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Sample records for acoustics temporal patterns

  1. Temporal pattern of acoustic imaging noise asymmetrically modulates activation in the auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Ranaweera, Ruwan D; Kwon, Minseok; Hu, Shuowen; Tamer, Gregory G; Luh, Wen-Ming; Talavage, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the hemisphere-specific effects of the temporal pattern of imaging related acoustic noise on auditory cortex activation. Hemodynamic responses (HDRs) to five temporal patterns of imaging noise corresponding to noise generated by unique combinations of imaging volume and effective repetition time (TR), were obtained using a stroboscopic event-related paradigm with extra-long (≥27.5 s) TR to minimize inter-acquisition effects. In addition to confirmation that fMRI responses in auditory cortex do not behave in a linear manner, temporal patterns of imaging noise were found to modulate both the shape and spatial extent of hemodynamic responses, with classically non-auditory areas exhibiting responses to longer duration noise conditions. Hemispheric analysis revealed the right primary auditory cortex to be more sensitive than the left to the presence of imaging related acoustic noise. Right primary auditory cortex responses were significantly larger during all the conditions. This asymmetry of response to imaging related acoustic noise could lead to different baseline activation levels during acquisition schemes using short TR, inducing an observed asymmetry in the responses to an intended acoustic stimulus through limitations of dynamic range, rather than due to differences in neuronal processing of the stimulus. These results emphasize the importance of accounting for the temporal pattern of the acoustic noise when comparing findings across different fMRI studies, especially those involving acoustic stimulation. PMID:26519093

  2. In-situ optical and acoustical measurements of the buoyant cyanobacterium p. Rubescens: spatial and temporal distribution patterns.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Hilmar; Peeters, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Optical (fluorescence) and acoustic in-situ techniques were tested in their ability to measure the spatial and temporal distribution of plankton in freshwater ecosystems with special emphasis on the harmful and buoyant cyanobacterium P. rubescens. Fluorescence was measured with the multi-spectral FluoroProbe (Moldaenke FluoroProbe, MFP) and a Seapoint Chlorophyll Fluorometer (SCF). In-situ measurements of the acoustic backscatter strength (ABS) were conducted with three different acoustic devices covering multiple acoustic frequencies (614 kHz ADCP, 2 MHz ADP, and 6 MHz ADV). The MFP provides a fast and reliable technique to measure fluorescence at different wavelengths in situ, which allows discriminating between P. rubescens and other phytoplankton species. All three acoustic devices are sensitive to P. rubescens even if other scatterers, e.g., zooplankton or suspended sediment, are present in the water column, because P. rubescens containing gas vesicles has a strong density difference and hence acoustic contrast to the ambient water and other scatterers. After calibration, the combination of optical and acoustical measurements not only allows qualitative and quantitative observation of P. rubescens, but also distinction between P. rubescens, other phytoplankton, and zooplankton. As the measuring devices can sample in situ at high rates they enable assessment of plankton distributions at high temporal (minutes) and spatial (decimeters) resolution or covering large temporal (seasonal) and spatial (basin scale) scales. PMID:24303028

  3. In-Situ Optical and Acoustical Measurements of the Buoyant Cyanobacterium P. Rubescens: Spatial and Temporal Distribution Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Hilmar; Peeters, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Optical (fluorescence) and acoustic in-situ techniques were tested in their ability to measure the spatial and temporal distribution of plankton in freshwater ecosystems with special emphasis on the harmful and buoyant cyanobacterium P. rubescens. Fluorescence was measured with the multi-spectral FluoroProbe (Moldaenke FluoroProbe, MFP) and a Seapoint Chlorophyll Fluorometer (SCF). In-situ measurements of the acoustic backscatter strength (ABS) were conducted with three different acoustic devices covering multiple acoustic frequencies (614 kHz ADCP, 2 MHz ADP, and 6 MHz ADV). The MFP provides a fast and reliable technique to measure fluorescence at different wavelengths in situ, which allows discriminating between P. rubescens and other phytoplankton species. All three acoustic devices are sensitive to P. rubescens even if other scatterers, e.g., zooplankton or suspended sediment, are present in the water column, because P. rubescens containing gas vesicles has a strong density difference and hence acoustic contrast to the ambient water and other scatterers. After calibration, the combination of optical and acoustical measurements not only allows qualitative and quantitative observation of P. rubescens, but also distinction between P. rubescens, other phytoplankton, and zooplankton. As the measuring devices can sample in situ at high rates they enable assessment of plankton distributions at high temporal (minutes) and spatial (decimeters) resolution or covering large temporal (seasonal) and spatial (basin scale) scales. PMID:24303028

  4. Temporal patterns in the acoustic signals of beaked whales at Cross Seamount.

    PubMed

    Johnston, D W; McDonald, M; Polovina, J; Domokos, R; Wiggins, S; Hildebrand, J

    2008-04-23

    Seamounts may influence the distribution of marine mammals through a combination of increased ocean mixing, enhanced local productivity and greater prey availability. To study the effects of seamounts on the presence and acoustic behaviour of cetaceans, we deployed a high-frequency acoustic recording package on the summit of Cross Seamount during April through October 2005. The most frequently detected cetacean vocalizations were echolocation sounds similar to those produced by ziphiid and mesoplodont beaked whales together with buzz-type signals consistent with prey-capture attempts. Beaked whale signals occurred almost entirely at night throughout the six-month deployment. Measurements of prey presence with a Simrad EK-60 fisheries acoustics echo sounder indicate that Cross Seamount may enhance local productivity in near-surface waters. Concentrations of micronekton were aggregated over the seamount in near-surface waters at night, and dense concentrations of nekton were detected across the surface of the summit. Our results suggest that seamounts may provide enhanced foraging opportunities for beaked whales during the night through a combination of increased productivity, vertical migrations by micronekton and local retention of prey. Furthermore, the summit of the seamount may act as a barrier against which whales concentrate prey. PMID:18252660

  5. The Curious Acoustic Behavior of Estuarine Snapping Shrimp: Temporal Patterns of Snapping Shrimp Sound in Sub-Tidal Oyster Reef Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R.; Lillis, Ashlee; Eggleston, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean soundscapes convey important sensory information to marine life. Like many mid-to-low latitude coastal areas worldwide, the high-frequency (>1.5 kHz) soundscape of oyster reef habitat within the West Bay Marine Reserve (36°N, 76°W) is dominated by the impulsive, short-duration signals generated by snapping shrimp. Between June 2011 and July 2012, a single hydrophone deployed within West Bay was programmed to record 60 or 30 seconds of acoustic data every 15 or 30 minutes. Envelope correlation and amplitude information were then used to count shrimp snaps within these recordings. The observed snap rates vary from 1500–2000 snaps per minute during summer to <100 snaps per minute during winter. Sound pressure levels are positively correlated with snap rate (r = 0.71–0.92) and vary seasonally by ~15 decibels in the 1.5–20 kHz range. Snap rates are positively correlated with water temperatures (r = 0.81–0.93), as well as potentially influenced by climate-driven changes in water quality. Light availability modulates snap rate on diurnal time scales, with most days exhibiting a significant preference for either nighttime or daytime snapping, and many showing additional crepuscular increases. During mid-summer, the number of snaps occurring at night is 5–10% more than predicted by a random model; however, this pattern is reversed between August and April, with an excess of up to 25% more snaps recorded during the day in the mid-winter. Diurnal variability in sound pressure levels is largest in the mid-winter, when the overall rate of snapping is at its lowest, and the percentage difference between daytime and nighttime activity is at its highest. This work highlights our lack of knowledge regarding the ecology and acoustic behavior of one of the most dominant soniforous invertebrate species in coastal systems. It also underscores the necessity of long-duration, high-temporal-resolution sampling in efforts to understand the bioacoustics of animal behaviors and associated changes within the marine soundscape. PMID:26761645

  6. The Curious Acoustic Behavior of Estuarine Snapping Shrimp: Temporal Patterns of Snapping Shrimp Sound in Sub-Tidal Oyster Reef Habitat.

    PubMed

    Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R; Lillis, Ashlee; Eggleston, David B

    2016-01-01

    Ocean soundscapes convey important sensory information to marine life. Like many mid-to-low latitude coastal areas worldwide, the high-frequency (>1.5 kHz) soundscape of oyster reef habitat within the West Bay Marine Reserve (36°N, 76°W) is dominated by the impulsive, short-duration signals generated by snapping shrimp. Between June 2011 and July 2012, a single hydrophone deployed within West Bay was programmed to record 60 or 30 seconds of acoustic data every 15 or 30 minutes. Envelope correlation and amplitude information were then used to count shrimp snaps within these recordings. The observed snap rates vary from 1500-2000 snaps per minute during summer to <100 snaps per minute during winter. Sound pressure levels are positively correlated with snap rate (r = 0.71-0.92) and vary seasonally by ~15 decibels in the 1.5-20 kHz range. Snap rates are positively correlated with water temperatures (r = 0.81-0.93), as well as potentially influenced by climate-driven changes in water quality. Light availability modulates snap rate on diurnal time scales, with most days exhibiting a significant preference for either nighttime or daytime snapping, and many showing additional crepuscular increases. During mid-summer, the number of snaps occurring at night is 5-10% more than predicted by a random model; however, this pattern is reversed between August and April, with an excess of up to 25% more snaps recorded during the day in the mid-winter. Diurnal variability in sound pressure levels is largest in the mid-winter, when the overall rate of snapping is at its lowest, and the percentage difference between daytime and nighttime activity is at its highest. This work highlights our lack of knowledge regarding the ecology and acoustic behavior of one of the most dominant soniforous invertebrate species in coastal systems. It also underscores the necessity of long-duration, high-temporal-resolution sampling in efforts to understand the bioacoustics of animal behaviors and associated changes within the marine soundscape. PMID:26761645

  7. Temporal spike pattern learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talathi, Sachin S.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.; Ditto, William L.

    2008-09-01

    Sensory systems pass information about an animals environment to higher nervous system units through sequences of action potentials. When these action potentials have essentially equivalent wave forms, all information is contained in the interspike intervals (ISIs) of the spike sequence. How do neural circuits recognize and read these ISI sequences? We address this issue of temporal sequence learning by a neuronal system utilizing spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP). We present a general architecture of neural circuitry that can perform the task of ISI recognition. The essential ingredients of this neural circuit, which we refer to as interspike interval recognition unit (IRU) are (i) a spike selection unit, the function of which is to selectively distribute input spikes to downstream IRU circuitry; (ii) a time-delay unit that can be tuned by STDP; and (iii) a detection unit, which is the output of the IRU and a spike from which indicates successful ISI recognition by the IRU. We present two distinct configurations for the time-delay circuit within the IRU using excitatory and inhibitory synapses, respectively, to produce a delayed output spike at time t0+?(R) in response to the input spike received at time t0 . R is the tunable parameter of the time-delay circuit that controls the timing of the delayed output spike. We discuss the forms of STDP rules for excitatory and inhibitory synapses, respectively, that allow for modulation of R for the IRU to perform its task of ISI recognition. We then present two specific implementations for the IRU circuitry, derived from the general architecture that can both learn the ISIs of a training sequence and then recognize the same ISI sequence when it is presented on subsequent occasions.

  8. Acoustic assessment of flow patterns in unsaturated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flammer, I.; Blum, A.; Leiser, A.; Germann, P.

    2001-02-01

    Acoustic wavelengths in soils range from meters to millimeters, depending on their frequencies. The spatial and temporal scales of pulse transmission through soils are well suited to investigate transient and presumably heterogeneous water infiltration into and redistribution within soils. Acoustic pulses were transmitted through a column of an undisturbed and partially water-saturated loess soil with height and diameter of 0.8 and 0.3 m, respectively. The maximum frequency of the arriving pulses was 10 kHz, which corresponds to a wavelength of about 50 mm. Both travel velocities and absorption of the acoustic waves reacted in the expected ways on soil moisture variations; however, the two temporal reaction patterns differed considerably. Brutsaert's [J. Geophys. Res. 69 (1964) 243] model was successfully applied to the data. Dye tracers visualized the patterns of water distribution. Their scale compares well with theoretical considerations on the flow paths and the results from the acoustic investigations.

  9. Temporal pattern processing in songbirds.

    PubMed

    Comins, Jordan A; Gentner, Timothy Q

    2014-10-01

    Understanding how the brain perceives, organizes and uses patterned information is directly related to the neurobiology of language. Given the present limitations, such knowledge at the scale of neurons, neural circuits and neural populations can only come from non-human models, focusing on shared capacities that are relevant to language processing. Here we review recent advances in the behavioral and neural basis of temporal pattern processing of natural auditory communication signals in songbirds, focusing on European starlings. We suggest a general inhibitory circuit for contextual modulation that can act to control sensory representations based on patterning rules. PMID:25201176

  10. Writing magnetic patterns with surface acoustic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Weiyang; Buford, Benjamin; Jander, Albrecht; Dhagat, Pallavi

    2014-05-07

    A novel patterning technique that creates magnetization patterns in a continuous magnetostrictive film with surface acoustic waves is demonstrated. Patterns of 10 μm wide stripes of alternating magnetization and a 3 μm dot of reversed magnetization are written using standing and focusing acoustic waves, respectively. The magnetization pattern is size-tunable, erasable, and rewritable by changing the magnetic field and acoustic power. This versatility, along with its solid-state implementation (no moving parts) and electronic control, renders it as a promising technique for application in magnetic recording, magnonic signal processing, magnetic particle manipulation, and spatial magneto-optical modulation.

  11. Diel patterns and temporal trends in spawning activities of Robust Redhorse and River Redhorse in Georgia, assessed using passive acoustic monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Straight, Carrie A.; Jackson, C. Rhett; Freeman, Byron J.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    The conservation of imperiled species depends upon understanding threats to the species at each stage of its life history. In the case of many imperiled migratory fishes, understanding how timing and environmental influences affect reproductive behavior could provide managers with information critical for species conservation. We used passive acoustic recorders to document spawning activities for two large-bodied catostomids (Robust Redhorse Moxostoma robustum in the Savannah and Broad rivers, Georgia, and River Redhorse M. carinatum in the Coosawattee River, Georgia) in relation to time of day, water temperature, discharge variation, moonlight, and weather. Robust Redhorse spawning activities in the Savannah and Broad rivers were more frequent at night or in the early morning (0100–0400 hours and 0800–1000 hours, respectively) and less frequent near midday (1300 hours). Spawning attempts in the Savannah and Broad rivers increased over a 3–4-d period and then declined. River Redhorse spawning activities in the Coosawattee River peaked on the first day of recording and declined over four subsequent days; diel patterns were less discernible, although moon illumination was positively associated with spawning rates, which was also observed for Robust Redhorses in the Savannah River. Spawning activity in the Savannah and Broad rivers was negatively associated with water temperature, and spawning activity increased in association with cloud cover in the Savannah River. A large variation in discharge was only measured in the flow-regulated Savannah River and was not associated with spawning attempts. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show diel and multiday patterns in spawning activities for anyMoxostoma species. These patterns and relationships between the environment and spawning activities could provide important information for the management of these species downstream of hydropower facilities.

  12. Transduction of temporal patterns by single neurons.

    PubMed

    Hooper, S L

    1998-12-01

    As our ability to communicate by Morse code illustrates, nervous systems can produce motor outputs, and identify sensory inputs, based on temporal patterning alone. Although this ability is central to a wide range of sensory and motor tasks, the ways in which nervous systems represent temporal patterns are not well understood. I show here that individual neurons of the lobster pyloric network can integrate rhythmic patterned input over the long times (hundreds of milliseconds) characteristic of many behaviorally relevant patterns, and that their firing delays vary as a graded function of the pattern's temporal character. These neurons directly transduce temporal patterns into a neural code, and constitute a novel biological substrate for temporal pattern detection and production. The combined activities of several such neurons can encode simple rhythmic patterns, and I provide a model illustrating how this could be achieved. PMID:10196589

  13. Analysis of temporal patterns of communication signals.

    PubMed

    Pollack, G S

    2001-12-01

    Temporal pattern is a crucial feature of communication signals, and neurons in the brains of many animals respond selectively to behaviorally relevant temporal features of sensory stimuli. Many aspects of neural function contribute to this selectivity, including membrane biophysics, channel properties, synaptic physiology and network structure. PMID:11741026

  14. Resurgence of Temporal Patterns of Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cancado, Carlos R. X.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2011-01-01

    The resurgence of temporal patterns of key pecking by pigeons was investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, positively accelerated and linear patterns of responding were established on one key under a discrete-trial multiple fixed-interval variable-interval schedule. Subsequently, only responses on a second key produced reinforcers…

  15. Speech synthesis: From segmental synthesis to acoustic rules, using temporal decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bimbot, Frederic

    1988-12-01

    Coherent speech analysis tools which allow the creation of a set of acoustic knowledge are proposed. The temporal decomposition technique describes a speech segment as a linear combination of a limited set of spectral targets, the time contribution of which is expressed by compact interpolation functions. A dictionary of spectral targets and a typology of temporal patterns can thus be created. A synthesis technique by structured segments is proposed as an intermediate step between segmental synthesis and rule based synthesis. Relations between experimental results and classical phonetic concepts are established.

  16. Auditory Temporal Pattern Discrimination and Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnally, Ken I.; Castles, Anne; Bannister, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The relation between reading ability and performance on an auditory temporal pattern discrimination task was investigated in children who were either good or delayed readers. The stimuli in the primary task consisted of sequences of tones, alternating between high and low frequencies. The threshold interstimulus interval (ISI) for discrimination…

  17. Auditory Temporal Pattern Discrimination and Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnally, Ken I.; Castles, Anne; Bannister, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The relation between reading ability and performance on an auditory temporal pattern discrimination task was investigated in children who were either good or delayed readers. The stimuli in the primary task consisted of sequences of tones, alternating between high and low frequencies. The threshold interstimulus interval (ISI) for discrimination

  18. Acoustic and Temporal Partitioning of Cicada Assemblages in City and Mountain Environments

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, Bao-Sen; Liang, Shih-Hsiung; Chiu, Yuh-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Comparing adaptations to noisy city environments with those to natural mountain environments on the community level can provide significant insights that allow an understanding of the impact of anthropogenic noise on invertebrates that employ loud calling songs for mate attraction, especially when each species has its distinct song, as in the case of cicadas. In this study, we investigated the partitioning strategy of cicada assemblages in city and mountain environments by comparing the acoustic features and calling activity patterns of each species, recorded using automated digital recording systems. Our comparison of activity patterns of seasonal and diel calling revealed that there was no significant temporal partitioning of cicada assemblages in either environment. In addition, there was no correlation between the acoustic distance based on spectral features and temporal segregation. Heterospecific spectral overlap was low in both city and mountain environments, although city and mountain cicada assemblages were subject to significantly different levels of anthropogenic or interspecific noise. Furthermore, for the common species found in both environments, the calling activity patterns at both seasonal and diel time scales were significantly consistent across sites and across environments. We suggest that the temporal calling activity is constrained by endogenous factors for each species and is less flexible in response to external factors, such as anthropogenic noise. As a result, cicada assemblages in city environments with low species diversity do not demonstrate a more significant temporal partitioning than those in mountain environments with high species diversity. PMID:25590620

  19. Neural representation of three-dimensional acoustic space in the human temporal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Qingtian; Hu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Sound localization is an important function of the human brain, but the underlying cortical mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we recorded auditory stimuli in three-dimensional space and then replayed the stimuli through earphones during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). By employing a machine learning algorithm, we successfully decoded sound location from the blood oxygenation level-dependent signals in the temporal lobe. Analysis of the data revealed that different cortical patterns were evoked by sounds from different locations. Specifically, discrimination of sound location along the abscissa axis evoked robust responses in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right mid-STG, discrimination along the elevation (EL) axis evoked robust responses in the left posterior middle temporal lobe (MTL) and right STG, and discrimination along the ordinate axis evoked robust responses in the left mid-MTL and right mid-STG. These results support a distributed representation of acoustic space in human cortex. PMID:25932011

  20. Spatial and temporal patterns of morel fruiting.

    PubMed

    Mihail, Jeanne D; Bruhn, Johann N; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2007-03-01

    The biotic and abiotic factors conditioning morel fruit body production are incompletely known. We examined spatial and temporal patterns of Morchella esculenta fruiting over five years in a wooded site in Missouri, USA. Fruiting onset was inversely correlated with spring air and soil temperatures, whereas abundance was positively correlated with rain events (>10mm) during the 30 d preceding fruiting. The two years with the greatest fruiting had the shortest fruiting seasons (6-7d). Fruiting season length was positively correlated with soil warming, suggesting that a narrow range of optimum soil temperatures favour the explosive production of fruit bodies. All woody stems of at least 1cm diam were mapped and stem diameter and crown condition were noted. Morel fruit bodies were significantly closer to stems of Carya spp., Tilia americana and Ulmus americana than predicted by the frequencies of these woody species or their contribution to the total basal area on the site. Although intra-annual clustering of fruit bodies was often observed, inter-annual clustering was not. The spatial pattern of M. esculenta fruiting appears to be associated with vegetation pattern, whereas the onset and abundance of fruiting are determined by the interaction of spring temperatures with availability of supporting precipitation. PMID:17363234

  1. Multimodal far-field acoustic radiation pattern: An approximate equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    The far-field sound radiation theory for a circular duct was studied for both single mode and multimodal inputs. The investigation was intended to develop a method to determine the acoustic power produced by turbofans as a function of mode cut-off ratio. With reasonable simplifying assumptions the single mode radiation pattern was shown to be reducible to a function of mode cut-off ratio only. With modal cut-off ratio as the dominant variable, multimodal radiation patterns can be reduced to a simple explicit expression. This approximate expression provides excellent agreement with an exact calculation of the sound radiation pattern using equal acoustic power per mode.

  2. Acoustic change responses to amplitude modulation: a method to quantify cortical temporal processing and hemispheric asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ji Hye; Dimitrijevic, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Sound modulation is a critical temporal cue for the perception of speech and environmental sounds. To examine auditory cortical responses to sound modulation, we developed an acoustic change stimulus involving amplitude modulation (AM) of ongoing noise. The AM transitions in this stimulus evoked an acoustic change complex (ACC) that was examined parametrically in terms of rate and depth of modulation and hemispheric symmetry. Methods: Auditory cortical potentials were recorded from 64 scalp electrodes during passive listening in two conditions: (1) ACC from white noise to 4, 40, 300 Hz AM, with varying AM depths of 100, 50, 25% lasting 1 s and (2) 1 s AM noise bursts at the same modulation rate. Behavioral measures included AM detection from an attend ACC condition and AM depth thresholds (i.e., a temporal modulation transfer function, TMTF). Results: The N1 response of the ACC was large to 4 and 40 Hz and small to the 300 Hz AM. In contrast, the opposite pattern was observed with bursts of AM showing larger responses with increases in AM rate. Brain source modeling showed significant hemispheric asymmetry such that 4 and 40 Hz ACC responses were dominated by right and left hemispheres respectively. Conclusion: N1 responses to the ACC resembled a low pass filter shape similar to a behavioral TMTF. In the ACC paradigm, the only stimulus parameter that changes is AM and therefore the N1 response provides an index for this AM change. In contrast, an AM burst stimulus contains both AM and level changes and is likely dominated by the rise time of the stimulus. The hemispheric differences are consistent with the asymmetric sampling in time hypothesis suggesting that the different hemispheres preferentially sample acoustic time across different time windows. Significance: The ACC provides a novel approach to studying temporal processing at the level of cortex and provides further evidence of hemispheric specialization for fast and slow stimuli. PMID:25717291

  3. Investigation of acoustic streaming patterns around oscillating sharp edges

    PubMed Central

    Nama, Nitesh; Huang, Po-Hsun; Huang, Tony Jun; Costanzo, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Oscillating sharp edges have been employed to achieve rapid and homogeneous mixing in microchannels using acoustic streaming. Here we use a perturbation approach to study the flow around oscillating sharp edges in a microchannel. This work extends prior experimental studies to numerically characterize the effect of various parameters on the acoustically induced flow. Our numerical results match well with the experimental results. We investigated multiple device parameters such as the tip angle, oscillation amplitude, and channel dimensions. Our results indicate that, due to the inherent nonlinearity of acoustic streaming, the channel dimensions could significantly impact the flow patterns and device performance. PMID:24903475

  4. Acoustic Predictors of Intelligibility for Segmentally Interrupted Speech: Temporal Envelope, Voicing, and Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogerty, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Temporal interruption limits the perception of speech to isolated temporal glimpses. An analysis was conducted to determine the acoustic parameter that best predicts speech recognition from temporal fragments that preserve different types of speech information--namely, consonants and vowels. Method: Young listeners with normal hearing

  5. Acoustic Predictors of Intelligibility for Segmentally Interrupted Speech: Temporal Envelope, Voicing, and Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogerty, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Temporal interruption limits the perception of speech to isolated temporal glimpses. An analysis was conducted to determine the acoustic parameter that best predicts speech recognition from temporal fragments that preserve different types of speech information--namely, consonants and vowels. Method: Young listeners with normal hearing…

  6. Auditory temporal pattern learning by songbirds using maximal stimulus diversity and minimal repetition.

    PubMed

    Comins, Jordan A; Gentner, Timothy Q

    2014-09-01

    The sequential patterning of complex acoustic elements is a salient feature of bird song and other forms of vocal communication. For European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), a songbird species, individual vocal recognition is improved when the temporal organization of song components (called motifs) follows the normal patterns of each singer. This sensitivity to natural motif sequences may underlie observations that starlings can also learn more complex, unnatural motif patterns. Alternatively, it has been proposed that the apparent acquisition of abstract motif patterning rules instead reflects idiosyncrasies of the training conditions used in prior experiments. That is, that motif patterns are learned not by recognizing differences in temporal structures between patterns, but by identifying serendipitous features (e.g., acoustical cues) in the small sets of training and testing stimuli used. Here, we investigate this possibility, by asking whether starlings can learn to discriminate between two arbitrary motif patterns, when unique examples of each pattern are presented on every trial. Our results demonstrate that abstract motif patterning rules can be acquired from trial-unique stimuli and suggest that such training leads to better pattern generalization compared with training with much smaller stimulus subsets. PMID:24526277

  7. Temporal analysis of acoustic emission from a plunged granular bed.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Daisuke; Katsuragi, Hiroaki

    2015-10-01

    The statistical property of acoustic emission (AE) events from a plunged granular bed is analyzed by means of actual-time and natural-time analyses. These temporal analysis methods allow us to investigate the details of AE events that follow a power-law distribution. In the actual-time analysis, the calm-time distribution, and the decay of the event-occurrence density after the largest event (i.e., the Omori-Utsu law) are measured. Although the former always shows a power-law form, the latter does not always obey a power law. Markovianity of the event-occurrence process is also verified using a scaling law by assuming that both of them exhibit power laws. We find that the effective shear strain rate is a key parameter to classify the emergence rate of power-law nature and Markovianity in granular AE events. For the natural-time analysis, the existence of self-organized critical states is revealed by calculating the variance of natural time ?(k), where kth natural time of N events is defined as ?(k)=k/N. In addition, the energy difference distribution can be fitted by a q-Gaussian form, which is also consistent with the criticality of the system. PMID:26565229

  8. Temporal analysis of acoustic emission from a plunged granular bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Daisuke; Katsuragi, Hiroaki

    2015-10-01

    The statistical property of acoustic emission (AE) events from a plunged granular bed is analyzed by means of actual-time and natural-time analyses. These temporal analysis methods allow us to investigate the details of AE events that follow a power-law distribution. In the actual-time analysis, the calm-time distribution, and the decay of the event-occurrence density after the largest event (i.e., the Omori-Utsu law) are measured. Although the former always shows a power-law form, the latter does not always obey a power law. Markovianity of the event-occurrence process is also verified using a scaling law by assuming that both of them exhibit power laws. We find that the effective shear strain rate is a key parameter to classify the emergence rate of power-law nature and Markovianity in granular AE events. For the natural-time analysis, the existence of self-organized critical states is revealed by calculating the variance of natural time ?k, where k th natural time of N events is defined as ?k=k /N . In addition, the energy difference distribution can be fitted by a q -Gaussian form, which is also consistent with the criticality of the system.

  9. Scaling properties in temporal patterns of schizophrenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dnki, R. M.; Ambhl, B.

    1996-02-01

    Investigations into the patterns of schizophrenia reveal evidence of scaling properties in temporal behaviour. This is shown in the spectral properties of mid-range and long-range (up to two years) daily recordings from a sample of patients drawn at the therapeutic dwelling SOTERIA (Ambhl et al., in: Springer Series in Synergetics, Vol. 58, eds. Tschacher et al. (Springer, Berlin, 1992) pp. 195-203 and references therein) of the Psychiatric University Hospital in Bern. The therapeutic setting is unique in that it tries to avoid treatment by medication. Power law behaviour has been found within fractal walk analysis and Fourier spectra for the daily fluctuations. A simple dynamic principle, based on a generic intermittency model, is put in relation to these time series thus predicting an additional scaling law for the distribution P( T) of time spans T between successive hospitalizations. Testing this hypothesis with our data shows only insignificant deviations. A possible role of this dynamic principle in the risk assignment of psychotic phases is explored with the help of an example.

  10. Coding of multisensory temporal patterns in human superior temporal sulcus

    PubMed Central

    Noesselt, Tmme; Bergmann, Daniel; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Mnte, Thomas; Spence, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists have long been interested in how the temporal aspects of perception are represented in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the neural basis of the temporal perception of synchrony/asynchrony for audiovisual speech stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subjects judged the temporal relation of (a)synchronous audiovisual speech streams, and indicated any changes in their perception of the stimuli over time. Differential hemodynamic responses for synchronous versus asynchronous stimuli were observed in the multisensory superior temporal sulcus complex (mSTS-c) and prefrontal cortex. Within mSTS-c we found adjacent regions expressing an enhanced BOLD-response to the different physical (a)synchrony conditions. These regions were further modulated by the subjects' perceptual state. By calculating the distances between the modulated regions within mSTS-c in single-subjects we demonstrate that the auditory leading (AL) and visual leading (VL) areas lie closer to synchrony areas than to each other. Moreover, analysis of interregional connectivity indicates a stronger functional connection between multisensory prefrontal cortex and mSTS-c during the perception of asynchrony. Taken together, these results therefore suggest the presence of distinct sub-regions within the human STS-c for the maintenance of temporal relations for audiovisual speech stimuli plus differential functional connectivity with prefrontal regions. The respective local activity in mSTS-c is dependent both upon the physical properties of the stimuli presented and upon the subjects' perception of (a)synchrony. PMID:22973202

  11. Temporal pattern mining for multivariate clinical decision support.

    PubMed

    Saini, Sheetal; Dua, Sumeet

    2013-01-01

    Multivariate temporal data are collections of contiguous data values that reflect complex temporal changes over a given duration. Technological advances have resulted in significant amounts of such data in high-throughput disciplines, including EEG and iEEG data for effective and efficient healthcare informatics, and decision support. Most data analytics and data-mining algorithms are effective in capturing global trends, but fail to capture localized behavioral changes in large temporal data sets. We present a two-step algorithmic methodology to uncover temporal patterns and exploiting them for an efficient and accurate decision support system. This methodology aids the discovery of previously unknown, nontrivial, and potentially useful temporal patterns for enhanced patient-specific clinical decision support with high degrees of sensitivity and specificity. Classification results on multivariate time series iEEG data for epileptic seizure detection also demonstrate the efficacy and accuracy of the technique to uncover interesting and effective domain class-specific temporal patterns. PMID:23921002

  12. Tunable Nanowire Patterning Using Standing Surface Acoustic Waves

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuchao; Ding, Xiaoyun; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Yang, Shikuan; Huang, Po-Hsun; Nama, Nitesh; Zhao, Yanhui; Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Guo, Feng; Wang, Wei; Gu, Yeyi; Mallouk, Thomas E.; Huang, Tony Jun

    2014-01-01

    Patterning of nanowires in a controllable, tunable manner is important for the fabrication of functional nanodevices. Here we present a simple approach for tunable nanowire patterning using standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW). This technique allows for the construction of large-scale nanowire arrays with well-controlled patterning geometry and spacing within 5 seconds. In this approach, SSAWs were generated by interdigital transducers (IDTs), which induced a periodic alternating current (AC) electric field on the piezoelectric substrate and consequently patterned metallic nanowires in suspension. The patterns could be deposited onto the substrate after the liquid evaporated. By controlling the distribution of the SSAW field, metallic nanowires were assembled into different patterns including parallel and perpendicular arrays. The spacing of the nanowire arrays could be tuned by controlling the frequency of the surface acoustic waves. Additionally, we observed 3D spark-shape nanowire patterns in the SSAW field. The SSAW-based nanowire-patterning technique presented here possesses several advantages over alternative patterning approaches, including high versatility, tunability, and efficiency, making it promising for device applications. PMID:23540330

  13. Tunable acoustic radiation pattern assisted by effective impedance boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Feng; Quan, Li; Wang, Li-Wei; Liu, Xiao-Zhou; Gong, Xiu-Fen

    2016-02-01

    The acoustic wave propagation from a two-dimensional subwavelength slit surrounded by metal plates decorated with Helmholtz resonators (HRs) is investigated both numerically and experimentally in this work. Owing to the presence of HRs, the effective impedance of metal surface boundary can be manipulated. By optimizing the distribution of HRs, the asymmetric effective impedance boundary will be obtained, which contributes to generating tunable acoustic radiation pattern such as directional acoustic beaming. These dipole-like radiation patterns have high radiation efficiency, no fingerprint of sidelobes, and a wide tunable range of the radiation pattern directivity angle which can be steered by the spatial displacements of HRs. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2012CB921504 and 2011CB707902), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.11474160), the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities, China (Grant No. 020414380001), the State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. SKLOA201401), the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, and the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry.

  14. 1987 WET DEPOSITION TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL PATTERNS IN NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1987 and spatial patterns for 1987. he report investigates the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate...

  15. Spatial, Temporal and Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Maritime Piracy

    PubMed Central

    Marchione, Elio

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To examine patterns in the timing and location of incidents of maritime piracy to see whether, like many urban crimes, attacks cluster in space and time. Methods: Data for all incidents of maritime piracy worldwide recorded by the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency are analyzed using time-series models and methods originally developed to detect disease contagion. Results: At the macro level, analyses suggest that incidents of pirate attacks are concentrated in five subregions of the earth’s oceans and that the time series for these different subregions differ. At the micro level, analyses suggest that for the last 16 years (or more), pirate attacks appear to cluster in space and time suggesting that patterns are not static but are also not random. Conclusions: Much like other types of crime, pirate attacks cluster in space, and following an attack at one location the risk of others at the same location or nearby is temporarily elevated. The identification of such regularities has implications for the understanding of maritime piracy and for predicting the future locations of attacks. PMID:25076796

  16. Temporal Patterns of Communication in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Norman Makoto

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, we report on results of an in-depth observational study to understand the temporal dimension of communication in the workplace. By employing the "shadowing" method for in situ to-the-second data gathering of information workers' behaviors, we gained a detailed snapshot of informants' workdays, "warts and all." Our

  17. Finding Spatio-Temporal Patterns in Large Sensor Datasets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Michael Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Spatial or temporal data mining tasks are performed in the context of the relevant space, defined by a spatial neighborhood, and the relevant time period, defined by a specific time interval. Furthermore, when mining large spatio-temporal datasets, interesting patterns typically emerge where the dataset is most dynamic. This dissertation is…

  18. Finding Spatio-Temporal Patterns in Large Sensor Datasets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Michael Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Spatial or temporal data mining tasks are performed in the context of the relevant space, defined by a spatial neighborhood, and the relevant time period, defined by a specific time interval. Furthermore, when mining large spatio-temporal datasets, interesting patterns typically emerge where the dataset is most dynamic. This dissertation is

  19. Spatial and temporal variability of zooplankton off New Caledonia (Southwestern Pacific) from acoustics and net measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeti, Houssem; Pagano, Marc; Menkes, Christophe; Lebourges-Dhaussy, Anne; Hunt, Brian P. V.; Allain, Valerie; Rodier, Martine; de Boissieu, Florian; Kestenare, Elodie; Sammari, Cherif

    2015-04-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of zooplankton off New Caledonia in the eastern Coral Sea was studied during two multidisciplinary cruises in 2011, during the cool and the hot seasons. Acoustic measurements of zooplankton were made using a shipborne acoustic Doppler current profiler (S-ADCP), a scientific echosounder and a Tracor acoustic profiling system (TAPS). Relative backscatter from ADCP was converted to biomass estimates using zooplankton weights from net-samples collected during the cruises. Zooplankton biomass was estimated using four methods: weighing, digital imaging (ZooScan), ADCP and TAPS. Significant correlations were found between the different biomass estimators and between the backscatters of the ADCP and the echosounder. There was a consistent diel pattern in ADCP derived biomass and echosounder backscatter resulting from the diel vertical migration (DVM) of zooplankton. Higher DVM amplitudes were associated with higher abundance of small zooplankton and cold waters to the south of the study area, while lower DVM amplitudes in the north were associated with warmer waters and higher abundance of large organisms. Zooplankton was largely dominated by copepods (71-73%) among which calanoids prevailed (40-42%), with Paracalanus spp. as the dominant species (16-17%). Overall, zooplankton exhibited low abundance and biomass (mean night dry biomass of 4.7 ± 2.2 mg m3 during the cool season and 2.4 ± 0.4 mg m3 during the hot season) but high richness and diversity (Shannon index ˜4). Substantially enhanced biomass and abundance appeared to be episodically associated with mesoscale features contributing to shape a rather patchy zooplankton distribution.

  20. Thermal Acoustic Waves from Wall with Temporal Temperature Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, G.; Tsukamoto, M.; Sakurai, A.

    2011-05-01

    Although phenomenon of thermo-acoustic wave has been known for many years in some familiar experiences such as "singing flame" from Bunsen burner, recent trends of utilizing it for the industrial applications urge the understandings of basic details of the phenomenon itself. Here we consider, in this connection, the problem of acoustic wave generation from a particular heat source of solid wall whose temperature changes with time and the phenomenon of temperature change by standing wave oscillating in closed tube. For these we set a hollow tube whose temperature at its one end wall changes with time, and compute flow field inside using the molecular kinetic model, which is found to be more convenient for the boundary value fitting than the ordinary acoustic theory system to this problem. In practice, we use the Boltzmann equation with the BGK approximation, and compute two cases above in monotonic and sinusoidal temperature changes with time. Results of both cases show propagating density wave from the wall almost in acoustic velocity to the first case and the temperature decreases in average to the second case.

  1. Eleutherodactylus frogs show frequency but no temporal partitioning: implications for the acoustic niche hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Individuals in acoustic communities compete for the use of the sound resource for communication, a problem that can be studied as niche competition. The acoustic niche hypothesis presents a way to study the partitioning of the resource, but the studies have to take into account the three dimensions of this niche: time, acoustic frequency, and space. I used an Automated Digital Recording System to determine the partitioning of time and acoustic frequency of eight frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus from Puerto Rico. The calling activity was measured using a calling index. The community exhibited no temporal partitioning since most species called at the same time, between sunset and midnight. The species partitioned the acoustic frequency of their signals, which, in addition to the microhabitat partitioning, can provide some insight into how these species deal with the problem. This data also suggest that monitoring projects with this group should take place only before midnight to avoid false negatives. PMID:25101228

  2. Analysis of brain patterns using temporal measures

    DOEpatents

    Georgopoulos, Apostolos

    2015-08-11

    A set of brain data representing a time series of neurophysiologic activity acquired by spatially distributed sensors arranged to detect neural signaling of a brain (such as by the use of magnetoencephalography) is obtained. The set of brain data is processed to obtain a dynamic brain model based on a set of statistically-independent temporal measures, such as partial cross correlations, among groupings of different time series within the set of brain data. The dynamic brain model represents interactions between neural populations of the brain occurring close in time, such as with zero lag, for example. The dynamic brain model can be analyzed to obtain the neurophysiologic assessment of the brain. Data processing techniques may be used to assess structural or neurochemical brain pathologies.

  3. Engaging concert hall acoustics is made up of temporal envelope preserving reflections.

    PubMed

    Lokki, Tapio; Ptynen, Jukka; Tervo, Sakari; Siltanen, Samuel; Savioja, Lauri

    2011-06-01

    Strong, exciting, and engaging sound is perceived in the best concert halls. Here, it is shown that wideband early reflections that preserve the temporal envelope of sound contribute to the clear and open acoustics with strong bass. Such reflections are fused with the direct sound due to the precedence effect. In contrast, reflections that distort the temporal envelope render the sound weak and muddy because they partially break down the precedence. The presented findings are based on the earlier psychoacoustics research, and confirmed by a perceptual evaluation with six simulated concert halls that have same monaural room acoustical parameter values according to ISO3382-1. PMID:21682356

  4. T-Patterns Revisited: Mining for Temporal Patterns in Sensor Data

    PubMed Central

    Salah, Albert Ali; Pauwels, Eric; Tavenard, Romain; Gevers, Theo

    2010-01-01

    The trend to use large amounts of simple sensors as opposed to a few complex sensors to monitor places and systems creates a need for temporal pattern mining algorithms to work on such data. The methods that try to discover re-usable and interpretable patterns in temporal event data have several shortcomings. We contrast several recent approaches to the problem, and extend the T-Pattern algorithm, which was previously applied for detection of sequential patterns in behavioural sciences. The temporal complexity of the T-pattern approach is prohibitive in the scenarios we consider. We remedy this with a statistical model to obtain a fast and robust algorithm to find patterns in temporal data. We test our algorithm on a recent database collected with passive infrared sensors with millions of events. PMID:22163613

  5. Complex temporal and spatial patterns in nonequilibrium systems

    SciTech Connect

    Swinney, H.L.

    1991-09-01

    Dynamical systems methods are being developed and used to characterize the formation and evolution of temporal and spatial patterns in systems maintained far from equilibrium. In particular, experiments and analyses are considering electrodeposition of fractal metallic clusters, pattern formation in reaction-diffusion systems, and the primary instabilities of some fluid flows. Novel reactors have been developed to search for chemical patterns (spatial variations in the chemical composition), and sustained patterns have been found in several different one- and two-dimensional geometries. Bifurcations in these patterns are studied by varying control parameters, e.g., the concentrations of the feed chemicals or the temperature. The observed two-dimensional chemical patterns range from the stationary patterns, similar to those predicted by Turing in 1952 but not observed until 1990, to chemical turbulence, which is characterized by large numbers of defects and a rapid decay of spatial correlations. These provide general insights into the formation of spatiotemporal patterns in nonequilibrium systems.

  6. Detecting Multineuronal Temporal Patterns in Parallel Spike Trains

    PubMed Central

    Gansel, Kai S.; Singer, Wolf

    2012-01-01

    We present a non-parametric and computationally efficient method that detects spatiotemporal firing patterns and pattern sequences in parallel spike trains and tests whether the observed numbers of repeating patterns and sequences on a given timescale are significantly different from those expected by chance. The method is generally applicable and uncovers coordinated activity with arbitrary precision by comparing it to appropriate surrogate data. The analysis of coherent patterns of spatially and temporally distributed spiking activity on various timescales enables the immediate tracking of diverse qualities of coordinated firing related to neuronal state changes and information processing. We apply the method to simulated data and multineuronal recordings from rat visual cortex and show that it reliably discriminates between data sets with random pattern occurrences and with additional exactly repeating spatiotemporal patterns and pattern sequences. Multineuronal cortical spiking activity appears to be precisely coordinated and exhibits a sequential organization beyond the cell assembly concept. PMID:22661942

  7. The patterning mechanism of carbon nanotubes using surface acoustic waves: the acoustic radiation effect or the dielectrophoretic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhichao; Guo, Jinhong; Liu, Yan Jun; Ai, Ye

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we present a simple technique capable of assembling and patterning suspended CNTs using a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW) field. Individual CNTs could be assembled into larger CNT bundles and patterned in periodic positions on a substrate surface. The mechanism of the SSAW-based patterning technique has been investigated using both numerical simulation and experimental study. It has been found that the acoustic radiation effect due to the acoustic pressure field and the dielectrophoretic (DEP) effect induced by the electric field co-existing in the patterning process however play different roles depending on the properties of the suspended particles and the suspension medium. In the SSAW-based patterning of highly conductive CNTs with high aspect ratio geometry, the positive DEP effect dominates over the acoustic radiation effect. In contrast, the acoustic radiation effect dominates over the DEP effect when manipulating less conductive, spherical or low aspect ratio particles or biological cells. These results provide a meaningful insight into the mechanism of SSAW-based patterning, which is of great help to guide the effective use of this patterning technique for various applications.In this study, we present a simple technique capable of assembling and patterning suspended CNTs using a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW) field. Individual CNTs could be assembled into larger CNT bundles and patterned in periodic positions on a substrate surface. The mechanism of the SSAW-based patterning technique has been investigated using both numerical simulation and experimental study. It has been found that the acoustic radiation effect due to the acoustic pressure field and the dielectrophoretic (DEP) effect induced by the electric field co-existing in the patterning process however play different roles depending on the properties of the suspended particles and the suspension medium. In the SSAW-based patterning of highly conductive CNTs with high aspect ratio geometry, the positive DEP effect dominates over the acoustic radiation effect. In contrast, the acoustic radiation effect dominates over the DEP effect when manipulating less conductive, spherical or low aspect ratio particles or biological cells. These results provide a meaningful insight into the mechanism of SSAW-based patterning, which is of great help to guide the effective use of this patterning technique for various applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04272k

  8. Temporal pattern of locomotor activity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Martin, J R; Ernst, R; Heisenberg, M

    1999-01-01

    The temporal pattern of locomotor activity of single Drosophila melanogaster flies freely walking in small tubes is described. Locomotor activity monitored by a light gate has a characteristic time-course that depends upon age and the environmental conditions. Several methods are applied to assess the complexity of the temporal pattern. The pattern varies according to sex, genotype, age and environmental conditions (food; light). Activity occurs clustered in bouts. The intrinsic bout structure is quantified by four parameters: number of light gate passages (counts) per bout, duration of a bout, pause between two successive bouts and mean bout period. In addition, the distribution of the periods between light-gate crossings (inter-count intervals) as function of inter-count interval duration reveals a power law, suggesting that the overall distribution of episodes of activity and inactivity has a fractal structure. In the dark without food, the fractal dimension which represents a measure of the complexity of the pattern is sex, genotype and age specific. Fractality is abolished by additional sensory stimulation (food; light). We propose that time-course, bout structure and fractal dimension of the temporal pattern of locomotor activity describe different aspects of the fly's central pattern generator for locomotion and its motivational control. PMID:10077864

  9. 1988 Wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.; Bittner, E.A.

