NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pop, Eric; Dutton, Robert W.; Goodson, Kenneth E.
2004-11-01
We describe the implementation of a Monte Carlo model for electron transport in silicon. The model uses analytic, nonparabolic electron energy bands, which are computationally efficient and sufficiently accurate for future low-voltage (<1V) nanoscale device applications. The electron-lattice scattering is incorporated using an isotropic, analytic phonon-dispersion model, which distinguishes between the optical/acoustic and the longitudinal/transverse phonon branches. We show that this approach avoids introducing unphysical thresholds in the electron distribution function, and that it has further applications in computing detailed phonon generation spectra from Joule heating. A set of deformation potentials for electron-phonon scattering is introduced and shown to yield accurate transport simulations in bulk silicon across a wide range of electric fields and temperatures. The shear deformation potential is empirically determined at Ξu=6.8eV, and consequently, the isotropically averaged scattering potentials with longitudinal and transverse acoustic phonons are DLA=6.39eV and DTA=3.01eV, respectively, in reasonable agreement with previous studies. The room-temperature electron mobility in strained silicon is also computed and shown to be in better agreement with the most recent phonon-limited data available. As a result, we find that electron coupling with g-type phonons is about 40% lower, and the coupling with f-type phonons is almost twice as strong as previously reported.
Resonant raman scattering and dispersion of polar optical and acoustic phonons in hexagonal inn
Davydov, V. Yu. Klochikhin, A. A.; Smirnov, A. N.; Strashkova, I. Yu.; Krylov, A. S.; Lu Hai; Schaff, William J.; Lee, H.-M.; Hong, Y.-L.; Gwo, S.
2010-02-15
It is shown that a study of the dependence of impurity-related resonant first-order Raman scattering on the frequency of excitation light makes it possible to observe the dispersion of polar optical and acoustic branches of vibrational spectrum in hexagonal InN within a wide range of wave vectors. It is established that the wave vectors of excited phonons are uniquely related to the energy of excitation photon. Frequencies of longitudinal optical phonons E{sub 1}(LO) and A{sub 1}(LO) in hexagonal InN were measured in the range of excitation-photon energies from 2.81 to 1.17 eV and the frequencies of longitudinal acoustic phonons were measured in the range 2.81-1.83 eV of excitation-photon energies. The obtained dependences made it possible to extrapolate the dispersion of phonons A{sub 1}(LO) and E{sub 1}(LO) to as far as the point {Gamma} in the Brillouin zone and estimate the center-band energies of these phonons (these energies have not been uniquely determined so far).
Zhao Degang; Liu Zhengyou; Qiu Chunyin; He Zhaojian; Cai Feiyan; Ke Manzhu
2007-10-01
In this paper, we have demonstrated the existence of surface acoustic waves in two-dimensional phononic crystals with fluid matrix, which is composed of a square array of steel cylinders put in air background. By using the supercell method, we investigate the dispersion relation and the eigenfield distribution of surface modes. Surface waves can be easily excited at the surface of a finite size phononic crystal by line source or Gaussian beam placed in or launched from the background medium, and they propagate along the surface with the form of 'beat.' Taking advantage of these surface modes, we can obtain a highly directional emission wave beam by introducing an appropriate corrugation layer on the surface of a waveguide exit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Degang; Liu, Zhengyou; Qiu, Chunyin; He, Zhaojian; Cai, Feiyan; Ke, Manzhu
2007-10-01
In this paper, we have demonstrated the existence of surface acoustic waves in two-dimensional phononic crystals with fluid matrix, which is composed of a square array of steel cylinders put in air background. By using the supercell method, we investigate the dispersion relation and the eigenfield distribution of surface modes. Surface waves can be easily excited at the surface of a finite size phononic crystal by line source or Gaussian beam placed in or launched from the background medium, and they propagate along the surface with the form of “beat.” Taking advantage of these surface modes, we can obtain a highly directional emission wave beam by introducing an appropriate corrugation layer on the surface of a waveguide exit.
Propagation of large-wavevector acoustic phonons new perspectives from phonon imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolfe, James P.
Within the last decade a number of attempts have been made to observe the ballistic propagation of large wavevector acoustic phonons in crystals at low temperatures. Time-of-flight heat-pulse methods have difficulty in distinguishing between scattered phonons and ballistic phonons which travel dispersively at subsonic velocities. Fortunately, ballistic phonons can be identified by their highly anisotropic flux, which is observed by phonon imaging techniques. In this paper, several types of phonon imaging experiments are described which reveal the dispersive propagation of large-wavevector phonons and expose interesting details of the phonon scattering processes.
Coherent acoustic phonons in nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dekorsy, T.; Taubert, R.; Hudert, F.; Bartels, A.; Habenicht, A.; Merkt, F.; Leiderer, P.; Köhler, K.; Schmitz, J.; Wagner, J.
2008-02-01
Phonons are considered as a most important origin of scattering and dissipation for electronic coherence in nanostructures. The generation of coherent acoustic phonons with femtosecond laser pulses opens the possibility to control phonon dynamics in amplitude and phase. We demonstrate a new experimental technique based on two synchronized femtosecond lasers with GHz repetition rate to study the dynamics of coherently generated acoustic phonons in semiconductor heterostructures with high sensitivity. High-speed synchronous optical sampling (ASOPS) enables to scan a time-delay of 1 ns with 100 fs time resolution with a frequency in the kHz range without a moving part in the set-up. We investigate the dynamics of coherent zone-folded acoustic phonons in semiconductor superlattices (GaAs/AlAs and GaSb/InAs) and of coherent vibration of metallic nanostructures of non-spherical shape using ASOPS.
Phonon dispersion in thalous halides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kushwaha, Manvir S.
1984-07-01
The phonon dispersion relations, phonon density of states, g( v), and Debye-characteristic temperature, θ D, of TlCl and TlBr have been studied. The theoretical model adopted for this purpose is a 9-parameter bond-bending force model (BBFM) which was recently developed and successfully applied to study the crystal dynamics of CsCl-structure crystals. The theoretical results compare well with the available measurements for phonon dispersion in the high symmetry directions. The discrepancy between calculated and experimental values of θ D, particularly at higher temperatures, is reasonably attributed to the predominating anharmonic effects. The values of the compressibilities (χ), calculated using the Brout sum rule, are in a reasonably good agreement with the existing observed values. A critical-point-phonon analysis has also been performed to interpret the observed infrared (IR) and Raman peaks.
Acoustic phonon spectrum and thermal transport in nanoporous alumina arrays
Kargar, Fariborz; Ramirez, Sylvester; Debnath, Bishwajit; Malekpour, Hoda; Lake, Roger; Balandin, Alexander A.
2015-10-28
We report results of a combined investigation of thermal conductivity and acoustic phonon spectra in nanoporous alumina membranes with the pore diameter decreasing from D=180 nm to 25 nm. The samples with the hexagonally arranged pores were selected to have the same porosity Ø ≈13%. The Brillouin-Mandelstam spectroscopy measurements revealed bulk-like phonon spectrum in the samples with D=180-nm pores and spectral features, which were attributed to spatial confinement, in the samples with 25-nm and 40-nm pores. The velocity of the longitudinal acoustic phonons was reduced in the samples with smaller pores. As a result, analysis of the experimental data and calculated phonon dispersion suggests that both phonon-boundary scattering and phonon spatial confinement affect heat conduction in membranes with the feature sizes D<40 nm.
Acoustic phonon spectrum and thermal transport in nanoporous alumina arrays
Kargar, Fariborz; Ramirez, Sylvester; Debnath, Bishwajit; Malekpour, Hoda; Lake, Roger; Balandin, Alexander A.
2015-10-28
We report results of a combined investigation of thermal conductivity and acoustic phonon spectra in nanoporous alumina membranes with the pore diameter decreasing from D=180 nm to 25 nm. The samples with the hexagonally arranged pores were selected to have the same porosity Ø ≈13%. The Brillouin-Mandelstam spectroscopy measurements revealed bulk-like phonon spectrum in the samples with D=180-nm pores and spectral features, which were attributed to spatial confinement, in the samples with 25-nm and 40-nm pores. The velocity of the longitudinal acoustic phonons was reduced in the samples with smaller pores. As a result, analysis of the experimental data andmore » calculated phonon dispersion suggests that both phonon-boundary scattering and phonon spatial confinement affect heat conduction in membranes with the feature sizes D<40 nm.« less
Coherent Acoustic Phonons in Colloidal Semiconductor Nanocrystal Superlattices.
Poyser, Caroline L; Czerniuk, Thomas; Akimov, Andrey; Diroll, Benjamin T; Gaulding, E Ashley; Salasyuk, Alexey S; Kent, Anthony J; Yakovlev, Dmitri R; Bayer, Manfred; Murray, Christopher B
2016-01-26
The phonon properties of films fabricated from colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals play a major role in thermal conductance and electron scattering, which govern the principles for building colloidal-based electronics and optics including thermoelectric devices with a high ZT factor. The key point in understanding the phonon properties is to obtain the strength of the elastic bonds formed by organic ligands connecting the individual nanocrystallites. In the case of very weak bonding, the ligands become the bottleneck for phonon transport between infinitively rigid nanocrystals. In the opposite case of strong bonding, the colloids cannot be considered as infinitively rigid beads and the distortion of the superlattice caused by phonons includes the distortion of the colloids themselves. We use the picosecond acoustics technique to study the acoustic coherent phonons in superlattices of nanometer crystalline CdSe colloids. We observe the quantization of phonons with frequencies up to 30 GHz. The frequencies of quantized phonons depend on the thickness of the colloidal films and possess linear phonon dispersion. The measured speed of sound and corresponding wave modulus in the colloidal films point on the strong elastic coupling provided by organic ligands between colloidal nanocrystals. PMID:26696021
Esfahlani, Hussein; Karkar, Sami; Lissek, Herve; Mosig, Juan R
2016-01-01
The optical dispersive prism is a well-studied element, which allows separating white light into its constituent spectral colors, and stands in nature as water droplets. In analogy to this definition, the acoustic dispersive prism should be an acoustic device with capability of splitting a broadband acoustic wave into its constituent Fourier components. However, due to the acoustical nature of materials as well as the design and fabrication difficulties, there is neither any natural acoustic counterpart of the optical prism, nor any artificial design reported so far exhibiting an equivalent acoustic behaviour. Here, based on exotic properties of the acoustic transmission-line metamaterials and exploiting unique physical behaviour of acoustic leaky-wave radiation, we report the first acoustic dispersive prism, effective within the audible frequency range 800 Hz-1300 Hz. The dispersive nature, and consequently the frequency-dependent refractive index of the metamaterial are exploited to split the sound waves towards different and frequency-dependent directions. Meanwhile, the leaky-wave nature of the structure facilitates the sound wave radiation into the ambient medium. PMID:26739504
Esfahlani, Hussein; Karkar, Sami; Lissek, Herve; Mosig, Juan R.
2016-01-01
The optical dispersive prism is a well-studied element, which allows separating white light into its constituent spectral colors, and stands in nature as water droplets. In analogy to this definition, the acoustic dispersive prism should be an acoustic device with capability of splitting a broadband acoustic wave into its constituent Fourier components. However, due to the acoustical nature of materials as well as the design and fabrication difficulties, there is neither any natural acoustic counterpart of the optical prism, nor any artificial design reported so far exhibiting an equivalent acoustic behaviour. Here, based on exotic properties of the acoustic transmission-line metamaterials and exploiting unique physical behaviour of acoustic leaky-wave radiation, we report the first acoustic dispersive prism, effective within the audible frequency range 800 Hz–1300 Hz. The dispersive nature, and consequently the frequency-dependent refractive index of the metamaterial are exploited to split the sound waves towards different and frequency-dependent directions. Meanwhile, the leaky-wave nature of the structure facilitates the sound wave radiation into the ambient medium. PMID:26739504
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esfahlani, Hussein; Karkar, Sami; Lissek, Herve; Mosig, Juan R.
2016-01-01
The optical dispersive prism is a well-studied element, which allows separating white light into its constituent spectral colors, and stands in nature as water droplets. In analogy to this definition, the acoustic dispersive prism should be an acoustic device with capability of splitting a broadband acoustic wave into its constituent Fourier components. However, due to the acoustical nature of materials as well as the design and fabrication difficulties, there is neither any natural acoustic counterpart of the optical prism, nor any artificial design reported so far exhibiting an equivalent acoustic behaviour. Here, based on exotic properties of the acoustic transmission-line metamaterials and exploiting unique physical behaviour of acoustic leaky-wave radiation, we report the first acoustic dispersive prism, effective within the audible frequency range 800 Hz-1300 Hz. The dispersive nature, and consequently the frequency-dependent refractive index of the metamaterial are exploited to split the sound waves towards different and frequency-dependent directions. Meanwhile, the leaky-wave nature of the structure facilitates the sound wave radiation into the ambient medium.
Acoustic superfocusing by solid phononic crystals
Zhou, Xiaoming; Assouar, M. Badreddine Oudich, Mourad
2014-12-08
We propose a solid phononic crystal lens capable of acoustic superfocusing beyond the diffraction limit. The unit cell of the crystal is formed by four rigid cylinders in a hosting material with a cavity arranged in the center. Theoretical studies reveal that the solid lens produces both negative refraction to focus propagating waves and surface states to amplify evanescent waves. Numerical analyses of the superfocusing effect of the considered solid phononic lens are presented with a separated source excitation to the lens. In this case, acoustic superfocusing beyond the diffraction limit is evidenced. Compared to the fluid phononic lenses, the solid lens is more suitable for ultrasonic imaging applications.
Phonons in slow motion: dispersion relations in ultrathin Si membranes.
Cuffe, John; Chávez, Emigdio; Shchepetov, Andrey; Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier; El Boudouti, El Houssaine; Alzina, Francesc; Kehoe, Timothy; Gomis-Bresco, Jordi; Dudek, Damian; Pennec, Yan; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Prunnila, Mika; Ahopelto, Jouni; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M
2012-07-11
We report the changes in dispersion relations of hypersonic acoustic phonons in free-standing silicon membranes as thin as ∼8 nm. We observe a reduction of the phase and group velocities of the fundamental flexural mode by more than 1 order of magnitude compared to bulk values. The modification of the dispersion relation in nanostructures has important consequences for noise control in nano- and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) as well as opto-mechanical devices. PMID:22650605
Phonon Emission from Acoustic Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Hengzhong; Zhou, Kaihu; Song, Yuming
2012-08-01
We study the phonon tunneling through the horizon of an acoustic black hole by solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We also make use of the closed-path integral to calculate the tunneling probability, and an improved way to determine the temporal contribution is used. Both the results from the two methods agree with Hawking's initial analysis.
Phonon Dispersion in Amorphous Ni-Alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vora, A. M.
2007-06-01
The well-known model potential is used to investigate the longitudinal and transverse phonon dispersion curves for six Ni-based binary amorphous alloys, viz. Ni31Dy69, Ni33Y67, Ni36Zr64, Ni50Zr50, Ni60 Nb40, and Ni81B19. The thermodynamic and elastic properties are also computed from the elastic limits of the phonon dispersion curves. The theoretical approach given by Hubbard-Beeby is used in the present study to compute the phonon dispersion curves. Five local field correction functions proposed by Hartree, Taylor, Ichimaru-Utsumi, Farid et al. and Sarkar et al. are employed to see the effect of exchange and correlation in the aforesaid properties.
Nonlinear propagation and control of acoustic waves in phononic superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez, Noé; Mehrem, Ahmed; Picó, Rubén; García-Raffi, Lluís M.; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor J.
2016-05-01
The propagation of intense acoustic waves in a one-dimensional phononic crystal is studied. The medium consists in a structured fluid, formed by a periodic array of fluid layers with alternating linear acoustic properties and quadratic nonlinearity coefficient. The spacing between layers is of the order of the wavelength, therefore Bragg effects such as band gaps appear. We show that the interplay between strong dispersion and nonlinearity leads to new scenarios of wave propagation. The classical waveform distortion process typical of intense acoustic waves in homogeneous media can be strongly altered when nonlinearly generated harmonics lie inside or close to band gaps. This allows the possibility of engineer a medium in order to get a particular waveform. Examples of this include the design of media with effective (e.g., cubic) nonlinearities, or extremely linear media (where distortion can be canceled). The presented ideas open a way towards the control of acoustic wave propagation in nonlinear regime. xml:lang="fr"
Nanowave devices for terahertz acoustic phonons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lanzillotti-Kimura, N. D.; Fainstein, A.; Lemaître, A.; Jusserand, B.
2006-02-01
The emergence of the area of nanophononics requires the development of terahertz (THz) acoustic devices with tailored properties. We describe nonperiodic planar nanostructures with specific THz phononic response and superior performance. We show that improved devices based on GaAs and AlAs layers can be designed using an optimization Nelder-Mead simplex method, and grown with state-of-the-art molecular beam epitaxy. We also demonstrate that high-resolution Raman scattering provides a powerful tool to characterize these devices. We illustrate the concept with results on acoustic THz edge and color filters.
Influence of the optical-acoustic phonon hybridization on phonon scattering and thermal conductivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wu; Carrete, Jesús; Madsen, Georg K. H.; Mingo, Natalio
2016-05-01
We predict a marked effect of optical-acoustic phonon hybridization on phonon scattering and lattice thermal conductivity (κ ), and illustrate it in the case of Fe2Ge3 . This material presents very low-lying optical phonons with an energy of 1.8 meV at the Brillouin zone center, which show avoided crossings with longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonons, due to optical-acoustic phonon polarization hybridization. Because the optical phonons have nonvanishing scattering rates, even a small amount of hybridization with the optical phonon can increase the scattering rates of LA phonons by much more than one order of magnitude, causing the contribution of these phonons to κ to vanish. At low temperatures, the contributions of all LA phonons are eliminated, and thus the avoided crossing leads to a reduction of thermal conductivity by more than half. The scattering rates are very sensitive to the optical-acoustic phonon hybridization strength, characterized by the gap at the avoided crossing point and varied with the wave-vector direction. Our work presents a different reduction mechanism of κ in systems with optical-acoustic phonon hybridization, which can benefit the search for new thermoelectric materials.
Coherent phonon modulation by nanoscale acoustically mismatched interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Shangjie; Ouyang, Min
2015-03-01
Precise engineering of phonon spectrum by material design is essential for in-depth understanding of fundamental physical phenomena as well as new technology breakthrough. When phonons propagate through two different constituents, their mismatched interface can coherently modulate phonon spectrum. In this talk, we will demonstrate the phonon characteristics can be precisely tailored through nanoscale interfacial coupling by investigating acoustically mismatched core-shell hetero-nanostructures with ultrafast pump-probe technique. Coherent phonon coupling between core and shell through their interface has been experimentally revealed, which agrees well with theoretical simulation. This interfacial phonon coupling also represents a unique fingerprint of complex nanostructures.
ACOUSTIC RECTIFICATION IN DISPERSIVE MEDIA
Cantrell, John H.
2009-03-03
It is shown that the shapes of acoustic radiation-induced static strain and displacement pulses (rectified acoustic pulses) are defined locally by the energy density of the generating waveform. Dispersive properties are introduced analytically by assuming that the rectified pulses are functionally dependent on a phase factor that includes both dispersive and nonlinear terms. The dispersion causes an evolutionary change in the shape of the energy density profile that leads to the generation of solitons experimentally observed in fused silica.
Acoustic Rectification in Dispersive Media
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cantrell, John H.
2008-01-01
It is shown that the shapes of acoustic radiation-induced static strain and displacement pulses (rectified acoustic pulses) are defined locally by the energy density of the generating waveform. Dispersive properties are introduced analytically by assuming that the rectified pulses are functionally dependent on a phase factor that includes both dispersive and nonlinear terms. The dispersion causes an evolutionary change in the shape of the energy density profile that leads to the generation of solitons experimentally observed in fused silica.
Phonon Diodes and Transistors from Magneto-acoustics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sklan, Sophia; Grossman, Jeffrey
2014-03-01
The creation of non-reciprocal phononic systems holds the promise of allowing computers that would process thermal or acoustic (rather than electronic) signals. By sculpting the magnetic field applied to magneto-acoustic materials (which couple phonons to a magnetic field, typically due to effects like magnon-phonon coupling in yttrium iron garnet), phonons can be used for information processing in analogy with photonic computing. Using a combination of analytic and numerical techniques, we demonstrate designs for diodes (isolators) and transistors that are independent of their conventional, electronic formulation. We analyze the experimental feasibility of these systems, including the sensitivity of the circuits to likely systematic and random errors.
Acoustic nonlinearity in dispersive solids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cantrell, John H.; Yost, William T.
1991-01-01
An investigation to consider the effects of dispersion on the generation of the static acoustic wave component is presented. It is considered that an acoustic toneburst may be modeled as a modulated continuous waveform and that the generated initial static displacement pulse may be viewed as a modulation-confined disturbance. A theoretical model for the generation of the acoustic modulation solitons evolved is developed and experimental evidence in samples of vitreous silica demonstrating the essential validity of the model is provided.
Yudistira, D; Boes, A; Djafari-Rouhani, B; Pennec, Y; Yeo, L Y; Mitchell, A; Friend, J R
2014-11-21
We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the existence of complete surface acoustic wave band gaps in surface phonon-polariton phononic crystals, in a completely monolithic structure formed from a two-dimensional honeycomb array of hexagonal shape domain-inverted inclusions in single crystal piezoelectric Z-cut lithium niobate. The band gaps appear at a frequency of about twice the Bragg band gap at the center of the Brillouin zone, formed through phonon-polariton coupling. The structure is mechanically, electromagnetically, and topographically homogeneous, without any physical alteration of the surface, offering an ideal platform for many acoustic wave applications for photonics, phononics, and microfluidics. PMID:25479504
The phononic crystals: An unending quest for tailoring acoustics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kushwaha, Manvir S.
2016-07-01
Periodicity (in time or space) is a part and parcel of every living being: one can see, hear and feel it. Everyday examples are locomotion, respiration and heart beat. The reinforced N-dimensional periodicity over two or more crystalline solids results in the so-called phononic band gap crystals. These can have dramatic consequences on the propagation of phonons, vibrations and sound. The fundamental physics of cleverly fabricated phononic crystals can offer a systematic route to realize the Anderson localization of sound and vibrations. As to the applications, the phononic crystals are envisaged to find ways in the architecture, acoustic waveguides, designing transducers, elastic/acoustic filters, noise control, ultrasonics, medical imaging and acoustic cloaking, to mention a few. This review focuses on the brief sketch of the progress made in the field that seems to have prospered even more than was originally imagined in the early nineties.
Electrical modulation and switching of transverse acoustic phonons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, H.; Jho, Y. D.; Rhim, S. H.; Yee, K. J.; Yoon, S. Y.; Shim, J. P.; Lee, D. S.; Ju, J. W.; Baek, J. H.; Stanton, C. J.
2016-07-01
We report on the electrical manipulation of coherent acoustic phonon waves in GaN-based nanoscale piezoelectric heterostructures which are strained both from the pseudomorphic growth at the interfaces as well as through external electric fields. In such structures, transverse symmetry within the c plane hinders both the generation and detection of the transverse acoustic (TA) modes, and usually only longitudinal acoustic phonons are generated by ultrafast displacive screening of potential gradients. We show that even for c -GaN, the combined application of lateral and vertical electric fields can not only switch on the normally forbidden TA mode, but they can also modulate the amplitudes and frequencies of both modes. By comparing the transient differential reflectivity spectra in structures with and without an asymmetric potential distribution, the role of the electrical controllability of phonons was demonstrated as changes to the propagation velocities, the optical birefringence, the electrically polarized TA waves, and the geometrically varying optical sensitivities of phonons.
Dispersion of doppleron-phonon modes in strong coupling regime.
Gudkov, V V; Zhevstovskikh, I V
2004-04-01
The dispersion equation for doppleron-phonon modes was constructed and solved analytically in the strong coupling regime. The Fermi surface model proposed previously for calculating the doppleron spectrum in an indium crystal was used. It was shown that in the vicinity of doppleron-phonon resonance, the dispersion curves of coupled modes form a gap qualitatively different from the one observed under helicon-phonon resonance: there is a frequency interval forbidden for existence of waves of definite circular polarization depending upon direction of the external DC magnetic field. The physical reason for it is interaction of the waves which have oppositely directed group velocities. PMID:15047286
Addouche, Mahmoud Al-Lethawe, Mohammed A. Choujaa, Abdelkrim Khelif, Abdelkrim
2014-07-14
We demonstrate super resolution imaging for surface acoustic waves using a phononic structure displaying negative refractive index. This phononic structure is made of a monolithic square lattice of cylindrical pillars standing on a semi-infinite medium. The pillars act as acoustic resonator and induce a surface propagating wave with unusual dispersion. We found, under specific geometrical parameters, one propagating mode that exhibits negative refraction effect with negative effective index close to −1. Furthermore, a flat lens with finite number of pillars is designed to allow the focusing of an acoustic point source into an image with a resolution of (λ)/3 , overcoming the Rayleigh diffraction limit.
Phonon dispersion in uranium measured using inelastic x-ray scattering.
Manley, M. E.; Lander, G. H.; Sinn, H.; Alatas, A.; Hults, W. L.; McQueeney, R. J.; Smith, J. L.; Wilt, J.; XFD
2003-02-01
Phonon-dispersion curves were obtained from inelastic x-ray scattering measurements on high-purity uranium single crystals at room temperature. Modes displacing atoms along [00{zeta}] and propagating in all three high-symmetry directions were measured. Whereas the acoustic modes agree with the neutron measurements, the longitudinal-optic branch is about 10% higher in energy, but consistent with higher cutoff energies observed in phonon density-of-states measurements on polycrystals. The application of this x-ray technique, which requires only very small samples, opens possibilities in actinide science.
Strain induced modification in phonon dispersion curves of monolayer boron pnictides
Jha, Prafulla K. E-mail: prafullaj@yahoo.com; Soni, Himadri R.
2014-01-14
In the frame work of density functional theory, the biaxial strain induced phonon dispersion curves of monolayer boron pnictides (BX, X = N, P, As, and Sb) have been investigated. The electron-ion interactions have been modelled using ultrasoft pseudopotentials while exchange-correlation energies have been approximated by the method of local density approximation in the parameterization of Perdew-Zunger. The longitudinal and transverse acoustic phonon modes of boron pnictide sheets show linear dependency on wave vector k{sup →} while out of plane mode varies as k{sup 2}. The in-plane longitudinal and out of plane transverse optical modes in boron nitride displaying significant dispersion similar to graphene. We have analyzed the biaxial strain dependent behaviour of out of plane acoustic phonon mode which is linked to ripple for four BX sheets using a model equation with shell elasticity theory. The strain induces the hardening of this mode with tendency to become more linear with increase in strain percentage. The strain induced hardening of out of plane acoustic phonon mode indicates the absence of rippling in these compounds. Our band structure calculations for both unstrained and strained 2D h-BX are consistent with previous calculations.
Generation mechanism of terahertz coherent acoustic phonons in Fe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henighan, T.; Trigo, M.; Bonetti, S.; Granitzka, P.; Higley, D.; Chen, Z.; Jiang, M. P.; Kukreja, R.; Gray, A.; Reid, A. H.; Jal, E.; Hoffmann, M. C.; Kozina, M.; Song, S.; Chollet, M.; Zhu, D.; Xu, P. F.; Jeong, J.; Carva, K.; Maldonado, P.; Oppeneer, P. M.; Samant, M. G.; Parkin, S. S. P.; Reis, D. A.; Dürr, H. A.
2016-06-01
We use femtosecond time-resolved hard x-ray scattering to detect coherent acoustic phonons generated during ultrafast laser excitation of ferromagnetic bcc Fe films grown on MgO(001). We observe the coherent longitudinal-acoustic phonons as a function of wave vector through analysis of the temporal oscillations in the x-ray scattering signal. The width of the extracted strain wave front associated with this coherent motion is ˜100 fs. An effective electronic Grüneisen parameter is extracted within a two-temperature model. However, ab initio calculations show that the phonons are nonthermal on the time scale of the experiment, which calls into question the validity of extracting physical constants by fitting such a two-temperature model.
Phonon-induced polariton superlattices.
de Lima, M M; van der Poel, M; Santos, P V; Hvam, J M
2006-07-28
We show that the coherent interaction between microcavity polaritons and externally stimulated acoustic phonons forms a tunable polariton superlattice with a folded energy dispersion determined by the phonon population and wavelength. Under high phonon concentration, the strong confinement of the optical and excitonic polariton components in the phonon potential creates weakly coupled polariton wires with a virtually flat energy dispersion. PMID:16907587
Phonon dispersion in red mercuric iodide
Sim, H.; Chang, Y. ); James, R.B. )
1994-02-15
We present theoretical studies of phonon modes of undoped HgI[sub 2] in its red tetragonal form. A rigid-ion model including the Coulomb interaction is used which gives the best fit to the neutron scattering, infrared reflectivity, and Raman scattering data. The calculated sound velocities are also in accord with experiment.
Full-dispersion Monte Carlo simulation of phonon transport in micron-sized graphene nanoribbons
Mei, S. Knezevic, I.; Maurer, L. N.; Aksamija, Z.
