periods, the rate of AE triggering decreases, but does not completely vanish. Importantly, we still observed very large AEs at strain rates as low as approx. 10-5/ s, while at these early stages of the transformation, the samples did not show any macroscopic rheological weakening. Focal mechanism analysis of the largest AEs showed that they are all of shear type, some being even pure double couple. They radiate about the same amount of energy as typically recorded during fast crack propagation in amorphous glass material. Microstructural analysis (SEM, EBSD and TEM) highlights the presence of thin transformation bands, with plausible evidence of shear (grain distortion and grain size reduction). These bands are made of incoherent spinel and olivine nano-grains which run across germanium-olivine grain boundaries. These bands

  6. Apparatus for low temperature thermal desorption spectroscopy of portable samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuckenholz, S.; Büchner, C.; Ronneburg, H.; Thielsch, G.; Heyde, M.; Freund, H.-J.

    2016-04-01

    An experimental setup for low temperature thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) integrated in an ultrahigh vacuum-chamber housing a high-end scanning probe microscope for comprehensive multi-tool surface science analysis is described. This setup enables the characterization with TDS at low temperatures (T > 22 K) of portable sample designs, as is the case for scanning probe optimized setups or high-throughput experiments. This combination of techniques allows a direct correlation between surface morphology, local spectroscopy, and reactivity of model catalysts. The performance of the multi-tool setup is illustrated by measurements of a model catalyst. TDS of CO from Mo(001) and from Mo(001) supported MgO thin films were carried out and combined with scanning tunneling microscopy measurements.

  7. Apparatus for low temperature thermal desorption spectroscopy of portable samples.

    PubMed

    Stuckenholz, S; Büchner, C; Ronneburg, H; Thielsch, G; Heyde, M; Freund, H-J

    2016-04-01

    An experimental setup for low temperature thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) integrated in an ultrahigh vacuum-chamber housing a high-end scanning probe microscope for comprehensive multi-tool surface science analysis is described. This setup enables the characterization with TDS at low temperatures (T > 22 K) of portable sample designs, as is the case for scanning probe optimized setups or high-throughput experiments. This combination of techniques allows a direct correlation between surface morphology, local spectroscopy, and reactivity of model catalysts. The performance of the multi-tool setup is illustrated by measurements of a model catalyst. TDS of CO from Mo(001) and from Mo(001) supported MgO thin films were carried out and combined with scanning tunneling microscopy measurements. PMID:27131703

  8. Acoustically Enhanced Electroplating Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.

    2002-01-01

    In cooperation with the NASA Glenn Research Center, Alchemitron Corp. is developing the Acoustically Enhanced Electroplating Process (AEEP), a new technique of employing nonlinear ultrasonics to enhance electroplating. The applications range from electroplating full-panel electronic circuit boards to electroplating microelectronics and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices. In a conventional plating process, the surface area to be plated is separated from the nonplated areas by a temporary mask. The mask may take many forms, from a cured liquid coating to a simple tape. Generally, the mask is discarded when the plating is complete, creating a solid waste product that is often an environmental hazard. The labor and materials involved with the layout, fabrication, and tooling of masks is a primary source of recurring and nonrecurring production costs. The objective of this joint effort, therefore, is to reduce or eliminate the need for masks. AEEP improves selective plating processes by using directed beams of high-intensity acoustic waves to create nonlinear effects that alter the fluid dynamic and thermodynamic behavior of the plating process. It relies on two effects: acoustic streaming and acoustic heating. Acoustic streaming is observed when a high-intensity acoustic beam creates a liquid current within the beam. The liquid current can be directed as the beam is directed and, thus, users can move liquid around as desired without using pumps and nozzles. The current of the electroplating electrolyte, therefore, can be directed at distinct target areas where electroplating is desired. The current delivers fresh electrolyte to the target area while flushing away the spent electrolyte. This dramatically increases the plating rate in the target area. In addition, acoustic heating of both the liquid in the beam and the target surface increases the chemical reaction rate, which further increases the plating rate. The combined effects of acoustic streaming and

  9. Desorption of intrinsic cesium from smectite: inhibitive effects of clay particle organization on cesium desorption.

    PubMed

    Fukushi, Keisuke; Sakai, Haruka; Itono, Taeko; Tamura, Akihiro; Arai, Shoji

    2014-09-16

    Fine clay particles have functioned as transport media for radiocesium in terrestrial environments after nuclear accidents. Because radiocesium is expected to be retained in clay minerals by a cation-exchange reaction, ascertaining trace cesium desorption behavior in response to changing solution conditions is crucially important. This study systematically investigated the desorption behavior of intrinsic Cs (13 nmol/g) in well-characterized Na-montmorillonite in electrolyte solutions (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, and MgCl2) under widely differing cation concentrations (0.2 mM to 0.2 M). Batch desorption experiments demonstrated that Cs(+) desorption was inhibited significantly in the presence of the environmental relevant concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (>0.5 mM) and high concentrations of K(+). The order of ability for Cs desorption was Na(+) = K(+) > Ca(2+) = Mg(2+) at the highest cation concentration (0.2 M), which is opposite to the theoretical prediction based on the cation-exchange selectivity. Laser diffraction grain-size analyses revealed that the inhibition of Cs(+) desorption coincided with the increase of the clay tactoid size. Results suggest that radiocesium in the dispersed fine clay particles adheres on the solid phase when the organization of swelling clay particles occurs because of changes in solution conditions caused by both natural processes and artificial treatments. PMID:25144123

  10. A Holistic Approach to Understanding the Desorption of Phosphorus in Soils.

    PubMed

    Menezes-Blackburn, Daniel; Zhang, Hao; Stutter, Marc; Giles, Courtney D; Darch, Tegan; George, Timothy S; Shand, Charles; Lumsdon, David; Blackwell, Martin; Wearing, Catherine; Cooper, Patricia; Wendler, Renate; Brown, Lawrie; Haygarth, Philip M

    2016-04-01

    The mobility and resupply of inorganic phosphorus (P) from the solid phase were studied in 32 soils from the UK. The combined use of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT), diffusive equilibration in thin films (DET) and the "DGT-induced fluxes in sediments" model (DIFS) were adapted to explore the basic principles of solid-to-solution P desorption kinetics in previously unattainable detail. On average across soil types, the response time (Tc) was 3.6 h, the desorption rate constant (k-1) was 0.0046 h(-1), and the desorption rate was 4.71 nmol l(-1) s(-1). While the relative DGT-induced inorganic P flux responses in the first hour is mainly a function of soil water retention and % Corg, at longer times it is a function of the P resupply from the soil solid phase. Desorption rates and resupply from solid phase were fundamentally influenced by P status as reflected by their high correlation with P concentration in FeO strips, Olsen, NaOH-EDTA and water extracts. Soil pH and particle size distribution showed no significant correlation with the evaluated mobility and resupply parameters. The DGT and DET techniques, along with the DIFS model, were considered accurate and practical tools for studying parameters related to soil P desorption kinetics. PMID:26911395

  11. Characterization of a multi-metal binding biosorbent: Chemical modification and desorption studies.

    PubMed

    Abdolali, Atefeh; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Zhou, John L; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin; Wang, Xiaochang C; Nguyen, Phuoc Dan

    2015-10-01

    This work attends to preparation and characterization of a novel multi-metal binding biosorbent after chemical modification and desorption studies. Biomass is a combination of tea waste, maple leaves and mandarin peels with a certain proportion to adsorb cadmium, copper, lead and zinc ions from aqueous solutions. The mechanism involved in metal removal was investigated by SEM, SEM/EDS and FTIR. SEM/EDS showed the presence of different chemicals and adsorbed heavy metal ions on the surface of biosorbent. FTIR of both unmodified and modified biosorbents revealed the important role of carboxylate groups in heavy metal biosorption. Desorption using different eluents and 0.1 M HCl showed the best desorption performance. The effectiveness of regeneration step by 1 M CaCl2 on five successive cycles of sorption and desorption displays this multi-metal binding biosorbent (MMBB) can effectively be utilized as an adsorbent to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions in five cycles of sorption/desorption/regeneration. PMID:26162526

  12. A novel experimental system of high stability and lifetime for the laser-desorption of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Taherkhani, Mehran; Riese, Mikko; BenYezzar, Mohammed; Müller-Dethlefs, Klaus

    2010-06-01

    A novel laser desorption system, with improved signal stability and extraordinary long lifetime, is presented for the study of jet-cooled biomolecules in the gas phase using vibrationally resolved photoionization spectroscopy. As a test substance tryptophane is used to characterize this desorption source. A usable lifetime of above 1 month (for a laser desorption repetition rate of 20 Hz) has been observed by optimizing the pellets (graphite/tryptophane, 3 mm diameter and 6 mm length) from which the substance is laser-desorbed. Additionally, the stability and signal-to-noise ratio has been improved by averaging the signal over the entire sample pellet by synchronizing the data acquisition with the rotation of the sample rod. The results demonstrate how a combination of the above helps to produce stable and conclusive spectra of tryptophane using one-color and two-color resonant two-photon ionization studies. PMID:20590219

  13. Electrospray-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for direct ambient analysis of solids.

    PubMed

    Shiea, Jentaie; Huang, Min-Zon; Hsu, Hsiu-Jung; Lee, Chi-Yang; Yuan, Cheng-Hui; Beech, Iwona; Sunner, Jan

    2005-01-01

    A new method of electrospray-assisted laser desorption/ionization (ELDI) mass spectrometry, which combines laser desorption with post-ionization by electrospray, was applied to rapid analysis of solid materials under ambient conditions. Analytes were desorbed from solid metallic and insulating substrata using a pulsed nitrogen laser. Post-ionization produced high-quality mass spectra characteristic of electrospray, including protein multiple charging. For the first time, mass spectra of intact proteins were obtained using laser desorption without adding a matrix. Bovine cytochrome c and an illicit drug containing methaqualone were chosen in this study to demonstrate the applicability of ELDI to the analysis of proteins and synthetic organic compounds. PMID:16299699

  14. Method of enhancing selective isotope desorption from metals

    DOEpatents

    Knize, R.J.; Cecchi, J.L.

    1983-07-26

    This invention relates generally to the field of gas desorption from metals; and, more particularly, to a method of enhancing the selective desorption of a particular isotope of a gas from metals. Enhanced selective desorption is especially useful in the operation of fusion devices.

  15. Seismicity triggered by the olivine-spinel transition: New insights from combined XRD and acoustic emission monitoring during deformation experiments in Mg2GeO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubnel, A. J.; Hilairet, N.; Gasc, J.; Héripré, E.; Brunet, F.; Wang, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Polycrystalline Mg2GeO4-olivine has been deformed (strain rates from 2.10-4/s to 10-5/s) in the deformation-DIA in 13-BM-D at GSECARS (Advanced Photon Source) at ca. 2 GPa confining pressure for temperatures between 973 and 1573 K (i.e., in the Mg2GeO4-ringwoodite field). Stress, advancement of transformation, and strain were measured in-situ using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and imaging, and acoustic emissions (AE) full waveforms were recorded simultaneously. When differential stress is applied (ca. 1- to 2 GPa) and temperature is increased, the very beginning of the transformation to the ringwoodite structure (as evidenced by in situ XRD) is accompanied by AE bursts which locate within the sample. At high strain rates (>10-4/s) and low temperatures (800-900 degrees C), the number of AEs is comparable, if not larger, to that observed during the cold compression of quartz grains. The largest events always occur at a temperature slightly below that of appearance of the ringwoodite-structure phase on the XRD images patterns. This suggests that AEs are generated while the transition is still nucleation controlled (pseudo-martensitic stage). During stress-relaxation periods, the rate of AE triggering decreases, but does not completely vanish. The AE production rate increases again as soon as deformation is started again. Importantly, we still observed very large AEs at strain rates as low as approx. 10-5/ s. At these early stages of the transformation, the samples did not show any macroscopic rheological weakening. Focal mechanism analysis of the largest AEs showed that they are all of shear type, some being even pure double couple. They radiate about the same amount of energy as typically recorded during fast crack propagation in amorphous glass material. This suggests that they cannot only originate from the martensitic nucleation of oriented spinel-lamellae within a single germanium olivine crystal. Preliminary microstructural analysis (SEM and EBSD) highlights the

  16. Solvent-induced desorption of alkanethiol ligands from Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Wei; Cheng, Hao; Yao, Tao; Yang, Lina; Bao, Jie; Huang, Ting; Sun, Zhihu; Jiang, Yong; Wei, Shiqiang

    2016-06-21

    Removing surfactants from a colloidal metal nanoparticle surface is necessary for their realistic applications, and how they could be stripped is a subject of active investigation. Here, we report a solvent-induced desorption of dodecanethiol ligands from the gold nanoparticle surface, and traced this desorption process using a combination of in situ X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and Raman spectroscopic techniques. In situ analysis results reveal that the solvent exchange of ethanol with tetrahydrofuran (THF) can effectively remove dodecanethiol ligands while keeping the particle morphology unchanged. Upon increasing the THF/ethanol ratio from 0 : 1 to 5 : 1, the surface coverage of thiol on the Au surface is reduced from 0.47 to 0.07, suggesting the depletion of ligands first from the nanoparticle facet sites, then from the edge sites, while the ligands at the corner sites are intact. This work enriches our knowledge on surfactant removal and may pave the way towards preparing surface-clean nanoparticles for practical applications. PMID:27241025

  17. Analytical laser induced liquid beam desorption mass spectrometry of protonated amino acids and their non-covalently bound aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charvat, A.; Lugovoj, E.; Faubel, M.; Abel, B.

    2002-09-01

    We have used analytical laser induced liquid beam desorption in combination with high resolution mass spectrometry (m/Δ mgeq 1 000) for the study of protonated amino acids (ornithine, citrulline, lysine, arginine) and their non-covalently bound complexes in the gas phase desorbed from water solutions. We report studies in which the desorption mechanism has been investigated. The results imply that biomolecule desorption at our conditions is a single step process involving laser heating of the solvent above its supercritical temperature, a rapid expansion, ion recombination and finally isolation and desorption of only a small fraction of preformed ions and charged aggregates. In addition, we report an investigation of the aqueous solution concentration and pH-dependence of the laser induced desorption of protonated species (monomers and dimers). The experimental findings suggest that the desorption process depends critically upon the proton affinity of the molecules, the concentration of other ions, and of the pH value of the solution. Therefore the ion concentrations measured in the gas phase very likely reflect solution properties (equilibrium concentrations). Arginine self-assembles large non-covalent singly protonated multimers (n=1...8) when sampled by IR laser induced water beam desorption mass spectrometry. The structures of these aggregates may resemble those of the solid state and may be preformed in solution prior to desorption. A desorption of mixtures of amino acids in water solution enabled us to study (mixed) protonated dimers, one of the various applications of the present technique. Reasons for preferred dimerization leading to simple cases of molecular recognition as well as less preferred binding is discussed in terms of the number of specific H-bonds that can be established in the clusters.

  18. Acoustic hemostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crum, Lawrence; Beach, Kirk; Carter, Stephen; Chandler, Wayne; Curra, Francesco; Kaczkowski, Peter; Keilman, George; Khokhlova, Vera; Martin, Roy; Mourad, Pierre; Vaezy, Shahram

    2000-07-01

    In cases of severe injury, physicians speak of a "golden hour"—a brief grace period in which quickly applied, proper therapy can save the life of the patient. Much of this mortality results from exsanguination, i.e., bleeding to death—often from internal hemorrhage. The inability of a paramedic to treat breaches in the vascular system deep within the body or to stem the loss of blood from internal organs is a major reason for the high level of mortality associated with blunt trauma. We have undertaken an extensive research program to treat the problem of internal bleeding. Our approach is as follows: (a) We use scanning ultrasound to identify internal bleeding and hemorrhage, (b) we use ultrasound imaging to locate specific breaches in the vascular system, both from damaged vessels and gross damage to the capillary bed, and (c) we use High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) to treat the damaged region and to induce hemostasis. We present a general review of this research with some emphasis on the role of nonlinear acoustics.

  19. Pulsed-Source Interferometry in Acoustic Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shcheglov, Kirill; Gutierrez, Roman; Tang, Tony K.

    2003-01-01

    A combination of pulsed-source interferometry and acoustic diffraction has been proposed for use in imaging subsurface microscopic defects and other features in such diverse objects as integrated-circuit chips, specimens of materials, and mechanical parts. A specimen to be inspected by this technique would be mounted with its bottom side in contact with an acoustic transducer driven by a continuous-wave acoustic signal at a suitable frequency, which could be as low as a megahertz or as high as a few hundred gigahertz. The top side of the specimen would be coupled to an object that would have a flat (when not vibrating) top surface and that would serve as the acoustical analog of an optical medium (in effect, an acoustical "optic").

  20. Piezoelectric materials used in underwater acoustic transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huidong; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-07-07

    Piezoelectric materials have been used in underwater acoustic transducers for nearly a century. In this paper, we reviewed four different types of piezoelectric materials: piezoelectric ceramics, single crystals, composites, and polymers, which are widely used in underwater acoustic transducers nowadays. Piezoelectric ceramics are the most dominant material type and are used as a single-phase material or one of the end members in composites. Piezoelectric single crystals offer outstanding electromechanical response but are limited by their manufacturing cost. Piezoelectric polymers provide excellent acoustic impedance matching and transducer fabrication flexibility although their piezoelectric properties are not as good as ceramics and single crystals. Composites combined the merits of ceramics and polymers and are receiving increased attention. The typical structure and electromechanical properties of each type of materials are introduced and discussed with respect to underwater acoustic transducer applications. Their advantages and disadvantages are summarized. Some of the critical design considerations when developing underwater acoustic transducers with these materials are also touched upon.

  1. Mass spectrometry of acoustically levitated droplets.

    PubMed

    Westphall, Michael S; Jorabchi, Kaveh; Smith, Lloyd M

    2008-08-01

    Containerless sample handling techniques such as acoustic levitation offer potential advantages for mass spectrometry, by eliminating surfaces where undesired adsorption/desorption processes can occur. In addition, they provide a unique opportunity to study fundamental aspects of the ionization process as well as phenomena occurring at the air-droplet interface. Realizing these advantages is contingent, however, upon being able to effectively interface levitated droplets with a mass spectrometer, a challenging task that is addressed in this report. We have employed a newly developed charge and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (CALDI) technique to obtain mass spectra from a 5-microL acoustically levitated droplet containing peptides and an ionic matrix. A four-ring electrostatic lens is used in conjunction with a corona needle to produce bursts of corona ions and to direct those ions toward the droplet, resulting in droplet charging. Analyte ions are produced from the droplet by a 337-nm laser pulse and detected by an atmospheric sampling mass spectrometer. The ion generation and extraction cycle is repeated at 20 Hz, the maximum operating frequency of the laser employed. It is shown in delayed ion extraction experiments that both positive and negative ions are produced, behavior similar to that observed for atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser absorption/ionization. No ion signal is observed in the absence of droplet charging. It is likely, although not yet proven, that the role of the droplet charging is to increase the strength of the electric field at the surface of the droplet, reducing charge recombination after ion desorption. PMID:18582090

  2. Sample Desorption/Onization From Mesoporous Silica

    DOEpatents

    Iyer, Srinivas; Dattelbaum, Andrew M.

    2005-10-25

    Mesoporous silica is shown to be a sample holder for laser desorption/ionization of mass spectrometry. Supported mesoporous silica was prepared by coating an ethanolic silicate solution having a removable surfactant onto a substrate to produce a self-assembled, ordered, nanocomposite silica thin film. The surfactant was chosen to provide a desired pore size between about 1 nanometer diameter and 50 nanometers diameter. Removal of the surfactant resulted in a mesoporous silica thin film on the substrate. Samples having a molecular weight below 1000, such as C.sub.60 and tryptophan, were adsorbed onto and into the mesoporous silica thin film sample holder and analyzed using laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

  3. Plutonium sorption and desorption behavior on bentonite.

    PubMed

    Begg, James D; Zavarin, Mavrik; Tumey, Scott J; Kersting, Annie B

    2015-03-01

    Understanding plutonium (Pu) sorption to, and desorption from, mineral phases is key to understanding its subsurface transport. In this work we study Pu(IV) sorption to industrial grade FEBEX bentonite over the concentration range 10(-7)-10(-16) M to determine if sorption at typical environmental concentrations (≤10(-12) M) is the same as sorption at Pu concentrations used in most laboratory experiments (10(-7)-10(-11) M). Pu(IV) sorption was broadly linear over the 10(-7)-10(-16) M concentration range during the 120 d experimental period; however, it took up to 100 d to reach sorption equilibrium. At concentrations ≥10(-8) M, sorption was likely affected by additional Pu(IV) precipitation/polymerization reactions. The extent of sorption was similar to that previously reported for Pu(IV) sorption to SWy-1 Na-montmorillonite over a narrower range of Pu concentrations (10(-11)-10(-7) M). Sorption experiments with FEBEX bentonite and Pu(V) were also performed across a concentration range of 10(-11)-10(-7) M and over a 10 month period which allowed us to estimate the slow apparent rates of Pu(V) reduction on a smectite-rich clay. Finally, a flow cell experiment with Pu(IV) loaded on FEBEX bentonite demonstrated continued desorption of Pu over a 12 day flow period. Comparison with a desorption experiment performed with SWy-1 montmorillonite showed a strong similarity and suggested the importance of montorillonite phases in controlling Pu sorption/desorption reactions on FEBEX bentonite. PMID:25574607

  4. Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R. Scott; Matthiesen, Jesper; Kay, Bruce D.

    2014-09-18

    The desorption kinetics of methanol, ethanol, and water from graphene covered Pt(111) are investigated. The temperature programmed desorption (TPD) spectra for both methanol and ethanol have well-resolved first, second, third, and multilayer layer desorption peaks. The alignment of the leading edges is consistent with zero-order desorption kinetics from all layers. In contrast, for water the first and second layers are not resolved. At low water coverages (< 1 ML) the initial desorption leading edges are aligned but then fall out of alignment at higher temperatures. For thicker water layers (10 to 100 ML), the desorption leading edges are in alignment throughout the desorption of the film. The coverage dependence of the desorption behavoir suggests that at low water coverages the non-alignment of the desorption leading edges is due to water dewetting from the graphene substrate. Kinetic simulations reveal that the experimental results are consistent with zero-order desorption. The simulations also show that fractional order desorption kinetics would be readily apparent in the experimental TPD spectra.

  5. Thermal desorption study of physical forces at the PTFE surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. R.; Pepper, S. V.

    1985-01-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) of the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surface was successfully employed to study the possibile role of physical forces in the enhancement of metal-PTFE adhesion by radiation. The thermal desorption spectra were analyzed without assumptions to yield the activation energy for desorption over a range of xenon coverage from less than 0.1 monolayer to more than 100 monolayers. For multilayer coverage, the desorption is zero-order with an activation energy equal to the sublimation energy of xenon. For submonolayer coverages, the order for desorption from the unirradiated PTFE surface is 0.73 and the activation energy for desorption is between 3.32 and 3.36 kcal/mol; less than the xenon sublimation energy. The effect of irradiation is to increase the activation energy for desorption to as high as 4 kcal/mol at low coverage.

  6. Thermal desorption study of physical forces at the PTFE surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. R.; Pepper, S. V.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) of the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surface was successfully employed to study the possible role of physical forces in the enhancement of metal-PTFE adhesion by radiation. The thermal desorption spectra were analyzed without assumptions to yield the activation energy for desorption over a range of xenon coverage from less than 0.1 monolayer to more than 100 monolayers. For multilayer coverage, the desorption is zero-order with an activation energy equal to the sublimation energy of xenon. For submonolayer coverages, the order for desorption from the unirradiated PTFE surface is 0.73 and the activation energy for desorption is between 3.32 and 3.36 kcal/mol; less than the xenon sublimation energy. The effect of irradiation is to increase the activation energy for desorption to as high as 4 kcal/mol at low coverage.

  7. Acoustic streaming jets: A scaling and dimensional analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Botton, V. Henry, D.; Millet, S.; Ben-Hadid, H.; Garandet, J. P.

    2015-10-28

    We present our work on acoustic streaming free jets driven by ultrasonic beams in liquids. These jets are steady flows generated far from walls by progressive acoustic waves. As can be seen on figure 1, our set-up, denominated AStrID for Acoustic Streaming Investigation Device, is made of a water tank in which a 29 mm plane source emits continuous ultrasonic waves at typically 2 MHz. Our approach combines an experimental characterization of both the acoustic pressure field (hydrophone) and the obtained acoustic streaming velocity field (PIV visualization) on one hand, with CFD using an incompressible Navier-Stokes solver on the other hand.

  8. Acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian

    2016-05-31

    An acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam includes a housing; a plurality of spaced apart piezo-electric layers disposed within the housing; and a non-linear medium filling between the plurality of layers. Each of the plurality of piezoelectric layers is configured to generate an acoustic wave. The non-linear medium and the plurality of piezo-electric material layers have a matching impedance so as to enhance a transmission of the acoustic wave generated by each of plurality of layers through the remaining plurality of layers.

  9. Thermal desorption of deuterium implanted into beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Markin, A.V.; Chernikov, V.N.; Zakharov, A.P.

    1995-09-01

    By means of TDS measurements it is shown that the desorption of deuterium from Be implanted with 5 keV D ions to fluences, {Phi}, from 1x10{sup 20} D/m{sup 2} to 1x10{sup 21} D/m{sup 2} proceeds in one high temperature stage B, while at {Phi} {ge} 1.2x10{sup 21}D/m{sup 2} one more stage A is added. The desorption maximum A is narrow and consists of two peaks A{sub 1} and A{sub 2} at about 460 K and 490 K, respectively. Peak A{sub 1} is attributed to the desorption of deuterium from the walls of opened channels formed under D ion implantation. Peak {sub A}2 is a consequence of the opening of a part of closed bubbles/channels to the outer surface. The position of maximum B shifts noticeably and nonsteadily on the fluence in a range from 850 to 1050 K. The origin of this maximum is the liberation of D atoms bound at vacancy complexes discussed previously by Wampler. The dependence of Tm(B) on the fluence is governed by the interaction of freely migrating D atoms with partly opened or fully closed gas cavity arrangements which are created under temperature ramping, but differently in specimens implanted with D ions to different fluences.

  10. Lead sorption-desorption from organic residues.

    PubMed

    Duarte Zaragoza, Victor M; Carrillo, Rogelio; Gutierrez Castorena, Carmen M

    2011-01-01

    Sorption and desorption are mechanisms involved in the reduction of metal mobility and bioavailability in organic materials. Metal release from substrates is controlled by desorption. The capacity of coffee husk and pulp residues, vermicompost and cow manure to adsorb Pb2+ was evaluated. The mechanisms involved in the sorption process were also studied. Organic materials retained high concentrations of lead (up to 36,000 mg L(-1)); however, the mechanisms of sorption varied according to the characteristics of each material: degree of decomposition, pH, cation exchange capacity and percentage of organic matter. Vermicompost and manure removed 98% of the Pb from solution. Lead precipitated in manure and vermicompost, forming lead oxide (PbO) and lead ferrite (PbFe4O7). Adsorption isotherms did not fit to the typical Freundlich and Langmuir equations. Not only specific and non-specific adsorption was observed, but also precipitation and coprecipitation. Lead desorption from vermicompost and cow manure was less than 2%. For remediation of Pb-polluted sites, the application of vermicompost and manure is recommended in places with alkaline soils because Pb precipitation can be induced, whereas coffee pulp residue is recommended for acidic soils where Pb is adsorbed. PMID:21780703

  11. MTCI acoustic agglomeration particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Chandran, R.R.; Mansour, M.N.; Scaroni, A.W.; Koopmann, G.H.; Loth, J.L.

    1994-10-01

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate pulse combination induced acoustic enhancement of coal ash agglomeration and sulfur capture at conditions typical of direct coal-fired turbines and PFBC hot gas cleanup. MTCI has developed an advanced compact pulse combustor island for direct coal-firing in combustion gas turbines. This combustor island comprises a coal-fired pulse combustor, a combined ash agglomeration and sulfur capture chamber (CAASCC), and a hot cyclone. In the MTCI proprietary approach, the pulse combustion-induced high intensity sound waves improve sulfur capture efficiency and ash agglomeration. The resulting agglomerates allow the use of commercial cyclones and achieve very high particulate collection efficiency. In the MTCI proprietary approach, sorbent particles are injected into a gas stream subjected to an intense acoustic field. The acoustic field serves to improve sulfur capture efficiency by enhancing both gas film and intra-particle mass transfer rates. In addition, the sorbent particles act as dynamic filter foci, providing a high density of stagnant agglomerating centers for trapping the finer entrained (in the oscillating flow field) fly ash fractions. A team has been formed with MTCI as the prime contractor and Penn State University and West Virginia University as subcontractors to MTCI. MTCI is focusing on hardware development and system demonstration, PSU is investigating and modeling acoustic agglomeration and sulfur capture, and WVU is studying aerovalve fluid dynamics. Results are presented from all three studies.

  12. Acoustic Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yang-Hann

    One of the subtle problems that make noise control difficult for engineers is the invisibility of noise or sound. A visual image of noise often helps to determine an appropriate means for noise control. There have been many attempts to fulfill this rather challenging objective. Theoretical (or numerical) means for visualizing the sound field have been attempted, and as a result, a great deal of progress has been made. However, most of these numerical methods are not quite ready for practical applications to noise control problems. In the meantime, rapid progress with instrumentation has made it possible to use multiple microphones and fast signal-processing systems. Although these systems are not perfect, they are useful. A state-of-the-art system has recently become available, but it still has many problematic issues; for example, how can one implement the visualized noise field. The constructed noise or sound picture always consists of bias and random errors, and consequently, it is often difficult to determine the origin of the noise and the spatial distribution of the noise field. Section 26.2 of this chapter introduces a brief history, which is associated with sound visualization, acoustic source identification methods and what has been accomplished with a line or surface array. Section 26.2.3 introduces difficulties and recent studies, including de-Dopplerization and de-re verberation methods, both essential for visualizing a moving noise source, such as occurs for cars or trains. This section also addresses what produces ambiguity in realizing real sound sources in a room or closed space. Another major issue associated with sound/noise visualization is whether or not we can distinguish between mutual dependencies of noise in space (Sect. 26.2.4); for example, we are asked to answer the question, Can we see two birds singing or one bird with two beaks?