    1992-03-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1988 and spatial patterns for 1988. It is the third in a series of reports that investigate the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1988 annual, winter, and summer periods. Temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 35 sites over a 10-year (1979--1988) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites, with greater spatial coverage, over a 7-year (1982--1988) period. The 10-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data available that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. Sen's median trend estimate and Kendall's seasonal tau (KST) test are calculated for each ion species concentration and deposition at each site in both subsets.

  10. 1988 Wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.; Bittner, E.A.

    1992-03-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1988 and spatial patterns for 1988. It is the third in a series of reports that investigate the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1988 annual, winter, and summer periods. Temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 35 sites over a 10-year (1979--1988) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites, with greater spatial coverage, over a 7-year (1982--1988) period. The 10-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data available that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. Sen`s median trend estimate and Kendall`s seasonal tau (KST) test are calculated for each ion species concentration and deposition at each site in both subsets.

  11. Acoustical Survey of Methane Plumes on North Hydrate Ridge: Constraining Temporal and Spatial Characteristics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannberg, P. K.; Trehu, A. M.

    2008-12-01

    While methane plumes associated with hydrate formations have been acoustically imaged before, little is known about their temporal characteristics. Previous acoustic surveys have focused on determining plume location, but as far as we know, multiple, repeated surveys of the same plume have not been done prior to the survey presented here. In July 2008, we acquired sixteen identical surveys within 19 hours over the northern summit of Hydrate Ridge in the Cascadia accretionary complex using the onboard 3.5 and 12 kHz echosounders. As in previous studies, the plumes were invisible to the 3.5 kHz echosounder and clearly imaged with 12 kHz. Seafloor depth in this region is ~600 m. Three distinct plumes were detected close to where plumes were located by Heeschen et al. (2003) a decade ago. Two of the plumes disappeared at ~520 m water depth, which is the depth of the top of the gas hydrate stability as determined from CTD casts obtained during the cruise. This supports the conclusion of Heeschen et al. (2003) that the bubbles are armored by gas hydrate and that they dissolve in the water column when they leave the hydrate stability zone. One of the plumes near the northern summit, however, extended through this boundary to at least 400 m (the shallowest depth recorded). A similar phenomenon was observed in methane plumes in the Gulf of Mexico, where the methane was found to be armored by an oil skin. In addition to the steady plumes, two discrete "burps" were observed. One "burp" occurred approximately 600 m to the SSW of the northern summit. This was followed by a second strong event 300m to the north an hour later. To evaluate temporal and spatial patterns, we summed the power of the backscattered signal in different depth windows for each survey. We present the results as a movie in which the backscatter power is shown in map view as a function of time. The surveys encompassed two complete tidal cycles, but no correlation between plume location or intensity and tides is apparent in the data. Additional analyses will constrain plume strength as a function of water depth. Heeschen et al., GRL, v. 30, 2003.

  12. Speaker recognition with temporal cues in acoustic and electric hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vongphoe, Michael; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2005-08-01

    Natural spoken language processing includes not only speech recognition but also identification of the speaker's gender, age, emotional, and social status. Our purpose in this study is to evaluate whether temporal cues are sufficient to support both speech and speaker recognition. Ten cochlear-implant and six normal-hearing subjects were presented with vowel tokens spoken by three men, three women, two boys, and two girls. In one condition, the subject was asked to recognize the vowel. In the other condition, the subject was asked to identify the speaker. Extensive training was provided for the speaker recognition task. Normal-hearing subjects achieved nearly perfect performance in both tasks. Cochlear-implant subjects achieved good performance in vowel recognition but poor performance in speaker recognition. The level of the cochlear implant performance was functionally equivalent to normal performance with eight spectral bands for vowel recognition but only to one band for speaker recognition. These results show a disassociation between speech and speaker recognition with primarily temporal cues, highlighting the limitation of current speech processing strategies in cochlear implants. Several methods, including explicit encoding of fundamental frequency and frequency modulation, are proposed to improve speaker recognition for current cochlear implant users.

  13. Temporal patterns of phytoplankton abundance in the North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Janet W.

    1989-01-01

    A time series of CZCS images is being developed to study phytoplankton distribution patterns in the North Atlantic. The goal of this study is to observe temporal variability in phytoplankton pigments and other organic particulates, and to infer from these patterns the potential flux of biogenic materials from the euphotic layer to the deep ocean. Early results of this project are presented in this paper. Specifically, the satellite data used were 13 monthly composited images of CZCS data for the North Atlantic from January 1979 to January 1980. Results are presented for seasonal patterns along the 20 deg W meridian.

  14. A SIMPLE HETERODYNE TEMPORAL SPECKLE-PATTERN INTERFEROMETER

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, W. O.; Gao, Z.; Lu, J.

    2010-05-28

    A common light path design of heterodyne speckle pattern interferometer based on temporal speckle pattern interferometry is proposed for non-contact, full-field and real-time continuous displacement measurement. Double frequency laser is produced by rotating a half wave plate. An experiment was carried out to measure the dynamic displacement of a cantilever plate for testing the proposed common path heterodyne speckle pattern interferometer. The accuracy of displacement measurement was checked by measuring the motion at the mid-point of the plate with a point displacement sensor.

  15. 1986 wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, A.R.

    1989-07-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1986 and spatial patterns for 1986. The report provides statistical distribution summaries of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. The data in the report are from the Acid Depositing System (ADS) for the statistical reporting of North American deposition data. Isopleth maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1986 annual, winter, and summer periods. The temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 30 sites over an 8-year (1979-1986) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites with greater spatial coverage over a 5-year (1982-1986) period. The 8-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data unavailable that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. 19 refs., 105 figs., 29 tabs.

  16. Temporal patterns of human cortical activity reflect tone sequence structure.

    PubMed

    Patel, A D; Balaban, E

    2000-03-01

    Despite growing interest in temporal aspects of auditory neural processing, little is known about large-scale timing patterns of brain activity during the perception of auditory sequences. This is partly because it has not been possible to distinguish stimulus-related activity from other, endogenous brain signals recorded by electrical or magnetic sensors. Here we use amplitude modulation of unfamiliar, approximately 1-minute-long tone sequences to label stimulus-related magnetoencephalographic neural activity in human subjects. We show that temporal patterns of activity recorded over particular brain regions track the pitch contour of tone sequences, with the accuracy of tracking increasing as tone sequences become more predictable in structure. In contrast, temporal synchronization between recording locations, particularly between sites over the left posterior hemisphere and the rest of the brain, is greatest when sequences have melody-like statistical properties, which may reflect the perceptual integration of local and global pitch patterns in melody-like sequences. This method is particularly well suited to studying temporal neural correlates of complex auditory sequences (such as speech or music) which engage multiple brain areas as perception unfolds in time. PMID:10716446

  17. The patterning mechanism of carbon nanotubes using surface acoustic waves: the acoustic radiation effect or the dielectrophoretic effect.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhichao; Guo, Jinhong; Liu, Yan Jun; Ai, Ye

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we present a simple technique capable of assembling and patterning suspended CNTs using a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW) field. Individual CNTs could be assembled into larger CNT bundles and patterned in periodic positions on a substrate surface. The mechanism of the SSAW-based patterning technique has been investigated using both numerical simulation and experimental study. It has been found that the acoustic radiation effect due to the acoustic pressure field and the dielectrophoretic (DEP) effect induced by the electric field co-existing in the patterning process however play different roles depending on the properties of the suspended particles and the suspension medium. In the SSAW-based patterning of highly conductive CNTs with high aspect ratio geometry, the positive DEP effect dominates over the acoustic radiation effect. In contrast, the acoustic radiation effect dominates over the DEP effect when manipulating less conductive, spherical or low aspect ratio particles or biological cells. These results provide a meaningful insight into the mechanism of SSAW-based patterning, which is of great help to guide the effective use of this patterning technique for various applications. PMID:26239679

  18. Cannabinoid Receptor Activation Shifts Temporally Engendered Patterns of Dopamine Release

    PubMed Central

    Oleson, Erik B; Cachope, Roger; Fitoussi, Aurelie; Tsutsui, Kimberly; Wu, Sharon; Gallegos, Jacqueline A; Cheer, Joseph F

    2014-01-01

    The ability to discern temporally pertinent environmental events is essential for the generation of adaptive behavior in conventional tasks, and our overall survival. Cannabinoids are thought to disrupt temporally controlled behaviors by interfering with dedicated brain timing networks. Cannabinoids also increase dopamine release within the mesolimbic system, a neural pathway generally implicated in timing behavior. Timing can be assessed using fixed-interval (FI) schedules, which reinforce behavior on the basis of time. To date, it remains unknown how cannabinoids modulate dopamine release when responding under FI conditions, and for that matter, how subsecond dopamine release is related to time in these tasks. In the present study, we hypothesized that cannabinoids would accelerate timing behavior in an FI task while concurrently augmenting a temporally relevant pattern of dopamine release. To assess this possibility, we measured subsecond dopamine concentrations in the nucleus accumbens while mice responded for food under the influence of the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55?212-2 in an FI task. Our data reveal that accumbal dopamine concentrations decrease proportionally to interval durationsuggesting that dopamine encodes time in FI tasks. We further demonstrate that WIN 55?212-2 dose-dependently increases dopamine release and accelerates a temporal behavioral response pattern in a CB1 receptor-dependent mannersuggesting that cannabinoid receptor activation modifies timing behavior, in part, by augmenting time-engendered patterns of dopamine release. Additional investigation uncovered a specific role for endogenous cannabinoid tone in timing behavior, as elevations in 2-arachidonoylglycerol, but not anandamide, significantly accelerated the temporal response pattern in a manner akin to WIN 55?212-2. PMID:24345819

  19. Acoustically induced strong interaction between two periodically patterned elastic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Chunyin; Xu, Shengjun; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou

    2014-09-01

    We study the acoustic-induced interactions between a pair of identical elastic plates patterned with periodical structures. Remarkable mutual forces, both repulsions and attractions, have been observed in the subwavelength regime. The dramatic effect stems from the resonant enhancement of the local field sandwiched between the double plates. The parameter sensitivity of the magnitude and the sign of the interaction (i.e., repulsion or attraction) depend directly on the vibration morphology of the resonant mode. In practical applications, the sign of the interaction can be switched by controlling the external frequency. Both the adjustable magnitude and the switchable sign of the contactless interaction endow this simple and compact double-plate structure with great potential in ultrasonic applications.

  20. Acoustical Properties of Aircraft Noise Measured by Temporal and Spatial Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, K.; Soeta, Y.; Ando, Y.

    2001-03-01

    Acoustical properties of aircraft noise were investigated by means of temporal and spatial factors in sound fields based on the model of auditory-brain system (see reference [10]). The model consists of the autocorrelation and crosscorrelation mechanisms for sound signals arriving at two ears and the specialization of human cerebral hemisphere. There are four temporal factors extracted from the autocorrelation function (ACF): (1) sound energy ? (0); (2) effective duration of ACF, ?e; (3) delay time of the first peak, ?1; and (4) its amplitude ?1. From the interaural crosscorrelation function (IACF), three spatial factors are extracted as (1) magnitude of the interaural crosscorrelation IACC (2) interaural delay time at IACC,?IACC , and (3) width of the maximum peak of the IACF, WIACC. It is found that the acoustical properties are well represented by the factors extracted from the ACF and the IACF.

  1. Atherosclerotic plaque characterization by spatial and temporal speckle pattern analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tearney, Guillermo J.; Bouma, Brett E.

    2002-04-01

    Improved methods are needed to identify the vulnerable coronary plaques responsible for acute myocardial infraction or sudden cardiac death. We describe a method for characterizing the structure and biomechanical properties of atherosclerotic plaques based on speckle pattern fluctuations. Near-field speckle images were acquired from five human aortic specimens ex vivo. The speckle decorrelation time constant varied significantly for vulnerable aortic plaques (? = 40 ms) versus stable plaques (? = 400 ms) and normal aorta (? = 500 ms). These initial results indicate that different atherosclerotic plaque types may be distinguished by analysis of temporal and spatial speckle pattern fluctuations.

  2. 1987 wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.

    1990-03-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1987 and spatial patterns for 1987. The report investigates the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Data are from the Acid Deposition System (ADS) for the statistical reporting of North American deposition data which includes the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN), the MAP3S precipitation chemistry network, the Utility Acid Precipitation Study Program (UAPSP), the Canadian Precipitation Monitoring Network (CAPMoN), and the daily and 4-weekly Acidic Precipitation in Ontario Study (APIOS-D and APIOS-C). Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1987 annual, winter, and summer periods. The temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 39 sites over a 9-year (1979--1987) period and an expanded subset of 140 sites with greater spatial coverage over a 6-year (1982--1987) period. 68 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Temporal patterning of competitive emotions: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Cerin, E; Szabo, A; Hunt, N; Williams, C

    2000-08-01

    An interactional model of stress that integrates current research on competitive affects and emphasizes the temporal dimensions of the stress process is forwarded. The literature reveals that the study of athletes' affective responses to competition has been narrowly focused on pre-competitive anxiety. Equivocal findings on temporal patterning of competitive anxiety suggest that a fundamental change in the empirical approach is needed because the current conceptualization of anxiety and other complex emotions is imprecise. The analysis of secondary emotions as patterns of discrete basic emotions, as suggested by differential emotions theorists, is proposed for consideration in future research. In this view, competitive anxiety is considered as a set of patterns of emotions rather than a unitary affect. The adoption of this approach could result in better operationalization of competitive anxiety as well as other secondary performance-related emotions. We propose that research on competitive affects should follow two parallel lines. The first should focus on the description of complex emotional states that reflect the idiosyncratic emotional experience and vocabulary of the athlete. The second should examine the sets of basic emotions experienced throughout competition, and focus on individual differences and factors determining those differences. The integration of the two approaches could lead to a better understanding of whether, how and why individuals differ in the interpretation of specific secondary emotions and their effect on performance. Moreover, it would permit the analysis of intra-individual variations in labelling secondary emotions with respect to different competitive contexts and temporal aspects. PMID:10972411

  4. Listener descriptions of isolated and patterned acoustic transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballas, J. A.; Howard, J. H., Jr.; Kolm, C.

    1981-11-01

    A three-phase experiment was conducted to assess listeners' ability to recognize and identify environmental acoustic sounds. The first phase was a free identification of ten short duration recordings of real-world events. The second phase was a free identification of five sequences composed of a subset of these ten transients. These sequences were intended to be meaningful, representing the sounds that could be produced by opening water or steam valves. The third phase was a forced identification of the ten transients using a checklist of descriptors. The results showed that while some types of sounds were identified correctly by most listeners, others were confused and rarely identified correctly. Several metallic sounds were often confused semantically even though they were quite distinct perceptually. The identification of patterns was found to depend upon both the salience of the individual sounds in the pattern and the semantic relationship between the sounds. Finally, it was demonstrated that signal processing errors can have perceptually meaningful effects. An error in processing one of the ten sounds produced a signal which was interpreted consistently by most listeners, but in a manner which had little semantic relationship to the actual event which had been recorded.

  5. Acoustic droplet–hydrogel composites for spatial and temporal control of growth factor delivery and scaffold stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Fabiilli, Mario L.; Wilson, Christopher G.; Padilla, Frédéric; Martín-Saavedra, Francisco M.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Franceschi, Renny T.

    2013-01-01

    Wound healing is regulated by temporally and spatially restricted patterns of growth factor signaling, but there are few delivery vehicles capable of the “on-demand” release necessary for recapitulating these patterns. Recently we described a perfluorocarbon double emulsion that selectively releases a protein payload upon exposure to ultrasound through a process known as acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV). In this study, we describe a delivery system composed of fibrin hydrogels doped with growth factor-loaded double emulsion for applications in tissue regeneration. Release of immunoreactive basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) from the composites increased up to 5-fold following ADV and delayed release was achieved by delaying exposure to ultrasound. Releasates of ultrasound-treated materials significantly increased the proliferation of endothelial cells compared to sham controls, indicating that the released bFGF was bioactive. ADV also triggered changes in the ultrastructure and mechanical properties of the fibrin as bubble formation and consolidation of the fibrin in ultrasound-treated composites were accompanied by up to a 22-fold increase in shear stiffness. ADV did not reduce the viability of cells suspended in composite scaffolds. These results demonstrate that an acoustic droplet–hydrogel composite could have broad utility in promoting wound healing through on-demand control of growth factor release and/or scaffold architecture. PMID:23535233

  6. Planktivorous Fish Recognize Temporal Motion Patterns of Suspended Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickler, J. R.; Tsonis, A.

    2004-12-01

    Small planktivorous fish feed by selective captures of individual zooplankters. We realize that: 1) the predator, as well as the prey is suspended in the water column, which does not provide either with stable reference points; 2) the ambient flow field acts differently on the larger predators than on the much smaller prey; and 3) within the water column there are many suspended particles of lower nutritional value than the zooplankters represent. We investigated in the laboratory whether or not fish can distinguish between small targets moving with different swimming patterns, e.g. particles entrained passively in the ambient water flow versus entrained but actively swimming particles. We created in an aquarium computer-animated stimuli with motion patterns ranging from random to actual swimming motions of live animals. The results show that planktivorous fish can recognize temporal patterns in a visually homogeneous environment. Therefore, blue-water fish must process visual information similar to terrestrial animals processing auditory information.

  7. Measurement resolution of noise directivity patterns from acoustic flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, David A.

    1989-01-01

    The measurement resolution of noise directivity patterns from acoustic flight tests was investigated. Directivity angle resolution is affected by the data reduction parameters, the aircraft velocity and flyover altitude, and by deviations of the aircraft from the desired flight path. Equations are developed which determine bounds for the lateral and longitudinal directivity angle resolution as a function of the nominal directivity angle. The equations are applied to a flight test data base and the effects of several flight conditions and data reduction parameters on the directivity angle resolution are presented. The maximum directivity angle resolution typically occurs when the aircraft is at or near the overhead position. In general, directivity angle resolution improves with decreasing velocity, increasing altitude, increasing sampling rate, decreasing block size, and decreasing block averages. Deviations from the desired ideal flight path will increase the resolution. For the flight experiment considered in this study, an average of two flyovers were required at each test condition to obtain an acceptable flight path. The ability of the pilot to maintain the flight track improved with decreasing altitude, decreasing velocity, and practice. Due to the prevailing wind conditions, yaw angles of as much as 20 deg were required to maintain the desired flight path.

  8. Disentangling the drivers of temporal and spatial biotic patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belanger, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental changes in time and across space are multivariate, thus understanding the drivers of biotic responses to paleoclimate events requires the incorporation of multiple proxies and selection of the variables most associated with the biotic patterns. Here, two case studies, one examining paleoecological change leading into the Early Miocene warming and one examining global diversity patterns in modern bivalves, illustrate the utility of multivariate data sets for understanding biotic patterns. We create a multivariate time series of benthic foraminiferal faunal composition and environmental variables (δ13C, Δδ13C, δ18O, δ15N, sediment grain size) from the Early Miocene Astoria Formation spanning ~18-20 mya. We then use multivariate statistics and maximum likelihood model selection to disentangle the potential drivers of the faunal changes. We find that d15N values and age are the most parsimonious correlates with major changes in foraminiferal composition, suggesting oxygenation is primarily affecting the foraminiferal community. Failure to include δ15N in the analysis still yields significant and supported relationships with Δδ13C, which would lead to the incorrect interpretation that the benthic foraminifera are responding primarily to organic carbon flux rather than oxygenation. Similarly, we examine the environmental factors associated with global diversity patterns. Using occurrence data for modern bivalves and a multivariate oceanographic data set, we identify the modern environmental factors most associated with diversity. However, inclusion of spatial variables in addition to environmental variables in the analysis reveals a well-supported relationship between proximity to diversity hotspots and diversity, suggesting historical processes also play a key role in diversity patterns. Because environmental variables can be coupled in time and in space, it is important to consider multiple environmental, temporal, and spatial variables, and their interactions, to disentangle the drivers of biotic patterns. Studies that incorporate multiple variables can be powerful tools for identifying the drivers of biotic patterns and projecting biotic responses to future climate changes.

  9. Reconstructing spatial and temporal patterns of paleoglaciation across Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroeven, Arjen P.

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the behaviour of mountain glaciers and ice caps, the evolution of mountain landscapes, and testing global climate models all require well-constrained information on past spatial and temporal patterns of glacier change. Particularly important are transitional regions that have high spatial and temporal variation in glacier activity and that can provide a sensitive record of past climate change. Central Asia is an extreme continental location with glaciers that have responded sensitively to variations in major regional climate systems. As an international team, we are reconstructing glacial histories of several areas of the Tibetan Plateau as well as along the Tian Shan, Altai and Kunlun Mountains. Building on previous work, we are using remote sensing-based geomorphological mapping augmented with field observations to map out glacial landforms and the maximum distributions of erratics. We then use cosmogenic nuclide Be-10 and Al-26, optically stimulated luminescence, and electron spin resonance dating of moraines and other landforms to compare dating techniques and to constrain the ages of defined extents of paleo-glaciers and ice caps. Comparing consistently dated glacial histories across central Asia provides an opportunity to examine shifts in the dominance patterns of climate systems over time in the region. Results to date show significant variations in the timing and extent of glaciation, including areas in the southeast Tibetan Plateau and Tian Shan with extensive valley and small polythermal ice cap glaciation during the global last glacial maximum in contrast to areas in central and northeast Tibetan Plateau that had very limited valley glacier expansion then. Initial numerical modelling attempting to simulate mapped and dated paleoglacial extents indicates that relatively limited cooling is sufficient to produce observed past expansions of glaciers across the Tibetan Plateau, and predicts complex basal thermal regimes in some locations that match patterns of past glacial erosion inferred from landform patterns and ages. Future modelling will examine glacier behaviour along major mountain ranges across central Asia.

  10. Pattern-level temporal difference learning, data fusion, and chess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, Robert; Weber, Ryan J.

    2000-04-01

    Our research group is using chess as a vehicle for studying the fusion of adaptation, multiple representation, and search technologies for real-time decision making. Chess systems like Deep Blue have achieved Grandmaster chess play with a brute-force search of the game tree and human- supplied information, like piece-values and opening books. However, subtle aspects of chess, including positional features and advanced concepts, are not capable of being represented or processed efficiently with the standard method. Since 1989, Morph I-III have exhibited more autonomy and learning ability than traditional chess programs in `adaptive pattern-oriented chess'. Like its predecessors, Morph IV is a reinforcement learner, but it also uses a new technique we call pattern-level TD and Q-learning to mathematically map the state space and effectively learn to classify situations. Its three knowledge sources include two traditional ones: material and a piece-square table, and a new method called Distance. These are combined using a simple genetic algorithm and a decision tree. This paper shows the effectiveness of fusing knowledge to replace search in real-time situations, since an agent which combines all sources is capable of consistently beating an agent which employs any of the individual knowledge sources. Surprisingly, the pattern-level TD agent is slightly superior to the pattern-level Q-learning agent, despite the fact that the Q-learning agent updates more Q-values on each temporal step.

  11. Temporally-Patterned Magnetic Fields Induce Complete Fragmentation in Planaria

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, Nirosha J.; Karbowski, Lukasz M.; Lafrenie, Robert M.; Persinger, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    A tandem sequence composed of weak temporally-patterned magnetic fields was discovered that produced 100% dissolution of planarian in their home environment. After five consecutive days of 6.5 hr exposure to a frequency-modulated magnetic field (0.1 to 2 µT), immediately followed by an additional 6.5 hr exposure on the fifth day, to another complex field (0.5 to 5 µT) with exponentially increasing spectral power 100% of planarian dissolved within 24 hr. Reversal of the sequence of the fields or presentation of only one pattern for the same duration did not produce this effect. Direct video evidence showed expansion (by visual estimation ∼twice normal volume) of the planarian following the first field pattern followed by size reduction (estimated ∼1/2 of normal volume) and death upon activation of the second pattern. The contortions displayed by the planarian during the last field exposure suggest effects on contractile proteins and alterations in the cell membrane’s permeability to water. PMID:23620783

  12. Acoustic measurements during holmium:YAG laser ablation of cadaveric human temporal bone: preliminary observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Brian J.; Gibbs, Lisa; Neev, Joseph; Shanks, Janet

    1997-05-01

    Pulsed IR and UV lasers have been suggested for use in middle ear surgery due to decreased thermal trauma, precise ablation characteristics, and potential fiberoptic delivery. While there has been much focus on the thermal and photoacoustic events that occur during pulsed laser ablation of hard tissue, there are few studies that look at the acoustic energy generated from these devices from an audiologic standpoint. In this study, the mastoid cavities of cadaveric human temporal bones were irradiated with a Ho:YAG laser (lambda equals 2.12 micrometer) with the following parameters: 5, 10, and 15 Hz pulse repetition rate and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 W average power. During ablation, acoustic measurements were made using a sound level meter held 5 cm away from the target site. With each set of laser parameters, the sound intensity (dB SPL) exceeded 85 dB. Peak intensity measurements of 125 dB were measured, and a saturation effect was noted above 4 W or 500 mJ/pulse. The clinical significance of these findings is discussed and the acoustical aspects of middle ear function and noise trauma are reviewed.

  13. Dynamic temporal processing of nonspeech acoustic information by children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Visto, J C; Cranford, J L; Scudder, R

    1996-06-01

    The present study investigated whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) differed from children with normal language learning in their ability to process binaural temporal information. The SLI group was matched with peers of the same chronological age, as well as peers with similar language age. All three subject groups were tested with measures of complex sound localization involving the precedence effect phenomenon. Subjects were required to track the apparent motion of a "moving" fused auditory image (FAI). Movement of the FAI was simulated by varying the delay incrementally between pairs of clicks presented, one each, from two matched loudspeakers placed on opposite sides of the child's head. With this task, the SLI subjects' performances were found to be similar to their language age-matched but chronologically younger peers. Both groups exhibited tracking skills that were statistically poorer than that of the chronologically age-matched group. Additional tests indicated this effect was not due to differences in motoric tracking abilities nor to the SLI subjects' abilities to perceive small binaural time cues. Thus, children with SLI appear to be impaired in their ability to use binaural acoustic information in a dynamic ongoing fashion. The requirements for processing such nonlinguistic acoustic information in a "dynamic and ongoing" fashion may be similar to those involved in the ongoing processing of rapid changes in the temporal and spectral components of the speech chain. PMID:8783130

  14. Temporal and acoustic characteristics of Greek vowels produced by adults with cerebral palsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botinis, Antonis; Orfanidou, Ioanna; Fourakis, Marios; Fourakis, Marios

    2005-09-01

    The present investigation examined the temporal and spectral characteristics of Greek vowels as produced by speakers with intact (NO) versus cerebral palsy affected (CP) neuromuscular systems. Six NO and six CP native speakers of Greek produced the Greek vowels [i, e, a, o, u] in the first syllable of CVCV nonsense words in a short carrier phrase. Stress could be on either the first or second syllable. There were three female and three male speakers in each group. In terms of temporal characteristics, the results showed that: vowels produced by CP speakers were longer than vowels produced by NO speakers; stressed vowels were longer than unstressed vowels; vowels produced by female speakers were longer than vowels produced by male speakers. In terms of spectral characteristics the results showed that the vowel space of the CP speakers was smaller than that of the NO speakers. This is similar to the results recently reported by Liu et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 3879-3889 (2005)] for CP speakers of Mandarin. There was also a reduction of the acoustic vowel space defined by unstressed vowels, but this reduction was much more pronounced in the vowel productions of CP speakers than NO speakers.

  15. Quantifying temporal and spatial scales and patterns in experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, M. D.; Lajeunesse, E.; Limare, A.; Devauchelle, O.; Metivier, F.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    The study of landscape evolution often meets with the difficulty of characterizing systems with data of limited temporal or spatial resolution, where boundary conditions may also be poorly constrained. Experiments can provide a useful testing ground for the development of reliable methods of quantification, and experimental delineation of the scales associated with system processes can also inform the translation between experimental and natural systems. We present our approach to quantifying the driving processes in experimental geomorphic systems by describing the methods that have proven useful in our work, with examples from two sets of experiments. In the primary set of experiments, braided rivers are studied using repeat three-dimensional topography scans, obtained through the novel use of an optical technique, which will also be briefly described. Braided rivers provide a particularly powerful example of the usefulness of experiments in elucidating patterns and order in systems which at first glance may seem too complex to be amenable to process-oriented description. Metrics used in quantifying the braided rivers are separated into those that describe unit processes such as channel geometry organization, timescales of channel movement, and bifurcation stability, and those that describe bulk system statistics of the evolving landscape and the self-organizing number and spacing of its channels. We will also draw a few examples from a second set of experiments, in which alluvial fans are studied primarily through two-dimensional image processing, with many methods similar to those used for the braided rivers. In the fan experiments, examples of measured quantities include metrics of the memory of channel locations, the manner of channel movement, and shoreline growth trends. Dominant spatial and temporal scales emerge, which we can relate to fan dynamics. Our presented methods allow us to measure intrinsic system spatial and temporal scales that provide keys to understanding the driving processes and their hierarchies. These methods are useful generally and could be applied to the quantification of a range of natural or experimental systems.

  16. Temporal patterns in adult salmon migration timing across southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kovach, Ryan P.; Ellison, Stephen; Pyare, Sanjay; Tallmon, David

    2015-01-01

    Pacific salmon migration timing can drive population productivity, ecosystem dynamics, and human harvest. Nevertheless, little is known about long-term variation in salmon migration timing for multiple species across broad regions. We used long-term data for five Pacific salmon species throughout rapidly warming southeast Alaska to describe long-term changes in salmon migration timing, interannual phenological synchrony, relationships between climatic variation and migratory timing, and to test whether long-term changes in migration timing are related to glaciation in headwater streams. Temporal changes in the median date of salmon migration timing varied widely across species. Most sockeye populations are migrating later over time (11 of 14), but pink, chum, and especially coho populations are migrating earlier than they did historically (16 of 19 combined). Temporal trends in duration and interannual variation in migration timing were highly variable across species and populations. The greatest temporal shifts in the median date of migration timing were correlated with decreases in the duration of migration timing, suggestive of a loss of phenotypic variation due to natural selection. Pairwise interannual correlations in migration timing varied widely but were generally positive, providing evidence for weak region-wide phenological synchrony. This synchrony is likely a function of climatic variation, as interannual variation in migration timing was related to climatic phenomenon operating at large- (Pacific decadal oscillation), moderate- (sea surface temperature), and local-scales (precipitation). Surprisingly, the presence or the absence of glaciers within a watershed was unrelated to long-term shifts in phenology. Overall, there was extensive heterogeneity in long-term patterns of migration timing throughout this climatically and geographically complex region, highlighting that future climatic change will likely have widely divergent impacts on salmon migration timing. Although salmon phenological diversity will complicate future predictions of migration timing, this variation likely acts as a major contributor to population and ecosystem resiliency in southeast Alaska.

  17. Temporal patterns in adult salmon migration timing across southeast Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Ryan P; Ellison, Stephen C; Pyare, Sanjay; Tallmon, David A

    2015-05-01

    Pacific salmon migration timing can drive population productivity, ecosystem dynamics, and human harvest. Nevertheless, little is known about long-term variation in salmon migration timing for multiple species across broad regions. We used long-term data for five Pacific salmon species throughout rapidly warming southeast Alaska to describe long-term changes in salmon migration timing, interannual phenological synchrony, relationships between climatic variation and migratory timing, and to test whether long-term changes in migration timing are related to glaciation in headwater streams. Temporal changes in the median date of salmon migration timing varied widely across species. Most sockeye populations are migrating later over time (11 of 14), but pink, chum, and especially coho populations are migrating earlier than they did historically (16 of 19 combined). Temporal trends in duration and interannual variation in migration timing were highly variable across species and populations. The greatest temporal shifts in the median date of migration timing were correlated with decreases in the duration of migration timing, suggestive of a loss of phenotypic variation due to natural selection. Pairwise interannual correlations in migration timing varied widely but were generally positive, providing evidence for weak region-wide phenological synchrony. This synchrony is likely a function of climatic variation, as interannual variation in migration timing was related to climatic phenomenon operating at large- (Pacific decadal oscillation), moderate- (sea surface temperature), and local-scales (precipitation). Surprisingly, the presence or the absence of glaciers within a watershed was unrelated to long-term shifts in phenology. Overall, there was extensive heterogeneity in long-term patterns of migration timing throughout this climatically and geographically complex region, highlighting that future climatic change will likely have widely divergent impacts on salmon migration timing. Although salmon phenological diversity will complicate future predictions of migration timing, this variation likely acts as a major contributor to population and ecosystem resiliency in southeast Alaska. PMID:25482609

  18. Spatial and temporal patterns of eastern Australia subtropical coral communities.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Steven J; Roff, George

    2013-01-01

    Despite increases in the frequency and intensity of disturbances on coral reefs over the past few decades, the response of subtropical coral assemblages to climate change is poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap on Australian reefs and provide a baseline for future comparisons, we quantified spatial (10-100's of kilometres) and temporal (decadal) patterns of benthic assemblages across a latitudinal gradient along the east Australian coastline (23.5 S to 31.5 S). Benthic community composition was quantified at six locations from the southern Great Barrier Reef, Queensland (Heron Reef, 23.5 S, 152 E) to northern New South Wales (31 S, 153.1 E) and at Lord Howe Island (31.5 S, 159.1 E). Our results indicate significant latitudinal differences in benthic assemblages, while community composition at some sites was more similar to those hundreds of kilometres away than to that of neighbouring reefs. A general trend was observed with decreasing cover of Acroporidae with increasing latitude, corresponding with an increasing cover of Pocilloporidae and Dendrophylliidae. Heron Reef comprised a high proportion of Acropora corals (43% total coral cover) and coralline algae (44%). In contrast, high-latitude reefs were dominated by mixed coral assemblages (0-52%) and high macroalgal cover (16-27%). Decadal comparisons of high-latitude reefs showed regional stability of benthic assemblages (9 out of 11 assemblages remained stable at > 75% similarity), during a period of warming oceans (0.15-0.24C per decade). Such temporal stability suggests that eastern Australian subtropical communities may be more resistant than tropical reef communities that have experienced assembly shifts caused by perturbations associated with recent global climate change. Despite the clear differences in the structure of coral assemblages evident in our spatial surveys, we suggest that the temporal stability of high-latitude reefs may provide a limited refuge for tropical coral populations in an increasingly uncertain future. PMID:24058705

  19. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Eastern Australia Subtropical Coral Communities

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Steven J.; Roff, George

    2013-01-01

    Despite increases in the frequency and intensity of disturbances on coral reefs over the past few decades, the response of subtropical coral assemblages to climate change is poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap on Australian reefs and provide a baseline for future comparisons, we quantified spatial (10-100s of kilometres) and temporal (decadal) patterns of benthic assemblages across a latitudinal gradient along the east Australian coastline (23.5 S to 31.5 S). Benthic community composition was quantified at six locations from the southern Great Barrier Reef, Queensland (Heron Reef, 23.5 S, 152 E) to northern New South Wales (31 S, 153.1 E) and at Lord Howe Island (31.5 S, 159.1 E). Our results indicate significant latitudinal differences in benthic assemblages, while community composition at some sites was more similar to those hundreds of kilometres away than to that of neighbouring reefs. A general trend was observed with decreasing cover of Acroporidae with increasing latitude, corresponding with an increasing cover of Pocilloporidae and Dendrophylliidae. Heron Reef comprised a high proportion of Acropora corals (43% total coral cover) and coralline algae (44%). In contrast, high-latitude reefs were dominated by mixed coral assemblages (0-52%) and high macroalgal cover (16-27%). Decadal comparisons of high-latitude reefs showed regional stability of benthic assemblages (9 out of 11 assemblages remained stable at > 75% similarity), during a period of warming oceans (0.15-0.24C per decade). Such temporal stability suggests that eastern Australian subtropical communities may be more resistant than tropical reef communities that have experienced assembly shifts caused by perturbations associated with recent global climate change. Despite the clear differences in the structure of coral assemblages evident in our spatial surveys, we suggest that the temporal stability of high-latitude reefs may provide a limited refuge for tropical coral populations in an increasingly uncertain future. PMID:24058705

  20. Temporal patterns of solar eclipses on areostationary relay satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, P.; Antoln, R.

    2014-09-01

    Mars Areostationary Relay Satellites are considered robust candidates to meet the telecommunications needs of the coming set of Mars science missions. Orbital station-keeping manoeuvres are required to compensate natural perturbations on the areostationary orbit. This paper deals on the pattern description of solar eclipses in the areostationary orbit to allow to test the constrain imposed by the impossibility to perform manoeuvres at the eclipse times. We present here the models used to characterize the two eclipse epochs around the spring and autumn equinoxes over a Martian year. In average, each eclipse season lasts 90 sols in eclipse with a daily maxima duration of about 1 h 18 min plus 2 min 54 s of penumbra. Temporal duration of solar eclipses with different values near to zero inclination and different satellite orbit nodes has been also analyzed.

  1. Spatio-Temporal Pattern of Saturn's Equatorial Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. M.; Schnider, P. J.; Marouf, E. A.; McGhee, C. A.; Kliore, A. J.; Rappaport, N. J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent ground-based and Cassini CIRS thermal-infrared data have characterized the spatial and temporal characteristics of an equatorial oscillation in the middle atmosphere of Saturn above the 100-mbar level. The CIRS data [I] indicated a pattern of warm and cold anomalies near the equator, stacked vertically in alternating fashion. The ground-based observations s2, although not having the altitude range or vertical resolution of the CIRS observations, covered several years and indicated an oscillation cycle of approx.15 years, roughly half of Saturn's year. In Earth's middle atmosphere, both the quasi-biennial (approx.26 months) and semi-annual equatorial oscillations have been extensively observed and studied (see e.g., [3]), These exhibit a pattern of alternating warmer and cooler zonal-mean temperatures with altitude, relative to those at subtropical latitudes. Consistent with the thermal wind equation, this is also associated with an alternating pattern of westerly and easterly zonal winds. Moreover, the pattern of winds and temperatures descends with time. Momentum deposition by damped vertically propagating waves is thought to play a key role m forcing both types of oscillation, and it can plausibly account for the descent. Here we report the direct observation of this descent in Saturn's equatorial atmosphere from Cassini radio occultation soundings in 2005 and 2009. The retrieved temperatures are consistent with a descent of 0.7 x the pressure scale height. The descent rate is related to the magnitude of the wave forcing, radiative damping, and induced meridional circulations. We discuss possible implications.

  2. Spatial and temporal patterns of hydrological extremes in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Julia; Perdigo, Rui A. P.

    2015-04-01

    At a catchment scale, the hydrological characteristics of extreme events such as floods and droughts vary considerably across Europe. However, extreme events are also governed by large-scale physical processes that can influence the hydrological response of larger regions beyond catchment or national boundaries. To analyse such extreme events at a regional scale, a hydrological database for Europe, consisting of daily data from over 5000 stations, has been assembled. The database is a result of existing datasets of European coverage amended and complemented by a collaborative effort as part of a joint European flood research agreement based on the exchange of data, models, staff and expertise. The developed database allows an analysis of the influence of large scale drivers such as climate on the spatial patterns of floods and droughts across Europe. The timing of extreme events in Europe is a key variable in understanding the main processes governing flood and drought events. In this contribution, regional similarities and differences of hydrological extremes in Europe are analysed and the resulting characteristic spatio-temporal patterns of floods and droughts are presented separately and compared with one another.

  3. Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Surface Irradiance in the Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobreva, I. D.; Bishop, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Climate-glacier dynamics in the Himalaya are complex. Research indicates extreme local variability in glacier fluctuations and the presence of regional trends. The glaciers in the Karakoram Himalaya depart from world trends of glacier recession, as many are advancing or surging. Nevertheless, glacier sensitivity to climate change has yet to be quantitatively assessed given numerous controlling factors. We attempt to address part of the problem by evaluating the role of topography in explaining variations in surface irradiance. Specifically, we developed a spectral-based topographic solar radiation model that accounts for multi-scale topographic effects. We evaluate surface irradiance simulations over a multitude of glaciers across the Karakoram and Nepalese Himalaya and examine spatio-temporal patterns to determine which alpine glaciers are more susceptible to radiation forcing. Simulation results reveal that many Nepalese glaciers characterized by rapid downwasting, retreat and expanding proglacial lakes, exhibit relatively high-magnitude daily irradiance patterns spatially focused over the terminus region, while other glacier surface areas received less short-wave irradiance. These results were found to be associated with basin-scale relief conditions and topographic shielding. Altitudinal variation in glacier surface irradiance was found to increase during the later portion of the ablation season, as changes in solar geometry produce more cast shadows that protect glaciers given extreme relief. Topographic effects on surface irradiance vary significantly from glacier to glacier, demonstrating the important role of glacier and mountain geodynamics on glacier sensitivity to climate change. Spatial and altitudinal patterns, coupled with information regarding supraglacial debris distribution, depth and ice-flow velocities, may potentially explain glacier sensitivity to climate change and the local variability of glacier fluctuations in the Himalaya.

  4. The Spatial and Temporal Pattern of Heavy Precipitation in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K. S.; Yu, J.; Im, J.; Jin, R.

    2014-12-01

    1.Introduction Combined with summer heavy rainfall and urbanization today's urban area face higher frequency of heavy rainfall with higher intensity in summer than before. Heavy rainfall in short time makes it low elevation area to be susceptible to more flooding than before. According to KMA it is announced as heavy rainfall warning whose precipitation amount is equal to or greater than 150mm per 12 hours. And sometimes, these rainfall events bring out severe disasters such as the case of flooding in Gangnam Station, Daechi Station and landslides which resulted in 20 person death in downtown Seoul on July 27th, 2011. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the spatial and temporal pattern of heavy precipitation in Seoul. Ultimately it aims to contribute these results to the proper urban planning and management. 2. Materials and Methods In this study, the digital topograhic data and weather data in Seoul Metropolitan Area were used to figure out the spatial distribution of summer heavy rainfall. The precipitation data in summer (June to Sep.) season were used to detect the recent changes of temporal and spatial features from 1995 to 2014 (20 years) using Automatic Weather tation (AWS) data in Seoul Metropolitan Area. The precipitation amount in summer during the past 20 years has been on the rise but rainy days have barely changed?which reveals the daily precipitation intensity has increased. After deriving the characteristic of heavy rainfall, the relationship among precipitation, topography and land uses were interpreted and discussed. This study is to investigate the characteristics of flood prone area by focusing topographic and land use characteristics. Ultimately it contributes to prepare the guideline for flood preventive urban plannig.

  5. Spatial and temporal patterns of Risso's dolphin echolocation in the Southern California Bight.

    PubMed

    Soldevilla, Melissa S; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2010-01-01

    Geographical and temporal trends in echolocation clicking activity can lead to insights into the foraging and migratory behaviors of pelagic dolphins. Using autonomous acoustic recording packages, the geographical, diel, and seasonal patterns of Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) echolocation click activity are described for six locations in the Southern California Bight between 2005 and 2007. Risso's dolphin echolocation click bouts are identified based on their unique spectral characteristics. Click bouts were identified on 739 of 1959 recording days at all 6 sites, with the majority occurring at nearshore sites. A significant diel pattern is evident in which both hourly occurrences of click bouts and click rates are higher at night than during the day. At all nearshore sites, Risso's dolphin clicks were identified year-round, with the highest daily occurrence at the southern end of Santa Catalina Island. Seasonal and interannual variabilities in occurrence were high across sites with peak occurrence in autumn of most years at most sites. These results suggest that Risso's dolphins forage at night and that the southern end of Santa Catalina Island represents an important habitat for Risso's dolphins throughout the year. PMID:20058956

  6. Spatio-temporal correlation of vegetation and temperature patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppola, R.; D'Emilio, M.; Imbrenda, V.; Lanfredi, M.; Macchiato, M.; Simoniello, T.

    2010-05-01

    Temperature is one of the variables largely influencing vegetation species distributions (biogeographical regions) and plant development (phenological cycle). Anomalies in temperature regional patterns and in microclimate conditions induce modifications in vegetation cover phenology; in particular in European regions, the responsiveness of vegetation to temperature increase is greater in warmer Mediterranean countries. In order to assess the spatial arrangement and the temporal variability of vegetation and temperature patterns in a typical Mediterranean environment, we investigated monthly NDVI-AVHRR and temperature time series over Southern Italy, core of Mediterranean Basin. Temperature data, obtained from 35 meteoclimatic stations, were rasterized by adopting a combined deterministic-stochastic procedure we suitably implemented for the investigated region in order to obtain spatial data comparable with NDVI maps. For the period 1996-1998, monthly MVC data were clusterized on annual basis by means of a classification procedure to aggregate areas with similar phenological cycles. The same procedure was adopted to jointly evaluate temperature and vegetation profiles and identify areas having similar phenological and temperature patterns. The comparison of the identified clusters showed that the classification obtained with and without temperature profiles are very similar enhancing the strong role of this variable in vegetation development. Some exceptions in the cluster arrangement are due to local anomalies in vegetation distribution, such as forest fires. In order to spatially analyze such a dependence, we also elaborated a time correlation map for each year and we found that the correlation patterns are persistent on the year basis and generally follow the land cover distributions. The correlation values are very high and positive for the forested mountainous areas (R>0.8), whereas they are negative for plan coastal areas (R<-0.8). Low correlation values (R= -0.4/0.4) were found for the transitional zones and agricultural areas mainly dominated by irrigated herbaceous cultivations. On average, in southern Italy the analysis showed a strong dependence of NDVI and temperature profiles during the spring and summer time (greening period) and a reduced responsiveness in autumn when precipitations control the vegetation recovery after the water shortage period.