2014-10-28
We simulate phonon transport in suspended graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with real-space edges and experimentally relevant widths and lengths (from submicron to hundreds of microns). The full-dispersion phonon Monte Carlo simulation technique, which we describe in detail, involves a stochastic solution to the phonon Boltzmann transport equation with the relevant scattering mechanisms (edge, three-phonon, isotope, and grain boundary scattering) while accounting for the dispersion of all three acoustic phonon branches, calculated from the fourth-nearest-neighbor dynamical matrix. We accurately reproduce the results of several experimental measurements on pure and isotopically modified samples [S. Chen et al., ACS Nano 5, 321 (2011);S. Chen et al., Nature Mater. 11, 203 (2012); X. Xu et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 3689 (2014)]. We capture the ballistic-to-diffusive crossover in wide GNRs: room-temperature thermal conductivity increases with increasing length up to roughly 100 μm, where it saturates at a value of 5800 W/m K. This finding indicates that most experiments are carried out in the quasiballistic rather than the diffusive regime, and we calculate the diffusive upper-limit thermal conductivities up to 600 K. Furthermore, we demonstrate that calculations with isotropic dispersions overestimate the GNR thermal conductivity. Zigzag GNRs have higher thermal conductivity than same-size armchair GNRs, in agreement with atomistic calculations.
Nonlinear Transport and Noise Properties of Acoustic Phonons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Walczak, Kamil
We examine heat transport carried by acoustic phonons in molecular junctions composed of organic molecules coupled to two thermal baths of different temperatures. The phononic heat flux and its dynamical noise properties are analyzed within the scattering (Landauer) formalism with transmission probability function for acoustic phonons calculated within the method of atomistic Green's functions (AGF technique). The perturbative computational scheme is used to determine nonlinear corrections to phononic heat flux and its noise power spectral density with up to the second order terms with respect to temperature difference. Our results show the limited applicability of ballistic Fourier's law and fluctuation-dissipation theorem to heat transport in quantum systems. We also derive several noise-signal relations applicable to nanoscale heat flow carried by phonons, but valid for electrons as well. We also discuss the extension of the perturbative transport theory to higher order terms in order to address a huge variety of problems related to nonlinear thermal effects which may occur at nanoscale and at strongly non-equilibrium conditions with high-intensity heat fluxes. This work was supported by Pace University Start-up Grant.
Uniaxial strain-induced Kohn anomaly and electron-phonon coupling in acoustic phonons of graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cifuentes-Quintal, M. E.; de la Peña-Seaman, O.; Heid, R.; de Coss, R.; Bohnen, K.-P.
2016-08-01
Recent advances in strain engineering at the nanoscale have shown the feasibility to modulate the properties of graphene. Although the electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling and Kohn anomalies in graphene define the phonon branches contributing to the resonance Raman scattering and are relevant to the electronic and thermal transport as a scattering source, the evolution of the e-ph coupling as a function of strain has been less studied. In this work, the Kohn anomalies and the e-ph coupling in uniaxially strained graphene along armchair and zigzag directions were studied by means of density functional perturbation theory calculations. In addition to the phonon anomaly at the transversal optical (TO) phonon branch in the K point for pristine graphene, we found that uniaxial strain induces a discontinuity in the frequency derivative of the longitudinal acoustic phonon branch. This behavior corresponds to the emergence of a Kohn anomaly, as a consequence of a strain-enhanced e-ph coupling. Thus, the present results for uniaxially strained graphene contrast with the commonly assumed view that the e-ph coupling around the K point is only present in the TO phonon branch.
Phonon Dispersion and Electron--Phonon Interaction in Peanut-Shaped Fullerene Polymers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ono, Shota; Shima, Hiroyuki
2011-06-01
We reveal that the periodic radius modulation peculiar to one-dimensional (1D) peanut-shaped fullerene (C60) polymers exerts a strong influence on their low-frequency phonon states and their interactions with mobile electrons. The continuum approximation is employed to show the zone-folding of phonon dispersion curves, which leads to fast relaxation of a radial breathing mode in the 1D C60 polymers. We also formulate the electron--phonon interaction along the deformation potential theory, demonstrating that only a few set of electron and phonon modes yields a significant magnitude of the interaction relevant to the low-temperature physics of the system. The latter finding gives an important implication for the possible Peierls instability of the C60 polymers suggested in the earlier experiment.
Hot electron cooling by acoustic phonons in graphene.
Betz, A C; Vialla, F; Brunel, D; Voisin, C; Picher, M; Cavanna, A; Madouri, A; Fève, G; Berroir, J-M; Plaçais, B; Pallecchi, E
2012-08-01
We have investigated the energy loss of hot electrons in metallic graphene by means of GHz noise thermometry at liquid helium temperature. We observe the electronic temperature T ∝ V at low bias in agreement with the heat diffusion to the leads described by the Wiedemann-Franz law. We report on T ∝ √V behavior at high bias, which corresponds to a T(4) dependence of the cooling power. This is the signature of a 2D acoustic phonon cooling mechanism. From a heat equation analysis of the two regimes we extract accurate values of the electron-acoustic phonon coupling constant Σ in monolayer graphene. Our measurements point to an important effect of lattice disorder in the reduction of Σ, not yet considered by theory. Moreover, our study provides a strong and firm support to the rising field of graphene bolometric detectors. PMID:23006198
Hot Electron Cooling by Acoustic Phonons in Graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Betz, A. C.; Vialla, F.; Brunel, D.; Voisin, C.; Picher, M.; Cavanna, A.; Madouri, A.; Fève, G.; Berroir, J.-M.; Plaçais, B.; Pallecchi, E.
2012-08-01
We have investigated the energy loss of hot electrons in metallic graphene by means of GHz noise thermometry at liquid helium temperature. We observe the electronic temperature T∝V at low bias in agreement with the heat diffusion to the leads described by the Wiedemann-Franz law. We report on T∝V behavior at high bias, which corresponds to a T4 dependence of the cooling power. This is the signature of a 2D acoustic phonon cooling mechanism. From a heat equation analysis of the two regimes we extract accurate values of the electron-acoustic phonon coupling constant Σ in monolayer graphene. Our measurements point to an important effect of lattice disorder in the reduction of Σ, not yet considered by theory. Moreover, our study provides a strong and firm support to the rising field of graphene bolometric detectors.
Electrical manipulation of crystal symmetry for switching transverse acoustic phonons.
Jeong, H; Jho, Y D; Stanton, C J
2015-01-30
We experimentally explore the use of a novel device where lateral electric fields can be applied to break the translational symmetry within the isotropic plane and hence change the selection rules to allow normally forbidden transverse acoustic (TA) phonon generations. The ultrafast screening of the lateral electric field by the photocarriers relieves shear strain in the structure and switches on the propagating TA waves. The amplitude and on-state time of the TA mode can be modulated by the external field strength and size of the laterally biased region. The observed frequency shift with an external bias as well as the strong geometrical dependence confirm the role of the asymmetric potential distribution in electrically manipulating the crystal symmetry to control modal behavior of acoustic phonons. PMID:25679892
Electrical Manipulation of Crystal Symmetry for Switching Transverse Acoustic Phonons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeong, H.; Jho, Y. D.; Stanton, C. J.
2015-01-01
We experimentally explore the use of a novel device where lateral electric fields can be applied to break the translational symmetry within the isotropic plane and hence change the selection rules to allow normally forbidden transverse acoustic (TA) phonon generations. The ultrafast screening of the lateral electric field by the photocarriers relieves shear strain in the structure and switches on the propagating TA waves. The amplitude and on-state time of the TA mode can be modulated by the external field strength and size of the laterally biased region. The observed frequency shift with an external bias as well as the strong geometrical dependence confirm the role of the asymmetric potential distribution in electrically manipulating the crystal symmetry to control modal behavior of acoustic phonons.
High temperature phonon dispersion in graphene using classical molecular dynamics
Anees, P. Panigrahi, B. K.; Valsakumar, M. C.
2014-04-24
Phonon dispersion and phonon density of states of graphene are calculated using classical molecular dynamics simulations. In this method, the dynamical matrix is constructed based on linear response theory by computing the displacement of atoms during the simulations. The computed phonon dispersions show excellent agreement with experiments. The simulations are done in both NVT and NPT ensembles at 300 K and found that the LO/TO modes are getting hardened at the Γ point. The NPT ensemble simulations capture the anharmonicity of the crystal accurately and the hardening of LO/TO modes is more pronounced. We also found that at 300 K the C-C bond length reduces below the equilibrium value and the ZA bending mode frequency becomes imaginary close to Γ along K-Γ direction, which indicates instability of the flat 2D graphene sheets.
Electron - acoustic phonon coupling in colloidal lead sulfide quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Byungmoon; Tiwari, Vivek; Spencer, Austin; Baranov, Dmitry; Park, Samuel; Jonas, David
2014-03-01
Lead chalcogenide quantum dots (QDs) with bandgaps in the shortwave infrared are candidate materials for next generation photovoltaics exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit. Despite ongoing controversy, multiple exciton generation (MEG) in QDs offers potential for improved photovoltaic efficiency. Hot carriers from high energy photoexcitation dissipate excess energy via coupled phonons; this is detrimental to MEG. The electron-phonon coupling (EPC) magnitude, partitioning among modes and dependence on the size/shape are poorly understood. We performed degenerate femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy to investigate Auger recombination dynamics, a reverse process of MEG. We observe a quantum beat due to coherent acoustic phonons in femtosecond pump-probe signals from oleate capped colloidal lead sulfide QDs in toluene. A 3.4 ps period oscillation decays with 4.6 ps damping constant in 8 nm diameter dots; the amplitude increases linearly with pump energy and modulation is weaker than reported in smaller dots. An elastic continuum model for acoustic phonon frequency vs. dot diameter suggests a not yet understood quantitative discrepancy with prior work. These relaxation processes have important implications for QD photovoltaics.
Morvan, B.; Tinel, A.; Sainidou, R.; Rembert, P.; Vasseur, J. O.; Hladky-Hennion, A.-C.; Swinteck, N.; Deymier, P. A.
2014-12-07
Phononic crystals (PC) can be used to control the dispersion properties of acoustic waves, which are essential to direct their propagation. We use a PC-based two-dimensional solid/solid composite to demonstrate experimentally and theoretically the spatial filtering of a monochromatic non-directional wave source and its emission in a surrounding water medium as an ultra-directional beam with narrow angular distribution. The phenomenon relies on square-shaped equifrequency contours (EFC) enabling self-collimation of acoustic waves within the phononic crystal. Additionally, the angular width of collimated beams is controlled via the EFC size-shrinking when increasing frequency.
Femtosecond optical excitation of coherent acoustic phonons in a piezoelectric p-n junction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Yu-Chieh; Chern, Gia-Wei; Lin, Kung-Hsuan; Yeh, Jeffrey Jarren; Sun, Chi-Kuang
2011-11-01
We present a theoretical model for the photogeneration of coherent acoustic phonons in a piezoelectric p-n junction. In our model, the transport of photoexcited carriers is governed by the drift-diffusion equation, whereas the dynamics of acoustic phonons obeys a loaded string equation. Among various mechanisms, the piezoelectric coupling is found to dominate the acoustic-phonon generation process. The waveform of the photogenerated acoustic pulse is strongly influenced by the various dynamics of the photoexcited carriers, especially the picosecond hole drifting. Our calculation also confirms the crucial role of the built-in electric field in the formation of coherent acoustic phonons under optical excitations.
Temperature Dependence of Brillouin Light Scattering Spectra of Acoustic Phonons in Silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Somerville, Kevin; Klimovich, Nikita; An, Kyongmo; Sullivan, Sean; Weathers, Annie; Shi, Li; Li, Xiaoqin
2015-03-01
Thermal management represents an outstanding challenge in many areas of technology. Electrons, optical phonons, and acoustic phonons are often driven out of local equilibrium in electronic devices or during laser-material interaction processes. Interest in non-equilibrium transport processes has motivated the development of Raman spectroscopy as a local temperature sensor of optical phonons and intermediate frequency acoustic phonons, whereas Brillouin light scattering (BLS) has recently been explored as a temperature sensor of low-frequency acoustic phonons. Here, we report temperature dependent BLS spectra of silicon, with Raman spectra taken simultaneously for comparison. The origins of the observed temperature dependence of the BLS peak position, linewidth, and intensity are examined in order to evaluate their potential use as temperature sensors for acoustic phonons. We determine that the integrated BLS intensity can be used measure the temperature of specific acoustic phonon modes. This work is supported by National Science Foundation (NSF) Thermal Transport Processes Program under Grant CBET-1336968.
Electron-acoustic phonon interaction and mobility in stressed rectangular silicon nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Lin-Li
2015-01-01
We investigate the effects of pre-stress and surface tension on the electron-acoustic phonon scattering rate and the mobility of rectangular silicon nanowires. With the elastic theory and the interaction Hamiltonian for the deformation potential, which considers both the surface energy and the acoustoelastic effects, the phonon dispersion relation for a stressed nanowire under spatial confinement is derived. The subsequent analysis indicates that both surface tension and pre-stress can dramatically change the electron-acoustic phonon interaction. Under a negative (positive) surface tension and a tensile (compressive) pre-stress, the electron mobility is reduced (enhanced) due to the decrease (increase) of the phonon energy as well as the deformation-potential scattering rate. This study suggests an alternative approach based on the strain engineering to tune the speed and the drive current of low-dimensional electronic devices. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11472243, 11302189, and 11321202), the Doctoral Fund of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 20130101120175), the Zhejiang Provincial Qianjiang Talent Program, China (Grant No. QJD1202012), and the Educational Commission of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. Y201223476).
Theoretical study on ultrafast dynamics of coherent acoustic phonons in semiconductor nanocrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Tongyun; Han, Peng; Wang, Xinke; Feng, Shengfei; Sun, Wenfeng; Ye, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yan
2016-05-01
We present a theoretical study on the ultrafast dynamics of coherent acoustic phonons in semiconductor quantum dots using continuum model calculations. The excitonic states and the coherent acoustic vibrational modes of semiconductor quantum dots are calculated using the effective mass approximation and continuum elastic medium model, respectively. By solving the Liouville–von Neumann equation and the equation of motion, we obtain the oscillation of coherent acoustic phonon amplitude excited by a pump pulse laser. Owing to the ultrafast excitation of coherent phonons, both the amplitude and the phase of the coherent phonon oscillation are constant with time. This coherent phonon oscillation results in conservation of the coherence of the exciton state, which cannot exist in a system interacting with incoherent phonons. We further study the amplitude and the period of coherent acoustic phonon oscillation as a function of pump pulse energy detuning, quantum dot size, and material.
Numerical investigation of diffraction of acoustic waves by phononic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Declercq, Nico F.; Laude, Vincent
2012-05-01
Diffraction as well as transmission of acoustic waves by two-dimensional phononic crystals (PCs) composed of steel rods in water are investigated in this paper. The finite element simulations were performed in order to compute pressure fields generated by a line source that are incident on a finite size PC. Such field maps are analyzed based on the complex band structure for the infinite periodic PC. Finite size computations indicate that the exponential decrease of the transmission at deaf frequencies is much stronger than that in Bragg band gaps.
Acoustic phonons in chrysotile asbestos probed by high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering
Mamontov, Eugene; Vakhrushev, S. B.; Kumzerov, Yu. A,; Alatas, A.
2009-01-01
Acoustic phonons in an individual, oriented fiber of chrysotile asbestos (chemical formula Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}) were observed at room temperature in the inelastic x-ray measurement with a very high (meV) resolution. The x-ray scattering vector was aligned along [1 0 0] direction of the reciprocal lattice, nearly parallel to the long axis of the fiber. The latter coincides with [1 0 0] direction of the direct lattice and the axes of the nano-channels. The data were analyzed using a damped harmonic oscillator model. Analysis of the phonon dispersion in the first Brillouin zone yielded the longitudinal sound velocity of (9200 {+-} 600) m/s.
Extremely Low Loss Phonon-Trapping Cryogenic Acoustic Cavities for Future Physical Experiments
Galliou, Serge; Goryachev, Maxim; Bourquin, Roger; Abbé, Philippe; Aubry, Jean Pierre; Tobar, Michael E.
2013-01-01
Low loss Bulk Acoustic Wave devices are considered from the point of view of the solid state approach as phonon-confining cavities. We demonstrate effective design of such acoustic cavities with phonon-trapping techniques exhibiting extremely high quality factors for trapped longitudinally-polarized phonons of various wavelengths. Quality factors of observed modes exceed 1 billion, with a maximum Q-factor of 8 billion and Q × f product of 1.6 · 1018 at liquid helium temperatures. Such high sensitivities allow analysis of intrinsic material losses in resonant phonon systems. Various mechanisms of phonon losses are discussed and estimated. PMID:23823569
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Qiushun; Yu, Tianbao; Liu, Jiangtao; Liu, Nianhua; Wang, Tongbiao; Liao, Qinghua
2015-09-01
We report an acoustic multimode interference effect and self-imaging phenomena in an acoustic multimode waveguide system which consists of M parallel phononic crystal waveguides (M-PnCWs). Results show that the self-imaging principle remains applicable for acoustic waveguides just as it does for optical multimode waveguides. To achieve the dispersions and replicas of the input acoustic waves produced along the propagation direction, we performed the finite element method on M-PnCWs, which support M guided modes within the target frequency range. The simulation results show that single images (including direct and mirrored images) and N-fold images (N is an integer) are identified along the propagation direction with asymmetric and symmetric incidence discussed separately. The simulated positions of the replicas agree well with the calculated values that are theoretically decided by self-imaging conditions based on the guided mode propagation analysis. Moreover, the potential applications based on this self-imaging effect for acoustic wavelength de-multiplexing and beam splitting in the acoustic field are also presented.
Surface Phonon Dispersion of the Layered Transition-metal Oxides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, J.; Ismail; Matzdorf, R.; Plummer, E. W.; Kimura, T.; Tokura, Y.
2000-03-01
Transition-metal oxides exhibit strong coupling between the charge and spin of the electrons and the lattice. Creating a surface by cleaving a single crystal breaks the symmetry of the lattice and disturbs the correlated system without changing the stoichiometry, providing the opportunity to study the response of electronic, structural, and magnetic properties. We have utilized electron-energy loss sprectroscopy (EELS) to study the electronic and lattice excitations of the Sr_2RuO4 and La_0.5Sr_1.5MnO4 surfaces. For both of these materials there are many more than three modes; three dominate surface optical phonons with small dispersion and with higher energies compared to those in the bulk materials. However, these phonons show completely different temperature dependence for different samples. The surface phonons become soft for Sr_2RuO4 while they become stiff for La_0.5Sr_1.5MnO4 with increasing temparature. The change of phonon energy of La_0.5Sr_1.5MnO4 with temperature is also in opposite direction to that of (La, Ca)MnO_4( Zhang et al., Surf. Sci. 393, 64(1997) * LMER Corp. for U.S. DOE under contract No. DE-AC05-96OR22464). These behaviors will be discussed in terms of the electronic, magnetic, and structural properties.
Temperature dependence of Brillouin light scattering spectra of acoustic phonons in silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olsson, Kevin S.; Klimovich, Nikita; An, Kyongmo; Sullivan, Sean; Weathers, Annie; Shi, Li; Li, Xiaoqin
2015-02-01
Electrons, optical phonons, and acoustic phonons are often driven out of local equilibrium in electronic devices or during laser-material interaction processes. The need for a better understanding of such non-equilibrium transport processes has motivated the development of Raman spectroscopy as a local temperature sensor of optical phonons and intermediate frequency acoustic phonons, whereas Brillouin light scattering (BLS) has recently been explored as a temperature sensor of low-frequency acoustic phonons. Here, we report the measured BLS spectra of silicon at different temperatures. The origins of the observed temperature dependence of the BLS peak position, linewidth, and intensity are examined in order to evaluate their potential use as temperature sensors for acoustic phonons.
Temperature dependence of Brillouin light scattering spectra of acoustic phonons in silicon
Olsson, Kevin S.; Klimovich, Nikita; An, Kyongmo; Sullivan, Sean; Weathers, Annie; Shi, Li E-mail: elaineli@physics.utexas.edu; Li, Xiaoqin E-mail: elaineli@physics.utexas.edu
2015-02-02
Electrons, optical phonons, and acoustic phonons are often driven out of local equilibrium in electronic devices or during laser-material interaction processes. The need for a better understanding of such non-equilibrium transport processes has motivated the development of Raman spectroscopy as a local temperature sensor of optical phonons and intermediate frequency acoustic phonons, whereas Brillouin light scattering (BLS) has recently been explored as a temperature sensor of low-frequency acoustic phonons. Here, we report the measured BLS spectra of silicon at different temperatures. The origins of the observed temperature dependence of the BLS peak position, linewidth, and intensity are examined in order to evaluate their potential use as temperature sensors for acoustic phonons.
Inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of phonon dispersion and lifetimes in PbTe1-x Se x alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Zhiting; Li, Mingda; Ren, Zhensong; Ma, Hao; Alatas, Ahmet; Wilson, Stephen D.; Li, Ju
2015-09-01
PbTe1-x Se x alloys are of special interest to thermoelectric applications. Inelastic x-ray scattering determination of phonon dispersion and lifetimes along the high symmetry directions for PbTe1-x Se x alloys are presented. By comparing with calculated results based on the virtual crystal model calculations combined with ab initio density functional theory, the validity of virtual crystal model is evaluated. The results indicate that the virtual crystal model is overall a good assumption for phonon frequencies and group velocities despite the softening of transverse acoustic phonon modes along [1 1 1] direction, while the treatment of lifetimes warrants caution. In addition, phonons remain a good description of vibrational modes in PbTe1-x Se x alloys.
On the dispersion of geodesic acoustic modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smolyakov, A. I.; Bashir, M. F.; Elfimov, A. G.; Yagi, M.; Miyato, N.
2016-05-01
The problem of dispersion of geodesic acoustic modes is revisited with two different methods for the solution of the kinetic equation. The dispersive corrections to the mode frequency are calculated by including the m = 2 poloidal harmonics. Our obtained results agree with some earlier results but differ in various ways with other previous works. Limitations and advantages of different approaches are discussed.
Phonon dispersion relation in PbTiO3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomeno, Izumi; Fernandez-Baca, Jaime; Marty, Karol; Oka, Kunihiko; Tsunoda, Yorihiko
2013-03-01
The phonon dispersion relations for cubic PbTiO3 (Tc = 763 K) have been determined along the high symmetry directions at T = 793 K using inelastic neutron scattering. A set of the TO branches drops significantly toward the zone center. This is quite different from the soft mode anomaly in the Pb-based relaxors, named as the waterfall phenomenon. The zone-center TO mode energy softens with decreasing temperature from 1173 to 793 K. The TA branch along [ ξ , ξ , ξ ] shows significant softening around ξ = 0.25 and 0.5. These two anomalies persist up to 1173 K and are weakly temperature dependent. Moreover, the TA branches along [1,0,0] and [1,1,0] soften in the entire q range as the temperature approaches Tc. Although the phonon softening occurs simultaneously, the softening of the zone center TO mode plays an important role in the single phase transition. The phonon dispersion relations for cubic and tetragonal PbTiO3 are discussed in connection with BaTiO3, KTaO3, Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3, and Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3. U.S.-Japan cooperative program on neutron scattering
Surface acoustic waves in two dimensional phononic crystal with anisotropic inclusions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ketata, H.; Hédi Ben Ghozlen, M.
2012-06-01
An analysis is given to the band structure of the two dimensional solid phononic crystal considered as a semi infinite medium. The lattice includes an array of elastic anisotropic materials with different shapes embedded in a uniform matrix. For illustration two kinds of phononic materials are assumed. A particular attention is devoted to the computational procedure which is mainly based on the plane wave expansion (PWE) method. It has been adapted to Matlab environment. Numerical calculations of the dispersion curves have been achieved by introducing particular functions which transform motion equations into an Eigen value problem. Significant improvements are obtained by increasing reasonably the number of Fourier components even when a large elastic mismatch is assumed. Such approach can be generalized to different types of symmetry and permit new physical properties as piezoelectricity to be added. The actual semi infinite phononic structure with a free surface has been shown to support surface acoustic waves (SAW). The obtained dispersion curves reveal band gaps in the SAW branches. It has been found that the influence, of the filling factor and anisotropy on their band gaps, is different from that of bulk waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizoguchi, K.; Hino, T.; Nakayama, M.; Dekorsy, T.; Bartels, A.; Kurz, H.; Nakashima, S.
2004-03-01
Coherent folded longitudinal acoustic phonons in a GaAs/AlAs long-period superlattice (SL) have been investigated by using a reflection-type two-color pump-probe technique under the condition that the wave vector of the probe pulse in the sample exceeds the mini-Brillouin zone. The coherent oscillations observed in the time-domain signals indicate the propagation of the phonon wave packet through the whole SL layer. The Fourier transform spectrum of the time-domain signals is compared with the dispersion relation of the folded longitudinal acoustic phonons in the long-period SL calculated using a transfer matrix method on the bases of an elastic continuum model. This comparison indicates that the folded longitudinal acoustic phonons in the long-period SL are observed through the umklapp process.
Material and Phonon Engineering for Next Generation Acoustic Devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuo, Nai-Kuei
This thesis presents the theoretical and experimental work related to micromachining of low intrinsic loss sapphire and phononic crystals for engineering new classes of electroacoustic devices for frequency control applications. For the first time, a low loss sapphire suspended membrane was fabricated and utilized to form the main body of a piezoelectric lateral overtone bulk acoustic resonator (LOBAR). Since the metalized piezoelectric transducer area in a LOBAR is only a small fraction of the overall resonant cavity (made out of sapphire), high quality factor (Q) overtones are attained. The experiment confirms the low intrinsic mechanical loss of the transferred sapphire thin film, and the resonators exhibit the highest Q of 5,440 at 2.8 GHz ( f·Q of 1.53.1013 Hz). This is also the highest f·Q demonstrated for aluminum-nitride-(AIN)-based Lamb wave devices to date. Beyond demonstrating a low loss device, this experimental work has laid the foundation for the future development of new micromechanical devices based on a high Q, high hardness and chemically resilient material. The search for alternative ways to more efficiently perform frequency control functionalities lead to the exploration of Phononic Crystal (PnC) structures in AIN thin films. Four unit cell designs were theoretically and experimentally investigated to explore the behavior of phononic bandgaps (PBGs) in the ultra high frequency (UHF) range: (i) the conventional square lattice with circular air scatterer, (ii) the inverse acoustic bandgap (IABG) structure, (iii) the fractal PnC, and (iv) the X-shaped PnC. Each unit cell has its unique frequency characteristic that was exploited to synthesize either cavity resonators or improve the performance of acoustic delay lines. The PBGs operate in the range of 770 MHz to 1 GHz and exhibit a maximum acoustic rejection of 40 dB. AIN Lamb wave transducers (LWTs) were employed for the experimental demonstration of the PBGs and cavity resonances. Ultra
Acoustic phonons and strain in core/shell nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kloeffel, Christoph; Trif, Mircea; Loss, Daniel
2014-09-01
We study theoretically the low-energy phonons and the static strain in cylindrical core/shell nanowires (NWs). Assuming pseudomorphic growth, isotropic media, and a force-free wire surface, we derive algebraic expressions for the dispersion relations, the displacement fields, and the stress and strain components from linear elasticity theory. Our results apply to NWs with arbitrary radii and arbitrary elastic constants for both core and shell. The expressions for the static strain are consistent with experiments, simulations, and previous analytical investigations; those for phonons are consistent with known results for homogeneous NWs. Among other things, we show that the dispersion relations of the torsional, longitudinal, and flexural modes change differently with the relative shell thickness, and we identify new terms in the corresponding strain tensors that are absent for uncapped NWs. We illustrate our results via the example of Ge/Si core/shell NWs and demonstrate that shell-induced strain has large effects on the hole spectrum of these systems.
Acoustic scattering from phononic crystals with complex geometry.
Kulpe, Jason A; Sabra, Karim G; Leamy, Michael J
2016-05-01
This work introduces a formalism for computing external acoustic scattering from phononic crystals (PCs) with arbitrary exterior shape using a Bloch wave expansion technique coupled with the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff integral (HKI). Similar to a Kirchhoff approximation, a geometrically complex PC's surface is broken into a set of facets in which the scattering from each facet is calculated as if it was a semi-infinite plane interface in the short wavelength limit. When excited by incident radiation, these facets introduce wave modes into the interior of the PC. Incorporation of these modes in the HKI, summed over all facets, then determines the externally scattered acoustic field. In particular, for frequencies in a complete bandgap (the usual operating frequency regime of many PC-based devices and the requisite operating regime of the presented theory), no need exists to solve for internal reflections from oppositely facing edges and, thus, the total scattered field can be computed without the need to consider internal multiple scattering. Several numerical examples are provided to verify the presented approach. Both harmonic and transient results are considered for spherical and bean-shaped PCs, each containing over 100 000 inclusions. This facet formalism is validated by comparison to an existing self-consistent scattering technique. PMID:27250192
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Nansha; Wu, Jiu Hui; Yu, Lie; Hou, Hong
2016-06-01
This paper investigates ultralow frequency acoustic properties and energy recovery of tetragonal folding beam phononic crystal (TFBPC) and its complementary structure. The dispersion curve relationships, transmission spectra and displacement fields of the eigenmodes are studied with FEA in detail. Compared with the traditional three layer phononic crystal (PC) structure, this structure proposed in this paper not only unfold bandgaps (BGs) in lower frequency range (below 300 Hz), but also has lighter weight because of beam structural cracks. We analyze the relevant physical mechanism behind this phenomenon, and discuss the effects of the tetragonal folding beam geometric parameters on band structure maps. FEM proves that the multi-cell structures with different arrangements have different acoustic BGs when compared with single cell structure. Harmonic frequency response and piezoelectric properties of TFBPC are specifically analyzed. The results confirm that this structure does have the recovery ability for low frequency vibration energy in environment. These conclusions in this paper could be indispensable to PC practical applications such as BG tuning and could be applied in portable devices, wireless sensor, micro-electro mechanical systems which can recycle energy from vibration environment as its own energy supply.
Envelope Solitons in Acoustically Dispersive Vitreous Silica
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cantrell, John H.; Yost, William T.