  13. Acoustic Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yang-Hann

    One of the subtle problems that make noise control difficult for engineers is the invisibility of noise or sound. A visual image of noise often helps to determine an appropriate means for noise control. There have been many attempts to fulfill this rather challenging objective. Theoretical (or numerical) means for visualizing the sound field have been attempted, and as a result, a great deal of progress has been made. However, most of these numerical methods are not quite ready for practical applications to noise control problems. In the meantime, rapid progress with instrumentation has made it possible to use multiple microphones and fast signal-processing systems. Although these systems are not perfect, they are useful. A state-of-the-art system has recently become available, but it still has many problematic issues; for example, how can one implement the visualized noise field. The constructed noise or sound picture always consists of bias and random errors, and consequently, it is often difficult to determine the origin of the noise and the spatial distribution of the noise field. Section 26.2 of this chapter introduces a brief history, which is associated with "sound visualization," acoustic source identification methods and what has been accomplished with a line or surface array. Section 26.2.3 introduces difficulties and recent studies, including de-Dopplerization and de-reverberation methods, both essentialfor visualizing a moving noise source, such as occurs for cars or trains. This section also addresses what produces ambiguity in realizing real sound sources in a room or closed space. Another major issue associated with sound/noise visualization is whether or not we can distinguish between mutual dependencies of noise in space (Sect. 26.2.4); for example, we are asked to answer the question, "Can we see two birds singing or one bird with two beaks?"

  14. Acoustic-emission linear-pulse holography

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, H.D.; Lemon, D.K.; Busse, L.J.

    1982-06-01

    This paper describes Acoustic Emission Linear Pulse Holography which combines the advantages of linear imaging and acoustic emission into a single NDE inspection system. This unique system produces a chronological linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. Conventional linear holographic imaging uses an ultrasonic transducer to transmit energy into the volume being imaged. When the crack or defect reflects that energy, the crack acts as a new source of acoustic waves. To formulate an image of that source, a receiving transducer is scanned over the volume of interest and the phase of the received signals is measured at successive points on the scan. The innovation proposed here is the utilization of the crack generated acoustic emission as the acoustic source and generation of a line image of the crack as it grows. A thirty-two point sampling array is used to construct phase-only linear holograms of simulated acoustic emission sources on large metal plates. The phases are calculated using the pulse time-of-flight (TOF) times from the reference transducer to the array of receivers. Computer reconstruction of the image is accomplished using a one-dimensional FFT algorithm (i.e., backward wave). Experimental results are shown which graphically illustrate the unique acoustic emission images of a single point and a linear crack in a 100 mm x 1220 mm x 1220 mm aluminum plate.

  15. Acoustic Aspects of Photoacoustic Signal Generation and Detection in Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miklós, A.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper photoacoustic signal generation and detection in gases is investigated and discussed from the standpoint of acoustics. Four topics are considered: the effect of the absorption-desorption process of modulated and pulsed light on the heat power density released in the gas; the generation of the primary sound by the released heat in an unbounded medium; the excitation of an acoustic resonator by the primary sound; and finally, the generation of the measurable PA signal by a microphone. When light is absorbed by a molecule and the excess energy is relaxed by collisions with the surrounding molecules, the average kinetic energy, thus also the temperature of an ensemble of molecules (called "particle" in acoustics) will increase. In other words heat energy is added to the energy of the particle. The rate of the energy transfer is characterized by the heat power density. A simple two-level model of absorption-desorption is applied for describing the heat power generation process for modulated and pulsed illumination. Sound generation by a laser beam in an unbounded medium is discussed by means of the Green's function technique. It is shown that the duration of the generated sound pulse depends mostly on beam geometry. A photoacoustic signal is mostly detected in a photoacoustic cell composed of acoustic resonators, buffers, filters, etc. It is not easy to interpret the measured PA signal in such a complicated acoustic system. The acoustic response of a PA detector to different kinds of excitations (modulated cw, pulsed, periodic pulse train) is discussed. It is shown that acoustic resonators respond very differently to modulated cw excitation and to excitation by a pulse train. The microphone for detecting the PA signal is also a part of the acoustic system; its properties have to be taken into account by the design of a PA detector. The moving membrane of the microphone absorbs acoustic energy; thus, it may influence the resonance frequency and

  16. What Is an Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acoustic Neuroma An acoustic neuroma, also called a vestibular schwannoma, is a rare benign tumor of the ... Acoustic Neuroma? An acoustic neuroma, known as a vestibular schwannoma, is a benign (non-cancerous) growth that ...

  17. Canonical Acoustics and Its Application to Surface Acoustic Wave on Acoustic Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jian Qi

    2016-08-01

    In a conventional formalism of acoustics, acoustic pressure p and velocity field u are used for characterizing acoustic waves propagating inside elastic/acoustic materials. We shall treat some fundamental problems relevant to acoustic wave propagation alternatively by using canonical acoustics (a more concise and compact formalism of acoustic dynamics), in which an acoustic scalar potential and an acoustic vector potential (Φ ,V), instead of the conventional acoustic field quantities such as acoustic pressure and velocity field (p,u) for characterizing acoustic waves, have been defined as the fundamental variables. The canonical formalism of the acoustic energy-momentum tensor is derived in terms of the acoustic potentials. Both the acoustic Hamiltonian density and the acoustic Lagrangian density have been defined, and based on this formulation, the acoustic wave quantization in a fluid is also developed. Such a formalism of acoustic potentials is employed to the problem of negative-mass-density assisted surface acoustic wave that is a highly localized surface bound state (an eigenstate of the acoustic wave equations). Since such a surface acoustic wave can be strongly confined to an interface between an acoustic metamaterial (e.g., fluid-solid composite structures with a negative dynamical mass density) and an ordinary material (with a positive mass density), it will give rise to an effect of acoustic field enhancement on the acoustic interface, and would have potential applications in acoustic device design for acoustic wave control.

  18. Laser desorption fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in supersonic molecular beams.

    PubMed

    Shahar, T; Dagan, S; Amirav, A

    1998-06-01

    A novel method for fast analysis is presented. It is based on laser desorption injection followed by fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in supersonic molecular beams. The sample was placed in an open air or purged laser desorption compartment, held at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature conditions. Desorption was performed with a XeCl Excimer pulsed laser with pulse energy of typically 3 mJ on the surface. About 20 pulses at 50 Hz were applied for sample injection, resulting in about 0.4 s injection time and one or a few micrograms sample vapor or small particles. The laser desorbed sample was further thermally vaporized at a heated frit glass filter located at the fast GC inlet. Ultrafast GC separation and quantification was achieved with a 50-cm-long megabore column operated with a high carrier gas flow rate of up to 240 mL/min. The high carrier gas flow rate provided effective and efficient entrainment of the laser desorbed species in the sweeping gas. Following the fast GC separation, the sample was analyzed by mass spectrometry in supersonic molecular beams. Both electron ionization and hyperthermal surface ionization were employed for enhanced selectivity and sensitivity. Typical laser desorption analysis time was under 10 s. The laser desorption fast GC-MS was studied and demonstrated with the following sample/matrices combinations, all without sample preparation or extraction: (a) traces of dioctylphthalate plasticizer oil on stainless steel surface and the efficiency of its cleaning; (b) the detection of methylparathion and aldicarb pesticides on orange leaves; (c) water surface analysis for the presence of methylparathion pesticide; (d) caffeine analysis in regular and decaffeinated coffee powder; (e) paracetamol and codeine drug analysis in pain relieving drug tablets; (f) caffeine trace analysis in raw urine; (g) blood analysis for the presence of 1 ppm lidocaine drug. The features and advantages of the laser desorption fast GC

  19. Symptoms of Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask Yourself ... Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions to Ask Yourself ...

  20. Acoustic emission frequency discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugg, Frank E. (Inventor); Graham, Lloyd J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    In acoustic emission nondestructive testing, broadband frequency noise is distinguished from narrow banded acoustic emission signals, since the latter are valid events indicative of structural flaws in the material being examined. This is accomplished by separating out those signals which contain frequency components both within and beyond (either above or below) the range of valid acoustic emission events. Application to acoustic emission monitoring during nondestructive bond verification and proof loading of undensified tiles on the Space Shuttle Orbiter is considered.

  1. First-principles study of water desorption from montmorillonite surface.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yao; Meng, Yingfeng; Liu, Houbin; Yang, Mingli

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge about water desorption is important to give a full picture of water diffusion in montmorillonites (MMT), which is a driving factor in MMT swelling. The desorption paths and energetics of water molecules from the surface of MMT with trapped Li(+), Na(+) or K(+) counterions were studied using periodic density functional theory calculations. Two paths--surface and vacuum desorption--were designed for water desorption starting from a stationary structure in which water bonds with both the counterion and the MMT surface. Surface desorption is energetically more favorable than vacuum desorption due to water-surface hydrogen bonds that help stabilize the intermediate structure of water released from the counterion. The energy barriers of water desorption are in the order of Li(+) > Na(+) > K(+), which can be attributed to the short ionic radius of Li(+), which favors strong binding with the water molecule. The temperature dependence of water adsorption and desorption rates were compared based on the computed activation energies. Our calculations reveal that the water desorption on the MMT surface has a different mechanism from water adsorption, which results from surface effects favoring stabilization of water conformers during the desorption process. PMID:27083565

  2. Current-Driven Hydrogen Desorption from Graphene: Experiment and Theory.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Pal, Partha Pratim; Seideman, Tamar; Guisinger, Nathan P; Guest, Jeffrey R

    2016-02-01

    Electron-stimulated desorption of hydrogen from the graphene/SiC(0001) surface at room temperature was investigated with ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy and ab initio calculations in order to elucidate the desorption mechanisms and pathways. Two different desorption processes were observed. In the high electron energy regime (4-8 eV), the desorption yield is independent of both voltage and current, which is attributed to the direct electronic excitation of the C-H bond. In the low electron energy regime (2-4 eV), however, the desorption yield exhibits a threshold dependence on voltage, which is explained by the vibrational excitation of the C-H bond via transient ionization induced by inelastic tunneling electrons. The observed current independence of the desorption yield suggests that the vibrational excitation is a single-electron process. We also observed that the curvature of graphene dramatically affects hydrogen desorption. Desorption from concave regions was measured to be much more probable than desorption from convex regions in the low electron energy regime (∼2 eV), as would be expected from the identified desorption mechanism. PMID:26787160

  3. Acoustic simulation in architecture with parallel algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xinrong; Li, Dan

    2004-03-01

    In allusion to complexity of architecture environment and Real-time simulation of architecture acoustics, a parallel radiosity algorithm was developed. The distribution of sound energy in scene is solved with this method. And then the impulse response between sources and receivers at frequency segment, which are calculated with multi-process, are combined into whole frequency response. The numerical experiment shows that parallel arithmetic can improve the acoustic simulating efficiency of complex scene.

  4. A real time in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopic study of glyphosate desorption from goethite as induced by phosphate adsorption: effect of surface coverage.

    PubMed

    Waiman, Carolina V; Avena, Marcelo J; Regazzoni, Alberto E; Zanini, Graciela P

    2013-03-15

    The desorption of glyphosate from goethite as induced by the adsorption of phosphate was investigated by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy in combination with adsorption isotherms. Desorption of glyphosate was very low in the absence of phosphate. Addition of phosphate promoted glyphosate desorption. At low initial surface coverages, added phosphate adsorbed on free surface sites, mainly, displacing a small amount of glyphosate. At high initial surface coverages, on the contrary, phosphate adsorption resulted in a significant glyphosate desorption. In the latter conditions, the ratio desorbed glyphosate to adsorbed phosphate was 0.60. The desorption process can be explained by assuming that phosphate adsorbs first forming a monodentate mononuclear complex, which rapidly evolves into a bidentate binuclear complex that displaces glyphosate. PMID:23374437

  5. Tutorial on architectural acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Neil; Talaske, Rick; Bistafa, Sylvio

    2002-11-01

    This tutorial is intended to provide an overview of current knowledge and practice in architectural acoustics. Topics covered will include basic concepts and history, acoustics of small rooms (small rooms for speech such as classrooms and meeting rooms, music studios, small critical listening spaces such as home theatres) and the acoustics of large rooms (larger assembly halls, auditoria, and performance halls).

  6. Computational ocean acoustics: Advances in 3D ocean acoustic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Henrik; Jensen, Finn B.

    2012-11-01

    The numerical model of ocean acoustic propagation developed in the 1980's are still in widespread use today, and the field of computational ocean acoustics is often considered a mature field. However, the explosive increase in computational power available to the community has created opportunities for modeling phenomena that earlier were beyond reach. Most notably, three-dimensional propagation and scattering problems have been prohibitive computationally, but are now addressed routinely using brute force numerical approaches such as the Finite Element Method, in particular for target scattering problems, where they are being combined with the traditional wave theory propagation models in hybrid modeling frameworks. Also, recent years has seen the development of hybrid approaches coupling oceanographic circulation models with acoustic propagation models, enabling the forecasting of sonar performance uncertainty in dynamic ocean environments. These and other advances made over the last couple of decades support the notion that the field of computational ocean acoustics is far from being mature. [Work supported by the Office of Naval Research, Code 321OA].

  7. Acoustic radiation stress in solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.; Yost, William T.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that the radiation-induced static strains associated with acoustic waves propagating in solids are obtained directly from the virial theorem for an elastic continuum and that the radiation stresses result from combining the virial theorem with the Boltzmann-Ehrenfest principle of adiabatic invariance. The experimental confirmation of critical theoretical predictions in solids is reported. The implications of the results for the fundamental thermal properties of crystals are addressed.

  8. HYDROGEN AND ITS DESORPTION IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    HSEUH,H.C.

    2002-11-11

    Hydrogen is the dominating gas specie in room temperature, ultrahigh vacuum systems of particle accelerators and storage rings, such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven. Rapid pressure increase of a few decades in hydrogen and other residual gases was observed during RHIC's recent high intensity gold and proton runs. The type and magnitude of the pressure increase were analyzed and compared with vacuum conditioning, beam intensity, number of bunches and bunch spacing. Most of these pressure increases were found to be consistent with those induced by beam loss and/or electron stimulated desorption from electron multipacting.

  9. Direct measurement of desorption and diffusion energies of O and N atoms physisorbed on amorphous surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minissale, M.; Congiu, E.; Dulieu, F.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Physisorbed atoms on the surface of interstellar dust grains play a central role in solid state astrochemistry. Their surface reactivity is one source of the observed molecular complexity in space. In experimental astrophysics, the high reactivity of atoms also constitutes an obstacle to measuring two of the fundamental properties in surface physics, namely desorption and diffusion energies, and so far direct measurements are non-existent for O and N atoms. Aims: We investigated the diffusion and desorption processes of O and N atoms on cold surfaces in order to give boundary conditions to astrochemical models. Methods: Here we propose a new technique for directly measuring the N- and O-atom mass signals. Including the experimental results in a simple model allows us to almost directly derive the desorption and diffusion barriers of N atoms on amorphous solid water ice (ASW) and O atoms on ASW and oxidized graphite. Results: We find a strong constraint on the values of desorption and thermal diffusion energy barriers. The measured barriers for O atoms are consistent with recent independent estimations and prove to be much higher than previously believed ( Edes = 1410-160+290; Edif = 990 -360+530 K on ASW). As for oxygen atoms, we propose that the combination Edes - Edif = 1320-750 K is a sensible choice among the possible pairs of solutions. Also, we managed to measure the desorption and diffusion energy of N atoms for the first time (Edes = 720-80+160; Edif = 525-200+260 K on ASW) in the thermal hopping regime and propose that the combination Edes-Edif = 720-400 K can be reasonably adopted in models. The value of Edif for N atoms is slightly lower than previously suggested, which implies that the N chemistry on dust grains might be richer.

  10. Field desorption of Na and Cs from graphene on iridium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernatskii, D. P.; Pavlov, V. G.

    2015-08-01

    Field electron and desorption microscopy has been used to study specific features of the field desorption of sodium and cesium ions adsorbed on the surface of iridium with graphene. It was found that adsorbed sodium atoms most strongly reduce the work function on graphene islands situated over densely packed faces of iridium. A strong electric field qualitatively similarly affects the sodium and cesium desorption processes from a field emitter to give two desorption phases and has no noticeable effect on the disintegration of the graphene layer.

  11. Double DCO+ Rings Reveal CO Ice Desorption in the Outer Disk Around IM Lup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öberg, Karin I.; Furuya, Kenji; Loomis, Ryan; Aikawa, Yuri; Andrews, Sean M.; Qi, Chunhua; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Wilner, David J.

    2015-09-01

    In a protoplanetary disk, a combination of thermal and non-thermal desorption processes regulate where volatiles are liberated from icy grain mantles into the gas phase. Non-thermal desorption should result in volatile-enriched gas in disk-regions where complete freeze-out is otherwise expected. We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array observations of the disk around the young star IM Lup in 1.4 mm continuum, C18O 2–1, H13CO+ 3–2 and DCO+ 3–2 emission at ∼0.″5 resolution. The images of these dust and gas tracers are clearly resolved. The DCO+ line exhibits a striking pair of concentric rings of emission that peak at radii of ∼0.″6 and 2″ (∼90 and 300 AU, respectively). Based on disk chemistry model comparison, the inner DCO+ ring is associated with the balance of CO freeze-out and thermal desorption due to a radial decrease in disk temperature. The outer DCO+ ring is explained by non-thermal desorption of CO ice in the low-column-density outer disk, repopulating the disk midplane with cold CO gas. The CO gas then reacts with abundant H2D+ to form the observed DCO+ outer ring. These observations demonstrate that spatially resolved DCO+ emission can be used to trace otherwise hidden cold gas reservoirs in the outmost disk regions, opening a new window onto their chemistry and kinematics.

  12. Thermal desorption of PCBs from contaminated soil using nano zerovalent iron.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Chen, Tong; Qi, Zhifu; Yan, Jianhua; Buekens, Alfons; Li, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    In this study, thermal desorption was combined with the addition of nano zerovalent iron (nZVI) to remediate polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated soil collected from a storage point for PCB-contaminated capacitors and transformers. The thermal desorption test conditions were varied from 300 to 600 °C, both with blank soil and with 100 mg of nZVI added. Next, the effect of the amount of nZVI added (0, 20, 40, 100, 200 mg) was investigated by thermal treatment at 400 °C. The test results show that thermal desorption eliminates most of the PCB load and that the presence of nZVI clearly enhances thermal desorption. After thermal treatment at 400 °C, a removal efficiency of 94.2 % was reached, with the use of 200 mg of nZVI. At 600 °C, the PCB removal efficiency after 1 h attained 98.35 % with 100 mg of nZVI and 97.40 % without nZVI. The presence of nZVI effectively decreased both the sum and the WHO-TEQ value of the 12 dl-PCBs. PMID:24965010

  13. Ambient diode laser desorption dielectric barrier discharge ionization mass spectrometry of nonvolatile chemicals.

    PubMed

    Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Schilling, Michael; Ahlmann, Norman; Michels, Antje; Hayen, Heiko; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; García-Reyes, Juan F; Franzke, Joachim

    2013-03-19

    In this work, the combined use of desorption by a continuous wave near-infrared diode laser and ionization by a dielectric barrier discharge-based probe (laser desorption dielectric barrier discharge ionization mass spectrometry (LD-DBDI-MS)) is presented as an ambient ionization method for the mass spectrometric detection of nonvolatile chemicals on surfaces. A separation of desorption and ionization processes could be verified. The use of the diode laser is motivated by its low cost, ease of use, and small size. To achieve an efficient desorption, the glass substrates are coated at the back side with a black point (target point, where the sample is deposited) in order to absorb the energy offered by the diode laser radiation. Subsequent ionization is accomplished by a helium plasmajet generated in the dielectric barrier discharge source. Examples on the application of this approach are shown in both positive and negative ionization modes. A wide variety of multiclass species with low vapor pressure were tested including pesticides, pharmaceuticals and explosives (reserpine, roxithromycin, propazine, prochloraz, spinosad, ampicillin, dicloxacillin, enrofloxacin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, erythromycin, spinosad, cyclo-1,3,5,7-tetramethylene tetranitrate (HMX), and cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylene trinitramine (RDX)). A comparative evaluation revealed that the use of the laser is advantageous, compared to just heating the substrate surface. PMID:23419061

  14. Optical detection of CO and CO2 temperature dependent desorption from carbon nanotube clusters.

    PubMed

    Chistiakova, M V; Armani, A M

    2014-10-01

    The development of new materials relies on high precision methods to quantify adsorption/desorption of gases from surfaces. One commonly used approach is temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy. While this approach is very accurate, it requires complex instrumentation, and it is limited to performing experiments under high vacuum, thus restricting experimental scope. An alternative approach is to integrate the surface of interest directly onto a detector face, creating an active substrate. One surface that has applications in numerous areas is the carbon nanotube (CNT). As such, an active substrate that integrates a CNT surface on a sensor and is able to perform measurements in ambient environments will have significant impact. In the present work, we have developed an active substrate that combines an optical sensor with a CNT cluster substrate. The optical sensor is able to accurately probe the temperature dependent desorption of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide gases from the CNT cluster surface. This active substrate will enable a wide range of temperature dependent desorption measurements to be performed from a scientifically interesting material system. PMID:25189292

  15. Acoustic attenuation analysis program for ducts with mean flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunze, R. K., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A computerized acoustic attenuation prediction procedure has been developed to evaluate acoustically lined ducts for various geometric and environmental parameters. The analysis procedure is based on solutions to the acoustic wave equation, assuming uniform airflow on a duct cross section, combined with appropriate mathematical lining impedance models. The impedance models included in the analysis procedure are representative of either perforated sheet or porous polyimide impregnated fiberglass facing sheet coupled with a cellular backing space. Advantages and limitations of the analysis procedure are reviewed.

  16. The Development of the Acoustic Design of NASA Glenn Research Center's New Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Mark E.; Hozman, Aron D.; McNelis, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) is leading the design and build of the new world-class vibroacoustic test capabilities at the NASA GRC's Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio, USA. Benham Companies, LLC is currently constructing modal, base-shake sine and reverberant acoustic test facilities to support the future testing needs of NASA s space exploration program. The large Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility (RATF) will be approximately 101,000 ft3 in volume and capable of achieving an empty chamber acoustic overall sound pressure level (OASPL) of 163 dB. This combination of size and acoustic power is unprecedented amongst the world s known active reverberant acoustic test facilities. The key to achieving the expected acoustic test spectra for a range of many NASA space flight environments in the RATF is the knowledge gained from a series of ground acoustic tests. Data was obtained from several NASA-sponsored test programs, including testing performed at the National Research Council of Canada s acoustic test facility in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, and at the Redstone Technical Test Center acoustic test facility in Huntsville, Alabama, USA. The majority of these tests were performed to characterize the acoustic performance of the modulators (noise generators) and representative horns that would be required to meet the desired spectra, as well as to evaluate possible supplemental gas jet noise sources. The knowledge obtained in each of these test programs enabled the design of the RATF sound generation system to confidently advance to its final acoustic design and subsequent on-going construction.

  17. The Development of the Acoustic Design of NASA Glenn Research Center's New Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Mark E.; Hozman, Aron D.; McNelis, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) is leading the design and build of the new world-class vibroacoustic test capabilities at the NASA GRC s Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio. Benham Companies, LLC is currently constructing modal, base-shake sine and reverberant acoustic test facilities to support the future testing needs of NASA s space exploration program. The large Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility (RATF) will be approximately 101,000 ft3 in volume and capable of achieving an empty chamber acoustic overall sound pressure level (OASPL) of 163 dB. This combination of size and acoustic power is unprecedented amongst the world s known active reverberant acoustic test facilities. The key to achieving the expected acoustic test spectra for a range of many NASA space flight environments in the RATF is the knowledge gained from a series of ground acoustic tests. Data was obtained from several NASA-sponsored test programs, including testing performed at the National Research Council of Canada s acoustic test facility in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, and at the Redstone Technical Test Center acoustic test facility in Huntsville, Alabama. The majority of these tests were performed to characterize the acoustic performance of the modulators (noise generators) and representative horns that would be required to meet the desired spectra, as well as to evaluate possible supplemental gas jet noise sources. The knowledge obtained in each of these test programs enabled the design of the RATF sound generation system to confidently advance to its final acoustic design and subsequent on-going construction.

  18. Vibro-acoustic analysis of composite plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarigül, A. S.; Karagözlü, E.

    2014-03-01

    Vibro-acoustic analysis plays a vital role on the design of aircrafts, spacecrafts, land vehicles and ships produced from thin plates backed by closed cavities, with regard to human health and living comfort. For this type of structures, it is required a coupled solution that takes into account structural-acoustic interaction which is crucial for sensitive solutions. In this study, coupled vibro-acoustic analyses of plates produced from composite materials have been performed by using finite element analysis software. The study has been carried out for E-glass/Epoxy, Kevlar/Epoxy and Carbon/Epoxy plates with different ply angles and numbers of ply. The effects of composite material, ply orientation and number of layer on coupled vibro-acoustic characteristics of plates have been analysed for various combinations. The analysis results have been statistically examined and assessed.

  19. AST Launch Vehicle Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice; Counter, D.; Giacomoni, D.

    2015-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic (LOA) environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option to verify the LOA environments. The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) program initiated the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) to verify the predicted SLS LOA environments and to determine the acoustic reduction with an above deck water sound suppression system. The SMAT was conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center and the test article included a 5% scale SLS vehicle model, tower and Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 250 instruments. The SMAT liftoff acoustic results are presented, findings are discussed and a comparison is shown to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) results.

  20. Multimaterial Acoustic Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chocat, Noemie

    The emergence of multimaterial fibers that combine a multiplicity of solid materials with disparate electrical, optical, and mechanical properties into a single fiber presents new opportunities for extending fiber applications well beyond optical transmission. Fiber reflectors, thermal detectors, photodetectors, chemical sensors, surface-emitting fiber lasers, fiber diodes, and other functional fiber devices have been demonstrated with this approach. Yet, throughout this development and indeed the development of fibers in general, a key premise has remained unchanged : that fibers are essentially static devices incapable of controllably changing their properties at high frequencies. Unique opportunities would arise if a rapid, electrically-driven mechanism for changing fiber properties existed. A wide spectrum of hitherto passive fiber devices could at once become active with applications spanning electronics, mechanics, acoustics, and optics, with the benefits of large surface-area, structural robustness, and mechanical flexibility. This thesis addresses the challenges and opportunities associated with the realization of electromechanical transduction in fibers through the integration of internal piezoelectric and electrostrictive domains. The fundamental challenges related to the fabrication of piezoelectric devices in fiber form are analyzed from a materials perspective, and candidate materials and geometries are selected that are compatible with the thermal drawing process. The first realization of a thermally drawn piezoelectric fiber device is reported and its piezoelectric response is established over a wide range of frequencies. The acoustic properties of piezoelectric fiber devices are characterized and related to their mechanical and geometric properties. Collective effects in multi-fiber constructs are discussed and demonstrated by the realization of a linear phased array of piezoelectric fibers capable of acoustic beam steering. High strain actuation

  1. Acoustic Translation of an Acoustically Levitated Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Allen, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Acoustic-levitation apparatus uses only one acoustic mode to move sample from one region of chamber to another. Sample heated and cooled quickly by translation between hot and cold regions of levitation chamber. Levitated sample is raised into furnace region by raising plunger. Frequency of sound produced by transducers adjusted by feedback system to maintain (102) resonant mode, which levitates sample midway between transducers and plunger regardless of plunger position.

  2. N2 and CO Desorption Energies from Water Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayolle, Edith C.; Balfe, Jodi; Loomis, Ryan; Bergner, Jennifer; Graninger, Dawn; Rajappan, Mahesh; Öberg, Karin I.

    2016-01-01

    The relative desorption energies of CO and N2 are key to interpretations of observed interstellar CO and N2 abundance patterns, including the well-documented CO and N2H+ anti-correlations in disks, protostars, and molecular cloud cores. Based on laboratory experiments on pure CO and N2 ice desorption, the difference between CO and N2 desorption energies is small; the N2-to-CO desorption energy ratio is 0.93 ± 0.03. Interstellar ices are not pure, however, and in this study we explore the effect of water ice on the desorption energy ratio of the two molecules. We present temperature programmed desorption experiments of different coverages of 13CO and 15N2 on porous and compact amorphous water ices and, for reference, of pure ices. In all experiments, 15N2 desorption begins a few degrees before the onset of 13CO desorption. The 15N2 and 13CO energy barriers are 770 and 866 K for the pure ices, 1034-1143 K and 1155-1298 K for different submonolayer coverages on compact water ice, and 1435 and 1575 K for ˜1 ML of ice on top of porous water ice. For all equivalent experiments, the N2-to-CO desorption energy ratio is consistently 0.9. Whenever CO and N2 ice reside in similar ice environments (e.g., experience a similar degree of interaction with water ice) their desorption temperatures should thus be within a few degrees of one another. A smaller N2-to-CO desorption energy ratio may be present in interstellar and circumstellar environments if the average CO ice molecules interacts more with water ice compared to the average N2 molecules.

  3. N2 and CO Desorption Energies from Water Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayolle, Edith C.; Balfe, Jodi; Loomis, Ryan; Bergner, Jennifer; Graninger, Dawn; Rajappan, Mahesh; Öberg, Karin I.