  7. The BMP signaling gradient patterns dorsoventral tissues in a temporally progressive manner along the anteroposterior axis

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Jennifer A.; Mintzer, Keith A.; Mullins, Mary C.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Patterning of the vertebrate anteroposterior (AP) axis proceeds temporally from anterior to posterior. How dorsoventral (DV) axial patterning relates to AP temporal patterning is unknown. We examined the temporal activity of BMP signaling in patterning ventrolateral cell fates along the AP axis, using transgenes that rapidly turn off or on BMP signaling. We show that BMP signaling patterns rostral DV cell fates at the onset of gastrulation, while progressively more caudal DV cell fates are patterned at progressively later intervals during gastrulation. Increased BMP signal duration is not required to pattern more caudal DV cell fates, rather distinct temporal intervals of signaling are required. This progressive action is regulated downstream of, or in parallel to BMP signal transduction at the level of Smad1/5 phosphorylation. We propose that a temporal cue regulates a cell's competence to respond to BMP signaling, allowing the acquisition of a cell's DV and AP identity simultaneously. PMID:18194657

  8. Innovations in motoneuron synchrony drive rapid temporal modulations in vertebrate acoustic signaling.

    PubMed

    Chagnaud, Boris P; Zee, Michele C; Baker, Robert; Bass, Andrew H

    2012-06-01

    Rapid temporal modulation of acoustic signals among several vertebrate lineages has recently been shown to depend on the actions of superfast muscles. We hypothesized that such fast events, known to require synchronous activation of muscle fibers, would rely on motoneuronal properties adapted to generating a highly synchronous output to sonic muscles. Using intracellular in vivo recordings, we identified a suite of premotor network inputs and intrinsic motoneuronal properties synchronizing the oscillatory-like, simultaneous activation of superfast muscles at high gamma frequencies in fish. Motoneurons lacked spontaneous activity, firing synchronously only at the frequency of premotor excitatory input. Population-level motoneuronal output generated a spike-like, vocal nerve volley that directly determines muscle contraction rate and, in turn, natural call frequency. In the absence of vocal output, motoneurons showed low excitability and a weak afterhyperpolarization, leading to rapid accommodation in firing rate. By contrast, vocal activity was accompanied by a prominent afterhyperpolarization, indicating a dependency on network activity. Local injection of a GABA(A) receptor antagonist demonstrated the necessity of electrophysiologically and immunohistochemically confirmed inhibitory GABAergic input for motoneuronal synchrony and vocalization. Numerous transneuronally labeled motoneurons following single-cell neurobiotin injection together with electrophysiological collision experiments confirmed gap junctional coupling, known to contribute to synchronous activity in other neural networks. Motoneuronal synchrony at the premotor input frequency was maintained during differential recruitment of variably sized motoneurons. Differential motoneuron recruitment led, however, to amplitude modulation (AM) of vocal output and, hence, natural call AM. In summary, motoneuronal intrinsic properties, in particular low excitability, predisposed vocal motoneurons to the synchronizing influences of premotor inputs to translate a temporal input code into a coincident and extremely synchronous, but variable-amplitude, output code. We propose an analogous suite of neuronal properties as a key innovation underlying similarly rapid acoustic events observed among amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. PMID:22423004

  9. Temporal Patterns of Diversification across Global Cichlid Biodiversity (Acanthomorpha: Cichlidae)

    PubMed Central

    McMahan, Caleb D.; Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Sparks, John S.; Smith, Wm. Leo; Davis, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    The contrasting distribution of species diversity across the major lineages of cichlids makes them an ideal group for investigating macroevolutionary processes. In this study, we investigate whether different rates of diversification may explain the disparity in species richness across cichlid lineages globally. We present the most taxonomically robust time-calibrated hypothesis of cichlid evolutionary relationships to date. We then utilize this temporal framework to investigate whether both species-rich and depauperate lineages are associated with rapid shifts in diversification rates and if exceptional species richness can be explained by clade age alone. A single significant rapid rate shift increase is detected within the evolutionary history of the African subfamily Pseudocrenilabrinae, which includes the haplochromins of the East African Great Lakes. Several lineages from the subfamilies Pseudocrenilabrinae (Australotilapiini, Oreochromini) and Cichlinae (Heroini) exhibit exceptional species richness given their clade age, a net rate of diversification, and relative rates of extinction, indicating that clade age alone is not a sufficient explanation for their increased diversity. Our results indicate that the Neotropical Cichlinae includes lineages that have not experienced a significant rapid burst in diversification when compared to certain African lineages (rift lake). Neotropical cichlids have remained comparatively understudied with regard to macroevolutionary patterns relative to African lineages, and our results indicate that of Neotropical lineages, the tribe Heroini may have an elevated rate of diversification in contrast to other Neotropical cichlids. These findings provide insight into our understanding of the diversification patterns across taxonomically disparate lineages in this diverse clade of freshwater fishes and one of the most species-rich families of vertebrates. PMID:23990936

  10. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Global Onshore Wind Speed Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yuyu; Smith, Steven J.

    2013-09-09

    Wind power, a renewable energy source, can play an important role in electrical energy generation. Information regarding wind energy potential is important both for energy related modeling and for decision-making in the policy community. While wind speed datasets with high spatial and temporal resolution are often ultimately used for detailed planning, simpler assumptions are often used in analysis work. An accurate representation of the wind speed frequency distribution is needed in order to properly characterize wind energy potential. Using a power density method, this study estimated global variation in wind parameters as fitted to a Weibull density function using NCEP/CFSR reanalysis data. The estimated Weibull distribution performs well in fitting the time series wind speed data at the global level according to R2, root mean square error, and power density error. The spatial, decadal, and seasonal patterns of wind speed distribution were then evaluated. We also analyzed the potential error in wind power estimation when a commonly assumed Rayleigh distribution (Weibull k = 2) is used. We find that the assumption of the same Weibull parameter across large regions can result in substantial errors. While large-scale wind speed data is often presented in the form of average wind speeds, these results highlight the need to also provide information on the wind speed distribution.

  11. The temporal patterns of disease severity and prevalence in schistosomiasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciddio, Manuela; Mari, Lorenzo; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea; Casagrandi, Renato

    2015-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most widespread public health problems in the world. In this work, we introduce an eco-epidemiological model for its transmission and dynamics with the purpose of explaining both intra- and inter-annual fluctuations of disease severity and prevalence. The model takes the form of a system of nonlinear differential equations that incorporate biological complexity associated with schistosome's life cycle, including a prepatent period in snails (i.e., the time between initial infection and onset of infectiousness). Nonlinear analysis is used to explore the parametric conditions that produce different temporal patterns (stationary, endemic, periodic, and chaotic). For the time-invariant model, we identify a transcritical and a Hopf bifurcation in the space of the human and snail infection parameters. The first corresponds to the occurrence of an endemic equilibrium, while the latter marks the transition to interannual periodic oscillations. We then investigate a more realistic time-varying model in which fertility of the intermediate host population is assumed to seasonally vary. We show that seasonality can give rise to a cascade of period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaos for larger, though realistic, values of the amplitude of the seasonal variation of fertility.

  12. Spatio-temporal patterns of precipitation in Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gocic, Milan; Trajkovic, Slavisa

    2014-08-01

    The monthly precipitation data from 29 synoptic stations for the period 1946-2012 were analyzed using a number of different multivariate statistical analysis methods to investigate the spatial variability and temporal patterns of precipitation across Serbia. R-mode principal component analysis was used to study the spatial variability of the precipitation. Three distinct sub-regions were identified by applying the agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis to the two component scores: C1 includes the north and the northeast part of Serbia, while C2 includes the western part of Central Serbia and southwestern part of Serbia and C3 includes central, east, south and southeast part of Serbia. The analysis of the identified sub-regions indicated that the monthly and seasonal precipitation in sub-region C2 had the values above average, while C1 and C3 had the precipitation values under average. The analysis of the linear trend of the mean annual precipitation showed an increasing trend for the stations located in Serbia and three sub-regions. From the result of this analysis, one can plan land use, water resources and agricultural production in the region.

  13. The temporal patterns of disease severity and prevalence in schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Ciddio, Manuela; Mari, Lorenzo; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea; Casagrandi, Renato

    2015-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most widespread public health problems in the world. In this work, we introduce an eco-epidemiological model for its transmission and dynamics with the purpose of explaining both intra- and inter-annual fluctuations of disease severity and prevalence. The model takes the form of a system of nonlinear differential equations that incorporate biological complexity associated with schistosome's life cycle, including a prepatent period in snails (i.e., the time between initial infection and onset of infectiousness). Nonlinear analysis is used to explore the parametric conditions that produce different temporal patterns (stationary, endemic, periodic, and chaotic). For the time-invariant model, we identify a transcritical and a Hopf bifurcation in the space of the human and snail infection parameters. The first corresponds to the occurrence of an endemic equilibrium, while the latter marks the transition to interannual periodic oscillations. We then investigate a more realistic time-varying model in which fertility of the intermediate host population is assumed to seasonally vary. We show that seasonality can give rise to a cascade of period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaos for larger, though realistic, values of the amplitude of the seasonal variation of fertility. PMID:25833443

  14. The temporal patterns of disease severity and prevalence in schistosomiasis

    SciTech Connect

    Ciddio, Manuela; Gatto, Marino Casagrandi, Renato

    2015-03-15

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most widespread public health problems in the world. In this work, we introduce an eco-epidemiological model for its transmission and dynamics with the purpose of explaining both intra- and inter-annual fluctuations of disease severity and prevalence. The model takes the form of a system of nonlinear differential equations that incorporate biological complexity associated with schistosome's life cycle, including a prepatent period in snails (i.e., the time between initial infection and onset of infectiousness). Nonlinear analysis is used to explore the parametric conditions that produce different temporal patterns (stationary, endemic, periodic, and chaotic). For the time-invariant model, we identify a transcritical and a Hopf bifurcation in the space of the human and snail infection parameters. The first corresponds to the occurrence of an endemic equilibrium, while the latter marks the transition to interannual periodic oscillations. We then investigate a more realistic time-varying model in which fertility of the intermediate host population is assumed to seasonally vary. We show that seasonality can give rise to a cascade of period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaos for larger, though realistic, values of the amplitude of the seasonal variation of fertility.

  15. Macroscale Circulation Patterns as Reflected in Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conselyea, K.; Yin, Z.

    2007-12-01

    Circulation patterns such as the NAO, PNA, and AO have been known to impact climate both near the action centers and at great distances away. These macroscale circulation patterns can impact regional wind patterns, temperature gradients and pressure gradients. Changes in these gradients can cause an onset of various weather conditions including precipitation. Precipitation across the Tibetan Plateau is influenced by known phenomena such as monsoon systems and teleconnections. Previous studies have suggested that other forcing mechanisms also may play a vital role in influencing precipitation in this region. To evaluate potential forcing factors affecting precipitation across the Tibetan Plateau, the relationship between the spatial and temporal patterns of precipitation and the regional and macroscale circulation patterns will be investigated. To explore this relationship statistical analysis, such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Correlation Field Analysis, and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA), is preformed. This study also incorporates tree ring chronologies from Qilian junipers (Sabina przewalskii Kom.) sampled in the Qaidam Basin, northeastern Tibetan Plateau. These data have been used in previous studies to indicate environmental change, and tree rings taken from this region have shown signatures of circulation patterns such as Arctic Oscillation (AO). Based on the relationship between tree ring data and circulation patterns it is possible to reconstruct past events. This information along with examination of National Centers for Environmental Protection/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) Reanalysis data will aid in the examination of the relationship between teleconnection patterns and precipitation, and develop a greater understanding of the precipitation variability across the Tibetan Plateau.

  16. Generation of a reference radiation pattern of string instruments using automatic excitation and acoustic centering.

    PubMed

    Shabtai, Noam R; Behler, Gottfried; Vorlnder, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Radiation patterns of musical instruments are important for the understanding of music perception in concert halls, and may be used to improve the plausibility of virtual acoustic systems. Many attempts have been performed to measure the spatial response of musical instruments using surrounding spherical microphone arrays with a limited number of microphones. This work presents a high-resolution spatial sampling of the radiation pattern of an electrically excited violin, and addresses technical problems that arise due to mechanical reasons of the excitation apparatus using acoustic centering. PMID:26627818

  17. Acoustics and sociolinguistics: Patterns of communication in hearing impairing classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKellin, William; Shahin, Kimary; Jamieson, Janet; Hodgson, Murray; Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen

    2005-04-01

    In elementary school classes, noise during student led activities is often taken as evidence of successful interaction and learning. In this complex social environment of elementary school classrooms, acquisition of complex language and social skills-the focus of activities in early education-is expected to take place in hearing-hostile environments. Communication and language processing in these contexts requires interactive strategies, discourse forms, and syntactic structures different from the educationally desired forms used in acoustically advantageous environments. Recordings were made of the interaction of groups of students in grades 1-3, 5, and 7 during collaborative group work in their regular classrooms. Each student wore microphones at the ear level and head-mounted video cameras. Each group as a whole was also audio- and videotaped and noise level readings were recorded. Analysis of the acoustical and phonological properties of language heard by each student has demonstrated that the language variety used in these noisy and reverberant settings is similar to that of individuals with hearing impairments. This paper reports similarities between the syntactic structures and pragmatic strategies used by hearing impaired children and normally hearing children in noisy contexts. [Work supported by Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies, University of British Columbia.

  18. Spatial and temporal patterns of subtidal and intertidal crabs excursions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. C. F.; Boaventura, D. M.; Thompson, R. C.; Hawkins, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Highly mobile predators such as fish and crabs are known to migrate from the subtidal zone to forage in the intertidal zone at high-tide. The extent and variation of these habitat linking movements along the vertical shore gradient have not been examined before for several species simultaneously, hence not accounting for species interactions. Here, the foraging excursions of Carcinus maenas (L.), Necora puber (Linnaeus, 1767) and Cancer pagurus (Linnaeus, 1758) were assessed in a one-year mark-recapture study on two replicated rocky shores in southwest U.K. A comparison between the abundance of individuals present on the shore at high-tide with those present in refuges exposed at low-tide indicated considerable intertidal migration by all species, showing strong linkage between subtidal and intertidal habitats. Estimates of population size based on recapture of marked individuals indicated that an average of ~ 4000 individuals combined for the three crab species, can be present on the shore during one tidal cycle. There was also a high fidelity of individuals and species to particular shore levels. Underlying mechanisms for these spatial patterns such as prey availability and agonistic interactions are discussed. Survival rates were estimated using the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model from multi-recapture analysis and found to be considerably high with a minimum of 30% for all species. Growth rates were found to vary intraspecifically with size and between seasons. Understanding the temporal and spatial variations in predation pressure by crabs on rocky shores is dependent on knowing who, when and how many of these commercially important crab species depend on intertidal foraging. Previous studies have shown that the diet of these species is strongly based on intertidal prey including key species such as limpets; hence intertidal crab migration could be associated with considerable impacts on intertidal assemblages.

  19. Temporal and spatial patterns of nitrate in a claypan soil

    SciTech Connect

    Ghidey, F.; Alberts, E.E.

    1999-03-01

    The temporal and spatial patterns of NO{sub 3}-N were studied on a 35-ha field located in the claypan soil region of north-central Missouri. Soil samples were collected from the 0- to 5-, 5- to 10-, and 10- to 15-cm depths and were analyzed for NO{sub 3}-N concentrations. Surface water samples from the field were collected for NO{sub 3}-N and NH{sub 4}-N analysis during each surface runoff event. Groundwater samples were also taken from the field well four times a year for 5 yr and analyzed for NO{sub 3}-N concentrations. The effects of topography, depth to claypan, soil pH, organic matter (OM) content, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and soil water content on the spatial distribution of NO{sub 3}-N concentration were also evaluated. Nitrate-N concentration in the 0- to 5-cm soil depth increased in the first few weeks following application, then decreased rapidly and was very low at harvest. During the study period, nitrate movement below the layer of fertilizer application was very low, and <5% of the total N applied in the soil was lost to surface runoff. Nitrate-N concentration in groundwater samples decreased by an average of 0.40 mg L{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} from 1992 to 1996. The semivariograms did not exhibit strong spatial dependency except for the samples collected 1 and 4 wk after fertilizer applications in 1993 and 1995, respectively. Nitrate-N concentration was poorly correlated to soil water content and depth to claypan and relatively strongly correlated to elevation and soil pH.

  20. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Aerosol-Cloud Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Julia; Cermak, Jan

    2014-05-01

    This study determines the spatial and temporal distribution of regions with frequent aerosol-cloud interactions (aci) and identifies their meteorological determinants based on CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) and ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) data products. Atmospheric aerosols influence the microphysical structure of clouds, while both also respond to meteorological conditions. The potential radiative adjustments to changes in a cloud system associated with aerosol-cloud interactions are grouped and termed as effective radiative forcing due to aerosol-cloud interactions (ERFaci). It is difficult to distinguish, to what extent radiative forcing and precipitation patterns of clouds are a result of cloud feedbacks to aerosols or the existing meteorological conditions. A complete understanding of aerosol-cloud-meteorology interactions is crucial as the uncertainty range of ERFaci in climate change modeling could be significantly reduced. In the present study it is suggested that presence of hydrated aerosols is an implication for aci. Knowledge of their vertical and horizontal distribution and frequency over the globe would be important for understanding ERFaci. To identify regions with aerosol-cloud transitions the CAD score (cloud-aerosol discrimination) of the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization) instrument on the CALIPSO satellite is used. It separates aerosols and clouds according to the probability distribution functions of 5 parameters (attenuated backscatter, total color ratio, volume depolarization ratio, altitude and latitude) and assigns the likelihood of cloud or aerosol presence. This parameter is used to calculate relative frequencies of aci on a global scale from 2006 to 2013.

  1. Match analysis and temporal patterns of fatigue in rugby sevens.

    PubMed

    Granatelli, Giampietro; Gabbett, Tim J; Briotti, Gianluca; Padulo, Johnny; Buglione, Antonio; D'Ottavio, Stefano; Ruscello, Bruno M

    2014-03-01

    Rugby sevens is a rapidly growing sport. Match analysis is increasingly being used by sport scientists and coaches to improve the understanding of the physical demands of this sport. This study investigated the physical and physiological demands of elite men's rugby sevens, with special reference to the temporal patterns of fatigue during match play. Nine players, 4 backs and 5 forwards (age 25.1 3.1 years) participated during 2 "Roma 7" international tournaments (2010 and 2011). All the players were at the professional level in the highest Italian rugby union, and 5 of these players also competed at the international level. During the matches (n = 15), the players were filmed to assess game performance. Global positioning system, heart rate (HR), and blood lactate (BLa) concentration data were measured and analyzed. The mean total distance covered throughout matches was 1,221 118 m (first half = 643 70 m and second half = 578 77 m; with a decrease of 11.2%, p > 0.05, Effect Size [ES] = 0.29). The players achieved 88.3 4.2 and 87.7 3.4% of the HRmax during the first and second halves, respectively. The BLa for the first and second halves was 3.9 0.9 and 11.2 1.4 mmolL, respectively. The decreases in performance occurred consistently in the final 3 minutes of the matches (-40.5% in the distance covered per minute). The difference found in relation to the playing position, although not statistically significant (p = 0.11), showed a large ES (? = 0.20), suggesting possible practical implications. These results demonstrate that rugby sevens is a demanding sport that places stress on both the anaerobic glycolytic and aerobic oxidative energy systems. Strength and conditioning programs designed to train these energy pathways may prevent fatigue-induced reductions in physical performance. PMID:23722109

  2. Acoustic chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Lauterborn, W.; Parlitz, U.; Holzfuss, J.; Billo, A.; Akhatov, I.

    1996-06-01

    Acoustic cavitation, a complex, spatio-temporal dynamical system, is investigated with respect to its chaotic properties. The sound output, the {open_quote}{open_quote}noise{close_quote}{close_quote}, is subjected to time series analysis. The spatial dynamics of the bubble filaments is captured by high speed holographic cinematography and subsequent digital picture processing from the holograms. Theoretical models are put forward for describing the pattern formation. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Intrinsic Temporal Patterning in the Spontaneous Movement of Awake Neonates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Steven S.

    1982-01-01

    The temporal organization of spontaneous movement in healthy, awake neonates was studied on the second or third day after birth. Movement was recorded using time lapse photography and quantified as a function of time. Evidence of intrinsic temporal organization among subjects was found. (MP)

  4. ACOUSTIC IDENTIFICATION AND MEASUREMENT OF ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF WHITE GRUBS IN SOIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Activity patterns of Phyllophaga crinita (Burmeister), P. congrua (LeConte), P. crassissima (Blanchard), and Cyclocephala lurida (Bland) grubs were acoustically monitored in small pots of bluegrass, Poa arachnifera Torr, at varying and constant temperatures over multiple-day periods. Distinctive te...

  5. Accuracy of spatial and temporal averaging of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) moving boat measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, B.; Neary, V. S.; Hill, C.; Chamorro, L. P.

    2011-12-01

    Characterization of mean velocity, turbulence levels and secondary currents in rivers and tidal flow is crucial for the annual energy production estimation and structural design of MHK devices. A moving vessel deployment of an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) can obtain 3D velocity data in a large spatial region in an open channel cross-section within a significantly shorter time than other methods currently available. When using such a deployment method, the ADCP measures only a single velocity value at each bin, and therefore the data contain a significant amount of fluctuations due to turbulence velocity fluctuation and instrument's noise. Several researchers have proposed spatial and temporal averaging methodologies for ADCP moving boat (transects) data to deal with this issue. However, little is known about the accuracy of this technique. The effects of spatial and temporal averaging (STA) of ADCP transects data are investigated in the St. Anthony Falls laboratory flume. ADCP transects were obtained upstream and downstream of a 1:10 scale MHK horizontal axis turbine at various bin sizes. The MHK turbine generates a helical vortex flow with its axis parallel to the flume longitudinal direction, similar to the Prandtl's secondary flow of the first and second kind observed in open channels. The ADCP is attached to a computerized cart capable of traversing the ADCP at various speeds and recording the ADCP positions up to 1 mm accuracy. Accuracy of the STA of ADCP transects data with various bin size is assessed against ADCP fixed vessel and ADV point measurements. The accuracy of the STA of ADCP transects in representing the magnitude and direction of the helical vortex flow is also assessed.

  6. Acoustically Evoked Different Vibration Pattern Across the Width of the Cochlea Partition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Dingjun; Chen, Fangyi; Friderberg, Anders; Choudhury, Niloy; Nuttall, Alfred

    2011-11-01

    Using optical low coherence interferometry, the acoustically evoked vibration patterns of the basilar membrane (BM) and reticular lamina (RL) in the first turn of living guinea pigs were measured as function of the radial location. It was demonstrated that the vibration of the BM varied widely in amplitude, but little in phase across the width of the partition, while the RL had a different vibration pattern compared with the BM.

  7. Acoustic beam steering by light refraction: illustration with directivity patterns of a tilted volume photoacoustic source.

    PubMed

    Raetz, Samuel; Dehoux, Thomas; Perton, Mathieu; Audoin, Bertrand

    2013-12-01

    The symmetry of a thermoelastic source resulting from laser absorption can be broken when the direction of light propagation in an elastic half-space is inclined relatively to the surface. This leads to an asymmetry of the directivity patterns of both compressional and shear acoustic waves. In contrast to classical surface acoustic sources, the tunable volume source allows one to take advantage of the mode conversion at the surface to control the directivity of specific modes. Physical interpretations of the evolution of the directivity patterns with the increasing light angle of incidence and of the relations between the preferential directions of compressional- and shear-wave emission are proposed. In order to compare calculated directivity patterns with measurements of normal displacement amplitudes performed on plates, a procedure is proposed to transform the directivity patterns into pseudo-directivity patterns representative of the experimental conditions. The comparison of the theoretical with measured pseudo-directivity patterns demonstrates the ability to enhance bulk-wave amplitudes and to steer specific bulk acoustic modes by adequately tuning light refraction. PMID:25669249

  8. Sources and Radiation Patterns of Volcano-Acoustic Signals Investigated with Field-Scale Chemical Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, D. C.; Lees, J. M.; Taddeucci, J.; Graettinger, A. H.; Sonder, I.; Valentine, G.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the processes that give rise to complex acoustic signals during volcanic blasts by monitoring buried chemical explosions with infrasound and audio range microphones, strong motion sensors, and high speed imagery. Acoustic waveforms vary with scaled depth of burial (SDOB, units in meters per cube root of joules), ranging from high amplitude, impulsive, gas expansion dominated signals at low SDOB to low amplitude, longer duration, ground motion dominated signals at high SDOB. Typically, the sudden upward acceleration of the substrate above the blast produces the first acoustic arrival, followed by a second pulse due to the eruption of pressurized gas at the surface. Occasionally, a third overpressure occurs when displaced material decelerates upon impact with the ground. The transition between ground motion dominated and gas release dominated acoustics ranges between 0.0038-0.0018 SDOB, respectively. For example, one explosion registering an SDOB=0.0031 produced two overpressure pulses of approximately equal amplitude, one due to ground motion, the other to gas release. Recorded volcano infrasound has also identified distinct ground motion and gas release components during explosions at Sakurajima, Santiaguito, and Karymsky volcanoes. Our results indicate that infrasound records may provide a proxy for the depth and energy of these explosions. Furthermore, while magma fragmentation models indicate the possibility of several explosions during a single vulcanian eruption (Alidibirov, Bull Volc., 1994), our results suggest that a single explosion can also produce complex acoustic signals. Thus acoustic records alone cannot be used to distinguish between single explosions and multiple closely-spaced blasts at volcanoes. Results from a series of lateral blasts during the 2014 field experiment further indicates whether vent geometry can produce directional acoustic radiation patterns like those observed at Tungarahua volcano (Kim et al., GJI, 2012). Beside infrasonic radiation, our multiparametric dataset also allowed us to investigate other acoustic processes relevant for explosive eruptions, including shock-wave generation and audible sound radiation, and to link them to the starting conditions and evolution of the blasts.

  9. Association rule mining based on spatio-temporal processes of spatial distribution patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuewu; Su, Fenzhen; Shi, Yishao; He, Yawen

    2008-12-01

    Spatial distribution pattern is an arrangement of two or more spatial objects according to some spatial relations, such as spatial direction, topological and distance relations. In the real world, spatial objects and spatial distribution pattern all vary continuously along the time-line. Traditional spatial and non-spatial data dissevers this continuous spatio-temporal process. Under analyzing relations among spatial object, its attributes and spatial distribution pattern, we brought metaspatio- temporal process, spatio-temporal process and spatial distribution pattern spatio-temporal process. Rainfall in Eastern China has a typical spatial distribution pattern, being composed of the northern rain area and the southern rain area. Through constructing spatio-temporal process transactions, the association rules can be extracted from spatiotemporal process data set by the Apriori algorithm. The result of the spaio-temporal process association rule mining is consistent with the analysis of the theory. Finally, it is concluded that the spatio-temporal process can describe change of a spatial object in a defined time range, and change trend of one entity can be forecasted through varying trend of others based on the valuable spatio-temporal process association rules.

  10. Temporal motifs reveal homophily, gender-specific patterns, and group talk in call sequences

    PubMed Central

    Kovanen, Lauri; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertsz, Jnos; Saramki, Jari

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies on electronic communication records have shown that human communication has complex temporal structure. We study how communication patterns that involve multiple individuals are affected by attributes such as sex and age. To this end, we represent the communication records as a colored temporal network where node color is used to represent individuals attributes, and identify patterns known as temporal motifs. We then construct a null model for the occurrence of temporal motifs that takes into account the interaction frequencies and connectivity between nodes of different colors. This null model allows us to detect significant patterns in call sequences that cannot be observed in a static network that uses interaction frequencies as link weights. We find sex-related differences in communication patterns in a large dataset of mobile phone records and show the existence of temporal homophily, the tendency of similar individuals to participate in communication patterns beyond what would be expected on the basis of their average interaction frequencies. We also show that temporal patterns differ between dense and sparse neighborhoods in the network. Because also this result is independent of interaction frequencies, it can be seen as an extension of Granovetters hypothesis to temporal networks. PMID:24145424

  11. Temporal motifs reveal homophily, gender-specific patterns, and group talk in call sequences.

    PubMed

    Kovanen, Lauri; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertsz, Jnos; Saramki, Jari

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies on electronic communication records have shown that human communication has complex temporal structure. We study how communication patterns that involve multiple individuals are affected by attributes such as sex and age. To this end, we represent the communication records as a colored temporal network where node color is used to represent individuals' attributes, and identify patterns known as temporal motifs. We then construct a null model for the occurrence of temporal motifs that takes into account the interaction frequencies and connectivity between nodes of different colors. This null model allows us to detect significant patterns in call sequences that cannot be observed in a static network that uses interaction frequencies as link weights. We find sex-related differences in communication patterns in a large dataset of mobile phone records and show the existence of temporal homophily, the tendency of similar individuals to participate in communication patterns beyond what would be expected on the basis of their average interaction frequencies. We also show that temporal patterns differ between dense and sparse neighborhoods in the network. Because also this result is independent of interaction frequencies, it can be seen as an extension of Granovetter's hypothesis to temporal networks. PMID:24145424

  12. Assessing the value of information in climber's guidebooks to derive spatio-temporal rockfall patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temme, A. J. A. M.

    2012-04-01

    Rockfall rates in mountain ranges are expensive to measure over large spatial scales, mainly due to the inaccessibility of mountainous terrain. Existing methods to measure rockfall include acoustic methods (listening to the rock's impact or creation by frost weathering) , spectral methods (looking at the colour of mountain faces to determine their freshness and by extension the time since last rockfall) and volumetric methods (measuring the volume that fell). These methods, especially in combination, have allowed researchers to quantitatively derive rates (and distribution of rates over time) of rockfall for several well studied locations. However, the small spatial support of these methods means that results are only valid for small well-studied locations. This is a problem when we want to derive baseline information on rockfall rates over entire mountain chains and ranges - which is important to study their temporal distribution and their relation with climate change. This contribution explores the potential of information contained in climber's guidebooks to derive qualitative rockfall rates with large spatial and temporal coverage. Climber's guidebooks have been published since the early 1900's, giving prospective mountaineers strongly codified information about routes and conditions expected along the way. The information about the looseness of rocks, which is clearly important for climbers from a safety perspective, may also be useful to link to rockfall rates. I have used a series of guidebooks published at irregular intervals for the Bernese Oberland in Switzerland to study the change in descriptions of looseness of rocks for a number of famous climbing routes. These routes were selected because of the opportunity to complement information in guidebooks with other (visual and written) sources of information. Results indicate that descriptions of looseness of rock can be used to derive a qualitative pattern of rockfall, especially over larger spatial scales. The value of the information is also valuable as a link to temporal changes in rockfall rates, but this use is hampered by the fact that text is sometimes copied between successive guidebooks without a stringent reassessment of actual conditions on the route.

  13. A model for optimizing file access patterns using spatio-temporal parallelism

    SciTech Connect

    Boonthanome, Nouanesengsy; Patchett, John; Geveci, Berk; Ahrens, James; Bauer, Andy; Chaudhary, Aashish; Miller, Ross G.; Shipman, Galen M.; Williams, Dean N.

    2013-01-01

    For many years now, I/O read time has been recognized as the primary bottleneck for parallel visualization and analysis of large-scale data. In this paper, we introduce a model that can estimate the read time for a file stored in a parallel filesystem when given the file access pattern. Read times ultimately depend on how the file is stored and the access pattern used to read the file. The file access pattern will be dictated by the type of parallel decomposition used. We employ spatio-temporal parallelism, which combines both spatial and temporal parallelism, to provide greater flexibility to possible file access patterns. Using our model, we were able to configure the spatio-temporal parallelism to design optimized read access patterns that resulted in a speedup factor of approximately 400 over traditional file access patterns.

  14. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Tidal Dissipation in Synchronous Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bills, Bruce G.; Aharonson, Oded

    2003-01-01

    Tidal heating is an important energy source for several solar system bodies, and there is a wide-spread perception that the pattern of surface heat flow is diagnostic of internal structure. We wish to clarify that situation. Our analysis depends upon two important assumptions: First, that heat transport is dominated by conduction. Second, that the body can be modeled by a sequence of spherically symmetric layers, each with a linear visco-elastic rheology. Under these assumptions, surface heat flow patterns in tidally dominated satellites will reflect radially integrated dissipation patterns. For synchronously rotating satellites with zero obliquity, this pattern depends quite strongly on orbital eccentricity but relatively little on purely radial variations in internal structure. The total amount of heat generated within the body does depend sensitively on internal structure, but the spatial pattern is rather insensitive to structure, especially at low orbital eccentricities.

  15. General asymmetric neutral networks and structure design by genetic algorithms: A learning rule for temporal patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Bornholdt, S.; Graudenz, D.

    1993-07-01

    A learning algorithm based on genetic algorithms for asymmetric neural networks with an arbitrary structure is presented. It is suited for the learning of temporal patterns and leads to stable neural networks with feedback.

  16. Hemispatial PCA dissociates temporal from parietal ERP generator patterns

    PubMed Central

    Tenke, Craig E.; Kayser, Jürgen; Shankman, Stewart A.; Griggs, Carlye B.; Leite, Paul; Stewart, Jonathan W.; Bruder, Gerard E.

    2008-01-01

    Event-related potentials (31-channel ERPs) were recorded from 38 depressed, unmedicated outpatients and 26 healthy adults (all right-handed) in tonal and phonetic oddball tasks developed to exploit the perceptual challenge of a dichotic stimulation. Tonal nontargets were pairs of complex tones (corresponding to musical notes G and B above middle C) presented simultaneously to each ear (L/R) in an alternating series (G/B or B/G; 2-s fixed SOA). A target tone (note A) replaced one of the pair on 20% of the trials (A/B, G/A, B/A, A/G). Phonetic nontargets were L/R pairs of syllables (/ba/, /da/) with a short voice onset time (VOT), and targets contained a syllable (/ta/) with a long VOT. Subjects responded with a left or right button press to targets (counterbalanced across blocks). Target detection was poorer in patients than controls and for tones than syllables. Reference-free current source densities (CSDs; spherical spline Laplacian) derived from ERP waveforms were simplified and measured using temporal, covariance-based PCA followed by unrestricted Varimax rotation. Target-related N2 sinks and mid-parietal P3 sources were represented by CSD factors peaking at 245 and 440 ms. The P3 source topography included a secondary, left-lateralized temporal lobe maximum for both targets and nontargets. However, a subsequent hemispheric spatiotemporal PCA disentangled temporal lobe N1 and P3 sources as distinct factors. P3 sources were reduced in patients compared with controls, even after using performance as a covariate. Results are consistent with prior reports of P3 reduction in depression and implicate distinct parietal and temporal generators of P3 when using a dichotic oddball paradigm. PMID:17963912

  17. Spatio-temporal patterns of bacteria caused by collective motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitsunezaki, So

    2006-04-01

    In incubation experiments on bacterial colonies of Proteus mirabilis, collective motion of bacteria is found to generate macroscopic turbulent patterns on the surface of agar media. We propose a mathematical model to describe the time evolution of the positional and directional distributions of motile bacteria in such systems, and investigate this model both numerically and analytically. It is shown that as the average density of bacteria increases, nonuniform swarming patterns emerge from a uniform stationary state. For a sufficient large density, we find that spiral patterns are caused by interactions between the local bacteria densities and the rotational mode of the collective motion. Unidirectional spiral patterns similar to those observed in experiments appear in the case in which the equilibrium directional distribution is asymmetric.

  18. Dexterous acoustic trapping and patterning of particles assisted by phononic crystal plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tian; Ke, Manzhu; Xu, Shengjun; Feng, Junheng; Qiu, Chunyin; Liu, Zhengyou

    2015-04-01

    In this letter, we present experimental demonstration of multi-particles trapping and patterning by the artificially engineered acoustic field of phononic crystal plate. Polystyrene particles are precisely trapped and patterned in two dimensional arrays, for example, the square, triangular, or quasi-periodic arrays, depending on the structures of the phononic crystal plates with varying sub-wavelength holes array. Analysis shows that the enhanced acoustic radiation force, induced by the resonant transmission field highly localized near the sub-wavelength apertures, accounts for the particles self-organizing. It can be envisaged that this kind of simple design of phononic crystal plates would pave an alternative route for self-assembly of particles and may be utilized in the lab-on-a-chip devices.

  19. Dexterous acoustic trapping and patterning of particles assisted by phononic crystal plate

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tian; Ke, Manzhu Xu, Shengjun; Feng, Junheng; Qiu, Chunyin; Liu, Zhengyou

    2015-04-20

    In this letter, we present experimental demonstration of multi-particles trapping and patterning by the artificially engineered acoustic field of phononic crystal plate. Polystyrene particles are precisely trapped and patterned in two dimensional arrays, for example, the square, triangular, or quasi-periodic arrays, depending on the structures of the phononic crystal plates with varying sub-wavelength holes array. Analysis shows that the enhanced acoustic radiation force, induced by the resonant transmission field highly localized near the sub-wavelength apertures, accounts for the particles self-organizing. It can be envisaged that this kind of simple design of phononic crystal plates would pave an alternative route for self-assembly of particles and may be utilized in the lab-on-a-chip devices.

  20. Objective Phonological and Subjective Perceptual Characteristics of Syllables Modulate Spatiotemporal Patterns of Superior Temporal Gyrus Activity

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Richard E.; Fisher, Janet McGraw; Witzel, Thomas; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Swank, Paul; Liederman, Jacqueline; Halgren, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Natural consonant vowel syllables are reliably classified by most listeners as voiced or voiceless. However, our previous research (Liederman et al., 2005) suggests that among synthetic stimuli varying systematically in voice onset time (VOT), syllables that are classified reliably as voiceless are nonetheless perceived differently within and between listeners. This perceptual ambiguity was measured by variation in the accuracy of matching two identical stimuli presented in rapid succession. In the current experiment, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine the differential contribution of objective (i.e., VOT) and subjective (i.e., perceptual ambiguity) acoustic features on speech processing. Distributed source models estimated cortical activation within two regions of interest in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and one in the inferior frontal gyrus. These regions were differentially modulated by VOT and perceptual ambiguity. Ambiguity strongly influenced lateralization of activation; however, the influence on lateralization was different in the anterior and middle/posterior portions of the STG. The influence of ambiguity on the relative amplitude of activity in the right and left anterior STG activity depended on VOT, whereas that of middle/posterior portions of the STG did not. These data support the idea that early cortical responses are bilaterally distributed whereas late processes are lateralized to the dominant hemisphere and support a how/what dual-stream auditory model. This study helps to clarify the role of the anterior STG, especially in the right hemisphere, in syllable perception. Moreover, our results demonstrate that both objective phonological and subjective perceptual characteristics of syllables independently modulate spatiotemporal patterns of cortical activation. PMID:18356082

  1. Patterns of altered functional connectivity in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Pittau, Francesca; Grova, Christophe; Moeller, Friederike; Dubeau, François; Gotman, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Summary Purpose In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) the epileptogenic area is confined to the mesial temporal lobe, but other cortical and subcortical areas are also affected and cognitive and psychiatric impairments are usually documented. Functional connectivity methods are based on the correlation of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal between brain regions, which exhibit consistent and reproducible functional networks from resting state data. The aim of this study is to compare functional connectivity of patients with MTLE during the interictal period with healthy subjects. We hypothesize that patients show reduced functional connectivity compared to controls, the interest being to determine which regions show this reduction. Methods We selected electroencephalography–functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) resting state data without EEG spikes from 16 patients with right and 7 patients with left MTLE. EEG-fMRI resting state data of 23 healthy subjects matched for age, sex, and manual preference were selected as controls. Four volumes of interest in the left and right amygdalae and hippocampi (LA, RA, LH, and RH) were manually segmented in the anatomic MRI of each subject. The averaged BOLD time course within each volume of interest was used to detect brain regions with BOLD signal correlated with it. Group differences between patients and controls were estimated. Key Findings In patients with right MTLE, group difference functional connectivity maps (RMTLE – controls) showed for RA and RH decreased connectivity with the brain areas of the default mode network (DMN), the ventromesial limbic prefrontal regions, and contralateral mesial temporal structures; and for LA and LH, decreased connectivity with DMN and contralateral hippocampus. Additional decreased connectivity was found between LA and pons and between LH and ventromesial limbic prefrontal structures. In patients with left MTLE, functional connectivity maps (LMTLE – controls) showed for LA and LH decreased connectivity with DMN, contralateral hippocampus, and bilateral ventromesial limbic prefrontal regions; no change in connectivity was detected for RA; and for RH, there was decreased connectivity with DMN, bilateral ventromesial limbic prefrontal regions, and contralateral amygdala and hippocampus. Significance In unilateral MTLE, amygdala and hippocampus on the affected and to a lesser extent on the healthy side are less connected, and are also less connected with the dopaminergic mesolimbic and the DMNs. Changes in functional connectivity between mesial temporal lobe structures and these structures may explain cognitive and psychiatric impairments often found in patients with MTLE. PMID:22578020

  2. Analysis of spatial-temporal gene expression patterns reveals dynamics and regionalization in developing mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Shen-Ju; Wang, Chindi; Sintupisut, Nardnisa; Niou, Zhen-Xian; Lin, Chih-Hsu; Li, Ker-Chau; Yeang, Chen-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Allen Brain Atlas (ABA) provides a valuable resource of spatial/temporal gene expressions in mammalian brains. Despite rich information extracted from this database, current analyses suffer from several limitations. First, most studies are either gene-centric or region-centric, thus are inadequate to capture the superposition of multiple spatial-temporal patterns. Second, standard tools of expression analysis such as matrix factorization can capture those patterns but do not explicitly incorporate spatial dependency. To overcome those limitations, we proposed a computational method to detect recurrent patterns in the spatial-temporal gene expression data of developing mouse brains. We demonstrated that regional distinction in brain development could be revealed by localized gene expression patterns. The patterns expressed in the forebrain, medullary and pontomedullary, and basal ganglia are enriched with genes involved in forebrain development, locomotory behavior, and dopamine metabolism respectively. In addition, the timing of global gene expression patterns reflects the general trends of molecular events in mouse brain development. Furthermore, we validated functional implications of the inferred patterns by showing genes sharing similar spatial-temporal expression patterns with Lhx2 exhibited differential expression in the embryonic forebrains of Lhx2 mutant mice. These analysis outcomes confirm the utility of recurrent expression patterns in studying brain development. PMID:26786896

  3. Analysis of spatial-temporal gene expression patterns reveals dynamics and regionalization in developing mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Chou, Shen-Ju; Wang, Chindi; Sintupisut, Nardnisa; Niou, Zhen-Xian; Lin, Chih-Hsu; Li, Ker-Chau; Yeang, Chen-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Allen Brain Atlas (ABA) provides a valuable resource of spatial/temporal gene expressions in mammalian brains. Despite rich information extracted from this database, current analyses suffer from several limitations. First, most studies are either gene-centric or region-centric, thus are inadequate to capture the superposition of multiple spatial-temporal patterns. Second, standard tools of expression analysis such as matrix factorization can capture those patterns but do not explicitly incorporate spatial dependency. To overcome those limitations, we proposed a computational method to detect recurrent patterns in the spatial-temporal gene expression data of developing mouse brains. We demonstrated that regional distinction in brain development could be revealed by localized gene expression patterns. The patterns expressed in the forebrain, medullary and pontomedullary, and basal ganglia are enriched with genes involved in forebrain development, locomotory behavior, and dopamine metabolism respectively. In addition, the timing of global gene expression patterns reflects the general trends of molecular events in mouse brain development. Furthermore, we validated functional implications of the inferred patterns by showing genes sharing similar spatial-temporal expression patterns with Lhx2 exhibited differential expression in the embryonic forebrains of Lhx2 mutant mice. These analysis outcomes confirm the utility of recurrent expression patterns in studying brain development. PMID:26786896

  4. Experimental quiescent drifting dusty plasmas and temporal dust acoustic wave growth

    SciTech Connect

    Heinrich, J. R.; Kim, S.-H.; Meyer, J. K.; Merlino, R. L.

    2011-11-15

    We report on dust acoustic wave growth rate measurements taken in a dc (anode glow) discharge plasma device. By introducing a mesh with a variable bias 12-17 cm from the anode, we developed a technique to produce a drifting dusty plasma. A secondary dust cloud, free of dust acoustic waves, was trapped adjacent to the anode side of the mesh. When the mesh was returned to its floating potential, the secondary cloud was released and streamed towards the anode and primary dust cloud, spontaneously exciting dust acoustic waves. The amplitude growth of the excited dust acoustic waves was measured directly along with the wavelength and Doppler shifted frequency. These measurements were compared to fluid and kinetic dust acoustic wave theories. As the wave growth saturated a transition from linear to nonlinear waves was observed. The merging of the secondary and primary dust clouds was also observed.

  5. Spatial hearing benefits demonstrated with presentation of acoustic temporal fine structure cues in bilateral cochlear implant listeners.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Tyler H; Kan, Alan; Goupell, Matthew J; Litovsky, Ruth Y

    2014-09-01

    Most contemporary cochlear implant (CI) processing strategies discard acoustic temporal fine structure (TFS) information, and this may contribute to the observed deficits in bilateral CI listeners' ability to localize sounds when compared to normal hearing listeners. Additionally, for best speech envelope representation, most contemporary speech processing strategies use high-rate carriers (?900?Hz) that exceed the limit for interaural pulse timing to provide useful binaural information. Many bilateral CI listeners are sensitive to interaural time differences (ITDs) in low-rate (<300?Hz) constant-amplitude pulse trains. This study explored the trade-off between superior speech temporal envelope representation with high-rate carriers and binaural pulse timing sensitivity with low-rate carriers. The effects of carrier pulse rate and pulse timing on ITD discrimination, ITD lateralization, and speech recognition in quiet were examined in eight bilateral CI listeners. Stimuli consisted of speech tokens processed at different electrical stimulation rates, and pulse timings that either preserved or did not preserve acoustic TFS cues. Results showed that CI listeners were able to use low-rate pulse timing cues derived from acoustic TFS when presented redundantly on multiple electrodes for ITD discrimination and lateralization of speech stimuli. PMID:25190398

  6. Spatial hearing benefits demonstrated with presentation of acoustic temporal fine structure cues in bilateral cochlear implant listenersa)

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Tyler H.; Kan, Alan; Goupell, Matthew J.; Litovsky, Ruth Y.