2012-01-01
Acoustic radiation-induced static strains, displacements, and stresses are manifested as rectified or dc waveforms linked to the energy density of an acoustic wave or vibrational mode via the mode nonlinearity parameter of the material. An analytical model is developed for acoustically dispersive media that predicts the evolution of the energy density of an initial waveform into a series of energy solitons that generates a corresponding series of radiation-induced static strains (envelope solitons). The evolutionary characteristics of the envelope solitons are confirmed experimentally in Suprasil W1 vitreous silica. The value (-11.9 plus or minus 1.43) for the nonlinearity parameter, determined from displacement measurements of the envelope solitons via a capacitive transducer, is in good agreement with the value (-11.6 plus or minus 1.16) obtained independently from acoustic harmonic generation measurements. The agreement provides strong, quantitative evidence for the validity of the model.
Phonon Dispersion in Equiatomic Li-Based Binary Alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aditya, Vora M.
2008-02-01
The computations of the phonon dispersion curves (PDC) of four equiatomic Li-based binary alloys, namely Li0.5Na0.5, Li0.5K0.5, Li0.5Rb0.5 and Li0.5Cs0.5, to second order in the local model potential is discussed in terms of the real-space sum of Born von Karman central force constants. Instead of the concentration average of the force constants of metallic Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs, the pseudo-alloy atom (PAA) is adopted to compute directly the force constants of four equiatomic Li-based binary alloys. The exchange and correlation functions due to Hartree (H) and Ichimaru-Utsumi (IU) are used to investigate the influence of screening effects. The phonon frequencies of four equiatomic Li-based binary alloys in the longitudinal branch are more sensitive to the exchange and correlation effects in comparison with the transverse branches. However, the frequencies in the longitudinal branch are suppressed due to IU-screening function than the frequencies due to static H-screening function.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, T.; Ke, M.; Qiu, C.; Liu, Z.
2016-06-01
We present the design for an acoustic system that can achieve particle trapping and transport using the acoustic force field above a phononic crystal plate. The phononic crystal plate comprised a thin brass plate with periodic slits alternately embedded with two kinds of elastic inclusions. Enhanced acoustic transmission and localized acoustic fields were achieved when the structure was excited by external acoustic waves. Because of the different resonant frequencies of the two elastic inclusions, the acoustic field could be controlled via the working frequency. Particles were transported between adjacent traps under the influence of the adjustable acoustic field. This device provides a new and versatile avenue for particle manipulation that would complement other means of particle manipulation.
Mante, Pierre-Adrien; Huang, Yu-Ru; Yang, Szu-Chi; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Maznev, Alexei A; Sheu, Jinn-Kong; Sun, Chi-Kuang
2015-02-01
Thanks to ultrafast acoustics, a better understanding of acoustic dynamics on a short time scale has been obtained and new characterization methods at the nanoscale have been developed. Among the materials that were studied during the development of ultrafast acoustics, nitride based heterostructures play a particular role due to their piezoelectric properties and the possibility to generate phonons with over-THz frequency and bandwidth. Here, we review some of the work performed using this type of structure, with a focus on THz phonon spectroscopy and nanoscopy. First, we present a brief description of the theory of coherent acoustic phonon generation by piezoelectric heterostructure. Then the first experimental observation of coherent acoustic phonon generated by the absorption of ultrashort light pulses in piezoelectric heterostructures is presented. From this starting point, we then present some methods developed to realize customizable phonon generation. Finally we review some more recent applications of these structures, including imaging with a nanometer resolution, broadband attenuation measurements with a frequency up to 1THz and phononic bandgap characterization. PMID:25455189
Rury, Aaron S; Sorenson, Shayne; Dawlaty, Jahan M
2016-03-14
Organic materials that produce coherent lattice phonon excitations in response to external stimuli may provide next generation solutions in a wide range of applications. However, for these materials to lead to functional devices in technology, a full understanding of the possible driving forces of coherent lattice phonon generation must be attained. To facilitate the achievement of this goal, we have undertaken an optical spectroscopic study of an organic charge-transfer material formed from the ubiquitous reduction-oxidation pair hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone. Upon pumping this material, known as quinhydrone, on its intermolecular charge transfer resonance as well as an intramolecular resonance of p-benzoquinone, we find sub-cm(-1) oscillations whose dispersion with probe energy resembles that of a coherent acoustic phonon that we argue is coherently excited following changes in the electron density of quinhydrone. Using the dynamical information from these ultrafast pump-probe measurements, we find that the fastest process we can resolve does not change whether we pump quinhydrone at either energy. Electron-phonon coupling from both ultrafast coherent vibrational and steady-state resonance Raman spectroscopies allows us to determine that intramolecular electronic excitation of p-benzoquinone also drives the electron transfer process in quinhydrone. These results demonstrate the wide range of electronic excitations of the parent of molecules found in many functional organic materials that can drive coherent lattice phonon excitations useful for applications in electronics, photonics, and information technology. PMID:26979698
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rury, Aaron S.; Sorenson, Shayne; Dawlaty, Jahan M.
2016-03-01
Organic materials that produce coherent lattice phonon excitations in response to external stimuli may provide next generation solutions in a wide range of applications. However, for these materials to lead to functional devices in technology, a full understanding of the possible driving forces of coherent lattice phonon generation must be attained. To facilitate the achievement of this goal, we have undertaken an optical spectroscopic study of an organic charge-transfer material formed from the ubiquitous reduction-oxidation pair hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone. Upon pumping this material, known as quinhydrone, on its intermolecular charge transfer resonance as well as an intramolecular resonance of p-benzoquinone, we find sub-cm-1 oscillations whose dispersion with probe energy resembles that of a coherent acoustic phonon that we argue is coherently excited following changes in the electron density of quinhydrone. Using the dynamical information from these ultrafast pump-probe measurements, we find that the fastest process we can resolve does not change whether we pump quinhydrone at either energy. Electron-phonon coupling from both ultrafast coherent vibrational and steady-state resonance Raman spectroscopies allows us to determine that intramolecular electronic excitation of p-benzoquinone also drives the electron transfer process in quinhydrone. These results demonstrate the wide range of electronic excitations of the parent of molecules found in many functional organic materials that can drive coherent lattice phonon excitations useful for applications in electronics, photonics, and information technology.
Jean, Cyril; Belliard, Laurent; Cornelius, Thomas W; Thomas, Olivier; Toimil-Molares, Maria Eugenia; Cassinelli, Marco; Becerra, Loïc; Perrin, Bernard
2014-12-01
We report on gigahertz acoustic phonon waveguiding in free-standing single copper nanowires studied by femtosecond transient reflectivity measurements. The results are discussed on the basis of the semianalytical resolution of the Pochhammer and Chree equation. The spreading of the generated Gaussian wave packet of two different modes is derived analytically and compared with the observed oscillations of the sample reflectivity. These experiments provide a unique way to independently obtain geometrical and material characterization. This direct observation of coherent guided acoustic phonons in a single nano-object is also the first step toward nanolateral size acoustic transducer and comprehensive studies of the thermal properties of nanowires. PMID:26278939
Interface nano-confined acoustic waves in polymeric surface phononic crystals
Travagliati, Marco; Nardi, Damiano; Giannetti, Claudio; Ferrini, Gabriele; Banfi, Francesco; Gusev, Vitalyi; Pingue, Pasqualantonio; Piazza, Vincenzo
2015-01-12
The impulsive acoustic dynamics of soft polymeric surface phononic crystals is investigated here in the hypersonic frequency range by near-IR time-resolved optical diffraction. The acoustic response is analysed by means of wavelet spectral methods and finite element modeling. An unprecedented class of acoustic modes propagating within the polymer surface phononic crystal and confined within 100 nm of the nano-patterned interface is revealed. The present finding opens the path to an alternative paradigm for characterizing the mechanical properties of soft polymers at interfaces and for sensing schemes exploiting polymers as embedding materials.
Strain enhancement of acoustic phonon limited mobility in monolayer TiS3.
Aierken, Yierpan; Çakır, Deniz; Peeters, Francois M
2016-06-01
Strain engineering is an effective way to tune the intrinsic properties of a material. Here, we show by using first-principles calculations that both uniaxial and biaxial tensile strain applied to monolayer TiS3 are able to significantly modify its intrinsic mobility. From the elastic modulus and the phonon dispersion relation we determine the tensile strain range where structure dynamical stability of the monolayer is guaranteed. Within this region, we find more than one order of enhancement of the acoustic phonon limited mobility at 300 K (100 K), i.e. from 1.71 × 10(4) (5.13 × 10(4)) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) to 5.53 × 10(5) (1.66 × 10(6)) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The degree of anisotropy in both mobility and effective mass can be tuned by using tensile strain. Furthermore, we can either increase or decrease the band gap of TiS3 monolayer by applying strain along different crystal directions. This property allows us to use TiS3 not only in electronic but also in optical applications. PMID:27171542
Acoustic-phonon-limited mobility and giant phonon-drag thermopower in MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures
Tsaousidou, M.
2013-12-04
We present numerical simulations for the acoustic-phonon-limited mobility, μ{sub ac}, in two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) confined in MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures for temperatures 0.4–20 K. The calculations are based on the semiclassical Boltzmann equation. We examine two 2DEGs with sheet densities 1.4 and 7×10{sup 15} m{sup −2}. Good agreement is found with recent experimental data without any adjustable parameter. We also calculate the contribution to thermopower that arises due to the phonon wind set up by a temperature gradient (the so-called phonon-drag thermopower, S{sup g}). A giant magnitude of S{sup g} is predicted that exceeds 50–100 mV/K at 5 K depending on the sheet density. Our findings suggest that the ZnO based heterostructures could be promising materials for thermoelectric applications at low temperatures.
Phonon dispersion and quantization tuning of strained carbon nanotubes for flexible electronics
Gautreau, Pierre; Chu, Yanbiao; Basaran, Cemal; Ragab, Tarek
2014-06-28
Graphene and carbon nanotubes are materials with large potentials for applications in flexible electronics. Such devices require a high level of sustainable strain and an understanding of the materials electrical properties under strain. Using supercell theory in conjunction with a comprehensive molecular mechanics model, the full band phonon dispersion of carbon nanotubes under uniaxial strain is studied. The results suggest an overall phonon softening and open up the possibility of phonon quantization tuning with uniaxial strain. The change in phonon quantization and the resulting increase in electron-phonon and phonon-phonon scattering rates offer further explanation and theoretical basis to the experimental observation of electrical properties degradation for carbon nanotubes under uniaxial strain.
Determination of phonon dispersion relations by X-ray thermal diffuse scattering
Xu, R.; Chiang, T.-C.
2010-07-20
Thermal diffuse scattering (TDS) of X-rays from crystals contains information on phonons. This paper reviews the general theory of TDS and some recent experiments aimed at further developing TDS into a useful and efficient method for studying phonon dispersion relations.
Physical mechanisms of coherent acoustic phonons generation by ultrafast laser action.
Ruello, Pascal; Gusev, Vitalyi E
2015-02-01
In this review we address the microscopic mechanisms that are involved in the photogeneration processes of GHz-THz coherent acoustic phonons (CAP) induced by an ultrafast laser pulse. Understanding and describing the underlying physics is necessary indeed for improving the future sources of coherent acoustic phonons useful for the non-destructive testing optoacoustic techniques. Getting more physical insights on these processes also opens new perspectives for the emerging field of the opto-mechanics where lattice motions (surface and/or interfaces ultrafast displacements, nanostructures resonances) are controlled by light. We will then remind the basics of electron-phonon and photon-phonon couplings by discussing the deformation potential mechanism, the thermoelasticity, the inverse piezoelectric effect and the electrostriction in condensed matter. Metals, semiconductors and oxide materials will be discussed. The contribution of all these mechanisms in the photogeneration process of sound will be illustrated over several examples coming from the rich literature. PMID:25038958
Direct measurement of coherent subterahertz acoustic phonons mean free path in GaAs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Legrand, R.; Huynh, A.; Jusserand, B.; Perrin, B.; Lemaître, A.
2016-05-01
The phonon mean free path is generally inferred from the measurement of thermal conductivity and we are still lacking precise information on this quantity. Recent advances in the field of high-frequency phonons transduction using semiconductor superlattices give the opportunity to fill this gap. We present experimental results on the attenuation of longitudinal acoustic phonons in GaAs in the frequency and temperature ranges 0.2-1 THz and 10-80 K respectively. Surprisingly, we observe a plateau in the frequency dependence of the attenuation above 0.7 THz, that we ascribe to a breakdown of Herring processes.
Hybrid phononic crystal plates for lowering and widening acoustic band gaps.
Badreddine Assouar, M; Sun, Jia-Hong; Lin, Fan-Shun; Hsu, Jin-Chen
2014-12-01
We propose hybrid phononic-crystal plates which are composed of periodic stepped pillars and periodic holes to lower and widen acoustic band gaps. The acoustic waves scattered simultaneously by the pillars and holes in a relevant frequency range can generate low and wide acoustic forbidden bands. We introduce an alternative double-sided arrangement of the periodic stepped pillars for an enlarged pillars' head diameter in the hybrid structure and optimize the hole diameter to further lower and widen the acoustic band gaps. The lowering and widening effects are simultaneously achieved by reducing the frequencies of locally resonant pillar modes and prohibiting suitable frequency bands of propagating plate modes. PMID:24996255
Phononic and magnonic dispersions of surface waves on a permalloy/BARC nanostructured array
2013-01-01
Phononic and magnonic dispersions of a linear array of periodic alternating Ni80Fe20 and bottom anti-reflective coating nanostripes on a Si substrate have been measured using Brillouin light scattering. The observed phononic gaps are considerably larger than those of laterally patterned multi-component crystals previously reported, mainly a consequence of the high elastic and density contrasts between the stripe materials. Additionally, the phonon hybridization bandgap has an unusual origin in the hybridization and avoided crossing of the zone-folded Rayleigh and pseudo-Sezawa waves. The magnonic band structure features near-dispersionless branches, with unusual vortex-like dynamic magnetization profiles, some of which lie below the highly-dispersive fundamental mode branch. Finite element calculations of the phononic and magnonic dispersions of the magphonic crystal accord well with experimental data. PMID:23452555
Coherent heat transport in 2D phononic crystals with acoustic impedance mismatch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arantes, A.; Anjos, V.
2016-03-01
In this work we have calculated the cumulative thermal conductivities of micro-phononic crystals formed by different combinations of inclusions and matrices at a sub-Kelvin temperature regime. The low-frequency phonon spectra (up to tens of GHz) were obtained by solving the generalized wave equation for inhomogeneous media with the plane wave expansion method. The thermal conductivity was calculated from Boltzmann transport theory highlighting the role of the low-frequency thermal phonons and neglecting phonon-phonon scattering. A purely coherent thermal transport regime was assumed throughout the structures. Our findings show that the cumulative thermal conductivity drops dramatically when compared with their bulk counterpart. Depending on the structural composition this reduction may be attributed to the phonon group velocity due to a flattening of the phonon dispersion relation, the extinction of phonon modes in the density of states or due to the presence of complete band gaps. According to the contrast between the inclusions and the matrices, three types of two dimensional phononic crystals were considered: carbon/epoxy, carbon/polyethylene and tungsten/silicon, which correspond respectively to a moderate, strong and very strong mismatch in the mechanical properties of these materials.
Dexterous acoustic trapping and patterning of particles assisted by phononic crystal plate
Wang, Tian; Ke, Manzhu Xu, Shengjun; Feng, Junheng; Qiu, Chunyin; Liu, Zhengyou
2015-04-20
In this letter, we present experimental demonstration of multi-particles trapping and patterning by the artificially engineered acoustic field of phononic crystal plate. Polystyrene particles are precisely trapped and patterned in two dimensional arrays, for example, the square, triangular, or quasi-periodic arrays, depending on the structures of the phononic crystal plates with varying sub-wavelength holes array. Analysis shows that the enhanced acoustic radiation force, induced by the resonant transmission field highly localized near the sub-wavelength apertures, accounts for the particles self-organizing. It can be envisaged that this kind of simple design of phononic crystal plates would pave an alternative route for self-assembly of particles and may be utilized in the lab-on-a-chip devices.
Negative refraction of phonons and acoustic lensing effect of a crystalline slab
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imamura, K.; Tamura, S.
2004-11-01
We study how good a flat slab of a bulk crystalline solid with a large elastic anisotropy exhibits a lensing action for phonons or sound waves. The slowness and group-velocity surfaces of an ideal elastic solid for a flat phonon lens are analyzed in the geometrical acoustic approximation. These surfaces are compared with the corresponding surfaces of an existing bulk crystal (a zinc crystal) with hexagonal symmetry. To demonstrate the lensing effect we calculate the intensity distribution of phonons emitted from a point source in an isotropic medium (on one side of the lens), propagating through the slab lens and then transmitted into the isotropic medium in the other side. A similar calculation for sound waves with a finite-difference-time-domain method is performed to see the effects neglected in the geometrical acoustic approximation, that is, the effects of finite wavelength, mode conversion, and finite transmission at the interfaces.
Design of acoustic beam aperture modifier using gradient-index phononic crystals
Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Tittmann, Bernhard R.; Huang, Tony Jun
2012-01-01
This article reports the design concept of a novel acoustic beam aperture modifier using butt-jointed gradient-index phononic crystals (GRIN PCs) consisting of steel cylinders embedded in a homogeneous epoxy background. By gradually tuning the period of a GRIN PC, the propagating direction of acoustic waves can be continuously bent to follow a sinusoidal trajectory in the structure. The aperture of an acoustic beam can therefore be shrunk or expanded through change of the gradient refractive index profiles of the butt-jointed GRIN PCs. Our computational results elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed acoustic beam aperture modifier. Such an acoustic device can be fabricated through a simple process and will be valuable in applications, such as biomedical imaging and surgery, nondestructive evaluation, communication, and acoustic absorbers. PMID:22807585
High-pressure phonon dispersion of copper by using the modified analytic embedded atom method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Chang-Le; Feng, Fei-Long
2013-09-01
By using the Born—von Kármán theory of lattice dynamics and the modified analytic embedded atom method, we reproduce the experimental results of the phonon dispersion in fcc metal Cu at zero pressure along three high symmetry directions and four off-symmetry directions, and then simulate the phonon dispersion curves of Cu at high pressures of 50, 100, and 150 GPa. The results show that the shapes of dispersion curves at high pressures are very similar to that at zero pressure. All the vibration frequencies of Cu in all vibration branches at high pressures are larger than the results at zero pressure, and increase correspondingly as pressure reaches 50, 100, and 150 GPa sequentially. Moreover, on the basis of phonon dispersion, we calculate the values of specific heat of Cu at different pressures. The prediction of thermodynamic quantities lays a significant foundation for guiding and judging experiments of thermodynamic properties of solids under high pressures.
Cerenkov emission of acoustic phonons electrically generated from three-dimensional Dirac semimetals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kubakaddi, S. S.
2016-05-01
Cerenkov acoustic phonon emission is theoretically investigated in a three-dimensional Dirac semimetal (3DDS) when it is driven by a dc electric field E. Numerical calculations are made for Cd3As2 in which mobility and electron concentration are large. We find that Cerenkov emission of acoustic phonons takes place when the electron drift velocity vd is greater than the sound velocity vs. This occurs at small E (˜few V/cm) due to large mobility. Frequency (ωq) and angular (θ) distribution of phonon emission spectrum P(ωq, θ) are studied for different electron drift velocities vd (i.e., different E) and electron concentrations ne. The frequency dependence of P(ωq, θ) shows a maximum Pm(ωq, θ) at about ωm ≈ 1 THz and is found to increase with the increasing vd and ne. The value of ωm shifts to higher region for larger ne. It is found that ωm/ne1/3 and Pm(ωq, θ)/ne2/3 are nearly constants. The latter is in contrast with the Pm(ωq, θ)ne1/2 = constant in conventional bulk semiconductor. Each maximum is followed by a vanishing spectrum at nearly "2kf cutoff," where kf is the Fermi wave vector. Angular dependence of P(ωq, θ) and the intensity P(θ) of the phonon emission shows a maximum at an emission angle 45° and is found to increase with increasing vd. P(θ) is found to increase linearly with ne giving the ratio P(θ)/(nevd) nearly a constant. We suggest that it is possible to have the controlled Cerenkov emission and generation of acoustic phonons with the proper choice of E, θ, and ne. 3DDS with large ne and mobility can be a good source of acoustic phonon generation in ˜THz regime.
Observation of induced longitudinal and shear acoustic phonons by Brillouin scattering.
Yoshida, Taisuke; Matsukawa, Mami; Yanagitani, Takahiko
2011-06-01
To improve the accuracy of velocity measurements in the Brillouin scattering technique using weak thermal phonons, we have used induced coherent phonons, which intensify the scattering. To induce phonons in the gigahertz range, we used a c-axis tilted ZnO film transducer that was developed in our laboratory. This allowed us to induce longitudinal and shear acoustic phonons effectively at hypersonic frequencies. As a result, we obtained scattered light in the silica glass sample that was much more intense than that obtained from the thermal phonons. Because the Brillouin scattering from induced phonons was measured, the shift frequency was that of the electric signal applied to the ZnO transducer. Strong peaks lead to a reduction of the measurement time. This is useful for two-dimensional mapping of thin film elasticity using Brillouin scattering. Additionally, Brillouin scattering enables the simultaneous measurement of longitudinal and shear phonon velocities in the sample plane. This opens up a potential new technique for non-destructive elasticity measurements of various materials. PMID:21693407
Nonadiabatic effects in the phonon dispersion of Mg1 -xAlxB2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
d'Astuto, Matteo; Heid, Rolf; Renker, Burkhard; Weber, Frank; Schober, Helmut; De la Peña-Seaman, Omar; Karpinski, Janusz; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D.; Bossak, Alexei; Krisch, Michael
2016-05-01
Superconducting MgB2 shows an E2 g zone center phonon, as measured by Raman spectroscopy, that is very broad in energy and temperature dependent. The Raman shift and lifetime show large differences with the values elsewhere in the Brillouin zone measured by inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS), where its dispersion can be accounted for by standard harmonic phonon theory, adding only a moderate electron-phonon coupling. Here we show that the effects rapidly disappear when electron-phonon coupling is switched off by Al substitution on the Mg sites. Moreover, using IXS with very high wave-vector resolution in MgB2, we can follow the dispersion connecting the Raman and the IXS signal, in agreement with a theory using only electron-phonon coupling but without strong anharmonic terms. The observation is important in order to understand the effects of electron-phonon coupling on zone center phonon modes in MgB2, and also in all metals characterized by a small Fermi velocity in a particular direction, typical for layered compounds.
Ab initio phonon dispersion in crystalline naphthalene using van der Waals density functionals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown-Altvater, Florian; Rangel, Tonatiuh; Neaton, Jeffrey B.
2016-05-01
Acene molecular crystals are of current interest in organic optoelectronics, both as active materials and for exploring and understanding new phenomena. Phonon scattering can be an important facilitator and dissipation mechanism in charge separation and carrier transport processes. Here, we carry out density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the structure and the full phonon dispersion of crystalline naphthalene, a well-characterized acene crystal for which detailed neutron-diffraction measurements, as well as infrared and Raman spectroscopy, are available. We evaluate the performance, relative to experiments, of DFT within the local density approximation (LDA); the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof (PBE); and a recent van der Waals-corrected nonlocal correlation (vdW-DF-cx) functional. We find that the vdW-DF-cx functional accurately predicts lattice parameters of naphthalene within 1%. Intermolecular and intramolecular phonon frequencies across the Brillouin zone are reproduced within 7.8% and 1%, respectively. As expected, LDA (PBE) underestimates (overestimates) the lattice parameters and overestimates (underestimates) phonon frequencies, demonstrating their shortcomings for predictive calculations of weakly bound materials. If the unit cell is fixed to the experimental lattice parameters, PBE is shown to lead to improved phonon frequencies. Our study provides a detailed understanding of the phonon spectrum of naphthalene, and highlights the importance of including van der Waals dispersion interactions in predictive calculations of lattice parameters and phonon frequencies of molecular crystals and related organic materials.
Sub-Poissonian phonon statistics in an acoustical resonator coupled to a pumped two-level emitter
Ceban, V. Macovei, M. A.
2015-11-15
The concept of an acoustical analog of the optical laser has been developed recently in both theoretical and experimental works. We here discuss a model of a coherent phonon generator with a direct signature of the quantum properties of sound vibrations. The considered setup is made of a laser-driven quantum dot embedded in an acoustical nanocavity. The system dynamics is solved for a single phonon mode in the steady-state and in the strong quantum dot—phonon coupling regime beyond the secular approximation. We demonstrate that the phonon statistics exhibits quantum features, i.e., is sub-Poissonian.
Low-energy phonon dispersion in LaFe4Sb12
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leithe-Jasper, Andreas; Boehm, Martin; Mutka, Hannu; Koza, Michael M.
We studied the vibrational dynamics of a single crystal of LaFe4Sb12 by three-axis inelastic neutron spectroscopy. The dispersion of phonons with wave vectors q along [ xx 0 ] and [ xxx ] directions in the energy range of eigenmodes with high amplitudes of lanthanum vibrations, i.e., at ℏω < 12 meV is identified. Symmetry-avoided anticrossing dispersion of phonons is established in both monitored directions and distinct eigenstates at high-symmetry points and at the Brillouin-zone center are discriminated. The experimentally derived phonon dispersion and intensities are compared with and backed up by ab initio lattice dynamics calculations. results of the computer model match well with the experimental data.
Persson, A. I. H.; Andreasson, B. P.; Enquist, H.; Jurgilaitis, A.; Larsson, J.
2015-11-14
The spectrum of laser-generated acoustic phonons in indium antimonide coated with a thin nickel film has been studied using time-resolved x-ray diffraction. Strain pulses that can be considered to be built up from coherent phonons were generated in the nickel film by absorption of short laser pulses. Acoustic reflections at the Ni–InSb interface leads to interference that strongly modifies the resulting phonon spectrum. The study was performed with high momentum transfer resolution together with high time resolution. This was achieved by using a third-generation synchrotron radiation source that provided a high-brightness beam and an ultrafast x-ray streak camera to obtain a temporal resolution of 10 ps. We also carried out simulations, using commercial finite element software packages and on-line dynamic diffraction tools. Using these tools, it is possible to calculate the time-resolved x-ray reflectivity from these complicated strain shapes. The acoustic pulses have a peak strain amplitude close to 1%, and we investigated the possibility to use this device as an x-ray switch. At a bright source optimized for hard x-ray generation, the low reflectivity may be an acceptable trade-off to obtain a pulse duration that is more than an order of magnitude shorter.
Dispersion of Phonon Surface Polaritons in ZnGeP2: Anisotropy and Temperature Impacts.
Shportko, K V; Otto, A; Venger, E F
2016-12-01
Zinc germanium diphosphide (ZnGeP2) is an attractive and promising functional material for different devices of the nano- and optoelectronics. In this paper, dispersion of phonon surface polaritons (PSPs) in ZnGeP2 has been studied in the 200-500-cm(-1) spectral range at 4 and 300 K. Dispersion of "real" and "virtual" PSPs were calculated for C-axis being normal and parallel to the surface. Anisotropy in ZnGeP2 leads to the different numbers of PSP dispersion branches for different orientations of the sample. The temperature-dependent phonon contributions in the dielectric permittivity shift dispersion of the surface polaritons in ZnGeP2 to the higher wavenumbers at 4 K. We have shown that experimental dispersion of PSP is in agreement with theory. PMID:26858158
Dispersion of Phonon Surface Polaritons in ZnGeP2: Anisotropy and Temperature Impacts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shportko, K. V.; Otto, A.; Venger, E. F.
2016-02-01
Zinc germanium diphosphide (ZnGeP2) is an attractive and promising functional material for different devices of the nano- and optoelectronics. In this paper, dispersion of phonon surface polaritons (PSPs) in ZnGeP2 has been studied in the 200-500-cm-1 spectral range at 4 and 300 K. Dispersion of "real" and "virtual" PSPs were calculated for C-axis being normal and parallel to the surface. Anisotropy in ZnGeP2 leads to the different numbers of PSP dispersion branches for different orientations of the sample. The temperature-dependent phonon contributions in the dielectric permittivity shift dispersion of the surface polaritons in ZnGeP2 to the higher wavenumbers at 4 K. We have shown that experimental dispersion of PSP is in agreement with theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vardanyan, K. A.; Vartanian, A. L.; Stepanyan, A. G.; Kirakosyan, A. A.
2015-10-01
The spin-relaxation time due to the electron-acoustic phonon scattering in GaAs quantum dots is studied after the exact diagonalization of the electron Hamiltonian with the spin-orbit coupling. It has been shown that in comparison with flexural phonons, the electron coupling with the dilatational phonons causes 3 orders faster spin relaxation. We have found that the relaxation rate of the spin-flip is an order of magnitude smaller than that of the spin- conserving.
Long-Lived, Coherent Acoustic Phonon Oscillations in GaN Single Crystals
Wu, S.; Geiser, P.; Jun, J.; Karpinski, J.; Park, J.-R.; Sobolewski, R.
2006-01-31
We report on coherent acoustic phonon (CAP) oscillations studied in high-quality bulk GaN single crystals with a two-color femtosecond optical pump-probe technique. Using a far-above-the-band gap ultraviolet excitation (~270 nm wavelength) and a near-infrared probe beam (~810 nm wavelength), the long-lived, CAP transients were observed within a 10 ns time-delay window between the pump and probe pulses, with a dispersionless (proportional to the probe-beam wave vector) frequency of ~45 GHz. The measured CAP attenuation corresponded directly to the absorption of the probe light in bulk GaN, indicating that the actual (intrinsic) phonon-wave attenuation in our crystals was significantly smaller than the measured 65.8 cm^-1 value. The velocity of the phonon propagation was equal to the velocity of sound in GaN.