    2016-01-01

    The relative desorption energies of CO and N2 are key to interpretations of observed interstellar CO and N2 abundance patterns, including the well-documented CO and N2H+ anti-correlations in disks, protostars, and molecular cloud cores. Based on laboratory experiments on pure CO and N2 ice desorption, the difference between CO and N2 desorption energies is small; the N2-to-CO desorption energy ratio is 0.93 ± 0.03. Interstellar ices are not pure, however, and in this study we explore the effect of water ice on the desorption energy ratio of the two molecules. We present temperature programmed desorption experiments of different coverages of 13CO and 15N2 on porous and compact amorphous water ices and, for reference, of pure ices. In all experiments, 15N2 desorption begins a few degrees before the onset of 13CO desorption. The 15N2 and 13CO energy barriers are 770 and 866 K for the pure ices, 1034–1143 K and 1155–1298 K for different submonolayer coverages on compact water ice, and 1435 and 1575 K for ∼1 ML of ice on top of porous water ice. For all equivalent experiments, the N2-to-CO desorption energy ratio is consistently 0.9. Whenever CO and N2 ice reside in similar ice environments (e.g., experience a similar degree of interaction with water ice) their desorption temperatures should thus be within a few degrees of one another. A smaller N2-to-CO desorption energy ratio may be present in interstellar and circumstellar environments if the average CO ice molecules interacts more with water ice compared to the average N2 molecules.

  4. Acoustically driven arrayed waveguide grating.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Poveda, A; Hernández-Mínguez, A; Gargallo, B; Biermann, K; Tahraoui, A; Santos, P V; Muñoz, P; Cantarero, A; de Lima, M M

    2015-08-10

    We demonstrate compact tunable phased-array wavelength-division multiplexers driven by surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in the low GHz range. The devices comprise two couplers, which respectively split and combine the optical signal, linked by an array of single-mode waveguides (WGs). Two different layouts are presented, in which multi-mode interference couplers or free propagating regions were separately employed as couplers. The multiplexers operate on five equally distributed wavelength channels, with a spectral separation of 2 nm. A standing SAW modulates the refractive index of the arrayed WGs. Each wavelength component periodically switches paths between the output channel previously asigned by the design and the adjacent channels, at a fixed applied acoustic power. The devices were monolithically fabricated on (Al,Ga)As. A good agreement between theory and experiment is achieved. PMID:26367971

  5. Nonlinear Acoustics in Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauterborn, Werner; Kurz, Thomas; Akhatov, Iskander

    At high sound intensities or long propagation distances at in fluids sufficiently low damping acoustic phenomena become nonlinear. This chapter focuses on nonlinear acoustic wave properties in gases and liquids. The origin of nonlinearity, equations of state, simple nonlinear waves, nonlinear acoustic wave equations, shock-wave formation, and interaction of waves are presented and discussed. Tables are given for the nonlinearity parameter B/A for water and a range of organic liquids, liquid metals and gases. Acoustic cavitation with its nonlinear bubble oscillations, pattern formation and sonoluminescence (light from sound) are modern examples of nonlinear acoustics. The language of nonlinear dynamics needed for understanding chaotic dynamics and acoustic chaotic systems is introduced.

  6. THERMAL DESORPTION...NOW YOU'RE COOKIN'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermal desorption includes a number of ex situ processes that use either direct or indirect heat exchange to heat a waste material to volatilize organic materials. hermal desorption systems typically operate at soil treatment temperatures in the range of 400 to 600 degrees F to ...

  7. Integrated field emission array for ion desorption

    DOEpatents

    Resnick, Paul J; Hertz, Kristin L; Holland, Christopher; Chichester, David; Schwoebel, Paul

    2013-09-17

    An integrated field emission array for ion desorption includes an electrically conductive substrate; a dielectric layer lying over the electrically conductive substrate comprising a plurality of laterally separated cavities extending through the dielectric layer; a like plurality of conically-shaped emitter tips on posts, each emitter tip/post disposed concentrically within a laterally separated cavity and electrically contacting the substrate; and a gate electrode structure lying over the dielectric layer, including a like plurality of circular gate apertures, each gate aperture disposed concentrically above an emitter tip/post to provide a like plurality of annular gate electrodes and wherein the lower edge of each annular gate electrode proximate the like emitter tip/post is rounded. Also disclosed herein are methods for fabricating an integrated field emission array.

  8. Integrated field emission array for ion desorption

    DOEpatents

    Resnick, Paul J; Hertz, Kristin L.; Holland, Christopher; Chichester, David

    2016-08-23

    An integrated field emission array for ion desorption includes an electrically conductive substrate; a dielectric layer lying over the electrically conductive substrate comprising a plurality of laterally separated cavities extending through the dielectric layer; a like plurality of conically-shaped emitter tips on posts, each emitter tip/post disposed concentrically within a laterally separated cavity and electrically contacting the substrate; and a gate electrode structure lying over the dielectric layer, including a like plurality of circular gate apertures, each gate aperture disposed concentrically above an emitter tip/post to provide a like plurality of annular gate electrodes and wherein the lower edge of each annular gate electrode proximate the like emitter tip/post is rounded. Also disclosed herein are methods for fabricating an integrated field emission array.

  9. Photon stimulated desorption from aluminum and stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, T.S. )

    1991-05-01

    Photon stimulated desorption of neutral species (PSD) is the major dynamic gas load in electron synchrotron light source. In the National Synchrotron Light Source, (NSLS) PSD presented initial machine commissioning difficulty. Sensitivity to surface contamination on PSD has been experienced during an incident of Fomblin Oil contamination.{sup 1} U10B-photon stimulated desorption experimental station is constructed to investigate: 1---the degree of the contribution to the photon stimulated desorption (PSD) from primary photon flux and scattered secondary photon flux, 2---the underlying mechanism for photon stimulated desorption, 3---criteria to chose the proper beam tube material for future accelerators such as SXLS, FEL, superconducting super collider (SSC), ALS... . In this report, only photon stimulated desorption of neutral species (PSD) from stainless steel and aluminum is reported.

  10. Photon stimulated desorption from aluminum and stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, T.S.

    1990-01-01

    Photon Stimulated Desorption of neutral species (PSD) is the major dynamic gas load in electron synchrotron light source. In the National Synchrotron Light Source, (NSLS) PSD presented initial machine commissioning difficulty. Sensitivity to surface contamination on PSD has been experienced during an incident of Fomblin Oil contamination. U1OB-Photon Stimulated Desorption Experimental Station is constructed to investigate: (1) the degree of the contribution to the photon stimulated desorption (PSD) from primary photon flux and scattered secondary photon flux, (2) the underlying mechanism for photon stimulated desorption, (3) criteria to choose the proper beam tube material for future accelerators such as SXLS, FEL, SSC, ALS... In this report, only photon stimulated desorption of neutral species (PSD) from stainless steel and aluminum is reported. 7 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Photon stimulated desorption of neutral species from aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, T.S.

    1991-01-01

    Photon Simulated Desorption of neutral species (PSD) is the major dynamic gas load in electron synchrotron light source. In the National Synchrotron Light Source, PSD presented initial machine commissioning difficulty. Sensitivity to surface contamination on PSD had been experienced during an incident of Fomblin Oil contamination. U10B-Photon Stimulated Desorption Experimental Station is constructed to investigate: (1) the degree of the contribution to the photon stimulated desorption (PSD) from primary photon flux and scattered secondary photon flux, (2) the underlying mechanism for photon stimulated desorption, (3) criteria to chose the proper beam tube material for future a accelerator such as the Superconducting X-Ray Lithography Source (SXLS), Free Electron Laser (FEL), Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), Advanced Light Source (ALS) etc. In this report, only photon stimulated desorption of neutral species (PSD) from aluminum with different surface treatments is reported to show the great potential for this station to investigate beam tube material selection. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Charge Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Droplets

    PubMed Central

    Jorabchi, Kaveh; Westphall, Michael S.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    2008-01-01

    We propose and evaluate a new mechanism to account for analyte ion signal enhancement in ultraviolet-laser desorption mass spectrometry of droplets in the presence of corona ions. Our new insights are based on timing control of corona ion production, laser desorption, and peptide ion extraction achieved by a novel pulsed corona apparatus. We demonstrate that droplet charging rather than gas-phase ion-neutral reactions is the major contributor to analyte ion generation from an electrically isolated droplet. Implications of the new mechanism, termed charge assisted laser desorption/ionization (CALDI), are discussed and contrasted to those of the laser desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization method (LD-APCI). It is also demonstrated that analyte ion generation in CALDI occurs with external electric fields about one order of magnitude lower than those needed for atmospheric pressure matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization or electrospray ionization of droplets. PMID:18387311

  13. Localized acoustic surface modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Mohamed; Chen, Pai-Yen; Bağcı, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes. We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  14. Low frequency acoustic microscope

    DOEpatents

    Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T.

    1986-11-04

    A scanning acoustic microscope is disclosed for the detection and location of near surface flaws, inclusions or voids in a solid sample material. A focused beam of acoustic energy is directed at the sample with its focal plane at the subsurface flaw, inclusion or void location. The sample is scanned with the beam. Detected acoustic energy specularly reflected and mode converted at the surface of the sample and acoustic energy reflected by subsurface flaws, inclusions or voids at the focal plane are used for generating an interference signal which is processed and forms a signal indicative of the subsurface flaws, inclusions or voids.

  15. Acoustic dispersive prism.

    PubMed

    Esfahlani, Hussein; Karkar, Sami; Lissek, Herve; Mosig, Juan R

    2016-01-01

    The optical dispersive prism is a well-studied element, which allows separating white light into its constituent spectral colors, and stands in nature as water droplets. In analogy to this definition, the acoustic dispersive prism should be an acoustic device with capability of splitting a broadband acoustic wave into its constituent Fourier components. However, due to the acoustical nature of materials as well as the design and fabrication difficulties, there is neither any natural acoustic counterpart of the optical prism, nor any artificial design reported so far exhibiting an equivalent acoustic behaviour. Here, based on exotic properties of the acoustic transmission-line metamaterials and exploiting unique physical behaviour of acoustic leaky-wave radiation, we report the first acoustic dispersive prism, effective within the audible frequency range 800 Hz-1300 Hz. The dispersive nature, and consequently the frequency-dependent refractive index of the metamaterial are exploited to split the sound waves towards different and frequency-dependent directions. Meanwhile, the leaky-wave nature of the structure facilitates the sound wave radiation into the ambient medium. PMID:26739504

  16. Acoustic dispersive prism

    PubMed Central

    Esfahlani, Hussein; Karkar, Sami; Lissek, Herve; Mosig, Juan R.

    2016-01-01

    The optical dispersive prism is a well-studied element, which allows separating white light into its constituent spectral colors, and stands in nature as water droplets. In analogy to this definition, the acoustic dispersive prism should be an acoustic device with capability of splitting a broadband acoustic wave into its constituent Fourier components. However, due to the acoustical nature of materials as well as the design and fabrication difficulties, there is neither any natural acoustic counterpart of the optical prism, nor any artificial design reported so far exhibiting an equivalent acoustic behaviour. Here, based on exotic properties of the acoustic transmission-line metamaterials and exploiting unique physical behaviour of acoustic leaky-wave radiation, we report the first acoustic dispersive prism, effective within the audible frequency range 800 Hz–1300 Hz. The dispersive nature, and consequently the frequency-dependent refractive index of the metamaterial are exploited to split the sound waves towards different and frequency-dependent directions. Meanwhile, the leaky-wave nature of the structure facilitates the sound wave radiation into the ambient medium. PMID:26739504

  17. Acoustic dispersive prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfahlani, Hussein; Karkar, Sami; Lissek, Herve; Mosig, Juan R.

    2016-01-01

    The optical dispersive prism is a well-studied element, which allows separating white light into its constituent spectral colors, and stands in nature as water droplets. In analogy to this definition, the acoustic dispersive prism should be an acoustic device with capability of splitting a broadband acoustic wave into its constituent Fourier components. However, due to the acoustical nature of materials as well as the design and fabrication difficulties, there is neither any natural acoustic counterpart of the optical prism, nor any artificial design reported so far exhibiting an equivalent acoustic behaviour. Here, based on exotic properties of the acoustic transmission-line metamaterials and exploiting unique physical behaviour of acoustic leaky-wave radiation, we report the first acoustic dispersive prism, effective within the audible frequency range 800 Hz-1300 Hz. The dispersive nature, and consequently the frequency-dependent refractive index of the metamaterial are exploited to split the sound waves towards different and frequency-dependent directions. Meanwhile, the leaky-wave nature of the structure facilitates the sound wave radiation into the ambient medium.

  18. Resonant acoustic transducer system for a well drilling string

    DOEpatents

    Kent, William H.; Mitchell, Peter G.

    1981-01-01

    For use in transmitting acoustic waves propagated along a well drilling string, a piezoelectric transducer is provided operating in the relatively low loss acoustic propagation range of the well drilling string. The efficiently coupled transmitting transducer incorporates a mass-spring-piezoelectric transmitter combination permitting resonant operation in the desired low frequency range.

  19. Resonant acoustic transducer system for a well drilling string

    DOEpatents

    Nardi, Anthony P.

    1981-01-01

    For use in transmitting acoustic waves propated along a well drilling string, a piezoelectric transducer is provided operating in the relatively low loss acoustic propagation range of the well drilling string. The efficiently coupled transmitting transducer incorporates a mass-spring-piezoelectric transmitter combination permitting a resonant operation in the desired low frequency range.

  20. Atmospheric Pressure-Thermal Desorption (AP-TD)/Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry for the Rapid Analysis of Bacillus Spores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A technique is described where an atmospheric pressure-thermal desorption (AP-TD) device and electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry are coupled and used for the rapid analysis of Bacillus spores in complex matrices. The resulting AP-TD/ESI-MS technique combines the generation of volatile co...

  1. Investigation of the nature of thermal stimulation of acoustic emission

    SciTech Connect

    Muravin, G.B.; Ship, V.V.; Lezvinskaya, L.M.

    1988-12-01

    The nature of thermal stimulation of acoustic emission was investigated. Data are given on the distribution of the density of the energy of deformation at a crack tip and the parameters of acoustic emission with different combinations of mechanical and thermal action. It was established that thermal stimulation of acoustic emission is related to advance and growth of a crack under the action of thermoelastic shear stresses. An increases in heating power causes an increase in the energy of deformation, shear stresses at the crack edges, and acoustic emission energy. The position of the minimum in the density of the energy of deformation and of the maximum in acoustic emission energy coincides with the direction of crack advance, which with the use of the method of thermally stimulated acoustic emission makes it possible to not only reveal crack-like defects but also to determine potentially dangerous directions of their development.

  2. Artificial Swimmers Propelled by Acoustically Activated Flagella.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Daniel; Baasch, Thierry; Jang, Bumjin; Pane, Salvador; Dual, Jürg; Nelson, Bradley J

    2016-08-10

    Recent studies have garnered considerable interest in the field of propulsion to maneuver micro- and nanosized objects. Acoustics provide an alternate and attractive method to generate propulsion. To date, most acoustic-based swimmers do not use structural resonances, and their motion is determined by a combination of bulk acoustic streaming and a standing-wave field. The resultant field is intrinsically dependent on the boundaries of their resonating chambers. Though acoustic based propulsion is appealing in biological contexts, existing swimmers are less efficient, especially when operating in vivo, since no predictable standing-wave can be established in a human body. Here we describe a new class of nanoswimmer propelled by the small-amplitude oscillation of a flagellum-like flexible tail in standing and, more importantly, in traveling acoustic waves. The artificial nanoswimmer, fabricated by multistep electrodeposition techniques, compromises a rigid bimetallic head and a flexible tail. During acoustic excitation of the nanoswimmer the tail structure oscillates, which leads to a large amplitude propulsion in traveling waves. FEM simulation results show that the structural resonances lead to high propulsive forces. PMID:27459382

  3. Hydrogen Dissociation, Spillover, and Desorption from Cu-Supported Co Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Emily A; Marcinkowski, Matthew D; Murphy, Colin J; Liriano, Melissa L; Sykes, E Charles H

    2014-10-01

    Co-Cu nanoparticles have recently been explored for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) as a way to combine the long chain selectivity of Co with Cu's activity for alcohol formation in order to synthesize oxygenated transportation fuels. Depending on particle size, hydrogen dissociation can be a rate-determining step in cobalt-catalyzed FTS. To understand the fundamentals of uptake and release of hydrogen from the Co/Cu bimetallic system, we prepared well-defined Co nanoparticles on Cu(111). We demonstrate that hydrogen spills over from dissociation sites on the Co nanoparticles to the Cu(111) surface via the Co-Cu interface and that desorption of H occurs at a temperature that is lower than from Co or Cu alone, which we attribute to the Co-Cu interface sites. From this data, we have constructed an energy landscape for the facile dissociation, spillover, and desorption of hydrogen on the Co-Cu bimetallic system. PMID:26278448

  4. Audioptimization: Goal-based acoustic design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monks, Michael Christopher

    Acoustic design is a difficult process, because the human perception of sound depends on such things as decibel level, direction of propagation, and attenuation over time, none of which are tangible or visible. The advent of computer simulation and visualization techniques for acoustic design and analysis has yielded a variety of approaches for modeling acoustic performance. However, current computer-aided design and simulation tools suffer from two major drawbacks. First, obtaining the desired acoustic effects may require a long, tedious sequence of modeling and/or simulation steps. Second, current techniques for modeling the propagation of sound in an environment are prohibitively slow and do not support interactive design. This thesis presents a new approach to computer-aided acoustic design. It is based on the inverse problem of determining material and geometric settings for an environment from a description of the desired performance. The user interactively indicates a range of acceptable material and geometric modifications for an auditorium or similar space, and specifies acoustic goals in space and time by choosing target values for a set of acoustic measures. Given this set of goals and constraints, the system performs an optimization of surface material and geometric parameters using a combination of simulated annealing and steepest descent techniques. Visualization tools extract and present the simulated sound field for points sampled in space and time. The user manipulates the visualizations to create an intuitive expression of acoustic design goals. Interactive rates are achieved for surface material modifications by preprocessing the geometric component of the simulation, and accelerate geometric modifications to the auditorium. by trading accuracy for speed through a number of interactive controls. I describe an interactive system that allows flexible input and display of the solution and report results for several performance spaces. (Copies

  5. Acoustics Critical Readiness Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    This presentation reviews the status of the acoustic equipment from the medical operations perspective. Included is information about the acoustic dosimeters, sound level meter, and headphones that are planned for use while on orbit. Finally there is information about on-orbit hearing assessments.

  6. The challenge of acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, P.

    1981-01-01

    The various applications of acoustics, including sonar, ultrasonic examination of unborn foetuses and architectural applications, are briefly reviewed. Problems in traffic and industrial noise, auditorium design and explosive noise are considered in more detail. The educational aspects of acoustical science and technology are briefly considered.

  7. Multi-dimensional analysis of subjective acoustical ratings and acoustical measures in existing concert halls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okano, Toshiyuki

    2001-05-01

    Correlations between subjective acoustical ratings and hall-averaged values of acoustical measures are studied among existing worldwide major concert halls. It was shown that the classified acoustical ratings by Beranek [Concert and Opera Halls, How They Sound (ASA, 1996)] are discriminated correctly by combining binaural quality index (BQI) with some other acoustical measures. BQI is determined by the arithmetic average of inter-aural cross correlation coefficient in three octave bands of 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz, subtracted from unity, calculated from the early 80-ms part of binaural impulse response. Considering that the upper limit value of BQI not to cause disturbing image shift is approximately 0.85 at individual seat [Okano, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 2219-2230 (2000)], the values of 0.6 or higher in hall averaged value of BQI, 0.85 or smaller in individual seat value of BQI, and approximately 5 dB or higher in strength factor at middle frequencies are proposed as design objectives to attain a high acoustical quality. It should be provided that other acoustical measures are also optimized. These target values will be very effective in studying room shape of halls, using scale models or computer models.

  8. Acoustic Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, David R.; Sabra, Karim G.

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic waves carry information about their source and collect information about their environment as they propagate. This article reviews how these information-carrying and -collecting features of acoustic waves that travel through fluids can be exploited for remote sensing. In nearly all cases, modern acoustic remote sensing involves array-recorded sounds and array signal processing to recover multidimensional results. The application realm for acoustic remote sensing spans an impressive range of signal frequencies (10-2 to 107 Hz) and distances (10-2 to 107 m) and involves biomedical ultrasound imaging, nondestructive evaluation, oil and gas exploration, military systems, and Nuclear Test Ban Treaty monitoring. In the past two decades, approaches have been developed to robustly localize remote sources; remove noise and multipath distortion from recorded signals; and determine the acoustic characteristics of the environment through which the sound waves have traveled, even when the recorded sounds originate from uncooperative sources or are merely ambient noise.

  9. Acoustic integrated extinction

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    The integrated extinction (IE) is defined as the integral of the scattering cross section as a function of wavelength. Sohl et al. (2007 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 3206–3210. (doi:10.1121/1.2801546)) derived an IE expression for acoustic scattering that is causal, i.e. the scattered wavefront in the forward direction arrives later than the incident plane wave in the background medium. The IE formula was based on electromagnetic results, for which scattering is causal by default. Here, we derive a formula for the acoustic IE that is valid for causal and non-causal scattering. The general result is expressed as an integral of the time-dependent forward scattering function. The IE reduces to a finite integral for scatterers with zero long-wavelength monopole and dipole amplitudes. Implications for acoustic cloaking are discussed and a new metric is proposed for broadband acoustic transparency. PMID:27547100

  10. Virtual acoustics displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Fisher, Scott S.; Stone, Philip K.; Foster, Scott H.

    1991-01-01

    The real time acoustic display capabilities are described which were developed for the Virtual Environment Workstation (VIEW) Project at NASA-Ames. The acoustic display is capable of generating localized acoustic cues in real time over headphones. An auditory symbology, a related collection of representational auditory 'objects' or 'icons', can be designed using ACE (Auditory Cue Editor), which links both discrete and continuously varying acoustic parameters with information or events in the display. During a given display scenario, the symbology can be dynamically coordinated in real time with 3-D visual objects, speech, and gestural displays. The types of displays feasible with the system range from simple warnings and alarms to the acoustic representation of multidimensional data or events.

  11. The Application of Ultrafast Laser Pulses to Laser Desorption Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yang

    Ultrashort femtosecond laser pulses display exceptional performance for the selective ablation of materials, includes metals, semiconductors, and biological tissues. They do not damage the remaining unablated portion of a sample, which permits the possibility of depth profiling by repeat sampling at the same location. With sufficiently micro-focused fs laser pulse length beam, high lateral resolution mass spectrometry imaging is possible, while sample damage may degrade ultimate lateral resolution in some other methods. Combining imaging and depth profiling could ultimately leads to tomographical mass spectrometry or 3D imaging MS. Laser postionization, a "soft" ionization method, was combined with ultrafast laser desorption for enhanced molecular analysis. A customized femtosecond laser desorption/ablation postionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer was designed and built. The construction and performance of both phases including the VUV source are detailed. Instrument control software was written to operate this instrument, and many automated experiments were successfully demonstrated by this software. Elemental and molecular analysis was carried out on the instrument and demonstrated exceptional performance for fs laser pulse sampling of small areas. Studies demonstrated the imaging and depth profiling capability of fs-LDPI on metals, semiconductors and intact biofilm tissues. Attempts were made to reach the limit of lateral resolution of imaging by fs-LDPI-MS. The results showed similar lateral resolution of <2 mum for both fs 800 nm and 400 nm desorption beams. To improve the repetition rate for high speed imaging application, an alternative LDPI scheme was designed and constructed. The fs 800 beam was tripled to 267 nm and delivered into the ion source as an ionization laser, while a ns 349 nm pulse laser was used for desorption. Preliminary data showed certain intact molecular ions can be detected. Fragmentation tendency was measured against various

  12. Thermal Desorption of Au from W(001) Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błaszczyszyn, R.; Chrzanowski, J.; Godowski, P. J.

    2000-12-01

    Adsorption of Au on W(001) at 450 K up to multilayer structures was investigated. Temperature programmed desorption technique was used in determination of coverage dependent desorption energy (region up to one monolayer). Results were discussed in terms of competitive interactions of Au--Au and Au--W atoms. Simple procedure for prediction of faceting behavior on the interface, basing on the desorption data, was postulated. It was deduced that the Au/W(001) interface should not show faceting tendency after thermal treatment.

  13. Thermal desorption of metals from tungsten single crystal surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, E.; Bonczek, F.; Poppa, H.; Todd, G.

    1975-01-01

    After a short review of experimental methods used to determine desorption energies and frequencies the assumptions underlying the theoretical analysis of experimental data are discussed. Recent experimental results on the flash desorption of Cu, Ag, and Au from clean, well characterized W (110) and (100) surfaces are presented and analyzed in detail with respect to the coverage dependence. The results obtained clearly reveal the limitations of previous analytical methods and of the experimental technique per se (such as structure and phase changes below and in the temperature region in which desorption occurs).

  14. Innovative site remediation technology: Thermal desorption. Volume 6

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, W.C.

    1993-11-01

    The monograph on thermal desorption is one of a series of eight on innovative site and waste remediation technologies that are the culmination of a multiorganization effort involving more than 100 experts over a two-year period. The thermal desorption processes addressed in this monograph use heat, either direct or indirect, ex situ, as the principal means to physically separate and transfer contaminants from soils, sediments, sludges, filter cakes, or other media. Thermal desorption is part of a treatment train; some pre- and postprocessing is necessary.

  15. Temperature programmed desorption of weakly bound adsorbates on Au(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhart, Daniel P.; Wagner, Roman J. V.; Meling, Artur; Wodtke, Alec M.; Schäfer, Tim

    2016-08-01

    We have performed temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments to analyze the desorption kinetics of Ar, Kr, Xe, C2H2, SF6, N2, NO and CO on Au(111). We report desorption activation energies (Edes), which are an excellent proxy for the binding energies. The derived binding energies scale with the polarizability of the molecules, consistent with the conclusion that the surface-adsorbate bonds arise due to dispersion forces. The reported results serve as a benchmark for theories of dispersion force interactions of molecules at metal surfaces.

  16. Experiments on the Acoustics of Whistling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadle, Christine H.

    1983-01-01

    The acoustics of speech production allows the prediction of resonances for a given vocal tract configuration. Combining these predictions with aerodynamic theory developed for mechanical whistles makes theories about human whistling more complete. Several experiments involving human whistling are reported which support the theory and indicate new…

  17. Ocean seismo-acoustics. Low-frequency underwater acoustics

    SciTech Connect

    Akal, T.; berkson, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on seismo-acoustic propagation in seawater and sea beds that includes theoretical developments, modelling and experiments, and fluctuations. Boundary scatteiring, seismo-acoustic waves and seismo-acoustic noise are discussed. Technology and new approaches in seismo-acoustic measurements are presented.

  18. Salt Tolerance of Desorption Electrospray Ionization (DESI)

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Ayanna U.; Talaty, Nari; Cooks, R G; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2007-01-01

    Suppression of ion intensity in the presence of high salt matrices is common in most mass spectrometry ionization techniques. Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) is an ionization method that exhibits salt tolerance, and this is investigated. DESI analysis was performed on three different drug mixtures in the presence of 0, 0.2, 2, 5, 10, and 20% NaCl:KCl weight by volume from seven different surfaces. At physiological concentrations individual drugs in each mixture were observed with each surface. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) was used to provide additional confirmation for select compounds. Multiple stage experiments, to MS5, were performed for select compounds. Even in the absence of added salt, the benzodiazepine containing mixture yielded sodium and potassium adducts of carbamazepine which masked the ions of interest. These adducts were eliminated by adding 0.1% 7M ammonium acetate to the standard methanol:water (1:1) spray solvent. Comparison of the salt tolerance of DESI with that of electrospray ionization (ESI) demonstrated much better signal/noise characteristics for DESI in this study. The salt tolerance of DESI was also studied by performing limit of detection and dynamic range experiments. Even at a salt concentration significantly above physiological concentrations, select surfaces were effective in providing spectra that allowed the ready identification of the compounds of interest. The already high salt tolerance of DESI can be optimized further by appropriate choices of surface and spray solution.

  19. Laser Acoustic Imaging of Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator (FBAR) Lateral Mode Dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Ken L. Telschow

    2004-07-01

    A laser acoustic imaging microscope has been developed that measures acoustic motion with high spatial resolution without scanning. Images are recorded at normal video frame rates and heterodyne principles are used to allow operation at any frequency from Hz to GHz. Fourier transformation of the acoustic amplitude and phase displacement images provides a direct quantitative determination of excited mode wavenumbers at any frequency. Results are presented at frequencies near the first longitudinal thickness mode (~ 900 MHz) demonstrating simultaneous excitation of lateral modes with nonzero wavenumbers in an electrically driven AlN thin film acoustic resonator. Images combined at several frequencies form a direct visualization of lateral mode dispersion relations for the device under test allowing mode identification and a direct measure of specific lateral mode properties. Discussion and analysis of the results are presented in comparison with plate wave modeling of these devices taking account for material anisotropy and multilayer films.

  20. High temperature acoustic and hybrid microwave/acoustic levitators for materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin

    1990-01-01

    The physical acoustics group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed a single mode acoustic levitator technique for advanced containerless materials processing. The technique was successfully demonstrated in ground based studies to temperatures of about 1000 C in a uniform temperature furnace environment and to temperatures of about 1500 C using laser beams to locally heat the sample. Researchers are evaluating microwaves as a more efficient means than lasers for locally heating a positioned sample. Recent tests of a prototype single mode hybrid microwave/acoustic levitator successfully demonstrated the feasibility of using microwave power as a heating source. The potential advantages of combining acoustic positioning forces and microwave heating for containerless processing investigations are presented in outline form.