    2014-01-01

    Most contemporary cochlear implant (CI) processing strategies discard acoustic temporal fine structure (TFS) information, and this may contribute to the observed deficits in bilateral CI listeners' ability to localize sounds when compared to normal hearing listeners. Additionally, for best speech envelope representation, most contemporary speech processing strategies use high-rate carriers (?900?Hz) that exceed the limit for interaural pulse timing to provide useful binaural information. Many bilateral CI listeners are sensitive to interaural time differences (ITDs) in low-rate (<300?Hz) constant-amplitude pulse trains. This study explored the trade-off between superior speech temporal envelope representation with high-rate carriers and binaural pulse timing sensitivity with low-rate carriers. The effects of carrier pulse rate and pulse timing on ITD discrimination, ITD lateralization, and speech recognition in quiet were examined in eight bilateral CI listeners. Stimuli consisted of speech tokens processed at different electrical stimulation rates, and pulse timings that either preserved or did not preserve acoustic TFS cues. Results showed that CI listeners were able to use low-rate pulse timing cues derived from acoustic TFS when presented redundantly on multiple electrodes for ITD discrimination and lateralization of speech stimuli. PMID:25190398

  7. Data-Driven Rule Mining and Representation of Temporal Patterns in Physiological Sensor Data.

    PubMed

    Banaee, Hadi; Loutfi, Amy

    2015-09-01

    Mining and representation of qualitative patterns is a growing field in sensor data analytics. This paper leverages from rule mining techniques to extract and represent temporal relation of prototypical patterns in clinical data streams. The approach is fully data-driven, where the temporal rules are mined from physiological time series such as heart rate, respiration rate, and blood pressure. To validate the rules, a novel similarity method is introduced, that compares the similarity between rule sets. An additional aspect of the proposed approach has been to utilize natural language generation techniques to represent the temporal relations between patterns. In this study, the sensor data in the MIMIC online database was used for evaluation, in which the mined temporal rules as they relate to various clinical conditions (respiratory failure, angina, sepsis, ) were made explicit as a textual representation. Furthermore, it was shown that the extracted rule set for any particular clinical condition was distinct from other clinical conditions. PMID:26340684

  8. X-ray diffraction pattern of a Gulyaev-Bleustein surface acoustic wave in grazing geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Levonyan, L. V. Khachaturyan, G. K.

    2006-12-15

    The X ray diffraction pattern of a Gulyaev-Bleustein surface acoustic wave (SAW) under grazing angles of incidence in noncoplanar symmetric Laue geometry has been considered. It is supposed that the propagation direction of an SAW makes a small angle with the diffraction vector. It is shown that small deviations from the Bragg angle ({approx}0.01'' induced by the SAW and do not affect the reflection coefficient lead to the formation of diffraction satellites both in the cases of standing and traveling SAWs. It has been established that the recorded diffraction pattern, which is a time-averaged intensity distribution, has characteristic profiles for odd and even satellites.

  9. Cultural and environmental influences on temporal-spectral development patterns of corn and soybeans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crist, E. P.

    1982-01-01

    A technique for evaluating crop temporal-spectral development patterns is described and applied to the analysis of cropping practices and environmental conditions as they affect reflectance characteristics of corn and soybean canopies. Typical variations in field conditions are shown to exert significant influences on the spectral development patterns, and thereby to affect the separability of the two crops.

  10. Temporal pattern of pulse wave velocity during brachial hyperemia reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, S.; Valero, M. J.; Craiem, D.; Torrado, J.; Farro, I.; Zcalo, Y.; Valls, G.; Ba, D.; Armentano, R. L.

    2011-09-01

    Endothelial function can be assessed non-invasively with ultrasound, analyzing the change of brachial diameter in response to transient forearm ischemia. We propose a new technique based in the same principle, but analyzing a continuous recording of carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (PWV) instead of diameter. PWV was measured on 10 healthy subjects of 222 years before and after 5 minutes forearm occlusion. After 59 31 seconds of cuff release PWV decreased 21 9% compared to baseline, reestablishing the same after 533 65 seconds. There were no significant changes observed in blood pressure. When repeating the study one hour later in 5 subjects, we obtained a coefficient of repeatability of 4.8%. In conclusion, through analysis of beat to beat carotid-radial PWV it was possible to characterize the temporal profiles and analyze the acute changes in response to a reactive hyperemia. The results show that the technique has a high sensitivity and repeatability.

  11. Temporal patterns of gene expression during calyx of held development.

    PubMed

    Kolson, Douglas R; Wan, Jun; Wu, Jonathan; Dehoff, Marlin; Brandebura, Ashley N; Qian, Jiang; Mathers, Peter H; Spirou, George A

    2016-02-01

    Relating changes in gene expression to discrete developmental events remains an elusive challenge in neuroscience, in part because most neural territories are comprised of multiple cell types that mature over extended periods of time. The medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) is an attractive vertebrate model system that contains a nearly homogeneous population of neurons, which are innervated by large glutamatergic nerve terminals called calyces of Held (CH). Key steps in maturation of CHs and MNTB neurons, including CH growth and competition, occur very quickly for most cells between postnatal days (P)2 and P6. Therefore, we characterized genome-wide changes in this system, with dense temporal sampling during the first postnatal week. We identified 541 genes whose expression changed significantly between P0-6 and clustered them into eight groups based on temporal expression profiles. Candidate genes from each of the eight profile groups were validated in separate samples by qPCR. Our tissue sample permitted comparison of known glial and neuronal transcripts and revealed that monotonically increasing or decreasing expression profiles tended to be associated with glia and neurons, respectively. Gene ontology revealed enrichment of genes involved in axon pathfinding, cell differentiation, cell adhesion and extracellular matrix. The latter category included elements of perineuronal nets, a prominent feature of MNTB neurons that is morphologically distinct by P6, when CH growth and competition are resolved onto nearly all MNTB neurons. These results provide a genetic framework for investigation of general mechanisms responsible for nerve terminal growth and maturation. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 166-189, 2016. PMID:26014473

  12. Acoustic temporal modulation detection in normal-hearing and cochlear implanted listeners: effects of hearing mechanism and development.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Hyun; Won, Jong Ho; Horn, David L; Rubinstein, Jay T

    2015-06-01

    Temporal modulation detection ability matures over many years after birth and may be particularly sensitive to experience during this period. Profound hearing loss during early childhood might result in greater perceptual deficits than a similar loss beginning in adulthood. We tested this idea by measuring performance in temporal modulation detection in profoundly deaf children and adults fitted with cochlear implants (CIs). At least two independent variables could constrain temporal modulation detection performance in children with CIs: altered encoding of modulation information due to the CI-auditory nerve interface, and atypical development of central processing of sound information provided by CIs. The effect of altered encoding was investigated by testing subjects with one of two different hearing mechanisms (normal hearing vs. CI) and the effect of atypical development was studied by testing two different age groups. All subjects were tested for their ability to detect acoustic temporal modulations of sound amplitude. A comparison of the slope, or cutoff frequency, of the temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs) among the four subject groups revealed that temporal resolution was mainly constrained by hearing mechanism: normal-hearing listeners could detect smaller amplitude modulations at high modulation frequencies than CI users. In contrast, a comparison of the height of the TMTFs revealed a significant interaction between hearing mechanism and age group on overall sensitivity to temporal modulation: sensitivity was significantly poorer in children with CIs, relative to the other three groups. Results suggest that there is an age-specific vulnerability of intensity discrimination or non-sensory factors, which subsequently affects sensitivity to temporal modulation in prelingually deaf children who use CIs. PMID:25790949

  13. Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Jerry R.; Grosveld, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    The acoustics environment in space operations is important to maintain at manageable levels so that the crewperson can remain safe, functional, effective, and reasonably comfortable. High acoustic levels can produce temporary or permanent hearing loss, or cause other physiological symptoms such as auditory pain, headaches, discomfort, strain in the vocal cords, or fatigue. Noise is defined as undesirable sound. Excessive noise may result in psychological effects such as irritability, inability to concentrate, decrease in productivity, annoyance, errors in judgment, and distraction. A noisy environment can also result in the inability to sleep, or sleep well. Elevated noise levels can affect the ability to communicate, understand what is being said, hear what is going on in the environment, degrade crew performance and operations, and create habitability concerns. Superfluous noise emissions can also create the inability to hear alarms or other important auditory cues such as an equipment malfunctioning. Recent space flight experience, evaluations of the requirements in crew habitable areas, and lessons learned (Goodman 2003; Allen and Goodman 2003; Pilkinton 2003; Grosveld et al. 2003) show the importance of maintaining an acceptable acoustics environment. This is best accomplished by having a high-quality set of limits/requirements early in the program, the "designing in" of acoustics in the development of hardware and systems, and by monitoring, testing and verifying the levels to ensure that they are acceptable.

  14. Acoustic correlates of English rhythmic patterns for American versus Japanese speakers.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yoko; Hori, Tomoko; Erickson, Donna

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates acoustic correlates of English rhythmic patterns for 20 American English speakers (AS) and 42 Japanese learners of English (JS). The results indicate that for AS in an English sentence where monosyllabic content and function words alternate, the vowels in content words are over twice as long as those in function words, resulting in alternating long-short vowels. In contrast, the JS show no stress-related duration control and realize a similar rhythmic pattern mostly through recursive high-low fundamental frequency (F0). In a sentence with a sequence of content words in which 4 stressed syllables occur successively, the AS show recursion of strong-weak syllables by means of F0, intensity and first formant, whereas JS show inconsistent stress patterns. These results indicate that the AS apply different strategies for implementing rhythmic alternation depending on sentence stress patterns, and these strategies are different from those of JS. PMID:25227394

  15. Temporal Patterns in Seawater Quality from Dredging in Tropical Environments.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ross; Fisher, Rebecca; Stark, Clair; Ridd, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance and capital dredging represents a potential risk to tropical environments, especially in turbidity-sensitive environments such as coral reefs. There is little detailed, published observational time-series data that quantifies how dredging affects seawater quality conditions temporally and spatially. This information is needed to test realistic exposure scenarios to better understand the seawater-quality implications of dredging and ultimately to better predict and manage impacts of future projects. Using data from three recent major capital dredging programs in North Western Australia, the extent and duration of natural (baseline) and dredging-related turbidity events are described over periods ranging from hours to weeks. Very close to dredging i.e. <500 m distance, a characteristic features of these particular case studies was high temporal variability. Over several hours suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) can range from 100-500 mg L-1. Less turbid conditions (10-80 mg L-1) can persist over several days but over longer periods (weeks to months) averages were <10 mg L-1. During turbidity events all benthic light was sometimes extinguished, even in the shallow reefal environment, however a much more common feature was very low light 'caliginous' or daytime twilight periods. Compared to pre-dredging conditions, dredging increased the intensity, duration and frequency of the turbidity events by 10-, 5- and 3-fold respectively (at sites <500 m from dredging). However, when averaged across the entire dredging period of 80-180 weeks, turbidity values only increased by 2-3 fold above pre-dredging levels. Similarly, the upper percentile values (e.g., P99, P95) of seawater quality parameters can be highly elevated over short periods, but converge to values only marginally above baseline states over longer periods. Dredging in these studies altered the overall probability density distribution, increasing the frequency of extreme values. As such, attempts to understand the potential biological impacts must consider impacts across telescoping-time frames and changes to extreme conditions in addition to comparing central tendency (mean/median). An analysis technique to capture the entire range of likely conditions over time-frames from hours to weeks is described using a running means/percentile approach. PMID:26444284

  16. Temporal Patterns in Seawater Quality from Dredging in Tropical Environments

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ross; Fisher, Rebecca; Stark, Clair; Ridd, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance and capital dredging represents a potential risk to tropical environments, especially in turbidity-sensitive environments such as coral reefs. There is little detailed, published observational time-series data that quantifies how dredging affects seawater quality conditions temporally and spatially. This information is needed to test realistic exposure scenarios to better understand the seawater-quality implications of dredging and ultimately to better predict and manage impacts of future projects. Using data from three recent major capital dredging programs in North Western Australia, the extent and duration of natural (baseline) and dredging-related turbidity events are described over periods ranging from hours to weeks. Very close to dredging i.e. <500 m distance, a characteristic features of these particular case studies was high temporal variability. Over several hours suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) can range from 100–500 mg L-1. Less turbid conditions (10–80 mg L-1) can persist over several days but over longer periods (weeks to months) averages were <10 mg L-1. During turbidity events all benthic light was sometimes extinguished, even in the shallow reefal environment, however a much more common feature was very low light ‘caliginous’ or daytime twilight periods. Compared to pre-dredging conditions, dredging increased the intensity, duration and frequency of the turbidity events by 10-, 5- and 3-fold respectively (at sites <500 m from dredging). However, when averaged across the entire dredging period of 80–180 weeks, turbidity values only increased by 2–3 fold above pre-dredging levels. Similarly, the upper percentile values (e.g., P99, P95) of seawater quality parameters can be highly elevated over short periods, but converge to values only marginally above baseline states over longer periods. Dredging in these studies altered the overall probability density distribution, increasing the frequency of extreme values. As such, attempts to understand the potential biological impacts must consider impacts across telescoping-time frames and changes to extreme conditions in addition to comparing central tendency (mean/median). An analysis technique to capture the entire range of likely conditions over time-frames from hours to weeks is described using a running means/percentile approach. PMID:26444284

  17. Two-dimensional single-cell patterning with one cell per well driven by surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, David J.; Morahan, Belinda; Garcia-Bustos, Jose; Doerig, Christian; Plebanski, Magdalena; Neild, Adrian

    2015-11-01

    In single-cell analysis, cellular activity and parameters are assayed on an individual, rather than population-average basis. Essential to observing the activity of these cells over time is the ability to trap, pattern and retain them, for which previous single-cell-patterning work has principally made use of mechanical methods. While successful as a long-term cell-patterning strategy, these devices remain essentially single use. Here we introduce a new method for the patterning of multiple spatially separated single particles and cells using high-frequency acoustic fields with one cell per acoustic well. We characterize and demonstrate patterning for both a range of particle sizes and the capture and patterning of cells, including human lymphocytes and red blood cells infected by the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This ability is made possible by a hitherto unexplored regime where the acoustic wavelength is on the same order as the cell dimensions.

  18. Two-dimensional single-cell patterning with one cell per well driven by surface acoustic waves

    PubMed Central

    Collins, David J.; Morahan, Belinda; Garcia-Bustos, Jose; Doerig, Christian; Plebanski, Magdalena; Neild, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    In single-cell analysis, cellular activity and parameters are assayed on an individual, rather than population-average basis. Essential to observing the activity of these cells over time is the ability to trap, pattern and retain them, for which previous single-cell-patterning work has principally made use of mechanical methods. While successful as a long-term cell-patterning strategy, these devices remain essentially single use. Here we introduce a new method for the patterning of multiple spatially separated single particles and cells using high-frequency acoustic fields with one cell per acoustic well. We characterize and demonstrate patterning for both a range of particle sizes and the capture and patterning of cells, including human lymphocytes and red blood cells infected by the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This ability is made possible by a hitherto unexplored regime where the acoustic wavelength is on the same order as the cell dimensions. PMID:26522429

  19. Spatial and temporal patterns of global onshore wind speed distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Smith, Steven J.

    2013-09-01

    Wind power, a renewable energy source, can play an important role in electrical energy generation. Information regarding wind energy potential is important both for energy related modeling and for decision-making in the policy community. While wind speed datasets with high spatial and temporal resolution are often ultimately used for detailed planning, simpler assumptions are often used in analysis work. An accurate representation of the wind speed frequency distribution is needed in order to properly characterize wind energy potential. Using a power density method, this study estimated global variation in wind parameters as fitted to a Weibull density function using NCEP/climate forecast system reanalysis (CFSR) data over land areas. The Weibull distribution performs well in fitting the time series wind speed data at most locations according to R2, root mean square error, and power density error. The wind speed frequency distribution, as represented by the Weibull k parameter, exhibits a large amount of spatial variation, a regionally varying amount of seasonal variation, and relatively low decadal variation. We also analyzed the potential error in wind power estimation when a commonly assumed Rayleigh distribution (Weibull k = 2) is used. We find that the assumption of the same Weibull parameter across large regions can result in non-negligible errors. While large-scale wind speed data are often presented in the form of mean wind speeds, these results highlight the need to also provide information on the wind speed frequency distribution.

  20. Temporal and spatial patterns of suicides in Stockholm's subway stations.

    PubMed

    Uittenbogaard, Adriaan; Ceccato, Vania

    2015-08-01

    This paper investigates the potential temporal and spatial variations of suicides in subway stations in Stockholm, Sweden. The study also assesses whether the variation in suicide rates is related to the station environments by controlling for each station's location and a number of contextual factors using regression models and geographical information systems (GIS). Data on accidents are used as references for the analysis of suicides. Findings show that suicides tend to occur during the day and in the spring. They are concentrated in the main transportation hubs but, interestingly, during off-peak hours. However, the highest rates of suicides per passenger are found in Stockholm's subway stations located in the Southern outskirts. More than half of the variation in suicide rates is associated with stations that have walls between the two sides of the platform but still allow some visibility from passers-by. The surrounding environment and socioeconomic context show little effect on suicide rates, but stations embedded in areas with high drug-related crime rates tend to show higher suicide rates. PMID:25958035

  1. Effective beam pattern of the Blainville's beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris) and implications for passive acoustic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Jessica Ward; Moretti, David; Jarvis, Susan; Tyack, Peter; Johnson, Mark

    2013-03-01

    The presence of beaked whales in mass-strandings coincident with navy maneuvers has prompted the development of methods to detect these cryptic animals. Blainville's beaked whales, Mesoplodon densirostris, produce distinctive echolocation clicks during long foraging dives making passive acoustic detection a possibility. However, performance of passive acoustic monitoring depends upon the source level, beam pattern, and clicking behavior of the whales. In this study, clicks recorded from Digital acoustic Tags (DTags) attached to four M. densirostris were linked to simultaneous recordings from an 82-hydrophone bottom-mounted array to derive the source level and beam pattern of the clicks, as steps towards estimating their detectability. The mean estimated on-axis apparent source level for the four whales was 201 dBrms97. The mean 3 dB beamwidth and directivity index, estimated from sequences of clicks directed towards the far-field hydrophones, were 13° and 23 dB, respectively. While searching for prey, Blainville's beaked whales scan their heads horizontally at a mean rate of 3.6°/s over an angular range of some +/-10°. Thus, while the DI indicates a narrow beam, the area of ensonification over a complete foraging dive is large given the combined effects of body and head movements associated with foraging. PMID:23464046

  2. Spatial and Temporal Emergence Pattern of Lyme Disease in Virginia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Kolivras, Korine N.; Hong, Yili; Duan, Yuanyuan; Seukep, Sara E.; Prisley, Stephen P.; Campbell, James B.; Gaines, David N.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of infectious diseases over the past several decades has highlighted the need to better understand epidemics and prepare for the spread of diseases into new areas. As these diseases expand their geographic range, cases are recorded at different geographic locations over time, making the analysis and prediction of this expansion complicated. In this study, we analyze spatial patterns of the disease using a statistical smoothing analysis based on areal (census tract level) count data of Lyme disease cases in Virginia from 1998 to 2011. We also use space and space–time scan statistics to reveal the presence of clusters in the spatial and spatiotemporal distribution of Lyme disease. Our results confirm and quantify the continued emergence of Lyme disease to the south and west in states along the eastern coast of the United States. The results also highlight areas where education and surveillance needs are highest. PMID:25331806

  3. Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Carbon Emissions to the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broniak, C. T.; Blasing, T. J.; Marland, G.

    2003-12-01

    Data on global fossil-fuel emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere for year 2000 show that the range of national average per capita emissions, in metric tons of carbon per person, includes values of 5.40 for the United States, 2.61 for Germany, 0.29 for India and 0.04 for Liberia. This range is more than two orders of magnitude. Similar data on national fossil-fuel emissions for the United States vary by more than an order of magnitude, from 34.18 metric tons of carbon per person for Wyoming to 2.70 for California. The state data also show differing patterns of change over time. The Kyoto Protocol would require ratifying developed countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to quantified negotiated targets. The concept of contraction and convergence (C&C) has been widely touted as a possible basis for ultimate, more strict limits on greenhouse gas emissions. The idea of C&C is that per-capita emissions of CO2 for all countries would converge toward some common value that is consistent with stabilization of global climate. The U.S., on the other hand, has proposed intensity-based emissions targets whereby goals would be defined in terms of emissions per unit of gross domestic product, or perhaps emissions per unit of output for specific activities. This paper describes the data set on U.S. CO2 emissions by state, and begins to explore the patterns between states and over time.

  4. Processes driving temporal dynamics in the nested pattern of waterbird communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastián-González, Esther; Botella, Francisco; Paracuellos, Mariano; Sánchez-Zapata, José Antonio

    2010-03-01

    Nestedness is a common pattern of bird communities in habitat patches, and it describes the situation where smaller communities form proper subsets of larger communities. Several studies have examined the processes causing nestedness and the implications for conservation, but few have considered the temporal changes in these processes. We used data from 6 years and two seasons (wintering and breeding) to explore the temporal changes in the causes of the nested pattern of a waterbird community in man-made irrigation ponds. Nestedness was significant in both seasons and in all years, and thus temporally stable. Despite the nestedness of waterbird communities, the proportion of idiosyncratic species (species that do not follow the nested pattern) was higher than in other studies. Furthermore, the idiosyncratic species often had endangered status. Selective colonisation and, mainly, selective extinction were the most important factors producing the nested pattern. In addition, the nested structure of the microhabitats at the ponds also caused the pattern. The causes of the pattern changed temporally even in the absence of big disturbance events. In general, breeding communities were more stable than wintering communities, and the seasonal differences in the causes of the nestedness were larger than the inter-annual differences. Consequently, studies of community nestedness from only one snapshot in time should be considered with caution.

  5. Dynamical Properties of Transient Spatio-Temporal Patterns in Bacterial Colony of Proteus mirabilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiko; Wakita, Jun-ichi; Itoh, Hiroto; Shimada, Hirotoshi; Kurosu, Sayuri; Ikeda, Takemasa; Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Matsuyama, Tohey; Matsushita, Mitsugu

    2002-02-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns emerged inside a colony of bacterial species Proteus mirabilis on the surface of nutrient-rich semisolid agar medium have been investigated. We observed various patterns composed of the following basic types: propagating stripe, propagating stripe with fixed dislocation, expanding and shrinking target, and rotating spiral. The remarkable point is that the pattern changes immediately when we alter the position for observation, but it returns to the original if we restore the observing position within a few minutes. We further investigated mesoscopic and microscopic properties of the spatio-temporal patterns. It turned out that whenever the spatio-temporal patterns are observed in a colony, the areas are composed of two superimposed monolayers of elongated bacterial cells. In each area they are aligned almost parallel with each other like a two-dimensional nematic liquid crystal, and move collectively and independently of another layer. It has been found that the observed spatio-temporal patterns are explained as the moiré effect.

  6. A method for generating precise temporal patterns of retinal spiking using prosthetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Fried, S I; Hsueh, H A; Werblin, F S

    2006-02-01

    The goal of retinal prosthetic devices is to generate meaningful visual information in patients that have lost outer retinal function. To accomplish this, these devices should generate patterns of ganglion cell activity that closely resemble the spatial and temporal components of those patterns that are normally elicited by light. Here, we developed a stimulus paradigm that generates precise temporal patterns of activity in retinal ganglion cells, including those patterns normally generated by light. Electrical stimulus pulses (> or =1-ms duration) elicited activity in neurons distal to the ganglion cells; this resulted in ganglion cell spiking that could last as long as 100 ms. However, short pulses, <0.15 ms, elicited only a single spike within 0.7 ms of the leading edge of the pulse. Trains of these short pulses elicited one spike per pulse at frequencies < or =250 Hz. Patterns of short electrical pulses (derived from normal light elicited spike patterns) were delivered to ganglion cells and generated spike patterns that replicated the normal light patterns. Finally, we found that one spike per pulse was elicited over almost a 2.5:1 range of stimulus amplitudes. Thus a common stimulus amplitude could accommodate a 2.5:1 range of activation thresholds, e.g., caused by differences arising from cell biophysical properties or from variations in electrode-to-cell distance arising when a multielectrode array is placed on the retina. This stimulus paradigm can generate the temporal resolution required for a prosthetic device. PMID:16236780

  7. An odor stimulator controlling odor temporal pattern applicable in insect olfaction study.

    PubMed

    Okada, Koutaroh; Sakuma, Masayuki

    2009-06-01

    The olfactory system of an insect brain codes for information about odorant quality and quantity using the temporal pattern of neural activity as well as neurons' firing. Although an accurate odor temporal pattern is indispensable for investigations of olfactory systems, it is difficult to control in conventional odor stimulators. To overcome this problem, we fabricated an odor stimulator that can control the odor temporal pattern. The stimulator has 3 major parts: an "odor conditioner," with odor-laden air prepared with known concentrations of odorants; a Pitot tube; and a small wind tunnel of laminar flow. Using this stimulator, we realized not only timing control of the odor stimulation with millisecond order but also constant odor concentrations or intensity of stimulation, with error of 2.4% in replicated trials. PMID:19363088

  8. Learning Temporal Patterns of Risk in a Predator-Diverse Environment

    PubMed Central

    Bosiger, Yoland J.; Lonnstedt, Oona M.; McCormick, Mark I.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.

    2012-01-01

    Predation plays a major role in shaping prey behaviour. Temporal patterns of predation risk have been shown to drive daily activity and foraging patterns in prey. Yet the ability to respond to temporal patterns of predation risk in environments inhabited by highly diverse predator communities, such as rainforests and coral reefs, has received surprisingly little attention. In this study, we investigated whether juvenile marine fish, Pomacentrus moluccensis (lemon damselfish), have the ability to learn to adjust the intensity of their antipredator response to match the daily temporal patterns of predation risk they experience. Groups of lemon damselfish were exposed to one of two predictable temporal risk patterns for six days. Morning risk treatment prey were exposed to the odour of Cephalopholis cyanostigma (rockcod) paired with conspecific chemical alarm cues (simulating a rockcod present and feeding) during the morning, and rockcod odour only in the evening (simulating a rockcod present but not feeding). Evening risk treatment prey had the two stimuli presented to them in the opposite order. When tested individually for their response to rockcod odour alone, lemon damselfish from the morning risk treatment responded with a greater antipredator response intensity in the morning than in the evening. In contrast, those lemon damselfish previously exposed to the evening risk treatment subsequently responded with a greater antipredator response when tested in the evening. The results of this experiment demonstrate that P. moluccensis have the ability to learn temporal patterns of predation risk and can adjust their foraging patterns to match the threat posed by predators at a given time of day. Our results provide the first experimental demonstration of a mechanism by which prey in a complex, multi-predator environment can learn and respond to daily patterns of predation risk. PMID:22493699

  9. Temporal dynamics and latency patterns of receptor neuron input to the olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Spors, Hartwig; Wachowiak, Matt; Cohen, Lawrence B; Friedrich, Rainer W

    2006-01-25

    Odorants are first represented in the brain by distributed patterns of activity in the olfactory bulb (OB). Although neurons downstream of sensory inputs respond to odorants with temporally structured activity, sensory inputs to glomeruli are typically described as static maps. Here, we imaged the temporal dynamics of receptor neuron input to the OB with a calcium-sensitive dye in the olfactory receptor nerve terminals in anesthetized mice. We found that diverse, glomerulus- and odorant-dependent temporal dynamics are present even at this initial input stage. Instantaneous spatial patterns of receptor input to glomeruli changed both within and between respiration cycles. Glomerular odorant responses differed in amplitude, latency, rise time, and degree of modulation by sniffing in an odorant-specific manner. Pattern dynamics within the first respiration cycle recurred in a similar manner during consecutive cycles. When sniff rate was increased artificially, pattern dynamics were preserved in the first sniff but were attenuated during subsequent sniffs. Temporal response properties were consistent across individuals on a coarse regional scale and on a fine scale of individual glomeruli. Latency and magnitude of glomerular inputs were only weakly correlated and might therefore convey independent odorant information. These data demonstrate that glomerular maps of primary sensory input to the OB are temporally dynamic. These dynamics may contribute to the representation of odorant information and affect information processing in the central olfactory system of rodents. PMID:16436612

  10. Comparison of temporal and spectral scattering methods using acoustically large breast models derived from magnetic resonance images

    PubMed Central

    Hesford, Andrew J.; Tillett, Jason C.; Astheimer, Jeffrey P.; Waag, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and efficient modeling of ultrasound propagation through realistic tissue models is important to many aspects of clinical ultrasound imaging. Simplified problems with known solutions are often used to study and validate numerical methods. Greater confidence in a time-domain k-space method and a frequency-domain fast multipole method is established in this paper by analyzing results for realistic models of the human breast. Models of breast tissue were produced by segmenting magnetic resonance images of ex vivo specimens into seven distinct tissue types. After confirming with histologic analysis by pathologists that the model structures mimicked in vivo breast, the tissue types were mapped to variations in sound speed and acoustic absorption. Calculations of acoustic scattering by the resulting model were performed on massively parallel supercomputer clusters using parallel implementations of the k-space method and the fast multipole method. The efficient use of these resources was confirmed by parallel efficiency and scalability studies using large-scale, realistic tissue models. Comparisons between the temporal and spectral results were performed in representative planes by Fourier transforming the temporal results. An RMS field error less than 3% throughout the model volume confirms the accuracy of the methods for modeling ultrasound propagation through human breast. PMID:25096103

  11. Detecting spatial and temporal patterns of aboveground production in a tallgrass prairie using remotely sensed data

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Haiping; Krummel, J.R.; Briggs, J.M.; Knapp, A.K.; Blair, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of aboveground production is a tallgrass prairie ecosystem constitute one of the important spatial components associated with ecological processes and biophysical resources (e.g. water and nutrients). This study addresses the effects of disturbance, topography, and climate on the spatial and temporal patterns of North American tallgrass prairie at a landscape level by using high resolution satellite data. Spatial heterogeneity derived from the satellite data was related to the impacts of the disturbance of fire and grazing, topographical gradient, and amount of precipitation during the growing season. The result suggests that ecological processes and biophysical resources can be quantified with high resolution satellite data for tallgrass prairie management.

  12. Skeletal mineralogy of bryozoans: Taxonomic and temporal patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Abigail M.; Key, Marcus M., Jr.; Gordon, Dennis P.

    2006-10-01

    Skeletal carbonate mineralogy of 1183 specimens of marine bryozoans from the literature was examined for phylogenetic patterns in order to elucidate the effects of bryozoan mineralogy on geochemical and paleoenvironmental analysis. Colonies are composed of calcite (66% of specimens), aragonite (17% of specimens) or various mixtures of the two (17% specimens) (phylum mean = 72.9 wt.% calcite, n = 1051). When calcite is present, it ranges from 0.0 to 13.7 wt.% MgCO 3 (mean = 5.0 wt.% MgCO 3, n = 873). Most (61%) calcitic specimens are formed of intermediate-Mg calcite (4 to 8 wt.% MgCO 3), others (28%) of low-Mg calcite (0 to 4 wt.% MgCO 3), and few of high-Mg calcite (> 8 wt.% MgCO 3). The phylum occupies at least 63% of the theoretical mineralogical "space" available to biomineralisation. Most of this variation occurs in the class Gymnolaemata, order Cheilostomata, suborder Neocheilostomata. Fossil and Recent stenolaemate taxa are generally low- to intermediate-Mg calcite (mean = 99.7 wt.% calcite, 2.6 wt.% MgCO 3, 17% of available biomineral space). Variability among families is related in a general way to first appearance datum: families younger than 100 Ma display greater mineralogical complexity than older ones. The cheilostome infraorder Flustrina includes unusual free-living aragonitic families, dual-calcite skeletons (mainly low-Mg calcite, but with secondary high-Mg calcite), and some genera with considerable mineralogical variability. Families (e.g., Membraniporidae and Phidoloporidae) and species (e.g., Schizoporella unicornis) with the highest degree of variability have potential for environmental correlations with mineralogy, paleoenvironmental interpretation, and possibly molecular investigation for potential cryptic species. Stenolaemate families, genera and species with low variability, on the other hand, are well-suited for geochemical work such as stable isotope analysis. Variability in the skeletal mineralogy of bryozoans suggests that they may be useful in geochemical, phylogenetic, and paleoenvironmental studies, with careful choice of study material.

  13. Spatio-Temporal Patterns in Colonies of Rod-Shaped Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitsunezaki, S.

    In incubation experiments of bacterial colonies of Proteus Mirabilis, macroscopic spatio-temporal patterns, such as turbulent and unidirectional spiral patterns, appear in colonies. Considering only kinetic propeties of rod-shaped bacteria, we propose a phenomenological model for the directional and positional distributions. As the average density increases, homogeneous states bifurcate sub-critically into nonuniform states exhibiting localized collective motion, and spiral patterns appear for sufficiently large density. These patterns result from interactions between the local bacteria densities and the order parameter representing collective motion. Our model can be described by reduced equations using a perturbative method for large density. The unidirectionality of sprial rotation is also discussed.

  14. A smart pattern recognition system for the automatic identification of aerospace acoustic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, R. H.; Fuller, C. R.

    1989-01-01

    An intelligent air-noise recognition system is described that uses pattern recognition techniques to distinguish noise signatures of five different types of acoustic sources, including jet planes, propeller planes, a helicopter, train, and wind turbine. Information for classification is calculated using the power spectral density and autocorrelation taken from the output of a single microphone. Using this system, as many as 90 percent of test recordings were correctly identified, indicating that the linear discriminant functions developed can be used for aerospace source identification.

  15. Magnetic hysteresis and magnetic flux patterns measured by acoustically stimulated electromagnetic response in a steel plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Hisato; Watanabe, Kakeru; Ikushima, Kenji

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic hysteresis loops are measured by ultrasonic techniques and used in visualizing the magnetic-flux distribution in a steel plate. The piezomagnetic coefficient determines the amplitude of acoustically stimulated electromagnetic (ASEM) fields, yielding the hysteresis behavior of the intensity of the ASEM response. By utilizing the high correspondence of the ASEM response to the magnetic-flux density, we image the specific spatial patterns of the flux density formed by an artificial defect in a steel plate specimen. Magnetic-flux probing by ultrasonic waves is thus shown to be a viable method of nondestructive material inspection.

  16. Characterizing spatial and temporal patterns of intermittent rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Stefan B.; Hoeve, Jasper; Sauquet, Eric; Leigh, Catherine; Bonada, Núria; Fike, Kimberly; Dahm, Clifford; Booij, Martijn J.; Datry, Thibault

    2015-04-01

    Intermittent rivers (IRs) support high biodiversity due to their dynamic alternations between terrestrial and aquatic phases. They represent a large proportion of the river network. However the current knowledge on these ecosystems is limited. The international research project "Intermittent River Biodiversity Analysis and Synthesis" (IRBAS, www.irbas.fr) aims to collect and analyze data on IR biodiversity from France, Spain, North America and Australia. These activities ultimately should help in identifying relationships between flow regime components and ecological responses. The IRBAS project will provide guidelines for policy-makers and resource managers for effective water and habitat management, restoration and preservation. This work examines one of the aspects in the IRBAS project: studying the large-scale spatial distribution of IRs as well as the year-to-year variability of zero-flow events. IRs were described by two variables: the frequency of periods without flow (FREQ) per time period (months or years) and the total number of zero-flow days (DUR) in a specified time window (month or year). Daily discharge data from more than 1700 gauging stations with no significant human influence on flow were collected from France, Spain, Australia and conterminous United States. A minimum length of 30 years of data starting from 1970 was required with less than 5% of missing data. Climate data for France and Australia were also collected. A classification of perennial versus intermittent rivers was defined, with 455 stations out of the 1684 considered "intermittent", i.e. the gauging station records had, on average, at least 5 zero-flow days per year. The analysis of the subset of IRs showed that: - Greater than 50% of the IRs in the database is located in Australia, where only 35% of the stations are considered perennial. In Spain the proportion of IRs reaches 25%. The proportion of intermittent rivers in France (7%) is certainly underestimated as a consequence of the monitoring strategy, i.e. gauging stations have been primarily installed to measure perennial flows of medium size basins and most of the IRs remain ungauged. This is also true in the US where ~ 7% of the current and historical gage network is on intermittent rivers. - Intermittence of rivers demonstrates high seasonality which varies from one country to another. - Links between climate variability and intermittence are not straightforward. No relation was found between annual DUR and annual precipitation in France whereas DUR was significantly correlated with precipitation in Australia. Potential evapotranspiration was correlated with DUR for France, but not for Australia, where the results were more obscure. - No spatially coherent trends in flow intermittence were identified in Spain, France or the USA. Significant trends according to the Mann Kendall test were found in Australia and results suggest trends in yearly DUR consistent with observed changes in rainfall in Western Australia during the last few decades. The El Nino cycle is one of the possible sources of variability in intermittency patterns.

  17. Time Curves: Folding Time to Visualize Patterns of Temporal Evolution in Data.

    PubMed

    Bach, Benjamin; Shi, Conglei; Heulot, Nicolas; Madhyastha, Tara; Grabowski, Tom; Dragicevic, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We introduce time curves as a general approach for visualizing patterns of evolution in temporal data. Examples of such patterns include slow and regular progressions, large sudden changes, and reversals to previous states. These patterns can be of interest in a range of domains, such as collaborative document editing, dynamic network analysis, and video analysis. Time curves employ the metaphor of folding a timeline visualization into itself so as to bring similar time points close to each other. This metaphor can be applied to any dataset where a similarity metric between temporal snapshots can be defined, thus it is largely datatype-agnostic. We illustrate how time curves can visually reveal informative patterns in a range of different datasets. PMID:26529718

  18. Spatio-temporal expression patterns of anterior Hox genes during Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Lyon, R Stewart; Davis, Adam; Scemama, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Hox genes encode transcription factors that function to pattern regional tissue identities along the anterior-posterior axis during animal embryonic development. Divergent nested Hox gene expression patterns within the posterior pharyngeal arches may play an important role in patterning morphological variation in the pharyngeal jaw apparatus (PJA) between evolutionarily divergent teleost fishes. Recent gene expression studies have shown the expression patterns from all Hox paralog group (PG) 2-6 genes in the posterior pharyngeal arches (PAs) for the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and from most genes of these PGs for the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). While several orthologous Hox genes exhibit divergent spatial and temporal expression patterns between these two teleost species in the posterior PAs, several tilapia Hox gene expression patterns from PG3-6 must be documented for a full comparative study. Here we present the spatio-temporal expression patterns of hoxb3b, c3a, b4a, a5a, b5a, b5b, b6a and b6b in the neural tube and posterior PAs of the Nile tilapia. We show that several of these tilapia Hox genes exhibit divergent expression patterns in the posterior PAs from their medaka orthologs. We also compare these gene expression patterns to orthologs in other gnathostome vertebrates, including the dogfish shark. PMID:23376031

  19. Spatio-Temporal Diffusion Pattern and Hotspot Detection of Dengue in Chachoengsao Province, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Jeefoo, Phaisarn; Tripathi, Nitin Kumar; Souris, Marc

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, dengue has become a major international public health concern. In Thailand it is also an important concern as several dengue outbreaks were reported in last decade. This paper presents a GIS approach to analyze the spatial and temporal dynamics of dengue epidemics. The major objective of this study was to examine spatial diffusion patterns and hotspot identification for reported dengue cases. Geospatial diffusion pattern of the 2007 dengue outbreak was investigated. Map of daily cases was generated for the 153 days of the outbreak. Epidemiological data from Chachoengsao province, Thailand (reported dengue cases for the years 1999–2007) was used for this study. To analyze the dynamic space-time pattern of dengue outbreaks, all cases were positioned in space at a village level. After a general statistical analysis (by gender and age group), data was subsequently analyzed for temporal patterns and correlation with climatic data (especially rainfall), spatial patterns and cluster analysis, and spatio-temporal patterns of hotspots during epidemics. The results revealed spatial diffusion patterns during the years 1999–2007 representing spatially clustered patterns with significant differences by village. Villages on the urban fringe reported higher incidences. The space and time of the cases showed outbreak movement and spread patterns that could be related to entomologic and epidemiologic factors. The hotspots showed the spatial trend of dengue diffusion. This study presents useful information related to the dengue outbreak patterns in space and time and may help public health departments to plan strategies to control the spread of disease. The methodology is general for space-time analysis and can be applied for other infectious diseases as well. PMID:21318014

  20. Temporal patterns of mosquito landing on human hosts: implications for detection, monitoring, and vector control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temporal patterns of landing activity on a human host by female Anopheles quadrimaculatus, Culex nigripalpus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ochlerotatus triseriatus and Aedes albopictus varied significantly throughout the diel period and with respect to time of collection within a 15 minute observation peri...

  1. TOOLS FOR PRESENTING SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL PATTERNS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Health Effects Research Laboratory has developed this data presentation tool for use with a variety of types of data which may contain spatial and temporal patterns of interest. he technology links mainframe computing power to the new generation of "desktop publishing" ha...

  2. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL PATTERNS OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM A RESERVOIR DRAINING AN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used multiple approaches to characterize temporal and spatial patterns in methane (CH4) emissions from a mid-latitude reservoir (William H. Harsha Lake, Ohio, USA) draining an agricultural watershed. Weekly to monthly monitoring at six sites in the reservoir during a 13 month...

  3. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL PATTERNS OF METHANE EMISSIONS FROM A RESERVOIR DRAINING AN AGRICULTURAL WATERSHED (abstract)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used multiple approaches to characterize temporal and spatial patterns in methane (CH4) emissions from a mid-latitude reservoir (William H. Harsha Lake, Ohio, USA) draining an agricultural watershed. Weekly to monthly monitoring at six sites in the reservoir during a 13 month...

  4. On acoustic emission for failure investigation in CFRP: Pattern recognition and peak frequency analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutkin, R.; Green, C. J.; Vangrattanachai, S.; Pinho, S. T.; Robinson, P.; Curtis, P. T.

    2011-05-01

    This paper investigates failure in Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics CFRP using Acoustic Emission (AE). Signals have been collected and post-processed for various test configurations: tension, Compact Tension (CT), Compact Compression (CC), Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) and four-point bend End Notched Flexure (4-ENF). The signals are analysed with three different pattern recognition algorithms: k-means, Self Organising Map (SOM) combined with k-means and Competitive Neural Network (CNN). The SOM combined with k-means appears as the most effective of the three algorithms. The results from the clustering analysis follow patterns found in the peak frequencies distribution. A detailed study of the frequency content of each test is then performed and the classification of several failure modes is achieved.

  5. Problems Associated with Statistical Pattern Recognition of Acoustic Emission Signals in a Compact Tension Fatigue Specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, Yolanda L.

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) data were acquired during fatigue testing of an aluminum 2024-T4 compact tension specimen using a commercially available AE system. AE signals from crack extension were identified and separated from noise spikes, signals that reflected from the specimen edges, and signals that saturated the instrumentation. A commercially available software package was used to train a statistical pattern recognition system to classify the signals. The software trained a network to recognize signals with a 91-percent accuracy when compared with the researcher's interpretation of the data. Reasons for the discrepancies are examined and it is postulated that additional preprocessing of the AE data to focus on the extensional wave mode and eliminate other effects before training the pattern recognition system will result in increased accuracy.

  6. Discrimination of acoustic patterns in rats using the water T-maze

    PubMed Central

    de la Mora, Daniela M.; Toro, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    The extraction of abstract rules and their generalization to new items has been proposed to be at the heart of higher cognitive functions such as language. Research with animals has shown that various species can extract rather complex patterns from the input, as well as establish abstract same/different relations. However, much of these findings have been observed after extensive training procedures. Here, we tested rats’ capacity to discriminate and generalize tone triplets that entailed a repetition from triplets that followed an ordinal, non-repeating pattern following a relatively short discrimination training procedure in a water T-maze. Our findings demonstrate that, under this procedure and after only 12 sessions, rats can learn to discriminate both patterns when a reliable difference in pitch variations is present across them (Experiment 1). When differences in pitch are eliminated (Experiment 2), no discrimination between patterns is found. Results suggest a procedure based on a water T-maze might be used to explore discrimination of acoustic patterns in rodents. PMID:25729120

  7. Spatial and temporal patterns of air pollutants in rural and urban areas of India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Disha; Kulshrestha, U C

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we analysed spatial and temporal patterns of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) concentrations across India. We have also assessed MODIS-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) variations to characterize the air quality and relate it to SPM, NO2 and SO2 in different areas. In addition, the pollutant concentrations have been mapped using geospatial techniques. The results indicated significant differences in air pollutant levels across rural and urban areas. In general, districts of central and northern India had relatively higher SPM concentrations compared to southern India. Out of the top ten SPM polluted districts in India, nine were located in the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP). We observed significant correlations between the SPM and AOD at different sites. Although spatial and temporal patterns of NO2 and SO2 matched AOD patterns, the correlation strength (r2) varied based on location. The causes and implications of these findings are presented. PMID:25244965

  8. Temporally-patterned deep brain stimulation in a mouse model of multiple traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Tabansky, Inna; Quinkert, Amy Wells; Rahman, Nadera; Muller, Salomon Zev; Lofgren, Jesper; Rudling, Johan; Goodman, Alyssa; Wang, Yingping; Pfaff, Donald W

    2014-10-15

    We report that mice with closed-head multiple traumatic brain injury (TBI) show a decrease in the motoric aspects of generalized arousal, as measured by automated, quantitative behavioral assays. Further, we found that temporally-patterned deep brain stimulation (DBS) can increase generalized arousal and spontaneous motor activity in this mouse model of TBI. This arousal increase is input-pattern-dependent, as changing the temporal pattern of DBS can modulate its effect on motor activity. Finally, an extensive examination of mouse behavioral capacities, looking for deficits in this model of TBI, suggest that the strongest effects of TBI in this model are found in the initiation of any kind of movement. PMID:25072520

  9. Temporally-Patterned Deep Brain Stimulation in a Mouse Model of Multiple Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tabansky, Inna; Quinkert, Amy Wells; Rahman, Nadera; Muller, Salomon Zev; Löfgren, Jesper; Rudling, Johan; Goodman, Alyssa; Wang, Yingping; Pfaff, Donald W.