Acoustic beam splitting in two-dimensional phononic crystals using self-collimation effect
Li, Jing; Wu, Fugen Zhong, Huilin; Yao, Yuanwei; Zhang, Xin
2015-10-14
We propose two models of self-collimation-based beam splitters in phononic crystals. The finite element method is used to investigate the propagation properties of acoustic waves in two-dimensional phononic crystals. The calculated results show that the efficiency of the beam splitter can be controlled systematically by varying the radius of the rods or by changing the orientation of the square rods in the line defect. The effect of changing the side length of the square rods on acoustic wave propagation is discussed. The results show that the total transmission/reflection range decreases/increases as the side length increases. We also find that the relationship between the orientation of the transflective point and the side length of the square rods is quasi-linear.
Acoustic beam splitting in two-dimensional phononic crystals using self-collimation effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jing; Wu, Fugen; Zhong, Huilin; Yao, Yuanwei; Zhang, Xin
2015-10-01
We propose two models of self-collimation-based beam splitters in phononic crystals. The finite element method is used to investigate the propagation properties of acoustic waves in two-dimensional phononic crystals. The calculated results show that the efficiency of the beam splitter can be controlled systematically by varying the radius of the rods or by changing the orientation of the square rods in the line defect. The effect of changing the side length of the square rods on acoustic wave propagation is discussed. The results show that the total transmission/reflection range decreases/increases as the side length increases. We also find that the relationship between the orientation of the transflective point and the side length of the square rods is quasi-linear.
Second Harmonic Generation and Confined Acoustic Phonons in HighlyExcited Semiconductor Nanocrystals
Son, Dong Hee; Wittenberg, Joshua S.; Banin, Uri; Alivisatos, A.Paul
2006-03-30
The photo-induced enhancement of second harmonic generation, and the effect of nanocrystal shape and pump intensity on confined acoustic phonons in semiconductor nanocrystals, has been investigated with time-resolved scattering and absorption measurements. The second harmonic signal showed a sublinear increase of the second order susceptibility with respect to the pump pulse energy, indicating a reduction of the effective one-electron second-order nonlinearity with increasing electron-hole density in the nanocrystals. The coherent acoustic phonons in spherical and rod-shaped semiconductor nanocrystals were detected in a time-resolved absorption measurement. Both nanocrystal morphologies exhibited oscillatory modulation of the absorption cross section, the frequency of which corresponded to their coherent radial breathing modes. The amplitude of the oscillation also increased with the level of photoexcitation, suggesting an increase in the amplitude of the lattice displacement as well.
Manipulation of thermal phonons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Chung-Hao
Developing materials that can conduct electricity easily, but block the motion of phonons is necessary in the applications of thermoelectric devices, which can generate electricity from temperature differences. In converse, a key requirement as chips get faster is to obtain better ways to dissipate heat. Controlling heat transfer in these crystalline materials devices --- such as silicon --- is important. The heat is actually the motion or vibration of atoms known as phonons. Finding ways to manipulate the behavior of phonons is crucial for both energy applications and the cooling of integrated circuits. A novel class of artificially periodic structured materials --- phononic crystals --- might make manipulation of thermal phonons possible. In many fields of physical sciences and engineering, acoustic wave propagation in solids attracts many researchers. Wave propagation phenomena can be analyzed by mathematically solving the acoustic wave equation. However, wave propagation in inhomogeneous media with various geometric structures is too complex to find an exact solution. Hence, the Finite Difference Time Domain method is developed to investigate these complicated problems. In this work, the Finite-Difference Time-Domain formula is derived from acoustic wave equations based on the Taylor's expansion. The numerical dispersion and stability problems are analyzed. In addition, the convergence conditions of numerical acoustic wave are stated. Based on the periodicity of phononic crystal, the Bloch's theorem is applied to fulfill the periodic boundary condition of the FDTD method. Then a wide-band input signal is used to excite various acoustic waves with different frequencies. In the beginning of the calculation process, the wave vector is chosen and fixed. By means of recording the displacement field and taking the Fourier transformation, we can obtain the eigenmodes from the resonance peaks of the spectrum and draw the dispersion relation curve of acoustic waves
Phonon-Electron Interactions in Piezoelectric Semiconductor Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonators
Gokhale, Vikrant J.; Rais-Zadeh, Mina
2014-01-01
This work presents the first comprehensive investigation of phonon-electron interactions in bulk acoustic standing wave (BAW) resonators made from piezoelectric semiconductor (PS) materials. We show that these interactions constitute a significant energy loss mechanism and can set practical loss limits lower than anharmonic phonon scattering limits or thermoelastic damping limits. Secondly, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that phonon-electron interactions, under appropriate conditions, can result in a significant acoustic gain manifested as an improved quality factor (Q). Measurements on GaN resonators are consistent with the presented interaction model and demonstrate up to 35% dynamic improvement in Q. The strong dependencies of electron-mediated acoustic loss/gain on resonance frequency and material properties are investigated. Piezoelectric semiconductors are an extremely important class of electromechanical materials, and this work provides crucial insights for material choice, material properties, and device design to achieve low-loss PS-BAW resonators along with the unprecedented ability to dynamically tune resonator Q. PMID:25001100
Polarization transport of transverse acoustic waves: Berry phase and spin Hall effect of phonons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bliokh, K. Yu.; Freilikher, V. D.
2006-11-01
We carry out a detailed analysis of the short-wave (semiclassical) approximation for the linear equations of the elasticity in a smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic medium. It is shown that the polarization properties of the transverse waves are completely analogous to those of electromagnetic waves and can be considered as spin properties of optical phonons. In particular, the Hamiltonian of the transverse waves contains an additional term of the phonon spin-orbit interaction arising from the Berry gauge potential in the momentum space. This potential is diagonal in the basis of the circularly polarized waves and corresponds to the field of two “magnetic monopoles” of opposite signs for phonons of opposite helicities. This leads to the appearance of the Berry phase in the equation for the polarization evolution and an additional “anomalous velocity” term in the ray equations. The anomalous velocity has the form of the “Lorentz force” caused by the Berry gauge field in momentum space and gives rise to the transverse transport of waves of opposite helicities in opposite directions. This is a manifestation of the spin Hall effect of optical phonons. The effect directly relates to the conservation of total angular momentum of phonons and also influences reflection from a sharp boundary (acoustic analog of the transverse Ferdorov-Imbert shift).
Dispersive behavior and acoustic scaling in granular rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlos, Santos; Vanessa, Urdaneta; Ernesto, Medina; Xavier, García
2013-06-01
Handling and making decisions based on data taken at different scales is a critical issue in the design of exploration and production tasks in the oil industry. Acoustic data is the classical example of the integration of dissimilar scales (i.e. seismic, well logs, lab data) where there is a scale dependent velocity. An understanding of the acoustic dispersion phenomenon in granular samples is needed. A detailed numerical work was conducted in order to establish the relationship between frequency and propagation speed for an acoustical pulse induced in simulated granular materials. The granular samples were generated with different grain size distributions while porosity and pressure were targeted and kept invariant using the grain radii expansion method. A sinusoidal burst with frequencies from 10Hz to 1MHz was applied and the corresponding acoustical speeds were estimated for each frequency. A coherent sigmoid dispersion relationship was obtained for each granular sample. The asymptotic boundaries for the dispersion function reflect the limiting cases for the wavelength/heterogeneity ratio in the granular pack. The lower speed asymptote was explained as the mean field value while upper speed asymptote can be understood based on a ray theory approximation scaled by a parameter we defined as the "acoustic tortuosity factor". This factor reflects the intricate acoustical path due to the texture of the stress network developed in the granular samples and can be used together with the sigmoid dispersive relationship to describe and clarify the scale discrepancy between different source acoustic data in granular materials.
Matsushita, Stephane Yu; Matsui, Kazuki; Kato, Hiroki; Suto, Shozo; Yamada, Taro
2014-03-14
We have measured the surface phonon dispersion curves on the hydrogen-terminated Si(110)-(1×1) surface with the two-dimensional space group of p2mg along the two highly symmetric and rectangular directions of ΓX{sup ¯} and ΓX{sup ′¯} using high-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy. All the essential energy-loss peaks on H:Si(110) were assigned to the vibrational phonon modes by using the selection rules of inelastic electron scattering including the glide-plane symmetry. Actually, the surface phonon modes of even-symmetry to the glide plane (along ΓX{sup ¯}) were observed in the first Brillouin zone, and those of odd-symmetry to the glide plane were in the second Brillouin zone. The detailed assignment was made by referring to theoretical phonon dispersion curves of Gräschus et al. [Phys. Rev. B 56, 6482 (1997)]. We found that the H–Si stretching and bending modes, which exhibit highly anisotropic dispersion, propagate along ΓX{sup ¯} direction as a one-dimensional phonon. Judging from the surface structure as well as our classical and quantum mechanical estimations, the H–Si stretching phonon propagates by a direct repulsive interaction between the nearest neighbor H atoms facing each other along ΓX{sup ¯}, whereas the H–Si bending phonon propagates by indirect interaction through the substrate Si atomic linkage.
Wang, Mingchao; Lin, Shangchao
2015-01-01
The elastic modulus of carbyne, a one-dimensional carbon chain, was recently predicted to be much higher than graphene. Inspired by this discovery and the fundamental correlation between elastic modulus and thermal conductivity, we investigate the intrinsic thermal transport in two carbon allotropes: carbyne and cumulene. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we discover that thermal conductivities of carbyne and cumulene at the quantum-corrected room temperature can exceed 54 and 148 kW/m/K, respectively, much higher than that for graphene. Such conductivity is attributed to high phonon energies and group velocities, as well as reduced scattering from non-overlapped acoustic and optical phonon modes. The prolonged spectral acoustic phonon lifetime of 30–110 ps and mean free path of 0.5–2.5 μm exceed those for graphene, and allow ballistic phonon transport along micron-length carbon chains. Tensile extensions can enhance the thermal conductivity of carbyne due to the increased phonon density of states in the acoustic modes and the increased phonon lifetime from phonon bandgap opening. These findings provide fundamental insights into phonon transport and band structure engineering through tensile deformation in low-dimensional materials, and will inspire studies on carbyne, cumulene, and boron nitride chains for their practical deployments in nano-devices. PMID:26658143
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Mingchao; Lin, Shangchao
2015-12-01
The elastic modulus of carbyne, a one-dimensional carbon chain, was recently predicted to be much higher than graphene. Inspired by this discovery and the fundamental correlation between elastic modulus and thermal conductivity, we investigate the intrinsic thermal transport in two carbon allotropes: carbyne and cumulene. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we discover that thermal conductivities of carbyne and cumulene at the quantum-corrected room temperature can exceed 54 and 148 kW/m/K, respectively, much higher than that for graphene. Such conductivity is attributed to high phonon energies and group velocities, as well as reduced scattering from non-overlapped acoustic and optical phonon modes. The prolonged spectral acoustic phonon lifetime of 30-110 ps and mean free path of 0.5-2.5 μm exceed those for graphene, and allow ballistic phonon transport along micron-length carbon chains. Tensile extensions can enhance the thermal conductivity of carbyne due to the increased phonon density of states in the acoustic modes and the increased phonon lifetime from phonon bandgap opening. These findings provide fundamental insights into phonon transport and band structure engineering through tensile deformation in low-dimensional materials, and will inspire studies on carbyne, cumulene, and boron nitride chains for their practical deployments in nano-devices.
Gravitational wave detection with high frequency phonon trapping acoustic cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goryachev, Maxim; Tobar, Michael E.
2014-11-01
There are a number of theoretical predictions for astrophysical and cosmological objects, which emit high frequency (1 06-1 09 Hz ) gravitation waves (GW) or contribute somehow to the stochastic high frequency GW background. Here we propose a new sensitive detector in this frequency band, which is based on existing cryogenic ultrahigh quality factor quartz bulk acoustic wave cavity technology, coupled to near-quantum-limited SQUID amplifiers at 20 mK. We show that spectral strain sensitivities reaching 1 0-22 per √{Hz } per mode is possible, which in principle can cover the frequency range with multiple (>100 ) modes with quality factors varying between 1 06 and 1 010 allowing wide bandwidth detection. Due to its compactness and well-established manufacturing process, the system is easily scalable into arrays and distributed networks that can also impact the overall sensitivity and introduce coincidence analysis to ensure no false detections.
Anomalous Phonon Dispersion of an Ultracold - Mixture in a Square Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koinov, Zlatko; Pahl, Shanna; Mendoza, Rafael
2015-05-01
A necessary condition for the damping of the long-wavelength excitations of the superfluid phase (referred to as superfluid phonons) due to the three-particle process is to have an anomalous phonon dispersion. The existence of anomalous phonon dispersion has been confirmed in superfluid . There are no experimental data suggesting that this phenomenon exists in superfluid Fermi gases. To the best of our knowledge, the existence of anomalous dispersion has been theoretically predicted only in atomic spin balanced Fermi gas close to the unitarity limit. The numerical results reported here suggest that the anomalous long-wavelength dispersion can be realized in mass and spin imbalanced atomic Fermi gases away from the unitary limit. In particular, the numerical solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation in a weak-coupling regime shows that the long-wavelength part of the collective-mode dispersion of the superfluid Fulde-Ferrell phase of a mixture of population-imbalanced Lithium-6 and Potassium-40 atoms in a square lattice at some values of polarization, interacting strength and temperature initially bends upward before bending over.
Ultra-wide acoustic band gaps in pillar-based phononic crystal strips
Coffy, Etienne Lavergne, Thomas; Addouche, Mahmoud; Euphrasie, Sébastien; Vairac, Pascal; Khelif, Abdelkrim
2015-12-07
An original approach for designing a one dimensional phononic crystal strip with an ultra-wide band gap is presented. The strip consists of periodic pillars erected on a tailored beam, enabling the generation of a band gap that is due to both Bragg scattering and local resonances. The optimized combination of both effects results in the lowering and the widening of the main band gap, ultimately leading to a gap-to-midgap ratio of 138%. The design method used to improve the band gap width is based on the flattening of phononic bands and relies on the study of the modal energy distribution within the unit cell. The computed transmission through a finite number of periods corroborates the dispersion diagram. The strong attenuation, in excess of 150 dB for only five periods, highlights the interest of such ultra-wide band gap phononic crystal strips.
Ultra-wide acoustic band gaps in pillar-based phononic crystal strips
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coffy, Etienne; Lavergne, Thomas; Addouche, Mahmoud; Euphrasie, Sébastien; Vairac, Pascal; Khelif, Abdelkrim
2015-12-01
An original approach for designing a one dimensional phononic crystal strip with an ultra-wide band gap is presented. The strip consists of periodic pillars erected on a tailored beam, enabling the generation of a band gap that is due to both Bragg scattering and local resonances. The optimized combination of both effects results in the lowering and the widening of the main band gap, ultimately leading to a gap-to-midgap ratio of 138%. The design method used to improve the band gap width is based on the flattening of phononic bands and relies on the study of the modal energy distribution within the unit cell. The computed transmission through a finite number of periods corroborates the dispersion diagram. The strong attenuation, in excess of 150 dB for only five periods, highlights the interest of such ultra-wide band gap phononic crystal strips.
Nardi, Damiano; Travagliati, Marco; Siemens, Mark E; Li, Qing; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C; Ferrini, Gabriele; Parmigiani, Fulvio; Banfi, Francesco
2011-10-12
High-frequency surface acoustic waves can be generated by ultrafast laser excitation of nanoscale patterned surfaces. Here we study this phenomenon in the hypersonic frequency limit. By modeling the thermomechanics from first-principles, we calculate the system's initial heat-driven impulsive response and follow its time evolution. A scheme is introduced to quantitatively access frequencies and lifetimes of the composite system's excited eigenmodes. A spectral decomposition of the calculated response on the eigemodes of the system reveals asymmetric resonances that result from the coupling between surface and bulk acoustic modes. This finding allows evaluation of impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic wave frequencies and lifetimes and expands our understanding of the scattering of surface waves in mesoscale metamaterials. The model is successfully benchmarked against time-resolved optical diffraction measurements performed on one-dimensional and two-dimensional surface phononic crystals, probed using light at extreme ultraviolet and near-infrared wavelengths. PMID:21910426
2011-01-01
High-frequency surface acoustic waves can be generated by ultrafast laser excitation of nanoscale patterned surfaces. Here we study this phenomenon in the hypersonic frequency limit. By modeling the thermomechanics from first-principles, we calculate the system’s initial heat-driven impulsive response and follow its time evolution. A scheme is introduced to quantitatively access frequencies and lifetimes of the composite system’s excited eigenmodes. A spectral decomposition of the calculated response on the eigemodes of the system reveals asymmetric resonances that result from the coupling between surface and bulk acoustic modes. This finding allows evaluation of impulsively excited pseudosurface acoustic wave frequencies and lifetimes and expands our understanding of the scattering of surface waves in mesoscale metamaterials. The model is successfully benchmarked against time-resolved optical diffraction measurements performed on one-dimensional and two-dimensional surface phononic crystals, probed using light at extreme ultraviolet and near-infrared wavelengths. PMID:21910426
Chandel, Surjeet Kumar; Kumar, Arun; Bharti, Ankush; Sharma, Raman
2015-05-15
Using first principles density functional theoretical calculations, the present paper reports a systematic study of phonon dispersion curves in pristine carbon (CNT) and silicon nanotubes (SiNT) having chirality (6,6) in the armchair configuration. Some of the phonon modes are found to have negative frequencies which leads to instability of the systems under study. The number of phonon branches has been found to be thrice as much as the number of atoms. The frequency of the higher optical bands varies from 1690 to 1957 cm{sup −1} for CNT(6,6) while it is 596 to 658 cm{sup −1} for SiNT.
Phonon dispersions and structural transitions of CrO2 under high pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Sooran; Kim, Kyoo; Kang, Chang-Jong; Min, B. I.
2012-02-01
Phonon dispersions of chromium dioxide (CrO2) are calculated to investigate the structural phase transitions as a function of pressure. The structural phase transition has been confirmed from the ground state tetragonal CrO2 of rutile-type (t-CrO2) to the orthorhombic CrO2 of CaCl2-type (o-CrO2). The ferromagnetic and half-metallic property is preserved even in o-CrO2. The softening of Raman-active B1g phonon mode, which is relevant to the above structural transition, is also obtained. We will discuss the possible more structural phase transitions from o-CrO2 and the related phonon and magnetic properties at much higher pressure.
Phonon dispersion in acene molecular crystals using van der Waals density functionals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown-Altvater, Florian; Rangel, Tonatiuh; Neaton, Jeffrey B.
Much progress has been made of late in understanding the fundamental processes in optoelectronic materials. An ongoing challenge is the accurate inclusion of nuclear motion and to go beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Especially in materials like molecular crystals, where van der Waals (vdW) forces dominate the cohesive energy and the electronic structure is very sensitive to intermolecular geometry, phonons can be an important facilitator and dissipation mechanism. Thus there is a need to assess and understand the efficacy of existing approaches for phonon dispersions in vdW-bound solids. In this work we use a vdW density functional to calculate the phonon dispersion of members of the acene family. We establish the accuracy of the method using naphthalene, obtaining excellent agreement with experimental results, and in a further step, we explore the strength of the electron-phonon coupling across the Brillouin zone. Taken all together, our calculations illustrate the potential for quantitative prediction of vibrational properties of weakly-bound organic crystals over the entire Brillouin zone from first principles.
Optical and acoustic sensing using Fano-like resonances in dual phononic and photonic crystal plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amoudache, Samira; Moiseyenko, Rayisa; Pennec, Yan; Rouhani, Bahram Djafari; Khater, Antoine; Lucklum, Ralf; Tigrine, Rachid
2016-03-01
We perform a theoretical study based on the transmissions of optical and acoustic waves normally impinging to a periodic perforated silicon plate when the embedded medium is a liquid and show the existence of Fano-like resonances in both cases. The signature of the resonances appears as well-defined asymmetric peaks in the phononic and photonic transmission spectra. We show that the origin of the Fano-like resonances is different with respect to the nature of the wave. In photonic, the origin comes from guided modes in the photonic plate while in phononic we show that it comes from the excitation of standing waves confined inside the cavity coming from the deformation of the water/silicon edges of the cylindrical inclusion. We finally use these features for sensing and show ultra-sensitivity to the light and sound velocities for different concentrations of analytes.
Watching surface waves in phononic crystals.
Wright, Oliver B; Matsuda, Osamu
2015-08-28
In this paper, we review results obtained by ultrafast imaging of gigahertz surface acoustic waves in surface phononic crystals with one- and two-dimensional periodicities. By use of quasi-point-source optical excitation, we show how, from a series of images that form a movie of the travelling waves, the dispersion relation of the acoustic modes, their corresponding mode patterns and the position and widths of phonon stop bands can be obtained by temporal and spatio-temporal Fourier analysis. We further demonstrate how one can follow the temporal evolution of phononic eigenstates in k-space using data from phononic-crystal waveguides as an example. PMID:26217053
Coupling of Excitons and Discrete Acoustic Phonons in Vibrationally Isolated Quantum Emitters.
Werschler, Florian; Hinz, Christopher; Froning, Florian; Gumbsheimer, Pascal; Haase, Johannes; Negele, Carla; de Roo, Tjaard; Mecking, Stefan; Leitenstorfer, Alfred; Seletskiy, Denis V
2016-09-14
The photoluminescence emission by mesoscopic condensed matter is ultimately dictated by the fine-structure splitting of the fundamental exciton into optically allowed and dipole-forbidden states. In epitaxially grown semiconductor quantum dots, nonradiative equilibration between the fine-structure levels is mediated by bulk acoustic phonons, resulting in asymmetric spectral broadening of the excitonic luminescence. In isolated colloidal quantum dots, spatial confinement of the vibrational motion is expected to give rise to an interplay between the quantized electronic and phononic degrees of freedom. In most cases, however, zero-dimensional colloidal nanocrystals are strongly coupled to the substrate such that the charge relaxation processes are still effectively governed by the bulk properties. Here we show that encapsulation of single colloidal CdSe/CdS nanocrystals into individual organic polymer shells allows for systematic vibrational decoupling of the semiconductor nanospheres from the surroundings. In contrast to epitaxially grown quantum dots, simultaneous quantization of both electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom results in a series of strong and narrow acoustic phonon sidebands observed in the photoluminescence. Furthermore, an individual analysis of more than 200 compound particles reveals that enhancement or suppression of the radiative properties of the fundamental exciton is controlled by the interaction between fine-structure states via the discrete vibrational modes. For the first time, pronounced resonances in the scattering rate between the fine-structure states are directly observed, in good agreement with a quantum mechanical model. The unambiguous assignment of mediating acoustic modes to the observed scattering resonances complements the experimental findings. Thus, our results form an attractive basis for future studies on subterahertz quantum opto-mechanics and efficient laser cooling at the nanoscale. PMID:27550902
Tunneling times of acoustic phonon packets through a distributed Bragg reflector
2014-01-01
The longwave phenomenological model is used to make simple and precise calculations of various physical quantities such as the vibrational energy density, the vibrational energy, the relative mechanical displacement, and the one-dimensional stress tensor of a porous silicon distributed Bragg reflector. From general principles such as invariance under time reversal, invariance under space reflection, and conservation of energy density flux, the equivalence of the tunneling times for both transmission and reflection is demonstrated. Here, we study the tunneling times of acoustic phonon packets through a distributed Bragg reflector in porous silicon multilayer structures, and we report the possibility that a phenomenon called Hartman effect appears in these structures. PMID:25237288
BLF-SSH polarons coupled to acoustic phonons in the adiabatic limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandler, Carl J.; Marsiglio, F.
2014-12-01
We survey polaron formation in the Barisić-Labbé-Friedel and Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (BLF-SSH) model using acoustic phonons in the adiabatic limit. Multiple different numerical optimization routines and strong-coupling analytical calculations are used to find a robust ground-state energy for a wide range of coupling strengths. The electronic configuration and accompanying ionic distortions of the polaron were determined, as well as a nonzero critical coupling strength for polaron formation in two and three dimensions.
Tunneling times of acoustic phonon packets through a distributed Bragg reflector.
Lazcano, Zorayda; Valdés Negrín, Pedro Luis; Villegas, Diosdado; Arriaga, Jesus; Pérez-Álvarez, Rolando
2014-01-01
The longwave phenomenological model is used to make simple and precise calculations of various physical quantities such as the vibrational energy density, the vibrational energy, the relative mechanical displacement, and the one-dimensional stress tensor of a porous silicon distributed Bragg reflector. From general principles such as invariance under time reversal, invariance under space reflection, and conservation of energy density flux, the equivalence of the tunneling times for both transmission and reflection is demonstrated. Here, we study the tunneling times of acoustic phonon packets through a distributed Bragg reflector in porous silicon multilayer structures, and we report the possibility that a phenomenon called Hartman effect appears in these structures. PMID:25237288
Controlled exciton transfer between quantum dots with acoustic phonons taken into account
Golovinski, P. A.
2015-09-15
A system of excitons in two quantum dots coupled by the dipole–dipole interaction is investigated. The excitation transfer process controlled by the optical Stark effect at nonresonant frequencies is considered and the effect of the interaction between excitons and acoustic phonons in a medium on this process is taken into account. The system evolution is described using quantum Heisenberg equations. A truncated set of equations is obtained and the transfer dynamics is numerically simulated. High-efficiency picosecond switching of the excitation transfer by a laser pulse with a rectangular envelope is demonstrated. The dependence of picosecond switching on the quantum-dot parameters and optical-pulse length is presented.
Pandya, Ankur; Shinde, Satyam; Jha, Prafulla K.
2015-05-15
In this paper the hot electron transport properties like carrier energy and momentum scattering rates and electron energy loss rates are calculated via interactions of electrons with polar acoustical phonons for Mn doped BN quantum well in BN nanosheets via piezoelectric scattering and deformation potential mechanisms at low temperatures with high electric field. Electron energy loss rate increases with the electric field. It is observed that at low temperatures and for low electric field the phonon absorption is taking place whereas, for sufficient large electric field, phonon emission takes place. Under the piezoelectric (polar acoustical phonon) scattering mechanism, the carrier scattering rate decreases with the reduction of electric field at low temperatures wherein, the scattering rate variation with electric field is limited by a specific temperature beyond which there is no any impact of electric field on such scattering.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, T.; Kasper, E.; Oehme, M.; Schulze, J.; Korolev, K.
2014-11-01
We report on the direct excitation of 246 GHz longitudinal acoustic phonons in silicon doping superlattices by the resonant absorption of nanosecond-pulsed far-infrared laser radiation of the same frequency. A longitudinally polarized evanescent laser light field is coupled to the superlattice through a germanium prism providing total internal reflection at the superlattice interface. The ballistic phonon signal is detected by a superconducting aluminum bolometer. The sample is immersed in low-temperature liquid helium.
Richardson, M.; Bhethanabotla, V. R.; Sankaranarayanan, S. K. R. S.
2014-06-23
Finite element simulations of a phononic shear-horizontal surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor based on ST 90°-X Quartz reveal a dramatic reduction in power consumption. The phononic sensor is realized by artificially structuring the delay path to form an acoustic meta-material comprised of a periodic microcavity array incorporating high-density materials such as tantalum or tungsten. Constructive interference of the scattered and secondary reflected waves at every microcavity interface leads to acoustic energy confinement in the high-density regions translating into reduced power loss. Tantalum filled cavities show the best performance while tungsten inclusions create a phononic bandgap. Based on our simulation results, SAW devices with tantalum filled microcavities were fabricated and shown to significantly decrease insertion loss. Our findings offer encouraging prospects for designing low power, highly sensitive portable biosensors.
Coherent Control of Optically Generated and Detected Picosecond Surface Acoustic Phonons
David H. Hurley
2006-11-01
Coherent control of elementary optical excitations is a key issue in ultrafast materials science. Manipulation of electronic and vibronic excitations in solids as well as chemical and biological systems on ultrafast time scales has attracted a great deal of attention recently. In semiconductors, coherent control of vibronic excitations has been demonstrated for bulk acoustic and optical phonons generated in superlattice structures. The bandwidth of these approaches is typically fully utilized by employing a 1-D geometry where the laser spot size is much larger than the superlattice repeat length. In this presentation we demonstrate coherent control of optically generated picosecond surface acoustic waves using sub-optical wavelength absorption gratings. The generation and detection characteristics of two material systems are investigated (aluminum absorption gratings on Si and GaAs substrates).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Ja-Hon; Shen, Yu-Kai; Liu, Wei-Rein; Lu, Chia-Hui; Chen, Yao-Hui; Chang, Chun-peng; Lee, Wei-Chin; Hong, Minghwei; Kwo, Jueinai-Raynien; Hsu, Chia-Hung; Hsieh, Wen-Feng
2016-08-01
Unlike coherent acoustic phonons (CAPs) generated from heat induced thermal stress by the coated Au film, we demonstrated the oscillation from c-ZnO epitaxial film on oxide buffered Si through a degenerate pump–probe technique. As the excited photon energy was set below the exciton resonance, the electronic stress that resulted from defect resonance was used to induce acoustic wave. The damped oscillation revealed a superposition of a high frequency and long decay CAP signal with a backward propagating acoustic pulse which was generated by the absorption of the penetrated pump beam at the Si surface and selected by the ZnO layer as the acoustic resonator.
Measurements of phonon dispersion curves, specific heats, and superconductivity in 4d niobium alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cappelletti, R. L.; Wakabayashi, N.; Kamitakahara, W. A.; Traylor, J. G.; Bevolo, A. J.