  1. Virtual acoustic displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1991-01-01

    A 3D auditory display can potentially enhance information transfer by combining directional and iconic information in a quite naturalistic representation of dynamic objects in the interface. Another aspect of auditory spatial clues is that, in conjunction with other modalities, it can act as a potentiator of information in the display. For example, visual and auditory cues together can reinforce the information content of the display and provide a greater sense of presence or realism in a manner not readily achievable by either modality alone. This phenomenon will be particularly useful in telepresence applications, such as advanced teleconferencing environments, shared electronic workspaces, and monitoring telerobotic activities in remote or hazardous situations. Thus, the combination of direct spatial cues with good principles of iconic design could provide an extremely powerful and information-rich display which is also quite easy to use. An alternative approach, recently developed at ARC, generates externalized, 3D sound cues over headphones in realtime using digital signal processing. Here, the synthesis technique involves the digital generation of stimuli using Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTF's) measured in the two ear-canals of individual subjects. Other similar approaches include an analog system developed by Loomis, et. al., (1990) and digital systems which make use of transforms derived from normative mannikins and simulations of room acoustics. Such an interface also requires the careful psychophysical evaluation of listener's ability to accurately localize the virtual or synthetic sound sources. From an applied standpoint, measurement of each potential listener's HRTF's may not be possible in practice. For experienced listeners, localization performance was only slightly degraded compared to a subject's inherent ability. Alternatively, even inexperienced listeners may be able to adapt to a particular set of HRTF's as long as they provide adequate

  2. Organic and inorganic decomposition products from the thermal desorption of atmospheric particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, B. J.; Zhang, Y.; Zuo, X.; Martinez, R. E.; Walker, M. J.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Goldstein, A. H.; Docherty, K. S.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    signal found in the traditional compound elution time period reveals higher correlations with AMS hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) combined with the fraction of OOA that is less oxygenated. Potential to quantify nitrate and sulfate aerosol mass concentrations using the TAG system is explored through analysis of ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate standards. While chemical standards display a linear response in the TAG system, re-desorptions of the CTD cell following ambient sample analysis shows some signal carryover on sulfate and organics, and new desorption methods should be developed to improve throughput. Future standards should be composed of complex organic/inorganic mixtures, similar to what is found in the atmosphere, and perhaps will more accurately account for any aerosol mixture effects on compositional quantification.

  3. Acoustic cooling engine

    DOEpatents

    Hofler, Thomas J.; Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1988-01-01

    An acoustic cooling engine with improved thermal performance and reduced internal losses comprises a compressible fluid contained in a resonant pressure vessel. The fluid has a substantial thermal expansion coefficient and is capable of supporting an acoustic standing wave. A thermodynamic element has first and second ends and is located in the resonant pressure vessel in thermal communication with the fluid. The thermal response of the thermodynamic element to the acoustic standing wave pumps heat from the second end to the first end. The thermodynamic element permits substantial flow of the fluid through the thermodynamic element. An acoustic driver cyclically drives the fluid with an acoustic standing wave. The driver is at a location of maximum acoustic impedance in the resonant pressure vessel and proximate the first end of the thermodynamic element. A hot heat exchanger is adjacent to and in thermal communication with the first end of the thermodynamic element. The hot heat exchanger conducts heat from the first end to portions of the resonant pressure vessel proximate the hot heat exchanger. The hot heat exchanger permits substantial flow of the fluid through the hot heat exchanger. The resonant pressure vessel can include a housing less than one quarter wavelength in length coupled to a reservoir. The housing can include a reduced diameter portion communicating with the reservoir. The frequency of the acoustic driver can be continuously controlled so as to maintain resonance.

  4. Zero-Headspace Coal-Core Gas Desorption Canister, Revised Desorption Data Analysis Spreadsheets and a Dry Canister Heating System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, Charles E.; Dallegge, Todd A.

    2005-01-01

    Coal desorption techniques typically use the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) canister-desorption method as described by Diamond and Levine (1981), Close and Erwin (1989), Ryan and Dawson (1993), McLennan and others (1994), Mavor and Nelson (1997) and Diamond and Schatzel (1998). However, the coal desorption canister designs historically used with this method have an inherent flaw that allows a significant gas-filled headspace bubble to remain in the canister that later has to be compensated for by correcting the measured desorbed gas volume with a mathematical headspace volume correction (McLennan and others, 1994; Mavor and Nelson, 1997).

  5. Some Problems of modern acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stan, A.

    1974-01-01

    The multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary character of acoustics is considered and its scientific, technological, economical and social implications, as well as the role of acoustics in creating new machines and equipment and improving the quality of products are outlined. Research beyond audible frequencies, as well as to extremely high acoustic intensities, which requires the development of a nonlinear acoustics is elaborated.

  6. Molecular beam-thermal hydrogen desorption from palladium

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo, R. F. M.; Berardo, F. M. V.; Ribeiro, J. H. F.

    2010-04-15

    Among the most efficient techniques for hydrogen desorption monitoring, thermal desorption mass spectrometry is a very sensitive one, but in certain cases can give rise to uptake misleading results due to residual hydrogen partial pressure background variations. In this work one develops a novel thermal desorption variant based on the effusive molecular beam technique that represents a significant improvement in the accurate determination of hydrogen mass absorbed on a solid sample. The enhancement in the signal-to-noise ratio for trace hydrogen is on the order of 20%, and no previous calibration with a chemical standard is required. The kinetic information obtained from the hydrogen desorption mass spectra (at a constant heating rate of 1 deg. C/min) accounts for the consistency of the technique.

  7. Laser desorption mass spectrometry for biomolecule detection and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winston Chen, C. H.; Sammartano, L. J.; Isola, N. R.; Allman, S. L.

    2001-08-01

    During the past few years, we developed and used laser desorption mass spectrometry for biomolecule detections. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) was successfully used to detect DNA fragments with the size larger than 3000 base pairs. It was also successfully used to sequence DNA with both enzymatic and chemical degradation methods to produce DNA ladders. We also developed MALDI with fragmentation for direct DNA sequencing for short DNA probes. Since laser desorption mass spectrometry for DNA detection has the advantages of fast speed and no need of labeling, it has a great potential for molecular diagnosis for disease and person identification by DNA fingerprinting. We applied laser desorption mass spectrometry to succeed in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis and several other nerve degenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease. We also succeeded in demonstrating DNA typing for forensic applications.

  8. Comparative sorption, desorption and leaching potential of aminocyclopyrachlor and picloram

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aminocyclopyrachlor and picloram sorption, desorption and leaching potential were investigated in three soils from Minnesota and Hawaii. Aminocyclopyrachlor and picloram sorption fit the Freundlich equation and was independent of concentration for aminocyclopyrachlor (1/n = 1), but not for picloram ...

  9. Acoustic well cleaner

    DOEpatents

    Maki, Jr., Voldi E.; Sharma, Mukul M.

    1997-01-21

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for cleaning the wellbore and the near wellbore region. A sonde is provided which is adapted to be lowered into a borehole and which includes a plurality of acoustic transducers arranged around the sonde. Electrical power provided by a cable is converted to acoustic energy. The high intensity acoustic energy directed to the borehole wall and into the near wellbore region, redissolves or resuspends the material which is reducing the permeability of the formation and/or restricting flow in the wellbore.

  10. Acoustic rotation control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, D. D.; Croonquist, A. P.; Wang, T. G. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A system is described for acoustically controlled rotation of a levitated object, which avoids deformation of a levitated liquid object. Acoustic waves of the same wavelength are directed along perpendicular directions across the object, and with the relative phases of the acoustic waves repeatedly switched so that one wave alternately leads and lags the other by 90 deg. The amount of torque for rotating the object, and the direction of rotation, are controlled by controlling the proportion of time one wave leads the other and selecting which wave leads the other most of the time.

  11. PRSEUS Acoustic Panel Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolette, Velicki; Yovanof, Nicolette P.; Baraja, Jaime; Mathur, Gopal; Thrash, Patrick; Pickell, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the development of a novel structural concept, Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS), that addresses the demanding fuselage loading requirements for the Hybrid Wing or Blended Wing Body (BWB) airplane configuration with regards to acoustic response. A PRSEUS panel was designed and fabricated and provided to NASA-LaRC for acoustic response testing in the Structural Acoustics Loads and Transmission (SALT) facility). Preliminary assessments of the sound transmission characteristics of a PRSEUS panel subjected to a representative Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) operating environment were completed for the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Program.

  12. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Swift, Gregory W.; Migliori, Albert

    1983-08-16

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium.

  13. Acoustical heat pumping engine

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1983-08-16

    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium. 2 figs.

  14. Hybrid CFD/CAA Modeling for Liftoff Acoustic Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strutzenberg, Louise L.; Liever, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents development efforts at the NASA Marshall Space flight Center to establish a hybrid Computational Fluid Dynamics and Computational Aero-Acoustics (CFD/CAA) simulation system for launch vehicle liftoff acoustics environment analysis. Acoustic prediction engineering tools based on empirical jet acoustic strength and directivity models or scaled historical measurements are of limited value in efforts to proactively design and optimize launch vehicles and launch facility configurations for liftoff acoustics. CFD based modeling approaches are now able to capture the important details of vehicle specific plume flow environment, identifY the noise generation sources, and allow assessment of the influence of launch pad geometric details and sound mitigation measures such as water injection. However, CFD methodologies are numerically too dissipative to accurately capture the propagation of the acoustic waves in the large CFD models. The hybrid CFD/CAA approach combines the high-fidelity CFD analysis capable of identifYing the acoustic sources with a fast and efficient Boundary Element Method (BEM) that accurately propagates the acoustic field from the source locations. The BEM approach was chosen for its ability to properly account for reflections and scattering of acoustic waves from launch pad structures. The paper will present an overview of the technology components of the CFD/CAA framework and discuss plans for demonstration and validation against test data.

  15. Properties of the Acoustic Vector Field in Underwater Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Osto, David R.

    This thesis focuses on the description and measurement of the underwater acoustic field, based on vector properties of acoustic particle velocity. The specific goal is to interpret vector sensor measurements in underwater waveguides, in particular those measurements made in littoral (shallow) waters. To that end, theoretical models, which include the effects of reflections from the waveguide boundaries, are developed for the acoustic intensity, i.e. the product of acoustic pressure and acoustic particle velocity. Vector properties of acoustic intensity are shown to correspond to a non-dimensional vector property of acoustic particle velocity, its degree of circularity, which describes the trajectory of particle motion. Both experimental measurements and simulations of this non-dimensional vector property are used to analyze characteristics of sound propagation in underwater waveguides. Two measurement techniques are utilized in the experiments described in this thesis. In the first, particle velocity is obtained indirectly by time integration of the measured pressure gradient between two closely spaced (with respect to an acoustic wavelength) conventional pressure sensitive hydrophones. This method was used in ocean experiments conducted with vertical line arrays of hydrophones. In the second technique, particle velocity is measured directly by time integration of the signal generated by an accelerometer. An additional pressure measurement from a co-located hydrophone forms what is known as a "combined sensor" in the Russian literature, which allows for estimation of the vector acoustic intensity. This method was utilized mainly in laboratory experiments.

  16. Thermal desorption of hydrogen from the diamond C(100) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, C.; Lin, J.-C.

    1998-05-01

    Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) is used to measure the kinetics of hydrogen desorption from the C(100) surface. Two major desorption channels, attributed to hydrogen desorption from (2×1) domains ( α sites) and disordered domain boundaries sites ( β sites) were observed. The change in the morphology of the C(100) surface upon hydrogen adsorption/desorption leads to a variation in the intensity ratio between the two hydrogen desorption peaks. The degradation results in smaller (2×1) domains, as evidenced by deteriorated LEED patterns in which the characteristic (2×1) half-order spots disappear. The (2×1) LEED pattern can be restored on the degraded C(100) surface by repeated hydrogenation-annealing cycles in the temperature range 300-1100 K. Fitting the experimental TPD data with simulated curves from the two-site model shows that desorption from the α site obeys first-order kinetics with a prefactor of 1.4±0.9×10 13 s -1 and an activation energy of 80.3±1.3 kcal mol -1, whereas the process giving rise to the β peak follows second-order kinetics with a prefactor of 2.3±0.9×10 13 s -1 (expressed in first-order units) and an activation energy of 75.1±0.5 kcal mol -1. Possible mechanisms for first-order recombinative hydrogen desorption from the C(100)-(2×1) surface are also discussed.

  17. High-speed thermo-microscope for imaging thermal desorption phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staymates, Matthew; Gillen, Greg

    2012-07-01

    In this work, we describe a thermo-microscope imaging system that can be used to visualize atmospheric pressure thermal desorption phenomena at high heating rates and frame rates. This versatile and portable instrument is useful for studying events during rapid heating of organic particles on the microscopic scale. The system consists of a zoom lens coupled to a high-speed video camera that is focused on the surface of an aluminum nitride heating element. We leverage high-speed videography with oblique incidence microscopy along with forward and back-scattered illumination to capture vivid images of thermal desorption events during rapid heating of chemical compounds. In a typical experiment, particles of the material of interest are rapidly heated beyond their boiling point while the camera captures images at several thousand frames/s. A data acquisition system, along with an embedded thermocouple and infrared pyrometer are used to measure the temperature of the heater surface. We demonstrate that, while a typical thermocouple lacks the response time to accurately measure temperature ramps that approach 150 °C/s, it is possible to calibrate the system by using a combination of infrared pyrometry, melting point standards, and a thermocouple. Several examples of high explosives undergoing rapid thermal desorption are also presented.

  18. Spatially controlled electro-stimulated DNA adsorption and desorption for biochip applications.

    PubMed

    Hook, Andrew L; Thissen, Helmut; Hayes, Jason P; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2006-05-15

    The manipulation of biomolecules at solid/liquid interfaces is important for the enhanced performance of a number of biomedical devices, including biochips. This study focuses on the spatial control of surface interactions of DNA as well as the electro-stimulated adsorption and desorption of DNA by appropriate surface modification of highly doped p-type silicon. Surface modification by plasma polymerisation of allylamine resulted in a surface that supported DNA adsorption and sustained cell attachment. Subsequent high-density grafting of poly(ethylene oxide) formed a low fouling layer resistant to biomolecule adsorption and cell attachment. Spatially controlled excimer laser ablation of the surface produced patterns of re-exposed plasma polymer with high-resolution. On patterned surfaces, preferential electro-stimulated adsorption of DNA to the allylamine plasma polymer surface and subsequent desorption by the application of a negative bias was observed. Furthermore, the concept presented here was investigated for use in transfection chips. Cell culture experiments with human embryonic kidney cells, using the expression of green fluorescent protein as a reporter, demonstrated efficient and controlled transfection of cells. Electro-stimulated desorption of DNA was shown to yield significantly enhanced solid phase transfection efficiencies to values of up to 30%. The ability to spatially control DNA adsorption combined with the ability to control the binding and release of DNA by application of a controlled voltage enables an advanced level of control over DNA bioactivity on solid substrates and lends itself to biochip applications. PMID:16303297

  19. Enhanced desorption of persistent organic pollutants from microplastics under simulated physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J; Thompson, Richard C

    2014-02-01

    Microplastics have the potential to uptake and release persistent organic pollutants (POPs); however, subsequent transfer to marine organisms is poorly understood. Some models estimating transfer of sorbed contaminants to organisms neglect the role of gut surfactants under differing physiological conditions in the gut (varying pH and temperature), examined here. We investigated the potential for polyvinylchloride (PVC) and polyethylene (PE) to sorb and desorb (14)C-DDT, (14)C-phenanthrene (Phe), (14)C-perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and (14)C-di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP). Desorption rates of POPs were quantified in seawater and under simulated gut conditions. Influence of pH and temperature was examined in order to represent cold and warm blooded organisms. Desorption rates were faster with gut surfactant, with a further substantial increase under conditions simulating warm blooded organisms. Desorption under gut conditions could be up to 30 times greater than in seawater alone. Of the POP/plastic combinations examined Phe with PE gave the highest potential for transport to organisms. PMID:24212067

  20. Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Drosophila Brain Using Matrix Sublimation versus Modification with Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Phan, Nhu T N; Mohammadi, Amir Saeid; Dowlatshahi Pour, Masoumeh; Ewing, Andrew G

    2016-02-01

    Laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) is used to image brain lipids in the fruit fly, Drosophila, a common invertebrate model organism in biological and neurological studies. Three different sample preparation methods, including sublimation with two common organic matrixes for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and surface-assisted laser desorption ionization (SALDI) using gold nanoparticles, are examined for sample profiling and imaging the fly brain. Recrystallization with trifluoroacetic acid following matrix deposition in MALDI is shown to increase the incorporation of biomolecules with one matrix, resulting in more efficient ionization, but not for the other matrix. The key finding here is that the mass fragments observed for the fly brain slices with different surface modifications are significantly different. Thus, these approaches can be combined to provide complementary analysis of chemical composition, particularly for the small metabolites, diacylglycerides, phosphatidylcholines, and triacylglycerides, in the fly brain. Furthermore, imaging appears to be beneficial using modification with gold nanoparticles in place of matrix in this application showing its potential for cellular and subcellular imaging. The imaging protocol developed here with both MALDI and SALDI provides the best and most diverse lipid chemical images of the fly brain to date with LDI. PMID:26705612

  1. Biodegradation of persistent organics can overcome adsorption-desorption hysteresis in biological activated carbon systems.

    PubMed

    Abromaitis, V; Racys, V; van der Marel, P; Meulepas, R J W

    2016-04-01

    In Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) systems, persistent organic pollutants can be removed through a combination of adsorption, desorption and biodegradation. These processes might be affected by the presence of other organics, especially by the more abundant easily-biodegradable organics, like acetate. In this research these relations are quantified for the removal of the persistent pharmaceutical metoprolol. Acetate did not affect the adsorption and desorption of metoprolol, but it did greatly enhance the metoprolol biodegradation. At least part of the BAC biomass growing on acetate was also able to metabolise metoprolol, although metoprolol was only converted after the acetate was depleted. The presence of easily-degradable organics like acetate in the feeding water is therefore beneficial for the removal of metoprolol in BAC systems. The isotherms obtained from metoprolol adsorption and desorption experiments showed that BAC systems are subject to hysteresis; for AC bioregeneration to take place the microbial biomass has to reduce the concentration at the AC-biomass interface 2.7 times compared to the concentration at which the carbon was being loaded. However, given the threshold concentration of the MET degrading microorganisms (<0.08 μg/L) versus the average influent concentration (1.3 μg/L), bioregeneration is feasible. PMID:26855223

  2. Using chemical desorption of PAHs from sediment to model biodegradation during bioavailability assessment.

    PubMed

    Spasojević, Jelena M; Maletić, Snežana P; Rončević, Srđan D; Radnović, Dragan V; Cučak, Dragana I; Tričković, Jelena S; Dalmacija, Božo D

    2015-01-01

    This work compares the biodegradation potential of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo(a)pyrene, chosen as representatives of the 3, 4 and 5 ring PAHs) with their desorption from sediment by XAD4 resin and methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD). The biodegradation study was conducted under various conditions (biostimulation, bioaugmentation and their combination). The results show that total PAH removal in all treatments except biostimulation gave similar results, whereby the total amount of PAHs was decreased by about 30-35%. The desorption experiment showed that XAD4 desorbed a greater fraction of phenanthrene (77% versus 52%), and benzo(a)pyrene (44% versus 25%) than MCD. The results for four ring PAHs were similar for both desorption agents (about 30%). Comparing the maximum biodegraded amount of each PAH with the rapidly desorbed XAD4 and MCD fraction, XAD4 was found to correlate better with biodegradation for the high molecular PAHs (pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene), although it overestimated the availability of phenanthrene. In contrast, MCD showed better correlation with the biodegradation of low molecular weight PAHs. PMID:25261761

  3. Calcium lignosulfonate adsorption and desorption on Berea sandstone.

    PubMed

    Grigg, Reid B; Bai, Baojun

    2004-11-01

    This paper describes adsorption and desorption studies carried out with calcium lignosulfonate (CLS) on Berea sandstone. Circulation experiments were performed to determine CLS adsorption isotherms and the effects of CLS concentration, temperature, salinity, brine hardness, and injection rate on adsorption density. Flow-through experiments were performed to assess the reversibility of CLS adsorption and the influence of postflush rate, brine concentration, brine hardness, brine pH, and temperature on the desorption process. Results indicate that CLS adsorption isotherms on Berea sandstone follow the Freundlich isotherm law. The results presented in this paper on the effects of CLS adsorption and desorption on Berea sandstone show that: (1) increasing CLS concentration and salinity increases CLS adsorption density; (2) increasing temperature will decrease adsorption density; (3) increasing injection rate of CLS solution will slightly decrease CLS adsorption density; (4) postflush rate and salinity of brine have a large impact on the CLS desorption process; (5) the adsorption and desorption process are not completely reversible; and (5) temperature and pH of the postflush brine have little effect on desorption. PMID:15380409

  4. Kinetics of desorption of organic compounds from dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Kopinke, Frank-Dieter; Ramus, Ksenia; Poerschmann, Juergen; Georgi, Anett

    2011-12-01

    This study presents a new experimental technique for measuring rates of desorption of organic compounds from dissolved organic matter (DOM) such as humic substances. The method is based on a fast solid-phase extraction of the freely dissolved fraction of a solute when the solution is flushed through a polymer-coated capillary. The extraction interferes with the solute-DOM sorption equilibrium and drives the desorption process. Solutes which remain sorbed to DOM pass through the extraction capillary and can be analyzed afterward. This technique allows a time resolution for the desorption kinetics from subseconds up to minutes. It is applicable to the study of interaction kinetics between a wide variety of hydrophobic solutes and polyelectrolytes. Due to its simplicity it is accessible for many environmental laboratories. The time-resolved in-tube solid-phase microextraction (TR-IT-SPME) was applied to two humic acids and a surfactant as sorbents together with pyrene, phenanthrene and 1,2-dimethylcyclohexane as solutes. The results give evidence for a two-phase desorption kinetics: a fast desorption step with a half-life of less than 1 s and a slow desorption step with a half-life of more than 1 min. For aliphatic solutes, the fast-desorbing fraction largely dominates, whereas for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as pyrene, the slowly desorbing, stronger-bound fraction is also important. PMID:22035249

  5. Uranium and Neptunium Desorption from Yucca Mountain Alluvium

    SciTech Connect

    C.D. Scism; P.W. Reimus; M. Ding; S.J. Chipera

    2006-03-16

    Uranium and neptunium were used as reactive tracers in long-term laboratory desorption studies using saturated alluvium collected from south of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The objective of these long-term experiments is to make detailed observations of the desorption behavior of uranium and neptunium to provide Yucca Mountain with technical bases for a more realistic and potentially less conservative approach to predicting the transport of adsorbing radionuclides in the saturated alluvium. This paper describes several long-term desorption experiments using a flow-through experimental method and groundwater and alluvium obtained from boreholes along a potential groundwater flow path from the proposed repository site. In the long term desorption experiments, the percentages of uranium and neptunium sorbed as a function of time after different durations of sorption was determined. In addition, the desorbed activity as a function of time was fit using a multi-site, multi-rate model to demonstrate that different desorption rate constants ranging over several orders of magnitude exist for the desorption of uranium from Yucca Mountain saturated alluvium. This information will be used to support the development of a conceptual model that ultimately results in effective K{sub d} values much larger than those currently in use for predicting radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain.

  6. Post Test Evaluation of HSCT Nozzle Acoustic Liner Subcomponents Subjected to a Hot Acoustic Durability Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verrilli, Michael J.; Lee, Kuan

    2008-01-01

    its insulative capability throughout the durability test. The durability test results demonstrate damage-tolerant CMC tile, CMC fastener, TPS, and T-foam absorber designs for the combined thermal and acoustic engine nozzle environment.

  7. Highly Localized Acoustic Streaming and Size-Selective Submicrometer Particle Concentration Using High Frequency Microscale Focused Acoustic Fields.

    PubMed

    Collins, David J; Ma, Zhichao; Ai, Ye

    2016-05-17

    Concentration and separation of particles and biological specimens are fundamental functions of micro/nanofluidic systems. Acoustic streaming is an effective and biocompatible way to create rapid microscale fluid motion and induce particle capture, though the >100 MHz frequencies required to directly generate acoustic body forces on the microscale have traditionally been difficult to generate and localize in a way that is amenable to efficient generation of streaming. Moreover, acoustic, hydrodynamic, and electrical forces as typically applied have difficulty manipulating specimens in the submicrometer regime. In this work, we introduce highly focused traveling surface acoustic waves (SAW) at high frequencies between 193 and 636 MHz for efficient and highly localized production of acoustic streaming vortices on microfluidic length scales. Concentration occurs via a novel mechanism, whereby the combined acoustic radiation and streaming field results in size-selective aggregation in fluid streamlines in the vicinity of a high-amplitude acoustic beam, as opposed to previous acoustic radiation induced particle concentration where objects typically migrate toward minimum pressure locations. Though the acoustic streaming is induced by a traveling wave, we are able to manipulate particles an order of magnitude smaller than possible using the traveling wave force alone. We experimentally and theoretically examine the range of particle sizes that can be captured in fluid streamlines using this technique, with rapid particle concentration demonstrated down to 300 nm diameters. We also demonstrate that locations of trapping and concentration are size-dependent, which is attributed to the combined effects of the acoustic streaming and acoustic forces. PMID:27102956

  8. Acoustic Neuroma Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Platinum Sponsors More from this sponsor... Platinum Sponsor Gold Sponsor University of Colorado Acoustic Neuroma Program Rocky Mountain Gamma Knife Center Gold Sponsor NYU Langone Medical Center Departments of Neurosurgery ...

  9. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gloria A.

    1992-01-01

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits (22), in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine (12, 14) includes first thermodynamic elements (12) for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator (16, 26, 28) includes second thermodynamic elements (16) located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements (16) and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements (16). A resonator volume (18) cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16), first heat pipes (24, 26) transfer heat from the heat load (22) to the second thermodynamic elements (16) and second heat pipes (28, 32) transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to the borehole environment.

  10. Acoustic imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard W.

    1979-01-01

    An acoustic imaging system for displaying an object viewed by a moving array of transducers as the array is pivoted about a fixed point within a given plane. A plurality of transducers are fixedly positioned and equally spaced within a laterally extending array and operatively directed to transmit and receive acoustic signals along substantially parallel transmission paths. The transducers are sequentially activated along the array to transmit and receive acoustic signals according to a preestablished sequence. Means are provided for generating output voltages for each reception of an acoustic signal, corresponding to the coordinate position of the object viewed as the array is pivoted. Receptions from each of the transducers are presented on the same display at coordinates corresponding to the actual position of the object viewed to form a plane view of the object scanned.

  11. Acoustics lecturing in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beristain, Sergio

    2002-11-01

    Some thirty years ago acoustics lecturing started in Mexico at the National Polytechnic Institute in Mexico City, as part of the Bachelor of Science degree in Communications and Electronics Engineering curricula, including the widest program on this field in the whole country. This program has been producing acoustics specialists ever since. Nowadays many universities and superior education institutions around the country are teaching students at the B.Sc. level and postgraduate level many topics related to acoustics, such as Architectural Acoustics, Seismology, Mechanical Vibrations, Noise Control, Audio, Audiology, Music, etc. Also many institutions have started research programs in related fields, with participation of medical doctors, psychologists, musicians, engineers, etc. Details will be given on particular topics and development.

  12. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G.A.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a compact acoustic refrigeration system that actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment.

  13. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, G.A.

    1992-11-24

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment. 18 figs.

  14. Scale Model Thruster Acoustic Measurement Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Magda; Kenny, R. Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) is a 5% scale representation of the SLS vehicle, mobile launcher, tower, and launch pad trench. The SLS launch propulsion system will be comprised of the Rocket Assisted Take-Off (RATO) motors representing the solid boosters and 4 Gas Hydrogen (GH2) thrusters representing the core engines. The GH2 thrusters were tested in a horizontal configuration in order to characterize their performance. In Phase 1, a single thruster was fired to determine the engine performance parameters necessary for scaling a single engine. A cluster configuration, consisting of the 4 thrusters, was tested in Phase 2 to integrate the system and determine their combined performance. Acoustic and overpressure data was collected during both test phases in order to characterize the system's acoustic performance. The results from the single thruster and 4- thuster system are discussed and compared.

  15. Numerical Techniques in Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    This is the compilation of abstracts of the Numerical Techniques in Acoustics Forum held at the ASME's Winter Annual Meeting. This forum was for informal presentation and information exchange of ongoing acoustic work in finite elements, finite difference, boundary elements and other numerical approaches. As part of this forum, it was intended to allow the participants time to raise questions on unresolved problems and to generate discussions on possible approaches and methods of solution.

  16. Wavefront modulation and subwavelength diffractive acoustics with an acoustic metasurface.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yangbo; Wang, Wenqi; Chen, Huanyang; Konneker, Adam; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A

    2014-01-01

    Metasurfaces are a family of novel wavefront-shaping devices with planar profile and subwavelength thickness. Acoustic metasurfaces with ultralow profile yet extraordinary wave manipulating properties would be highly desirable for improving the performance of many acoustic wave-based applications. However, designing acoustic metasurfaces with similar functionality to their electromagnetic counterparts remains challenging with traditional metamaterial design approaches. Here we present a design and realization of an acoustic metasurface based on tapered labyrinthine metamaterials. The demonstrated metasurface can not only steer an acoustic beam as expected from the generalized Snell's law, but also exhibits various unique properties such as conversion from propagating wave to surface mode, extraordinary beam-steering and apparent negative refraction through higher-order diffraction. Such designer acoustic metasurfaces provide a new design methodology for acoustic signal modulation devices and may be useful for applications such as acoustic imaging, beam steering, ultrasound lens design and acoustic surface wave-based applications. PMID:25418084

  17. Acoustic communication by ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickling, Robert

    2002-05-01

    Many ant species communicate acoustically by stridulating, i.e., running a scraper over a washboard-like set of ridges. Ants appear to be insensitive to airborne sound. Consequently, myrmecologists have concluded that the stridulatory signals are transmitted through the substrate. This has tended to diminish the importance of acoustic communication, and it is currently believed that ant communication is based almost exclusively on pheromones, with acoustic communication assigned an almost nonexistent role. However, it can be shown that acoustic communication between ants is effective only if the medium is air and not the substrate. How, then, is it possible for ants to appear deaf to airborne sound and yet communicate through the air? An explanation is provided in a paper [R. Hickling and R. L. Brown, ``Analysis of acoustic communication by ants,'' J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 1920-1929 (2000)]. Ants are small relative to the wavelengths they generate. Hence, they create a near field, which is characterized by a major increase in sound velocity (particle velocity of sound) in the vicinity of the source. Hair sensilla on the ants' antennae respond to sound velocity. Thus, ants are able to detect near-field sound from other ants and to exclude extraneous airborne sound.