    2014-01-01

    We report that mice with closed-head multiple traumatic brain injury (TBI) show a decrease in the motoric aspects of generalized arousal, as measured by automated, quantitative behavioral assays. Further, we found that temporally-patterned deep brain stimulation (DBS) can increase generalized arousal and spontaneous motor activity in this mouse model of TBI. This arousal increase is input-pattern-dependent, as changing the temporal pattern of DBS can modulate its effect on motor activity. Finally, an extensive examination of mouse behavioral capacities, looking for deficits in this model of TBI, suggest that the strongest effects of TBI in this model are found in the initiation of any kind of movement. PMID:25072520

  10. Temporal pattern of incorporation of /sup 3/H precursors into pituitary glycoproteins and their subsequent release

    SciTech Connect

    Grotjan, H.E. Jr.

    1982-04-01

    The temporal pattern of incorporation of various /sup 3/H precursors into glycoproteins by rat anterior pituitaries incubated in vitro and the release of /sup 3/H-glycoproteins was examined. (/sup 3/H)Leucine incorporation was linear with respect to time and (/sup 3/H)leucine-containing macromolecules appeared in the media in about 1 hr. The temporal pattern of (/sup 3/H)mannose incorporation and release was similar. (/sup 3/H)Galactose and (/sup 3/H)fucose were incorporated after apparent time of delays of approximately 15 min and soon thereafter (20-25 min) appeared in the medium in /sup 3/H-glycoproteins. Thus, these precursors appear to be added as terminal residues. (/sup 3/H)Glucosamine exhibited a pattern intermediate between (/sup 3/H)leucine and (/sup 3/H)fucose whereas (/sup 3/H)GlcNAc appeared to be incorporated as a terminal residue.

  11. Spatial and temporal patterns of throughfall quantity and quality in a tropical montane forest in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Alexander; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Elsenbeer, Helmut

    2007-09-01

    SummaryIn forests, complex canopy processes control the change in volume and chemical composition of rain water. We hypothesize that (i) spatial patterns, (ii) the temporal stability of spatial patterns, and (iii) the temporal course of solute concentrations can be used to explore these processes. The study area at 1950 m above sea level in the south Ecuadorian Andes is far away from anthropogenic emission sources and marine influences. It received ca. 2200 mm of rain annually. We collected rain and throughfall on an event and within-event basis for five precipitation periods between August and October 2005 at up to 25 sites and analyzed the samples for pH and concentrations of K, Na, Ca, Mg, NH4+, Cl -, NO3-, PO43-, and total N (TN), P (TP), and organic C (TOC). Cumulative throughfall amounted to 79% of rainfall. Compared with other tropical forests, rainfall solute concentrations were low and throughfall solute concentrations similar. Volumes and solute concentrations of rainfall were spatially and temporally little variable. The spatial coefficient of variation for throughfall volumes was 53%, for solute concentrations 28-292%, and for deposition 33-252%. Temporal persistence of spatial patterns was high for throughfall volumes and varied among solutes. Spatial patterns of K, Mg and TOC concentrations in throughfall were highly persistent. The spatial patterns of throughfall fluxes were less stable than those of concentrations. During a monitoring time of 72 h, solute concentrations in throughfall of selected rain events remained at a similar level indicating that the leachable element pool in the canopy was not exhausted. Our results demonstrate that the passage of rain through the canopy of a tropical montane forest in Ecuador results in a spatially heterogeneous throughfall pattern with a considerable stability during three months. There is a large leachable element pool in the canopy, which is not depleted by the typical light rain within 72 h.

  12. Temporal and spatial patterns of habitat use by juveniles of a small coastal shark (Mustelus lenticulatus) in an estuarine nursery.

    PubMed

    Francis, Malcolm P

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile rig (Mustelus lenticulatus) were internally tagged with acoustic transmitters and tracked with acoustic receivers deployed throughout two arms of Porirua Harbour, a small (7 km(2)) estuary in New Zealand. Ten rig were tracked for up to four months during summer-autumn to determine their spatial and temporal use of the habitat. The overall goal was to estimate the size of Marine Protected Areas required to protect rig nursery areas from direct human impacts. Rig showed clear site preferences, but those preferences varied among rig and over time. They spent most of their time in large basins and on shallow sand and mud flats around the margins, and avoided deep channels. Habitat range increased during autumn for many of the rig. Only one shark spent time in both harbour arms, indicating that there was little movement between the two. Rig home ranges were 2-7 km(2), suggesting that an effective MPA would need to cover the entire Porirua Harbour. They moved to outer harbour sites following some high river flow rates, and most left the harbour permanently during or soon after a river spike, suggesting that they were avoiding low salinity water. Rig showed strong diel movements during summer, although the diel pattern weakened in autumn. Persistent use of the same day and night sites indicates that diel movements are directed rather than random. Further research is required to determine the sizes of rig home ranges in larger harbours where nursery habitat is more extensive. Marine Protected Areas do not control land-based impacts such as accelerated sedimentation and heavy metal pollution, so integration of marine and terrestrial management tools across a range of government agencies is essential to fully protect nursery areas. PMID:23437298

  13. Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Habitat Use by Juveniles of a Small Coastal Shark (Mustelus lenticulatus) in an Estuarine Nursery

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Malcolm P.

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile rig (Mustelus lenticulatus) were internally tagged with acoustic transmitters and tracked with acoustic receivers deployed throughout two arms of Porirua Harbour, a small (7 km2) estuary in New Zealand. Ten rig were tracked for up to four months during summer–autumn to determine their spatial and temporal use of the habitat. The overall goal was to estimate the size of Marine Protected Areas required to protect rig nursery areas from direct human impacts. Rig showed clear site preferences, but those preferences varied among rig and over time. They spent most of their time in large basins and on shallow sand and mud flats around the margins, and avoided deep channels. Habitat range increased during autumn for many of the rig. Only one shark spent time in both harbour arms, indicating that there was little movement between the two. Rig home ranges were 2–7 km2, suggesting that an effective MPA would need to cover the entire Porirua Harbour. They moved to outer harbour sites following some high river flow rates, and most left the harbour permanently during or soon after a river spike, suggesting that they were avoiding low salinity water. Rig showed strong diel movements during summer, although the diel pattern weakened in autumn. Persistent use of the same day and night sites indicates that diel movements are directed rather than random. Further research is required to determine the sizes of rig home ranges in larger harbours where nursery habitat is more extensive. Marine Protected Areas do not control land-based impacts such as accelerated sedimentation and heavy metal pollution, so integration of marine and terrestrial management tools across a range of government agencies is essential to fully protect nursery areas. PMID:23437298

  14. Different Temporal Patterns of Specific and General Autobiographical Memories across the Lifespan in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Philippi, Nathalie; Rousseau, Franois; Noblet, Vincent; Botzung, Anne; Desprs, Olivier; Cretin, Benjamin; Kremer, Stphane; Blanc, Frdric; Manning, Liliann

    2015-01-01

    We compared specific (i.e., associated with a unique time and space) and general (i.e., extended or repeated events) autobiographical memories (AbM) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The comparison aims at investigating the relationship between these two components of AbM across the lifespan and the volume of cerebral regions of interest within the temporal lobe. We hypothesized that the ability to elicit specific memories would correlate with hippocampal volume, whereas evoking general memories would be related to lateral temporal lobe. AbM was assessed using the modified Crovitz test in 18 patients with early AD and 18 matched controls. The proportions of total memoriessupposed to reflect the ability to produce general memoriesand specific memories retrieved were compared between AD patients and controls. Correlations to MRI volumes of temporal cortex were tested. We found different temporal patterns for specific and general memories in AD patients, with (i) relatively spared general memories, according to a temporal gradient that preserved remote memories, predominantly associated with right lateral temporal cortex volume. (ii) Conversely, the retrieval of specific AbMs was impaired for all life periods and correlated with bilateral hippocampal volumes. Our results highlight a shift from an initially episodic to a semantic nature of AbMs during AD, where the abstracted form of memories remains. PMID:26175549

  15. Emergence of striation patterns in acoustic signals reflected from dynamic surface waves.

    PubMed

    Choo, Youngmin; Seong, Woojae; Song, Heechun

    2014-09-01

    A striation pattern can emerge in high-frequency acoustic signals interacting with dynamic surface waves. The striation pattern is analyzed using a ray tracing algorithm for both a sinusoidal and a rough surface. With a source or receiver close to the surface, it is found that part of the surface on either side of the specular reflection point can be illuminated by rays, resulting in time-varying later arrivals in channel impulse response that form the striation pattern. In contrast to wave focusing associated with surface wave crests, the striation occurs due to reflection off convex sections around troughs. Simulations with a sinusoidal surface show both an upward (advancing) and downward (retreating) striation patterns that depend on the surface-wave traveling direction and the location of the illuminated area. In addition, the striation length is determined mainly by the depth of the source or receiver, whichever is closer in range to the illuminated region. Even with a rough surface, the striation emerges in both directions. However, broadband (7-13?kHz) simulations in shallow water indicate that the longer striation in one direction is likely pronounced against a quiet noise background, as observed from at-sea experimental data. PMID:25190380

  16. Intra-Population Genetic Variation in the Temporal Pattern of Egg Maturation in a Parasitoid Wasp

    PubMed Central

    Wajnberg, Eric; Curty, Christine; Jervis, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps are taxonomically and biologically extremely diverse. A conceptual framework has recently been developed for understanding life-history evolution and diversification in these animals, and it has confirmed that each of two linked life-history traits the mode of larval development and the temporal pattern of egg maturation acts as an organiser of life-history. The framework has been predicated on the assumption that there exists sufficient genetic variation in the latter trait to allow it to be shaped by natural selection. Focusing on the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma brassicae, our aim was to test the validity of that assumption, using established quantitative genetic methods. We demonstrate the existence of a statistically significant degree of intra-population polygenic variation in the temporal pattern of egg production within the wasp population we studied. Furthermore, our results, together with published data on clinal variation in the egg maturation pattern of another species, suggest that intra-specific evolutionary shifts in the temporal pattern of egg maturation of parasitoid wasps can result from a change in allocation to egg production either before, or very shortly after adult emergence, without there being an accompanying change in lifetime fecundity. As well as opening new avenues of research into the reproductive strategies, behaviour, community organisation and biological control potential of parasitoid wasps, this discovery also has implications for studies of life-history evolution and diversification in insects generally. PMID:23029312

  17. Arbitrary two-dimensional multiphoton excitation patterns with temporally focused digital holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oron, Dan; Papagiakoumou, Eirini; de-Sars, Vincent; Emiliani, Valentina

    2009-02-01

    Multiphoton excitation has recently found application in the fields of bioimaging, uncaging and lithography. In order to fully exploit the advantages of nonlinear excitation, in particular the axial resolution due to nonlinearity, most systems to date operate with point or multipoint excitation, while scanning either the laser beam or the sample to generate the illumination pattern. Here we combine the recently introduced technique of scanningless multiphoton excitation by temporal focusing with recent advances in digital holography to generate arbitrarily shaped, depth resolved, two-dimensional excitation patterns completely without scanning. This is of particular importance in applications requiring uniform excitation of large areas over short time scales, such as neuronal activation by multiphoton uncaging of neurotransmitters. We present an experimental and theoretical analysis of the effect of spatial patterning on the depth resolution achieved in temporal focusing microscopy. It is shown that the depth resolution for holographic excitation is somewhat worse than that achieved for uniform illumination. This is also accompanied by the appearance of a speckle pattern at the temporal focal plane. The origin of the two effects, as well as means to overcome them, are discussed.

  18. Three Eurasian teleconnection patterns: spatial structures, temporal variability, and associated winter climate anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuyun; Wang, Lin; Zhou, Wen; Chen, Wen

    2014-06-01

    The Eurasian (EU) pattern is a distinct teleconnection pattern observed in boreal winter. Since the EU pattern was first identified, three types have been reported in the literature: the conventional EU pattern; the type 1 EU pattern, or Scandinavian (SCAND) pattern; and the type 2 EU pattern, or East Atlantic/West Russia (EATL/WRUS) pattern. Based on several reanalysis and observational datasets, the three EU patterns are extracted using the rotated empirical orthogonal function method. In order to provide a further distinction and understanding of the three EU patterns, a comprehensive side-by-side comparison is performed among them including their temporal variability, horizontal and vertical structure, related stationary Rossby wave activity, impact on climate, and possible driving factors associated with external forcing. The results reveal that all three EU patterns are characterised by a clear quasi-barotropic wave-train structure, but each has a distinct source and centre of action. Accordingly, their impacts on the precipitation and surface air temperature also differ from one other. Further evidence suggests that the conventional EU pattern is likely driven by anomalous sea surface temperatures (SST) over the North Atlantic, in which process the transient eddies are actively involved. The SCAND pattern is partly maintained by the vorticity source over Western Europe, which arises from the anomalous convergence/divergence over the Mediterranean and is efficiently driven by the tropical and southern Indian Ocean SST via divergent circulation. The EATL/WRUS pattern shows some linkage to the North American snow cover, and the involved process remains unclear and needs further investigation.

  19. Temporal consistency of spatial pattern in growth of the mussel, Mytilus edulis: Implications for predictive modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergström, Per; Lindegarth, Susanne; Lindegarth, Mats

    2013-10-01

    Human pressures on coastal seas are increasing and methods for sustainable management, including spatial planning and mitigative actions, are therefore needed. In coastal areas worldwide, the development of mussel farming as an economically and ecologically sustainable industry requires geographic information on the growth and potential production capacity. In practice this means that coherent maps of temporally stable spatial patterns of growth need to be available in the planning process and that maps need to be based on mechanistic or empirical models. Therefore, as a first step towards development of models of growth, we assessed empirically the fundamental requirement that there are temporally consistent spatial patterns of growth in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Using a pilot study we designed and dimensioned a transplant experiment, where the spatial consistency in the growth of mussels was evaluated at two resolutions. We found strong temporal and scale-dependent spatial variability in growth but patterns suggested that spatial patterns were uncoupled between growth of shell and that of soft tissue. Spatial patterns of shell growth were complex and largely inconsistent among years. Importantly, however, the growth of soft tissue was qualitatively consistent among years at the scale of km. The results suggest that processes affecting the whole coastal area cause substantial differences in growth of soft tissue among years but that factors varying at the scale of km create strong and persistent spatial patterns of growth, with a potential doubling of productivity by identifying the most suitable locations. We conclude that the observed spatial consistency provides a basis for further development of predictive modelling and mapping of soft tissue growth in these coastal areas. Potential causes of observed patterns, consequences for mussel-farming as a tool for mitigating eutrophication, aspects of precision of modelling and sampling of mussel growth as well as ecological functions in general are discussed.

  20. Temporal patterns of deer-vehicle collisions consistent with deer activity pattern and density increase but not general accident risk.

    PubMed

    Hothorn, Torsten; Mller, Jrg; Held, Leonhard; Mst, Lisa; Mysterud, Atle

    2015-08-01

    The increasing number of deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) across Europe during recent decades poses a serious threat to human health and animal welfare and increasing costs for society. DVCs are triggered by both a human-related and a deer-related component. Mitigation requires an understanding of the processes driving temporal and spatial collision patterns. Separating human-related from deer-related processes is important for identifying potentially effective countermeasures, but this has rarely been done. We analysed two time series of 341,655 DVCs involving roe deer and 854,659 non-deer-related accidents (non-DVCs) documented between 2002 and 2011. Nonparametric smoothing and temporal parametric modelling were used to estimate annual, seasonal, weekly and diurnal patterns in DVCs, non-DVCs and adjusted DVCs. As we had access to data on both DVCs and non-DVCs, we were able to disentangle the relative role of human-related and deer-related processes contributing to the overall temporal DVC pattern. We found clear evidence that variation in DVCs was mostly driven by deer-related and not human-related activity on annual, seasonal, weekly and diurnal scales. A very clear crepuscular activity pattern with high activity after sunset and around sunrise throughout the year was identified. Early spring and the mating season between mid-July and mid-August are typically periods of high roe deer activity, and as expected we found a high number of DVC during these periods, although these patterns differed tremendously during different phases of a day. The role of human activity was mainly reflected in fewer DVCs on weekends than on weekdays. Over the ten-year study period, we estimated that DVCs increased by 25%, whereas the number of non-DVCs decreased by 10%. Increasing deer densities are the most likely driver behind this rise in DVCs. Precise estimates of DVC patterns and their relationship to deer and human activity patterns allow implementation of specific mitigation measures, such as tailored driver warning systems or temporary speed limits. To prevent a further increase in DVCs, state-wide measures to decrease roe deer density are required. PMID:25984644

  1. Exploratory Analysis of Spatial-Temporal Patterns of Air Pollution in the City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champendal, Alexandre; Kanevski, Mikhail; Huguenot, Pierre-Emmanuel; Golay, Jean

    2013-04-01

    Air pollution in the city is an important problem influencing environment, well-being of society, economy, management of urban zones, etc. The problem is extremely difficult due to a very complex distribution of the pollution sources, morphology of the city and dispersion processes leading to multivariate nature of the phenomena and high local spatial-temporal variability. The task of understanding, modelling and prediction of spatial-temporal patterns of air pollution in urban zones is an interesting and challenging topic having many research axes from science-based modelling to geostatistics and data mining. The present research mainly deals with a comprehensive exploratory analysis of spatial-temporal air pollution data using statistical, geostatistical and machine learning tools. This analysis helps to 1) understand and model spatial-temporal correlations using variography, 2) explore the temporal evolution of spatial correlation matrix; 3) analyse and visualize an interconnection between measurement stations using network science tools; 4) quantify the availability and predictability of structured patterns. The real data case study deals with spatial-temporal air pollution data of canton Geneva (2002-2011). Carbon dioxide (NO2) have caught our attention. It has effects on health: nitrogen dioxide can irritate the lungs, effects on plants; NO2 contributes to the phenomenon of acid rain. The negative effects of nitrogen dioxides on plants are reducing the growth, production and pesticide resistance. And finally the effects on materials: nitrogen dioxides increase the corrosion. Well-defined patterns of spatial-temporal correlations were detected. The analysis and visualization of spatial correlation matrix for 91 stations were carried out using the network science tools and high levels of clustering were revealed. Moving Window Correlation Matrix and Spatio-temporal variography methods were applied to define and explore the dynamic of our data. More than just exploratory of data analysis, this study brings to front the high complexity of air pollution in the city. This approach allowed the definition, parameterisation and analysis of the air pollution data in the city with the future goal of integrating this knowledge in the development of different models of air pollution diffusion. Keywords: space-time environmental data, variography, moving window correlation matrix, network science

  2. Acoustic Emission Patterns and the Transition to Ductility in Sub-Micron Scale Laboratory Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, H.; Xia, K.; Young, R.

    2013-12-01

    We report observation of a transition from the brittle to ductile regime in precursor events from different rock materials (Granite, Sandstone, Basalt, and Gypsum) and Polymers (PMMA, PTFE and CR-39). Acoustic emission patterns associated with sub-micron scale laboratory earthquakes are mapped into network parameter spaces (functional damage networks). The sub-classes hold nearly constant timescales, indicating dependency of the sub-phases on the mechanism governing the previous evolutionary phase, i.e., deformation and failure of asperities. Based on our findings, we propose that the signature of the non-linear elastic zone around a crack tip is mapped into the details of the evolutionary phases, supporting the formation of a strongly weak zone in the vicinity of crack tips. Moreover, we recognize sub-micron to micron ruptures with signatures of 'stiffening' in the deformation phase of acoustic-waveforms. We propose that the latter rupture fronts carry critical rupture extensions, including possible dislocations faster than the shear wave speed. Using 'template super-shear waveforms' and their network characteristics, we show that the acoustic emission signals are possible super-shear or intersonic events. Ref. [1] Ghaffari, H. O., and R. P. Young. "Acoustic-Friction Networks and the Evolution of Precursor Rupture Fronts in Laboratory Earthquakes." Nature Scientific reports 3 (2013). [2] Xia, Kaiwen, Ares J. Rosakis, and Hiroo Kanamori. "Laboratory earthquakes: The sub-Rayleigh-to-supershear rupture transition." Science 303.5665 (2004): 1859-1861. [3] Mello, M., et al. "Identifying the unique ground motion signatures of supershear earthquakes: Theory and experiments." Tectonophysics 493.3 (2010): 297-326. [4] Gumbsch, Peter, and Huajian Gao. "Dislocations faster than the speed of sound." Science 283.5404 (1999): 965-968. [5] Livne, Ariel, et al. "The near-tip fields of fast cracks." Science 327.5971 (2010): 1359-1363. [6] Rycroft, Chris H., and Eran Bouchbinder. "Fracture Toughness of Metallic Glasses: Annealing-Induced Embrittlement." Physical review letters 109.19 (2012): 194301. [7] Buehler, Markus J., Farid F. Abraham, and Huajian Gao. "Hyperelasticity governs dynamic fracture at a critical length scale." Nature 426.6963 (2003): 141-146.

  3. Acoustic reflex patterns according to different intensity and different duration of white noise (WN) stimuli.

    PubMed

    Rossi, G; Solero, P

    1983-01-01

    The data were gathered by connecting the output from a middle ear impedance meter (Amplaid 702) to the computer and averaging section of the Amplaid MK VI which was also used as an acoustic stimuli generator. The stimuli consisted of white noise bursts having different peak equivalent sound pressures (115, 105, 95, 85 dB SPL) and different durations (from 1000 to 3 msec). The parameters examined were: stapedius muscle contraction latency time; muscle fibre recruitment time, i.e. the interval between the onset of contraction and its maximum; duration of contraction; amplitude of maximum contraction. An evaluation was also made as to the "efficiency" of contraction, expressed as the function of duration and amplitude. The authors discuss the different patterns of "efficiency" curve achieved at various intensity levels by stimuli of different duration. PMID:6880673

  4. Brain responses in humans reveal ideal observer-like sensitivity to complex acoustic patterns.

    PubMed

    Barascud, Nicolas; Pearce, Marcus T; Griffiths, Timothy D; Friston, Karl J; Chait, Maria

    2016-02-01

    We use behavioral methods, magnetoencephalography, and functional MRI to investigate how human listeners discover temporal patterns and statistical regularities in complex sound sequences. Sensitivity to patterns is fundamental to sensory processing, in particular in the auditory system, because most auditory signals only have meaning as successions over time. Previous evidence suggests that the brain is tuned to the statistics of sensory stimulation. However, the process through which this arises has been elusive. We demonstrate that listeners are remarkably sensitive to the emergence of complex patterns within rapidly evolving sound sequences, performing on par with an ideal observer model. Brain responses reveal online processes of evidence accumulation-dynamic changes in tonic activity precisely correlate with the expected precision or predictability of ongoing auditory input-both in terms of deterministic (first-order) structure and the entropy of random sequences. Source analysis demonstrates an interaction between primary auditory cortex, hippocampus, and inferior frontal gyrus in the process of discovering the regularity within the ongoing sound sequence. The results are consistent with precision based predictive coding accounts of perceptual inference and provide compelling neurophysiological evidence of the brain's capacity to encode high-order temporal structure in sensory signals. PMID:26787854

  5. A biophysical model of synaptic delay learning and temporal pattern recognition in a cerebellar Purkinje cell.

    PubMed

    Steuber, Volker; Willshaw, David

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that information in the brain is encoded in temporal spike patterns which are decoded by a combination of time delays and coincidence detection. Here, we show how a multi-compartmental model of a cerebellar Purkinje cell can learn to recognise temporal parallel fibre activity patterns by adapting latencies of calcium responses after activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). In each compartment of our model, the mGluR signalling cascade is represented by a set of differential equations that reflect the underlying biochemistry. Phosphorylation of the mGluRs changes the concentration of receptors which are available for activation by glutamate and thereby adjusts the time delay between mGluR stimulation and voltage response. The adaptation of a synaptic delay as opposed to a weight represents a novel non-Hebbian learning mechanism that can also implement the adaptive timing of the classically conditioned eye-blink response. PMID:15306737

  6. Monitoring temporal patterns of vertical hyporheic flux via distributed temperature sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, X.; Shu, L.; Li, W.; Lu, C.; Zhu, J.; Wu, G.; Wang, X.; Wang, G.

    2015-05-01

    Hyporheic exchange is of great significance for evaluating and developing water resources, as well as protecting ecosystem health. Temperature monitoring is one of the powerful tools for recognizing the hyporheic flux with high precision, low cost and great convenience. The streambed temperature at different depths (0 to 1.00 m), and the air and stream water temperatures at Dawen River, Jining City, were monitored using distributed temperature sensors (DTS). The temperature series were used to estimate the hyporheic flux through the analytical solution of the governing one-dimensional heat transport equation. The temporal patterns of flux along the vertical profile were analysed. The results indicated that surface water and air temperatures fluctuated approximately sinusoidally, and the groundwater temperature was relatively stable over time. The hyporheic flux at different depths showed different temporal patterns. Moreover, the dynamic curves of hyporheic flux were depth-dependent and probably controlled by the stream water level and groundwater field.

  7. Reliability of spatial and temporal patterns of C. finmarchicus inferred from the CPR survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hélaouët, Pierre; Beaugrand, Grégory; Reygondeau, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey has collected plankton since 1958 in the North Atlantic Ocean and its adjacent seas. Among all species recorded by the CPR, Calanus finmarchicus has probably been the most investigated species because of its ecological importance for the temperate and subpolar regions of the North Atlantic Ocean. However, abundances of C. finmarchicus assessed from the CPR survey have been rarely compared to more traditional sampling methodologies. In this study, we examine and compare spatial (surface and vertical) and temporal (diel and seasonal) patterns in the abundance of C. finmarchicus with another sampling technique in the gulf of Maine. Our results provide evidence that the CPR survey not only gives internally consistent time series of C. finmarchicus, but also an accurate representation of both spatial (surface and vertical) and temporal (diel and seasonal) patterns.

  8. Automatic classification of acetowhite temporal patterns to identify precursor lesions of cervical cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutirrez-Fragoso, K.; Acosta-Mesa, H. G.; Cruz-Ramrez, N.; Hernndez-Jimnez, R.

    2013-12-01

    Cervical cancer has remained, until now, as a serious public health problem in developing countries. The most common method of screening is the Pap test or cytology. When abnormalities are reported in the result, the patient is referred to a dysplasia clinic for colposcopy. During this test, a solution of acetic acid is applied, which produces a color change in the tissue and is known as acetowhitening phenomenon. This reaction aims to obtaining a sample of tissue and its histological analysis let to establish a final diagnosis. During the colposcopy test, digital images can be acquired to analyze the behavior of the acetowhitening reaction from a temporal approach. In this way, we try to identify precursor lesions of cervical cancer through a process of automatic classification of acetowhite temporal patterns. In this paper, we present the performance analysis of three classification methods: kNN, Nave Bayes and C4.5. The results showed that there is similarity between some acetowhite temporal patterns of normal and abnormal tissues. Therefore we conclude that it is not sufficient to only consider the temporal dynamic of the acetowhitening reaction to establish a diagnosis by an automatic method. Information from cytologic, colposcopic and histopathologic disciplines should be integrated as well.

  9. Temporal patterns of native Mandarin Chinese speakers' productions of English stop-vowel syllable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue; Behne, Dawn M.

    2001-05-01

    Second language (L2) production can be a kind of interlanguage, a relatively stable system bearing the nature of both the native language (L1) and L2. Within such a system sound components of a syllable may bear their own interlanguage characteristics and yet interact with the other component sounds. The present study investigates temporal patterns of L1-L2 interaction at the syllable level. Audio recordings were made of English stop-vowel syllables produced by native speakers of Mandarin who were fluent in English (ChE). Native English productions (AmE) of these syllables and native productions of Mandarin (ChM) stop-vowel syllables were acquired as native norms. Temporal measures included stop closure duration, voice-onset time (VOT), vowel duration, and syllable duration. Results show that the internal timing components of ChE often deviate from AmE, with the closure duration, VOT, and vowel duration being intermediate to AmE and ChM. However, at the syllable level, ChE productions tend to follow the overall patterns of AmE. Temporal deviations were often compensated by temporal compensation of other components in the syllable, maintaining a balanced consonant/vowel distribution. These findings have implications for a broader understanding of L2 productions.

  10. Spatial and temporal patterns in macrofaunal diversity components relative to sea floor landscape structure.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Roman N; Vozarik, Joseph M; Gibbons, Brittney R

    2013-01-01

    We examined temporal changes in macrofaunal α- and β-diversity over several spatial scales (within patches, among patches, across landscapes and across regions) in Long Island Sound on the northeast USA coast. Regional ε-diversity was estimated at 144 taxa, however γ-diversity fluctuated over time as did α- and β-diversity components. Based on additive partitioning, patch- and region-scale β-diversity components generally had the highest contributions to γ-diversity; lower percentages were found at within-patch and landscape scales. Multiplicative diversity partitioning indicated highest species turnover at within- and among patch scales. For all partition results, within-patch and patch-scale β-diversity increased sharply when hypoxia impacted benthic communities. Spatial variation in diversity components can be attributed to the collection of different patch types at varying spatial scales and their associated habitats across the benthic landscapes, as well as gradients in depth and other estuarine-scale characteristics. Temporal variation in diversity components across spatial scales may be related to seasonal changes in habitat heterogeneity, species population dynamics, and seasonal disturbances. Rare species were significant and temporally consistent components of macrofaunal diversity patterns over different spatial scales. Our findings agree with other marine and terrestrial studies that show diversity components vary significantly over different spatial scales and the importance of habitat/landscape heterogeneity in supporting diversity. However, our results indicate that the relative contributions of scale-specific β-diversity components can also change significantly over time. Thus, studies of diversity patterns across patches and landscapes based on data collected at one time, or assembled into a single data set from different times, may not capture the full suite of diversity patterns that occur over varying spatial scales and any time-specific determinants of those patterns. Many factors that shape and maintain sedimentary communities vary temporally, and appear to play an important role in determining and maintaining macrofaunal diversity over different spatial scales. PMID:23776552

  11. Insights into temporal patterns of hospital patient safety from routinely collected electronic data

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The last two decades have seen an unprecedented growth in initiatives aimed to improve patient safety. For the most part, however, evidence of their impact remains controversial. At the same time, the healthcare industry has experienced an also unprecedented growth in the amount and variety of available electronic data. Methods In this paper, we provide a review of the use of routinely collected electronic data in the identification, analysis and surveillance of temporal patterns of patient safety. Results Two important temporal patterns of the safety of hospitalised patients were identified and discussed: long-term trends related to changes in clinical practice and healthcare policy; and shorter term patterns related to variations in workforce and resources. We found that consistency in reporting is intrinsically related to availability of large-scale, fit-for-purpose data. Consistent reported trends of patient harms included an increase in the incidence of post-operative sepsis and a decrease in central-line associated bloodstream infections. Improvement in the treatment of specific diseases, such as cardiac conditions, has also been demonstrated. Linkage of hospital data with other datasets provides essential temporal information about errors, as well as information about unsuspected system deficiencies. It has played an important role in the measurement and analysis of the effects of off-hours hospital operation. Conclusions Measuring temporal patterns of patient safety is still inadequate with electronic health records not yet playing an important role. Patient safety interventions should not be implemented without a strategy for continuous monitoring of their effect. PMID:25870757

  12. A Sequence Identification Measurement Model to Investigate the Implicit Learning of Metrical Temporal Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Benjamin G.; Stevens, Catherine J.; Keller, Peter E.; Tillmann, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Implicit learning (IL) occurs unconsciously and without intention. Perceptual fluency is the ease of processing elicited by previous exposure to a stimulus. It has been assumed that perceptual fluency is associated with IL. However, the role of perceptual fluency following IL has not been investigated in temporal pattern learning. Two experiments by Schultz, Stevens, Keller, and Tillmann demonstrated the IL of auditory temporal patterns using a serial reaction-time task and a generation task based on the process dissociation procedure. The generation task demonstrated that learning was implicit in both experiments via motor fluency, that is, the inability to suppress learned information. With the aim to disentangle conscious and unconscious processes, we analyze unreported recognition data associated with the Schultz et al. experiments using the sequence identification measurement model. The model assumes that perceptual fluency reflects unconscious processes and IL. For Experiment 1, the model indicated that conscious and unconscious processes contributed to recognition of temporal patterns, but that unconscious processes had a greater influence on recognition than conscious processes. In the model implementation of Experiment 2, there was equal contribution of conscious and unconscious processes in the recognition of temporal patterns. As Schultz et al. demonstrated IL in both experiments using a generation task, and the conditions reported here in Experiments 1 and 2 were identical, two explanations are offered for the discrepancy in model and behavioral results based on the two tasks: 1) perceptual fluency may not be necessary to infer IL, or 2) conscious control over implicitly learned information may vary as a function of perceptual fluency and motor fluency. PMID:24086461

  13. Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Macrofaunal Diversity Components Relative to Sea Floor Landscape Structure

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Roman N.; Vozarik, Joseph M.; Gibbons, Brittney R.

    2013-01-01

    We examined temporal changes in macrofaunal ?- and ?-diversity over several spatial scales (within patches, among patches, across landscapes and across regions) in Long Island Sound on the northeast USA coast. Regional ?-diversity was estimated at 144 taxa, however ?-diversity fluctuated over time as did ?- and ?-diversity components. Based on additive partitioning, patch- and region-scale ?-diversity components generally had the highest contributions to ?-diversity; lower percentages were found at within-patch and landscape scales. Multiplicative diversity partitioning indicated highest species turnover at within- and among patch scales. For all partition results, within-patch and patch-scale ?-diversity increased sharply when hypoxia impacted benthic communities. Spatial variation in diversity components can be attributed to the collection of different patch types at varying spatial scales and their associated habitats across the benthic landscapes, as well as gradients in depth and other estuarine-scale characteristics. Temporal variation in diversity components across spatial scales may be related to seasonal changes in habitat heterogeneity, species population dynamics, and seasonal disturbances. Rare species were significant and temporally consistent components of macrofaunal diversity patterns over different spatial scales. Our findings agree with other marine and terrestrial studies that show diversity components vary significantly over different spatial scales and the importance of habitat/landscape heterogeneity in supporting diversity. However, our results indicate that the relative contributions of scale-specific ?-diversity components can also change significantly over time. Thus, studies of diversity patterns across patches and landscapes based on data collected at one time, or assembled into a single data set from different times, may not capture the full suite of diversity patterns that occur over varying spatial scales and any time-specific determinants of those patterns. Many factors that shape and maintain sedimentary communities vary temporally, and appear to play an important role in determining and maintaining macrofaunal diversity over different spatial scales. PMID:23776552

  14. Synchronization and control in time-delayed complex networks and spatio-temporal patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, S.; Kurths, J.; Schöll, E.

    2016-02-01

    This special topics issue is a collection of contributions on the recent developments of control and synchronization in time delayed systems and space time chaos. The various articles report interesting results on time delayed complex networks; fractional order delayed models; dynamics of spatio-temporal patterns; stochastic models etc. Experimental analysis on synchronization, dynamics and control of chaos are also well investigated using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), circuit realizations and chemical reactions.

  15. The mechanisms of spatial and temporal patterning of cell-edge dynamics.

    PubMed

    Verkhovsky, Alexander B

    2015-10-01

    Adherent cells migrate and change their shape by means of protrusion and retraction at their edges. When and where these activities occur defines the shape of the cell and the way it moves. Despite a great deal of knowledge about the structural organization, components, and biochemical reactions involved in protrusion and retraction, the origins of their spatial and temporal patterns are still poorly understood. Chemical signaling circuitry is believed to be an important source of patterning, but recent studies highlighted mechanisms based on physical forces, motion, and mechanical feedback. PMID:26432504

  16. Transient dynamics and rhythm coordination of inferior olive spatio-temporal patterns.

    PubMed

    Latorre, Roberto; Aguirre, Carlos; Rabinovich, Mikhail I; Varona, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    The inferior olive (IO) is a neural network belonging to the olivo-cerebellar system whose neurons are coupled with electrical synapses and display subthreshold oscillations and spiking activity. The IO is frequently proposed as the generator of timing signals to the cerebellum. Electrophysiological and imaging recordings show that the IO network generates complex spatio-temporal patterns. The generation and modulation of coherent spiking activity in the IO is one key issue in cerebellar research. In this work, we build a large scale IO network model of electrically coupled conductance-based neurons to study the emerging spatio-temporal patterns of its transient neuronal activity. Our modeling reproduces and helps to understand important phenomena observed in IO in vitro and in vivo experiments, and draws new predictions regarding the computational properties of this network and the associated cerebellar circuits. The main factors studied governing the collective dynamics of the IO network were: the degree of electrical coupling, the extent of the electrotonic connections, the presence of stimuli or regions with different excitability levels and the modulatory effect of an inhibitory loop (IL). The spatio-temporal patterns were analyzed using a discrete wavelet transform to provide a quantitative characterization. Our results show that the electrotonic coupling produces quasi-synchronized subthreshold oscillations over a wide dynamical range. The synchronized oscillatory activity plays the role of a timer for a coordinated representation of spiking rhythms with different frequencies. The encoding and coexistence of several coordinated rhythms is related to the different clusterization and coherence of transient spatio-temporal patterns in the network, where the spiking activity is commensurate with the quasi-synchronized subthreshold oscillations. In the presence of stimuli, different rhythms are encoded in the spiking activity of the IO neurons that nevertheless remains constrained to a commensurate value of the subthreshold frequency. The stimuli induced spatio-temporal patterns can reverberate for long periods, which contributes to the computational properties of the IO. We also show that the presence of regions with different excitability levels creates sinks and sources of coordinated activity which shape the propagation of spike wave fronts. These results can be generalized beyond IO studies, as the control of wave pattern propagation is a highly relevant problem in the context of normal and pathological states in neural systems (e.g., related to tremor, migraine, epilepsy) where the study of the modulation of activity sinks and sources can have a potential large impact. PMID:24046731

  17. Modulation of heart rate by temporally patterned vagus nerve stimulation in the anesthetized dog.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Paul B; Liu, Haoran; Hincapie, Juan G; Ruble, Stephen B; Hamann, Jason J; Grill, Warren M

    2016-02-01

    Despite current knowledge of the myriad physiological effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in various mammalian species (including humans), the impact of varying stimulation parameters on nerve recruitment and physiological responses is not well understood. We investigated nerve recruitment, cardiovascular responses, and skeletal muscle responses to different temporal patterns of VNS across 39 combinations of stimulation amplitude, frequency, and number of pulses per burst. Anesthetized dogs were implanted with stimulating and recording cuff electrodes around the cervical vagus nerve, whereas laryngeal electromyogram (EMG) and heart rate were recorded. In seven of eight dogs, VNS-evoked bradycardia (defined as ?10% decrease in heart rate) was achieved by applying stimuli at amplitudes equal to or greater than the threshold for activating slow B-fibers. Temporally patterned VNS (minimum 5 pulses per burst) was sufficient to elicit bradycardia while reducing the concomitant activation of laryngeal muscles by more than 50%. Temporal patterns of VNS can be used to modulate heart rate while minimizing laryngeal motor fiber activation, and this is a novel approach to reduce the side effects produced by VNS. PMID:26811057

  18. Searching for the Holy Grail: Temporally Informative Firing Patterns in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Matell, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews our work from the past decade investigating cortical and striatal firing patterns in rats while they time intervals in the multi-seconds range. We have found that both cortical and striatal firing rates contain information that the rat can use to identify how much time has elapsed both from trial onset and from the onset of an active response state. I describe findings showing that the striatal neurons that are modulated by time are also modulated by overt behaviors, suggesting that time modulates the strength of motor coding in the striatum, rather than being represented as an abstract quantity in isolation. I also describe work showing that there are variety of temporally informative activity patterns in pre-motor neurons, and argue that the heterogeneity of these patterns can enhance an organism's temporal estimate. Finally, I describe recent behavioral work from my lab in which the simultaneous cueing of multiple durations leads to scalar temporal expectation at an intermediate time, providing strong support for a monotonic representation of time. PMID:25358713

  19. Temporal and spatial patterns of diarrhoea in the Mekong Delta area, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Phung, D; Huang, C; Rutherford, S; Chu, C; Wang, X; Nguyen, M; Nguyen, N H; Do, C M; Nguyen, T H

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the temporal and spatial patterns of diarrhoea in relation to hydro-meteorological factors in the Mekong Delta area in Vietnam. A time-series design was applied to examine the temporal pattern of the climate-diarrhoea relationship using Poisson regression models. Spatial analysis was applied to examine the spatial clusters of diarrhoea using Global Moran's I and local indicators of spatial autocorrelation (LISA). The temporal pattern showed that the highest peak of diarrhoea was from weeks 30-42 corresponding to August-October annually. A 1 cm increase in river water level at a lag of 1 week was associated with a small [007%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 001-01] increase in the diarrhoeal rate. A 1 C increase in temperature at lag of 2 and 4 weeks was associated with a 15% (95% CI 03-27) and 11% (95% CI 01-23) increase in diarrhoeal risk, respectively. Relative humidity and diarrhoeal risk were in nonlinear relationship. The spatial analysis showed significant clustering of diarrhoea, and the LISA map shows three multi-centred diarrhoeal clusters and three single-centred clusters in the research location. The findings suggest that climatic conditions projected to be associated with climate change have important implication for human health impact in the Mekong Delta region. PMID:25876699

  20. Spatio-temporal soil moisture patterns - A meta-analysis using plot to catchment scale data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korres, W.; Reichenau, T. G.; Fiener, P.; Koyama, C. N.; Bogena, H. R.; Cornelissen, T.; Baatz, R.; Herbst, M.; Diekkrger, B.; Vereecken, H.; Schneider, K.

    2015-01-01

    Soil moisture is a key variable in hydrology, meteorology and agriculture. It is influenced by many factors, such as topography, soil properties, vegetation type, management, and meteorological conditions. The role of these factors in controlling the spatial patterns and temporal dynamics is often not well known. The aim of the current study is to analyze spatio-temporal soil moisture patterns acquired across a variety of land use types, on different spatial scales (plot to meso-scale catchment) and with different methods (point measurements, remote sensing, and modeling). We apply a uniform set of tools to determine method specific effects, as well as site and scale specific controlling factors. Spatial patterns of soil moisture and their temporal development were analyzed using nine different datasets from the Rur catchment in Western Germany. For all datasets we found negative linear relationships between the coefficient of variation and the mean soil moisture, indicating lower spatial variability at higher mean soil moisture. For a forest sub-catchment compared to cropped areas, the offset of this relationship was larger, with generally larger variability at similar mean soil moisture values. Using a geostatistical analysis of the soil moisture patterns we identified three groups of datasets with similar values for sill and range of the theoretical variogram: (i) modeled and measured datasets from the forest sub-catchment (patterns mainly influenced by soil properties and topography), (ii) remotely sensed datasets from the cropped part of the Rur catchment (patterns mainly influenced by the land-use structure of the cropped area), and (iii) modeled datasets from the cropped part of the Rur catchment (patterns mainly influenced by large scale variability of soil properties). A fractal analysis revealed that all analyzed soil moisture patterns showed a multifractal behavior, with at least one scale break and generally high fractal dimensions. Corresponding scale breaks were found between different datasets. The factors causing these scale breaks are consistent with the findings of the geostatistical analysis. Furthermore, the joined analysis of the different datasets showed that small differences in soil moisture dynamics, especially at the upper and lower bounds of soil moisture (at maximum porosity and wilting point of the soils) can have a large influence on the soil moisture patterns and their autocorrelation structure. Depending on the prevalent type of land use and the time of year, vegetation causes a decrease or an increase of spatial variability in the soil moisture pattern.

  1. Spatio-temporal patterns of dengue in Malaysia: combining address and sub-district level.

    PubMed

    Ling, Cheong Y; Gruebner, Oliver; Krämer, Alexander; Lakes, Tobia

    2014-11-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns of dengue risk in Malaysia were studied both at the address and the sub-district level in the province of Selangor and the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur. We geocoded laboratory-confirmed dengue cases from the years 2008 to 2010 at the address level and further aggregated the cases in proportion to the population at risk at the sub-district level. Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic was applied for the investigation that identified changing spatial patterns of dengue cases at both levels. At the address level, spatio-temporal clusters of dengue cases were concentrated at the central and south-eastern part of the study area in the early part of the years studied. Analyses at the sub-district level revealed a consistent spatial clustering of a high number of cases proportional to the population at risk. Linking both levels assisted in the identification of differences and confirmed the presence of areas at high risk for dengue infection. Our results suggest that the observed dengue cases had both a spatial and a temporal epidemiological component, which needs to be acknowledged and addressed to develop efficient control measures, including spatially explicit vector control. Our findings highlight the importance of detailed geographical analysis of disease cases in heterogeneous environments with a focus on clustered populations at different spatial and temporal scales. We conclude that bringing together information on the spatio-temporal distribution of dengue cases with a deeper insight of linkages between dengue risk, climate factors and land use constitutes an important step towards the development of an effective risk management strategy. PMID:25545931

  2. New model of human luminance pattern vision mechanisms: analysis of the effects of pattern orientation, spatial phase, and temporal frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, John M.; Boynton, Geoffrey M.

    1994-03-01

    Models of human pattern vision mechanisms are examined in light of new results in psychophysics and single-cell recording. Four experiments on simultaneous masking of Gabor patterns by sinewave gratings are described. In these experiments target contrast thresholds are measured as functions of masker contrast, orientation, spatial phase, and temporal frequency. The results are used to test the theory of simultaneous masking proposed by Legge and Foley that is based on mechanisms that sum excitation linearly over a receptive field and produce a response that is an s-shaped transform of this sum. The theory is shown to be inadequate. Recent single-cell-recording results from simple cells in the cat show that these cells receive a broadband divisive input as well as an input that is summed linearly over their receptive fields. A new theory of simultaneous masking based on mechanisms with similar properties is shown to describe the psychophysical results well. Target threshold vs masker contrast (TvC) functions for a set of target-masker pairs are used to estimate the parameters of the theory including the excitatory and inhibitory sensitivities of the mechanisms along the various pattern dimensions. The human luminance pattern vision mechanisms, unlike most of the cells, do not saturate at high contrast.