1982-05-01
Inelastic neutron scattering measurements of symmetry-direction phonon dispersion curves at room temperature in two Zr-Nb alloys and in a Zr-Nb-Mo alloy are presented along with their low-temperature specific heats and superconducting transition temperatures. The phenomenological charge-fluctuation model (CFM) is used to fit the curves and to generate the phonon density of states for each sample. Moments of this distribution along with Tc and Nbs(0) are used to determine
Dispersion correction and identification of ocean acoustic normal modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poplawski, James Edward
1998-08-01
The average temperature of the ocean can be determined by measuring the traveltimes of acoustic signals from a source to a receiver. In the temperate deep ocean, a narrow acoustic pulse transmitted from a source results in a reception at long ranges consisting of many (possibly overlapping) arrivals. One of the mathematical structures used to describe and interpret acoustic propagation in the ocean is normal mode theory. The identification of individual normal mode arrivals in a reception is difficult because modal arrivals are spread in time by geometric dispersion causing them to overlap and interfere with each other. Current signal processing methods aimed at identifying individual normal mode arrivals require the use of vertical arrays of receivers which are rare because they are very expensive to build and deploy. A new signal processing method using phase-only filters to compensate for the geometric dispersion of normal mode arrivals is presented. This compensation increases the peak signal to noise ratio of the individual modal arrivals while simultaneously compressing them in time, helping to isolate them and their arrival times from overlapping neighbors. The properties of the phase-only filters and their ability to help isolate and identify modal arrivals is investigated through the processing of computer simulated receptions. By processing a reception with a bank of phase-only filters characterized by different amounts of dispersion compensation, a plot dubbed the Dispersion Diagnostic (DD) Display is generated. The use of phase-only filters does not require vertical arrays of receivers because modal phase is constant across depth. DD Displays generated for a reception from a receiver at a single depth show compressed modes which are isolated from their neighbors and for which traveltimes can be determined. Thus, the dispersion processing opens up the use of horizontal arrays or single hydrophones in mode identification, broadening the capabilities of
Acoustic phonon dynamics in thin-films of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}
Glinka, Yuri D.; Babakiray, Sercan; Johnson, Trent A.; Holcomb, Mikel B.; Lederman, David
2015-04-28
Transient reflectivity traces measured for nanometer-sized films (6–40 nm) of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} revealed GHz-range oscillations driven within the relaxation of hot carriers photoexcited with ultrashort (∼100 fs) laser pulses of 1.51 eV photon energy. These oscillations have been suggested to result from acoustic phonon dynamics, including coherent longitudinal acoustic phonons in the form of standing acoustic waves. An increase of oscillation frequency from ∼35 to ∼70 GHz with decreasing film thickness from 40 to 15 nm was attributed to the interplay between two different regimes employing traveling-acoustic-waves for films thicker than 40 nm and the film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAWR) modes for films thinner than 40 nm. The amplitude of oscillations decays rapidly for films below 15 nm thick when the indirect intersurface coupling in Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} films switches the FBAWR regime to that of the Lamb wave excitation. The frequency range of coherent longitudinal acoustic phonons is in good agreement with elastic properties of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}.
Phonon dispersion curves determination in (delta)-phase Pu-Ga alloys
Wong, J; Clatterbuck, D; Occelli, F; Farber, D; Schwartz, A; Wall, M; Boro, C; Krisch, M; Beraud, A; Chiang, T; Xu, R; Hong, H; Zschack, P; Tamura, N
2006-02-07
We have designed and successfully employed a novel microbeam on large grain sample concept to conduct high resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (HRIXS) experiments to map the full phonon dispersion curves of an fcc {delta}-phase Pu-Ga alloy. This approach obviates experimental difficulties with conventional inelastic neutron scattering due to the high absorption cross section of the common {sup 239}Pu isotope and the non-availability of large (mm size) single crystal materials for Pu and its alloys. A classical Born von-Karman force constant model was used to model the experimental results, and no less than 4th nearest neighbor interactions had to be included to account for the observation. Several unusual features including, a large elastic anisotropy, a small shear elastic modulus, (C{sub 11}-C{sub 12})/2, a Kohn-like anomaly in the T{sub 1}[011] branch, and a pronounced softening of the T[111] branch towards the L point in the Brillouin are found. These features may be related to the phase transitions of plutonium and to strong coupling between the crystal structure and the 5f valence instabilities. Our results represent the first full phonon dispersions ever obtained for any Pu-bearing material, thus ending a 40-year quest for this fundamental data. The phonon data also provide a critical test for theoretical treatments of highly correlated 5f electron systems as exemplified by recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) calculations for {delta}-plutonium. We also conducted thermal diffuse scattering experiments to study the T(111) dispersion at low temperatures with an attempt to gain insight into bending of the T(111) branch in relationship to the {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} transformation.
Zhao, J.; Boyko, O.; Bonello, B.
2014-12-15
This work deals with an analytical and numerical study of the focusing of the lowest order anti-symmetric Lamb wave in gradient index phononic crystals. Computing the ray trajectories of the elastic beam allowed us to analyze the lateral dimensions and shape of the focus, either in the inner or behind the phononic crystal-based acoustic lenses, for frequencies within a broad range in the first band. We analyzed and discussed the focusing behaviors inside the acoustic lenses where the focalization at sub-wavelength scale was achieved. The focalization behind the gradient index phononic crystal is shown to be efficient as well: we report on FMHM = 0.63λ at 11MHz.
Acoustic add-drop filters based on phononic crystal ring resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rostami-Dogolsara, Babak; Moravvej-Farshi, Mohammad Kazem; Nazari, Fakhroddin
2016-01-01
We report the design procedure for an acoustic add-drop filter (ADF) composed of two line-defect waveguides coupled through a ring resonator cavity (RRC) all based on a phononic crystal (PnC) platform. Using finite difference time domain and plane wave expansion methods, we study the propagation of acoustic waves through the PnC based ADF structures. Numerical results show that the quality factor for the ADF with a quasisquare ring resonator with a frequency band of 95 Hz centered about 75.21 kHz is Q ˜ 800. We show that the addition of an appropriate scatterer at each RRC corner can reduce the scattering loss, enhancing the quality factor and the transmission efficiency. Moreover, it is also shown that by increasing the coupling gaps between the RRC and waveguides the quality factor can be increased by ˜25 times, at the expense of a significant reduction in the transmission efficiency this is attributed to the enhanced selectivity in expense of weakened coupling. Finally, by varying the effective path length of the acoustic wave in the RRC, via selectively varying the inclusions physical and geometrical properties, we show how one can ultra-fine and fine-tune the resonant frequency of the ADF.
Dabhi, Shweta Mankad, Venu Jha, Prafulla K.
2014-04-24
A detailed theoretical study of structural, electronic and Vibrational properties of BeX compound is presented by performing ab-initio calculations based on density-functional theory using the Espresso package. The calculated value of lattice constant and bulk modulus are compared with the available experimental and other theoretical data and agree reasonably well. BeX (X = S,Se,Te) compounds in the ZB phase are indirect wide band gap semiconductors with an ionic contribution. The phonon dispersion curves are represented which shows that these compounds are dynamically stable in ZB phase.
Lattice vibrations in the Frenkel-Kontorova model. I. Phonon dispersion, number density, and energy
Meng, Qingping; Wu, Lijun; Welch, David O.; Zhu, Yimei
2015-06-17
We studied the lattice vibrations of two inter-penetrating atomic sublattices via the Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model of a linear chain of harmonically interacting atoms subjected to an on-site potential, using the technique of thermodynamic Green's functions based on quantum field-theoretical methods. General expressions were deduced for the phonon frequency-wave-vector dispersion relations, number density, and energy of the FK model system. In addition, as the application of the theory, we investigated in detail cases of linear chains with various periods of the on-site potential of the FK model. Some unusual but interesting features for different amplitudes of the on-site potential of themore » FK model are discussed. In the commensurate structure, the phonon spectrum always starts at a finite frequency, and the gaps of the spectrum are true ones with a zero density of modes. In the incommensurate structure, the phonon spectrum starts from zero frequency, but at a non-zero wave vector; there are some modes inside these gap regions, but their density is very low. In our approximation, the energy of a higher-order commensurate state of the one-dimensional system at a finite temperature may become indefinitely close to the energy of an incommensurate state. This finding implies that the higher-order incommensurate-commensurate transitions are continuous ones and that the phase transition may exhibit a “devil's staircase” behavior at a finite temperature.« less
Lattice vibrations in the Frenkel-Kontorova model. I. Phonon dispersion, number density, and energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Qingping; Wu, Lijun; Welch, David O.; Zhu, Yimei
2015-06-01
We studied the lattice vibrations of two interpenetrating atomic sublattices via the Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model of a linear chain of harmonically interacting atoms subjected to an on-site potential using the technique of thermodynamic Green's functions based on quantum field-theoretical methods. General expressions were deduced for the phonon frequency-wave-vector dispersion relations, number density, and energy of the FK model system. As the application of the theory, we investigated in detail cases of linear chains with various periods of the on-site potential of the FK model. Some unusual but interesting features for different amplitudes of the on-site potential of the FK model are discussed. In the commensurate structure, the phonon spectrum always starts at a finite frequency, and the gaps of the spectrum are true ones with a zero density of modes. In the incommensurate structure, the phonon spectrum starts from zero frequency, but at a nonzero wave vector; there are some modes inside these gap regions, but their density is very low. In our approximation, the energy of a higher-order commensurate state of the one-dimensional system at a finite temperature may become indefinitely close to the energy of an incommensurate state. This finding implies that the higher-order incommensurate-commensurate transitions are continuous ones and that the phase transition may exhibit a "devil's staircase" behavior at a finite temperature.
Lattice vibrations in the Frenkel-Kontorova model. I. Phonon dispersion, number density, and energy
Meng, Qingping; Wu, Lijun; Welch, David O.; Zhu, Yimei
2015-06-17
We studied the lattice vibrations of two inter-penetrating atomic sublattices via the Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model of a linear chain of harmonically interacting atoms subjected to an on-site potential, using the technique of thermodynamic Green's functions based on quantum field-theoretical methods. General expressions were deduced for the phonon frequency-wave-vector dispersion relations, number density, and energy of the FK model system. In addition, as the application of the theory, we investigated in detail cases of linear chains with various periods of the on-site potential of the FK model. Some unusual but interesting features for different amplitudes of the on-site potential of the FK model are discussed. In the commensurate structure, the phonon spectrum always starts at a finite frequency, and the gaps of the spectrum are true ones with a zero density of modes. In the incommensurate structure, the phonon spectrum starts from zero frequency, but at a non-zero wave vector; there are some modes inside these gap regions, but their density is very low. In our approximation, the energy of a higher-order commensurate state of the one-dimensional system at a finite temperature may become indefinitely close to the energy of an incommensurate state. This finding implies that the higher-order incommensurate-commensurate transitions are continuous ones and that the phase transition may exhibit a “devil's staircase” behavior at a finite temperature.
Photoreflectance investigation of exciton-acoustic phonon scattering in GaN grown by MOVPE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouzidi, M.; Soltani, S.; Halidou, I.; Chine, Z.; El Jani, B.
2016-04-01
In this paper, we report a systematic investigation of the near band edge (NBE) excitonic states in GaN using low temperature photoluminescence (PL) and photoreflectance (PR) measurements. For this purpose, GaN films of different thicknesses have been grown on silicon nitride (SiN) treated c-plane sapphire substrates by atmospheric pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Low temperature PR spectra exhibit well-defined spectral features related to the A, B and C free excitons denoted by FXA FXB and FXC, respectively. In contrast, PL spectra are essentially dominated by the A free and donor bound excitons. By combining PR spectra and Hall measurements a strong correlation between residual electron concentration and exciton linewidths is observed. From the temperature dependence of the excitonic linewidths, the exciton-acoustic phonon coupling constant is determined for FXA, FXB and FXC. We show that this coupling constant is strongly related to the exciton kinetic energy and to the strain level.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Zhong-Xiang; Liu, Jing-Zhong; Yu, Xia; Wang, Hai-Bin; Deng, Yuan-Xiang; Li, Ke-Min; Zhang, Yong
2015-03-01
We investigate acoustic phonon transmission and thermal conductance in three dimensional (3D) quasi-periodically stubbed waveguides according to the Fibonacci sequence. Results show that the transmission coefficient exhibits the periodic oscillation upon varying the length of stub/waveguide at low frequency, and the period of such oscillation is tunably decreased with increasing the Fibonacci number N. Interestingly, there also exist some anti-resonant dips that gradually develop into wide stop-frequency gaps with increasing N. As the temperature goes up, a transition of the thermal conductance from the decrease to the increase occurs in these systems. When N is increased, the thermal conductance is approximately decreased with a linear trend. Moreover, the decreasing degree sensitively depends on the variation of temperature. A brief analysis of these results is given.
Measurement of the acoustic-to-optical phonon coupling in multicomponent systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caretta, Antonio; Donker, Michiel C.; Perdok, Diederik W.; Abbaszadeh, Davood; Polyakov, Alexey O.; Havenith, Remco W. A.; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; van Loosdrecht, Paul H. M.
2015-02-01
In this paper we investigate the acoustic-to-optical up-conversion phonon processes in a multicomponent system. These processes take place during heat transport and limit the efficiency of heat flow. By combining time-resolved optical and heat capacity experiments we quantify the thermal coupling constant to be g ˜0.4 1017 W/Km3 . The method is based on selective excitation of a part of a multicomponent system, and the measurement of the thermalization dynamics by probing the linear birefringence of the sample with femtosecond resolution. In particular, we study a layered multiferroic organic-inorganic hybrid, in the vicinity of the ferroelectric phase transition. A diverging term of the heat capacity is associated to soft-mode dynamics, in agreement with previous spectroscopy measurements.
Mei, A. B.; Hellman, O.; Schlepuetz, C. M.; Rockett, A.; Chiang, T. -C.; Hultman, L.; Petrov, I.; Greene, J. E.
2015-11-03
Synchrotron reflection x-ray thermal diffuse scattering (TDS) measurements, rather than previously reported transmission TDS, are carried out at room temperature and analyzed using a formalism based upon second-order interatomic force constants and long-range Coulomb interactions to obtain quantitative determinations of MgO phonon dispersion relations (h) over bar omega(j) (q), phonon densities of states g((h) over bar omega), and isochoric temperature-dependent vibrational heat capacities cv (T). We use MgO as a model system for investigating reflection TDS due to its harmonic behavior as well as its mechanical and dynamic stability. Resulting phonon dispersion relations and densities of states are found tomore » be in good agreement with independent reports from inelastic neutron and x-ray scattering experiments. Temperature-dependent isochoric heat capacities cv (T), computed within the harmonic approximation from (h) over bar omega(j) (q) values, increase with temperature from 0.4 x 10-4 eV/atom K at 100 K to 1.4 x 10-4 eV/atom K at 200 K and 1.9 x 10-4 eV/atom K at 300 K, in excellent agreement with isobaric heat capacity values cp (T) between 4 and 300 K. We anticipate that the experimental approach developed here will be valuable for determining vibrational properties of heteroepitaxial thin films since the use of grazing-incidence (θ ≲ θc where θc is the density-dependent critical angle) allows selective tuning of x-ray penetration depths to ≲ 10 nm.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mei, A. B.; Hellman, O.; Schlepütz, C. M.; Rockett, A.; Chiang, T.-C.; Hultman, L.; Petrov, I.; Greene, J. E.
2015-11-01
Synchrotron reflection x-ray thermal diffuse scattering (TDS) measurements, rather than previously reported transmission TDS, are carried out at room temperature and analyzed using a formalism based upon second-order interatomic force constants and long-range Coulomb interactions to obtain quantitative determinations of MgO phonon dispersion relations ℏ ωj (q), phonon densities of states g (ℏ ω ), and isochoric temperature-dependent vibrational heat capacities cv(T ) . We use MgO as a model system for investigating reflection TDS due to its harmonic behavior as well as its mechanical and dynamic stability. Resulting phonon dispersion relations and densities of states are found to be in good agreement with independent reports from inelastic neutron and x-ray scattering experiments. Temperature-dependent isochoric heat capacities cv(T ) , computed within the harmonic approximation from ℏ ωj (q) values, increase with temperature from 0.4 ×10-4eV /atom K at 100 K to 1.4 ×10-4eV /atom K at 200 K and 1.9 ×10-4eV /atom K at 300 K, in excellent agreement with isobaric heat capacity values cp(T ) between 4 and 300 K. We anticipate that the experimental approach developed here will be valuable for determining vibrational properties of heteroepitaxial thin films since the use of grazing-incidence (θ ≲θc , where θc is the density-dependent critical angle) allows selective tuning of x-ray penetration depths to ≲10 nm .
Mei, A. B.; Hellman, O.; Schlepuetz, C. M.; Rockett, A.; Chiang, T. -C.; Hultman, L.; Petrov, I.; Greene, J. E.
2015-11-03
Synchrotron reflection x-ray thermal diffuse scattering (TDS) measurements, rather than previously reported transmission TDS, are carried out at room temperature and analyzed using a formalism based upon second-order interatomic force constants and long-range Coulomb interactions to obtain quantitative determinations of MgO phonon dispersion relations (h) over bar omega(j) (q), phonon densities of states g((h) over bar omega), and isochoric temperature-dependent vibrational heat capacities c_{v} (T). We use MgO as a model system for investigating reflection TDS due to its harmonic behavior as well as its mechanical and dynamic stability. Resulting phonon dispersion relations and densities of states are found to be in good agreement with independent reports from inelastic neutron and x-ray scattering experiments. Temperature-dependent isochoric heat capacities c_{v} (T), computed within the harmonic approximation from (h) over bar omega(j) (q) values, increase with temperature from 0.4 x 10^{-4} eV/atom K at 100 K to 1.4 x 10^{-4} eV/atom K at 200 K and 1.9 x 10^{-4} eV/atom K at 300 K, in excellent agreement with isobaric heat capacity values c_{p} (T) between 4 and 300 K. We anticipate that the experimental approach developed here will be valuable for determining vibrational properties of heteroepitaxial thin films since the use of grazing-incidence (θ ≲ θ_{c} where θ_{c} is the density-dependent critical angle) allows selective tuning of x-ray penetration depths to ≲ 10 nm.
Laser Acoustic Imaging of Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator (FBAR) Lateral Mode Dispersion
Ken L. Telschow
2004-07-01
A laser acoustic imaging microscope has been developed that measures acoustic motion with high spatial resolution without scanning. Images are recorded at normal video frame rates and heterodyne principles are used to allow operation at any frequency from Hz to GHz. Fourier transformation of the acoustic amplitude and phase displacement images provides a direct quantitative determination of excited mode wavenumbers at any frequency. Results are presented at frequencies near the first longitudinal thickness mode (~ 900 MHz) demonstrating simultaneous excitation of lateral modes with nonzero wavenumbers in an electrically driven AlN thin film acoustic resonator. Images combined at several frequencies form a direct visualization of lateral mode dispersion relations for the device under test allowing mode identification and a direct measure of specific lateral mode properties. Discussion and analysis of the results are presented in comparison with plate wave modeling of these devices taking account for material anisotropy and multilayer films.
Phonon-Photon Mapping in a Color Center in Hexagonal Boron Nitride.
Vuong, T Q P; Cassabois, G; Valvin, P; Ouerghi, A; Chassagneux, Y; Voisin, C; Gil, B
2016-08-26
We report on the ultraviolet optical response of a color center in hexagonal boron nitride. We demonstrate a mapping between the vibronic spectrum of the color center and the phonon dispersion in hexagonal boron nitride, with a striking suppression of the phonon assisted emission signal at the energy of the phonon gap. By means of nonperturbative calculations of the electron-phonon interaction in a strongly anisotropic phonon dispersion, we reach a quantitative interpretation of the acoustic phonon sidebands from cryogenic temperatures up to room temperature. Our analysis provides an original method for estimating the spatial extension of the electronic wave function in a point defect. PMID:27610882
Development of an acoustic filter for parametric loudspeaker using phononic crystals.
Ji, Peifeng; Hu, Wenlin; Yang, Jun
2016-04-01
The spurious signal generated as a result of nonlinearity at the receiving system affects the measurement of the difference-frequency sound in the parametric loudspeaker, especially in the nearfield or near the beam axis. In this paper, an acoustic filter is designed using phononic crystals and its theoretical simulations are carried out by quasi-one- and two-dimensional models with Comsol Multiphysics. According to the simulated transmission loss (TL), an acoustic filter is prototyped consisting of 5×7 aluminum alloy cylinders and its performance is verified experimentally. There is good agreement with the simulation result for TL. After applying our proposed filter in the axial measurement of the parametric loudspeaker, a clear frequency dependence from parametric array effect is detected, which exhibits a good match with the well-known theory described by the Gaussian-beam expansion technique. During the directivity measurement for the parametric loudspeaker, the proposed filter has also proved to be effective and is only needed for small angles. PMID:26855254
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fobes, David; Zaliznyak, Igor; Xu, Zhijun; Gu, Genda; Tranquada, John M.; He, Xu-Gang; Ku, Wei; Garlea, Ovidiu
2014-03-01
We have studied the evolution with temperature of the low-energy inelastic spectra of Fe1+yTe (y < 0 . 12), a parent compound of the iron-chalcogenide superconductor family, revealing an acoustic mode at an unexpected position. Recently, we found evidence for the formation of a bond-order wave leading to ferro-orbital order in the monoclinic phase, in part due to the observation of an elastic structural peak at (100) in the low-temperature monoclinic phase [D. Fobes, et al., arXiv:1307.7162]. In the inelastic spectra we observe a sharp acoustic-phonon-like mode dispersing out of the (100) position in the monoclinic phase. Surprisingly, the mode survives in the tetragonal phase, despite the absence of a Bragg peak at (100); such a peak is forbidden by symmetry. LDA calculations suggest this mode could involve significant magnetic scattering. By assuming in-phase virtual displacement of the Fe atoms from their equilibrium position in a frozen phonon calculation, we have found a small but significant imbalance in the magnetic moments between the two Fe atoms within the unit cell, suggesting magnetic contribution to the mode. Work at BNL supported by Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US DOE, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886. Research conducted at ORNL Spallation Neutron Source was sponsored by the Scientific User Facilities Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US DOE.
A computational and experimental study of surface acoustic waves in phononic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petrus, Joseph Andrew
The unique frequency range and robustness of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices has been a catalyst for their adoption as integral components in a range of consumer and military electronics. Furthermore, the strain and piezoelectric fields associated with SAWs are finding novel applications in nanostructured devices. In this thesis, the interaction of SAWs with periodic elastic structures, such as photonic or phononic crystals (PnCs), is studied both computationally and experimentally. To predict the behaviour of elastic waves in PnCs, a finite-difference time-domain simulator (PnCSim) was developed using C++. PnCSim was designed to calculate band structures and transmission spectra of elastic waves through two-dimensional PnCs. By developing appropriate boundary conditions, bulk waves, surface acoustic waves, and plate waves can be simulated. Results obtained using PnCSim demonstrate good agreement with theoretical data reported in the literature. To experimentally investigate the behaviour of SAWs in PnCs, fabrication procedures were developed to create interdigitated transducers (IDTs) and PnCs. Using lift-off photolithography, IDTs with finger widths as low as 1:8 mum were fabricated on gallium arsenide (GaAs), corresponding to a SAW frequency of 397 MHz. A citric acid and hydrogen peroxide wet-etching solution was used to create shallow air hole PnCs in square and triangular lattice configurations, with lattice constants of 8 mum and 12 mum, respectively. The relative transmission of SAWs through these PnCs as a function of frequency was determined by comparing the insertion losses before and after etching the PnCs. In addition, using a scanning Sagnac interferometer, displacement maps were measured for SAWs incident on square lattice PnCs by Mathew (Creating and Imaging Surface Acoustic Waves on GaAs, Master's Thesis). Reasonable agreement was found between simulations and measurements. Additional simulations indicate that SAW waveguiding should be possible
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, Subodh; Chand, Manesh; Dabral, Krishna; Semalty, P. D.
2016-05-01
A modified embedded atom method (MEAM) potential model up to second neighbours has been used to calculate the phonon dispersions for Ni0.55Pd0.45 alloy in which Pd is introduced as substitutional impurity. Using the force-constants obtained from MEAM potential, the local vibrational density of states in host Ni and substitutional Pd atoms using Green's function method has been calculated. The calculation of phonon dispersions of NiPd alloy shows a good agreement with the experimental results. Condition of resonance mode has also been investigated and resonance mode in the frequency spectrum of impurity atom at low frequency is observed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plemmons, Dayne; Flannigan, David
Coherent collective lattice oscillations known as phonons dictate a broad range of physical observables in condensed matter and act as primary energy carriers across a wide range of material systems. Despite this omnipresence, analysis of phonon dynamics on their ultrashort native spatiotemporal length scale - that is, the combined nanometer (nm), spatial and femtosecond (fs), temporal length-scales - has largely remained experimentally inaccessible. Here, we employ ultrafast electron microscopy (UEM) to directly image discrete acoustic phonons in real-space with combined nm-fs resolution. By directly probing electron scattering in the image plane (as opposed to the diffraction plane), we retain phase information critical for following the evolution, propagation, scattering, and decay of phonons in relation to morphological features of the specimen (i.e. interfaces, grain boundaries, voids, ripples, etc.). We extract a variety of morphologically-specific quantitative information from the UEM videos including phonon frequencies, phase velocities, and decays times. We expect these direct manifestations of local elastic properties in the vicinity of material defects and interfaces will aide in the understanding and application of phonon-mediated phenomena in nanostructures. Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Bhargavi, K. S.; Kubakaddi, S. S.
2014-10-01
We study hot-electron cooling by acoustic and optical phonons in monolayer MoS2. The cooling power P (Pe=P /n ) is investigated as a function of electron temperature Te (0-500 K) and carrier density n (1010-1013 cm-2) taking into account all relevant electron-phonon (el-ph) couplings. We find that the crossover from acoustic phonon dominated cooling at low Te to optical phonon dominated cooling at higher Te takes place at Te˜50 -75 K. The unscreened deformation potential (DP) coupling to the TA phonon is shown to dominate P due to acoustic phonon scattering over the entire temperature and density range considered. The cooling power due to screened DP coupling to the LA phonon and screened piezoelectric (PE) coupling to the TA and LA phonons is orders of magnitude lower. In the Bloch-Grüneisen (BG) regime, P ˜Te4(Te6) is predicted for unscreened (screened) el-ph interaction and P ˜n-1 /2(Pe˜n-3 /2) for both unscreened and screened el-ph interaction. The cooling power due to optical phonons is dominated by zero-order DP couplings and the Fröhlich interaction, and is found to be significantly reduced by the hot-phonon effect when the phonon relaxation time due to phonon-phonon scattering is large compared to the relaxation time due to el-ph scattering. The Te and n dependence of the hot-phonon distribution function is also studied. Our results for monolayer MoS2 are compared with those in conventional two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) as well as monolayer and bilayer graphene.
Dispersion and mirror transmission characteristics of bulk acoustic wave resonators.
Kokkonen, Kimmo; Pensala, Tuomas; Kaivola, Matti
2011-01-01
A heterodyne laser interferometer is used for a detailed study of the acoustic wave fields excited in a 932-MHz solidly mounted ZnO thin-film BAW resonator. The sample is manufactured on a glass substrate, which also allows direct measurement of the vibration fields from the bottom of the acoustic mirror. Vibration fields are measured both on top of the resonator and at the mirror-substrate interface in a frequency range of 350 to 1200 MHz. Plate wave dispersion diagrams are calculated from the experimental data in both cases and the transmission characteristics of the acoustic mirror are determined as a function of both frequency and lateral wave number. The experimental data are compared with 1-D and 2-D simulations to evaluate the validity of the modeling tools commonly used in mirror design. All the major features observed in the 1-D model are identified in the measured dispersion diagrams, and the mirror transmission characteristics predicted for the longitudinal waves, by both the 1-D and the 2-D models, match the measured values well. PMID:21244989
Phonon dispersion on Ag (100) surface: A modified analytic embedded atom method study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao-Jun, Zhang; Chang-Le, Chen
2016-01-01
Within the harmonic approximation, the analytic expression of the dynamical matrix is derived based on the modified analytic embedded atom method (MAEAM) and the dynamics theory of surface lattice. The surface phonon dispersions along three major symmetry directions , and X¯M¯ are calculated for the clean Ag (100) surface by using our derived formulas. We then discuss the polarization and localization of surface modes at points X¯ and M¯ by plotting the squared polarization vectors as a function of the layer index. The phonon frequencies of the surface modes calculated by MAEAM are compared with the available experimental and other theoretical data. It is found that the present results are generally in agreement with the referenced experimental or theoretical results, with a maximum deviation of 10.4%. The agreement shows that the modified analytic embedded atom method is a reasonable many-body potential model to quickly describe the surface lattice vibration. It also lays a significant foundation for studying the surface lattice vibration in other metals. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61471301 and 61078057), the Scientific Research Program Funded by Shaanxi Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. 14JK1301), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China (Grant No. 20126102110045).
Evidence of scaling in the high pressure phonon dispersion relations of some elemental solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srivastava, Divya; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Sarkar, Subir K.