  18. Acoustic detection of pneumothorax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansy, Hansen A.; Royston, Thomas J.; Balk, Robert A.; Sandler, Richard H.

    2003-04-01

    This study aims at investigating the feasibility of using low-frequency (<2000 Hz) acoustic methods for medical diagnosis. Several candidate methods of pneumothorax detection were tested in dogs. In the first approach, broadband acoustic signals were introduced into the trachea during end-expiration and transmitted waves were measured at the chest surface. Pneumothorax was found to consistently decrease pulmonary acoustic transmission in the 200-1200-Hz frequency band, while less change was observed at lower frequencies (p<0.0001). The ratio of acoustic energy between low (<220 Hz) and mid (550-770 Hz) frequency bands was significantly different in the control (healthy) and pneumothorax states (p<0.0001). The second approach measured breath sounds in the absence of an external acoustic input. Pneumothorax was found to be associated with a preferential reduction of sound amplitude in the 200- to 700-Hz range, and a decrease of sound amplitude variation (in the 300 to 600-Hz band) during the respiration cycle (p<0.01 for each). Finally, chest percussion was implemented. Pneumothorax changed the frequency and decay rate of percussive sounds. These results imply that certain medical conditions may be reliably detected using appropriate acoustic measurements and analysis. [Work supported by NIH/NHLBI #R44HL61108.

  19. Ocean acoustic reverberation tomography.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wide-angle imaging using ship-towed acoustic sources and networks of ocean bottom seismographs is a common technique for exploring earth structure beneath the oceans. In these studies, the recorded data are dominated by acoustic waves propagating as reverberations in the water column. For surveys with a small receiver spacing (e.g., <10 km), the acoustic wave field densely samples properties of the water column over the width of the receiver array. A method, referred to as ocean acoustic reverberation tomography, is developed that uses the travel times of direct and reflected waves to image ocean acoustic structure. Reverberation tomography offers an alternative approach for determining the structure of the oceans and advancing the understanding of ocean heat content and mixing processes. The technique has the potential for revealing small-scale ocean thermal structure over the entire vertical height of the water column and along long survey profiles or across three-dimensional volumes of the ocean. For realistic experimental geometries and data noise levels, the method can produce images of ocean sound speed on a smaller scale than traditional acoustic tomography. PMID:26723303

  20. Desorption of hydrogen trapped in carbon and graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atsumi, H.; Takemura, Y.; Miyabe, T.; Konishi, T.; Tanabe, T.; Shikama, T.

    2013-11-01

    Thermal desorption behavior of deuterium (D2) from isotropic graphites and a carbon fiber carbon composite (CFC) charged with D2 gas has been investigated to obtain information concerning hydrogen recycling and tritium inventory in fusion experimental devices as well as a futuristic fusion reactor. After thermal desorption experiments were conducted at temperatures up to 1740 K, a desorption peak at approximately 1600 K (peak 4) was discovered. This is in addition to the previously known peak at approximately 1300 K (peak 3). Peak 3 can be attributed to the release of deuterium controlled by the diffusion process in a graphite filler grain and peak 4 can be attributed to the detrapping of deuterium released from an interstitial cluster loop edge site. Activation energies of peaks 3 and 4 are estimated to be 3.48 and 6.93 eV, respectively. TDS spectra of D2 from graphite and CFCs had previously not been thoroughly investigated. A desorption peak at approximately 1600 K was discovered in the TDS spectra for all samples heated with a linear ramp rate of 0.1 K/s. For an isotropic graphite, ISO-880U, four desorption peaks were recognized in the TDS spectra at approximately 660 K, 900 K, 1300 K, and 1600 K. These peaks were named as peaks 1, 2, 3, and 4 in order of increasing temperature. Major desorption peaks (i.e., peaks 3 and 4) were analyzed and discussed in detail. The temperature of peak 3 was dependent on the size of a graphite filler grain. The desorption process is suggested to be controlled by deuterium diffusion within the filler grain with a strong influence of trapping sites, where the migration takes place as a sequence of detrapping and retrapping. The desorption for peak 4 can be ascribed to the detrapping reaction from an interstitial cluster loop edge site. Activation energies were estimated from the peak shift by varying the heating rate of TDS to be 3.48 and 6.93 eV for peaks 3 and 4, respectively. Theoretical desorption curves for peaks 3 and 4 with

  1. Adsorption and Desorption of Hydrogen by Gas-Phase Palladium Clusters Revealed by In Situ Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Takenouchi, Masato; Kudoh, Satoshi; Miyajima, Ken; Mafuné, Fumitaka

    2015-07-01

    Adsorption and desorption of hydrogen by gas-phase Pd clusters, Pdn(+), were investigated by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The desorption processes were examined by heating the clusters that had adsorbed hydrogen at room temperature. The clusters remaining after heating were monitored by mass spectrometry as a function of temperature up to 1000 K, and the temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) curve was obtained for each Pdn(+). It was found that hydrogen molecules were released from the clusters into the gas phase with increasing temperature until bare Pdn(+) was formed. The threshold energy for desorption, estimated from the TPD curve, was compared to the desorption energy calculated by using DFT, indicating that smaller Pdn(+) clusters (n ≤ 6) tended to have weakly adsorbed hydrogen molecules, whereas larger Pdn(+) clusters (n ≥ 7) had dissociatively adsorbed hydrogen atoms on the surface. Highly likely, the nonmetallic nature of the small Pd clusters prevents hydrogen molecule from adsorbing dissociatively on the surface. PMID:26043808

  2. Anisotropic Swirling Surface Acoustic Waves from Inverse Filtering for On-Chip Generation of Acoustic Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaud, Antoine; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Charron, Eric; Bussonnière, Adrien; Bou Matar, Olivier; Baudoin, Michael

    2015-09-01

    From radio-electronics signal analysis to biological sample actuation, surface acoustic waves (SAWs) are involved in a multitude of modern devices. However, only the most simple standing or progressive waves such as plane and focused waves have been explored so far. In this paper, we expand the SAW toolbox with a wave family named "swirling surface acoustic waves" which are the 2D anisotropic analogue of bulk acoustic vortices. Similarly to their 3D counterpart, they appear as concentric structures of bright rings with a phase singularity in their center resulting in a central dark spot. After the rigorous mathematical definition of these waves, we synthesize them experimentally through the inverse filtering technique revisited for surface waves. For this purpose, we design a setup combining arrays of interdigitated transducers and a multichannel electronic that enables one to synthesize any prescribed wave field compatible with the anisotropy of the substrate in a region called the "acoustic scene." This work opens prospects for the design of integrated acoustic vortex generators for on-chip selective acoustic tweezing.

  3. Broadband unidirectional acoustic cloak based on phase gradient metasurfaces with two flat acoustic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Peng; Wan, Le-Le; Chen, Tian-Ning; Song, Ai-Ling; Wang, Fang

    2016-07-01

    Narrow bandwidth and bulky configuration are the main obstacles for the realization and application of invisible cloaks. In this paper, we present an effective method to achieve broadband and thin acoustic cloak by using an acoustic metasurface (AMS). In order to realize this cloak, we use slitted unit cells to design the AMS due to the advantage of less energy loss, broad operation bandwidth, and subwavelength thickness. According to the hyperboloidal phase profile along the AMS, the incident plane waves can be focused at a designed focal spot by the flat lens. Furthermore, broadband acoustic cloak is obtained by combining two identical flat lenses. The incident plane waves are focused at the center point in between of the two lenses by passing through one lens, and then recovered by passing through the other one. However, they cannot reach the cloaked regions in between of the two lenses. The simulation results can verify the non-detectability effect of the acoustic cloak. Our study results provide an available and simple approach to experimentally achieve the acoustic cloak, which can be used in acoustic non-detectability for large objects.

  4. Ion Desorption Stability in Superconducting High Energy Physics Proton Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, W.C.

    1995-05-29

    In this paper we extend our previous analysis of cold beam tube vacuum in a superconducting proton collider to include ion desorption in addition to thermal desorption and synchrotron radiation induced photodesorption. The new ion desorption terms introduce the possibility of vacuum instability. This is similar to the classical room temperature case but now modified by the inclusion of ion desorption coefficients for cryosorbed (physisorbed) molecules which can greatly exceed the coefficients for tightly bound molecules. The sojourn time concept for physisorbed H{sub 2} is generalized to include photodesorption and ion desorption as well as the usually considered thermal desorption. The ion desorption rate is density dependent and divergent so at the onset of instability the sojourn time goes to zero. Experimental data are used to evaluate the H{sub 2} sojourn time for the conditions of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the situation is found to be stable. The sojourn time is dominated by photodesorption for surface density s(H{sub 2}) less than a monolayer and by thermal deposition for s(H{sub 2}) greater than a monolayer. For a few percent of a monolayer, characteristic of a beam screen, the photodesorption rate exceeds ion desorption rate by more than two orders of magnitude. The photodesorption rate corresponds to a sojourn time of approximately 100 sec. The paper next turns to the evaluation of stability margins and inclusion of gases heavier than H{sub 2} (CO, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}), where ion desorption introduces coupling between molecular species. Stability conditions are worked out for a simple cold beam tube, a cold beam tube pumped from the ends and a cold beam tube with a co-axial perforated beam screen. In each case a simple inequality for stability of a single component is replaced by a determinant that must be greater than zero for a gas mixture. The connection with the general theory of feedback stability is made and it is shown that the gains

  5. Acoustic calibration apparatus for calibrating plethysmographic acoustic pressure sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Davis, David C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for calibrating an acoustic sensor is described. The apparatus includes a transmission material having an acoustic impedance approximately matching the acoustic impedance of the actual acoustic medium existing when the acoustic sensor is applied in actual in-service conditions. An elastic container holds the transmission material. A first sensor is coupled to the container at a first location on the container and a second sensor coupled to the container at a second location on the container, the second location being different from the first location. A sound producing device is coupled to the container and transmits acoustic signals inside the container.

  6. Dynamic response and acoustic fatigue of stiffened composite structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soovere, J.

    1984-01-01

    The results of acoustic fatigue and dynamic response tests performed on L-1011 graphite-epoxy (GrE) aileron and panel components are reported. The aileron featured glass microballoons between the GrE skins. Tests yielded random fatigue data from double and single cantilever coupons and modal data from impedance hammer and loudspeaker impulses. Numerical and sample test data were obtained on combined acoustic and shear loads, acoustic and thermal loads, random fatigue and damping of the integrally stiffened and secondary bonded panels. The fatigue data indicate a fatigue life beyond 10 million cycles. The acoustic data suggested that noise transmission could be enhanced in the integrally stiffened panels, which were more acoustic-fatigue resistant than were the secondary bonded panels.

  7. The laser desorption/laser ionization mass spectra of some methylated xanthines and the laser desorption of caffeine and theophylline from thin layer chromatography plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Milnes, John; Gormally, John

    1993-02-01

    Laser desorption/laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectra of caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and xanthine are reported. These mass spectra are compared with published spectra obtained using electron impact ionization. Mass spectra of caffeine and theophylline obtained by IR laser desorption from thin layer chromatography plates are also described. The laser desorption of materials from thin layer chromatography plates is discussed.

  8. Measuring acoustic habitats

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Nathan D; Fristrup, Kurt M; Johnson, Mark P; Tyack, Peter L; Witt, Matthew J; Blondel, Philippe; Parks, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    1. Many organisms depend on sound for communication, predator/prey detection and navigation. The acoustic environment can therefore play an important role in ecosystem dynamics and evolution. A growing number of studies are documenting acoustic habitats and their influences on animal development, behaviour, physiology and spatial ecology, which has led to increasing demand for passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) expertise in the life sciences. However, as yet, there has been no synthesis of data processing methods for acoustic habitat monitoring, which presents an unnecessary obstacle to would-be PAM analysts. 2. Here, we review the signal processing techniques needed to produce calibrated measurements of terrestrial and aquatic acoustic habitats. We include a supplemental tutorial and template computer codes in matlab and r, which give detailed guidance on how to produce calibrated spectrograms and statistical analyses of sound levels. Key metrics and terminology for the characterisation of biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic sound are covered, and their application to relevant monitoring scenarios is illustrated through example data sets. To inform study design and hardware selection, we also include an up-to-date overview of terrestrial and aquatic PAM instruments. 3. Monitoring of acoustic habitats at large spatiotemporal scales is becoming possible through recent advances in PAM technology. This will enhance our understanding of the role of sound in the spatial ecology of acoustically sensitive species and inform spatial planning to mitigate the rising influence of anthropogenic noise in these ecosystems. As we demonstrate in this work, progress in these areas will depend upon the application of consistent and appropriate PAM methodologies. PMID:25954500

  9. Laboratory experiments on interstellar ice analogs: The sticking and desorption of small physisorbed molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuchs, G. W.; Acharyya, K.; Bisschop, S. E.; Oberg, K. I.; vanBroekhuizen, F. A.; Fraser, H. J.; Schlemmer, S.; vanDishoeck, E. F.; Linnartz, H.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular oxygen and nitrogen are difficult to observe since they are infrared inactive and radio quiet. The low O2 abundances found so far combined with general considerations of dense cloud conditions suggest molecular oxygen is frozen out at low temperatures (< 20 K) in the shielded inner regions of cloud cores. In solid form O2 and N2 can only be observed as adjuncts within other ice constituents, like CO. In this work we focus on fundamental properties of N2 and O2 in CO ice-gas systems, e.g. desorption characteristics and sticking probabilities at low temperatures for different ice morphologies.

  10. Development of microscopy for lithium analysis using medium-energy ion-stimulated desorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Takane; Kamoshida, Atsushi; Akiyama, Hideo; Watanabe, Ken; Ohnishi, Tsuyoshi; Takada, Kazunori; Suzuki, Taku T.

    2014-10-01

    A medium-energy ion-stimulated desorption spectroscope was combined with a helium ion microscope to develop a microscope for lithium (Li) analysis with high spatial resolution below 10 nm. The analysis of Li is based on time-of-flight (TOF) spectroscopy. A clear Li peak was observed in the TOF spectra for the samples containing Li. The capability of the microscope was demonstrated using a LiCoO2/Nb doped SrTiO3 sample. Furthermore, the Li distribution on the sample was successfully observed by measuring the Li+ peak intensity as a function of the helium irradiation position.

  11. Enhanced hydrogen desorption properties of magnesium hydride by coupling non-metal doping and nano-confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Daliang; Wang, Yulong; Wu, Chengzhang; Li, Qian; Ding, Weizhong; Sun, Chenghua

    2015-12-01

    Magnesium hydride (MgH2) offers excellent capacity to store hydrogen, but it suffers from the high desorption temperature (>283 °C for starting release hydrogen). In this work, we calculated the hydrogen desorption energy of Mg76H152 clusters with/without non-metal dopants by density functional theory method. Phosphorus (P), as identified as the best dopant, can reduce the reaction energy for releasing one hydrogen molecule from 0.75 eV (bulk MgH2) to 0.20 eV. Inspired by the calculation, P-doped ordered mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) was synthesized by one-step method and employed as the scaffold for loading MgH2 nanoparticles, forming MgH2@P/CMK-3. Element analysis shows that phosphorus dopants have been incorporated into the CMK-3 scaffold and magnesium and phosphorus elements are well-distributed in carbon scaffold hosts. Tests of hydrogen desorption confirmed that P-doping can remarkably enhance the hydrogen release properties of nanoconfined MgH2 at low temperature, specifically ˜1.5 wt. % H2 released from MgH2@P/CMK-3 below 200 °C. This work, based on the combination of computational calculations and experimental studies, demonstrated that the combined approach of non-metal doping and nano-confinement is promising for enhancing the hydrogen desorption properties of MgH2, which provides a strategy to address the challenge of hydrogen desorption from MgH2 at mild operational conditions.

  12. Photochemical Reactions of Aminonaphthols Caused by Laser Desorption/Ionization

    PubMed Central

    Nagoshi, Keishiro; Inatomi, Kazuma; Osaka, Issey; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    The formation of monomeric and dimeric ions of seven different aminonaphthols (ANLs) has been studied by using laser desorption/ionization (LDI) with a nitrogen laser. The positive-ion data of all the ANLs merely showed molecular ion M·+ without protonated molecule [M+H]+, while 1-amino-2-naphthol (1,2-ANL) and 2-amino-1-naphthol (2,1-ANL) showed an intense dimeric ion [2 M−2H2O+H]+. The negative-ion data showed deprotonated molecule [M−H]− in common, while the spectra of 1,2-ANL, 2,1-ANL and 8-amino-2-naphthol (8,2-ANL) accompanied an intense peak corresponding to negative molecular ion M·− and the 8,2-ANL and 4-amino-1-naphthol (4,1-ANL) accompanied dehydrogenated anion [M−2H]·−. The formation of monomeric ions was discussed from the standpoints of thermochemical properties such as ionization energy, gas-phase acidity, electron affinity, and bond dissociation energy. The formation of dimeric ions [2 M−2H2O+H]+ observed in the 1,2-ANL and 2,1-ANL could be explained by the radical combination in the amino groups. An isomer 5-amino-1-naphthol (1-ANL) did not give any dimeric ions in the both positive- and negative-ion spectra. The influence of laser fluence upon the appearance of the monomeric ions such as M·+, [M+H]+, [M−H]− and [M−2H]·− of the 5,1-ANL has been examined. PMID:27563510

  13. Photochemical Reactions of Aminonaphthols Caused by Laser Desorption/Ionization.

    PubMed

    Nagoshi, Keishiro; Inatomi, Kazuma; Osaka, Issey; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    The formation of monomeric and dimeric ions of seven different aminonaphthols (ANLs) has been studied by using laser desorption/ionization (LDI) with a nitrogen laser. The positive-ion data of all the ANLs merely showed molecular ion M(·+) without protonated molecule [M+H](+), while 1-amino-2-naphthol (1,2-ANL) and 2-amino-1-naphthol (2,1-ANL) showed an intense dimeric ion [2 M-2H2O+H](+). The negative-ion data showed deprotonated molecule [M-H](-) in common, while the spectra of 1,2-ANL, 2,1-ANL and 8-amino-2-naphthol (8,2-ANL) accompanied an intense peak corresponding to negative molecular ion M(·-) and the 8,2-ANL and 4-amino-1-naphthol (4,1-ANL) accompanied dehydrogenated anion [M-2H](·-). The formation of monomeric ions was discussed from the standpoints of thermochemical properties such as ionization energy, gas-phase acidity, electron affinity, and bond dissociation energy. The formation of dimeric ions [2 M-2H2O+H](+) observed in the 1,2-ANL and 2,1-ANL could be explained by the radical combination in the amino groups. An isomer 5-amino-1-naphthol (1-ANL) did not give any dimeric ions in the both positive- and negative-ion spectra. The influence of laser fluence upon the appearance of the monomeric ions such as M(·+), [M+H](+), [M-H](-) and [M-2H](·-) of the 5,1-ANL has been examined. PMID:27563510

  14. Ultrasonic desorption of petroleum hydrocarbons from crude oil contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianbing; Song, Xinyuan; Hu, Guangji; Thring, Ronald Wallen

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic irradiation was applied to improve the desorption of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in crude oil from three types of soil. Soil A was an Ottawa sand, while soil B and soil C were fine soils that contained 27.6% and 55.3% of silt and clay contents, respectively. It was found that the ultrasonic desorption was highly related to soil types, with the highest and the lowest desorption occurring in coarse soil (i.e., soil A) and finer soil (i.e., soil C), respectively. Under the experimental conditions, the maximum ultrasonic desorption enhancement of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) reached 22% for soil A, 61% for soil B, and 49% for soil C, respectively. The maximum enhancement on the F2 (n-C10 to n-C16), F3 (n-C16 to n-C34), and F4 (n-C34 to n-C50) fractions of PHC reached 91, 44, and 51% for soil B, and 90, 38, and 31% for soil C, respectively. The desorption enhancement also illustrated an increasing trend with initial soil TPH concentration. PMID:23705614

  15. Influence of surface coverage on the chemical desorption process

    SciTech Connect

    Minissale, M.; Dulieu, F.

    2014-07-07

    In cold astrophysical environments, some molecules are observed in the gas phase whereas they should have been depleted, frozen on dust grains. In order to solve this problem, astrochemists have proposed that a fraction of molecules synthesized on the surface of dust grains could desorb just after their formation. Recently the chemical desorption process has been demonstrated experimentally, but the key parameters at play have not yet been fully understood. In this article, we propose a new procedure to analyze the ratio of di-oxygen and ozone synthesized after O atoms adsorption on oxidized graphite. We demonstrate that the chemical desorption efficiency of the two reaction paths (O+O and O+O{sub 2}) is different by one order of magnitude. We show the importance of the surface coverage: for the O+O reaction, the chemical desorption efficiency is close to 80% at zero coverage and tends to zero at one monolayer coverage. The coverage dependence of O+O chemical desorption is proved by varying the amount of pre-adsorbed N{sub 2} on the substrate from 0 to 1.5 ML. Finally, we discuss the relevance of the different physical parameters that could play a role in the chemical desorption process: binding energy, enthalpy of formation, and energy transfer from the new molecule to the surface or to other adsorbates.

  16. Differential phase acoustic microscope for micro-NDE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, David D.; Pusateri, T. L.; Huang, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    A differential phase scanning acoustic microscope (DP-SAM) was developed, fabricated, and tested in this project. This includes the acoustic lens and transducers, driving and receiving electronics, scanning stage, scanning software, and display software. This DP-SAM can produce mechanically raster-scanned acoustic microscopic images of differential phase, differential amplitude, or amplitude of the time gated returned echoes of the samples. The differential phase and differential amplitude images provide better image contrast over the conventional amplitude images. A specially designed miniature dual beam lens was used to form two foci to obtain the differential phase and amplitude information of the echoes. High image resolution (1 micron) was achieved by applying high frequency (around 1 GHz) acoustic signals to the samples and placing two foci close to each other (1 micron). Tone burst was used in this system to obtain a good estimation of the phase differences between echoes from the two adjacent foci. The system can also be used to extract the V(z) acoustic signature. Since two acoustic beams and four receiving modes are available, there are 12 possible combinations to produce an image or a V(z) scan. This provides a unique feature of this system that none of the existing acoustic microscopic systems can provide for the micro-nondestructive evaluation applications. The entire system, including the lens, electronics, and scanning control software, has made a competitive industrial product for nondestructive material inspection and evaluation and has attracted interest from existing acoustic microscope manufacturers.

  17. Scanning Tomographic Acoustic Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, G.; Meyyappan, A.

    1988-07-01

    The technology for "seeing" with sound has an important and interesting history. Some of nature's creatures have been using sound waves for many millenia to image otherwise unobservable objects. The human species, lacking this natural ability, have overcome this deficiency by developing several different ultrasonic imaging techniques. acoustic microscopy is one such technique, which produces high resolution images of detailed structure of small objects in a non-destructive fashion. Two types of acoustic microscopes have evolved for industrial exploitation. They are the scanning laser acoustic microscope (SLAM) and the scanning acoustic microscope (SAM). In this paper, we review the principles of SLAM and describe how we use elements of SLAM to realize the scanning tomographic acoustic microscope (STAM). We describe the data acquisition process and the image reconstruction procedure. We also describe techniques to obtain projection data from different angles of wave incidence enabling us to reconstruct different planes of a complex specimen tomo-graphically. Our experimental results show that STAM is capable of producing high-quality high-resolution subsurface images.

  18. Mars Acoustic Anemometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banfield, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    We have developed a very high performance anemometer (wind gauge) for use at Mars. This instrument has great scientific as well as strategic reasons to be included on all future missions to the surface of Mars. We will discuss why we set out to develop this instrument, as well as why the previous wind sensors for Mars are insufficient to meet the scientific and strategic needs at Mars. We will also discuss how the instrument works, and how it differs from terrestrial counterparts. Additionally, we will discuss the current status of the instrument. Measuring winds at Mars is important to better understand the atmospheric circulation at Mars, as well as exchange between the surface and atmosphere. The main conduit of transport of water, and hence its current stability at any particular location on Mars is controlled by these atmospheric motions and the exchange between surface and atmosphere. Mars' large-scale winds are moderately well understood from orbital observations, but the interaction with the surface can only be addressed adequately in situ. Previous anemometers have been 2-D (with the exception of REMS on MSL) and slow response (typically <1Hz), and relatively low sensitivity/accuracy (>1 m/s). Our instrument is capable of fully 3-D measurements, with fast response (>20 Hz) and great sensitivity/accuracy (~3 cm/s). This significant step forward in performance is important for the surface-atmosphere exchanges of heat, momentum and volatiles. In particular, our instrument could directly measure the heat and momentum fluxes between surface and atmosphere using eddy-flux techniques proven terrestrially. When combined with a fast response volatile analysis instrument (e.g., a TLS) we can also measure eddy fluxes of volatile transport. Such a study would be nearly impossible to carry out with preceding anemometers sent to Mars with insufficient response time and sensitivity to adequately sample the turbulent eddies. Additionally, our instrument, using acoustics

  19. A Mechanism of Photo-Induced Desorption of Oxygen Atoms From MgO Nano-Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Trevisanutto, P. E.; Sushko, Petr V.; Shluger, Alexander L.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Henyk, Matthias; Joly, Alan G.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2005-11-20

    In a series of recent experimental and theoretical papers we reported the results of our studies of photo-induced hyper-thermal halogen atom desorption from alkali halide surfaces. There we demonstrated that the yield, electronic state and velocity distributions of desorbed atoms can be controlled by carefully choosing parameters of photo-irradiation such as laser photon energy and pulse power [ ]. To achieve laser control over desorption process one must have clear understanding of possible desorption mechanisms and parameters responsible for their selective excitation. For alkali halides, as it has been shown through a combination of theory and experiment, such selectively is observed if the laser energy is tuned to preferentially excite surface excitons. If similar mechanisms could be demonstrated for a wider variety of materials, this approach could become a new method for controlling surface processes and hence modifying surface structures on an atomic scale. In this paper we report the first experimental observation of the hyper-thermal oxygen atom emission from an of MgO nano-clusters and thin films using frequency selected laser pulses oxide surface and investigate theoretically the mechanisms of this process. On this way we demonstrate a new concept that can be applied to studying surface reactions and desorption of binary oxides.

  20. Organic and inorganic decomposition products from the thermal desorption of atmospheric particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Brent J.; Zhang, Yaping; Zuo, Xiaochen; Martinez, Raul E.; Walker, Michael J.; Kreisberg, Nathan M.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Docherty, Kenneth S.; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2016-04-01

    ) component. TAG signal found in the traditional compound elution time period reveals higher correlations with AMS hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) combined with the fraction of OOA that is less oxygenated. Potential to quantify nitrate and sulfate aerosol mass concentrations using the TAG system is explored through analysis of ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate standards. While chemical standards display a linear response in the TAG system, redesorptions of the CTD cell following ambient sample analysis show some signal carryover on sulfate and organics, and new desorption methods should be developed to improve throughput. Future standards should be composed of complex organic/inorganic mixtures, similar to what is found in the atmosphere, and perhaps will more accurately account for any aerosol mixture effects on compositional quantification.

  1. Synchrony during acoustic interactions in the bushcricket Mecopoda 'Chirper' (Tettigoniidae:Orthoptera) is generated by a combination of chirp-by-chirp resetting and change in intrinsic chirp rate.

    PubMed

    Nityananda, Vivek; Balakrishnan, Rohini

    2007-01-01

    In several bushcricket species, individual males synchronise their chirps during acoustic interactions. Synchrony is imperfect with the chirps of one male leading or lagging the other by a few milliseconds. Imperfect synchrony is believed to have evolved in response to female preferences for leading chirps. We investigated the mechanism underlying synchrony in the bushcricket species Mecopoda 'Chirper' from Southern India using playback experiments and simulations of pairwise interactions. We also investigated whether intrinsic chirp period is a good predictor of leading probability during interactions between males. The mechanism underlying synchrony in this species differs from previously reported mechanisms in that it involves both a change in the oscillator's intrinsic rate and resetting on a chirp-by-chirp basis. The form of the phase response curve differs from those of previously reported firefly and bushcricket species including the closely related Malaysian species Mecopoda elongata. Simulations exploring oscillator properties showed that the outcome of pairwise interactions was independent of initial phase and alternation was not possible. Solo intrinsic chirp period was a relatively good predictor of leading probability. However, changing the intrinsic period during interactions could enable males with longer periods to lead during acoustic interactions. PMID:16983544

  2. Nitrogen Molecule Adsorption on Cationic Tantalum Clusters and Rhodium Clusters and Desorption from Their Nitride Clusters Studied by Thermal Desorption Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mafuné, Fumitaka; Tawaraya, Yuki; Kudoh, Satoshi

    2016-06-23

    Adsorption and desorption of N2 molecules onto cationic Ta and Rh clusters in the gas phase were investigated in the temperature range of 300-1000 K by using thermal desorption spectrometry in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. For Ta6(+), the first N2 molecule was found to adsorb dissociatively, and it remained adsorbed when Ta6(+)N2 was heated to 1000 K. In contrast, the second and the subsequent N2 molecules adsorbed weakly as a molecular form and were released into the gas phase when heated to 600 K. The difference can be explained in terms of the activation barrier between the molecular and dissociative forms. On the other hand, when Ta clusters were generated in the presence of N2 gas by the laser ablation of a Ta rod, isomeric clusters, TanNm(+), having heat resistivity were formed. For Rh6(+), N2 adsorbed molecularly at 300 K and desorbed totally at 450 K. These results were consistent with the DFT calculations, indicating that the dissociative adsorption of N2 is endothermic. PMID:27276438

  3. A new, simple electrostatic-acoustic hybrid levitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lierke, E. G.; Loeb, H.; Gross, D.