  3. Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Barmah Forest Virus Disease in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Naish, Suchithra; Hu, Wenbiao; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu

    2011-01-01

    Background Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease is a common and wide-spread mosquito-borne disease in Australia. This study investigated the spatio-temporal patterns of BFV disease in Queensland, Australia using geographical information system (GIS) tools and geostatistical analysis. Methods/Principal Findings We calculated the incidence rates and standardised incidence rates of BFV disease. Moran's I statistic was used to assess the spatial autocorrelation of BFV incidences. Spatial dynamics of BFV disease was examined using semi-variogram analysis. Interpolation techniques were applied to visualise and display the spatial distribution of BFV disease in statistical local areas (SLAs) throughout Queensland. Mapping of BFV disease by SLAs reveals the presence of substantial spatio-temporal variation over time. Statistically significant differences in BFV incidence rates were identified among age groups (?2?=?7587, df?=?7327,p<0.01). There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of BFV incidence for all four periods, with the Moran's I statistic ranging from 0.1506 to 0.2901 (p<0.01). Semi-variogram analysis and smoothed maps created from interpolation techniques indicate that the pattern of spatial autocorrelation was not homogeneous across the state. Conclusions/Significance This is the first study to examine spatial and temporal variation in the incidence rates of BFV disease across Queensland using GIS and geostatistics. The BFV transmission varied with age and gender, which may be due to exposure rates or behavioural risk factors. There are differences in the spatio-temporal patterns of BFV disease which may be related to local socio-ecological and environmental factors. These research findings may have implications in the BFV disease control and prevention programs in Queensland. PMID:22022430

  4. Larval fish assemblages in nearshore coastal waters off central Chile: temporal and spatial patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernndez-Miranda, E.; Palma, A. T.; Ojeda, F. P.

    2003-04-01

    In this study we identified spatial and temporal patterns in the distribution and abundance of larval stages of several fish species in nearshore waters off central Chile. Larvae were sampled monthly at two close (20 km apart) but contrasting localities, El Quisco and Las Cruces. Surveys corresponded to standard plankton tows stratified according to bathymetry and distance from shore. Our results indicate that at both localities: (1) there is a seasonal reproductive pattern for most of the species studied; (2) there is a seasonal-related change in larval species composition and abundance, with austral Winter-Spring being the time of greatest diversity; (3) larval stages of several species that, as adults occupy intertidal, estuarine-riverine, subtidal, benthic-demersal, epipelagic or mesopelagic habitats, are found within these coastal environments; (4) there is a distinctive cross-shelf pattern of larval distribution, which seems to correspond, at least for the intertidal species, with the shallower (<30 m depth) portion of area surveyed; and (5) there is a coupling between the patterns of distribution and abundance of the entire ichthyoplankton assemblage with short-term physical features such as wind forcing, Ekman transport, and local currents. Our findings suggest that both the specific composition as well as the abundance of larval fish species varies spatially and temporally and that this variability may result from the interaction of physical and biological factors at different scales.

  5. Acoustic effects of a superior semicircular canal dehiscence: a temporal bone study.

    PubMed

    Luers, J C; Pazen, D; Meister, H; Lauxmann, M; Eiber, A; Beutner, D; Httenbrink, K B

    2015-03-01

    A dehiscence of the superior semicircular canal is said to be responsible for a number of specific and unspecific ear symptoms and possible a conductive hearing loss of up to 40 dB. As in vivo a dehiscence would not be opened against air, but is naturally patched with dura and the brain, it was our aim to investigate the effects of an superior semicircular canal dehiscence on the air conduction hearing in fresh human temporal bones with different boundary conditions. At ten fresh human temporal bones, we investigated the transmission of sound energy through the middle and inner ear using a round window microphone and laser Doppler vibrometer for perilymph motions inside the dehiscence. After baseline measurements, the superior semicircular canal was opened. We investigated the change of the transfer function when the canal is opened against air (pressure equivalent water column), against a water column and when it is patched with a layer of dura. Opening the superior semicircular canal resulted in a loss of sound transmission of maximal 10-15 dB only in frequencies below 1 kHz. When covering the dehiscence with a water column, the conductive hearing component was reduced to 6-8 dB. Placing a dura patch on top of the dehiscence resulted in a normalization of the transfer function. If our experiments are consistent with the conditions in vivo, then superior semicircular canal dehiscence does not lead to an extensive and clinically considerable conductive air conduction component. PMID:24381023

  6. Acoustic droplet vaporization for temporal and spatial control of tissue occlusion: a kidney study.

    PubMed

    Kripfgans, Oliver D; Orifici, Catherine M; Carson, Paul L; Ives, Kimberly A; Eldevik, O Petter; Fowlkes, J Brian

    2005-07-01

    Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) has been introduced with the potential application of tumor treatment via occlusion and subsequent necrosis. New Zealand White rabbits were anesthetized, and their left kidney was externalized. An imaging array and single-element transducer were positioned in a tank with direct access to the kidney's vasculature and renal artery. Filtered droplet emulsions (diameter <6 microm) were injected intra-arterially (IA) into the left heart during insonification of the renal artery, and the extent of blood flow reduction by ADV was compared to the untreated right kidney. Flow cytometry (using colored microspheres) of kidney tissue samples and reference blood from the femoral artery allowed the quantitative estimation of regional blood flow. A maximum regional blood flow reduction in the treated region of >90% and an average organ perfusion reduction of >70% was achieved using ADV. After treatment of the left kidney, the control kidney on the contralateral side showed a maximum decrease in regional blood flow of 18% relative to the pre-ADV baseline. Image-based hyper-echogenicity from ADV of IA injections was monitored for approximately 90 minutes, and cortex perfusion was reduced by >60% of its original value for more than 1 hour. This could be enough time for the onset of cell death and possible tumor treatment via ischemic necrosis. Moreover, currently used radiofrequency tissue ablation-based tumor treatment could benefit from ADV due to the decreased heat loss via vascular cooling. PMID:16212249

  7. Acoustic radiation patterns of mating calls of the tungara frog (Physalaemus pustuosus): implications for multiple receivers.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Ximena E; Page, Rachel A; Ryan, Michael J; Argo, Theodore F; Wilson, Preston S

    2009-11-01

    In order for a signal to be transmitted from a sender to a receiver, the receiver must be within the active space of the signal. If patterns of sound radiation are not omnidirectional, the position as well as the distance of the receiver relative to the sender is critical. In previous measurements of the horizontal directivity of mating calls of frogs, the signals were analyzed using peak or root-mean-square analysis and resulted in broadband directivities that ranged from negligible to a maximum of approximately 5 dB. Idealized laboratory measurements of the patterns of acoustic radiation of the mating calls of male tungara frogs (Physalaemus pustulosus), along axes relevant to three receivers in this communication network, female frogs in the horizontal plane, and frog-eating bats and blood-sucking flies above the ground, are reported. The highest sound pressure level was radiated directly above the frog, with a 6 dB reduction radiated along the horizontal direction. Band-limited directivities were significantly greater than broadband directivities, with a maximum directivity of 20 dB in the vertical plane for harmonics near 6 kHz. The implications with regard to mating and predator-prey interactions are discussed. PMID:19894851

  8. Microscopic theory of spatial-temporal congested traffic patterns at highway bottlenecks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Boris S.; Klenov, Sergey L.

    2003-09-01

    A microscopic theory of spatial-temporal congested traffic patterns at highway bottlenecks due to on-ramps, merge bottlenecks (a reduction of highway lanes), and off-ramps is presented. The basic postulate of three-phase traffic theory is used, which claims that homogeneous (in space and time) model solutions (steady states) of synchronized flow cover a two dimensional region in the flow-density plane [B. S. Kerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3797 (1998); Trans. Res. Rec. 1678, 160 (1999)]. Phase transitions leading to diverse congested patterns, pattern evolution, and pattern nonlinear features have been found. Diagrams of congested patterns, i.e., regions of the pattern emergence dependent on traffic demand, have been derived. Diverse effects of metastability with respect to the pattern formation have been found. The microscopic theory allows us to explain the main empirical pattern features at on-ramps and off-ramps which have recently been found [B. S. Kerner, Phys. Rev. E 65, 046138 (2002)]. (i) Rather than moving jams, synchronized flow first occurs at bottlenecks if the flow rate is slowly increasing. Wide moving jams can spontaneously occur only in synchronized flow. (ii) General patterns (GP) and synchronized flow patterns (SP) can spontaneously emerge at the bottlenecks. There can be the widening SP (WSP), the moving SP (MSP), and the localized SP. (iii) At on-ramps cases of weak and strong congestion should be distinguished. In contrast to weak congestion, under strong congestion the flow rate in synchronized flow in GP reaches a limit flow rate, the frequency of the moving jam emergence reaches a maximum, i.e., the GP characteristics under strong congestion do not depend on traffic demand. (iv) At the off-ramp GP with weak congestion occur. (v) A study of the pattern formation on a highway with two bottlenecks shows that diverse expanded patterns can occur, which cover both bottlenecks. SP first emerged at the downstream bottleneck can be caught at the upstream bottleneck (the catch effect). MSP, WSP, or wide moving jams first emerged at the downstream bottleneck induce diverse patterns at the upstream bottleneck. The onset of congestion at the upstream bottleneck can lead to an intensification of congestion at the downstream bottleneck. This causes a change in the pattern type and/or the pattern features.

  9. Spatio-temporal soil moisture patterns across gradients of vegetation and topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, Sibylle; Weiler, Markus; Blume, Theresa

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture dynamics control hydrological processes on various scales: changes in local water storage and potential activation of preferential flow paths influence connectivity and runoff from hillslopes and ultimately the discharge response of the stream. The spatio-temporal patterns of soil moisture, however, are dependent on a combination of local parameters such as soil type, vegetation and topography as well as meteorological conditions, antecedent moisture and seasonality. In an integrative monitoring study carried out within the CAOS observatory in Luxemburg (http://www.caos-project.de/), soil moisture was measured at 21 sites with 3 soil moisture profiles each. These sites include grassland as well as forest on the one hand and cover different hillslope positions on the other hand. This setup allows us to study both vegetation and topographic effects. The spatio-temporal patterns of soil moisture were analysed using two approaches: 1) we examined temporal persistence of soil moisture patterns with rank stability plots and addressed the variability within and between sites for contrasting meteorological conditions. 2) In a next step we focused on specific hydrologic events: two periods during summer recession were distinguished, first the drying out of the soils during a period of no precipitation, but also the continuing decline even after summer rains have started. Furthermore, the soil moisture response to three different rainfall events was examined, varying in intensity and antecedent moisture conditions. The emerging contrasts in patterns were put into context of site-specific characteristics such as vegetation and topographical position to identify controls on soil moisture dynamics for our range of sites. Ultimately, linking similarity in soil moisture response in landscapes to these controls can elucidate the hydrological functioning of landscape units and thus facilitate modelling efforts.

  10. Decoding of retinal ganglion cell spike trains evoked by temporally patterned electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Sang Baek; Ye, Jang Hee; Goo, Yong Sook; Kim, Chi Hyun; Kim, Kyung Hwan

    2010-08-12

    For successful restoration of vision by retinal prostheses, the neural activity of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) evoked by electrical stimulation should represent the information of spatiotemporal patterns of visual input. We propose a method to evaluate the effectiveness of stimulation pulse trains so that the crucial temporal information of a visual input is accurately represented in the RGC responses as the amplitudes of pulse trains are modulated according to the light intensity. This was enabled by spike train decoding. The effectiveness of the stimulation was evaluated by the accuracy of decoding pulse amplitude from the RGC spike train, i.e., by the similarity between the original and the decoded pulse amplitude time series. When the parameters of stimulation were suitably determined, the RGC responses were reliably modulated by varying the amplitude of electrical pulses. Accordingly, the temporal pattern of pulse amplitudes could be successfully decoded from multiunit RGC spike trains. The range of pulse amplitude and the pulse rate were critical for accurate representation of input information in RGC responses. These results suggest that pulse amplitude modulation is a feasible means to encode temporal visual information by RGC spike trains and thus to implement stimulus encoding strategies for retinal prostheses. PMID:20599822

  11. Spatio-temporal patterns of leptospirosis in Thailand: is flooding a risk factor?

    PubMed

    Suwanpakdee, S; Kaewkungwal, J; White, L J; Asensio, N; Ratanakorn, P; Singhasivanon, P; Day, N P J; Pan-Ngum, W

    2015-07-01

    We studied the temporal and spatial patterns of leptospirosis, its association with flooding and animal census data in Thailand. Flood data from 2010 to 2012 were extracted from spatial information taken from satellite images. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) was used to determine the relationship between spatio-temporal flooding patterns and the number of human leptospirosis cases. In addition, the area of flood coverage, duration of waterlogging, time lags between flood events, and a number of potential animal reservoirs were considered in a sub-analysis. There was no significant temporal trend of leptospirosis over the study period. Statistical analysis showed an inconsistent relationship between IRR and flooding across years and regions. Spatially, leptospirosis occurred repeatedly and predominantly in northeastern Thailand. Our findings suggest that flooding is less influential in leptospirosis transmission than previously assumed. High incidence of the disease in the northeastern region is explained by the fact that agriculture and animal farming are important economic activities in this area. The periodic rise and fall of reported leptospirosis cases over time might be explained by seasonal exposure from rice farming activities performed during the rainy season when flood events often occur. We conclude that leptospirosis remains an occupational disease in Thailand. PMID:25778527

  12. Temporal patterning of neuroblasts controls Notch-mediated cell survival through regulation of Hid or Reaper

    PubMed Central

    Bertet, Claire; Li, Xin; Erclik, Ted; Cavey, Matthieu; Wells, Brent; Desplan, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Temporal patterning of neural progenitors is one of the core mechanisms generating neuronal diversity in the central nervous system. Here, we show that in the tips of the outer proliferation center (tOPC) of the developing Drosophila optic lobes, a unique temporal series of transcription factors not only governs the sequential production of distinct neuronal subtypes, but also controls the mode of progenitor division as well as the selective apoptosis of NotchOFF or NotchON neurons during binary cell fate decisions. Within a single lineage, intermediate precursors initially do not divide and generate only one neuron; subsequently, precursors divide but their NotchON progeny systematically die through Reaper activity whereas later, their NotchOFF progeny die through Hid activity. These mechanisms dictate how the tOPC produces neurons for three different optic ganglia. We conclude that temporal patterning generates neuronal diversity by specifying both the identity and survival/death of each unique neuronal subtype. PMID:25171415

  13. Analysis of spatial and temporal water pollution patterns in Lake Dianchi using multivariate statistical methods.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Hui; Zhou, Feng; Guo, Huai-Cheng; Sheng, Hu; Liu, Hui; Dao, Xu; He, Cheng-Jie

    2010-11-01

    Various multivariate statistical methods including cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (DA), factor analysis (FA), and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to explain the spatial and temporal patterns of surface water pollution in Lake Dianchi. The dataset, obtained during the period 2003-2007 from the Kunming Environmental Monitoring Center, consisted of 12 variables surveyed monthly at eight sites. The CA grouped the 12 months into two groups, August-September and the remainder, and divided the lake into two regions based on their different physicochemical properties and pollution levels. The DA showed the best results for data reduction and pattern recognition in both temporal and spatial analysis. It calculated four parameters (TEMP, pH, CODMn, and Chl-a) to 85.4% correct assignment in the temporal analysis and three parameters (BOD, NH?+-N, and TN) to almost 71.7% correct assignment in spatial analysis of the two clusters. The FA/PCA applied to datasets of two special clusters of the lake calculated four factors for each region, capturing 72.5% and 62.5% of the total variance, respectively. Strong loadings included DO, BOD, TN, CODCr, CODMn, NH?+-N, TP, and EC. In addition, box-whisker plots and GIS further facilitated and supported the multivariate analysis results. PMID:19936953

  14. Bayesian finite Markov mixture model for temporal multi-tissue polygenic patterns.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yulan; Kelemen, Arpad

    2009-02-01

    Finite mixture models can provide the insights about behavioral patterns as a source of heterogeneity of the various dynamics of time course gene expression data by reducing the high dimensionality and making clear the major components of the underlying structure of the data in terms of the unobservable latent variables. The latent structure of the dynamic transition process of gene expression changes over time can be represented by Markov processes. This paper addresses key problems in the analysis of large gene expression data sets that describe systemic temporal response cascades and dynamic changes to therapeutic doses in multiple tissues, such as liver, skeletal muscle, and kidney from the same animals. Bayesian Finite Markov Mixture Model with a Dirichlet Prior is developed for the identifications of differentially expressed time related genes and dynamic clusters. Deviance information criterion is applied to determine the number of components for model comparisons and selections. The proposed Bayesian models are applied to multiple tissue polygenetic temporal gene expression data and compared to a Bayesian model-based clustering method, named CAGED. Results show that our proposed Bayesian Finite Markov Mixture model can well capture the dynamic changes and patterns for irregular complex temporal data. PMID:19197952

  15. Spatio-Temporal Pattern Analysis for Regional Climate Change Using Mathematical Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, M.; Ghosh, S. K.

    2015-07-01

    Of late, significant changes in climate with their grave consequences have posed great challenges on humankind. Thus, the detection and assessment of climatic changes on a regional scale is gaining importance, since it helps to adopt adequate mitigation and adaptation measures. In this paper, we have presented a novel approach for detecting spatio-temporal pattern of regional climate change by exploiting the theory of mathematical morphology. At first, the various climatic zones in the region have been identified by using multifractal cross-correlation analysis (MF-DXA) of different climate variables of interest. Then, the directional granulometry with four different structuring elements has been studied to detect the temporal changes in spatial distribution of the identified climatic zones in the region and further insights have been drawn with respect to morphological uncertainty index and Hurst exponent. The approach has been evaluated with the daily time series data of land surface temperature (LST) and precipitation rate, collected from Microsoft Research - Fetch Climate Explorer, to analyze the spatio-temporal climatic pattern-change in the Eastern and North-Eastern regions of India throughout four quarters of the 20th century.

  16. Statistical analysis on spatial and temporal patterns of the Chinese elderly population.

    PubMed

    Lai, D

    1999-01-01

    China contains over one-fifth of the world population. Over the past 20 years, the Chinese population has been ageing rapidly due to the dramatic family planning programs enforced by the Chinese government. These family planning programs have been implemented gradually during the last two decades and the programs implemented were varied from region to region. In this study, we statistically examined the spatial and temporal patterns of the processes of the Chinese elderly populations among the provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities (P/A/M) from 1953 to 1994. The D-statistic was used in assessing the spatial autocorrelation for the proportions of the elderly population of the 30 (29) P/A/M in the Chinese mainland. The simple T-statistic was used in measuring the temporal changes since 1953. The spatial and temporal patterns were statistically significant according to the testing statistics. We also found that the proportions of the elderly population were highly correlated with the population densities of the P/A/M. We linked these statistical results with the changes in the socio-economic situations since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949. PMID:18656104

  17. Identification of neural firing patterns, frequency and temporal coding mechanisms in individual aortic baroreceptors.

    PubMed

    Gu, Huaguang; Pan, Baobao

    2015-01-01

    In rabbit depressor nerve fibers, an on-off firing pattern, period-1 firing, and integer multiple firing with quiescent state were observed as the static pressure level was increased. A bursting pattern with bursts at the systolic phase of blood pressure, continuous firing, and bursting with burst at diastolic phase and quiescent state at systolic phase were observed as the mean level of the dynamic blood pressure was increased. For both static and dynamic pressures, the firing frequency of the first two firing patterns increased and of the last firing pattern decreased due to the quiescent state. If the quiescent state is disregarded, the spike frequency becomes an increasing trend. The instantaneous spike frequency of the systolic phase bursting, continuous firing, and diastolic phase bursting can reflect the temporal process of the systolic phase, whole procedure, and diastolic phase of the dynamic blood pressure signal, respectively. With increasing the static current corresponding to pressure level, the deterministic Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model manifests a process from a resting state first to period-1 firing via a subcritical Hopf bifurcation and then to a resting state via a supercritical Hopf bifurcation, and the firing frequency increases. The on-off firing and integer multiple firing were here identified as noise-induced firing patterns near the subcritical and supercritical Hopf bifurcation points, respectively, using the stochastic HH model. The systolic phase bursting and diastolic phase bursting were identified as pressure-induced firings near the subcritical and supercritical Hopf bifurcation points, respectively, using an HH model with a dynamic signal. The firing, spike frequency, and instantaneous spike frequency observed in the experiment were simulated and explained using HH models. The results illustrate the dynamics of different firing patterns and the frequency and temporal coding mechanisms of aortic baroreceptor. PMID:26379539

  18. Identification of neural firing patterns, frequency and temporal coding mechanisms in individual aortic baroreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Huaguang; Pan, Baobao

    2015-01-01

    In rabbit depressor nerve fibers, an on-off firing pattern, period-1 firing, and integer multiple firing with quiescent state were observed as the static pressure level was increased. A bursting pattern with bursts at the systolic phase of blood pressure, continuous firing, and bursting with burst at diastolic phase and quiescent state at systolic phase were observed as the mean level of the dynamic blood pressure was increased. For both static and dynamic pressures, the firing frequency of the first two firing patterns increased and of the last firing pattern decreased due to the quiescent state. If the quiescent state is disregarded, the spike frequency becomes an increasing trend. The instantaneous spike frequency of the systolic phase bursting, continuous firing, and diastolic phase bursting can reflect the temporal process of the systolic phase, whole procedure, and diastolic phase of the dynamic blood pressure signal, respectively. With increasing the static current corresponding to pressure level, the deterministic Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model manifests a process from a resting state first to period-1 firing via a subcritical Hopf bifurcation and then to a resting state via a supercritical Hopf bifurcation, and the firing frequency increases. The on-off firing and integer multiple firing were here identified as noise-induced firing patterns near the subcritical and supercritical Hopf bifurcation points, respectively, using the stochastic HH model. The systolic phase bursting and diastolic phase bursting were identified as pressure-induced firings near the subcritical and supercritical Hopf bifurcation points, respectively, using an HH model with a dynamic signal. The firing, spike frequency, and instantaneous spike frequency observed in the experiment were simulated and explained using HH models. The results illustrate the dynamics of different firing patterns and the frequency and temporal coding mechanisms of aortic baroreceptor. PMID:26379539

  19. Temporal organization of an anuran acoustic community in a Taiwanese subtropical forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hsu, M.-Y.; Kam, Y.-C.; Fellers, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    We recorded anuran vocalizations in each of four habitats at Lien Hua Chih Field Station, Taiwan, between July 2000 and July 2001. For each 27 biweekly sample, eight recorders taped calls for 1 min out of every 11 between the hours of 17:00 and 07:00. We obtained 11 481 recordings with calls, and identified 21 503 frogs or groups of frogs. These included 20 species, with an average of 10.4??3.5 species calling each night. Some species called year round, others called in the spring and summer, and a third group called only in the fall and winter. The number of species calling and the maximum calling intensity were correlated with both rainfall and air temperature. The nightly pattern of calling varied among species. Most species called continuously throughout the night, whereas some had a peak right after dusk. A few species had different nightly calling patterns in different habitats. Both Rana limnocharis and Rana kuhlii changed their calling pattern in the presence of large choruses of other anuran species. ?? 2006 The Authors.

  20. Comparison of real-time phase-reconstruction methods in temporal speckle-pattern interferometry.

    PubMed

    Etchepareborda, Pablo; Bianchetti, Arturo; Veiras, Francisco E; Vadnjal, Ana Laura; Federico, Alejandro; Kaufmann, Guillermo H

    2015-09-01

    Three real-time methods for object-phase recovery are implemented and compared in temporal speckle-pattern interferometry. Empirical mode and intrinsic time-scale decompositions are used and compared as real-time nonstationary and nonlinear filtering techniques for the extraction of the spatio-temporal evolution of the object phase. The proposed real-time methods avoid the application of the Hilbert transform and improve the accuracy of the measurement by filtering under-modulated pixels using Delaunay triangulation. The performance of the proposed methods is evaluated by comparing phase-recovery accuracy and computation time by means of numerical simulations and experimental data obtained from common and simultaneous ?/2 phase-shifting heterodyne interferometry. PMID:26368890

  1. Temporal phase-unwrapping of static surfaces with 2-sensitivity fringe-patterns.

    PubMed

    Servin, Manuel; Padilla, J M; Gonzalez, Adonai; Garnica, Guillermo

    2015-06-15

    Here we describe a 2-step temporal phase unwrapping formula that uses 2-sensitivity demodulated phases for measuring static surfaces. The first phase demodulation has at most 1-wavelength sensitivity and the second one is G-times (G>1.0) more sensitive. Measuring static surfaces with 2-sensitivity fringe patterns is well known and recent published methods combine 2-sensitivities measurements mostly by triangulation. Two important applications for our 2-step unwrapping algorithm is profilometry and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry. In these two applications the object or surface being analyzed is static and highly discontinuous; so temporal unwrapping is the best strategy to follow. Phase-demodulation in profilometry and SAR interferometry is very similar because both share similar mathematical models. PMID:26193559

  2. Temporal and spatial patterns in vegetation and atmospheric properties from AVIRIS

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.A.; Green, R.O.; Adams, J.B.

    1997-12-01

    Little research has focused on the use of imaging spectrometry for change detection. In this paper, the authors apply Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data to the monitoring of seasonal changes in atmospheric water vapor, liquid water, and surface cover in the vicinity of the Jasper Ridge, CA, for three dates in 1992. Apparent surface reflectance was retrieved and water vapor and liquid water mapped by using a radiative-transfer-based inversion that accounts for spatially variable atmospheres. Spectral mixture analysis (SMA) was used to model reflectance data as mixtures of green vegetation (GV), nonphotosynthetic vegetation (NPV), soil, and shade. Temporal and spatial patterns in endmember fractions and liquid water were compared to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The reflectance retrieval algorithm was tested by using a temporally invariant target.

  3. Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon storage in forest ecosystems on Hainan island, southern China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hai; Li, Linjun; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Xu; Li, Yide; Hui, Dafeng; Jian, Shuguang; Wang, Jun; Yang, Huai; Lu, Hongfang; Zhou, Guoyi; Tang, Xuli; Zhang, Qianmei; Wang, Dong; Yuan, Lianlian; Chen, Xubing

    2014-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon (C) storage in forest ecosystems significantly affect the terrestrial C budget, but such patterns are unclear in the forests in Hainan Province, the largest tropical island in China. Here, we estimated the spatial and temporal patterns of C storage from 1993-2008 in Hainan's forest ecosystems by combining our measured data with four consecutive national forest inventories data. Forest coverage increased from 20.7% in the 1950s to 56.4% in the 2010s. The average C density of 163.7 Mg C/ha in Hainan's forest ecosystems in this study was slightly higher than that of China's mainland forests, but was remarkably lower than that in the tropical forests worldwide. Total forest ecosystem C storage in Hainan increased from 109.51 Tg in 1993 to 279.17 Tg in 2008. Soil C accounted for more than 70% of total forest ecosystem C. The spatial distribution of forest C storage in Hainan was uneven, reflecting differences in land use change and forest management. The potential carbon sequestration of forest ecosystems was 77.3 Tg C if all forested lands were restored to natural tropical forests. To increase the C sequestration potential on Hainan Island, future forest management should focus on the conservation of natural forests, selection of tree species, planting of understory species, and implementation of sustainable practices. PMID:25229628

  4. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Carbon Storage in Forest Ecosystems on Hainan Island, Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xuli; Zhang, Qianmei; Wang, Dong; Yuan, Lianlian; Chen, Xubing

    2014-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon (C) storage in forest ecosystems significantly affect the terrestrial C budget, but such patterns are unclear in the forests in Hainan Province, the largest tropical island in China. Here, we estimated the spatial and temporal patterns of C storage from 1993–2008 in Hainan's forest ecosystems by combining our measured data with four consecutive national forest inventories data. Forest coverage increased from 20.7% in the 1950s to 56.4% in the 2010s. The average C density of 163.7 Mg C/ha in Hainan's forest ecosystems in this study was slightly higher than that of China's mainland forests, but was remarkably lower than that in the tropical forests worldwide. Total forest ecosystem C storage in Hainan increased from 109.51 Tg in 1993 to 279.17 Tg in 2008. Soil C accounted for more than 70% of total forest ecosystem C. The spatial distribution of forest C storage in Hainan was uneven, reflecting differences in land use change and forest management. The potential carbon sequestration of forest ecosystems was 77.3 Tg C if all forested lands were restored to natural tropical forests. To increase the C sequestration potential on Hainan Island, future forest management should focus on the conservation of natural forests, selection of tree species, planting of understory species, and implementation of sustainable practices. PMID:25229628

  5. Mitral cell temporal response patterns evoked by odor mixtures in the rat olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Giraudet, Pascale; Berthommier, Frédéric; Chaput, Michel

    2002-08-01

    Mammals generally have the ability to extract odor information contained in complex mixtures of molecular components. However, odor mixture processing has been studied electrophysiologically only in insects, crustaceans, and fish. As a first step toward a better understanding of this processing in high vertebrates, we studied the representation of odor mixtures in the rat olfactory bulb, i.e., the second-order level of the olfactory pathways. We compared the single-unit responses of mitral cells, the main cells of the olfactory bulb, to pure odors and to their binary mixtures. Eighty-six mitral cells were recorded in anesthetized freely breathing rats stimulated with five odorants and their 10 binary mixtures. The spontaneous activity and the odor-evoked responses were characterized by their temporal distribution of activity along the respiratory cycle, i.e., by cycle-triggered histograms. Ninety percent of the mixtures were found to evoke a response when at least one of their two components evoked a response. Mixture-evoked patterns were analyzed to describe the modalities of the combination of patterns evoked by the two components. In most of the cases, the mixture pattern was closely similar to one of the component patterns. This dominance of a component over the other one was related to the responsiveness of the cell to the individual components of the mixture, to the molecular nature of the stimulus, and to the coarse shape of individual response patterns. This suggests that the components of binary mixtures may be encoded simultaneously by different odor-specific temporal distributions of activity. PMID:12163534

  6. TEMPORAL PATTERNS IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE AND ACTIVITY OF SCHOOLS OF THE ATLANTIC SILVERSIDE 'MENIDIA MENIDIA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Temporal patterns in the structure and activity of schools of the Atlantic silverside Menidia menidia were investigated under laboratory conditions using a new computerized video technique for three-dimensional analysis. Fish were collected by seining at Middle Bridge, Pettaquans...

  7. Spatial patterns of water diffusion along white matter tracts in temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Concha, Luis; Kim, Hosung; Bernasconi, Andrea; Bernhardt, Boris C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography has shown tract-specific pathology in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). This technique normally yields a single value per diffusion parameter per tract, potentially reducing the sensitivity for the detection of focal changes. Our goal was to spatially characterize diffusion abnormalities of fasciculi carrying temporal lobe connections. Methods: We studied 30 patients with drug-resistant TLE and 21 healthy control subjects. Twenty-four patients underwent DTI toward the end of video-EEG telemetry, with an average of 50 54 hours between the last seizure and DTI examination. After manual dissection of the uncinate and inferior longitudinal and arcuate bundle, they were spatially matched based on their distance to the temporal lobe, providing between-subject correspondence of tract segments. We evaluated point-wise differences in diffusion parameters along each tract at group and subject levels. Results: Our approach localized increased mean diffusivity restricted to or more prominent within the ipsilateral temporal lobe. These abnormalities tapered off as tracts exited the temporal lobe. We observed that the shorter the interval between the last seizure and DTI, the higher the mean diffusivity (MD) of the ipsilateral tracts. Linear discriminant analysis of tract segments correctly lateralized 87% of patients. Conclusions: The centrifugal pattern of white matter diffusion abnormalities probably reflects astrogliosis and microstructure derangement related to seizure activity in the vicinity of the focus. The negative correlation between the interval from last seizure and MD suggests a role for postictal vasogenic edema. The ability to assess tracts segmentally may contribute to a better understanding of the extent of white matter pathology in epilepsy and assist in the presurgical evaluation of patients with TLE, particularly those with unremarkable conventional imaging results. PMID:22815555

  8. The Power of the Variogram for Characterising Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Streamflow Variability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiverton, A.; Hannaford, J.; Holman, I.; Corstanje, R.; Prudhomme, C.; Hess, T.; Bloomfield, J.

    2014-12-01

    Variograms are widely used in spatial statistics, as a way of examining correlations between points in space, but also have potential for application to temporal data. A variogram provides a robust and flexible way to quantify the temporal dependence (or autocorrelation, i.e. the dependence of flow on a given day with previous days) in daily river flow time series. There are, however, very few published examples of variogram techniques applied to hydrological datasets. The power of the variogram lies in its ability to characterise temporal dependence and, as such, describe the precipitation-to-flow relationship; as this is largely controlled by the catchment characteristics (e.g. elevation, soil type, rock type and land cover), it opens up a range of applications for characterising spatial patterns of streamflow regimes, as well as the dynamics of streamflow over time. This presentation describes a novel variogram-based method for investigating the influence that catchment characteristics have on moderating how streamflow responds to temporal changes in precipitation for a set of 116 catchments from across the UK. In the new approach, catchments are first classified based on the shape of streamflow variograms, with the classes being predictable based on catchment characteristics. The classification method therefore sheds light on how spatial variations in landscape properties influence the precipitation-to-flow relationship, and has significant potential for un-gauged site applications. Temporal variability is then assessed using a moving-window approach to index changes in variogram parameters over time, with a key benefit of the method being that different variogram parameters capture distinct aspects of the changing flow regime. Results demonstrate that precipitation alone cannot explain the variation in flow responses: catchment characteristics have a substantial role in moderating how a river responds to climatic variability, with the findings paving the way for assessments of the varying sensitivity of UK catchments to future streamflow change.

  9. Spatio-temporal foraging patterns of a giant zooplanktivore, the leatherback turtle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossette, Sabrina; Hobson, Victoria J.; Girard, Charlotte; Calmettes, Beatriz; Gaspar, Philippe; Georges, Jean-Yves; Hays, Graeme C.

    2010-05-01

    Understanding food web functioning through the study of natural bio-indicators may constitute a valuable and original approach. In the context of jellyfish proliferation in many overexploited marine ecosystems studying the spatio-temporal foraging patterns of the giant "jellyvore" leatherback turtle turns out to be particularly relevant. Here we analyzed long-term tracking data to assess spatio-temporal foraging patterns in 21 leatherback turtles during their pluri-annual migration in the Northern Atlantic. Through an analytical approach based on the animal's own motion (independent of currents) and diving behavior distinct zones of high and low foraging success were identified. High foraging success occurred in a sub-equatorial zone spanning the width of the Atlantic and at high (>30°N) latitudes. Between these zones in the centre of North Atlantic gyre there was low foraging success. This "ocean desert" area was traversed at high speed by leatherbacks on their way to more productive areas at higher latitudes. Animals traveled slowly in high foraging success areas and dived shallower (17.2 ± 8.0 km day - 1 and 53.6 ± 33.1 m mean ± SD respectively) than in low foraging success areas (51.0 ± 13.1 km day - 1 and 81.8 ± 56.2 m mean ± SD respectively). These spatio-temporal foraging patterns seem to relatively closely match the main features of the integrated meso-zooplankton distribution in the North Atlantic. Our method of defining high foraging success areas is intuitive and relatively easy to implement but also takes into account the impact of oceanic currents on animal's behavior.

  10. The impact of spatial and temporal patterns on multi-cellular behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolic, Djordje L.

    What makes a fruit fly a fruit fly? Essentially this question stems from one of the most fascinating problems in biology: how a single cell (fertilized egg) can give rise to a fully grown animal. To be able to answer this question, the importance to how spatial and temporal patterns of gene and protein expression influence the development of an organism must be understood. After all, fruit fly larvae are segmented, while fertilized eggs are not. Pattern formation is fundamental to establishing this organization of the developing embryo with the ultimate goal being the precise arrangements of specialized cells and tissues within each organ in an adult organism. The research presented here showcases the examples of studies that assess the impact spatial and temporal protein patterns have on the behavior of a collection of cells. By introducing new experimental, non-traditional techniques we developed model systems that allowed us to examine the dependence of the strength of adhesion of cells on the protein organization on sub-cellular, micron length scales, and to investigate how epithelial cell sheets coordinate their migration incorporating individual cell locomotion, molecular signal propagation and different boundary conditions. The first part of this dissertation presents a photolithography-based silanization patterning technique that allowed us to homogeneously pattern large areas with high precision. This method is then applied to organizing cell adhesion-promoting proteins on surfaces for the purposes of studying and manipulating cell behavior. We show how the strength of adhesion is dependent on high local density of an adhesive extracellular matrix protein fibronectin. The varied appeal of this technique is exhibited by showing its applicability to pattern stretched DNA, too. The second part of this dissertation focuses on the impact of spatial and temporal propagation of a molecular signal (ERK 1/2 MAPK) in migrating epithelial sheets during wound healing. By tracking the motion of individual cells within the sheet under the three constructed conditions, we show how the dynamics of the individual cells' motion is responsible for the coordinated migration of the sheet in accordance with the activation of ERK 1/2 MAPK.

  11. A polarized digital shearing speckle pattern interferometry system based on temporal wavelet transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ziang; Gao, Zhan; Zhang, Xiaoqiong; Wang, Shengjia; Yang, Dong; Yuan, Hao; Qin, Jie

    2015-09-01

    Digital shearing speckle pattern interferometry (DSSPI) has been recognized as a practical tool in testing strain. The DSSPI system which is based on temporal analysis is attractive because of its ability to measure strain dynamically. In this paper, such a DSSPI system with Wollaston prism has been built. The principles and system arrangement are described and the preliminary experimental result of the displacement-derivative test of an aluminum plate is shown with the wavelet transformation method and the Fourier transformation method. The simulations have been conducted with the finite element method. The comparison of the results shows that quantitative measurement of displacement-derivative has been realized.

  12. Global Spatio-temporal Patterns of Influenza in the Post-pandemic Era

    PubMed Central

    He, Daihai; Lui, Roger; Wang, Lin; Tse, Chi Kong; Yang, Lin; Stone, Lewi

    2015-01-01

    We study the global spatio-temporal patterns of influenza dynamics. This is achieved by analysing and modelling weekly laboratory confirmed cases of influenza A and B from 138 countries between January 2006 and January 2015. The data were obtained from FluNet, the surveillance network compiled by the the World Health Organization. We report a pattern of skip-and-resurgence behavior between the years 2011 and 2013 for influenza H1N1pdm, the strain responsible for the 2009 pandemic, in Europe and Eastern Asia. In particular, the expected H1N1pdm epidemic outbreak in 2011/12 failed to occur (or skipped) in many countries across the globe, although an outbreak occurred in the following year. We also report a pattern of well-synchronized wave of H1N1pdm in early 2011 in the Northern Hemisphere countries, and a pattern of replacement of strain H1N1pre by H1N1pdm between the 2009 and 2012 influenza seasons. Using both a statistical and a mechanistic mathematical model, and through fitting the data of 108 countries, we discuss the mechanisms that are likely to generate these events taking into account the role of multi-strain dynamics. A basic understanding of these patterns has important public health implications and scientific significance. PMID:26046930

  13. Global Spatio-temporal Patterns of Influenza in the Post-pandemic Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Daihai; Lui, Roger; Wang, Lin; Tse, Chi Kong; Yang, Lin; Stone, Lewi

    2015-06-01

    We study the global spatio-temporal patterns of influenza dynamics. This is achieved by analysing and modelling weekly laboratory confirmed cases of influenza A and B from 138 countries between January 2006 and January 2015. The data were obtained from FluNet, the surveillance network compiled by the the World Health Organization. We report a pattern of skip-and-resurgence behavior between the years 2011 and 2013 for influenza H1N1pdm, the strain responsible for the 2009 pandemic, in Europe and Eastern Asia. In particular, the expected H1N1pdm epidemic outbreak in 2011/12 failed to occur (or “skipped”) in many countries across the globe, although an outbreak occurred in the following year. We also report a pattern of well-synchronized wave of H1N1pdm in early 2011 in the Northern Hemisphere countries, and a pattern of replacement of strain H1N1pre by H1N1pdm between the 2009 and 2012 influenza seasons. Using both a statistical and a mechanistic mathematical model, and through fitting the data of 108 countries, we discuss the mechanisms that are likely to generate these events taking into account the role of multi-strain dynamics. A basic understanding of these patterns has important public health implications and scientific significance.

  14. Spatio-temporal patterns of road traffic noise pollution in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Mohammed Raza; Kim, Minho; Seong, Jeong Chang; Arsalan, Mudassar Hassan

    2011-01-01

    We studied the spatial and temporal patterns of noise exposure due to road traffic in Karachi City, Pakistan, and found that levels of noise were generally higher during mornings and evenings because of the commuting pattern of Karachi residents. This study found the average value of noise levels to be over 66 dB, which could cause serious annoyance according to the World Health Organization (WHO) outdoor noise guidelines. Maximum peak noise was over 101 dB, which is close to 110 dB, the level that can cause possible hearing impairment according to the WHO guidelines. We found that noise pollution is not an environmental problem reserved for developed countries, but occurs in developing countries as well. For this reason, steps might be required to reduce noise levels caused by road traffic. PMID:20851468

  15. Spatial and temporal patterns of dengue in Guangdong province of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenggang; Yang, Weizhong; Fan, Jingchun; Wang, Furong; Jiang, Baofa; Liu, Qiyong

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the spatial and temporal patterns of dengue in Guangdong for 1978 to 2010. Time series analysis was performed using data on annual dengue incidence in Guangdong province for 1978-2010. Annual average dengue incidences for each city were mapped for 4 periods by using the geographical information system (GIS). Hot spot analysis was used to identify spatial patterns of dengue cases for 2005-2010 by using the CrimeStat III software. The incidence of dengue in Guangdong province had fallen steadily from 1978 to 2010. The time series was a random sequence without regularity and with no fixed cycle. The geographic range of dengue fever had expanded from 1978 to 2010. Cases were mostly concentrated in Zhanjiang and the developed regions of Pearl River Delta and Shantou. PMID:23467628

  16. Spatio-temporal EEG power spectral patterns during a short daytime nap.

    PubMed

    Luo, Z; Honda, K; Inou, S

    2001-06-01

    This is an approach to investigate topographic changes in electroencephalographic (EEG) spectral power during pre- and post-nap wakefulness as well as stages 1 (S1) and 2 (S2) NREM sleep in 12 subjects. Delta- and theta-band power significantly increased in the frontal and central regions during S1 and S2 with an increase in inter- and intra-hemispheric correlations. Beta-band power significantly increased in the frontal, central and parietal regions during S2 with an increase in interhemispheric correlation. In contrast, alpha-band power significantly decreased in the parietal-occipital regions during S1 and S2 with a decrease in interhemispheric correlation. Thus, daytime nap modulated spatio-temporal patterns of EEG power spectral patterns in wide scalp regions. PMID:11422838

  17. Altered temporal patterns of anxiety in aged and amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Bedrosian, Tracy A.; Herring, Kamillya L.; Weil, Zachary M.; Nelson, Randy J.