2014-07-01
First principles searches are carried out for the existence of an asymptotic scaling law for the zero temperature phonon dispersion relation of several elemental crystalline solids in the high pressure regime. The solids studied are Cu, Ni, Pd, Au, Al, and Ir in the face-centered-cubic (fcc) geometry and Fe, Re, and Os in the hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) geometry. At higher pressures, the dependence of the scale of frequency on pressure can be fitted well by a power law. Elements with a given crystalline geometry have values of the scaling exponent very close to each other (0.32 for fcc and 0.27 for hcp - with a scatter below five percent of the average).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Aichao; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei; Yang, Chao; Wang, Decai; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Jiajia
2015-05-01
A high-Q cross-plate phononic crystal resonator (Cr-PCR) coupled with an electromechanical Helmholtz resonator (EMHR) is proposed to improve acoustic wave localization and energy harvesting. Owing to the strongly directional wave-scattering effect of the cross-plate corners, strong confinement of acoustic waves emerges. Consequently, the proposed Cr-PCR structure exhibits ∼353.5 times higher Q value and ∼6.1 times greater maximum pressure amplification than the phononic crystal resonator (Cy-PCR) (consisting of cylindrical scatterers) of the same size. Furthermore, the harvester using the proposed Cr-PCR and the EMHR has ∼22 times greater maximum output-power volume density than the previous harvester using Cy-PCR and EMHR structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy-Choudhury, Kaushik; Hughes, Stephen
2015-11-01
Electron-phonon coupling in semiconductor quantum dots plays a significant role in determining the optical properties of excited excitons, especially the spectral nature of emitted photons. This paper presents a comprehensive theory and analysis of emission spectra from artificial atoms or quantum dots coupled to structured photon reservoirs and acoustic phonons, when excited with incoherent pump fields. As specific examples of structured reservoirs, we chose a Lorentzian cavity and a slow-light coupled-cavity waveguide, which have both been explored experimentally. For the case of optical cavities, we directly compare and contrast the spectra from three well-known and distinct theoretical approaches to treat electron-phonon coupling, including a Markovian polaron master equation, a non-Markovian phonon correlation expansion technique, and a semiclassical linear susceptibility approach, and we point out the limitations of these models. For the cavity-QED polaron master equation, which treats the cavity-mode operator at the level of a system operator, we give closed form analytical solutions to the phonon-assisted scattering rates in the weak excitation approximation, fully accounting for temperature, cavity-exciton detuning, and cavity-dot coupling. We also show explicitly why the semiclassical linear susceptibility approach fails to correctly account for phonon-mediated cavity feeding. For weakly coupled cavities, we calculate the optical spectra using a more general photon reservoir polaron master-equation approach, and explain its differences from the above approaches in the low-Q limit of a Lorentzian cavity. We subsequently use this general reservoir approach to calculate the emission spectra from quantum dots coupled to slow-light photonic crystal waveguides, which demonstrate a number of striking photon-phonon coupling effects.
Coherent acoustic phonons in YBa2Cu3O7/La1/3Ca2/3MnO3 superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wei; He, Bin; Zhang, Chunfeng; Liu, Shenghua; Liu, Xiaoran; Middey, S.; Chakhalian, J.; Wang, Xiaoyong; Xiao, Min
2016-03-01
We investigate photo-induced coherent acoustic phonons in complex oxide superlattices consisting of high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x and ferromagnetic manganite La1/3Ca2/3MnO3 epitaxial layers with broadband pump-probe spectroscopy. Two oscillatory components have been observed in time-resolved differential reflectivity spectra. Based on the analysis, the slow oscillation mode with a frequency sensitive to the probe wavelength is ascribed to the stimulated Brillouin scattering due to the photon reflection by propagating train of coherent phonons. The fast oscillation mode with a probe-wavelength-insensitive frequency is attributed to the Bragg oscillations caused by specular phonon reflections at oxide interfaces or the electron-coupling induced modulation due to free carrier absorption in the metallic superlattices. Our findings suggest that oxide superlattice is an ideal system to tailor the coherent behaviors of acoustic phonons and to manipulate the thermal and acoustic properties.
Ken Telschow; John D. Larson III
2006-10-01
Film Bulk Acoustic Resonators are useful for many signal processing applications. Detailed knowledge of their operation properties are needed to optimize their design for specific applications. The finite size of these resonators precludes their use in single acoustic modes; rather, multiple wave modes, such as, lateral wave modes are always excited concurrently. In order to determine the contributions of these modes, we have been using a newly developed full-field laser acoustic imaging approach to directly measure their amplitude and phase throughout the resonator. This paper describes new results comparing modeling of both elastic and piezoelectric effects in the active material with imaging measurement of all excited modes. Fourier transformation of the acoustic amplitude and phase displacement images provides a quantitative determination of excited mode amplitude and wavenumber at any frequency. Images combined at several frequencies form a direct visualization of lateral mode excitation and dispersion for the device under test allowing mode identification and comparison with predicted operational properties. Discussion and analysis are presented for modes near the first longitudinal thickness resonance (~900 MHz) in an AlN thin film resonator. Plate wave modeling, taking account of material crystalline orientation, elastic and piezoelectric properties and overlayer metallic films, will be discussed in relation to direct image measurements.
Wide-Stopband Aperiodic Phononic Filters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rostem, Karwan; Chuss, David; Denis, K. L.; Wollack, E. J.
2016-01-01
We demonstrate that a phonon stopband can be synthesized from an aperiodic structure comprising a discrete set of phononic filter stages. Each element of the set has a dispersion relation that defines a complete bandgap when calculated under a Bloch boundary condition. Hence, the effective stopband width in an aperiodic phononic filter (PnF) may readily exceed that of a phononic crystal with a single lattice constant or a coherence scale. With simulations of multi-moded phononic waveguides, we discuss the effects of finite geometry and mode-converting junctions on the phonon transmission in PnFs. The principles described may be utilized to form a wide stopband in acoustic and surface wave media. Relative to the quantum of thermal conductance for a uniform mesoscopic beam, a PnF with a stopband covering 1.6-10.4 GHz is estimated to reduce the thermal conductance by an order of magnitude at 75 mK.
Wide-stopband aperiodic phononic filters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rostem, K.; Chuss, D. T.; Denis, K. L.; Wollack, E. J.
2016-06-01
We demonstrate that a phonon stopband can be synthesized from an aperiodic structure comprising a discrete set of phononic filter stages. Each element of the set has a dispersion relation that defines a complete bandgap when calculated under a Bloch boundary condition. Hence, the effective stopband width in an aperiodic phononic filter (PnF) may readily exceed that of a phononic crystal with a single lattice constant or a coherence scale. With simulations of multi-moded phononic waveguides, we discuss the effects of finite geometry and mode-converting junctions on the phonon transmission in PnFs. The principles described may be utilized to form a wide stopband in acoustic and surface wave media. Relative to the quantum of thermal conductance for a uniform mesoscopic beam, a PnF with a stopband covering 1.6–10.4 GHz is estimated to reduce the thermal conductance by an order of magnitude at 75 mK.
Kojima, Seiji Mori, Tatsuya
2014-11-05
The lowest frequency IR active A{sub 1}(z) and E(x) modes of a ferroelectric congruent lithium tantalate crystal were studied by the broadband polarized Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy using the coherent THz radiation from 0.2 to 6.5 THz. The dispersion relations of the real and imaginary parts of a polariton wave vector were determined from the complex extraordinary and ordinary refractive indices for the A{sub 1}(z) and E(x) symmetry phonon-polaritons, respectively. The observed complex dispersion relations of two symmetries are in agreement within the experimental uncertainty with the calculated dispersion curves by the damped harmonic oscillator model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Kang Il; Kang, Hwi Suk; Yoon, Suk Wang
2016-04-01
The present work reports a combined experimental and theoretical study on the acoustic band gaps in a two-dimensional (2D) phononic crystal (PC) consisting of periodic square arrays of stainless-steel cylinders with diameters of 1.0 mm and a lattice constant of 1.5 mm in water. The theoretical band structure of the 2D PC was calculated along the ΓX direction of the first Brillouin zone. The transmission and the reflection coefficients were obtained both experimentally and theoretically along the ΓX direction of the 2D PC. The 2D PC exhibited 5 band gaps at frequencies below 2.0 MHz, with the first Bragg gap being around a frequency of 0.5 MHz. To understand the band gaps in the 2D PC, we calculated the acoustic pressure fields at specific frequencies of interest for normal incidence, and we explained them from the perspective of acoustic diffraction gratings.
AB INITIO STUDY OF PHONON DISPERSION AND ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF L12 INTERMETALLICS Ti3Al AND Y3Al
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arikan, N.; Ersen, M.; Ocak, H. Y.; Iyigör, A.; Candan, A.; UǦUR, Ş.; UǦUR, G.; Khenata, R.; Varshney, D.
2013-12-01
In this paper, the structural, elastic and phonon properties of Ti3Al and Y3Al in L12(Cu3Al) phase are studied by performing first-principles calculations within the generalized gradient approximation. The calculated lattice constants, static bulk moduli, first-order pressure derivative of bulk moduli and elastic constants for both compounds are reported. The phonon dispersion curves along several high-symmetry lines at the Brillouin zone, together with the corresponding phonon density of states, are determined using the first-principles linear-response approach of the density functional perturbation theory. Temperature variations of specific heat in the range of 0-500 K are obtained using the quasi-harmonic model.
Acoustic dispersion in a two-dimensional dipole system
Golden, Kenneth I.; Kalman, Gabor J.; Donko, Zoltan; Hartmann, Peter
2008-07-15
We calculate the full density response function and from it the long-wavelength acoustic dispersion for a two-dimensional system of strongly coupled point dipoles interacting through a 1/r{sup 3} potential at arbitrary degeneracy. Such a system has no random-phase-approximation (RPA) limit and the calculation has to include correlations from the outset. We follow the quasilocalized charge (QLC) approach, accompanied by molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations. Similarly to what has been recently reported for the closely spaced classical electron-hole bilayer [G. J. Kalman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 236801 (2007)] and in marked contrast to the RPA, we report a long-wavelength acoustic phase velocity that is wholly maintained by particle correlations and varies linearly with the dipole moment p. The oscillation frequency, calculated both in an extended QLC approximation and in the Singwi-Tosi-Land-Sjolander approximation [Phys. Rev. 176, 589 (1968)], is invariant in form over the entire classical to quantum domains all the way down to zero temperature. Based on our classical MD-generated pair distribution function data and on ground-state energy data generated by recent quantum Monte Carlo simulations on a bosonic dipole system [G. E. Astrakharchik et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 060405 (2007)], there is a good agreement between the QLC approximation kinetic sound speeds and the standard thermodynamic sound speeds in both the classical and quantum domains.
Fernée, Mark J; Sinito, Chiara; Louyer, Yann; Potzner, Christian; Nguyen, Tich-Lam; Mulvaney, Paul; Tamarat, Philippe; Lounis, Brahim
2012-01-01
Charged quantum dots provide an important platform for a range of emerging quantum technologies. Colloidal quantum dots in particular offer unique advantages for such applications (facile synthesis, manipulation and compatibility with a wide range of environments), especially if stable charged states can be harnessed in these materials. Here we engineer the CdSe nanocrystal core and shell structure to efficiently ionize at cryogenic temperatures, resulting in trion emission with a single sharp zero-phonon line and a mono exponential decay. Magneto-optical spectroscopy enables direct determination of electron and hole g-factors. Spin relaxation is observed in high fields, enabling unambiguous identification of the trion charge. Importantly, we show that spin flips are completely inhibited for Zeeman splittings below the low-energy bound for confined acoustic phonons. This reveals a characteristic unique to colloidal quantum dots that will promote the use of these versatile materials in challenging quantum technological applications. PMID:23250417
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernée, Mark J.; Sinito, Chiara; Louyer, Yann; Potzner, Christian; Nguyen, Tich-Lam; Mulvaney, Paul; Tamarat, Philippe; Lounis, Brahim
2012-12-01
Charged quantum dots provide an important platform for a range of emerging quantum technologies. Colloidal quantum dots in particular offer unique advantages for such applications (facile synthesis, manipulation and compatibility with a wide range of environments), especially if stable charged states can be harnessed in these materials. Here we engineer the CdSe nanocrystal core and shell structure to efficiently ionize at cryogenic temperatures, resulting in trion emission with a single sharp zero-phonon line and a mono exponential decay. Magneto-optical spectroscopy enables direct determination of electron and hole g-factors. Spin relaxation is observed in high fields, enabling unambiguous identification of the trion charge. Importantly, we show that spin flips are completely inhibited for Zeeman splittings below the low-energy bound for confined acoustic phonons. This reveals a characteristic unique to colloidal quantum dots that will promote the use of these versatile materials in challenging quantum technological applications.
Computation of phonon dispersion in non-crystalline Mg-based alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vora, Aditya M.
The computation of the phonon dispersion curves (PDC) and the related properties of three Mg-based metallic glasses, viz. Mg70Zn30, Mg84Ni16 and Mg85.5Cu14.5, are made using the well recognized model potential of Gajjar et al. The pseudo-alloy atom model is applied for the first time instead of the Vegard's law. The three theoretical approaches given by Hubbard-Beeby, Takeno-Goda and Bhatia-Singh are used in the present study to compute the PDC of the systems. Five local-field correction functions proposed by Hartree, Taylor, Ichimaru-Utsumi, Farid et al. and Sarkar et al. are employed for the first time to see the effects of exchange and correlation. The thermodynamic and elastic properties are computed from the elastic limits of the PDC and found to be in qualitative agreement with the available theoretical or experimental data. The present findings for the PDC of Mg70Zn30 alloy are found in fair agreement with available theoretical and experimental data.
Analyzing Dirac Cone and Phonon Dispersion in Highly Oriented Nanocrystalline Graphene.
Nai, Chang Tai; Xu, Hai; Tan, Sherman J R; Loh, Kian Ping
2016-01-26
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is one of the most promising growth techniques to scale up the production of monolayer graphene. At present, there are intense efforts to control the orientation of graphene grains during CVD, motivated by the fact that there is a higher probability for oriented grains to achieve seamless merging, forming a large single crystal. However, it is still challenging to produce single-crystal graphene with no grain boundaries over macroscopic length scales, especially when the nucleation density of graphene nuclei is high. Nonetheless, nanocrystalline graphene with highly oriented grains may exhibit single-crystal-like properties. Herein, we investigate the spectroscopic signatures of graphene film containing highly oriented, nanosized grains (20-150 nm) using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). The robustness of the Dirac cone, as well as dispersion of its phonons, as a function of graphene's grain size and before and after film coalescence, was investigated. In view of the sensitivity of atomically thin graphene to atmospheric adsorbates and intercalants, ARPES and HREELS were also used to monitor the changes in spectroscopic signatures of the graphene film following exposure to the ambient atmosphere. PMID:26713552
In-plane anisotropy in the phonon dispersion of YBa_2Cu_3O_6.95
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Jae-Ho; Piekarz, Przemek; Egami, Takeshi; McQueeney, Robert; Yethiraj, Mohana; Arai, Masatoshi
2002-03-01
We report on our observations of strong in-plane anisotropy in the phonon dispersion of YBa_2Cu_3O_6.95 which changes with the onset of superconductivity. We used the time-of-flight neutron scattering (MAPS of the ISIS) to observe the wide range of energy-momentum space simultaneously. The half-breathing LO modes showed strong in-plane anisotropy, with the characteristic softening along the b-direction and the flat split dispersions along the a-direction. They suggest there is a dynamic unit cell doubling primarily along the a-axis. The corresponding TO mode, however, did not show a clear signature of the split dispersion. Below Tc the b-dispersion also showed a tendency for the split dispersion and the anisotropy is reduced in the superconducting phase. This result is consistent with the anisotropy in the underlying electronic structure and the presence of a dynamic stripe structure with 2a periodicity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Chuan; Daniel, Marcus; Grossmann, Martin; Ristow, Oliver; Brick, Delia; Schubert, Martin; Albrecht, Manfred; Dekorsy, Thomas
2014-05-01
Skutterudites are considered as interesting material for thermoelectric applications. Filling foreign atoms into the cagelike structure of a CoSb3 skutterudite is beneficial to its thermoelectric properties by increasing phonon scattering while maintaining the electrical conductivity. In this paper we demonstrate the generation and detection of coherent acoustic phonons in thin films of CoSb3 and partially filled YbxCo4Sb12 skutterudites using femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. By using a pulse-echo method, the longitudinal sound velocity of amorphous and polycrystalline CoSb3 thin films is obtained. For partially filled YbxCo4Sb12 thin films, an obvious decrease of the longitudinal sound velocity is observed at high filling fraction. Concomitantly, the high frequency acoustic phonon modes are strongly damped as the Yb filling fraction increases, which gives direct evidence for acoustic phonon scattering processes. It is shown that the reduction of lattice thermal conductivity after Yb filling is mainly achieved by the strong scattering of acoustic phonons.
Shinokita, Keisuke; Reimann, Klaus; Woerner, Michael; Elsaesser, Thomas; Hey, Rudolf; Flytzanis, Christos
2016-02-19
Sound amplification in an electrically biased superlattice (SL) is studied in optical experiments with 100 fs time resolution. Coherent SL phonons with frequencies of 40, 375, and 410 GHz give rise to oscillatory reflectivity changes. With currents from 0.5 to 1.3 A, the Fourier amplitude of the 410 GHz phonon increases by more than a factor of 2 over a 200 ps period. This amplification is due to stimulated Čerenkov phonon emission by electrons undergoing intraminiband transport. The gain coefficient of 8×10^{3} cm^{-1} is reproduced by theoretical calculations and holds potential for novel sub-THz phonon emitters. PMID:26943546
Acoustic Faraday rotation in Weyl semimetals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Donghao; Shi, Junren
We investigate the phonon problems in Weyl semimetals, from which both the phonon Berry curvature and the phonon Damping could be obtained. We show that even without a magnetic field, the degenerate transverse acoustic modes could also be split due to the adiabatic curvature. In three dimensional case, acoustic Faraday rotation shows up. And furthermore, since the attenuation procedure could distinguish the polarized mode, single circularly polarized acoustic wave could be realized. We study the mechanism in the novel time reversal symmetry broken Weyl semimetal. New effects rise because of the linear dispersion, which give enlightenment in the measurement of this new kind of three-dimensional material.
Thermal conductivity of graphene nanoribbons accounting for phonon dispersion and polarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yingjun; Xie, Guofeng
2015-12-01
The relative contribution to heat conduction by different phonon branches is still an intriguing and open question in phonon transport of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). By incorporating the direction-dependent phonon-boundary scattering into the linearized phonon Boltzmann transport equation, we find that because of lower Grüneisen parameter, the TA phonons have the major contribution to thermal conductivity of GNRs, and in the case of smooth edge and micron-length of GNRS, the relative contribution of TA branch to thermal conductivity is over 50%. The length and edge roughness of GNRs have distinct influences on the relative contribution of different polarization branches to thermal conductivity. The contribution of TA branch to thermal conductivity increases with increasing the length or decreasing the edge roughness of GNRs. On the contrary, the contribution of ZA branch to thermal conductivity increases with decreasing the length or increasing the edge roughness of GNRs. The contribution of LA branch is length and roughness insensitive. Our findings are helpful for understanding and engineering the thermal conductivity of GNRs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukasawa, Ryoichi; Okubo, Yusei; Abe, Osamu; Ohta, Kimihiro
1992-03-01
We report the Raman scattering spectra of the folded longitudinal acoustic phonon of AlxGa1-xAs/GaAs superlattices for various aluminium (Al) mole fractions. The effect of Al mole fraction increases on the Raman intensities and the frequencies was studied.
Acoustic phonon-limited diffusion thermopower in monolayer MoS{sub 2}
Patil, S. B.; Sankeshwar, N. S. Kubakaddi, S. S.
2015-06-24
Diffusion thermopower S{sub d} is investigated, theoretically, as a function of temperature, T and electron concentration, n{sub s} in a n-type monolayer molebdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}). Electron scattering due to unscreened deformation potential (DP) coupling of TA phonons, screened DP coupling of LA phonons, and screened piezoelectric (PE) coupling of LA and TA phonons is considered. Total S{sub d} is dominated by electron scattering by TA phonons via unscreened DP coupling. S{sub d} is found to increase (decrease) with increasing T (n{sub s}). At low T and for high n{sub s}, S{sub d} ∼ T and n{sub s}{sup −1} as found from the Mott formula. At a given T and for given ns, S{sub d} in MoS{sub 2} is much larger than that in GaAs, due to the larger electron effective mass in the former.
Meevasana, Warawat
2010-05-26
Much progress has been made recently in the study of the effects of electron-phonon (el-ph) coupling in doped insulators using angle resolved photoemission (ARPES), yielding evidence for the dominant role of el-ph interactions in underdoped cuprates. As these studies have been limited to doped Mott insulators, the important question arises how this compares with doped band insulators where similar el-ph couplings should be at work. The archetypical case is the perovskite SrTiO{sub 3} (STO), well known for its giant dielectric constant of 10000 at low temperature, exceeding that of La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} by a factor of 500. Based on this fact, it has been suggested that doped STO should be the archetypical bipolaron superconductor. Here we report an ARPES study from high-quality surfaces of lightly doped SrTiO{sub 3}. Comparing to lightly doped Mott insulators, we find the signatures of only moderate electron-phonon coupling: a dispersion anomaly associated with the low frequency optical phonon with a {lambda}{prime} {approx} 0.3 and an overall bandwidth renormalization suggesting an overall {lambda}{prime} {approx} 0.7 coming from the higher frequency phonons. Further, we find no clear signatures of the large pseudogap or small polaron phenomena. These findings demonstrate that a large dielectric constant itself is not a good indicator of el-ph coupling and highlight the unusually strong effects of the el-ph coupling in doped Mott insulators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Kung-Hsuan; Wang, Kuan-Jen; Chang, Chung-Chieh; Wen, Yu-Chieh; Lv, Bing; Chu, Ching-Wu; Wu, Maw-Kuen
2016-05-01
We have utilized ultrafast optical spectroscopy to study carrier dynamics in slightly underdoped (BaK)Fe2As2 crystals without magnetic transition. The photoelastic signals due to coherent acoustic phonons have been quantitatively investigated. According to our temperature-dependent results, we found that the relaxation component of superconducting quasiparticles persisted from the superconducting state up to at least 70 K in the normal state. Our findings suggest that the pseudogaplike feature in the normal state is possibly the precursor of superconductivity. We also highlight that the pseudogap feature of K-doped BaFe2As2 is different from that of other iron-based superconductors, including Co-doped or P-doped BaFe2As2.
Lin, Kung-Hsuan; Wang, Kuan-Jen; Chang, Chung-Chieh; Wen, Yu-Chieh; Lv, Bing; Chu, Ching-Wu; Wu, Maw-Kuen
2016-01-01
We have utilized ultrafast optical spectroscopy to study carrier dynamics in slightly underdoped (BaK)Fe2As2 crystals without magnetic transition. The photoelastic signals due to coherent acoustic phonons have been quantitatively investigated. According to our temperature-dependent results, we found that the relaxation component of superconducting quasiparticles persisted from the superconducting state up to at least 70 K in the normal state. Our findings suggest that the pseudogaplike feature in the normal state is possibly the precursor of superconductivity. We also highlight that the pseudogap feature of K-doped BaFe2As2 is different from that of other iron-based superconductors, including Co-doped or P-doped BaFe2As2. PMID:27180873
Lin, Kung-Hsuan; Wang, Kuan-Jen; Chang, Chung-Chieh; Wen, Yu-Chieh; Lv, Bing; Chu, Ching-Wu; Wu, Maw-Kuen
2016-01-01
We have utilized ultrafast optical spectroscopy to study carrier dynamics in slightly underdoped (BaK)Fe2As2 crystals without magnetic transition. The photoelastic signals due to coherent acoustic phonons have been quantitatively investigated. According to our temperature-dependent results, we found that the relaxation component of superconducting quasiparticles persisted from the superconducting state up to at least 70 K in the normal state. Our findings suggest that the pseudogaplike feature in the normal state is possibly the precursor of superconductivity. We also highlight that the pseudogap feature of K-doped BaFe2As2 is different from that of other iron-based superconductors, including Co-doped or P-doped BaFe2As2. PMID:27180873
Phonon dynamics of graphene on metals.
Al Taleb, Amjad; Farías, Daniel
2016-03-16
The study of surface phonon dispersion curves is motivated by the quest for a detailed understanding of the forces between the atoms at the surface and in the bulk. In the case of graphene, additional motivation comes from the fact that thermal conductivity is dominated by contributions from acoustic phonons, while optical phonon properties are essential to understand Raman spectra. In this article, we review recent progress made in the experimental determination of phonon dispersion curves of graphene grown on several single-crystal metal surfaces. The two main experimental techniques usually employed are high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and inelastic helium atom scattering (HAS). The different dispersion branches provide a detailed insight into the graphene-substrate interaction. Softening of optical modes and signatures of the substrate's Rayleigh wave are observed for strong graphene-substrate interactions, while acoustic phonon modes resemble those of free-standing graphene for weakly interacting systems. The latter allows determining the bending rigidity and the graphene-substrate coupling strength. A comparison between theory and experiment is discussed for several illustrative examples. Perspectives for future experiments are discussed. PMID:26886508
Phonon dynamics of graphene on metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taleb, Amjad Al; Farías, Daniel
2016-03-01
The study of surface phonon dispersion curves is motivated by the quest for a detailed understanding of the forces between the atoms at the surface and in the bulk. In the case of graphene, additional motivation comes from the fact that thermal conductivity is dominated by contributions from acoustic phonons, while optical phonon properties are essential to understand Raman spectra. In this article, we review recent progress made in the experimental determination of phonon dispersion curves of graphene grown on several single-crystal metal surfaces. The two main experimental techniques usually employed are high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and inelastic helium atom scattering (HAS). The different dispersion branches provide a detailed insight into the graphene-substrate interaction. Softening of optical modes and signatures of the substrate‧s Rayleigh wave are observed for strong graphene-substrate interactions, while acoustic phonon modes resemble those of free-standing graphene for weakly interacting systems. The latter allows determining the bending rigidity and the graphene-substrate coupling strength. A comparison between theory and experiment is discussed for several illustrative examples. Perspectives for future experiments are discussed.
Molecular vibrations of [n]oligoacenes (n=2-5 and 10) and phonon dispersion relations of polyacene.
Yamakita, Yoshihiro; Kimura, Jin; Ohno, Koichi
2007-02-14
As model compounds for nanosize carbon clusters, the phonon dispersion curves of polyacene are constructed based on density functional theory calculations for [n]oligoacenes (n=2-5, 10, and 15). Complete vibrational assignments are given for the observed Fourier-transform infrared and Raman spectra of [n]oligoacenes (n=2-5). Raman intensity distributions by the 1064-nm excitation are well reproduced by the polarizability-approximation calculations for naphthalene and anthracene, whereas several bands of naphthacene and pentacene at 1700-1100 cm(-1) are calculated to be enhanced by the resonance Raman effect. It is found from vibronic calculations that the coupled a(g) modes between the Kekulé deformation and joint CC stretching give rise to the Raman enhancements of the Franck-Condon type, and that the b(3g) mode corresponding to the graphite G mode is enhanced by vibronic coupling between the (1)L(a)((1)B(1u)) and (1)B(b)((1)B(2u)) states. The phonon dispersion curves of polyacene provide a uniform foundation for understanding molecular vibrations of the oligoacenes in terms of the phase difference. The mode correlated with the defect-sensitive D mode of the bulk carbon networks is also found for the present one-dimensional system. PMID:17313241
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birt, Daniel R.; An, Kyongmo; Weathers, Annie; Shi, Li; Tsoi, Maxim; Li, Xiaoqin
2013-02-01
We demonstrate the use of the micro-Brillouin light scattering (micro-BLS) technique as a local temperature sensor for magnons in a permalloy (Py) thin film and phonons in the glass substrate. When the Py film is uniformly heated, we observe a systematic shift in the frequencies of two thermally excited perpendicular standing spin wave modes. Fitting the temperature dependent magnon spectra allows us to achieve a temperature resolution better than 2.5 K. In addition, we demonstrate that the micro-BLS spectra can be used to measure the local temperature of magnons and the relative temperature shift of phonons across a thermal gradient. Such local temperature sensors are useful for investigating spin caloritronic and thermal transport phenomena in general.
Tunable broadband unidirectional acoustic transmission based on a waveguide with phononic crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Ailing; Chen, Tianning; Wang, Xiaopeng; Wan, Lele
2016-08-01
In this paper, a tunable broadband unidirectional acoustic transmission (UAT) device composed of a bended tube and a superlattice with square columns is proposed and numerically investigated by using finite element method. The UAT is realized in the proposed UAT device within two wide frequency ranges. And the effectiveness of the UAT device is demonstrated by analyzing the sound pressure distributions when the acoustic waves are incident from different directions. The unidirectional band gaps can be effectively tuned by mechanically rotating the square columns, which is a highlight of this paper. Besides, a bidirectional acoustic isolation (BAI) device is obtained by placing two superlattices in the bended tube, in which the acoustic waves cannot propagate along any directions. The physical mechanisms of the proposed UAT device and BAI device are simply discussed. The proposed models show potential applications in some areas, such as unidirectional sonic barrier or noise insulation.
Phononic crystals of spherical particles: A tight binding approach
Mattarelli, M.; Secchi, M.; Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38123 Trento ; Montagna, M.
2013-11-07
The vibrational dynamics of a fcc phononic crystal of spheres is studied and compared with that of a single free sphere, modelled either by a continuous homogeneous medium or by a finite cluster of atoms. For weak interaction among the spheres, the vibrational dynamics of the phononic crystal is described by shallow bands, with low degree of dispersion, corresponding to the acoustic spheroidal and torsional modes of the single sphere. The phonon displacements are therefore related to the vibrations of a sphere, as the electron wave functions in a crystal are related to the atomic wave functions in a tight binding model. Important dispersion is found for the two lowest phonon bands, which correspond to zero frequency free translation and rotation of a free sphere. Brillouin scattering spectra are calculated at some values of the exchanged wavevectors of the light, and compared with those of a single sphere. With weak interaction between particles, given the high acoustic impedance mismatch in dry systems, the density of phonon states consist of sharp bands separated by large gaps, which can be well accounted for by a single particle model. Based on the width of the frequency gaps, tunable with the particle size, and on the small number of dispersive acoustic phonons, such systems may provide excellent materials for application as sound or heat filters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiga, Takuma; Aketo, Daisuke; Feng, Lei; Shiomi, Junichiro
2016-05-01
In recent years, nanostructuring of dielectric and semiconducting crystals has enhanced controllability of their thermal conductivity. To carry out computational materials search for nanostructured materials with desirable thermal conductivity, a key property is the thermal conductivity spectrum of the original single crystal, which determines the appropriate length scale of nanostructures and mutual adaptability of different kinds of nanostructures. Although the first-principles phonon transport calculations have become accessible, the anharmonic lattice dynamics calculations are still expensive to scan many materials. To this end, we have developed an empirical model that describes the thermal conductivity spectrum in terms only of harmonic phonon properties and bulk thermal conductivity. The model was tested for several crystals with different structures and thermal conductivities, and was confirmed to reproduce the overall profiles of thermal conductivity spectra and their accumulation functions obtained by the first-principles anharmonic calculations.