    1990-01-01

    Battelle has developed a hybrid levitator by combining the known single-axis acoustic standing wave levitator with a coaxial DC electric field. The resulting Coulomb forces on the charged liquid or solid sample support its weight and, together with the acoustic force, center the sample. Liquid samples with volumes approximately less than 100 micro-liters are deployed from a syringe reservoir into the acoustic pressure node. The sample is charged using a miniature high voltage power supply (approximately less than 20 kV) connected to the syringe needle. As the electric field, generated by a second miniature power supply, is increased, the acoustic intensity is reduced. The combination of both fields allows stable levitation of samples larger than either single technique could position on the ground. Decreasing the acoustic intensity reduces acoustic convection and sample deformation. Neither the electrostatic nor the acoustic field requires sample position sensing or active control. The levitator, now used for static and dynamic fluid physics investigations on the ground, can be easily modified for space operations.

  4. Desorption of copper and cadmium from soils enhanced by organic acids.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Songhu; Xi, Zhimin; Jiang, Yi; Wan, Jinzhong; Wu, Chan; Zheng, Zhonghua; Lu, Xiaohua

    2007-07-01

    The adsorption/desorption behavior of copper and cadmium on soils was investigated in this study. The adsorption isotherm of copper and cadmium conformed to Langmuir equation better than Freundlich equation. The effect of ionic strength, pH, and organic acid, including ethylenediamine tetraacetic disodium acid salt (EDTA), citric acid, oxalic acid and tartaric acid, on the desorption of copper and cadmium was studied. The desorption of copper and cadmium increased with the increase of ionic strength, while the desorption decreased with the rise of pH. The desorption of copper and cadmium enhanced by organic acids was influenced by pH. EDTA showed excellent enhancement on the desorption of both copper and cadmium; citric acid demonstrated great enhancement on the desorption of copper but negligible enhancement on the desorption of cadmium; oxalic acid enhanced the desorption of copper only at pH around 6.4 and enhanced the desorption of cadmium in the pH range from 6.4 to 10.7; tartaric acid slightly enhanced the desorption of copper but negligibly enhanced the desorption of cadmium. The desorption mechanism in the presence of organic acids were explained as the competition of complexation, adsorption and precipitation. The net effect determined the desorption efficiency. This study provided guidance for the selection of organic acids to enhance the electrokinetic (EK) remediation of copper and cadmium from contaminated soils. PMID:17349675

  5. ACOUSTICS IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOELLE, LESLIE L.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS WAS--(1) TO COMPILE A CLASSIFIED BIBLIOGRAPHY, INCLUDING MOST OF THOSE PUBLICATIONS ON ARCHITECTURAL ACOUSTICS, PUBLISHED IN ENGLISH, FRENCH, AND GERMAN WHICH CAN SUPPLY A USEFUL AND UP-TO-DATE SOURCE OF INFORMATION FOR THOSE ENCOUNTERING ANY ARCHITECTURAL-ACOUSTIC DESIGN…

  6. Sorption and desorption of sulfentrazone in Brazilian soils.

    PubMed

    Passos, Ana Beatriz R J; Freitas, Marco Antonio M; Torres, Lívia G; Silva, Antonio A; Queiroz, Maria Eliana L R; Lima, Cláudio F

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to obtain information about the behavior of sulfentrazone in soil by evaluating the sorption and desorption of the herbicide in different Brazilian soils. Batch equilibrium method was used and the samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Based on the results obtained from the values of Freundlich constants (Kf), we determined the order of sorption (Haplic Planosol < Red-Yellow Latosol < Red Argisol < Humic Cambisol < Regolitic Neosol) and desorption (Regolitic Neosol < Red Argisol < Humic Cambisol < Haplic Planosol < Red-Yellow Latosol) of sulfentrazone in the soils. The process of pesticide sorption in soils was dependent on the levels of organic matter and clay, while desorption was influenced by the organic matter content and soil pH. Thus, the use of sulfentrazone in soils with low clay content and organic matter (low sorption) increases the probability of contaminating future crops. PMID:23638891

  7. 137Cs desorption from lichen using acid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čučulović, A. A.; Veselinović, D.; Miljanić, S. S.

    2009-09-01

    Desoprtion of 137Cs from samples of Cetraria islandica lichen using HCl ( A) and HNO3 ( B) acid solutions with pH values from 2.00 to 3.75 was investigated. After five consecutive desorptions lasting 24 h it was shown that between 52.2% (solution B pH 3.28) and 72.2% (solution A pH 2.00) of 137Cs was desorbed from the lichen and the initial desorptions were the most successful. Lichen desorbed with the stated solutions did not undergo structural changes. The amount of absorbed water from solutions A and B, used for desorption from lichen, in relation to the starting volume (expressed in %) showed that solution concentration did not take place. Lichen act as neutralizing agents because the pH of the lichen thallus is higher than the pH value of the solution used

  8. Desorption Mass Spectrometry for Nonvolatile Compounds Using an Ultrasonic Cutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Ahsan; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Chen, Lee Chuin; Usmanov, Dilshadbek T.; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2014-07-01

    In this work, desorption of nonvolatile analytes induced by friction was studied. The nonvolatile compounds deposited on the perfluoroalkoxy substrate were gently touched by an ultrasonic cutter oscillating with a frequency of 40 kHz. The desorbed molecules were ionized by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) ion source. Efficient desorption of samples such as drugs, pharmaceuticals, amino acids, and explosives was observed. The limits of detection for these compounds were about 1 ng. Many compounds were detected in their protonated forms without undergoing significant fragmentation. When the DBD was off, no ions for the neutral samples could be detected, meaning that only desorption along with little ionization took place by the present technique.

  9. Hydrogen retention in tungsten materials studied by Laser Induced Desorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlobinski, M.; Philipps, V.; Schweer, B.; Huber, A.; Reinhart, M.; Möller, S.; Sergienko, G.; Samm, U.; 't Hoen, M. H. J.; Manhard, A.; Schmid, K.; Textor Team

    2013-07-01

    Development of methods to characterise the first wall in ITER and future fusion devices without removal of wall tiles is important to support safety assessments for tritium retention and dust production and to understand plasma wall processes in general. Laser based techniques are presently under investigation to provide these requirements, among which Laser Induced Desorption Spectroscopy (LIDS) is proposed to measure the deuterium and tritium load of the plasma facing surfaces by thermal desorption and spectroscopic detection of the desorbed fuel in the edge of the fusion plasma. The method relies on its capability to desorb the hydrogen isotopes in a laser heated spot. The application of LID on bulk tungsten targets exposed to a wide range of deuterium fluxes, fluences and impact energies under different surface temperatures is investigated in this paper. The results are compared with Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (TDS), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and a diffusion model.

  10. Acoustic energy shaping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A suspended mass is shaped by melting all or a selected portion of the mass and applying acoustic energy in varying amounts to different portions of the mass. In one technique for forming an optical waveguide slug, a mass of oval section is suspended and only a portion along the middle of the cross-section is heated to a largely fluid consistency. Acoustic energy is applied to opposite edges of the oval mass to press the unheated opposite edge portions together so as to form bulges at the middle of the mass. In another technique for forming a ribbon of silicon for constructing solar cells, a cylindrical thread of silicon is drawn from a molten mass of silicon, and acoustic energy is applied to opposite sides of the molten thread to flatten it into a ribbon.

  11. Passive broadband acoustic thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anosov, A. A.; Belyaev, R. V.; Klin'shov, V. V.; Mansfel'd, A. D.; Subochev, P. V.

    2016-04-01

    The 1D internal (core) temperature profiles for the model object (plasticine) and the human hand are reconstructed using the passive acoustothermometric broadband probing data. Thermal acoustic radiation is detected by a broadband (0.8-3.5 MHz) acoustic radiometer. The temperature distribution is reconstructed using a priori information corresponding to the experimental conditions. The temperature distribution for the heated model object is assumed to be monotonic. For the hand, we assume that the temperature distribution satisfies the heat-conduction equation taking into account the blood flow. The average error of reconstruction determined for plasticine from the results of independent temperature measurements is 0.6 K for a measuring time of 25 s. The reconstructed value of the core temperature of the hand (36°C) generally corresponds to physiological data. The obtained results make it possible to use passive broadband acoustic probing for measuring the core temperatures in medical procedures associated with heating of human organism tissues.

  12. Surface Acoustic Wave Microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Fluid manipulations at the microscale and beyond are powerfully enabled through the use of 10-1,000-MHz acoustic waves. A superior alternative in many cases to other microfluidic actuation techniques, such high-frequency acoustics is almost universally produced by surface acoustic wave devices that employ electromechanical transduction in wafer-scale or thin-film piezoelectric media to generate the kinetic energy needed to transport and manipulate fluids placed in adjacent microfluidic structures. These waves are responsible for a diverse range of complex fluid transport phenomena - from interfacial fluid vibration and drop and confined fluid transport to jetting and atomization - underlying a flourishing research literature spanning fundamental fluid physics to chip-scale engineering applications. We highlight some of this literature to provide the reader with a historical basis, routes for more detailed study, and an impression of the field's future directions.

  13. Latticed pentamode acoustic cloak

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Liu, Xiaoning; Hu, Gengkai

    2015-01-01

    We report in this work a practical design of pentamode acoustic cloak with microstructure. The proposed cloak is assembled by pentamode lattice made of a single-phase solid material. The function of rerouting acoustic wave round an obstacle has been demonstrated numerically. It is also revealed that shear related resonance due to weak shear resistance in practical pentamode lattices punctures broadband feature predicted based on ideal pentamode cloak. As a consequence, the latticed pentamode cloak can only conceal the obstacle in segmented frequency ranges. We have also shown that the shear resonance can be largely reduced by introducing material damping, and an improved broadband performance can be achieved. These works pave the way for experimental demonstration of pentamode acoustic cloak. PMID:26503821

  14. Low Bandwidth Vocoding using EM Sensor and Acoustic Signal Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Holzrichter, J F; Larson, P E

    2001-10-25

    Low-power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference [1]. By combining these data with the corresponding acoustic signal, we've demonstrated an almost 10-fold bandwidth reduction in speech compression, compared to a standard 2.4 kbps LPC10 protocol used in the STU-III (Secure Terminal Unit, third generation) telephone. This paper describes a potential EM sensor/acoustic based vocoder implementation.

  15. Chemical analysis of acoustically levitated drops by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tuckermann, Rudolf; Puskar, Ljiljana; Zavabeti, Mahta; Sekine, Ryo; McNaughton, Don

    2009-07-01

    An experimental apparatus combining Raman spectroscopy with acoustic levitation, Raman acoustic levitation spectroscopy (RALS), is investigated in the field of physical and chemical analytics. Whereas acoustic levitation enables the contactless handling of microsized samples, Raman spectroscopy offers the advantage of a noninvasive method without complex sample preparation. After carrying out some systematic tests to probe the sensitivity of the technique to drop size, shape, and position, RALS has been successfully applied in monitoring sample dilution and preconcentration, evaporation, crystallization, an acid-base reaction, and analytes in a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy colloidal suspension. PMID:19418043

  16. Desorption Dynamics, Internal Energies and Imaging of Organic Molecules from Surfaces with Laser Desorption and Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) Photoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Kostko, Oleg; Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2011-04-05

    There is enormous interest in visualizing the chemical composition of organic material that comprises our world. A convenient method to obtain molecular information with high spatial resolution is imaging mass spectrometry. However, the internal energy deposited within molecules upon transfer to the gas phase from a surface can lead to increased fragmentation and to complications in analysis of mass spectra. Here it is shown that in laser desorption with postionization by tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, the internal energy gained during laser desorption leads to minimal fragmentation of DNA bases. The internal temperature of laser-desorbed triacontane molecules approaches 670 K, whereas the internal temperature of thymine is 800 K. A synchrotron-based VUV postionization technique for determining translational temperatures reveals that biomolecules have translational temperatures in the range of 216-346 K. The observed low translational temperatures, as well as their decrease with increased desorption laser power is explained by collisional cooling. An example of imaging mass spectrometry on an organic polymer, using laser desorption VUV postionization shows 5 mu m feature details while using a 30 mu m laser spot size and 7 ns duration. Applications of laser desorption postionization to the analysis of cellulose, lignin and humic acids are briefly discussed.

  17. A New Wave of Acoustics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Surveys 50 years of acoustical studies by discussing selected topics including the ear, nonlinear representations, underwater sound, acoustical diagnostics, absorption, electrolytes, phonons, magnetic interaction, and superfluidity and the five sounds. (JN)

  18. Miniature Sapphire Acoustic Resonator - MSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Rabi T.; Tjoelker, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    A room temperature sapphire acoustics resonator incorporated into an oscillator represents a possible opportunity to improve on quartz ultrastable oscillator (USO) performance, which has been a staple for NASA missions since the inception of spaceflight. Where quartz technology is very mature and shows a performance improvement of perhaps 1 dB/decade, these sapphire acoustic resonators when integrated with matured quartz electronics could achieve a frequency stability improvement of 10 dB or more. As quartz oscillators are an essential element of nearly all types of frequency standards and reference systems, the success of MSAR would advance the development of frequency standards and systems for both groundbased and flight-based projects. Current quartz oscillator technology is limited by quartz mechanical Q. With a possible improvement of more than x 10 Q with sapphire acoustic modes, the stability limit of current quartz oscillators may be improved tenfold, to 10(exp -14) at 1 second. The electromagnetic modes of sapphire that were previously developed at JPL require cryogenic temperatures to achieve the high Q levels needed to achieve this stability level. However sapphire fs acoustic modes, which have not been used before in a high-stability oscillator, indicate the required Q values (as high as Q = 10(exp 8)) may be achieved at room temperature in the kHz range. Even though sapphire is not piezoelectric, such a high Q should allow electrostatic excitation of the acoustic modes with a combination of DC and AC voltages across a small sapphire disk (approximately equal to l mm thick). The first evaluations under this task will test predictions of an estimated input impedance of 10 kilohms at Q = 10(exp 8), and explore the Q values that can be realized in a smaller resonator, which has not been previously tested for acoustic modes. This initial Q measurement and excitation demonstration can be viewed similar to a transducer converting electrical energy to

  19. Leaf water absorption and desorption functions for three turfgrasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xi; Su, Derong; Yin, Shuxia; Wang, Zhi

    2009-09-01

    SummaryPlant leaf can absorb water when the leaf is in contact with water. This happens when the rainfall is intercepted by plant leaves, where the intercepted part of rain remains on the leaf surface. When the intercepted water is either absorbed or subsequently evaporated into the atmosphere, the plant leaves can dissipate water through the desorption process until the plant is dry or rewatered. In this paper, two symptomatic models in the form of exponential functions for leaf water absorption and leaf water desorption were derived and validated by experimental data using leaves of three turfgrasses (Tall fescue, Perennial ryegrass and Kentucky bluegrass). Both the models and measured data showed that the rate of leaf water absorption was high at the low initial leaf water content and then gradually leveled off toward the saturated leaf water content. The rate of leaf water desorption was high at the high initial leaf water content then decreased drastically over time toward zero. The different plant leaves showed different exponents and other parameters of the functions which indicate the difference of plant species. Both the absorption and desorption rates were relatively higher for the Kentucky bluegrass and lower for the Tall fescue and Perennial ryegrass. The concept of specific leaf area ( SLA) was used to understand the saturated leaf water content ( C s) of the three turfgrasses. Linear relationships were found between C s and SLA. The leaf water absorption and desorption functions are useful for deriving physiological parameters of the plant such as permanent wilting leaf water content, naturally irreducible leaf water content, exponential leaf water absorption coefficient, and exponential leaf desorption coefficient, as well as for evaluating the effects of rainfall interception on plant growth and water use efficiency.

  20. Densitometry By Acoustic Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Eugene H.

    1989-01-01

    "Static" and "dynamic" methods developed for measuring mass density of acoustically levitated solid particle or liquid drop. "Static" method, unknown density of sample found by comparison with another sample of known density. "Dynamic" method practiced with or without gravitational field. Advantages over conventional density-measuring techniques: sample does not have to make contact with container or other solid surface, size and shape of samples do not affect measurement significantly, sound field does not have to be know in detail, and sample can be smaller than microliter. Detailed knowledge of acoustic field not necessary.

  1. Acoustic tooth cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An acoustic oral hygiene unit is described that uses acoustic energy to oscillate mild abrasive particles in a water suspension which is then directed in a low pressure stream onto the teeth. The oscillating abrasives scrub the teeth clean removing food particles, plaque, calculous, and other foreign material from tooth surfaces, interproximal areas, and tooth-gingiva interface more effectively than any previous technique. The relatively low power output and the basic design makes the invention safe and convenient for everyday use in the home without special training. This invention replaces all former means of home dental prophylaxis, and requires no augmentation to fulfill all requirements for daily oral hygienic care.

  2. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    DOEpatents

    Carver, Donald W.; Whittaker, Jerry W.

    1980-01-01

    An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal.

  3. Strong acoustic wave action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhberg, M. B.

    1983-07-01

    Experiments devoted to acoustic action on the atmosphere-magnetosphere-ionosphere system using ground based strong explosions are reviewed. The propagation of acoustic waves was observed by ground observations over 2000 km in horizontal direction and to an altitude of 200 km. Magnetic variations up to 100 nT were detected by ARIEL-3 satellite near the epicenter of the explosion connected with the formation of strong field aligned currents in the magnetosphere. The enhancement of VLF emission at 800 km altitude is observed.

  4. Acoustic bubble removal method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Elleman, D. D.; Wang, T. G. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for removing bubbles from a liquid bath such as a bath of molten glass to be used for optical elements. Larger bubbles are first removed by applying acoustic energy resonant to a bath dimension to drive the larger bubbles toward a pressure well where the bubbles can coalesce and then be more easily removed. Thereafter, submillimeter bubbles are removed by applying acoustic energy of frequencies resonant to the small bubbles to oscillate them and thereby stir liquid immediately about the bubbles to facilitate their breakup and absorption into the liquid.

  5. Acoustic and electromagnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Douglas Samuel

    Theoretical models of EM and acoustic wave propagation are presented in an introductory text intended for intermediate-level science and engineering students. Chapters are devoted to the mathematical representation of acoustic and EM fields, the special theory of relativity, radiation, resonators, waveguide theory, refraction, surface waves, scattering by smooth objects, diffraction by edges, and transient waves. The mathematical tools required for the analysis (Bessel, Legendre, Mathieu, parabolic-cylinder, and spheroidal functions; tensor calculus; and the asymptotic evaluation of integrals) are covered in appendices.

  6. Structural Acoustics and Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaigne, Antoine

    This chapter is devoted to vibrations of structures and to their coupling with the acoustic field. Depending on the context, the radiated sound can be judged as desirable, as is mostly the case for musical instruments, or undesirable, like noise generated by machinery. In architectural acoustics, one main goal is to limit the transmission of sound through walls. In the automobile industry, the engineers have to control the noise generated inside and outside the passenger compartment. This can be achieved by means of passive or active damping. In general, there is a strong need for quieter products and better sound quality generated by the structures in our daily environment.

  7. Electromechanical acoustic liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheplak, Mark (Inventor); Cattafesta, III, Louis N. (Inventor); Nishida, Toshikazu (Inventor); Horowitz, Stephen Brian (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A multi-resonator-based system responsive to acoustic waves includes at least two resonators, each including a bottom plate, side walls secured to the bottom plate, and a top plate disposed on top of the side walls. The top plate includes an orifice so that a portion of an incident acoustical wave compresses gas in the resonators. The bottom plate or the side walls include at least one compliant portion. A reciprocal electromechanical transducer coupled to the compliant portion of each of the resonators forms a first and second transducer/compliant composite. An electrical network is disposed between the reciprocal electromechanical transducer of the first and second resonator.

  8. Acoustic loading in straight pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Raheb, M.

    1980-01-01

    Based on linear one-dimensional acoustics, a geometrically perfect elastic waveguide would respond to an oscillatory internal pressure only in the presence of path deflectors (elbows and branches). In practice, a significant elasto-acoustic interaction results even in straight conduits as a result of manufacturing tolerances. A theoretical model of the linear acoustic loading in straight pipes is developed that considers the acoustic wave distortion due to perimeter, axial, and wall thickness nonuniformities.

  9. Spacecraft Internal Acoustic Environment Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Christopher; Chu, S. Reynold

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the project is to develop an acoustic modeling capability, based on commercial off-the-shelf software, to be used as a tool for oversight of the future manned Constellation vehicles to ensure compliance with acoustic requirements and thus provide a safe and habitable acoustic environment for the crews, and to validate developed models via building physical mockups and conducting acoustic measurements.

  10. Explosive desorption of icy grain mantles in dense clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, W. A.; Greenberg, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The cycling of the condensible material in dense clouds between the gas phase and the icy grain mantles is investigated. In the model studied, desorption of the ice occurs due to grain mantle explosions when photochemically stored energy is released after transient heating by a cosmic ray particle. It is shown that, depending on the grain size distribution in dense clouds, explosive desorption can maintain up to about eight percent of the carbon in the form of CO in the gas phase at typical cloud densities.

  11. Method of enhancing selective isotope desorption from metals

    DOEpatents

    Knize, Randall J.; Cecchi, Joseph L.

    1984-01-01

    A method of enhancing the thermal desorption of a first isotope of a diatomic gas from a metal comprises the steps of (a) establishing a partial pressure of a second isotope of the diatomic gas in vicinity of the metal; heating the metal to a temperature such that the first isotope is desorbed from the metal; and reducing the partial pressure of the desorbed first isotope while maintaining the partial pressure of the second isotope substantially constant. The method is especially useful for enhancing the desorption of tritium from the Zr-Al getter in a plasma confinement device.

  12. Separation of adsorbed components by variable temperature desorption

    SciTech Connect

    Findley, M.E.

    1990-03-27

    This report covers the activities performed under the Department of Energy grant Separation of Absorbed Components by Variable Temperature Desorption'' to the University of Missouri-Rolla, with Project Director M. E. Findley. This grant is under DOE Energy Related Inventions Program, and originated with the discovery that multicomponent adsorption separations in some cases can be improved by carrying out a thermal desorption at increasing temperatures and separating low temperatures desorbed components from high temperatures desorbed components. The primary objective of this project was to promote the future industrial use of this invention in order to bring about energy savings for the country and if possible profits for the University and the inventors.

  13. Laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry imaging of biological targets.

    PubMed

    Akhmetov, Artem; Bhardwaj, Chhavi; Hanley, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Laser desorption photoionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) utilizes two separate light sources for desorption and photoionization of species from a solid surface. This technique has been applied to study a wide variety of molecular analytes in biological systems, but is not yet available in commercial instruments. For this reason, a generalized protocol is presented here for the use of LDPI-MS imaging to detect small molecules within intact biological samples. Examples are provided here for LDPI-MS imaging of an antibiotic within a tooth root canal and a metabolite within a coculture bacterial biofilm. PMID:25361678

  14. Heavy-ion induced electronic desorption of gas from metals

    SciTech Connect

    Molvik, A W; Kollmus, H; Mahner, E; Covo, M K; Bellachioma, M C; Bender, M; Bieniosek, F M; Hedlund, E; Kramer, A; Kwan, J; Malyshev, O B; Prost, L; Seidl, P A; Westenskow, G; Westerberg, L

    2006-12-19

    During heavy ion operation in several particle accelerators world-wide, dynamic pressure rises of orders of magnitude were triggered by lost beam ions that bombarded the vacuum chamber walls. This ion-induced molecular desorption, observed at CERN, GSI, and BNL, can seriously limit the ion beam lifetime and intensity of the accelerator. From dedicated test stand experiments we have discovered that heavy-ion induced gas desorption scales with the electronic energy loss (dE{sub e}/d/dx) of the ions slowing down in matter; but it varies only little with the ion impact angle, unlike electronic sputtering.

  15. Acoustically Induced Vibration of Structures: Reverberant Vs. Direct Acoustic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; O'Connell, Michael R.; Tsoi, Wan B.

    2009-01-01

    Large reverberant chambers have been used for several decades in the aerospace industry to test larger structures such as solar arrays and reflectors to qualify and to detect faults in the design and fabrication of spacecraft and satellites. In the past decade some companies have begun using direct near field acoustic testing, employing speakers, for qualifying larger structures. A limited test data set obtained from recent acoustic tests of the same hardware exposed to both direct and reverberant acoustic field testing has indicated some differences in the resulting structural responses. In reverberant acoustic testing, higher vibration responses were observed at lower frequencies when compared with the direct acoustic testing. In the case of direct near field acoustic testing higher vibration responses appeared to occur at higher frequencies as well. In reverberant chamber testing and direct acoustic testing, standing acoustic modes of the reverberant chamber or the speakers and spacecraft parallel surfaces can strongly couple with the fundamental structural modes of the test hardware. In this paper data from recent acoustic testing of flight hardware, that yielded evidence of acoustic standing wave coupling with structural responses, are discussed in some detail. Convincing evidence of the acoustic standing wave/structural coupling phenomenon will be discussed, citing observations from acoustic testing of a simple aluminum plate. The implications of such acoustic coupling to testing of sensitive flight hardware will be discussed. The results discussed in this paper reveal issues with over or under testing of flight hardware that could pose unanticipated structural and flight qualification issues. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the structural modal coupling with standing acoustic waves that has been observed in both methods of acoustic testing. This study will assist the community to choose an appropriate testing method and test setup in

  16. Directional electrostatic accretion process employing acoustic droplet formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus for manufacturing a free standing solid metal part. In the present invention metal droplets are produced from a free surface pool of molten metal is when an acoustic wave impacts an acoustic lens that is contiguous with the free standing pool of molten metal. The metal droplets are then charged and deflected toward a target. The build up of the metal droplets combine to form the free standing solid metal part.

  17. Study on demodulated signal distribution and acoustic pressure phase sensitivity of a self-interfered distributed acoustic sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Ying; Yang, Yuan-Hong; Wang, Chen; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Chang; Peng, Gang-Ding

    2016-06-01

    We propose a demodulated signal distribution theory for a self-interfered distributed acoustic sensing system. The distribution region of Rayleigh backscattering including the acoustic sensing signal in the sensing fiber is investigated theoretically under different combinations of both the path difference and pulse width Additionally we determine the optimal solution between the path difference and pulse width to obtain the maximum phase change per unit length. We experimentally test this theory and realize a good acoustic pressure phase sensitivity of  ‑150 dB re rad/(μPa·m) of fiber in the frequency range from 200 Hz to 1 kHz.

  18. Variable-Position Acoustic Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Stoneburner, J. D.; Jacobi, N.; Wang, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    Method of acoustic levitation supports objects at positions other than acoustic nodes. Acoustic force is varied so it balances gravitational (or other) force, thereby maintaining object at any position within equilibrium range. Levitation method applicable to containerless processing. Such objects as table-tennis balls, hollow plastic spheres, and balsa-wood spheres levitated in laboratory by new method.

  19. Acoustical Environment of School Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzroy, Dariel; Reid, John L.

    A field study was made of the acoustical environment of schools designed for increased flexibility to meet the spatial requirements of new teaching methods. The object of the study was to define all the criteria for the acoustical design of this type of classroom including the determination of--(1) minimum acoustical separation required for…

  20. ACOUSTICAL ENVIRONMENT OF SCHOOL BUILDINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FITZROY, DARIEL; REID, JOHN L.

    A FIELD STUDY WAS MADE OF THE ACOUSTICAL ENVIRONMENT OF SCHOOLS DESIGNED FOR INCREASED FLEXIBILITY TO MEET THE SPATIAL REQUIREMENTS OF NEW TEACHING METHODS. THE OBJECT OF THE STUDY WAS TO DEFINE ALL THE CRITERIA FOR THE ACOUSTICAL DESIGN OF THIS TYPE OF CLASSROOM INCLUDING THE DETERMINATION OF--(1) MINIMUM ACOUSTICAL SEPARATION REQUIRED FOR…

  1. Post Treatment of Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePlus

    Home What is an AN What is an Acoustic Neuroma? Identifying an AN Symptoms Acoustic Neuroma Keywords Educational Video Pre-Treatment Treatment Options Summary Treatment Options Watch and Wait Radiation Microsurgery Acoustic Neuroma Decision Tree Questions for Your Physician Questions ...

  2. Fundamentals of Acoustics. Psychoacoustics and Hearing. Acoustical Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Ahumada, Al (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    These are 3 chapters that will appear in a book titled "Building Acoustical Design", edited by Charles Salter. They are designed to introduce the reader to fundamental concepts of acoustics, particularly as they relate to the built environment. "Fundamentals of Acoustics" reviews basic concepts of sound waveform frequency, pressure, and phase. "Psychoacoustics and Hearing" discusses the human interpretation sound pressure as loudness, particularly as a function of frequency. "Acoustic Measurements" gives a simple overview of the time and frequency weightings for sound pressure measurements that are used in acoustical work.

  3. Acoustic subwavelength imaging of subsurface objects with acoustic resonant metalens

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Ying; Liu, XiaoJun; Zhou, Chen; Wei, Qi; Wu, DaJian

    2013-11-25

    Early research into acoustic metamaterials has shown the possibility of achieving subwavelength near-field acoustic imaging. However, a major restriction of acoustic metamaterials is that the imaging objects must be placed in close vicinity of the devices. Here, we present an approach for acoustic imaging of subsurface objects far below the diffraction limit. An acoustic metalens made of holey-structured metamaterials is used to magnify evanescent waves, which can rebuild an image at the central plane. Without changing the physical structure of the metalens, our proposed approach can image objects located at certain distances from the input surface, which provides subsurface signatures of the objects with subwavelength spatial resolution.