    2011-01-01

    Both normal aging and dementia are associated with dysregulation of the biological clock, which contributes to disrupted circadian organization of physiology and behavior. Diminished circadian organization in conjunction with the loss of cholinergic input to the cortex likely contributes to impaired cognition and behavior. One especially notable and relatively common circadian disturbance among the aged is sundowning syndrome, which is characterized by exacerbated anxiety, agitation, locomotor activity, and delirium during the hours before bedtime. Sundowning has been reported in both dementia patients and cognitively intact elderly individuals living in institutions; however, little is known about temporal patterns in anxiety and agitation, and the neurobiological basis of these rhythms remains unspecified. In the present study, we explored the diurnal pattern of anxiety-like behavior in aged and amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice. We then attempted to treat the observed behavioral disturbances in the aged mice using chronic nightly melatonin treatment. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that time-of-day differences in acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase expression and general neuronal activation (i.e., c-Fos expression) coincide with the behavioral symptoms. Our results show a temporal pattern of anxiety-like behavior that emerges in elderly mice. This behavioral pattern coincides with elevated locomotor activity relative to adult mice near the end of the dark phase, and with time-dependent changes in basal forebrain acetylcholinesterase expression. Transgenic APP mice show a similar behavioral phenomenon that is not observed among age-matched wild-type mice. These results may have useful applications to the study and treatment of age- and dementia-related circadian behavioral disturbances, namely, sundowning syndrome. PMID:21709248

  18. Altered temporal patterns of anxiety in aged and amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Bedrosian, Tracy A; Herring, Kamillya L; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2011-07-12

    Both normal aging and dementia are associated with dysregulation of the biological clock, which contributes to disrupted circadian organization of physiology and behavior. Diminished circadian organization in conjunction with the loss of cholinergic input to the cortex likely contributes to impaired cognition and behavior. One especially notable and relatively common circadian disturbance among the aged is "sundowning syndrome," which is characterized by exacerbated anxiety, agitation, locomotor activity, and delirium during the hours before bedtime. Sundowning has been reported in both dementia patients and cognitively intact elderly individuals living in institutions; however, little is known about temporal patterns in anxiety and agitation, and the neurobiological basis of these rhythms remains unspecified. In the present study, we explored the diurnal pattern of anxiety-like behavior in aged and amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice. We then attempted to treat the observed behavioral disturbances in the aged mice using chronic nightly melatonin treatment. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that time-of-day differences in acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase expression and general neuronal activation (i.e., c-Fos expression) coincide with the behavioral symptoms. Our results show a temporal pattern of anxiety-like behavior that emerges in elderly mice. This behavioral pattern coincides with elevated locomotor activity relative to adult mice near the end of the dark phase, and with time-dependent changes in basal forebrain acetylcholinesterase expression. Transgenic APP mice show a similar behavioral phenomenon that is not observed among age-matched wild-type mice. These results may have useful applications to the study and treatment of age- and dementia-related circadian behavioral disturbances, namely, sundowning syndrome. PMID:21709248

  19. Spatial and temporal patterns of proliferation and differentiation in the developing turtle eye.

    PubMed

    Francisco-Morcillo, Javier; Hidalgo-Snchez, Matas; Martn-Partido, Gervasio

    2006-08-01

    Here we show for the first time different aspects of the pattern of neurogenesis in the developing turtle retina by using different morphological and molecular clues. We show the chronotopographical fashion of occurrence of three major aspects of retinal development: (1) morphogenesis of the optic primordia and emergence of the different retinal layers, (2) the temporal progression of neurogenesis by the cessation of proliferative activity, and (3) the apparition and cellular localization of different antigens and neuroactive substances. Retinal cells were generated in a conserved temporal order with ganglion cells born first, followed by amacrine, photoreceptor, horizontal and bipolar/Mller cells. While eventually expressed in many types of retinal neurons, Islet1 was permanently expressed in differentiating and mature ganglion cells. Calbindin-immunoreactive elements were found in the ganglion cell layer and the inner nuclear layer. Interestingly, at later stages the amount of expressing cells in these layers was reduced dramatically. On the contrary, the number of calbindin-immunoreactive photoreceptors increased as development proceeded. In addition, calretinin expressing cells were prominent in the horizontal cell bodies, and their processes extending into the outer plexiform layer were also strongly labeled. Finally, the synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was detected in developing and matured horizontal and amacrine cells. All these maturational features began in the dorso-central area, in a region slightly displaced towards the temporal retina. PMID:16797493

  20. Learning complex temporal patterns with resource-dependent spike timing-dependent plasticity.

    PubMed

    Hunzinger, Jason F; Chan, Victor H; Froemke, Robert C

    2012-07-01

    Studies of spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) have revealed that long-term changes in the strength of a synapse may be modulated substantially by temporal relationships between multiple presynaptic and postsynaptic spikes. Whereas long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic strength have been modeled as distinct or separate functional mechanisms, here, we propose a new shared resource model. A functional consequence of our model is fast, stable, and diverse unsupervised learning of temporal multispike patterns with a biologically consistent spiking neural network. Due to interdependencies between LTP and LTD, dendritic delays, and proactive homeostatic aspects of the model, neurons are equipped to learn to decode temporally coded information within spike bursts. Moreover, neurons learn spike timing with few exposures in substantial noise and jitter. Surprisingly, despite having only one parameter, the model also accurately predicts in vitro observations of STDP in more complex multispike trains, as well as rate-dependent effects. We discuss candidate commonalities in natural long-term plasticity mechanisms. PMID:22496526

  1. Learning complex temporal patterns with resource-dependent spike timing-dependent plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Victor H.; Froemke, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) have revealed that long-term changes in the strength of a synapse may be modulated substantially by temporal relationships between multiple presynaptic and postsynaptic spikes. Whereas long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic strength have been modeled as distinct or separate functional mechanisms, here, we propose a new shared resource model. A functional consequence of our model is fast, stable, and diverse unsupervised learning of temporal multispike patterns with a biologically consistent spiking neural network. Due to interdependencies between LTP and LTD, dendritic delays, and proactive homeostatic aspects of the model, neurons are equipped to learn to decode temporally coded information within spike bursts. Moreover, neurons learn spike timing with few exposures in substantial noise and jitter. Surprisingly, despite having only one parameter, the model also accurately predicts in vitro observations of STDP in more complex multispike trains, as well as rate-dependent effects. We discuss candidate commonalities in natural long-term plasticity mechanisms. PMID:22496526

  2. A framework for the assessment of the spatial and temporal patterns of threatened coastal delphinids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingzhen; Yang, Yingting; Yang, Feng; Li, Yuelin; Li, Lianjie; Lin, Derun; He, Tangtian; Liang, Bo; Zhang, Tao; Lin, Yao; Li, Ping; Liu, Wenhua

    2016-01-01

    The massively accelerated biodiversity loss rate in the Anthropocene calls for an efficient and effective way to identify the spatial and temporal dynamics of endangered species. To this end, we developed a useful identification framework based on a case study of locally endangered Sousa chinensis by combining both LEK (local ecological knowledge) evaluation and regional boat-based survey methods. Our study investigated the basic ecological information of Sousa chinensis in the estuaries of eastern Guangdong that had previously been neglected, which could guide the future study and conservation. Based on the statistical testing of reported spatial and temporal dolphins sighting data from fishermen and the ecological monitoring analyses, including sighting rate, site fidelity and residence time estimations, some of the current Sousa chinensis units are likely to be geographically isolated and critically endangered, which calls for much greater conservation efforts. Given the accelerated population extinction rate and increasing budgetary constraints, our survey pattern can be applied in a timely and economically acceptable manner to the spatial and temporal assessment of other threatened coastal delphinids, particularly when population distributions are on a large scale and traditional sampling methods are difficult to implement. PMID:26804347

  3. Spatial and temporal patterns in civil violence: Guatemala, 1977-1986.

    PubMed

    Gulden, Timothy R

    2002-03-01

    Civil violence is a complex and often horrific phenomenon whose characteristics have varied by era, setting, and circumstance. Its objective analysis has rarely been feasible at spatial and temporal scales great enough and resolutions fine enough to reveal patterns useful in prevention, intervention, or adjudication. An extraordinary data set simultaneously meeting scale and resolution criteria was collected during conflict in Guatemala from 1977 through 1986. Reported here is its spatial-temporal analysis; reported as well is a putatively novel method for estimating power-law exponents from aggregate data. Analysis showed that the relationship between ethnic mix and killing was smooth yet highly nonlinear, that the temporal texture of killings was rough, and that the distribution of killing-event sizes was dichotomous, with nongenocidal and genocidal conflict periods displaying Zipf and non-Zipf distributions, respectively. These results add statistical support to claims that the Guatemalan military operated under at least two directives with respect to killing and that one of these effected a genocidal campaign against an indigenous people, the Mayans. Implications for group-behavioral modeling, conflict prevention, peace-keeping intervention, human-rights monitoring, and transitional justice are noted. PMID:16859341

  4. Spatial and temporal patterns of hydrologic connectivity between upland landscapes and stream networks (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlynn, B. L.; Nippgen, F.; Jencso, K. G.; Emanuel, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    Congress enacted the Clean Water Act (CWA) 'to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters'. A recent Supreme Court decision further described protection for waters with 'a significant nexus to navigable waters" if they are in the same watershed and have an effect on the chemical, physical, or biological integrity of traditional navigable waters or interstate waters that is more than 'speculative or insubstantial.' Evolving interpretation of the CWA and 'significant nexus' (connectivity) requires investigation and understanding of the spatial and temporal patterns of hydrologic connectivity between upland landscapes and stream networks that mediate streamflow magnitude and composition. While hydrologic connectivity is a continuum, strong non-linearities including the shift from unsaturated to saturated flow conditions lead to threshold or transient connectivity behavior and orders of magnitude changes in flow velocities and source water compositions. Here we illustrate the spatial and temporal dynamics of hydrologic connectivity between upland landscapes and stream networks that provide direct and proximate links between streamflow composition and its watershed sources. We suggest that adjacency alone does not determine influence on hydrologic response and streamwater composition and that new understanding and communication of the temporal and spatial dynamics of watershed connectivity are required to address urgent needs at the interface of the CWA, science, and society.

  5. Spatial and temporal patterns of hydrologic connectivity between upland landscapes and stream networks (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L.; Qi, Z.; Helmers, M. J.; Ahuja, L. R.; Malone, R. W.

    2011-12-01

    Congress enacted the Clean Water Act (CWA) 'to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters'. A recent Supreme Court decision further described protection for waters with 'a significant nexus to navigable waters" if they are in the same watershed and have an effect on the chemical, physical, or biological integrity of traditional navigable waters or interstate waters that is more than 'speculative or insubstantial.' Evolving interpretation of the CWA and 'significant nexus' (connectivity) requires investigation and understanding of the spatial and temporal patterns of hydrologic connectivity between upland landscapes and stream networks that mediate streamflow magnitude and composition. While hydrologic connectivity is a continuum, strong non-linearities including the shift from unsaturated to saturated flow conditions lead to threshold or transient connectivity behavior and orders of magnitude changes in flow velocities and source water compositions. Here we illustrate the spatial and temporal dynamics of hydrologic connectivity between upland landscapes and stream networks that provide direct and proximate links between streamflow composition and its watershed sources. We suggest that adjacency alone does not determine influence on hydrologic response and streamwater composition and that new understanding and communication of the temporal and spatial dynamics of watershed connectivity are required to address urgent needs at the interface of the CWA, science, and society.

  6. Spatial and temporal patterns of hydrologic connectivity between upland landscapes and stream networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlynn, B. L.; Jencso, K. G.; Nippgen, F.; Emanuel, R. E.; Marshall, L. A.; Gooseff, M. N.

    2012-12-01

    Congress enacted the Clean Water Act (CWA) "to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters". A recent Supreme Court decision further described protection for waters with "a significant nexus to navigable waters" if they are in the same watershed and have an effect on the chemical, physical, or biological integrity of traditional navigable waters or interstate waters that is more than "speculative or insubstantial." Evolving interpretation of the CWA and "significant nexus" (connectivity) requires investigation and understanding of the spatial and temporal patterns of hydrologic connectivity between upland landscapes and stream networks that mediate streamflow magnitude and composition. While, hydrologic connectivity is a continuum, strong non-linearities including the shift from unsaturated to saturated flow conditions lead to threshold or transient connectivity behavior and orders of magnitude changes in flow velocities. Here we illustrate the spatial and temporal dynamics of hydrologic connectivity between upland landscapes and stream networks that provide direct and proximate links between streamflow composition and its watershed sources. New understanding and communication of the temporal and spatial scales of watershed connectivity are required to address urgent needs at the interface of the CWA, science, and society.

  7. A framework for the assessment of the spatial and temporal patterns of threatened coastal delphinids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingzhen; Yang, Yingting; Yang, Feng; Li, Yuelin; Li, Lianjie; Lin, Derun; He, Tangtian; Liang, Bo; Zhang, Tao; Lin, Yao; Li, Ping; Liu, Wenhua

    2016-01-01

    The massively accelerated biodiversity loss rate in the Anthropocene calls for an efficient and effective way to identify the spatial and temporal dynamics of endangered species. To this end, we developed a useful identification framework based on a case study of locally endangered Sousa chinensis by combining both LEK (local ecological knowledge) evaluation and regional boat-based survey methods. Our study investigated the basic ecological information of Sousa chinensis in the estuaries of eastern Guangdong that had previously been neglected, which could guide the future study and conservation. Based on the statistical testing of reported spatial and temporal dolphins sighting data from fishermen and the ecological monitoring analyses, including sighting rate, site fidelity and residence time estimations, some of the current Sousa chinensis units are likely to be geographically isolated and critically endangered, which calls for much greater conservation efforts. Given the accelerated population extinction rate and increasing budgetary constraints, our survey pattern can be applied in a timely and economically acceptable manner to the spatial and temporal assessment of other threatened coastal delphinids, particularly when population distributions are on a large scale and traditional sampling methods are difficult to implement.

  8. Knowledge-level querying of temporal patterns in clinical research systems.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Martin J; Shankar, Ravi D; Parrish, David B; Das, Amar K

    2007-01-01

    Managing time-stamped data is essential to clinical research activities and often requires the use of considerable domain knowledge. Adequately representing this domain knowledge is difficult in relational database systems. As a result, there is a need for principled methods to overcome the disconnect between the database representation of time-oriented research data and corresponding knowledge of domain-relevant concepts. In this paper, we present a set of methodologies for undertaking knowledge level querying of temporal patterns, and discuss its application to the verification of temporal constraints in clinical-trial applications. Our approach allows knowledge generated from query results to be tied to the data and, if necessary, used for further inference. We show how the Semantic Web ontology and rule languages, OWL and SWRL, respectively, can support the temporal knowledge model needed to integrate low-level representations of relational data with high-level domain concepts used in research data management. We present a scalable bridge-based software architecture that uses this knowledge model to enable dynamic querying of time-oriented research data. PMID:17911729

  9. A framework for the assessment of the spatial and temporal patterns of threatened coastal delphinids

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingzhen; Yang, Yingting; Yang, Feng; Li, Yuelin; Li, Lianjie; Lin, Derun; He, Tangtian; Liang, Bo; Zhang, Tao; Lin, Yao; Li, Ping; Liu, Wenhua

    2016-01-01

    The massively accelerated biodiversity loss rate in the Anthropocene calls for an efficient and effective way to identify the spatial and temporal dynamics of endangered species. To this end, we developed a useful identification framework based on a case study of locally endangered Sousa chinensis by combining both LEK (local ecological knowledge) evaluation and regional boat-based survey methods. Our study investigated the basic ecological information of Sousa chinensis in the estuaries of eastern Guangdong that had previously been neglected, which could guide the future study and conservation. Based on the statistical testing of reported spatial and temporal dolphins sighting data from fishermen and the ecological monitoring analyses, including sighting rate, site fidelity and residence time estimations, some of the current Sousa chinensis units are likely to be geographically isolated and critically endangered, which calls for much greater conservation efforts. Given the accelerated population extinction rate and increasing budgetary constraints, our survey pattern can be applied in a timely and economically acceptable manner to the spatial and temporal assessment of other threatened coastal delphinids, particularly when population distributions are on a large scale and traditional sampling methods are difficult to implement. PMID:26804347

  10. Dynamic evolving spiking neural networks for on-line spatio- and spectro-temporal pattern recognition.

    PubMed

    Kasabov, Nikola; Dhoble, Kshitij; Nuntalid, Nuttapod; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2013-05-01

    On-line learning and recognition of spatio- and spectro-temporal data (SSTD) is a very challenging task and an important one for the future development of autonomous machine learning systems with broad applications. Models based on spiking neural networks (SNN) have already proved their potential in capturing spatial and temporal data. One class of them, the evolving SNN (eSNN), uses a one-pass rank-order learning mechanism and a strategy to evolve a new spiking neuron and new connections to learn new patterns from incoming data. So far these networks have been mainly used for fast image and speech frame-based recognition. Alternative spike-time learning methods, such as Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP) and its variant Spike Driven Synaptic Plasticity (SDSP), can also be used to learn spatio-temporal representations, but they usually require many iterations in an unsupervised or semi-supervised mode of learning. This paper introduces a new class of eSNN, dynamic eSNN, that utilise both rank-order learning and dynamic synapses to learn SSTD in a fast, on-line mode. The paper also introduces a new model called deSNN, that utilises rank-order learning and SDSP spike-time learning in unsupervised, supervised, or semi-supervised modes. The SDSP learning is used to evolve dynamically the network changing connection weights that capture spatio-temporal spike data clusters both during training and during recall. The new deSNN model is first illustrated on simple examples and then applied on two case study applications: (1) moving object recognition using address-event representation (AER) with data collected using a silicon retina device; (2) EEG SSTD recognition for brain-computer interfaces. The deSNN models resulted in a superior performance in terms of accuracy and speed when compared with other SNN models that use either rank-order or STDP learning. The reason is that the deSNN makes use of both the information contained in the order of the first input spikes (which information is explicitly present in input data streams and would be crucial to consider in some tasks) and of the information contained in the timing of the following spikes that is learned by the dynamic synapses as a whole spatio-temporal pattern. PMID:23340243

  11. Spatial and temporal patterns in modeled particle transport to estuarine habitat with comparisons to larval fish settlement patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. A.; Jackson, G. A.; Holt, S. A.; Holt, G. J.

    2005-07-01

    Larval fish settlement in estuarine nursery areas is the end result of numerous biological and physical processes. We used a numerical circulation model coupled to a particle transport model to examine the role that physics play in determining settlement patterns of red drum larvae ( Sciaenops ocellatus) in nursery habitat along the Texas coast. We examined supply at various spatial scales (supply to inlet, bays, and individual settlement sites). Temporal patterns in larval settlement in Aransas Bay, Texas, are correlated with several indices of modeled particle supply (number of particles inside the bays, integrated particle input to Lydia Ann Channel, and cumulative number of competent particles in Lydia Ann Channel). High abundances of recently settled red drum in Aransas Bay result from a combination of high larval input, limited habitat for settlement, and proximity of habitat to the inlet. In contrast, larval settlement in Corpus Christi and Redfish Bays does not appear to be related to modeled measures of larval supply. Modeled particle supply at the bay-scale suggests that difference in the abundance of recently settled red drum between the bays may be related to larval supply normalized by the amount available settlement habitat within the bay.

  12. Behavioral and physiological correlates of temporal pitch perception in electric and acoustic hearing

    PubMed Central

    Carlyon, Robert P.; Mahendran, Suresh; Deeks, John M.; Long, Christopher J.; Axon, Patrick; Baguley, David; Bleeck, Stefan; Winter, Ian M.

    2008-01-01

    In the 4-6 condition of experiment 1, normal-hearing (NH) listeners compared the pitch of a bandpass-filtered pulse train, whose inter-pulse intervals (IPIs) alternated between 4 and 6 ms, to that of isochronous pulse trains. Consistent with previous results obtained at a lower signal level, the pitch of the 4-6 stimulus corresponded to that of an isochronous pulse train having a period of 5.7 ms longer than the mean IPI of 5 ms. In other conditions the IPI alternated between 3.5-5.5 ms and 4.5-6.5 ms. Experiment 2 was similar but presented electric pulse trains to one channel of a CI. In both cases, as overall IPI increased, the pitch of the alternating-interval stimulus approached that of an isochronous train having a period equal to the mean IPI. Experiment 3 measured compound action potentials (CAPs) to alternating-interval stimuli in guinea pigs and in NH listeners. The CAPs to pulses occurring after 4-ms intervals were smaller than responses to pulses occurring after 6-ms intervals, resulting in a modulated pattern that was independent of overall level. The results are compared to the predictions of a simple model incorporating auditory-nerve (AN) refractoriness, and where pitch is estimated from 1st-order intervals in the AN response. PMID:18247900

  13. Population dynamics of wetland fishes: Spatio-temporal patterns synchronized by hydrological disturbance?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruetz, C. R., III; Trexler, J.C.; Jordan, F.; Loftus, W.F.; Perry, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    1. Drought is a natural disturbance that can cause widespread mortality of aquatic organisms in wetlands. We hypothesized that seasonal drying of marsh surfaces (i.e. hydrological disturbance) shapes spatio-temporal patterns of fish populations. 2. We tested whether population dynamics of fishes were synchronized by hydrological disturbance (Moran effect) or distance separating study sites (dispersal). Spatio-temporal patterns were examined in local populations of five abundant species at 17 sites (sampled five times per year from 1996 to 2001) in a large oligotrophic wetland. 3. Fish densities differed significantly across spatio-temporal scales for all species. For all species except eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), a significant portion of spatio-temporal variation in density was attributed to drying events (used as a covariate). 4. We observed three patterns of response to hydrological disturbance. Densities of bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei), least killifish (Heterandria formosa), and golden top-minnow (Fundulus chrysotus) were usually lowest after a dry down and recovered slowly. Eastern mosquitofish showed no distinct response to marsh drying (i.e. they recovered quickly). Flagfish (Jordanella floridae) density was often highest after a dry down and then declined. Population growth after a dry down was often asymptotic for bluefin killifish and golden topminnow, with greatest asymptotic density and longest time to recovery at sites that dried infrequently. 5. Fish population dynamics were synchronized by hydrological disturbance (independent of distance) and distance separating study sites (independent of hydrological disturbance). Our ability to separate the relative importance of the Moran effect from dispersal was strengthened by a weak association between hydrological synchrony and distance among study sites. Dispersal was the primary mechanism for synchronous population dynamics of flagfish, whereas hydrological disturbance was the primary mechanism for synchronous population dynamics of the other species examined. 6. Species varied in the relative role of the Moran effect and dispersal in homogenizing their population dynamics, probably as a function of life history and ability to exploit dry-season refugia. ?? 2005 British Ecological Society.

  14. Temporal patterns of genetic and phenotypic variation in the epidemiologically important drone fly, Eristalis tenax.

    PubMed

    Francuski, Lj; Mati?, I; Ludoki, J; Milankov, V

    2011-06-01

    Eristalis tenax L. (Diptera: Syrphidae) is commonly known as the drone fly (adult) or rat-tailed maggot (immature). Both adults and immature stages are identified as potential mechanical vectors of mycobacterial pathogens, and early-stage maggots cause accidental myiasis. We compared four samples from Mount Fruka Gora, Serbia, with the aim of obtaining insights into the temporal variations and sexual dimorphism in the species. This integrative approach was based on allozyme loci, morphometric wing parameters (shape and size) and abdominal colour patterns. Consistent sexual dimorphism was observed, indicating that male specimens had lighter abdomens and smaller and narrower wings than females. The distribution of genetic diversity at polymorphic loci indicated genetic divergence among collection dates. Landmark-based geometric morphometrics revealed, contrary to the lack of divergence in wing size, significant wing shape variation throughout the year. In addition, temporal changes in the frequencies of the abdominal patterns observed are likely to relate to the biology of the species and ecological factors in the locality. Hence, the present study expands our knowledge of the genetic diversity and phenotypic plasticity of E. tenax. The quantification of such variability represents a step towards the evaluation of the adaptive potential of this species of medical and epidemiological importance. PMID:21414022

  15. Temporal patterns of human behaviour: are there signs of deterministic 1/ f scaling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dnki, Rudolf M.; Keller, Elvira; Meier, Peter F.; Ambhl, Brigitte

    2000-02-01

    Temporal patterns apparently exhibiting scaling properties may originate either from fractal stochastic processes or from causal (i.e., deterministic) dynamics. In general, the distinction between the possible two origins remains a non-trivial task. This holds especially for the interpretation of properties derived from temporal patterns of various types of human behaviour, which were reported repeatedly. We propose here a computational scheme based on a generic intermittency model to test predictability (thus determinism) of a part of a time series with knowledge gathered from another part. The method is applied onto psychodynamic time series related to turns from non-psychosis to psychosis. A nonrandom correlation ( ?=0.76) between prediction and real outcome is found. Our scheme thus provides a particular kind of fractal risk-assessment for this possibly deterministic process. We briefly discuss possible implications of these findings to evaluate the risk to undergo a state transition, in our case a patients risk to enter a next psychotic state. We further point to some problems concerning data sample pecularities and equivalence between data and model setup.

  16. Spatial and temporal patterns of bioindicator mercury in pennsylvania oak forest.

    PubMed

    McClenahen, James R; Hutnik, Russell J; Davis, Donald D

    2013-01-01

    We monitored spatial and temporal patterns of total Hg in forest bioindicators to assess possible local, regional, and global changes in atmospheric Hg deposition. Total Hg concentrations were monitored in leaves and fresh litterfall of northern red oak ( L.), on an epiphytic moss ( Hedw.) on northern red oak stems, and in surface soil organic matter (O and O horizons) in Pennsylvania oak-dominated forests. Variously configured plots were used to monitor Hg deposition near local coal-fired generating stations and an industrial city and along an extended regional transect. Linearly decreasing temporal trends in Hg concentrations occurred in leaves, litterfall, moss, and soil O and O. Mean annual Hg concentrations were often greater near local emissions sources compared with remote areas, especially in the initial monitoring period. Decreasing time trends for different impact areas tended to converge due to greater rates of Hg decrease where initial bioindicator Hg levels were higher. Fresh litter and soil O showed the greatest overall potential as Hg bioindicators. We conclude that Hg deposition has been significantly decreasing over time throughout the study area as a result of locally and regionally declining Hg emissions. Reductions in Hg emissions are likely a co-benefit of the 1990 Clean Air Act regulations and changing industrial activities. Recent leveling of several bioindicator Hg time trends may foretell a shift in Hg depositional patterns. Mercury monitoring studies such as this fulfill a need for documenting local and regional effects of emissions reduction. PMID:23673822

  17. Spatial and temporal patterns of enzootic raccoon rabies adjusted for multiple covariates

    PubMed Central

    Recuenco, Sergio; Eidson, Millicent; Kulldorff, Martin; Johnson, Glen; Cherry, Bryan

    2007-01-01

    Background With the objective of identifying spatial and temporal patterns of enzootic raccoon variant rabies, a spatial scan statistic was utilized to search for significant terrestrial rabies clusters by year in New York State in 1997–2003. Cluster analyses were unadjusted for other factors, adjusted for covariates, and adjusted for covariates and large scale geographic variation (LSGV). Adjustments were intended to identify the unusual aggregations of cases given the expected distribution based on the observed locations. Results Statistically significant clusters were identified particularly in the Albany, Finger Lakes, and South Hudson areas. The clusters were generally persistent in the Albany area, but demonstrated cyclical changes in rabies activity every few years in the other areas. Cluster adjustments allowed the discussion of possible causes for the high risk raccoon rabies areas identified. Conclusion This study analyzed raccoon variant rabies spatial and temporal patterns in New York that have not been previously described at a focal (census tract) level. Comparisons across the type of spatial analysis performed with various degrees of adjustment allow consideration of the potential influence of geographical factors for raccoon rabies and possible reasons for the highest risk areas (statistically significant clusters). PMID:17428324

  18. Fish and Phytoplankton Exhibit Contrasting Temporal Species Abundance Patterns in a Dynamic North Temperate Lake

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Gretchen J. A.; Carey, Cayelan C.

    2015-01-01

    Temporal patterns of species abundance, although less well-studied than spatial patterns, provide valuable insight to the processes governing community assembly. We compared temporal abundance distributions of two communities, phytoplankton and fish, in a north temperate lake. We used both 17 years of observed relative abundance data as well as resampled data from Monte Carlo simulations to account for the possible effects of non-detection of rare species. Similar to what has been found in other communities, phytoplankton and fish species that appeared more frequently were generally more abundant than rare species. However, neither community exhibited two distinct groups of “core” (common occurrence and high abundance) and “occasional” (rare occurrence and low abundance) species. Both observed and resampled data show that the phytoplankton community was dominated by occasional species appearing in only one year that exhibited large variation in their abundances, while the fish community was dominated by core species occurring in all 17 years at high abundances. We hypothesize that the life-history traits that enable phytoplankton to persist in highly dynamic environments may result in communities dominated by occasional species capable of reaching high abundances when conditions allow. Conversely, longer turnover times and broad environmental tolerances of fish may result in communities dominated by core species structured primarily by competitive interactions. PMID:25651399

  19. Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Key Exploited Marine Species in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Morfin, Marie; Fromentin, Jean-Marc; Jadaud, Angélique; Bez, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the temporal variability/stability of the spatial distributions of key exploited species in the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea). To do so, we analyzed data from the MEDITS bottom-trawl scientific surveys from 1994 to 2010 at 66 fixed stations and selected 12 key exploited species. We proposed a geostatistical approach to handle zero-inflated and non-stationary distributions and to test for the temporal stability of the spatial structures. Empirical Orthogonal Functions and other descriptors were then applied to investigate the temporal persistence and the characteristics of the spatial patterns. The spatial structure of the distribution (i.e. the pattern of spatial autocorrelation) of the 12 key species studied remained highly stable over the time period sampled. The spatial distributions of all species obtained through kriging also appeared to be stable over time, while each species displayed a specific spatial distribution. Furthermore, adults were generally more densely concentrated than juveniles and occupied areas included in the distribution of juveniles. Despite the strong persistence of spatial distributions, we also observed that the area occupied by each species was correlated to its abundance: the more abundant the species, the larger the occupation area. Such a result tends to support MacCall's basin theory, according to which density-dependence responses would drive the expansion of those 12 key species in the Gulf of Lions. Further analyses showed that these species never saturated their habitats, suggesting that they are below their carrying capacity; an assumption in agreement with the overexploitation of several of these species. Finally, the stability of their spatial distributions over time and their potential ability to diffuse outside their main habitats give support to Marine Protected Areas as a potential pertinent management tool. PMID:22655079

  20. Coexistence of productive and non-productive populations by fluctuation-driven spatio-temporal patterns.

    PubMed

    Behar, Hilla; Brenner, Naama; Louzoun, Yoram

    2014-09-01

    Cooperative interactions, their stability and evolution, provide an interesting context in which to study the interface between cellular and population levels of organization. Here we study a public goods model relevant to microorganism populations actively extracting a growth resource from their environment. Cells can display one of two phenotypes - a productive phenotype that extracts the resources at a cost, and a non-productive phenotype that only consumes the same resource. Both proliferate and are free to move by diffusion; growth rate and diffusion coefficient depend only weakly phenotype. We analyze the continuous differential equation model as well as simulate stochastically the full dynamics. We find that the two sub-populations, which cannot coexist in a well-mixed environment, develop spatio-temporal patterns that enable long-term coexistence in the shared environment. These patterns are purely fluctuation-driven, as the corresponding continuous spatial system does not display Turing instability. The average stability of coexistence patterns derives from a dynamic mechanism in which the producing sub-population equilibrates with the environmental resource and holds it close to an extinction transition of the other sub-population, causing it to constantly hover around this transition. Thus the ecological interactions support a mechanism reminiscent of self-organized criticality; power-law distributions and long-range correlations are found. The results are discussed in the context of general pattern formation and critical behavior in ecology as well as in an experimental context. PMID:25058368

  1. Temporal links in daily activity patterns between coral reef predators and their prey.

    PubMed

    Bosiger, Yoland J; McCormick, Mark I

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have documented the activity patterns of both predators and their common prey over 24 h diel cycles. This study documents the temporal periodicity of two common resident predators of juvenile reef fishes, Cephalopholis cyanostigma (rockcod) and Pseudochromis fuscus (dottyback) and compares these to the activity and foraging pattern of a common prey species, juvenile Pomacentrus moluccensis (lemon damselfish). Detailed observations of activity in the field and using 24 h infrared video in the laboratory revealed that the two predators had very different activity patterns. C. cyanostigma was active over the whole 24 h period, with a peak in feeding strikes at dusk and increased activity at both dawn and dusk, while P. fuscus was not active at night and had its highest strike rates at midday. The activity and foraging pattern of P. moluccensis directly opposes that of C. cyanostigma with individuals reducing strike rate and intraspecific aggression at both dawn and dusk, and reducing distance from shelter and boldness at dusk only. Juveniles examined were just outside the size-selection window of P. fuscus. We suggest that the relatively predictable diel behaviour of coral reef predators results from physiological factors such as visual sensory abilities, circadian rhythmicity, variation in hunting profitability, and predation risk at different times of the day. Our study suggests that the diel periodicity of P. moluccensis behaviour may represent a response to increased predation risk at times when both the ability to efficiently capture food and visually detect predators is reduced. PMID:25354096

  2. Categorizing Temporal Patterns of Arrest in a Cohort of Adults with Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Steven M.; Roy-Bujnowski, Kristen; Grudzinskas, Albert J.; Simon, Lorna J.; Wolff, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Temporal patterns of arrest among mental health systems' clientele have not been well explored. This study uses “trajectory analysis,” a methodology widely employed by criminologists exploring patterns of desistence in offending, to examine patterns of criminal justice involvement in a cohort of mental health service recipients. Data for this study are from a statewide cohort of individuals who received services from the Massachusetts Department of Mental Health in 1991 (N=13,876) and whose arrests were followed for roughly 10 years. Zero-inflated Poisson trajectory analysis applied to cohort members having two or more arrests identified five trajectories with widely varying arrest patterns. Analysis of differences in the composition of the five trajectory-based groups revealed few between-group differences in members' demographic and service use characteristics, while certain offense types were disproportionately prevalent among particular trajectory-based groups. The implications of these findings for understanding criminal justice involvement in this population and the utility of the trajectory model for system planning are discussed. PMID:19728101

  3. Temporal Links in Daily Activity Patterns between Coral Reef Predators and Their Prey

    PubMed Central

    Bosiger, Yoland J.; McCormick, Mark I.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have documented the activity patterns of both predators and their common prey over 24 h diel cycles. This study documents the temporal periodicity of two common resident predators of juvenile reef fishes, Cephalopholis cyanostigma (rockcod) and Pseudochromis fuscus (dottyback) and compares these to the activity and foraging pattern of a common prey species, juvenile Pomacentrus moluccensis (lemon damselfish). Detailed observations of activity in the field and using 24 h infrared video in the laboratory revealed that the two predators had very different activity patterns. C. cyanostigma was active over the whole 24 h period, with a peak in feeding strikes at dusk and increased activity at both dawn and dusk, while P. fuscus was not active at night and had its highest strike rates at midday. The activity and foraging pattern of P. moluccensis directly opposes that of C. cyanostigma with individuals reducing strike rate and intraspecific aggression at both dawn and dusk, and reducing distance from shelter and boldness at dusk only. Juveniles examined were just outside the size-selection window of P. fuscus. We suggest that the relatively predictable diel behaviour of coral reef predators results from physiological factors such as visual sensory abilities, circadian rhythmicity, variation in hunting profitability, and predation risk at different times of the day. Our study suggests that the diel periodicity of P. moluccensis behaviour may represent a response to increased predation risk at times when both the ability to efficiently capture food and visually detect predators is reduced. PMID:25354096

  4. Himalayan glaciers: understanding contrasting patterns of glacier behavior using multi-temporal satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racoviteanu, A.

    2014-12-01

    High rates of glacier retreat for the last decades are often reported, and believed to be induced by 20th century climate changes. However, regional glacier fluctuations are complex, and depend on a combination of climate and local topography. Furthermore, in ares such as the Hindu-Kush Himalaya, there are concerns about warming, decreasing monsoon precipitation and their impact on local glacier regimes. Currently, the challenge is in understanding the magnitude of feedbacks between large-scale climate forcing and small-scale glacier behavior. Spatio-temporal patterns of glacier distribution are still llimited in some areas of the high Hindu-Kush Himalaya, but multi-temporal satellite imagery has helped fill spatial and temporal gaps in regional glacier parameters in the last decade. Here I present a synopsis of the behavior of glaciers across the Himalaya, following a west to east gradient. In particular, I focus on spatial patterns of glacier parameters in the eastern Himalaya, which I investigate at multi-spatial scales using remote sensing data from declassified Corona, ASTER, Landsat ETM+, Quickbird and Worldview2 sensors. I also present the use of high-resolution imagery, including texture and thermal analysis for mapping glacier features at small scale, which are particularly useful in understanding surface trends of debris-covered glaciers, which are prevalent in the Himalaya. I compare and contrast spatial patterns of glacier area and lvation changes in the monsoon-influenced eastern Himalaya (the Everest region in the Nepal Himalaya and Sikkim in the Indian Himalaya) with other observations from the dry western Indian Himalaya (Ladakh and Lahul-Spiti), both field measurements and remote sensing-based. In the eastern Himalaya, results point to glacier area change of -0.24 % 0.08% per year from the 1960's to the 2006's, with a higher rate of retreat in the last decade (-0.43% /yr). Debris-covered glacier tongues show thinning trends of -30.8 m 39 m on average over the last four decades, similar to other studies in the same climatic area. However, at small scales, the behavior of glaciers is highly heterogenous, with contrasting patterns of thickening glacier termini versus retreating nad thinning glacier tongues.

  5. Gender Differences in Speech Temporal Patterns Detected Using Lagged Co-Occurrence Text-Analysis of Personal Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Shuki J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a novel methodology for the detection of speech patterns. Lagged co-occurrence analysis (LCA) utilizes the likelihood that a target word will be uttered in a certain position after a trigger word. Using this methodology, it is possible to uncover a statistically significant repetitive temporal patterns of word use, compared to

  6. [Spatial and temporal patterns of stream fish assemblages in the Qiupu Headwaters National Wetland Park].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Jian; Chu, Ling; Si, Chun; Zhu, Ren; Chen, Wen-Hao; Chen, Fang-Ming; Yan, Yun-Zhi

    2013-08-01

    Identifying and clarifying how stream fish assemblage patterns vary spatially and temporally are basic measures for the conservation and management of fish species. Based on data collected from 24 wadeable reaches within the Qiupu Headwaters National Wetland Park between May and October 2012, we examined the spatial and temporal patterns of the assemblage structures and diversities, collecting a total of 29 fish species belonging to four orders and ten families. The results of our survey showed influences of local habitat and tributary spatial position variables on fish assemblages. Fish diversity showed significant variations across stream-orders and seasons, which were higher in the second-order streams than in first-order streams and higher in October than in May. Habitat factors such as substrate coarseness and heterogeneity, water temperature and water depth, as well as tributary position factor-link, showed significant effects on fish diversity. Fish assemblages fitted the nested pattern that upstream assemblages presented as a nested subset of downstream assemblages. Fish assemblage structures did not vary significantly across seasons but did across stream-orders; fish assemblages between first- and second-order streams showed significant differences despite some overlap. These spatial differences mainly resulted from spatial variations of the relative abundance of Cobitis rarus, Ctenogobius sp., Zacco platypus, Phoxinus oxycephalus, Rhodeus ocellatus and Vanmanenia stenosoma, among which P. oxycephalus had higher abundance in first-order than in second-order streams but the other five species were more abundant in second-order streams. Fish assemblage structures were significantly related to substrate heterogeneity, water depth, stream order, link and C-link. PMID:23913894

  7. Temporal patterns and behavioral characteristics of aggregation formation and spawning in the Bermuda chub ( Kyphosus sectatrix)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemeth, Richard S.; Kadison, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    Reef fish spawning aggregations are important life history events that occur at specific times and locations and represent the primary mode of reproduction for many species. This paper provides detailed descriptions of aggregation formation and mass spawning of the Bermuda chub ( Kyphosus sectatrix). Spawning coloration and gamete release of K. sectatrix were observed and filmed at the Grammanik Bank, a deep spawning aggregation site used by many different species located on the southern edge of the Puerto Rican shelf 10 km south of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. Underwater visual surveys using technical Nitrox and closed circuit re-breathers were conducted from December 2002 to March 2013 and documented spatial and temporal patterns of movement and aggregation formation along 1.5 km of mesophotic reef. The largest aggregations of K. sectatrix (>200 fish) were observed on the Grammanik Bank January to March from 0 to 11 d after the full moon with peak abundance from 60 to 80 d after the winter solstice across all survey years. Aggregation formation of K. sectatrix coincided with the spawning season of Nassau ( Epinephelus striatus) and yellowfin ( Mycteroperca venenosa) groupers. These spatial and temporal patterns of aggregation formation and spawning suggest that K. sectatrix, an herbivore, may also be a transient aggregating species. On several occasions, chubs were observed both pair spawning and mass spawning. Color patterns and behaviors associated with aggregation and spawning are described and compared to spawning characteristics observed in other species, many of which are similar but others that appear unique to K. sectatrix. This represents the first report of a kyphosid species aggregating to spawn and illuminates a portion of the poorly understood life history of the Bermuda chub.

  8. Seasonal and temporal patterns of NDMA formation potentials in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Habibullah; Kim, Daekyun; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-02-01

    The seasonal and temporal patterns of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation potentials (FPs) were examined with water samples collected monthly for 21 month period in 12 surface waters. This long term study allowed monitoring the patterns of NDMA FPs under dynamic weather conditions (e.g., rainy and dry periods) covering several seasons. Anthropogenically impacted waters which were determined by high sucralose levels (>100 ng/L) had higher NDMA FPs than limited impacted sources (<100 ng/L). In most sources, NDMA FP showed more variability in spring months, while seasonal mean values remained relatively consistent. The study also showed that watershed characteristics played an important role in the seasonal and temporal patterns. In the two dam-controlled river systems (SW A and G), the NDMA FP levels at the downstream sampling locations were controlled by the NDMA levels in the dams independent of either the increases in discharge rates due to water releases from the dams prior to or during the heavy rain events or intermittent high NDMA FP levels observed at the upstream of dams. The large reservoirs and impoundments on rivers examined in this study appeared serving as an equalization basin for NDMA precursors. On the other hand, in a river without an upstream reservoir (SW E), the NDMA levels were influenced by the ratio of an upstream wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent discharge to the river discharge rate. The impact of WWTP effluent decreased during the high river flow periods due to rain events. Linear regression with independent variables DOC, DON, and sucralose yielded poor correlations with NDMA FP (R(2) < 0.27). Multiple linear regression analysis using DOC and log [sucralose] yielded a better correlation with NDMA FP (R(2) = 0.53). PMID:25481075

  9. The Use of Census Migration Data to Approximate Human Movement Patterns across Temporal Scales

    PubMed Central

    Wesolowski, Amy; Buckee, Caroline O.; Pindolia, Deepa K.; Eagle, Nathan; Smith, David L.; Garcia, Andres J.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Human movement plays a key role in economies and development, the delivery of services, and the spread of infectious diseases. However, it remains poorly quantified partly because reliable data are often lacking, particularly for low-income countries. The most widely available are migration data from human population censuses, which provide valuable information on relatively long timescale relocations across countries, but do not capture the shorter-scale patterns, trips less than a year, that make up the bulk of human movement. Census-derived migration data may provide valuable proxies for shorter-term movements however, as substantial migration between regions can be indicative of well connected places exhibiting high levels of movement at finer time scales, but this has never been examined in detail. Here, an extensive mobile phone usage data set for Kenya was processed to extract movements between counties in 2009 on weekly, monthly, and annual time scales and compared to data on change in residence from the national census conducted during the same time period. We find that the relative ordering across Kenyan counties for incoming, outgoing and between-county movements shows strong correlations. Moreover, the distributions of trip durations from both sources of data are similar, and a spatial interaction model fit to the data reveals the relationships of different parameters over a range of movement time scales. Significant relationships between census migration data and fine temporal scale movement patterns exist, and results suggest that census data can be used to approximate certain features of movement patterns across multiple temporal scales, extending the utility of census-derived migration data. PMID:23326367

  10. Self-Organization of Spatio-Temporal Hierarchy via Learning of Dynamic Visual Image Patterns on Action Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Minju; Hwang, Jungsik; Tani, Jun

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the visual cortex efficiently processes high-dimensional spatial information by using a hierarchical structure. Recently, computational models that were inspired by the spatial hierarchy of the visual cortex have shown remarkable performance in image recognition. Up to now, however, most biological and computational modeling studies have mainly focused on the spatial domain and do not discuss temporal domain processing of the visual cortex. Several studies on the visual cortex and other brain areas associated with motor control support that the brain also uses its hierarchical structure as a processing mechanism for temporal information. Based on the success of previous computational models using spatial hierarchy and temporal hierarchy observed in the brain, the current report introduces a novel neural network model for the recognition of dynamic visual image patterns based solely on the learning of exemplars. This model is characterized by the application of both spatial and temporal constraints on local neural activities, resulting in the self-organization of a spatio-temporal hierarchy necessary for the recognition of complex dynamic visual image patterns. The evaluation with the Weizmann dataset in recognition of a set of prototypical human movement patterns showed that the proposed model is significantly robust in recognizing dynamically occluded visual patterns compared to other baseline models. Furthermore, an evaluation test for the recognition of concatenated sequences of those prototypical movement patterns indicated that the model is endowed with a remarkable capability for the contextual recognition of long-range dynamic visual image patterns. PMID:26147887

  11. Benefiting from a migratory prey: spatio-temporal patterns in allochthonous subsidization of an Arctic predator.

    PubMed

    Giroux, Marie-Andrée; Berteaux, Dominique; Lecomte, Nicolas; Gauthier, Gilles; Szor, Guillaume; Bêty, Joël

    2012-05-01

    1. Flows of nutrients and energy across ecosystem boundaries have the potential to subsidize consumer populations and modify the dynamics of food webs, but how spatio-temporal variations in autochthonous and allochthonous resources affect consumers' subsidization remains largely unexplored. 2. We studied spatio-temporal patterns in the allochthonous subsidization of a predator living in a relatively simple ecosystem. We worked on Bylot Island (Nunavut, Canada), where arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus L.) feed preferentially on lemmings (Lemmus trimucronatus and Dicrostonyx groenlandicus Traill), and alternatively on colonial greater snow geese (Anser caerulescens atlanticus L.). Geese migrate annually from their wintering grounds (where they feed on farmlands and marshes) to the Canadian Arctic, thus generating a strong flow of nutrients and energy across ecosystem boundaries. 3. We examined the influence of spatial variations in availability of geese on the diet of fox cubs (2003-2005) and on fox reproductive output (1996-2005) during different phases of the lemming cycle. 4. Using stable isotope analysis and a simple statistical routine developed to analyse the outputs of a multisource mixing model (SIAR), we showed that the contribution of geese to the diet of arctic fox cubs decreased with distance from the goose colony. 5. The probability that a den was used for reproduction by foxes decreased with distance from the subsidized goose colony and increased with lemming abundance. When lemmings were highly abundant, the effect of distance from the colony disappeared. The goose colony thus generated a spatial patterning of reproduction probability of foxes, while the lemming cycle generated a strong temporal variation of reproduction probability of foxes. 6. This study shows how the input of energy owing to the large-scale migration of prey affects the functional and reproductive responses of an opportunistic consumer, and how this input is spatially and temporally modulated through the foraging behaviour of the consumer. Thus, perspectives of both landscape and foraging ecology are needed to fully resolve the effects of subsidies on animal demographic processes and population dynamics. PMID:22268371

  12. Optimization of the temporal pattern of radiation: An IMRT based study

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, Michael B.; Chmura, Steven J.; Deasy, Joseph O.; Roeske, John C. . E-mail: roeske@rover.uchicago.edu

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate how the temporal pattern of dose applied during a single-intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fraction can be arranged to maximize or minimize cell kill. Methods and Materials: Using the linear-quadratic repair-time model and a simplified IMRT delivery pattern model, the surviving fraction of cells for a single fraction was calculated for all permutations of the dose delivery pattern for an array of clinically based IMRT cases. Maximization of cell kill was achieved by concentrating the highest doses in the middle of a fraction, while minimization was achieved by spreading the highest doses between the beginning and end. The percent difference between maximum and minimum cell kill (%Diff{sub min/max}) and the difference between maximum and minimum total doses normalized to 2 Gy/fx ({delta}NTD{sub 2Gy}) was calculated for varying fraction durations (T), {alpha}/{beta} ratios, and doses/fx. Results: %Diff{sub min/max} and {delta}NTD{sub 2Gy} both increased with increasing T and with decreasing {alpha}/{beta}. The largest increases occurred with dose/fx. With {alpha}/{beta} = 3 Gy and 30 min/fx, %Diff{sub min/max} ranged from 2.7-5.3% for 2 Gy/fx to 48.6-74.1% for 10 Gy/fx, whereas {delta}NTD{sub 2Gy} ranged from 1.2 Gy-2.4 Gy for 30 fractions of 2 Gy/fx to 2.3-4.8 Gy for 2 fractions of 10.84 Gy/fx. Using {alpha}/{beta} = 1.5 Gy, an analysis of prostate hypofractionation schemes yielded differences in clinical outcome based on the pattern of applied dose ranging from 3.2%-6.1% of the treated population. Conclusions: Rearrangement of the temporal pattern of dose for a single IMRT fraction could be used to optimize cell kill and to directly, though modestly, affect treatment outcome.

  13. Buoyancy characteristics of the bloater (Coregonus hoyi) in relation to patterns of vertical migration and acoustic backscattering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleischer, Guy W.; TeWinkel, Leslie M.