Guo, Xiao; Wei, Peijun; Lan, Man; Li, Li
2016-08-01
The effects of functionally graded interlayers on dispersion relations of elastic waves in a one-dimensional piezoelectric/piezomagnetic phononic crystal are studied in this paper. First, the state transfer equation of the functionally graded interlayer is derived from the motion equation by the reduction of order (from second order to first order). The transfer matrix of the functionally graded interlayer is obtained by solving the state transfer equation with the spatial-varying coefficient. Based on the transfer matrixes of the piezoelectric slab, the piezomagnetic slab and the functionally graded interlayers, the total transfer matrix of a single cell is obtained. Further, the Bloch theorem is used to obtain the resultant dispersion equations of in-plane and anti-plane Bloch waves. The dispersion equations are solved numerically and the numerical results are shown graphically. Five kinds of profiles of functionally graded interlayers between a piezoelectric slab and a piezomagnetic slab are considered. It is shown that the functionally graded interlayers have evident influences on the dispersion curves and the band gaps. PMID:27179141
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Yulu; Xie, Guofeng; Wei, Xiaolin; Zhang, Kaiwang; Tang, Minghua; Zhong, Jianxin; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong-Wei
2014-02-01
Although graphene holds great promise in thermal applications owing to its superior thermal conductivity, an intriguing question remains as to which polarizations and frequencies are dominant in its heat conduction. In this work, by incorporating the direction-dependent phonon-boundary scattering and the special selection rule for three-phonon scattering into the linearized phonon Boltzmann transport equation, we systematically investigate the relative contributions from longitudinal-acoustic, transverse-acoustic, and out-of-plane acoustic (ZA) branches to the thermal conductivity of graphene ribbons, focusing on the effects of their size and temperature. We find that the relative contribution from ZA branch to heat conduction increases with decreasing the size, specularity parameter, and temperature of graphene ribbons. Our analysis reveals that this change arises from the huge difference in the phonon dispersion and in the phonon mean free path of Umklapp process between in-plane and out-of-plane branches.
Phononic crystal surface mode coupling and its use in acoustic Doppler velocimetry.
Cicek, Ahmet; Salman, Aysevil; Kaya, Olgun Adem; Ulug, Bulent
2016-02-01
It is numerically shown that surface modes of two-dimensional phononic crystals, which are Bloch modes bound to the interface between the phononic crystal and the surrounding host, can couple back and forth between the surfaces in a length scale determined by the separation of two surfaces and frequency. Supercell band structure computations through the finite-element method reveal that the surface band of an isolated surface splits into two bands which support either symmetric or antisymmetric hybrid modes. When the surface separation is 3.5 times the lattice constant, a coupling length varying between 30 and 48 periods can be obtained which first increases linearly with frequency and, then, decreases rapidly. In the linear regime, variation of coupling length can be used as a means of measuring speeds of objects on the order of 0.1m/s by incorporating the Doppler shift. Speed sensitivity can be improved by increasing surface separation at the cost of larger device sizes. PMID:26565078
Phonon dispersion relation of Mg-Cu-Gd bulk metallic glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suthar, P. H.
2016-05-01
Collective dynamics and elastic constants of bulk metallic glasses Mg65Cu25Gd10 and Mg60Cu25Gd15 are computed using the Hubbard -Beeby approach and our well recognized model potential. The important ingredients in the present study are the pair potential and local field correction functions (LFCF). The local field correction functions due to Hartree (H), Farid et al (F) and Sarkar Sen et al (S) are employed to investigation the influence of the screening effects on the longitudinal and traversed of phonon modes of glassy system. The results for the elastic constants are found to be in good agreement with experimental data.
Holographically formed, acoustically switchable gratings based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystals.
Liu, Yan Jun; Lu, Mengqian; Ding, Xiaoyun; Leong, Eunice S P; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Shi, Jinjie; Teng, Jing Hua; Wang, Lin; Bunning, Timothy J; Huang, Tony Jun
2013-08-01
We report holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) gratings driven by surface acoustic waves (SAWs). Our experiments show that upon applying SAWs, the H-PDLC grating exhibited switchable properties: The diffraction of the H-PDLC grating decreased, whereas the transmission increased. This acoustically switchable behavior is due to the acoustic streaming-induced realignment of liquid crystals as well as absorption-resulted thermal diffusion. Such SAW-driven H-PDLC gratings are potentially useful in many photonic applications, such as optical switches, spatial light modulators, and switchable add/drop filters. PMID:22909448
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nissimagoudar, A. S.; Sankeshwar, N. S.
2014-06-01
Lattice thermal conductivity, κp, of suspended and supported graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) is studied over a wide temperature range, taking into account the dispersive nature of confined acoustic phonon modes. Employing a modified Callaway model, an expression for κp is developed, considering the explicit contributions from in-plane longitudinal, transverse, and torsional acoustic, and out-of-plane flexural acoustic phonon modes. Numerical calculations of κp(T) are presented assuming the confined acoustic phonons to be scattered by sample boundaries, impurities, and other phonons via both normal and umklapp processes. The effect of phonon confinement is to modify the phonon group velocities and the temperature dependence of κp. In a suspended 5-nm-wide GNR at room temperature, a decrease in κp by ˜70% is predicted. Our study brings out the relative importance of the contributing phonon modes and reveals the influence of flexural phonons on κp as a marked shoulder at low temperatures. The role of the various sample-dependent scattering mechanisms is examined. The substrate, in supported GNRs, is shown to curtail the phonon mean free path and suppress the low-temperature κp. Our results are in good agreement with recent experimental data of Bae et al. [M. H. Bae, Z. Li, Z. Aksamija, P. N. Martin, F. Xiong, Z. Y. Ong, I. Knezevic, and E. Pop, Nat. Commun. 4, 1734 (2013), 10.1038/ncomms2755] for supported GNRs.
Nakano, Kousuke; Hongo, Kenta; Maezono, Ryo
2016-01-01
There has been a puzzle between experiments and theoretical predictions on the charge ordering of layered titanium-oxypnictides superconductors. Unconventional mechanisms to explain this discrepancy have been argued so far, even affecting the understanding of superconductivity on the compound. We provide a new theoretical prediction, by which the discrepancy itself is resolved without any complicated unconventional explanation. Phonon dispersions and changes of nesting vectors in Fermi surfaces are clarified to lead to the variety of superlattice structures even for the common crystal structures when without CDW, including orthorhombic 2 × 2 × 1 one for BaTi2As2O, which has not yet been explained successfully so far, being different from tetragonal for BaTi2Sb2O and BaTi2Bi2O. The electronic structure analysis can naturally explain experimental observations about CDW including most latest ones without any cramped unconventional mechanisms. PMID:27430418
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakano, Kousuke; Hongo, Kenta; Maezono, Ryo
2016-07-01
There has been a puzzle between experiments and theoretical predictions on the charge ordering of layered titanium-oxypnictides superconductors. Unconventional mechanisms to explain this discrepancy have been argued so far, even affecting the understanding of superconductivity on the compound. We provide a new theoretical prediction, by which the discrepancy itself is resolved without any complicated unconventional explanation. Phonon dispersions and changes of nesting vectors in Fermi surfaces are clarified to lead to the variety of superlattice structures even for the common crystal structures when without CDW, including orthorhombic 2 × 2 × 1 one for BaTi2As2O, which has not yet been explained successfully so far, being different from tetragonal for BaTi2Sb2O and BaTi2Bi2O. The electronic structure analysis can naturally explain experimental observations about CDW including most latest ones without any cramped unconventional mechanisms.
Nakano, Kousuke; Hongo, Kenta; Maezono, Ryo
2016-01-01
There has been a puzzle between experiments and theoretical predictions on the charge ordering of layered titanium-oxypnictides superconductors. Unconventional mechanisms to explain this discrepancy have been argued so far, even affecting the understanding of superconductivity on the compound. We provide a new theoretical prediction, by which the discrepancy itself is resolved without any complicated unconventional explanation. Phonon dispersions and changes of nesting vectors in Fermi surfaces are clarified to lead to the variety of superlattice structures even for the common crystal structures when without CDW, including orthorhombic 2 × 2 × 1 one for BaTi2As2O, which has not yet been explained successfully so far, being different from tetragonal for BaTi2Sb2O and BaTi2Bi2O. The electronic structure analysis can naturally explain experimental observations about CDW including most latest ones without any cramped unconventional mechanisms. PMID:27430418
Cross-plane heat conduction in thin films with ab-initio phonon dispersions and scattering rates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vermeersch, Bjorn; Carrete, Jesús; Mingo, Natalio
2016-05-01
We present a first-principles study of the cross-plane thermal conductivity κ ⊥ in a wide variety of semiconductor thin films. We introduce a simple suppression model that matches variance-reduced Monte Carlo simulations with ab-initio phonon dispersions and scattering rates within ≤ 5 % even for anisotropic compounds. This, in turn, enables accurate κ ⊥ reconstruction from tabulated cumulative conductivity curves κ Σ ( Λ ⊥ ) . We furthermore reveal, and explain, a distinct quasiballistic regime characterised by a fractional thickness dependence κ ⊥ ˜ L 2 - α in alloys (where α is the Lévy exponent) and logarithmic dependence κ ⊥ ˜ ln ( L ) in single crystals. These observations culminate in the formulation of two compact parametric forms for κ ⊥ ( L ) that can fit the first-principles curves across the entire ballistic-diffusive range within a few percent for all investigated compounds.
Low-dissipation and -dispersion Runge-Kutta schemes for computational acoustics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hu, F. Q.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Manthey, J.
1994-01-01
In this paper, we investigate accurate and efficient time advancing methods for computational acoustics, where non-dissipative and non-dispersive properties are of critical importance. Our analysis pertains to the application of Runge-Kutta methods to high-order finite difference discretization. In many CFD applications multi-stage Runge-Kutta schemes have often been favored for their low storage requirements and relatively large stability limits. For computing acoustic waves, however, the stability consideration alone is not sufficient, since the Runge-Kutta schemes entail both dissipation and dispersion errors. The time step is now limited by the tolerable dissipation and dispersion errors in the computation. In the present paper, it is shown that if the traditional Runge-Kutta schemes are used for time advancing in acoustic problems, time steps greatly smaller than that allowed by the stability limit are necessary. Low-Dissipation and -Dispersion Runge-Kutta (LDDRE) schemes are proposed, based on an optimization that minimizes the dissipation and dispersion errors for wave propagation. Order optimizations of both single-step and two-step alternating schemes are considered. The proposed LDDRK schemes are remarkably more efficient than the classical Runge-Kutta schemes for acoustic computations. Moreover, low storage implementations of the optimized schemes are discussed. Special issues of implementing numerical boundary conditions in the LDDRK schemes are also addressed.
Observation of coherent acoustic phonon in titanyl phthalocyanine thin solid films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahn, Hyeyoung; Su, Shiu-Ho
2015-08-01
Ultrafast exciton dynamics is investigated in titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) micrograin films in this study. Exponential exciton relaxation and oscillatory responses are observed in transient reflectivity measurements of the films. Laser-induced coherent acoustic waves (LCAW) are proposed to be responsible for this oscillation. Despite their fast attenuation with the increase in temperature, LCAWs are successfully detected at room temperature through probing at a large oblique angle near the low-energy absorption edge of the Q-Band. From the oscillation period of the LCAW, the sound velocity is estimated to be ∼3.1 × 103 m/s, and an acoustic echo arising from the boundary between the films and substrate is also observed.
Simulation of acoustic agglomeration processes of poly-disperse solid particles
Changdong Sheng; Xianglin Shen
2007-01-15
This article presents the simulation of acoustic agglomeration of poly-disperse solid particles with the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. The modelled processes include the agglomeration due to the orthokinetic and hydrodynamic mechanisms, Brownian coagulation and wall deposition. The aggregates formed during the agglomeration process were characterised as mass fractal aggregates with an equivalent radius to estimate the average radius of the primary particles in individual aggregates. Acoustic agglomeration of fly ash with a lognormal size distribution and TiO{sub 2} particles with a bimodal size distribution was simulated and validated against the experimental data in the literature. It was found that the acoustic agglomeration process of solid particles could be represented with a modified version of Song's orthokinetic model and Koenig's hydrodynamic equation that account for the fractal-like morphology of the aggregates. The fractal dimensions of around 1.8 and 2.2 were obtained for the fly ash and TiO{sub 2} particles, respectively, consistent with the values reported for the aggregates in the literature. The poly-disperse nature of the primary particles is essential to the simulation; assuming mono-disperse primary particles leads to a significant underestimation of the agglomeration rate and the particle size growth particularly during the early stages of the acoustic agglomeration process. Particle deposition on the chamber walls also has some effect on acoustic agglomeration.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Becker-Kristal, Roy
2010-01-01
This dissertation examines the relationship between the structural, phonemic properties of vowel inventories and their acoustic phonetic realization, with particular focus on the adequacy of Dispersion Theory, which maintains that inventories are structured so as to maximize perceptual contrast between their component vowels. In order to assess…
Dispersion-relation-preserving finite difference schemes for computational acoustics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tam, Christopher K. W.; Webb, Jay C.
1993-01-01
Time-marching dispersion-relation-preserving (DRP) schemes can be constructed by optimizing the finite difference approximations of the space and time derivatives in wave number and frequency space. A set of radiation and outflow boundary conditions compatible with the DRP schemes is constructed, and a sequence of numerical simulations is conducted to test the effectiveness of the DRP schemes and the radiation and outflow boundary conditions. Close agreement with the exact solutions is obtained.
Lee, Sooheyong; Williams, G. Jackson; Campana, Maria I.; Walko, Donald A.; Landahl, Eric C.
2016-01-01
Using a strain-rosette, we demonstrate the existence of transverse strain using time-resolved x-ray diffraction from multiple Bragg reflections in laser-excited bulk gallium arsenide. We find that anisotropic strain is responsible for a considerable fraction of the total lattice motion at early times before thermal equilibrium is achieved. Our measurements are described by a new model where the Poisson ratio drives transverse motion, resulting in the creation of shear waves without the need for an indirect process such as mode conversion at an interface. Using the same excitation geometry with the narrow-gap semiconductor indium antimonide, we detected coherent transverse acoustic oscillations at frequencies of several GHz. PMID:26751616
Surface-phonon dispersion in ultrathin epitaxial films of Ni on Cu(001)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohamed, Mohamed H.; Kim, Jae-Sung; Kesmodel, L. L.
1989-07-01
New measurements by high-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy confirm the presence of localized film modes for ultrathin epitaxial films of nickel on a copper (001) substrate. These film modes, predicted recently in lattice-dynamical calculations by Chen, Wu, Yao, and Tong [Phys. Rev. B 39, 5617 (1989)] lie above the Cu-substrate bands and correspond to vibrational motion localized in the Ni overlayer. The Rayleigh-mode dispersion for the epitaxial overlayers is also reported.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishikawa, Makoto; Wada, Noriyuki; Miyakawa, Takahiko; Matsukawa, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Masaru; Sasaki, Naruo; Miura, Kouji
2016-05-01
We report phonon dispersion curves obtained at a Mo S2(0001 ) surface in the friction process with a load and shear. An atomic force microscope tip used to apply stresses generated lattice strain on an oscillating Mo S2(0001 ) surface, which dissipated via acoustic phonons. The dissipation energy of the phonons strongly depended on the size of the lattice strain. The motion of the acoustic phonons consisted of a longitudinal mode and a transverse mode, but the occurrence of their phonon modes depended on the crystallographic direction, which reflects the atomic arrangement of the Mo S2(0001 ) surface. Thus, we can control the energy dissipation and friction by using the phonon dissipation curves in the friction process with a load and shear.
Inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of phonon dynamics in URu2Si2
Gardner, D. R.; Bonnoit, C. J.; Chisnell, R.; Said, A. H.; Leu, B. M.; Williams, Travis J.; Luke, G. M.; Lee, Y. S.
2016-02-11
In this paper, we study high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering measurements of the acoustic phonons of URu2Si2. At all temperatures, the longitudinal acoustic phonon linewidths are anomalously broad at small wave vectors revealing a previously unknown anharmonicity. The phonon modes do not change significantly upon cooling into the hidden order phase. In addition, our data suggest that the increase in thermal conductivity in the hidden order phase cannot be driven by a change in phonon dispersions or lifetimes. Hence, the phonon contribution to the thermal conductivity is likely much less significant compared to that of the magnetic excitations in the lowmore » temperature phase.« less
Dispersion of Plasma Dust Acoustic Waves in the Strong-Coupling Regime
Pieper, J.B.; Goree, J.
1996-10-01
Low-frequency compressional waves were observed in a suspension of strongly coupled 9.4 {mu}m spheres in an rf Kr plasma. Both parts of the complex wave number were measured to determine the dispersion relation, which agreed with a theoretical model of damped dust acoustic waves, ignoring strong coupling, but not with a strongly coupled dust-lattice wave model. The results yield experimental values for the dust plasma frequency, charge, Debye length, and damping rate, and support the applicability of fluid-based dispersion relations to strongly coupled dusty plasmas, which has been a controversy. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kosachev, V. V.; Shchegrov, A. V.
1995-02-01
Dispersion of surface acoustic waves (SAW) of sagittal and shear horizontal (SH) polarizations in a multilayered system of n isotropic layers on an isotropic substrate is investigated by the technique of effective boundary conditions in the framework of perturbation theory. The ratio of the total layer thickness to the wavelength of SAW is chosen to be a small parameter. Under such assumptions the dispersion relations for the SAW of both sagittal and SH-polarizations are derived. The results for sagittally polarized SAW derived by means of perturbation theory are compared with numerical solution for a bilayered structure. Possible applications of the results obtained are discussed.
Phonon Spectrum Engineering in Rolled-up Micro- and Nano-Architectures
Fomin, Vladimir M.; Balandin, Alexander A.
2015-10-10
We report on a possibility of efficient engineering of the acoustic phonon energy spectrum in multishell tubular structures produced by a novel high-tech method of self-organization of micro- and nano-architectures. The strain-driven roll-up procedure paved the way for novel classes of metamaterials such as single semiconductor radial micro- and nano-crystals and multi-layer spiral micro- and nano-superlattices. The acoustic phonon dispersion is determined by solving the equations of elastodynamics for InAs and GaAs material systems. It is shown that the number of shells is an important control parameter of the phonon dispersion together with the structure dimensions and acoustic impedance mismatchmore » between the superlattice layers. The obtained results suggest that rolled up nano-architectures are promising for thermoelectric applications owing to a possibility of significant reduction of the thermal conductivity without degradation of the electronic transport.« less
Phonon Spectrum Engineering in Rolled-up Micro- and Nano-Architectures
Fomin, Vladimir M.; Balandin, Alexander A.
2015-10-10
We report on a possibility of efficient engineering of the acoustic phonon energy spectrum in multishell tubular structures produced by a novel high-tech method of self-organization of micro- and nano-architectures. The strain-driven roll-up procedure paved the way for novel classes of metamaterials such as single semiconductor radial micro- and nano-crystals and multi-layer spiral micro- and nano-superlattices. The acoustic phonon dispersion is determined by solving the equations of elastodynamics for InAs and GaAs material systems. It is shown that the number of shells is an important control parameter of the phonon dispersion together with the structure dimensions and acoustic impedance mismatch between the superlattice layers. The obtained results suggest that rolled up nano-architectures are promising for thermoelectric applications owing to a possibility of significant reduction of the thermal conductivity without degradation of the electronic transport.
Low temperature phonon-drag thermopower in a monolayer MoS2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhargavi, K. S.; Kubakaddi, S. S.
2015-06-01
Phonon-drag thermopower Sg is studied theoretically in a monolayer MoS2 as a function of temperature T. Electron-acoustic phonon (el-ap) interaction via deformation potential (DP) coupling of TA (LA) phonons is taken to be unscreened (screened) and piezoelectric (PE) coupling of LA and TA phonons is taken to be screened. Sg due to DP coupling of TA phonons is found to be dominant over all other mechanisms. In the Bloch-Gruneisen (BG) regime power law Sg ˜ T3 (T 5) is predicted for unscreened (screened) el-ap interaction a characteristic of two-dimensional phonons with linear dispersion. Screening strongly suppresses Sg due to large effective mass of the electrons. We find that, Sg due to screened DP and PE couplings are nearly same in contrast with the results in GaAs heterojunctions. With the increasing T its exponent decreases and reaches a sublinear value.
Broadband evolution of phononic-crystal-waveguide eigenstates in real- and k-spaces.
Otsuka, P H; Nanri, K; Matsuda, O; Tomoda, M; Profunser, D M; Veres, I A; Danworaphong, S; Khelif, A; Benchabane, S; Laude, V; Wright, O B
2013-01-01
Control of sound in phononic band-gap structures promises novel control and guiding mechanisms. Designs in photonic systems were quickly matched in phononics, and rows of defects in phononic crystals were shown to guide sound waves effectively. The vast majority of work in such phononic guiding has been in the frequency domain, because of the importance of the phononic dispersion relation in governing acoustic confinement in waveguides. However, frequency-domain studies miss vital information concerning the phase of the acoustic field and eigenstate coupling. Using a wide range of wavevectors k, we implement an ultrafast technique to probe the wave field evolution in straight and L-shaped phononic crystal surface-phonon waveguides in real- and k-space in two spatial dimensions, thus revealing the eigenstate-energy redistribution processes and the coupling between different frequency-degenerate eigenstates. Such use of k-t space is a first in acoustics, and should have other interesting applications such as acoustic-metamaterial characterization. PMID:24284621
Broadband evolution of phononic-crystal-waveguide eigenstates in real- and k-spaces
Otsuka, P. H.; Nanri, K.; Matsuda, O.; Tomoda, M.; Profunser, D. M.; Veres, I. A.; Danworaphong, S.; Khelif, A.; Benchabane, S.; Laude, V.; Wright, O. B.
2013-01-01
Control of sound in phononic band-gap structures promises novel control and guiding mechanisms. Designs in photonic systems were quickly matched in phononics, and rows of defects in phononic crystals were shown to guide sound waves effectively. The vast majority of work in such phononic guiding has been in the frequency domain, because of the importance of the phononic dispersion relation in governing acoustic confinement in waveguides. However, frequency-domain studies miss vital information concerning the phase of the acoustic field and eigenstate coupling. Using a wide range of wavevectors k, we implement an ultrafast technique to probe the wave field evolution in straight and L-shaped phononic crystal surface-phonon waveguides in real- and k-space in two spatial dimensions, thus revealing the eigenstate-energy redistribution processes and the coupling between different frequency-degenerate eigenstates. Such use of k-t space is a first in acoustics, and should have other interesting applications such as acoustic-metamaterial characterization. PMID:24284621
Froula, D H; Davis, P; Ross, S; Meezan, N; Divol, L; Price, D; Glenzer, S H; Rousseaux, C
2005-09-20
The dispersion of ion-acoustic fluctuations has been measured using a novel technique that employs multiple color Thomson-scattering diagnostics to measure the frequency spectrum for two separate thermal ion-acoustic fluctuations with significantly different wave vectors. The plasma fluctuations are shown to become dispersive with increasing electron temperature. We demonstrate that this technique allows a time resolved local measurement of electron density and temperature in inertial confinement fusion plasmas.
Phonon properties of americium phosphide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arya, B. S.; Aynyas, Mahendra; Sanyal, S. P.
2016-05-01
Phonon properties of AmP have been studied by using breathing shell models (BSM) which includes breathing motion of electrons of the Am atoms due to f-d hybridization. The phonon dispersion curves, specific heat calculated from present model. The calculated phonon dispersion curves of AmP are presented follow the same trend as observed in uranium phosphide. We discuss the significance of this approach in predicting the phonon dispersion curves of these compounds and examine the role of electron-phonon interaction.
Han, Joong Tark; Jang, Jeong In; Kim, Haena; Hwang, Jun Yeon; Yoo, Hyung Keun; Woo, Jong Seok; Choi, Sua; Kim, Ho Young; Jeong, Hee Jin; Jeong, Seung Yol; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Cho, Kilwon; Lee, Geon-Woong
2014-01-01
Layered materials must be exfoliated and dispersed in solvents for diverse applications. Usually, highly energetic probe sonication may be considered to be an unfavourable method for the less defective exfoliation and dispersion of layered materials. Here we show that judicious use of ultrasonic cavitation can produce exfoliated transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets extraordinarily dispersed in non-toxic solvent by minimising the sonolysis of solvent molecules. Our method can also lead to produce less defective, large graphene oxide nanosheets from graphite oxide in a short time (within 10 min), which show high electrical conductivity (>20,000 S m−1) of the printed film. This was achieved by adjusting the ultrasonic probe depth to the liquid surface to generate less energetic cavitation (delivered power ~6 W), while maintaining sufficient acoustic shearing (0.73 m s−1) and generating additional microbubbling by aeration at the liquid surface. PMID:24875584
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Joong Tark; Jang, Jeong In; Kim, Haena; Hwang, Jun Yeon; Yoo, Hyung Keun; Woo, Jong Seok; Choi, Sua; Kim, Ho Young; Jeong, Hee Jin; Jeong, Seung Yol; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Cho, Kilwon; Lee, Geon-Woong
2014-05-01
Layered materials must be exfoliated and dispersed in solvents for diverse applications. Usually, highly energetic probe sonication may be considered to be an unfavourable method for the less defective exfoliation and dispersion of layered materials. Here we show that judicious use of ultrasonic cavitation can produce exfoliated transition metal dichalcogenide nanosheets extraordinarily dispersed in non-toxic solvent by minimising the sonolysis of solvent molecules. Our method can also lead to produce less defective, large graphene oxide nanosheets from graphite oxide in a short time (within 10 min), which show high electrical conductivity (>20,000 S m-1) of the printed film. This was achieved by adjusting the ultrasonic probe depth to the liquid surface to generate less energetic cavitation (delivered power ~6 W), while maintaining sufficient acoustic shearing (0.73 m s-1) and generating additional microbubbling by aeration at the liquid surface.
Kimura, Masao
2011-06-01
The large velocity dispersion recently reported could be explained by a gap stiffness model incorporated into the Biot model (the BIMGS model) proposed by the author. However, at high frequencies, some measured results have been reported for negative velocity dispersion and attenuation proportional to the first to fourth power of frequency. In this study, first, it is shown that the results of velocity dispersion and attenuation calculated using the BIMGS model are consistent with the results measured in two kinds of water-saturated sands with different grain sizes, except in the high-frequency range. Then, the velocity dispersion and attenuation in six kinds of water-saturated glass beads and four kinds of water-saturated silica sands with different grain sizes are measured in the frequency ranges of 80-140 and 300-700 kHz. The measured results are compared with those calculated using the BIMGS model plus some acoustic models. It is shown that the velocity dispersion and attenuation are well predicted by using the BIMGS model in the range of kd ≤ 0.5 (k: wavenumber in water, d: grain diameter) and by using the BIMGS model plus multiple scattering effects in the range of kd ≥ 0.5 in which negative velocity dispersion appears. PMID:21682381
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azharonok, V. V.; Belous, N. Kh.; Rodtsevich, S. P.; Goncharik, S. V.; Chubrik, N. N.; Koshevar, V. D.; Lopat‧ko, K. G.; Aftandilyants, E. G.; Veklich, A. N.; Boretskii, V. F.; Orlovich, A. I.
2016-05-01
The authors have studied the physicochemical properties of aqueous dispersions containing carbon, silver, and iron nanoparticles which were produced by elastic-spark synthesis under the conditions of subaqueous spark discharge, and also the influence of preliminary acoustic and high-frequency electromagnetic action on them and the change in the functional indices of the glass-ionomer cement tempered by these dispersions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azharonok, V. V.; Belous, N. Kh.; Rodtsevich, S. P.; Goncharik, S. V.; Chubrik, N. N.; Koshevar, V. D.; Lopat‧ko, K. G.; Aftandilyants, E. G.; Veklich, A. N.; Boretskii, V. F.; Orlovich, A. I.
2016-06-01
The authors have studied the physicochemical properties of aqueous dispersions containing carbon, silver, and iron nanoparticles which were produced by elastic-spark synthesis under the conditions of subaqueous spark discharge, and also the influence of preliminary acoustic and high-frequency electromagnetic action on them and the change in the functional indices of the glass-ionomer cement tempered by these dispersions.
Molding Phonon Flow with Symmetry: Rational Design of Hypersonic Phononic Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koh, Cheong Yang; Thomas, Edwin L.
2009-03-01
Phononic crystals structured at appropriate length scales allow control over the flow of phonons, leading to new possibilities in applications such as heat-management, sound isolation and even energy transfer and conversion. Symmetry provides a unified framework for the interpretation 1D to 3D phononic band structures, allowing utilization of a common set of principles for designing band structures of phononic crystals as well as actual purposeful defects such as waveguide location and boundary termination in finite devices. In this work, we explore the band structure properties of phononic crystals with non-symmorphic space groups, as well as those having quasi-crystalline approximants. We demonstrate gap opening abilities from both anti-crossing and Bragg scattering, as well as unique features like ``sticking'' bands. Symmetry concepts are also powerful means to tune the density of states of the structures. Importantly, we fabricate various theoretical designs and measure their experimental dispersion diagrams for comparison with theoretical calculation. This affords an elegant approach toward a design blueprint for fabricating phononic structures for applications such as opto-acoustic coupling.