  4. Thermogravimetric desorption and de novo tests I: method development and validation.

    PubMed

    Tsytsik, Palina; Czech, Jan; Carleer, Robert; Reggers, Guy; Buekens, Alfons

    2008-08-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) has been combined with evolved gas analysis (EGA) with the purpose of simulating the thermal behaviour of filter dust samples under inert (desorption) and de novo test oxidising conditions. Emphasis is on studying de novo formation of dioxins, surrogates and precursors arising from filter dust derived from thermal processes, such as municipal solid waste incineration and metallurgy. A new method is tested for sampling and analysing dioxin surrogates and precursors in the TGA effluent, which are collected on sampling tubes; the adsorbed compounds are eventually desorbed and quantified by TD-GC-MS. The major sources of error and losses are considered, including potential sorbent artefacts, possible breakthrough of volatiles through sampling tubes, or eventual losses of semi-volatiles due to their incomplete desorption or re-condensation inside the TG Analyser. The method is optimised and validated for di- to hexa-chlorinated benzenes in a range of 10-1000 ppb with average recovery exceeding 85%. The results are compared with data obtained in similar studies, performed by other research groups. As a result, the method provides the means for simulating de novo synthesis of dioxins in fly-ash and facilitates reliable and easy estimation of de novo activity, comparable with results of other studies, in combination with wide flexibility of testing conditions. PMID:18556042

  5. USGS Coal Desorption Equipment and a Spreadsheet for Analysis of Lost and Total Gas from Canister Desorption Measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, Charles E.; Dallegge, Todd A.; Clark, Arthur C.

    2002-01-01

    We have updated a simple polyvinyl chloride plastic canister design by adding internal headspace temperature measurement, and redesigned it so it is made with mostly off-the-shelf components for ease of construction. Using self-closing quick connects, this basic canister is mated to a zero-head manometer to make a simple coalbed methane desorption system that is easily transported in small aircraft to remote localities. This equipment is used to gather timed measurements of pressure, volume and temperature data that are corrected to standard pressure and temperature (STP) and graphically analyzed using an Excel(tm)-based spreadsheet. Used together these elements form an effective, practical canister desorption method.

  6. An investigation of the desorption of hydrogen from lithium oxide using temperature programmed desorption and diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kopasz, J.P.; Johnson, C.E.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, J.

    1994-09-01

    The addition of hydrogen to the purge stream has been shown to enhance tritium release from ceramic breeder materials. In an attempt to determine the mechanism for this enhancement the authors have investigated the adsorption and desorption of hydrogen and water from lithium oxide (a leading candidate for the breeder material) by temperature programmed desorption and diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy. The results from these studies indicate that several different types of hydroxide groups are formed on the lithium oxide surface. They also suggest that under certain conditions hydride species form on the surface. The role of these species in tritium release from lithium oxide is discussed.

  7. Adsorption and Desorption of Nickel(II) Ions from Aqueous Solution by a Lignocellulose/Montmorillonite Nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaotao; Wang, Ximing

    2015-01-01

    A new and inexpensive lignocellulose/montmorillonite (LNC/MMT) nanocomposite was prepared by a chemical intercalation of LNC into MMT and was subsequently investigated as an adsorbent in batch systems for the adsorption-desorption of Ni(II) ions in an aqueous solution. The optimum conditions for the Ni(II) ion adsorption capacity of the LNC/MMT nanocomposite were studied in detail by varying parameters such as the initial Ni(II) concentration, the solution pH value, the adsorption temperature and time. The results indicated that the maximum adsorption capacity of Ni(II) reached 94.86 mg/g at an initial Ni(II) concentration of 0.0032 mol/L, a solution pH of 6.8, an adsorption temperature of 70°C, and adsorption time of 40 min. The represented adsorption kinetics model exhibited good agreement between the experimental data and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The Langmuir isotherm equation best fit the experimental data. The structure of the LNC/MMT nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), whereas the adsorption mechanism was discussed in combination with the results obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses (FTIR). The desorption capacity of the LNC/MMT nanocomposite depended on parameters such as HNO3 concentration, desorption temperature, and desorption time. The satisfactory desorption capacity of 81.34 mg/g was obtained at a HNO3 concentration, desorption temperature, and desorption time of 0.2 mol/L, 60 ºC, and 30 min, respectively. The regeneration studies showed that the adsorption capacity of the LNC/MMT nanocomposite was consistent for five cycles without any appreciable loss in the batch process and confirmed that the LNC/MMT nanocomposite was reusable. The overall study revealed that the LNC/MMT nanocomposite functioned as an effective adsorbent in the detoxification of Ni

  8. Microfiber interferometric acoustic transducers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuxin; Jin, Long; Li, Jie; Ran, Yang; Guan, Bai-Ou

    2014-04-01

    Acoustic and ultrasonic transducers are key components in biomedical information technology, which has been applied in medical diagnosis, photoacoustic endoscopy and photoacoustic imaging. In this paper, an acoustic transducer based on Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) fabricated in a microscaled optical fiber is demonstrated. The transducer is fabricated by forming two wavelength-matched Bragg gratings into the microfiber by means of side illumination with a 193nm excimer laser. When placing the transducer in water, the applied acoustic signal periodically changes the refractive index (RI) of the surrounding liquid and modulates the transmission of the FPI based on the evanescent-field interaction between the liquid and the transmitting light. As a result, the acoustic signal can be constructed with a tunable laser whose output wavelength is located at the slope of the inteferometric fringes. The transducer presents a sensitivity of 10 times higher than the counterparts fabricated in conventional singlemode fibers and has great potential to achieve higher resolution for photoacoustic imaging due to its reduced diameter. PMID:24718189

  9. Intelligent Engine Systems: Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojno, John; Martens, Steve; Simpson, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    An extensive study of new fan exhaust nozzle technologies was performed. Three new uniform chevron nozzles were designed, based on extensive CFD analysis. Two new azimuthally varying variants were defined. All five were tested, along with two existing nozzles, on a representative model-scale, medium BPR exhaust nozzle. Substantial acoustic benefits were obtained from the uniform chevron nozzle designs, the best benefit being provided by an existing design. However, one of the azimuthally varying nozzle designs exhibited even better performance than any of the uniform chevron nozzles. In addition to the fan chevron nozzles, a new technology was demonstrated, using devices that enhance mixing when applied to an exhaust nozzle. The acoustic benefits from these devices applied to medium BPR nozzles were similar, and in some cases superior to, those obtained from conventional uniform chevron nozzles. However, none of the low noise technologies provided equivalent acoustic benefits on a model-scale high BPR exhaust nozzle, similar to current large commercial applications. New technologies must be identified to improve the acoustics of state-of-the-art high BPR jet engines.

  10. Acoustics in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Miriam J.

    This paper explores the issues associated with poor acoustics within schools. Additionally, it suggests remedies for existing buildings and those under renovation, as well as concerns for new construction. The paper discusses the effects of unwanted noise on students in terms of physiological, motivational, and cognitive influences. Issues are…

  11. Teaching acoustics online

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Andrew; Rossing, Thomas D.

    2003-10-01

    We teach an introductory course in musical acoustics using a Blackboard. Students in this course can access audio and video materials as well as printed materials on our course website. All homework is submitted online, as are tests and examinations. The students also have the opportunity to use synchronous and asynchronous chat rooms to discuss the course with each other or with the instructors.

  12. Micro acoustic spectrum analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Schubert, W. Kent; Butler, Michael A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Anderson, Larry F.

    2004-11-23

    A micro acoustic spectrum analyzer for determining the frequency components of a fluctuating sound signal comprises a microphone to pick up the fluctuating sound signal and produce an alternating current electrical signal; at least one microfabricated resonator, each resonator having a different resonant frequency, that vibrate in response to the alternating current electrical signal; and at least one detector to detect the vibration of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can further comprise a mixer to mix a reference signal with the alternating current electrical signal from the microphone to shift the frequency spectrum to a frequency range that is a better matched to the resonant frequencies of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can be designed specifically for portability, size, cost, accuracy, speed, power requirements, and use in a harsh environment. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer is particularly suited for applications where size, accessibility, and power requirements are limited, such as the monitoring of industrial equipment and processes, detection of security intrusions, or evaluation of military threats.

  13. COMBUSTION ACOUSTICS DIAGNOSTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is an Exploratory Research Project that was awarded by APPCD for research on developing an acoustic flame condition monitor. It will involve a bench scale experiment of 4-6 weeks duration to record adjacent audible energy of a Bunsen burner. The experiment will require a d...

  14. Geometrical acoustics and transonic helicopter sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isom, Morris; Purcell, Timothy W.; Strawn, Roger C.

    1987-01-01

    A new method is presented for predicting the impulsive noise generated by a transonic rotor blade. The method is a combined approach involving computational fluid dynamics and geometrical acoustics. A full-potential finite-difference method is used to obtain the pressure field close to the blade. A Kirchhoff integral formulation is then used to extend these finite-difference results into the far field. This Kirchhoff formula is based on geometrical acoustics approximations. It requires initial data across a plane at the sonic radius in a blade-fixed coordinate system. This data is provided by the finite-difference solution. Acoustic pressure predictions show good agreement with hover experimental data for cases with hover tip Mach numbers of 0.88 through 0.96. The cases above 0.92 tip Mach number are dominated by non-linear transonic effects seen as strong shocks on and off the blade tip. This paper gives the first successful predictions of far-field acoustic pressures for high-speed impulsive noise over a range of Mach numbers after delocalization.

  15. Acoustic capture-recapture method for towed acoustic surveys of echolocating porpoises.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Satoko; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Dong, Lijun; Wang, Kexiong; Wang, Ding; Shibata, Yasutoki; Arai, Nobuaki

    2014-06-01

    Passive acoustic monitoring for cetaceans mainly employ fixed-location methods or point transect samplings; an acoustic survey from a moving platform to conduct line transects is less common. In this study, acoustic capture-recapture by combining a double-observer method with line transect sampling was performed to observe Yangtze finless porpoises. Two acoustic devices were towed with the distance between them varying 0.5 to 89.5 m. The conditional probabilities that both devices would detect the porpoises within the same time window were calculated. In a 1-s time window, it became smaller as the distance between the devices increased, approaching zero when the distance between them was more than 50 m. It was considered that the devices with less than 50 m distance detected the same signals from the same animals, which means the identical detection. When the distance between them is too great, the recapture rate is reduced and the incidence of false matching may increase. Thus, a separation distance of around 50 m between two devices in acoustic capture-recapture of Yangtze finless porpoises was recommended. Note that the performance of the double detections can change depending on the particular device used and on animal behaviors such as vocalizing interval, ship avoidance. PMID:24907799

  16. Acoustics- Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-13

    This package contains modules that model acoustic sensors and acoustic sources (hearable) in Umbra. It is typically used to represent hearing in characters within Umbra. Typically, the acoustic sensors detect acoustic sources at a given point; however, it also contains the capability to detect bullet cracks by detecting the sound along the bullet path that is closest to the sensor. A memory module, acoustic memory, represents remembered sounds within a given character. Over time, the sounds are removed, as a character forgets what it has heard.

  17. Acoustics- Version 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-09-13

    This package contains modules that model acoustic sensors and acoustic sources (hearable) in Umbra. It is typically used to represent hearing in characters within Umbra. Typically, the acoustic sensors detect acoustic sources at a given point; however, it also contains the capability to detect bullet cracks by detecting the sound along the bullet path that is closest to the sensor. A memory module, acoustic memory, represents remembered sounds within a given character. Over time, themore » sounds are removed, as a character forgets what it has heard.« less

  18. Quantitative matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Roder, Heinrich; Hunsucker, Stephen W.

    2008-01-01

    This review summarizes the essential characteristics of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF MS), especially as they relate to its applications in quantitative analysis. Approaches to quantification by MALDI-TOF MS are presented and published applications are critically reviewed. PMID:19106161

  19. Sorption-desorption of aminocyclopyrachlor in selected Brazilian soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aminocyclopyrachlor sorption and desorption was investigated in 14 soils from Brazil, representing a range of pH, and organic carbon (OC) and clay contents. Sorption kinetics demonstrated that soil-solution equilibrium was attained in a 24-h period. Freundlich equation adequately described behavior ...

  20. Water absorption and desorption in shuttle ablator and insulation materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F.; Smith, C. F.; Wooden, V. A.; Cothren, B. E.; Gregory, H.

    1982-01-01

    Shuttle systems ablator and insulation materials underwent water soak with subsequent water desorption in vacuum. Water accumulation in these materials after a soak for 24 hours ranged from +1.1% for orbiter tile to +161% for solid rocket booster MSA-1. After 1 minute in vacuum, water retention ranged from none in the orbiter tile to +70% for solid rocket booster cork.

  1. Desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry of proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was evaluated for the detection of proteins ranging in molecular mass from 12 to 66 kDa. Proteins were uniformly deposited on a solid surface without pretreatment and analyzed with a DESI source coupled to a quadrupole ion trap mass spec...

  2. [Adsorption and Desorption Characteristics of Endosulfan in Purple Soil].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Zheng, Guo-can; Zhu, Heng; Zhang, Jin-zhong; Zhu, Xiu-ying; Hu, Shu-chun; Wu, Ya-lin

    2015-09-01

    In order to reveal the residual process of endosulfan in purple soil and protect soil ecological environment, the adsorption and desorption characteristics of endosulfan in purple soil were investigated, and effects of temperature, adsorbent amount, and initial pH of adsorption solution on the adsorption capacity were also examined by static adsorption and desorption experiments. The results showed that the adsorption kinetic process could be well described by the second-order kinetic equation with the initial rate constants of α-, β-endosulfan as 0. 157 and 0. 115 mg.(g.min)-1, respectively. The adsorption thermodynamic process could be well described by the Langmuir isotherm with the maximum adsorption capacities of α-, β-endosulfan as 0. 257 mg . g -1 and 0. 155 mg . g -1, respectively. The adsorption process of endosulfan in purple soil may be an exothermic physicochemical process, and is dominated by physical adsorption. Under the experimental conditions examined in this study, the initial pH of adsorption solution had a relative great influence on the adsorption capacity, whereas the temperature and adsorbent amount had no significant influence. The desorption experiments found that the maximum desorption capacities of α-, β-endosulfan adsorbed in purple soil were 0. 029 mg . g -1 and 0. 017 mg . g -1 at 6 and 4 h, and accounted for 10. 5% and 16. 1% in the maximum adsorption capacities, respectively. PMID:26717711

  3. Sorption-desorption of indaziflam in selected agricultural soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorption and desorption of indaziflam in 6 soils from Brazil and 3 soils from the USA, with different physical chemical properties, were investigated using the batch equilibration method. Sorption kinetics demonstrated that soil-solution equilibrium was attained in a 24-h period. The Freundlich equa...

  4. Site technology capsule: Clean Berkshires, Inc. thermal desorption system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The thermal desorption process devised by Clean Berkshires Inc. (CBI) uses standard rotary kiln technology to remove organic contaminants from excavated solid wastes. The process works by vaporizing and isolating the constituents in a gas stream and then destroying them in a high-efficiency afterburner. The processed solids are either reused or disposed of as nonhazardous, depending on applicable regulations.

  5. LASER DESORPTION IONIZATION OF ULTRAFINE AEROSOL PARTICLES. (R823980)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On-line analysis of ultrafine aerosol particle in the 12 to 150 nm size range is performed by
    laser desorption/ionization. Particles are size selected with a differential mobility analyzer and then
    sent into a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer where they are ablated w...

  6. Desorption of Arsenic from Drinking Water Distribution System Solids

    EPA Science Inventory

    Given the limited knowledge regarding the soluble release of arsenic from DWDS solids, the objectives of this research were to: 1) investigate the effect of pH on the dissolution/desorption of arsenic from DWDS solids, and 2) examine the effect of orthophosphate on the soluble re...

  7. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: THERMAL DESORPTION SYSTEM - CLEAN BERKSHIRES, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A thermal desorption system (TDS) has been developed by Clean Berkshires, Inc. (CBI), Lanesboro, Massachusetts for ex-situ treatment of soils and other media contaminated with organic pollutants. The TDS uses heat as both a physical separation mechanism and as a means to destro...

  8. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: CLEAN BERKSHIRES, INC. THERMAL DESORPTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The thermal desorption process devised by Clean Berkshires, Inc., works by vaporizing the organic contaminants from the soil with heat, isolating the contaminant! in a gas stream, and then destroying them in a high efficiency afterburner. The processed solids are either replaced ...

  9. Nitrate sorption and desorption in biochars from fast pyrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing the nitrate (NO3-) sorption capacity of Midwestern US soils has the potential to reduce nitrate leaching to ground water and reduce the extent of the hypoxia zone in the Gulf of Mexico. The objective of this study was to determine the sorption and desorption capacity of non-activated and ...

  10. Permeability changes in coal resulting from gas desorption

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, J.R.; Johnson, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    Research continued on the study of coal permeability and gas desorption. This quarter, most of the effort involved identifying problems with the microbalance and then getting it repaired. Measurement of the amount of gas adsorbed with the microbalance involved corrections for the buoyancy change with pressure and several experiments with helium were made to determine this correction.

  11. INITIAL SCREENING OF THERMAL DESORPTION FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the paper is to present procedures for collecting and evaluating key data that affect the potential application of thermal desorption for a specific site. These data are defined as 'criticalsuccess factors'. The screening prodcedure can be used to peerform an ini...

  12. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: CLEAN BERKSHIRES, INC. - THERMAL DESORPTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The thermal desorption process devised by Clean Berkshires, Inc., works by vaporizing the organic contaminants from the soil with heat, isolating the contaminant! in a gas stream, and then destroying them in a high efficiency afterburner. he processed solids are either replaced f...

  13. Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of intact bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS) was used to differentiate 7 bacterial species based on their measured DESI-mass spectral profile. Both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were tested and included Escherichia coli, Staphyloccocus aureus, Enterococcus sp., Bordete...

  14. Thermal desorption behavior of helium in aged titanium tritide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, G. J.; Shi, L. Q.; Zhou, X. S.; Liang, J. H.; Wang, W. D.; Long, X. G.; Yang, B. F.; Peng, S. M.

    2015-11-01

    The desorption behavior of helium in TiT(1.5∼1.8)-x3Hex film samples (x = 0.0022-0.22) was investigated by thermal desorption technique in vacuum condition in this paper. The thermal helium desorption spectrometry (THDS) of aging titanium tritide films prepared by electron beam evaporation revealed that, depending on the decayed 3He concentration in the samples, there are more than four states of helium existing in the films. The divided four zones in THDS based on helium states represent respectively: (1) the mobile single helium atoms with low activation energy in all aging samples resulted from the interstitial sites or dissociated from interstitial clusters, loops and dislocations, (2) helium bubbles inside the grain lattices, (3) helium bubbles in the grain boundaries and interconnected networks of dislocations in the helium concentration of 3Hegen/Ti > 0.0094, and (4) helium bubbles near or linked to the film surface by interconnected channel for later aging stage with 3Hegen/Ti > 0.18. The proportion of helium desorption in each zone was estimated, and dissociated energies of helium for different trapping states were given.

  15. Dust as interstellar catalyst. I. Quantifying the chemical desorption process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minissale, M.; Dulieu, F.; Cazaux, S.; Hocuk, S.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The presence of dust in the interstellar medium has profound consequences on the chemical composition of regions where stars are forming. Recent observations show that many species formed onto dust are populating the gas phase, especially in cold environments where UV- and cosmic-ray-induced photons do not account for such processes. Aims: The aim of this paper is to understand and quantify the process that releases solid species into the gas phase, the so-called chemical desorption process, so that an explicit formula can be derived that can be included in astrochemical models. Methods: We present a collection of experimental results of more than ten reactive systems. For each reaction, different substrates such as oxidized graphite and compact amorphous water ice were used. We derived a formula for reproducing the efficiencies of the chemical desorption process that considers the equipartition of the energy of newly formed products, followed by classical bounce on the surface. In part II of this study we extend these results to astrophysical conditions. Results: The equipartition of energy correctly describes the chemical desorption process on bare surfaces. On icy surfaces, the chemical desorption process is much less efficient, and a better description of the interaction with the surface is still needed. Conclusions: We show that the mechanism that directly transforms solid species into gas phase species is efficient for many reactions.

  16. LASER DESORPTION IONIZATION OF SIZE RESOLVED LIQUID MICRODROPLETS. (R823980)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass spectra of single micrometer-size glycerol droplets containing organic and inorganic analytes were obtained by on-line laser desorption ionization. Aerosol droplets entered the mass spectrometer through an inlet where they were detected by light scattering of a continuous la...

  17. INITIAL SCREENING OF THERMAL DESORPTION FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this paper is to present procedures for collecting and evaluating key data that affect the potential application of thermal desorption for a specific site. hese data are defined as "critical success factors". he screening procedure can be used to perform an initial...

  18. Desorption and sublimation kinetics for fluorinated aluminum nitride surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    King, Sean W. Davis, Robert F.; Nemanich, Robert J.

    2014-09-01

    The adsorption and desorption of halogen and other gaseous species from surfaces is a key fundamental process for both wet chemical and dry plasma etch and clean processes utilized in nanoelectronic fabrication processes. Therefore, to increase the fundamental understanding of these processes with regard to aluminum nitride (AlN) surfaces, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been utilized to investigate the desorption kinetics of water (H{sub 2}O), fluorine (F{sub 2}), hydrogen (H{sub 2}), hydrogen fluoride (HF), and other related species from aluminum nitride thin film surfaces treated with an aqueous solution of buffered hydrogen fluoride (BHF) diluted in methanol (CH{sub 3}OH). Pre-TPD XPS measurements of the CH{sub 3}OH:BHF treated AlN surfaces showed the presence of a variety of Al-F, N-F, Al-O, Al-OH, C-H, and C-O surfaces species in addition to Al-N bonding from the AlN thin film. The primary species observed desorbing from these same surfaces during TPD measurements included H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, HF, F{sub 2}, and CH{sub 3}OH with some evidence for nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) desorption as well. For H{sub 2}O, two desorption peaks with second order kinetics were observed at 195 and 460 °C with activation energies (E{sub d}) of 51 ± 3 and 87 ± 5 kJ/mol, respectively. Desorption of HF similarly exhibited second order kinetics with a peak temperature of 475 °C and E{sub d} of 110 ± 5 kJ/mol. The TPD spectra for F{sub 2} exhibited two peaks at 485 and 585 °C with second order kinetics and E{sub d} of 62 ± 3 and 270 ± 10 kJ/mol, respectively. These values are in excellent agreement with previous E{sub d} measurements for desorption of H{sub 2}O from SiO{sub 2} and AlF{sub x} from AlN surfaces, respectively. The F{sub 2} desorption is therefore attributed to fragmentation of AlF{sub x} species in the mass spectrometer ionizer. H{sub 2} desorption exhibited

  19. USING METHANOL-WATER SYSTEMS TO INVESTIGATE PHENANTHRENE SORPTION-DESORPTION ON SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption isotherm nonlinearity, sorption-desorption hysteresis, slow desorption kinetics, and other nonideal phenomena have been attributed to the differing sorptive characteristics of the natural organic matter (NOM) polymers associated with soils and sediments. A conceptualizat...

  20. Thermal Desorption Kinetics of Volatiles on Silicate ``Smokes:'' Analog to Micrometeoric Impact Vapor Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLain, J. L.; Sarantos, M.; Johnson, N. M.; Keller, J. W.; Nuth, J. A.; Farrell, W. M.

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory measurements of the thermal desorption kinetics of Ar, H2O and other common lunar volatiles on silicate smokes will be presented, with a focus on comparing the desorption energies and surface chemistry with other regolith analogs.

  1. Trace Level Detection of Explosives in Solution Using Leidenfrost Phenomenon Assisted Thermal Desorption Ambient Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Subhrakanti; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Chen, Lee Chuin; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Shida, Yasuo; Hiraoka, Kenzo

    2013-01-01

    The present paper demonstrates the detection of explosives in solution using thermal desorption technique at a temperature higher than Leidenfrost temperature of the solvent in combination with low temperature plasma (LTP) ionization. Leidenfrost temperature of a solvent is the temperature above which the solvent droplet starts levitation instead of splashing when placed on a hot metallic surface. During this desorption process, slow and gentle solvent evaporation takes place, which leads to the pre-concentration of less-volatile explosive molecules in the droplet and the explosive molecules are released at the last moment of droplet evaporation. The limits of detection for explosives studied by using this thermal desorption LTP ionization method varied in a range of 1 to 10 parts per billion (ppb) using a droplet volume of 20 μL (absolute sample amount 90–630 fmol). As LTP ionization method was applied and ion–molecule reactions took place in ambient atmosphere, various ion–molecule adduct species like [M+NO2]−, [M+NO3]−, [M+HCO3]−, [M+HCO4]− were generated together with [M−H]− peak. Each peak was unambiguously identified using ‘Exactive Orbitrap’ mass spectrometer in negative ionization mode within 3 ppm deviation compared to its exact mass. This newly developed technique was successfully applied to detect four explosives contained in the pond water and soil sample with minor sample pre-treatment and the explosives were detected with ppb levels. The present method is simple, rapid and can detect trace levels of explosives with high specificity from solutions. PMID:24349927

  2. Solid solution barium–strontium chlorides with tunable ammonia desorption properties and superior storage capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Bialy, Agata; Blanchard, Didier; Vegge, Tejs; Quaade, Ulrich J.

    2015-01-15

    Metal halide ammines are very attractive materials for ammonia absorption and storage—applications where the practically accessible or usable gravimetric and volumetric storage densities are of critical importance. Here we present, that by combining advanced computational materials prediction with spray drying and in situ thermogravimetric and structural characterization, we synthesize a range of new, stable barium-strontium chloride solid solutions with superior ammonia storage densities. By tuning the barium/strontium ratio, different crystallographic phases and compositions can be obtained with different ammonia ab- and desorption properties. In particular it is shown, that in the molar range of 35–50% barium and 65–50% strontium, stable materials can be produced with a practically usable ammonia density (both volumetric and gravimetric) that is higher than any of the pure metal halides, and with a practically accessible volumetric ammonia densities in excess of 99% of liquid ammonia. - Graphical abstract: Thermal desorption curves of ammonia from Ba{sub x}Sr{sub (1−x)}Cl{sub 2} mixtures with x equal to 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 and atomic structure of Sr(NH{sub 3}){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Solid solutions of strontium and barium chloride were synthesized by spray drying. • Adjusting molar ratios led to different crystallographic phases and compositions. • Different molar ratios led to different ammonia ab-/desorption properties. • 35–50 mol% BaCl{sub 2} in SrCl{sub 2} yields higher ammonia density than any other metal halide. • DFT calculations can be used to predict properties of the mixtures.

  3. Acoustic Suppression Systems and Related Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolaini, Ali R. (Inventor); Kern, Dennis L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An acoustic suppression system for absorbing and/or scattering acoustic energy comprising a plurality of acoustic targets in a containment is described, the acoustic targets configured to have resonance frequencies allowing the targets to be excited by incoming acoustic waves, the resonance frequencies being adjustable to suppress acoustic energy in a set frequency range. Methods for fabricating and implementing the acoustic suppression system are also provided.

  4. Phonological and Phonetic Asymmetries of Cw Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Yunju

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates the relationship between the phonological distribution of Cw combinations, and the acoustic/perceptual distinctiveness between syllables with plain C onsets and with Cw combination onsets. Distributional asymmetries of Cw combinations discussed in this thesis include the avoidance of Cw combinations in the labial consonant…

  5. Liquid Beam Ion Desorption Mass Spectrometry for Evaluating CASSINI Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolz, Ferdinand; Reviol, Rene; Srama, Ralf; Trieloff, Mario; Postberg, Frank; Abel, Bernd

    2013-04-01

    Saturn's moon Enceladus emits plumes of ice particles from an area near its south pole which are detected and chemically analyzed by the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) on board the CASSINI spacecraft. Studying these ice particles provides unique insights into Enceladus geological properties. Technically the CDA is a time-of-flight mass spectrometer which delivers mass spectra of the particles and their fragments. Since interpretation of the available CDA data is particularly challenging we employ a laboratory experiment to imitate experimental conditions in space. Key part of our experimental setup is a micron-sized water beam in high vacuum. This beam is rapidly heated up by an infrared laser pulse, which is tuned to excite the OH-stretch vibration of water molecules. This causes the water beam to dissipate into small droplets, some of which carry a net charge even though the laser energy is well below the molecular ionisation energy. The charged droplets are then analyzed in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. With this experimental setup we successfully simulated the space born ice particles measured at Enceladus. By varying the laser intensity in our experiments, we can vary the amount of energy deposited in the liquid beam, and thus model different particle velocities. Also, variation of solute concentration in the water beam provides valuable information about ice particle composition. Some examples for anorganic solutes studied so far are sodium chloride, ammonia and hydrogen sulfite. A special feature of our experimental technique is that desorption of particles from the liquid beam is particularly soft. This is explained by the fact that all laser energy is absorbed by the water molecules. In this way molecular bonds of solutes stay intact and molecular solutes are transferred into the droplet phase without getting destroyed. This is particularly interesting in the context of analyzing organic compounds - some of which have been detected at Enceladus. Using

  6. Resonant acoustic transducer and driver system for a well drilling string communication system

    DOEpatents

    Chanson, Gary J.; Nicolson, Alexander M.

    1981-01-01

    The acoustic data communication system includes an acoustic transmitter and receiver wherein low frequency acoustic waves, propagating in relatively loss free manner in well drilling string piping, are efficiently coupled to the drill string and propagate at levels competitive with the levels of noise generated by drilling machinery also present in the drill string. The transmitting transducer incorporates a mass-spring piezoelectric transmitter and amplifier combination that permits self-oscillating resonant operation in the desired low frequency range.