Reflection and refraction of acoustic waves at the interface between a gas and a disperse systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shagapov, V. Sh.; Sarapulova, V. V.
2015-09-01
The reflection and refraction of acoustic waves at different angles of incidence on the interface between a vapor-gas-droplet system and air are studied. From an analysis of analytical solutions, it has been found that in the case of incidence on the interface from the side of the vapor-gas-droplet medium, there is a critical angle of incidence at which the wave is completely reflected from the boundary, i.e., total internal reflection takes place. It is shown that for a certain angle of incidence on the interface both from the air side and from the mixture side and for a certain volume fraction of water in the disperse system, complete transmission of the acoustic wave through the medium is observed.
Estimating sub-surface dispersed oil concentration using acoustic backscatter response.
Fuller, Christopher B; Bonner, James S; Islam, Mohammad S; Page, Cheryl; Ojo, Temitope; Kirkey, William
2013-05-15
The recent Deepwater Horizon disaster resulted in a dispersed oil plume at an approximate depth of 1000 m. Several methods were used to characterize this plume with respect to concentration and spatial extent including surface supported sampling and autonomous underwater vehicles with in situ instrument payloads. Additionally, echo sounders were used to track the plume location, demonstrating the potential for remote detection using acoustic backscatter (ABS). This study evaluated use of an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) to quantitatively detect oil-droplet suspensions from the ABS response in a controlled laboratory setting. Results from this study showed log-linear ABS responses to oil-droplet volume concentration. However, the inability to reproduce ABS response factors suggests the difficultly in developing meaningful calibration factors for quantitative field analysis. Evaluation of theoretical ABS intensity derived from the particle size distribution provided insight regarding method sensitivity in the presence of interfering ambient particles. PMID:23490350
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaushik, Dinesh K.; Baysal, Oktay
1997-01-01
Accurate computation of acoustic wave propagation may be more efficiently performed when their dispersion relations are considered. Consequently, computational algorithms which attempt to preserve these relations have been gaining popularity in recent years. In the present paper, the extensions to one such scheme are discussed. By solving the linearized, 2-D Euler and Navier-Stokes equations with such a method for the acoustic wave propagation, several issues were investigated. Among them were higher-order accuracy, choice of boundary conditions and differencing stencils, effects of viscosity, low-storage time integration, generalized curvilinear coordinates, periodic series, their reflections and interference patterns from a flat wall and scattering from a circular cylinder. The results were found to be promising en route to the aeroacoustic simulations of realistic engineering problems.
First-principles prediction of phononic thermal conductivity of silicene: A comparison with graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Xiaokun; Yang, Ronggui
2015-01-01
There has been great interest in two-dimensional materials, beyond graphene, for both fundamental sciences and technological applications. Silicene, a silicon counterpart of graphene, has been shown to possess some better electronic properties than graphene. However, its thermal transport properties have not been fully studied. In this paper, we apply the first-principles-based phonon Boltzmann transport equation to investigate the thermal conductivity of silicene as well as the phonon scattering mechanisms. Although both graphene and silicene are two-dimensional crystals with similar crystal structure, we find that phonon transport in silicene is quite different from that in graphene. The thermal conductivity of silicene shows a logarithmic increase with respect to the sample size due to the small scattering rates of acoustic in-plane phonon modes, while that of graphene is finite. Detailed analysis of phonon scattering channels shows that the linear dispersion of the acoustic out-of-plane (ZA) phonon modes, which is induced by the buckled structure, makes the long-wavelength longitudinal acoustic phonon modes in silicene not as efficiently scattered as that in graphene. Compared with graphene, where most of the heat is carried by the acoustic out-of-plane (ZA) phonon modes, the ZA phonon modes in silicene only have ˜10% contribution to the total thermal conductivity, which can also be attributed to the buckled structure. This systematic comparison of phonon transport and thermal conductivity of silicene and graphene using the first-principle-based calculations shed some light on other two-dimensional materials, such as two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.
First-principles prediction of phononic thermal conductivity of silicene: A comparison with graphene
Gu, Xiaokun; Yang, Ronggui
2015-01-14
There has been great interest in two-dimensional materials, beyond graphene, for both fundamental sciences and technological applications. Silicene, a silicon counterpart of graphene, has been shown to possess some better electronic properties than graphene. However, its thermal transport properties have not been fully studied. In this paper, we apply the first-principles-based phonon Boltzmann transport equation to investigate the thermal conductivity of silicene as well as the phonon scattering mechanisms. Although both graphene and silicene are two-dimensional crystals with similar crystal structure, we find that phonon transport in silicene is quite different from that in graphene. The thermal conductivity of silicene shows a logarithmic increase with respect to the sample size due to the small scattering rates of acoustic in-plane phonon modes, while that of graphene is finite. Detailed analysis of phonon scattering channels shows that the linear dispersion of the acoustic out-of-plane (ZA) phonon modes, which is induced by the buckled structure, makes the long-wavelength longitudinal acoustic phonon modes in silicene not as efficiently scattered as that in graphene. Compared with graphene, where most of the heat is carried by the acoustic out-of-plane (ZA) phonon modes, the ZA phonon modes in silicene only have ∼10% contribution to the total thermal conductivity, which can also be attributed to the buckled structure. This systematic comparison of phonon transport and thermal conductivity of silicene and graphene using the first-principle-based calculations shed some light on other two-dimensional materials, such as two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.
Dispersion and Input Control Capability in European Large Size Reverberant Acoustic Chambers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yarza, A.; Lopez, J.; Ozores, E.
2012-07-01
The acoustic test in reverberant chamber is one of the load cases to be proved during the environmental test campaign that demonstrates the capability of a space- unit to survive the launch phase. The crucial requirement for the large size structures is often the survival of the acoustic vibration test, and can be defined as the design driver load case in many circumstances. In addition, the commercial market demands lighter structures as an objective to reduce costs. For an efficient optimisation of the product it is very important to have powerful structural analysis tools in order to obtain knowledge of the structural needs and to refine existing methods for the prediction of structural loads experienced during acoustic testing. In the same line, as part of the contributors involved in the test it is important to acquire knowledge of the characteristics of the reverberant chamber itself and the behaviour of the fluid. With this purpose, EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) has used the measured data of the parameters of the fluid extracted from test of the deployable reflectors validated in the past five years, with the final objective to improve and optimise the capability to face up the acoustic test. In this paper experimental data extracted from acoustic tests performed to space-units are presented. Information related to two European large size acoustic chambers are used. The pressure field inside the acoustic chamber has been post-processed with the objective to study the behaviour of the fluid during the test. The diffuseness of the pressure field and the control capability of the acoustic profile are parameters to be considered as contributors for the design of the structures. The homogeneity of the microphones’ measurements is taken into account to describe the dispersion of the pressure inside the reverberant chamber along the frequency domain. Upon of that, the capability of the facilities to control the input profile is analysed from a statistical point of view
Birefringent phononic structures
Psarobas, I. E. Exarchos, D. A.; Matikas, T. E.
2014-12-15
Within the framework of elastic anisotropy, caused in a phononic crystal due to low crystallographic symmetry, we adopt a model structure, already introduced in the case of photonic metamaterials, and by analogy, we study the effect of birefringence and acoustical activity in a phononic crystal. In particular, we investigate its low-frequency behavior and comment on the factors which determine chirality by reference to this model.
Effect of spatial dispersion on transient acoustic wave propagation in 3D.
Every, A G
2006-12-22
Spatial dispersion is the variation of wave speed with wavelength. It sets in when the acoustic wavelength approaches the natural scale of length of the medium, which could, for example, be the lattice constant of a crystal, the repeat distance in a superlattice, or the grain size in a granular material. In centrosymmetric media, the first onset of dispersion is accommodated by the introduction of fourth order spatial derivatives into the wave equation. These lead to a correction to the phase velocity which is quadratic in the spatial frequency. This paper treats the effect of spatial dispersion on the point force elastodynamic Green's functions of solids. The effects of dispersion are shown to be most pronounced in the vicinity of wave arrivals. These lose their singular form, and are transformed into wave trains known as quasi-arrivals. The step and ramp function wave arrivals are treated, and it is shown that their unfolded quasi-arrival forms can be expressed in terms of integrals involving the Airy function. PMID:16828830
Nakayama, Masaaki Ohno, Tatsuya; Furukawa, Yoshiaki
2015-04-07
We have systematically investigated the photoluminescence (PL) dynamics of free excitons in GaAs/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As single quantum wells, focusing on the energy relaxation process due to exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering under non-resonant and weak excitation conditions as a function of GaAs-layer thickness from 3.6 to 12.0 nm and temperature from 30 to 50 K. The free exciton characteristics were confirmed by observation that the PL decay time has a linear dependence with temperature. We found that the free exciton PL rise rate, which is the reciprocal of the rise time, is inversely linear with the GaAs-layer thickness and linear with temperature. This is consistent with a reported theoretical study of the exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering rate in the energy relaxation process in quantum wells. Consequently, it is conclusively verified that the PL rise rate is dominated by the exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering rate. In addition, from quantitative analysis of the GaAs-layer thickness and temperature dependences, we suggest that the PL rise rate reflects the number of exciton–acoustic-phonon scattering events.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, H. F.; Liu, Z. T.; Fan, C. C.; Yao, Q.; Xiang, P.; Zhang, K. L.; Li, M. Y.; Li, H.; Liu, J. S.; Shen, D. W.; Jiang, M. H.
2016-03-01
Perovskite SrRuO3, a prototypical conductive ferromagnetic oxide, exhibits a kink in its band dispersion signaling the unusual electron dynamics therein. However, the origin of this kink remains elusive. By taking advantage of the combo of reactive molecular beam epitaxy and in situ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we systematically studied the evolution of the low-energy electronic structure of SrRuO3 films with thickness thinning down to a nearly two-dimensional limit in a well-controlled way. The kink structure persists even in the four-unit-cell-thick film. Moreover, through quantitative self-energy analysis, we observed the negligible thickness dependence of the binding energy of the kink, which is in sharp contrast to the downward trend of the Curie temperature with reducing the film thickness. Together with previously reported transport and Raman studies, this finding suggests that the kink of perovskite SrRuO3 should originate from the electron-phonon coupling rather than magnetic collective modes, and the in-plane phonons may play a dominant role. Considering such a kink structure of SrRuO3 is similar to those of many other correlated oxides, we suggest the possible ubiquity of the coupling of electrons to oxygen-related phonons in correlated oxides.
Cavity-type hypersonic phononic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, A.; Pennec, Y.; Yanagishita, T.; Masuda, H.; Knoll, W.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Fytas, G.
2012-11-01
We report on the engineering of the phonon dispersion diagram in monodomain anodic porous alumina (APA) films through the porosity and physical state of the material residing in the nanopores. Lattice symmetry and inclusion materials are theoretically identified to be the main factors which control the hypersonic acoustic wave propagation. This involves the interaction between the longitudinal and the transverse modes in the effective medium and a flat band characteristic of the material residing in the cavities. Air and filled nanopores, therefore, display markedly different dispersion relations and the inclusion materials lead to a locally resonant structural behavior uniquely determining their properties under confinement. APA films emerge as a new platform to investigate the rich acoustic phenomena of structured composite matter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zohdi, T. I.
2016-03-01
In industry, particle-laden fluids, such as particle-functionalized inks, are constructed by adding fine-scale particles to a liquid solution, in order to achieve desired overall properties in both liquid and (cured) solid states. However, oftentimes undesirable particulate agglomerations arise due to some form of mutual-attraction stemming from near-field forces, stray electrostatic charges, process ionization and mechanical adhesion. For proper operation of industrial processes involving particle-laden fluids, it is important to carefully breakup and disperse these agglomerations. One approach is to target high-frequency acoustical pressure-pulses to breakup such agglomerations. The objective of this paper is to develop a computational model and corresponding solution algorithm to enable rapid simulation of the effect of acoustical pulses on an agglomeration composed of a collection of discrete particles. Because of the complex agglomeration microstructure, containing gaps and interfaces, this type of system is extremely difficult to mesh and simulate using continuum-based methods, such as the finite difference time domain or the finite element method. Accordingly, a computationally-amenable discrete element/discrete ray model is developed which captures the primary physical events in this process, such as the reflection and absorption of acoustical energy, and the induced forces on the particulate microstructure. The approach utilizes a staggered, iterative solution scheme to calculate the power transfer from the acoustical pulse to the particles and the subsequent changes (breakup) of the pulse due to the particles. Three-dimensional examples are provided to illustrate the approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baydin, Andrey; Krzyzanowska, Halina; Dhanunjaya, Munthala; Nageswara Rao, S. V. S.; Davidson, Jimmy L.; Feldman, Leonard C.; Tolk, Norman H.
2016-06-01
Silicon carbide (SiC) is a promising material for new generation electronics including high power/high temperature devices and advanced optical applications such as room temperature spintronics and quantum computing. Both types of applications require the control of defects particularly those created by ion bombardment. In this work, modification of optical constants of 4H-SiC due to hydrogen implantation at 180 keV and at fluences ranging from 1014 to 1016 cm-2 is reported. The depth dependence of the modified optical constants was extracted from coherent acoustic phonon spectra. Implanted spectra show a strong dependence of the 4H-SiC complex refractive index depth profile on H+ fluence. These studies provide basic insight into the dependence of optical properties of 4H silicon carbide on defect densities created by ion implantation, which is of relevance to the fabrication of SiC-based photonic and optoelectronic devices.
Yarotski, Dmitry; Yan Li; Jia Quanxi; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Fu Engang; Wang Yongqiang; Uberuaga, Blas P.
2012-06-18
We apply ultrafast coherent acoustic phonon interferometry to characterize the distribution of the radiation damage near the TiO{sub 2}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces. We show that the optical and mechanical properties of anatase TiO{sub 2} remain unaffected by the radiation dosages in the 0.1 Division-Sign 5 dpa (displacements per atom) range, while the degraded optical response indicates a significant defect accumulation in the interfacial region of SrTiO{sub 3} at 0.1 dpa and subsequent amorphization at 3 dpa. Comparison between the theoretical simulations and the experimental results reveals an almost threefold reduction of the sound velocity in the irradiated SrTiO{sub 3} layer with peak damage levels of 3 and 5 dpa.
Bhargavi, K. S.; Patil, Sukanya; Kubakaddi, S. S.
2015-07-28
The theory of free-carrier absorption (FCA) is given for monolayers of transition-metal dichalcogenides, particularly for molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub 2}), when carriers are scattered by phonons. Explicit expressions for the absorption coefficient α are obtained and discussed for acoustic phonon scattering via screened deformation potential and piezoelectric coupling taking polarization of the radiation in the plane of the layer. It is found that α monotonously decreases with the increasing photon frequency Ω, increases with the increasing temperature T, and linearly depends on two-dimensional electron concentration n{sub s}. Effect of screening, which is ignored in all the earlier FCA studies, is found to reduce α significantly, attributing to the larger effective mass of the electrons. Results are also obtained in the classical and quantum limit giving the power laws α ∼ Ω{sup −2} and T. Comparison of the results is made with those in bulk semiconductors and semiconductor quantum wells.
Dispersion and attenuation of acoustic guided waves in layered fluid-filled porous media
Parra, J.O.; Xu, P. )
1994-01-01
The analysis of acoustic wave propagation in fluid-filled porous media based on Biot and homogenization theories has been adapted to calculate dispersion and attenuation of guided waves trapped in low-velocity layered media. Constitutive relations, the balance equation, and the generalized Darcy law of the modified Biot theory yield a coupled system of differential equations which governs the wave motion in each layer. The displacement and stress fields satisfy the boundary conditions of continuity of displacements and tractions across each interface, and the radiation condition at infinity. To avoid precision problems caused by the growing exponential in individual matrices for large wave numbers, the global matrix method was implemented as an alternative to the traditional propagation approach to determine the periodic equations. The complex wave numbers of the guided wave modes were determined using a combination of two-dimensional bracketing and minimization techniques. The results of this work indicate that the acoustic guided wave attenuation is sensitive to the [ital in] [ital situ] permeability. In particular, the attenuation changes significantly as the [ital in] [ital situ] permeability of the low-velocity layer is varied at the frequency corresponding to the minimum group velocity (Airy phase). Alternatively, the attenuation of the wave modes are practically unaffected by those permeability variations in the layer at the frequency corresponding to the maximum group velocity.
Phonons in chalcopyrite compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derollez, P.; Laamyem, A.; Fouret, R.; Hennion, B.; Gonzalez, J.
1999-06-01
The phonon dispersion curves along the [100] and [001] directions of CuInSe2 and AgGaSe2 have been measured by inelastic neutron scattering. They are analyzed with different rigid-ion models: Born-von Karman and valence force field models. The calculated dispersion curves are in good agreement with experiments.
Phononic Molecules Studied by Raman Scattering
Lanzillotti-Kimura, N. D.; Fainstein, A.; Jusserand, B.; Lemaitre, A.
2010-01-04
An acoustic nanocavity can confine phonons in such a way that they act like electrons in an atom. By combining two of these phononic-atoms, it is possible to form a phononic 'molecule', with acoustic modes that are similar to the electronic states in a hydrogen molecule. We report Raman scattering experiments performed in a monolithic structure formed by a phononic molecule embedded in an optical cavity. The acoustic mode splitting becomes evident through both the amplification and change of selection rules induced by the optical cavity confinement. The results are in perfect agreement with photoelastic model simulations.
``Forbidden'' phonon in the iron chalcogenide series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fobes, David M.; Zaliznyak, Igor A.; Xu, Zhijun; Gu, Genda; Tranquada, John M.
2015-03-01
Recently, we uncovered evidence for the formation of a bond-order wave (BOW) leading to ferro-orbital order at low temperature, acting to stabilize the bicollinear AFM order, in the iron-rich parent compound, Fe1+yTe. Investigating the inelastic spectra centered near (100) in Fe1+yTe, a signature peak for the BOW formation in the monoclinic phase, we observed an acoustic phonon dispersion in both tetragonal and monoclinic phases. While a structural Bragg peak accompanies the mode in the monoclinic phase, in the tetragonal phase Bragg scattering at this Q is forbidden by symmetry, and we observed no elastic peak. This phonon mode was also observed in superconducting FeTe0.6Se0.4, where structural and magnetic transitions are suppressed. LDA frozen phonon calculations suggested that this mode could result from a spin imbalance between neighboring Fe atoms, but polarized neutron measurements revealed no additional magnetic scattering. We propose that this ``forbidden'' phonon mode may originate from dynamically broken symmetry, perhaps related to the strong dynamic spin correlations in these materials. Work at BNL was supported by BES, US DOE, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886. Research at ORNL's HFIR and SNS sponsored by Scientific User Facilities Division, BES, US DOE. We acknowledge the support of NIST, in providing neutron research facilities.
Negative refraction imaging of acoustic metamaterial lens in the supersonic range
Han, Jianning; Wen, Tingdun; Yang, Peng; Zhang, Lu
2014-05-15
Acoustic metamaterials with negative refraction index is the most promising method to overcome the diffraction limit of acoustic imaging to achieve ultrahigh resolution. In this paper, we use localized resonant phononic crystal as the unit cell to construct the acoustic negative refraction lens. Based on the vibration model of the phononic crystal, negative quality parameters of the lens are obtained while excited near the system resonance frequency. Simulation results show that negative refraction of the acoustic lens can be achieved when a sound wave transmiting through the phononic crystal plate. The patterns of the imaging field agree well with that of the incident wave, while the dispersion is very weak. The unit cell size in the simulation is 0.0005 m and the wavelength of the sound source is 0.02 m, from which we show that acoustic signal can be manipulated through structures with dimensions much smaller than the wavelength of incident wave.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Ruikang; Hu, Run; Luo, Xiaobing
2016-04-01
In this study, we developed a first-principle-based full-dispersion Monte Carlo simulation method to study the anisotropic phonon transport in wurtzite GaN thin film. The input data of thermal properties in MC simulations were calculated based on the first-principle method. The anisotropy of thermal conductivity in bulk wurtzite GaN is found to be strengthened by isotopic scatterings and reduced temperature, and the anisotropy reaches 40.08% for natural bulk GaN at 100 K. With the GaN thin film thickness decreasing, the anisotropy of the out-of-plane thermal conductivity is heavily reduced due to both the ballistic transport and the less importance of the low-frequency phonons with anisotropic group velocities. On the contrary, it is observed that the in-plane thermal conductivity anisotropy of the GaN thin film is strengthened by reducing the film thickness. And the anisotropy reaches 35.63% when the natural GaN thin film thickness reduces to 50 nm at 300 K with the degree of specularity being zero. The anisotropy is also improved by increasing the surface roughness of the GaN thin film.
Heavy-impurity resonance, hybridization, and phonon spectral functions in Fe1-xMxSi, M=Ir,Os
Delaire, O.; Al-Qasir, Iyad I.; May, Andrew F.; Sales, Brian C.; Niedziela, Jennifer L.; Ma, Jie; Matsuda, Masaaki; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Berlijn, Tom
2015-03-31
The vibrational behavior of heavy substitutional impurities (M=Ir,Os) in Fe1-xMxSi (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.1) was investigated with a combination of inelastic neutron scattering (INS), transport measurements, and first-principles simulations. In this paper, our INS measurements on single-crystals mapped the four-dimensional dynamical structure factor, S(Q;E), for several compositions and temperatures. Our results show that both Ir and Os impurities lead to the formation of a weakly dispersive resonance vibrational mode, in the energy range of the acoustic phonon dispersions of the FeSi host. We also show that Ir doping, which introduces free carriers and increases electron-phonon coupling, leads tomore » softened interatomic force-constants compared to doping with Os, which is isoelectronic to Fe. We analyze the phonon S(Q,E) from INS through a Green's function model incorporating the phonon self-energy based on first-principles density functional theory (DFT) simulations. Calculations of the quasiparticle spectral functions in the doped system reveal the hybridization between the resonance and the acoustic phonon modes. Finally, our results demonstrate a strong interaction of the host acoustic dispersions with the resonance mode, likely leading to the large observed suppression in lattice thermal conductivity.« less
Heavy-impurity resonance, hybridization, and phonon spectral functions in Fe 1 x M x Si (M= Ir, Os)
Delaire, O.; Al-Qasir, Iyad I.; May, Andrew F.; Sales, Brian C.; Niedziela, Jennifer L.; Ma, Jie; Matsuda, Masaaki; Abernathy, Douglas L.; Berlijn, Tom
2015-03-31
The vibrational behavior of heavy substitutional impurities (M=Ir,Os) in Fe1xMxSi (x = 0; 0:02; 0:04; 0:1) was investigated with a combination of inelastic neutron scattering (INS), transport measurements, and rst-principles simulations. Our INS measurements on single-crystals mapped the four-dimensional dynamical structure factor, S(Q;E), for several compositions and temperatures. Our results show that both Ir and Os impurities lead to the formation of a weakly dispersive resonance vibrational mode, in the energy range of the acoustic phonon dispersions of the FeSi host. We also show that Ir doping, which introduces free carriers and increases electron-phonon coupling, leads to softened interatomic force-constantsmore » compared to doping with Os, which is isoelectronic to Fe. We analyze the phonon S(Q;E) from INS through a Green's function model incorporating the phonon self-energy based on rst-principles density functional theory (DFT) simulations. Calculations of the quasiparticle spectral functions in the doped system reveal the hybridization between the resonance and the acoustic phonon modes. Our results demonstrate a strong interaction of the host acoustic dispersions with the resonance mode, likely leading to the large observed suppression in lattice thermal conductivity.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salman, Aysevil; Adem Kaya, Olgun; Cicek, Ahmet; Ulug, Bulent
2015-06-01
Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed by liquid-filled linear defect waveguides in a two-dimensional phononic crystal is numerically realized for sensing low concentrations of an analyte. The waveguides in the square phononic crystal of void cylinders in steel, as well as their T branches and sharp bends are utilized to construct interferometer arms. Sensing low concentrations of ethanol on the order of 0.1% in a binary mixture with water is achieved by replacing the contents of a number of waveguide core cells on one arm of the interferometer with the analyte. Computations are carried out through the finite-element method in an approach that takes the solid-liquid interaction at the waveguide core cells into account. Band analyses reveal linear variation of the central frequency of the transmission band within a band gap for ethanol concentrations up to 3.0%. Phase difference due to the imbalance of the sample and reference arms of the interferometer also varies linearly with ethanol concentration, leading in turn to a cosine variation of the Fourier component of the temporal interferometer response at the central input-pulse frequency. The induced phase difference in the investigated configuration becomes a -0.78π and -0.65π per percent increase of ethanol concentration as calculated from the band-structure and transient data, respectively. This is confirmed by transient finite-element simulations where totally destructive interference occurs for a concentration of approximately 1.5%. The proposed scheme, which can easily be adopted to other binary mixtures, offers a compact implementation requiring small amounts of analyte.
Neutron inelastic scattering measurements of low-energy phonons in the multiferroic BiFeO_{3}
Schneeloch, John A.; Xu, Zhijun; Wen, Jinsheng; Gehring, P. M.; Stock, C.; Matsuda, Masaaki; Winn, Barry L.; Gu, Genda; Shapiro, Stephen M.; Birgeneau, R. J.; Ushiyama, T.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Tomioka, Y.; Ito, T.; Xu, Guangyong
2015-02-10
In this study, we present neutron inelastic scattering measurements of the low-energy phonons in single crystal BiFeO_{3}. The dispersions of the three acoustic phonon modes (LA along [100], TA_{1} along [010], and TA_{2} along [110]) and two low-energy optic phonon modes (LO and TO_{1}) have been mapped out between 300 and 700 K. Elastic constants are extracted from the phonon measurements. The energy linewidths of both TA phonons at the zone boundary clearly broaden when the system is warmed toward the magnetic ordering temperature T_{N}=640 K. In conclusion, this suggests that the magnetic order and low-energy lattice dynamics in this multiferroic material are coupled.
Neutron inelastic scattering measurements of low-energy phonons in the multiferroic BiFeO3
Schneeloch, John A.; Xu, Zhijun; Wen, Jinsheng; Gehring, P. M.; Stock, C.; Matsuda, Masaaki; Winn, Barry L.; Gu, Genda; Shapiro, Stephen M.; Birgeneau, R. J.; et al
2015-02-10
In this study, we present neutron inelastic scattering measurements of the low-energy phonons in single crystal BiFeO3. The dispersions of the three acoustic phonon modes (LA along [100], TA1 along [010], and TA2 along [110]) and two low-energy optic phonon modes (LO and TO1) have been mapped out between 300 and 700 K. Elastic constants are extracted from the phonon measurements. The energy linewidths of both TA phonons at the zone boundary clearly broaden when the system is warmed toward the magnetic ordering temperature TN=640 K. In conclusion, this suggests that the magnetic order and low-energy lattice dynamics in thismore » multiferroic material are coupled.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beckwith, Clyfe Gordon
This research investigated the feasibility of accurately measuring Virial coefficients in an acoustically resonant cylindrical cavity. Gases studied were: Argon, Helium, Nitrogen, Carbon Dioxide, and Methane. Parameters considered were: resonant frequencies (f_ {rm r}- also a measure of speed of sound), quality factors (Q), and signal amplitudes. We studied the longitudinal modes smaller than 2000 Hz, at room temperature and at pressures of 200, 500, and 800 mm of Hg. The choice of the longitudinal modes was predetermined by our wish to compare acoustic and photoacoustic resonance techniques of the same mode. The acoustic excitation is limited to the longitudinal modes and is achieved by placing a loudspeaker close to one end of the cavity. Photoacoustically we excite a small concentration of molecular Iodine, mixed in with the buffer gases, by a periodically interrupted Xenon light beam. By increasing the length of the cavity we could decrease the space between the modes of frequency. Our observations focused on the behaviors that (a) f_{rm r} shifted with pressure, (b) the f_{rm r} deviated from the simple laws of harmonics, and (c) the amplitudes for the two techniques varied differently with frequency. Effect (a) is due to the fact that the gases are not "ideal", and due to the presence of boundary layers caused by thermal conduction and viscosity gradients. Effect (b) arises because of the f_{rm r}'s mode dependence, caused by the wave scattering due to imperfect geometrical symmetries. Effect (c) is governed by the coupling factors. All measurements could theoretically be justified to within instrumental error, the only noted discrepancy is the lack of a theoretical mode dependence. We conclude that it is feasible to study the accuracy of Virial coefficients of simple gases provided that the boundary layer loss effects and the mode dependent wave scattering can be quantified; in regions of high pressures and high frequencies the Virial effects dominate the
Phononic crystal diffraction gratings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Herbison, Sarah; Declercq, Nico F.; Laude, Vincent
2012-02-01
When a phononic crystal is interrogated by an external source of acoustic waves, there is necessarily a phenomenon of diffraction occurring on the external enclosing surfaces. Indeed, these external surfaces are periodic and the resulting acoustic diffraction grating has a periodicity that depends on the orientation of the phononic crystal. This work presents a combined experimental and theoretical study on the diffraction of bulk ultrasonic waves on the external surfaces of a 2D phononic crystal that consists of a triangular lattice of steel rods in a water matrix. The results of transmission experiments are compared with theoretical band structures obtained with the finite-element method. Angular spectrograms (showing frequency as a function of angle) determined from diffraction experiments are then compared with finite-element simulations of diffraction occurring on the surfaces of the crystal. The experimental results show that the diffraction that occurs on its external surfaces is highly frequency-dependent and has a definite relation with the Bloch modes of the phononic crystal. In particular, a strong influence of the presence of bandgaps and deaf bands on the diffraction efficiency is found. This observation opens perspectives for the design of efficient phononic crystal diffraction gratings.