  7. Experimental and Theoretical Measurements of Concentration Distributions in Acoustic Focusing Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K A; Fisher, K; Jung, B; Ness, K; Mariella Jr., R P

    2008-06-16

    We describe a modeling approach to capture the particle motion within an acoustic focusing microfluidic device. Our approach combines finite element models for the acoustic forces with analytical models for the fluid motion and uses these force fields to calculate the particle motion in a Brownian dynamics simulation. We compare results for the model with experimental measurements of the focusing efficiency within a microfabricated device. The results show good qualitative agreement over a range of acoustic driving voltages and particle sizes.

  8. Acoustic emission characterization using AE (parameter) delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. H., Jr.; Lee, S. S.

    1983-01-01

    The acoustic emission (AE) parameter delay concept is defined as that particular measured value of a parameter at which a specified baseline level of cumulative AE activity is reached. The parameter can be from any of a broad range of elastic, plastic, viscoelastic, and fracture mechanics parameters, as well as their combinations. Such parameters include stress, load, strain, displacement, time, temperature, loading cycle, unloading stress, stress intensity factor, strain energy release rate, and crack tip plasticity zone size, while the AE activity may be AE event counts, ringdown counts, energy, event duration, etc., as well as their combinations. Attention is given to examples for the AE parameter delay concept, together with various correlations.

  9. Adding articulatory features to acoustic features for automatic speech recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Zlokarnik, I.

    1995-05-01

    A hidden-Markov-model (HMM) based speech recognition system was evaluated that makes use of simultaneously recorded acoustic and articulatory data. The articulatory measurements were gathered by means of electromagnetic articulography and describe the movement of small coils fixed to the speakers` tongue and jaw during the production of German V{sub 1}CV{sub 2} sequences [P. Hoole and S. Gfoerer, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Suppl. 1 {bold 87}, S123 (1990)]. Using the coordinates of the coil positions as an articulatory representation, acoustic and articulatory features were combined to make up an acoustic--articulatory feature vector. The discriminant power of this combined representation was evaluated for two subjects on a speaker-dependent isolated word recognition task. When the articulatory measurements were used both for training and testing the HMMs, the articulatory representation was capable of reducing the error rate of comparable acoustic-based HMMs by a relative percentage of more than 60%. In a separate experiment, the articulatory movements during the testing phase were estimated using a multilayer perceptron that performed an acoustic-to-articulatory mapping. Under these more realistic conditions, when articulatory measurements are only available during the training, the error rate could be reduced by a relative percentage of 18% to 25%.

  10. Nanostructured silicon surface modifications for as a selective matrix-free laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tsao, C W; Lin, C H; Cheng, Y C; Chien, C C; Chang, C C; Chen, W Y

    2012-06-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry is an established soft ionization method that is widely applied to analyze biomolecules. The UV-absorbing organic matrix is essential for biomolecule ionization; however, it also creates matrix background interference, which results in problematic analyses of biomolecules of less than 700 Da. Therefore, this study investigates hydrophilic, hydrophobic cationic, anionic and immobilized metal ion surface chemical modifications to advance nanostructured silicon mass spectrometry performance (nSi-MS). This investigation provides information required for a possible novel mass spectroscopy that combines surface-enhanced and nanostructured silicon surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for the selective detection of specific compounds of a mixture. PMID:22531330

  11. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Ng, L.C.

    1998-03-17

    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching. 35 figs.

  12. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching.

  13. Education in acoustics in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyara, Federico

    2002-11-01

    Over the last decades, education in acoustics (EA) in Argentina has experienced ups and downs due to economic and political issues interfering with long term projects. Unlike other countries, like Chile, where EA has reached maturity in spite of the acoustical industry having shown little development, Argentina has several well-established manufacturers of acoustic materials and equipment but no specific career with a major in acoustics. At the university level, acoustics is taught as a complementary--often elective--course for careers such as architecture, communication engineering, or music. In spite of this there are several research centers with programs covering environmental and community noise, effects of noise on man, acoustic signal processing, musical acoustics and acoustic emission, and several national and international meetings are held each year in which results are communicated and discussed. Several books on a variety of topics such as sound system, architectural acoustics, and noise control have been published as well. Another chapter in EA is technical and vocational education, ranging between secondary and postsecondary levels, with technical training on sound system operation or design. Over the last years there have been several attempts to implement master degrees in acoustics or audio engineering, with little or no success.

  14. Acoustic energy harvesting based on a planar acoustic metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Shuibao; Oudich, Mourad; Li, Yong; Assouar, Badreddine

    2016-06-01

    We theoretically report on an innovative and practical acoustic energy harvester based on a defected acoustic metamaterial (AMM) with piezoelectric material. The idea is to create suitable resonant defects in an AMM to confine the strain energy originating from an acoustic incidence. This scavenged energy is converted into electrical energy by attaching a structured piezoelectric material into the defect area of the AMM. We show an acoustic energy harvester based on a meta-structure capable of producing electrical power from an acoustic pressure. Numerical simulations are provided to analyze and elucidate the principles and the performances of the proposed system. A maximum output voltage of 1.3 V and a power density of 0.54 μW/cm3 are obtained at a frequency of 2257.5 Hz. The proposed concept should have broad applications on energy harvesting as well as on low-frequency sound isolation, since this system acts as both acoustic insulator and energy harvester.

  15. Acoustical studies on corrugated tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaguru, Rajavel

    Corrugated tubes and pipes offer greater global flexibility combined with local rigidity. They are used in numerous engineering applications such as vacuum cleaner hosing, air conditioning systems of aircraft and automobiles, HVAC control systems of heating ducts in buildings, compact heat exchangers, medical equipment and offshore gas and oil transportation flexible riser pipelines. Recently there has been a renewed research interest in analyzing the flow through a corrugated tube to understand the underlying mechanism of so called whistling, although the whistling in such a tube was identified in early twentieth century. The phenomenon of whistling in a corrugated tube is interesting because an airflow through a smooth walled tube of similar dimensions will not generate any whistling tones. Study of whistling in corrugated tubes is important because, it not only causes an undesirable noise problem but also results in flow-acoustic coupling. Such a coupling can cause significant structural vibrations due to flow-acoustic-structure interaction. This interaction would cause flow-induced vibrations that could result in severe damage to mechanical systems having corrugated tubes. In this research work, sound generation (whistling) in corrugated tubes due to airflow is analyzed using experimental as well as Computational Fluid Dynamics-Large Eddy Simulation (CFD-LES) techniques. Sound generation mechanisms resulting in whistling have been investigated. The whistling in terms of frequencies and sound pressure levels for different flow velocities are studied. The analytical and experimental studies are carried out to understand the influence of various parameters of corrugated tubes such as cavity length, cavity width, cavity depth, pitch, Reynolds numbers and number of corrugations. The results indicate that there is a good agreement between theoretically calculated, computationally predicted and experimentally measured whistling frequencies and sound pressure levels

  16. Acoustics Discipline Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane; Thomas, Russell

    2007-01-01

    As part of the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Annual Review, a summary of the progress made in 2007 in acoustics research under the Subsonic Fixed Wing project is given. The presentation describes highlights from in-house and external activities including partnerships and NRA-funded research with industry and academia. Brief progress reports from all acoustics Phase 1 NRAs are also included as are outlines of the planned activities for 2008 and all Phase 2 NRAs. N+1 and N+2 technology paths outlined for Subsonic Fixed Wing noise targets. NRA Round 1 progressing with focus on prediction method advancement. NRA Round 2 initiating work focused on N+2 technology, prediction methods, and validation. Excellent partnerships in progress supporting N+1 technology targets and providing key data sets.

  17. Radiosurgery of acoustic neurinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Flickinger, J.C.; Lunsford, L.D.; Coffey, R.J.; Linskey, M.E.; Bissonette, D.J.; Maitz, A.H.; Kondziolka, D. )

    1991-01-15

    Eighty-five patients with acoustic neurinomas underwent stereotactic radiosurgery with the gamma unit at the University of Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh, PA) during its first 30 months of operation. Neuroimaging studies performed in 40 patients with more than 1 year follow-up showed that tumors were smaller in 22 (55%), unchanged in 17 (43%), and larger in one (2%). The 2-year actuarial rates for preservation of useful hearing and any hearing were 46% and 62%, respectively. Previously undetected neuropathies of the trigeminal (n = 12) and facial nerves (n = 14) occurred 1 week to 1 year after radiosurgery (median, 7 and 6 months, respectively), and improved at median intervals of 13 and 8 months, respectively, after onset. Hearing loss was significantly associated with increasing average tumor diameter (P = 0.04). No deterioration of any cranial nerve function has yet developed in seven patients with average tumor diameters less than 10 mm. Radiosurgery is an important treatment alternative for selected acoustic neurinoma patients.

  18. Acoustic tractor beam.

    PubMed

    Démoré, Christine E M; Dahl, Patrick M; Yang, Zhengyi; Glynne-Jones, Peter; Melzer, Andreas; Cochran, Sandy; MacDonald, Michael P; Spalding, Gabriel C

    2014-05-01

    Negative radiation forces act opposite to the direction of propagation, or net momentum, of a beam but have previously been challenging to definitively demonstrate. We report an experimental acoustic tractor beam generated by an ultrasonic array operating on macroscopic targets (>1 cm) to demonstrate the negative radiation forces and to map out regimes over which they dominate, which we compare to simulations. The result and the geometrically simple configuration show that the effect is due to nonconservative forces, produced by redirection of a momentum flux from the angled sides of a target and not by conservative forces from a potential energy gradient. Use of a simple acoustic setup provides an easily understood illustration of the negative radiation pressure concept for tractor beams and demonstrates continuous attraction towards the source, against a net momentum flux in the system. PMID:24836252

  19. Acoustic Tractor Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Démoré, Christine E. M.; Dahl, Patrick M.; Yang, Zhengyi; Glynne-Jones, Peter; Melzer, Andreas; Cochran, Sandy; MacDonald, Michael P.; Spalding, Gabriel C.

    2014-05-01

    Negative radiation forces act opposite to the direction of propagation, or net momentum, of a beam but have previously been challenging to definitively demonstrate. We report an experimental acoustic tractor beam generated by an ultrasonic array operating on macroscopic targets (>1 cm) to demonstrate the negative radiation forces and to map out regimes over which they dominate, which we compare to simulations. The result and the geometrically simple configuration show that the effect is due to nonconservative forces, produced by redirection of a momentum flux from the angled sides of a target and not by conservative forces from a potential energy gradient. Use of a simple acoustic setup provides an easily understood illustration of the negative radiation pressure concept for tractor beams and demonstrates continuous attraction towards the source, against a net momentum flux in the system.

  20. Alaskan river environmental acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, Peter H.; Pfisterer, Carl; Geiger, Harold J.

    2005-04-01

    Sonars are used by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) to obtain daily and hourly estimates of at least four species of migratory salmon during their seasonal migration which lasts from June to beginning of September. Suspended sediments associated with a river's sediment load is an important issue for ADF&G's sonar operations. Acoustically, the suspended sediments are a source of both volume reverberation and excess attenuation beyond that expected in fresh water. Each can impact daily protocols for fish enumeration via sonar. In this talk, results from an environmental acoustic study conducted in the Kenai River (June 1999) using 420 kHz and 200 kHz side looking sonars, and in the Yukon River (July 2001) using a 120 kHz side looking sonar, are discussed. Estimates of the volume scattering coefficient and attenuation are related to total suspended sediments. The relative impact of bubble scattering and sediment scattering is also discussed.

  1. Structural Acoustics and Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaigne, Antoine

    This structural chapter is devoted to vibrations of structures and to their coupling with the acoustic field. Depending on the context, the radiated sound can be judged as desirable, as is mostly the case for musical instruments, or undesirable, like noise generated by machinery. In architectural acoustics, one main goal is to limit the transmission of sound through walls. In the automobile industry, the engineers have to control the noise generated inside and outside the passenger compartment. This can be achieved by means of passive or active damping. In general, there is a strong need for quieter products and better sound quality generated by the structures in our daily environment.

  2. A Martian acoustic anemometer.

    PubMed

    Banfield, Don; Schindel, David W; Tarr, Steve; Dissly, Richard W

    2016-08-01

    An acoustic anemometer for use on Mars has been developed. To understand the processes that control the interaction between surface and atmosphere on Mars, not only the mean winds, but also the turbulent boundary layer, the fluxes of momentum, heat and molecular constituents between surface and atmosphere must be measured. Terrestrially this is done with acoustic anemometers, but the low density atmosphere on Mars makes it challenging to adapt such an instrument for use on Mars. This has been achieved using capacitive transducers and pulse compression, and was successfully demonstrated on a stratospheric balloon (simulating the Martian environment) and in a dedicated Mars Wind Tunnel facility. This instrument achieves a measurement accuracy of ∼5 cm/s with an update rate of >20 Hz under Martian conditions. PMID:27586767

  3. Books on acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Neil A.

    2001-05-01

    The legacy of a man is not limited to just his projects. His writings in many cases are a more lasting, and a definitely more accessible, monument. For 60 years, Leo L. Beranek has produced books on acoustics, acoustic measurements, sound control, music and architecture, noise and vibration control, concert halls, and opera houses in addition to teaching and consulting. His books are standard references and still cited in other books and in technical and professional articles. Many of his books were among, if not, the first comprehensive modern treatment of the subject and many are still foremost. A review of Dr. Beranek's many books as well as some anecdotes about the circumstances and consequences of same will be presented.

  4. Terahertz Desorption Emission Spectroscopy (THz DES) – ‘ALMA in the Lab’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emile Auriacombe, Olivier Bruno Jacques; Fraser, Helen; Ellison, Brian; Ioppolo, Sergio; Rea, Simon

    2016-06-01

    ALMA is revolutionising our scope to identify and locate molecules that have been desorbed from ices, particularly complex organic molecules (COMS), which provide a vital link between interstellar and prebiotic chemistry. Explaining the existence of these molecules in star-forming regions relies on an empirical understanding of the chemistry that underpins their formation:- do COMS form predominantly in the solid-phase and then desorb to the gas phase, or do only “smaller” species, radials or ions desorb and then undergo gas-phase chemical reactions to generate larger COMS?-are the rotational state populations in COMS only attributable to equilibrium chemistry, or could their formation mechanisms and desorption processes affect the rotational state occupancy of these molecules, thereby directly tying certain species to solid-state origins?We have developed a novel laboratory method - THz Desorption Emission Spectroscopy (THz-DES) that combines “traditional” laboratory astrophysics high-vacuum ice experiments with a sensitive high-spectral-resolution terahertz total-power heterodyne radiometer 1,2, partially mirroring the spectral range of ALMA band 7 (275– 373 GHz). Ices are grown in situ on a cold-plate, situated in a vacuum cell, then (thermally) desorbed. The sub-mm emission spectra of the resultant gas-phase molecules are detected as a function of time, temperature, or distance from the surface. Our first THz DES results will be shown for pure and binary ice systems including H2O, N2O and CH3OH. They show good correlation with established methods e.g. TPD, with the advantage of exploiting the molecular spectroscopy to unravel surface dynamics, state-occupancy, and unequivocal molecular identification, as well as concurrently measuring desorption barriers and molecular yields. We will extend our technique to a broader frequency range, enabling us to detect radical and ion desorption, to differentiate between A and E populations of CH3OH or ortho

  5. Theory on acoustic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    A theory is described for the radiation emission emission from acoustic multipole sources. The sources can be stationary or moving at speeds including supersonic and experience stationary or moving disturbances. The effect of finite source distributions and disturbances is investigated as well as the manner in which they interact. Distinction is made between source distributions that responsed as a function of time and those that respond as a function of space.

  6. Acoustic velocity meter systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laenen, Antonius

    1985-01-01

    Acoustic velocity meter (AVM) systems operate on the principles that the point-to-point upstream traveltime of an acoustic pulse is longer than the downstream traveltime and that this difference in traveltime can be accurately measured by electronic devices. An AVM system is capable of recording water velocity (and discharge) under a wide range of conditions, but some constraints apply: 1. Accuracy is reduced and performance is degraded if the acoustic path is not a continuous straight line. The path can be bent by reflection if it is too close to a stream boundary or by refraction if it passes through density gradients resulting from variations in either water temperature or salinity. For paths of less than 100 m, a temperature gradient of 0.1' per meter causes signal bending less than 0.6 meter at midchannel, and satisfactory velocity results can be obtained. Reflection from stream boundaries can cause signal cancellation if boundaries are too close to signal path. 2. Signal strength is attenuated by particles or bubbles that absorb, spread, or scatter sound. The concentration of particles or bubbles that can be tolerated is a function of the path length and frequency of the acoustic signal. 3. Changes in streamline orientation can affect system accuracy if the variability is random. 4. Errors relating to signal resolution are much larger for a single threshold detection scheme than for multiple threshold schemes. This report provides methods for computing the effect of various conditions on the accuracy of a record obtained from an AVM. The equipment must be adapted to the site. Field reconnaissance and preinstallation analysis to detect possible problems are critical for proper installation and operation of an AVM system.

  7. Structures and Acoustics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acquaviva, Cynthia S.

    1999-01-01

    The Structures and Acoustics Division of NASA Glenn Research Center is an international leader in rotating structures, mechanical components, fatigue and fracture, and structural aeroacoustics. Included are disciplines related to life prediction and reliability, nondestructive evaluation, and mechanical drive systems. Reported are a synopsis of the work and accomplishments reported by the Division during the 1996 calendar year. A bibliography containing 42 citations is provided.

  8. Structures and Acoustics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acquaviva, Cynthia S.

    2001-01-01

    The Structures and Acoustics Division of the NASA Glenn Research Center is an international leader in rotating structures, mechanical components, fatigue and fracture, and structural aeroacoustics. Included in this report are disciplines related to life prediction and reliability, nondestructive evaluation, and mechanical drive systems. Reported is a synopsis of the work and accomplishments completed by the Division during the 1997, 1998, and 1999 calendar years. A bibliography containing 93 citations is provided.

  9. Acoustic and adsorption properties of submerged wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilde, Calvin Patrick

    Wood is a common material for the manufacture of many products. Submerged wood, in particular, is used in niche markets, such as the creation of musical instruments. An initial study performed on submerged wood from Ootsa Lake, British Columbia, provided results that showed that the wood was not suitable for musical instruments. This thesis re-examined the submerged wood samples. After allowing the wood to age unabated in a laboratory setting, the wood was retested under the hypothesis that the physical acoustic characteristics would improve. It was shown, however, that the acoustic properties became less adequate after being left to sit. The adsorption properties of the submerged wood were examined to show that the submerged wood had a larger accessible area of wood than that of control wood samples. This implied a lower amount of crystalline area within the submerged wood. From the combined adsorption and acoustic data for the submerged wood, relationships between the moisture content and speed of sound were created and combined with previous research to create a proposed model to describe how the speed of sound varies with temperature, moisture content and the moisture content corresponding to complete hydration of sorption sites within the wood.

  10. Fast wideband acoustical holography.

    PubMed

    Hald, Jørgen

    2016-04-01

    Patch near-field acoustical holography methods like statistically optimized near-field acoustical holography and equivalent source method are limited to relatively low frequencies, where the average array-element spacing is less than half of the acoustic wavelength, while beamforming provides useful resolution only at medium-to-high frequencies. With adequate array design, both methods can be used with the same array. But for holography to provide good low-frequency resolution, a small measurement distance is needed, whereas beamforming requires a larger distance to limit sidelobe issues. The wideband holography method of the present paper was developed to overcome that practical conflict. Only a single measurement is needed at a relatively short distance and a single result is obtained covering the full frequency range. The method uses the principles of compressed sensing: A sparse sound field representation is assumed with a chosen set of basis functions, a measurement is taken with an irregular array, and the inverse problem is solved with a method that enforces sparsity in the coefficient vector. Instead of using regularization based on the 1-norm of the coefficient vector, an iterative solution procedure is used that promotes sparsity. The iterative method is shown to provide very similar results in most cases and to be computationally much more efficient. PMID:27106299

  11. Acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B.

    1988-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth3 s magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation . The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores.

  12. Scanning tomographic acoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hua

    2002-11-01

    This paper provides an overview of the design and development of the scanning tomographic acoustic microscopy (STAM). This research effort spans over a period of more than 12 years, which successfully elevated the acoustic microscopy from the traditional intensity-mapping mode to the level of holographic and tomographic imaging. The tomographic imaging capability of STAM was developed on the platform of the scanning laser acoustic microscope (SLAM), which operates in a coherent transmission mode with plane-wave illumination and scanning laser wavefield detection. The image formation techniques were based on the backward propagation method implemented in the plane-to-plane format. In this paper, the key elements of the design and development, including the modification of the data-acquisition hardware, implementation of image reconstruction algorithms for multiple-frequency and multiple-angle tomography, and the high-precision phase-correction and image registration techniques for the superposition of coherent sub-images, will be discussed. Results of full-scale experiments will also be included to demonstrate the capability of holographic and tomographic image formation in microscopic scale.

  13. Acoustically enhanced heat transport.

    PubMed

    Ang, Kar M; Yeo, Leslie Y; Friend, James R; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming K

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the enhancement of heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime by inducing high frequency acoustic waves (f ∼ 10(6) Hz) on the heated surface. In the experiments, liquid droplets (deionized water) are dispensed directly onto a heated, vibrating substrate. At lower vibration amplitudes (ξs ∼ 10(-9) m), the improved heat transfer is mainly due to the detachment of vapor bubbles from the heated surface and the induced thermal mixing. Upon increasing the vibration amplitude (ξs ∼ 10(-8) m), the heat transfer becomes more substantial due to the rapid bursting of vapor bubbles happening at the liquid-air interface as a consequence of capillary waves travelling in the thin liquid film between the vapor bubble and the air. Further increases then lead to rapid atomization that continues to enhance the heat transfer. An acoustic wave displacement amplitude on the order of 10(-8) m with 10(6) Hz order frequencies is observed to produce an improvement of up to 50% reduction in the surface temperature over the case without acoustic excitation. PMID:26827343

  14. Acoustically enhanced heat transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, Kar M.; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming K.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the enhancement of heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime by inducing high frequency acoustic waves (f ˜ 106 Hz) on the heated surface. In the experiments, liquid droplets (deionized water) are dispensed directly onto a heated, vibrating substrate. At lower vibration amplitudes (ξs ˜ 10-9 m), the improved heat transfer is mainly due to the detachment of vapor bubbles from the heated surface and the induced thermal mixing. Upon increasing the vibration amplitude (ξs ˜ 10-8 m), the heat transfer becomes more substantial due to the rapid bursting of vapor bubbles happening at the liquid-air interface as a consequence of capillary waves travelling in the thin liquid film between the vapor bubble and the air. Further increases then lead to rapid atomization that continues to enhance the heat transfer. An acoustic wave displacement amplitude on the order of 10-8 m with 106 Hz order frequencies is observed to produce an improvement of up to 50% reduction in the surface temperature over the case without acoustic excitation.

  15. Spatiotemporally resolved granular acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Eli; Daniels, Karen

    2011-03-01

    Acoustic techniques provide a non-invasive method of characterizing granular material properties; however, there are many challenges in formulating accurate models of sound propagation due to the inherently heterogeneous nature of granular materials. In order to quantify acoustic responses in space and time, we perform experiments in a photoelastic granular material in which the internal stress pattern (in the form of force chains) is visible. We utilize two complementary methods, high-speed imaging and piezoelectric transduction, to provide particle-scale measurements of the amplitude of the acoustic wave. We observe that the average wave amplitude is largest within particles experiencing the largest forces. The force-dependence of this amplitude is in qualitative agreement with a simple Hertzian-like model for contact area. In addition, we investigate the power spectrum of the propagating signal using the piezoelectric sensors. For a Gaussian wave packet input, we observe a broad spectrum of transmitted frequencies below the driving frequency, and we quantify the characteristic frequencies and corresponding length scales of our material as the system pressure is varied.

  16. Direct protein detection from biological media through electrospray-assisted laser desorption ionization/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min-Zong; Hsu, Hsiu-Jung; Lee, Jen-Yih; Jeng, Jingyueh; Shiea, Jentaie

    2006-05-01

    We report here using a novel technology-electrospray-assisted laser desorption ionization (ELDI)/mass spectrometry-for the rapid and sensitive detection of the major proteins that exist in dried biological fluids (e.g., blood, tears, saliva, serum), bacterial cultures, and tissues (e.g., porcine liver and heart) under ambient conditions. This technique required essentially no sample pretreatment. The proteins in the samples were desorbed using a pulsed nitrogen laser without the assistance of an organic matrix. The desorbed protein molecules were then post-ionized through their fusion into the charged solvent droplets produced from the electrospray of an acidic methanol solution; electrospray ionization (ESI) proceeded from the newly formed droplets to generate the ESI-like protein ions. This new ionization approach combines some of the features of electrospray ionization with those of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), that is, sampling of a solid surface with spatial resolution, generating ESI-like mass spectra of the desorbed proteins, and operating under ambient conditions. PMID:16674100

  17. Effect of fulvic acid surface coatings on plutonium sorption and desorption kinetics on goethite

    SciTech Connect

    Tinnacher, Ruth M.; Begg, James D.; Mason, Harris; Ranville, James; Powell, Brian A.; Wong, Jennifer C.; Kersting, Annie B.; Zavarin, Mavrik

    2015-01-21

    The rates and extent of plutonium (Pu) sorption and desorption onto mineral surfaces are important parameters for predicting Pu mobility in subsurface environments. The presence of natural organic matter, such as fulvic acid (FA), may influence these parameters. We investigated the effects of FA on Pu(IV) sorption/desorption onto goethite in two scenarios: when FA was (1) initially present in solution or (2) found as organic coatings on the mineral surface. A low pH was used to maximize FA coatings on goethite. Experiments were combined with kinetic modeling and speciation calculations to interpret variations in Pu sorption rates in the presence of FA. Our results indicate that FA can change the rates and extent of Pu sorption onto goethite at pH 4. Differences in the kinetics of Pu sorption were observed as a function of the concentration and initial form of FA. The fraction of desorbed Pu decreased in the presence of FA, indicating that organic matter can stabilize sorbed Pu on goethite. These results suggest that ternary Pu–FA–mineral complexes could enhance colloid-facilitated Pu transport. In conclusion, more representative natural conditions need to be investigated to quantify the relevance of these findings.

  18. Effect of fulvic acid surface coatings on plutonium sorption and desorption kinetics on goethite

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tinnacher, Ruth M.; Begg, James D.; Mason, Harris; Ranville, James; Powell, Brian A.; Wong, Jennifer C.; Kersting, Annie B.; Zavarin, Mavrik

    2015-01-21

    The rates and extent of plutonium (Pu) sorption and desorption onto mineral surfaces are important parameters for predicting Pu mobility in subsurface environments. The presence of natural organic matter, such as fulvic acid (FA), may influence these parameters. We investigated the effects of FA on Pu(IV) sorption/desorption onto goethite in two scenarios: when FA was (1) initially present in solution or (2) found as organic coatings on the mineral surface. A low pH was used to maximize FA coatings on goethite. Experiments were combined with kinetic modeling and speciation calculations to interpret variations in Pu sorption rates in the presencemore » of FA. Our results indicate that FA can change the rates and extent of Pu sorption onto goethite at pH 4. Differences in the kinetics of Pu sorption were observed as a function of the concentration and initial form of FA. The fraction of desorbed Pu decreased in the presence of FA, indicating that organic matter can stabilize sorbed Pu on goethite. These results suggest that ternary Pu–FA–mineral complexes could enhance colloid-facilitated Pu transport. In conclusion, more representative natural conditions need to be investigated to quantify the relevance of these findings.« less

  19. Coverage-dependent adsorption and desorption of oxygen on Pd(100).

    PubMed

    den Dunnen, Angela; Jacobse, Leon; Wiegman, Sandra; Berg, Otto T; Juurlink, Ludo B F

    2016-06-28

    We have studied the adsorption and desorption of O2 on Pd(100) by supersonic molecular beam techniques and thermal desorption spectroscopy. Adsorption measurements on the bare surface confirm that O2 initially dissociates for all kinetic energies between 56 and 380 meV and surface temperatures between 100 and 600 K via a direct mechanism. At and below 150 K, continued adsorption leads to a combined O/O2 overlayer. Dissociation of molecularly bound O2 during a subsequent temperature ramp leads to unexpected high atomic oxygen coverages, which are also obtained at high incident energy and high surface temperature. At intermediate temperatures and energies, these high final coverages are not obtained. Our results show that kinetic energy of the gas phase reactant and reaction energy dissipated during O2 dissociation on the cold surface both enable activated nucleation of high-coverage surface structures. We suggest that excitation of local substrate phonons may play a crucial role in oxygen dissociation at any coverage. PMID:27369532

  20. High-resolution atmospheric pressure infrared laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging of biological tissue.

    PubMed

    Römpp, Andreas; Schäfer, Karl Christian; Guenther, Sabine; Wang, Zheng; Köstler, Martin; Leisner, Arne; Paschke, Carmen; Schramm, Thorsten; Spengler, Bernhard

    2013-09-01

    An atmospheric pressure laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging ion source has been developed that combines high spatial resolution and high mass resolution for the in situ analysis of biological tissue. The system is based on an infrared laser system working at 2.94 to 3.10 μm wavelength, employing a Nd:YAG laser-pumped optical parametrical oscillator. A Raman-shifted Nd:YAG laser system was also tested as an alternative irradiation source. A dedicated optical setup was used to focus the laser beam, coaxially with the ion optical axis and normal to the sample surface, to a spot size of 30 μm in diameter. No additional matrix was needed for laser desorption/ionization. A cooling stage was developed to reduce evaporation of physiological cell water. Ions were formed under atmospheric pressure and transferred by an extended heated capillary into the atmospheric pressure inlet of an orbital trapping mass spectrometer. Various phospholipid compounds were detected, identified, and imaged at a pixel resolution of up to 25 μm from mouse brain tissue sections. Mass accuracies of better than 2 ppm and a mass resolution of 30,000 at m/z = 400 were achieved for these measurements. PMID:23877173