    1998-01-01

    Acoustic studies in Lake Michigan found that bloaters (Coregonus hoyi) were less reflective per size than the other major pelagic species. This difference in in situ acoustic backscattering could indicate that the deep-water bloaters have compressed swimbladders for much of their vertical range with related implications on buoyancy. To test this hypothesis, the buoyancy characteristics of bloaters were determined with fish placed in a cage that was lowered to bottom and monitored with an underwater camera. We found bloaters were positively buoyant near surface, neutrally buoyant at intermediate strata, and negatively buoyant near bottom. This pattern was consistent for the range of depths bloaters occur. The depth of neutral buoyancy (near the 50-n strata) corresponds with the maximum extent of vertical migration for bloaters observed in acoustic surveys. Fish below this depth would be negatively buoyant which supports our contention that bloaters deeper in the water column have compressed swimbladders. Understanding the buoyancy characteristics of pelagic fishes will help to predict the effects of vertical migration on target strength measurement and confirms the use of acoustics as a tool to identify and quantify the ecological phenomenon of vertical migration.

  14. Spatial and temporal patterns of seagrass habitat use by fishes at the Ryukyu Islands, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yohei; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    To investigate whether or not regional-temporal patterns of seagrass habitat use by fishes existed at the Ryukyu Islands (southern Japan), visual surveys were conducted in seagrass beds and adjacent coral reefs in northern, central, and southern Ryukyu Islands, in November 2004, and May, August, and November 2005, the northern region having less extensive seagrass beds compared with the central and southern regions. During the study period, the seagrass beds were utilized primarily by 31 species, the densities of some of the latter differing significantly among regions. With the exception of Apogonidae and Holocentridae, all species were diurnal and could be divided into 6 groups based on seagrass habitat use patterns; (1) permanent residents A (10 species, e.g. Stethojulis strigiventer), juveniles and adults living in seagrass beds as well as other habitats; (2) permanent residents B (5 species, e.g. Calotomus spinidens), juveniles and adults living only or mainly in seagrass beds; (3) seasonal residents A (4 species, e.g. Cheilodipterus quinquelineatus), juveniles living in seagrass beds as well as other habitats; (4) seasonal residents B (6 species, e.g. Lethrinus atkinsoni), juveniles living only or mainly in seagrass beds; (5) transients (5 species, e.g. Parupeneus indicus), occurring in seagrass beds in the course of foraging over a variety of habitats; and (6) casual species (1 species, Acanthurus blochii), occurring only occasionally in seagrass beds. Regarding temporal differences, juvenile densities in each group were high in May and August compared with November in each region, whereas adult densities did not differ drastically in each month. For regional differences, juvenile and adult densities of permanent residents A and B were higher in the southern and central regions than in the northern region. Moreover, some seasonal residents showed possible ontogenetic habitat shift from seagrass beds to coral reefs in each region. These results indicated that seagrass habitat use patterns by fishes changed temporally and regionally and there may be habitat connectivity between seagrass beds and coral reefs via ontogenetic migration in the Ryukyu Islands.

  15. Horizontal spatial and temporal distribution patterns of nearshore larval fish assemblages at a temperate rocky shore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, Rita; Ben-Hamadou, Radhouan; Chcharo, M. Alexandra; R, Pedro; Gonalves, Emanuel J.

    2007-02-01

    There have been no previous studies of the composition of nearshore larval fish assemblages along the coast of Portugal. We aimed to describe the composition and horizontal distribution patterns of larval fish assemblages and their temporal dynamics near a rocky reef at depths shallower than 13 m (inshore) and at two miles (3.70 km) from shore (offshore), as well as along transects perpendicular to the shoreline, from the reef to 10 miles offshore (18.52 km). Samples were taken using 5 min sub-surface trawls at the rocky shore of the Arrbida Marine Park (W Portugal). A total of 1021 larvae were collected, belonging to 61 taxa inshore and to 29 taxa offshore. Along transects, 626 larvae of 52 taxa were collected. Most larvae belonged to coastal species associated with rocky reefs. Total larval abundance and diversity were higher from May to July, which is consistent with the spawning activity of adults. Diversity and total larval abundance decreased significantly with increasing distance from shore, both in the inshore/offshore comparison and in the transects, where this decrease was evident at a very small spatial scale (within the first mile from the reef). Species assemblages differed in the pattern of distribution, with most species clearly associated to the extreme nearshore. The distribution patterns obtained were independent of the spawning mode of species. Results are discussed in the light of the possible physical mechanisms that can potentially act at the Arrbida Marine Park to facilitate larvae retention and the role of larval behaviour.

  16. User Activity Recognition in Smart Homes Using Pattern Clustering Applied to Temporal ANN Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Bourobou, Serge Thomas Mickala; Yoo, Younghwan

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of recognizing and predicting user activities in the IoT (Internet of Things) based smart environment. The activity recognition is usually done through two steps: activity pattern clustering and activity type decision. Although many related works have been suggested, they had some limited performance because they focused only on one part between the two steps. This paper tries to find the best combination of a pattern clustering method and an activity decision algorithm among various existing works. For the first step, in order to classify so varied and complex user activities, we use a relevant and efficient unsupervised learning method called the K-pattern clustering algorithm. In the second step, the training of smart environment for recognizing and predicting user activities inside his/her personal space is done by utilizing the artificial neural network based on the Allen's temporal relations. The experimental results show that our combined method provides the higher recognition accuracy for various activities, as compared with other data mining classification algorithms. Furthermore, it is more appropriate for a dynamic environment like an IoT based smart home. PMID:26007738

  17. User Activity Recognition in Smart Homes Using Pattern Clustering Applied to Temporal ANN Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Bourobou, Serge Thomas Mickala; Yoo, Younghwan

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of recognizing and predicting user activities in the IoT (Internet of Things) based smart environment. The activity recognition is usually done through two steps: activity pattern clustering and activity type decision. Although many related works have been suggested, they had some limited performance because they focused only on one part between the two steps. This paper tries to find the best combination of a pattern clustering method and an activity decision algorithm among various existing works. For the first step, in order to classify so varied and complex user activities, we use a relevant and efficient unsupervised learning method called the K-pattern clustering algorithm. In the second step, the training of smart environment for recognizing and predicting user activities inside his/her personal space is done by utilizing the artificial neural network based on the Allen’s temporal relations. The experimental results show that our combined method provides the higher recognition accuracy for various activities, as compared with other data mining classification algorithms. Furthermore, it is more appropriate for a dynamic environment like an IoT based smart home. PMID:26007738

  18. Patterns of spatial and temporal variability of UV transparency in Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Kevin C.; Williamson, Craig E.; Schladow, S. Geoff; Winder, Monika; Oris, James T.

    2009-06-01

    Lake Tahoe is an ultra-oligotrophic subalpine lake that is renowned for its clarity. The region experiences little cloud cover and is one of the most UV transparent lakes in the world. As such, it is an ideal environment to study the role of UV radiation in aquatic ecosystems. Long-term trends in Secchi depths showed that water transparency to visible light has decreased in recent decades, but limited data are available on the UV transparency of the lake. Here we examine how ultraviolet radiation varies relative to longer-wavelength photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm, visible wavelengths) horizontally along inshore-offshore transects in the lake and vertically within the water column as well as temporally throughout 2007. UV transparency was more variable than PAR transparency horizontally across the lake and throughout the year. Seasonal patterns of Secchi transparency differed from both UV and PAR, indicating that different substances may be responsible for controlling transparency to UV, PAR, and Secchi. In surface waters, UVA (380 nm) often attenuated more slowly than PAR, a pattern visible in only exceptionally transparent waters with very low dissolved organic carbon. On many sampling dates, UV transparency decreased progressively with depth suggesting surface photobleaching, reductions in particulate matter, increasing chlorophyll a, or some combination of these increased during summer months. Combining these patterns of UV transparency with data on visible light provides a more comprehensive understanding of ecosystem structure, function, and effects of environmental change in highly transparent alpine and subalpine lakes such as Tahoe.

  19. A descriptive analysis of temporal and spatial patterns of variability in Puget Sound oceanographic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Stephanie K.; Mantua, Nathan J.; Newton, Jan A.; Kawase, Mitsuhiro; Warner, Mark J.; Kellogg, Jonathan P.

    2008-12-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of variability in Puget Sound's oceanographic properties are determined using continuous vertical profile data from two long-term monitoring programs; monthly observations at 16 stations from 1993 to 2002, and biannual observations at 40 stations from 1998 to 2003. Climatological monthly means of temperature, salinity, and density reveal strong seasonal patterns. Water temperatures are generally warmest (coolest) in September (February), with stations in shallow finger inlets away from mixing zones displaying the largest temperature ranges. Salinities and densities are strongly influenced by freshwater inflows from major rivers during winter and spring from precipitation and snowmelt, respectively, and variations are greatest in the surface waters and at stations closest to river mouths. Vertical density gradients are primarily determined by salinity variations in the surface layer, with stations closest to river mouths most frequently displaying the largest buoyancy frequencies at depths of approximately 4-6 m. Strong tidal stirring and reflux over sills at the entrance to Puget Sound generally removes vertical stratification. Mean summer and winter values of oceanographic properties reveal patterns of spatial connectivity in Puget Sound's three main basins; Whidbey Basin, Hood Canal, and Main Basin. Surface waters that are warmed in the summer are vertically mixed over the sill at Admiralty Inlet and advected at depth into Whidbey Basin and Hood Canal. Cooler and fresher surface waters cap these warmer waters during winter, producing temperature inversions.

  20. Detecting the Community Structure and Activity Patterns of Temporal Networks: A Non-Negative Tensor Factorization Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gauvin, Laetitia; Panisson, Andr; Cattuto, Ciro

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of temporal network data is calling for more research on extracting and characterizing mesoscopic structures in temporal networks and on relating such structure to specific functions or properties of the system. An outstanding challenge is the extension of the results achieved for static networks to time-varying networks, where the topological structure of the system and the temporal activity patterns of its components are intertwined. Here we investigate the use of a latent factor decomposition technique, non-negative tensor factorization, to extract the community-activity structure of temporal networks. The method is intrinsically temporal and allows to simultaneously identify communities and to track their activity over time. We represent the time-varying adjacency matrix of a temporal network as a three-way tensor and approximate this tensor as a sum of terms that can be interpreted as communities of nodes with an associated activity time series. We summarize known computational techniques for tensor decomposition and discuss some quality metrics that can be used to tune the complexity of the factorized representation. We subsequently apply tensor factorization to a temporal network for which a ground truth is available for both the community structure and the temporal activity patterns. The data we use describe the social interactions of students in a school, the associations between students and school classes, and the spatio-temporal trajectories of students over time. We show that non-negative tensor factorization is capable of recovering the class structure with high accuracy. In particular, the extracted tensor components can be validated either as known school classes, or in terms of correlated activity patterns, i.e., of spatial and temporal coincidences that are determined by the known school activity schedule. PMID:24497935

  1. [Temporal pattern of walking on various training facilities under the conditions of the earth's and simulated lunar gravity].

    PubMed

    Panfilov, V E; Gurfinkel', V S

    2009-01-01

    Eight test-subjects participated in 120 treadmill tests (drive power of 10 and 85 kW) aimed to compare the walking patterns at 1 and reduced gravity. The temporal pattern of steps was noted to change significantly on the low-power treadmill. On the strength of convergence of calculated and experimental data the suggestion has been made that the leg transfer movement follows the pattern of spontaneous oscillations. PMID:20120918

  2. A review on the temporal pattern of deer-vehicle accidents: impact of seasonal, diurnal and lunar effects in cervids.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Wolfgang; Leisch, Friedrich; Hacklnder, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    The increasing number of deer-vehicle-accidents (DVAs) and the resulting economic costs have promoted numerous studies on behavioural and environmental factors which may contribute to the quantity, spatiotemporal distribution and characteristics of DVAs. Contrary to the spatial pattern of DVAs, data of their temporal pattern is scarce and difficult to obtain because of insufficient accuracy in available datasets, missing standardization in data aquisition, legal terms and low reporting rates to authorities. Literature of deer-traffic collisions on roads and railways is reviewed to examine current understanding of DVA temporal trends. Seasonal, diurnal and lunar peak accident periods are identified for deer, although seasonal pattern are not consistent among and within species or regions and data on effects of lunar cycles on DVAs is almost non-existent. Cluster analysis of seasonal DVA data shows nine distinct clusters of different seasonal DVA pattern for cervid species within the reviewed literature. Studies analyzing the relationship between time-related traffic predictors and DVAs yield mixed results. Despite the seasonal dissimilarity, diurnal DVA pattern are comparatively constant in deer, resulting in pronounced DVA peaks during the hours of dusk and dawn frequently described as bimodal crepuscular pattern. Behavioural aspects in activity seem to have the highest impact in DVAs temporal trends. Differences and variations are related to habitat-, climatic- and traffic characteristics as well as effects of predation, hunting and disturbance. Knowledge of detailed temporal DVA pattern is essential for prevention management as well as for the application and evaluation of mitigation measures. PMID:24549035

  3. Ultrasonic acoustic health monitoring of ball bearings using neural network pattern classification of power spectral density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, William; Southward, Steve; Ahmadian, Mehdi

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a generic passive non-contact based approach using ultrasonic acoustic emissions (UAE) to facilitate the neural network classification of bearing health, and more specifically the bearing operating condition. The acoustic emission signals used in this study are in the ultrasonic range (20-120 kHz). A direct benefit of microphones capable of measurements in this frequency range is their inherent directionality. Using selected bands from the UAE power spectrum signature, it is possible to pose the health monitoring problem as a multi-class classification problem, and make use of a single neural network to classify the ultrasonic acoustic emission signatures. Artificial training data, based on statistical properties of a significantly smaller experimental data set is used to train the neural network. This specific approach is generic enough to suggest that it is applicable to a variety of systems and components where periodic acoustic emissions exist.

  4. Monitoring, analyzing and simulating of spatial-temporal changes of landscape pattern over mining area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pei; Han, Ruimei; Wang, Shuangting

    2014-11-01

    According to the merits of remotely sensed data in depicting regional land cover and Land changes, multi- objective information processing is employed to remote sensing images to analyze and simulate land cover in mining areas. In this paper, multi-temporal remotely sensed data were selected to monitor the pattern, distri- bution and trend of LUCC and predict its impacts on ecological environment and human settlement in mining area. The monitor, analysis and simulation of LUCC in this coal mining areas are divided into five steps. The are information integration of optical and SAR data, LULC types extraction with SVM classifier, LULC trends simulation with CA Markov model, landscape temporal changes monitoring and analysis with confusion matrixes and landscape indices. The results demonstrate that the improved data fusion algorithm could make full use of information extracted from optical and SAR data; SVM classifier has an efficient and stable ability to obtain land cover maps, which could provide a good basis for both land cover change analysis and trend simulation; CA Markov model is able to predict LULC trends with good performance, and it is an effective way to integrate remotely sensed data with spatial-temporal model for analysis of land use / cover change and corresponding environmental impacts in mining area. Confusion matrixes are combined with landscape indices to evaluation and analysis show that, there was a sustained downward trend in agricultural land and bare land, but a continues growth trend tendency in water body, forest and other lands, and building area showing a wave like change, first increased and then decreased; mining landscape has undergone a from small to large and large to small process of fragmentation, agricultural land is the strongest influenced landscape type in this area, and human activities are the primary cause, so the problem should be pay more attentions by government and other organizations.

  5. Wildlife in the Matrix: Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Herbivore Occurrence in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Karanth, Krithi K

    2016-01-01

    Wildlife reserves are becoming increasingly isolated from the surrounding human-dominated landscapes particularly in Asia. It is imperative to understand how species are distributed spatially and temporally in and outside reserves, and what factors influence their occurrence. This study surveyed 7500km(2) landscape surrounding five reserves in the Western Ghats to examine patterns of occurrence of five herbivores: elephant, gaur, sambar, chital, and pig. Species distributions are modeled spatio-temporally using an occupancy approach. Trained field teams conducted 3860 interview-based occupancy surveys in a 10-km buffer surrounding these five reserves in 2012. I found gaur and wild pig to be the least and most wide-ranging species, respectively. Elephant and chital exhibit seasonal differences in spatial distribution unlike the other three species. As predicted, distance to reserve, the reserve itself, and forest cover were associated with higher occupancy of all species, and higher densities of people negatively influenced occurrence of all species. Park management, species protection, and conflict mitigation efforts in this landscape need to incorporate temporal and spatial understanding of species distributions. All species are known crop raiders and conflict prone locations with resources (such as water and forage) have to be monitored and managed carefully. Wildlife reserves and adjacent areas are critical for long-term persistence and habitat use for all five herbivores and must be monitored to ensure wildlife can move freely. Such a large-scale approach to map and monitor species distributions can be adapted to other landscapes to identify and monitor critical habitats shared by people and wildlife. PMID:26319143

  6. Wildlife in the Matrix: Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Herbivore Occurrence in Karnataka, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanth, Krithi K.

    2016-01-01

    Wildlife reserves are becoming increasingly isolated from the surrounding human-dominated landscapes particularly in Asia. It is imperative to understand how species are distributed spatially and temporally in and outside reserves, and what factors influence their occurrence. This study surveyed 7500 km2 landscape surrounding five reserves in the Western Ghats to examine patterns of occurrence of five herbivores: elephant, gaur, sambar, chital, and pig. Species distributions are modeled spatio-temporally using an occupancy approach. Trained field teams conducted 3860 interview-based occupancy surveys in a 10-km buffer surrounding these five reserves in 2012. I found gaur and wild pig to be the least and most wide-ranging species, respectively. Elephant and chital exhibit seasonal differences in spatial distribution unlike the other three species. As predicted, distance to reserve, the reserve itself, and forest cover were associated with higher occupancy of all species, and higher densities of people negatively influenced occurrence of all species. Park management, species protection, and conflict mitigation efforts in this landscape need to incorporate temporal and spatial understanding of species distributions. All species are known crop raiders and conflict prone locations with resources (such as water and forage) have to be monitored and managed carefully. Wildlife reserves and adjacent areas are critical for long-term persistence and habitat use for all five herbivores and must be monitored to ensure wildlife can move freely. Such a large-scale approach to map and monitor species distributions can be adapted to other landscapes to identify and monitor critical habitats shared by people and wildlife.

  7. Rapid Generation of Multiplexed Cell Cocultures Using Acoustic Droplet Ejection Followed by Aqueous Two-Phase Exclusion Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yu; Frampton, John P.; Raghavan, Shreya; Sabahi-Kaviani, Rahman; Luker, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The development of tools for patterning cocultures of cells is a fundamental interest among cell biologists and tissue engineers. Although a variety of systems exist for micropatterning cells, the methods used to generate cell micropatterns are often cumbersome and difficult to adapt for tissue engineering purposes. This study combines acoustic droplet ejection and aqueous two-phase system exclusion patterning to introduce a method for patterning cocultures of cells in multiplexed arrays. This new method uses focused acoustic radiation pressure to eject discrete droplets of uniform size from the surface of a dextran solution containing cells. The size of droplets is controlled by adjusting ultrasound parameters, such as pulse, duration, and amplitude. The ejected dextran droplets are captured on a cell culture substrate that is manipulated by a computer-controlled 3D positioning system according to predesigned patterns. Polyethylene glycol solution containing an additional cell type is then added to the culture dish to produce a two-phase system capable of depositing different types of cells around the initial pattern of cells. We demonstrate that our method can produce patterns of islands or lines with two or more cell types. Further, we demonstrate that patterns can be multiplexed for studies involving combinations of multiple cell types. This method offers a tool to transfer cell-containing samples in a contact-free, nozzle-less manner, avoiding sample cross-contamination. It can be used to pattern cell cocultures without complicated fabrication of culture substrates. These capabilities were used to examine the response of cancer cells to the presence of a ligand (CXCL12) secreted from surrounding cocultured cells. PMID:22356298

  8. Temporal patterns of emergency calls of a metropolitan city in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenjun; Yuan, Ning; Pan, Lin; Jiao, Pengfei; Dai, Weidi; Xue, Guixiang; Liu, Dong

    2015-10-01

    Quantitative understanding of human communication behavior, one of the fundamental human activities, is of great value in many practical problems, ranging from urban planning to emergency management. Most of the recent studies have focused on human communication under normal situations. Here, we study the temporal patterns of emergency calls, which is a special kind of human communication activity under emergency circumstances, by analyzing a dataset of emergency call records that collected from a metropolitan city in China during a five year period. We find that most individuals rarely make emergency calls. The distribution of inter-call durations decays as double power law along with an exponential tail. We also discover that, comparing with the normal communication activities, the activity of calling the emergency number shows more significant characteristics of burstiness and memory. We further demonstrate that the behavior of calling the emergency number when people encounter extreme events could be explained by an event-driven memory process.

  9. Precision phenotyping of biomass accumulation in triticale reveals temporal genetic patterns of regulation

    PubMed Central

    Busemeyer, Lucas; Ruckelshausen, Arno; Möller, Kim; Melchinger, Albrecht E.; Alheit, Katharina V.; Maurer, Hans Peter; Hahn, Volker; Weissmann, Elmar A.; Reif, Jochen C.; Würschum, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    To extend agricultural productivity by knowledge-based breeding and tailor varieties adapted to specific environmental conditions, it is imperative to improve our ability to assess the dynamic changes of the phenome of crops under field conditions. To this end, we have developed a precision phenotyping platform that combines various sensors for a non-invasive, high-throughput and high-dimensional phenotyping of small grain cereals. This platform yielded high prediction accuracies and heritabilities for biomass of triticale. Genetic variation for biomass accumulation was dissected with 647 doubled haploid lines derived from four families. Employing a genome-wide association mapping approach, two major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for biomass were identified and the genetic architecture of biomass accumulation was found to be characterized by dynamic temporal patterns. Our findings highlight the potential of precision phenotyping to assess the dynamic genetics of complex traits, especially those not amenable to traditional phenotyping. PMID:23942574

  10. SWI/SNF complex prevents lineage reversion and induces temporal patterning in neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Elif; Burkard, Thomas R; Jiang, Yanrui; Saini, Nidhi; Homem, Catarina C F; Reichert, Heinrich; Knoblich, Juergen A

    2014-03-13

    Members of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex are among the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer, but how they suppress tumorigenesis is currently unclear. Here, we use Drosophila neuroblasts to demonstrate that the SWI/SNF component Osa (ARID1) prevents tumorigenesis by ensuring correct lineage progression in stem cell lineages. We show that Osa induces a transcriptional program in the transit-amplifying population that initiates temporal patterning, limits self-renewal, and prevents dedifferentiation. We identify the Prdm protein Hamlet as a key component of this program. Hamlet is directly induced by Osa and regulates the progression of progenitors through distinct transcriptional states to limit the number of transit-amplifying divisions. Our data provide a mechanistic explanation for the widespread tumor suppressor activity of SWI/SNF. Because the Hamlet homologs Evi1 and Prdm16 are frequently mutated in cancer, this mechanism could well be conserved in human stem cell lineages. PAPERCLIP: PMID:24630726

  11. Differentiation of bacterial colonies and temporal growth patterns using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrübeoglu, Mehrube; Buck, Gregory W.; Livingston, Daniel W.

    2014-09-01

    Detection and identification of bacteria are important for health and safety. Hyperspectral imaging offers the potential to capture unique spectral patterns and spatial information from bacteria which can then be used to detect and differentiate bacterial species. Here, hyperspectral imaging has been used to characterize different bacterial colonies and investigate their growth over time. Six bacterial species (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes) were grown on tryptic soy agar plates. Hyperspectral data were acquired immediately after, 24 hours after, and 96 hours after incubation. Spectral signatures from bacterial colonies demonstrated repeatable measurements for five out of six species. Spatial variations as well as changes in spectral signatures were observed across temporal measurements within and among species at multiple wavelengths due to strengthening or weakening reflectance signals from growing bacterial colonies based on their pigmentation. Between-class differences and within-class similarities were the most prominent in hyperspectral data collected 96 hours after incubation.

  12. Precision phenotyping of biomass accumulation in triticale reveals temporal genetic patterns of regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busemeyer, Lucas; Ruckelshausen, Arno; Möller, Kim; Melchinger, Albrecht E.; Alheit, Katharina V.; Maurer, Hans Peter; Hahn, Volker; Weissmann, Elmar A.; Reif, Jochen C.; Würschum, Tobias

    2013-08-01

    To extend agricultural productivity by knowledge-based breeding and tailor varieties adapted to specific environmental conditions, it is imperative to improve our ability to assess the dynamic changes of the phenome of crops under field conditions. To this end, we have developed a precision phenotyping platform that combines various sensors for a non-invasive, high-throughput and high-dimensional phenotyping of small grain cereals. This platform yielded high prediction accuracies and heritabilities for biomass of triticale. Genetic variation for biomass accumulation was dissected with 647 doubled haploid lines derived from four families. Employing a genome-wide association mapping approach, two major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for biomass were identified and the genetic architecture of biomass accumulation was found to be characterized by dynamic temporal patterns. Our findings highlight the potential of precision phenotyping to assess the dynamic genetics of complex traits, especially those not amenable to traditional phenotyping.

  13. Can spectro-temporal complexity explain the autistic pattern of performance on auditory tasks?

    PubMed

    Samson, Fabienne; Mottron, Laurent; Jemel, Boutheina; Belin, Pascal; Ciocca, Valter

    2006-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that level of neural complexity explain the relative level of performance and brain activity in autistic individuals, available behavioural, ERP and imaging findings related to the perception of increasingly complex auditory material under various processing tasks in autism were reviewed. Tasks involving simple material (pure tones) and/or low-level operations (detection, labelling, chord disembedding, detection of pitch changes) show a superior level of performance and shorter ERP latencies. In contrast, tasks involving spectrally- and temporally-dynamic material and/or complex operations (evaluation, attention) are poorly performed by autistics, or generate inferior ERP activity or brain activation. Neural complexity required to perform auditory tasks may therefore explain pattern of performance and activation of autistic individuals during auditory tasks. PMID:16382329

  14. Soil moisture spatial and temporal patterns from a wireless sensor network test bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalba, G.; Davis, T. W.; Liang, X.

    2014-12-01

    The dynamics of water movement through vegetated porous media is a complex problem with large variabilities over differing temporal and spatial scales. This study examines a multi-year wireless sensor network (WSN) collecting shallow subsurface (10 and 30 cm) soil moisture content and soil water potential. The study site, located at the Audubon Society of Western Pennsylvania's Beechwood Farms Nature Reserve, is one of the longest running WSNs of its kind. Despite the noisy nature of the collected data (e.g., in comparison to traditional data logger methods), the WSN, consisting of over 50 nodes with more than 100 sensors, provides critical information regarding catchment-scale spatiotemporal patterns of soil moisture and soil water potential within a forested hill-sloped region of southwestern Pennsylvania.

  15. Subject transfer BCI based on Composite Local Temporal Correlation Common Spatial Pattern.

    PubMed

    Hatamikia, Sepideh; Nasrabadi, Ali Motie

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a subject transfer framework is proposed for the classification of Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals in brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). This study introduces a modification of Common Spatial Pattern (CSP) for subject transfer BCIs, where similar characteristics are considered to transfer knowledge from other subjects? data. With this aim, we proposed a new approach based on Composite Local Temporal Correlation CSP, namely Composite LTCCSP with selected subjects, which considers the similarity between subjects using Frobenius distance. The performance of the proposed method is compared with different methods like traditional CSP, Composite CSP, LTCCSP and Composite LTCCSP. Experimental results have shown that our proposed method has increased the performance compared to all these different methods. Furthermore, our results suggest that it is worth emphasizing the data of subjects with similar characteristics in a subject transfer diagram. The suggested framework, as demonstrated by experimental results, can obtain a positive knowledge transfer for enhancing the performance of BCIs. PMID:26103603

  16. Defining high-flow seasons using temporal streamflow patterns from a global model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D.; Ward, P.; Block, P.

    2015-11-01

    Globally, flood catastrophes lead all natural hazards in terms of impacts on society, causing billions of dollars of damages annually. Here, a novel approach to defining high-flow seasons (3-month) globally is presented by identifying temporal patterns of streamflow. The main high-flow season is identified using a volume-based threshold technique and the PCR-GLOBWB model. In comparison with observations, 40 % (50 %) of locations at a station (sub-basin) scale have identical peak months and 81 % (89 %) are within 1 month, indicating fair agreement between modeled and observed high-flow seasons. Minor high-flow seasons are also defined for bi-modal flow regimes. Identified major and minor high-flow seasons together are found to well represent actual flood records from the Dartmouth Flood Observatory, further substantiating the model's ability to reproduce the appropriate high-flow season. These high-spatial-resolution high-flow seasons and associated performance metrics allow for an improved understanding of temporal characterization of streamflow and flood potential, causation, and management. This is especially attractive for regions with limited observations and/or little capacity to develop early warning flood systems.

  17. Scene-based correction of fixed pattern noise in hyperspectral image data using temporal reordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratliff, Bradley M.; Kaufman, Jason R.

    2015-09-01

    Hyperspectral image data suffer from pixel-to-pixel response nonuniformity that degrades the imagery in the form of columnated striping noise. This nonuniformity, or fixed pattern noise (FPN), is typically compensated for through flat-field calibration procedures. FPN is a particularly challenging problem because the detector responsivities drift relative to one another in time, requiring that the sensor be periodically recalibrated. Both the rate and severity of the drift depend on a host of factors that result in varying levels of residual calibration error being present within the data at all times. Scene-based nonuniformity correction (SBNUC) algorithms estimate and remove FPN by exploiting content within the scene data and are often necessary to acceptably remove sensor artifacts for subpixel target detection applications. We present results from two SBNUC techniques that reduce residual FPN and improve target signal-to-clutter ratio. We make the observation that temporally reordering the data in conjunction with the use of spatial ratios or differentials results in algorithms that require a low number of temporal data samples to reliably correct for FPN with minimal introduction of image artifacts. Additionally, application of the algorithms within the principal components domain can further improve their correction ability.

  18. Spatial temporal patterns in childhood leukaemia: further evidence for an infectious origin. EUROCLUS project.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, F. E.; Boyle, P.; Carli, P. M.; Coebergh, J. W.; Draper, G. J.; Ekbom, A.; Levi, F.; McKinney, P. A.; McWhirter, W.; Magnani, C.; Michaelis, J.; Olsen, J. H.; Peris-Bonet, R.; Petridou, E.; Pukkala, E.; Vatten, L.

    1998-01-01

    The EUROCLUS project included information on residence at diagnosis for 13351 cases of childhood leukaemia diagnosed in the period 1980-89 in defined geographical regions in 17 countries. A formal algorithm permits identification of small census areas as containing case excesses. The present analysis examines spatial-temporal patterns of the cases (n = 970) within these clustered areas. The objectives were, first, to compare these results with those from an analysis conducted for UK data for the period 1966-83, and, second, to extend them to consider infant leukaemias. A modification of the Knox test investigates, within the small areas, temporal overlap between cases in a subgroup of interest at a putative critical time and all other cases at any time between birth and diagnosis. Critical times were specified in advance as follows: for cases of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia aged 2-4 years, the 18-month period preceding diagnosis; for cases of total leukaemia aged 5-14 years, 1 year before to 1 year after birth; and for infant cases (diagnosed < 1 year), 1 year before to 6 months after birth. Each of the analyses found evidence of excess space-time overlap compared with that expected; these were 10% (P = 0.005), 15% (P= 0.0002) and 26% (P= 0.03) respectively. The results are interpreted in terms of an infectious origin of childhood leukaemia. PMID:9514063

  19. Temporal and spatial patterns of sea level in inland basins: Recent events in the Aral Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanev, E. V.; Peneva, E. L.; Mercier, F.

    2004-08-01

    We demonstrate in this paper that satellite altimeter data resolve the drop in the Aral Sea level during 1993-2000 of about 0.6 m per year resulting in a change of surface area from 35000 to 22000 km2 and volume from 270 to 130 km3. The sudden drop in the sea level of the Northern basin on 04.21.1999 resulting from dam break-up is also clearly resolved. The temporal and spatial variability of sea level reveals response patterns which are characteristic for friction dominated shallow sea dynamics. The combination of salinity and sea-level data enables to identify the major events of environmental transition, which are associated with the temporal variability in the total salt content: (1) a peak in 1993-1994, and (2) an increasing trend in the last decade. These events are indicative of an increase in the discharge of ground water, but could also reveal overestimated salinity estimates from recent observations.

  20. Remote sensing captures varying temporal patterns of vegetation between human-altered and natural landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Roderick, George K.

    2015-01-01

    Global change has led to shifts in phenology, potentially disrupting species interactions such as plant–pollinator relationships. Advances in remote sensing techniques allow one to detect vegetation phenological diversity between different land use types, but it is not clear how this translates to other communities in the ecosystem. Here, we investigated the phenological diversity of the vegetation across a human-altered landscape including urban, agricultural, and natural land use types. We found that the patterns of change in the vegetation indices (EVI and NDVI) of human-altered landscapes are out of synchronization with the phenology in neighboring natural California grassland habitat. Comparing these findings to a spatio-temporal pollinator distribution dataset, EVI and NDVI were significant predictors of total bee abundance, a relationship that improved with time lags. This evidence supports the importance of differences in temporal dynamics between land use types. These findings also highlight the potential to utilize remote sensing data to make predictions for components of biodiversity that have tight vegetation associations, such as pollinators. PMID:26290795

  1. Epibacterial community patterns on marine macroalgae are host-specific but temporally variable.

    PubMed

    Lachnit, Tim; Meske, Diana; Wahl, Martin; Harder, Tilmann; Schmitz, Ruth

    2011-03-01

    Marine macroalgae are constantly exposed to epibacterial colonizers. The epiphytic bacterial patterns and their temporal and spatial variability on host algae are poorly understood. To investigate the interaction between marine macroalgae and epiphytic bacteria, this study tested if the composition of epibacterial communities on different macroalgae was specific and persisted under varying biotic and abiotic environmental conditions over a 2-year observation time frame. Epibacterial communities on the co-occurring macroalgae Fucus vesiculosus, Gracilaria vermiculophylla and Ulva intestinalis were repeatedly sampled in summer and winter of 2007 and 2008. The epibacterial community composition was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S rRNA gene libraries. Epibacterial community profiles did not only differ significantly at each sampling interval among algal species, but also showed consistent seasonal differences on each algal species at a bacterial phylum level. These compositional patterns re-occurred at the same season of two consecutive years. Within replicates of the same algal species, the composition of bacterial phyla was subject to shifts at the bacterial species level, both within the same season but at different years and between different seasons. However, 7-16% of sequences were identified as species specific to the host alga. These findings demonstrate that marine macroalgae harbour species-specific and temporally adapted epiphytic bacterial biofilms on their surfaces. Since several algal host-specific bacteria were highly similar to other bacteria known to either avoid subsequent colonization by eukaryotic larvae or to exhibit potent antibacterial activities, algal host-specific bacterial associations are expected to play an important role for marine macroalgae. PMID:21078035

  2. Reconstructing spatial and temporal patterns of paleoglaciation along the Tian Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbor, J.; Stroeven, A. P.; Beel, C.; Blomdin, R.; Caffee, M. W.; Chen, Y.; Codilean, A.; Gribenski, N.; Hattestrand, C.; Heyman, J.; Ivanov, M.; Kassab, C.; Li, Y.; Lifton, N. A.; Liu, G.; Petrakov, D.; Rogozhina, I.; Usubaliev, R.

    2012-12-01

    Testing and calibrating global climate models require well-constrained information on past climates of key regions around the world. Particularly important are transitional regions that provide a sensitive record of past climate change. Central Asia is an extreme continental location with glaciers and rivers that respond sensitively to temporal variations in the dominance of several major climate systems. As an international team initiative, we are reconstructing the glacial history of the Kyrgyz and Chinese Tian Shan, based on mapping and dating of key localities along the range. Remote-sensing-based geomorphological mapping, building on previous maps produced by Kyrgyz, Russian, Chinese and German scholars, is being augmented with field observations of glacial geomorphology and the maximum distribution of erratics. We are using cosmogenic nuclide (CN) 10Be dating of moraines and other landforms that constrain the former maximum extents of glaciers. Study sites include the Ala-Archa, Ak-Shyrak and Inylchek/Sary-Dzaz areas in Kyrgyzstan and the Urumqi valley (as well as its upland and southern slopes), and the Tumur and Bogeda peak areas in China. Comparing consistently dated glacial histories along and across the range will allow us to examine potential shifts in the dominance patterns of climate systems over time in Central Asia. We are also comparing ages based on CN with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) dates. The final stage of this project will use intermediate complexity glacier flow models to examine paleoclimatic implications of the observed spatial and temporal patterns of glacier changes across Central Asia and eastern Tibet, focused in particular on the last glacial cycle.

  3. Temporal variability in winter travel patterns of Yellowstone bison: the effects of road grooming.

    PubMed

    Bruggeman, Jason E; Garrott, Robert A; Bjornlie, Daniel D; White, P J; Watson, Fred G R; Borkowski, John

    2006-08-01

    The influence of winter recreation on wildlife in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming and Montana, USA, is a controversial issue. In particular, the effects of road grooming, done to facilitate snowmobile and snowcoach travel, on bison (Bison bison) ecology are under debate. We collected data during winters, from 1997 to 2005, on bison road use, off-road travel, and activity budgets to quantify temporal trends in the amount of bison road and off-road travel and to identify the ecological factors affecting bison movements and use of the groomed road system in the Madison-Gibbon-Firehole (MGF) area of YNP. Using model comparison techniques, we found bison travel patterns to be influenced by multiple, interacting effects. Road travel was negatively correlated with road grooming, and we found no evidence that bison preferentially used groomed roads during winter. Snow water equivalent, bison density, and the springtime melt period were positively correlated with both bison road and off-road travel. From behavioral scans on 68,791 bison, we found that travel is only a small percentage (11%) of all bison activity, with foraging comprising 67% of observations. Also, only 7% of traveling bison and 30% of foraging bison were displacing snow, and we suggest foraging, rather than traveling, is likely the major energetic cost to bison in winter. Bison utilize their own trail network, connecting foraging areas using stream corridors, geothermal pathways, and self-groomed travel routes. Our results indicate that temporal patterns in bison road travel are a manifestation of general travel behavior and that groomed roads in the MGF do not appear to be a major factor influencing bison ecology and spatial redistribution. We suggest that the changes in bison spatial dynamics during the past three decades have likely been the result of the natural phenomenon of density-dependent range expansion, rather than having been caused by the anthropogenic influence of road grooming. PMID:16937817

  4. Migratory patterns of exotic brown trout Salmo trutta in south-western Hokkaido, Japan, on the basis of otolith Sr:Ca ratios and acoustic telemetry.

    PubMed

    Honda, K; Arai, T; Kobayashi, S; Tsuda, Y; Miyashita, K

    2012-02-01

    Acoustic telemetry and microchemical analysis of otolith strontium-calcium ratios were used to evaluate how exotic brown trout Salmo trutta have responded to Japanese riverine environments of south-western Hokkaido by observing their migratory patterns. The existence of anadromous S. trutta was also verified. Most S. trutta caught in rivers for otolith analysis were freshwater residents (956%), whereas those caught in the sea were mainly smolts (913%), which had just migrated from rivers during spring. Anadromous S. trutta (n = 6) were captured in rivers and in the sea, confirming the existence of mature pre- and post-spawning fish. According to telemetry results, both mature and immature S. trutta used the river in winter, and their estimated sea-run timings showed individual differences. Through the combination of these two methods, migratory patterns on various spatio-temporal scales were observed. This first documentation of the presence of both male and female anadromous S. trutta in the same region within Japan indicated the risk of further colonization of exotic S. trutta via oceanic migration. PMID:22268438

  5. The spatial and temporal distributions of arthropods in forest canopies: uniting disparate patterns with hypotheses for specialisation.

    PubMed

    Wardhaugh, Carl W

    2014-11-01

    Arguably the majority of species on Earth utilise tropical rainforest canopies, and much progress has been made in describing arboreal assemblages, especially for arthropods. The most commonly described patterns for tropical rainforest insect communities are host specificity, spatial specialisation (predominantly vertical stratification), and temporal changes in abundance (seasonality and circadian rhythms). Here I review the recurrent results with respect to each of these patterns and discuss the evolutionary selective forces that have generated them in an attempt to unite these patterns in a holistic evolutionary framework. I propose that species can be quantified along a generalist-specialist scale not only with respect to host specificity, but also other spatial and temporal distribution patterns, where specialisation is a function of the extent of activity across space and time for particular species. When all of these distribution patterns are viewed through the paradigm of specialisation, hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the evolution of host specificity can also be applied to explain the generation and maintenance of other spatial and temporal distribution patterns. The main driver for most spatial and temporal distribution patterns is resource availability. Generally, the distribution of insects follows that of the resources they exploit, which are spatially stratified and vary temporally in availability. Physiological adaptations are primarily important for host specificity, where nutritional and chemical variation among host plants in particular, but also certain prey species and fungi, influence host range. Physiological tolerances of abiotic conditions are also important for explaining the spatial and temporal distributions of some insect species, especially in drier forest environments where desiccation is an ever-present threat. However, it is likely that for most species in moist tropical rainforests, abiotic conditions are valuable indicators of resource availability, rather than physiologically limiting factors. Overall, each distribution pattern is influenced by the same evolutionary forces, but at differing intensities. Consequently, each pattern is linked and not mutually exclusive of the other distribution patterns. Most studies have examined each of these patterns in isolation. Future work should focus on examining the evolutionary drivers of these patterns in concert. Only then can the relative strength of resource availability and distribution, host defensive phenotypes, and biotic and abiotic interactions on insect distribution patterns be determined. PMID:24581118

  6. Spatial and temporal patterns of large-scale droughts in Europe: model dispersion and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallaksen, Lena M.; Stahl, Kerstin

    2014-05-01

    Droughts are regional events that have a wide range of environmental and socio-economic impacts and thus, it is vital that models correctly simulate drought characteristics in a future climate. In this study we explore the performance of a suite of off-line, global hydrological and land surface models in mapping spatial and temporal patterns of large-scale hydrological droughts. The model ensemble consists of seven global models run with the same simulation setup (developed in a joint effort within the WATCH project). Daily total runoff (sum of fast and slow component) simulated for each grid cell in Europe for the period 1963-2000 constitute the basis for the analysis. Simulated and observed daily (7-day backward-smoothed) runoff series for each grid cell were first transformed into nonparametric anomalies, and a grid cell is considered to be in drought if the runoff is below q20, i.e., the 20% non-exceedance frequency of that day. The mean annual drought area, i.e., the average of the daily total area in drought, is used to characterize the overall dryness of a year. The annual maximum drought cluster area, i.e., the area of the largest cluster of spatially contiguous cells in drought within a year, is chosen as a measure of the severity of a given drought. The total number of drought events is defined as runs of consecutive days in drought over the entire record. Consistent model behavior was found for inter-annual variability in mean drought area, whereas high model dispersion was revealed in the weekly evolution of contiguous area in drought and its annual maximum. Comparison with nearly three hundred catchment-scale streamflow observations showed an overall tendency to overestimate the number of drought events and hence, underestimate drought duration, whereas persistence in drought affected area (weekly mean) was underestimated, noticeable for one group of models. The high model dispersion in temporal and spatial persistence of drought identified implies that care should be taken when analyzing drought characteristics from only one or a limited number of models unless validated specifically for hydrological drought. Citation: Tallaksen, L.M., Stahl, K. (2014) Spatial and temporal patterns of large-scale droughts in Europe: model dispersion and performance. Geophysical Research Letters (accepted), doi: 10.1002/2013GL058573

  7. Spatio-Temporal Transmission Patterns of Black-Band Disease in a Coral Community

    PubMed Central

    Zvuloni, Assaf; Artzy-Randrup, Yael; Stone, Lewi; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Barkan, Roy; Loya, Yossi

    2009-01-01

    Background Transmission mechanisms of black-band disease (BBD) in coral reefs are poorly understood, although this disease is considered to be one of the most widespread and destructive coral infectious diseases. The major objective of this study was to assess transmission mechanisms of BBD in the field based on the spatio-temporal patterns of the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings 3,175 susceptible and infected corals were mapped over an area of 1010 m in Eilat (northern Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea) and the distribution of the disease was examined monthly throughout almost two full disease cycles (June 2006December 2007). Spatial and spatio-temporal analyses were applied to infer the transmission pattern of the disease and to calculate key epidemiological parameters such as (basic reproduction number). We show that the prevalence of the disease is strongly associated with high water temperature. When water temperatures rise and disease prevalence increases, infected corals exhibit aggregated distributions on small spatial scales of up to 1.9 m. Additionally, newly-infected corals clearly appear in proximity to existing infected corals and in a few cases in direct contact with them. We also present and test a model of water-borne infection, indicating that the likelihood of a susceptible coral becoming infected is defined by its spatial location and by the relative spatial distribution of nearby infected corals found in the site. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide evidence that local transmission, but not necessarily by direct contact, is likely to be an important factor in the spread of the disease over the tested spatial scale. In the absence of potential disease vectors with limited mobility (e.g., snails, fireworms) in the studied site, water-borne infection is likely to be a significant transmission mechanism of BBD. Our suggested model of water-borne transmission supports this hypothesis. The spatio-temporal analysis also points out that infected corals surviving a disease season appear to play a major role in the re-introduction of the disease to the coral community in the following season. PMID:19337384

  8. Using dynamic Brownian bridge movement modelling to measure temporal patterns of habitat selection.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Michael E; Clint McCoy, J; Hinton, Joseph W; Chamberlain, Michael J; Collier, Bret A

    2014-09-01

    Accurately describing animal space use is vital to understanding how wildlife use habitat. Improvements in GPS technology continue to facilitate collection of telemetry data at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Application of the recently introduced dynamic Brownian bridge movement model (dBBMM) to such data is promising as the method explicitly incorporates the behavioural heterogeneity of a movement path into the estimated utilization distribution (UD). Utilization distributions defining space use are normally estimated for time-scales ranging from weeks to months, obscuring much of the fine-scale information available from high-volume GPS data sets. By accounting for movement heterogeneity, the dBBMM provides a rigorous, behaviourally based estimate of space use between each set of relocations. Focusing on UDs generated between individual sets of locations allows us to quantify fine-scale circadian variation in habitat use. We used the dBBMM to estimate UDs bounding individual time steps for three terrestrial species with different life histories to illustrate how the method can be used to identify fine-scale variations in habitat use. We also demonstrate how dBBMMs can be used to characterize circadian patterns of habitat selection and link fine-scale patterns of habitat use to behaviour. We observed circadian patterns of habitat use that varied seasonally for a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and coyote (Canis latrans). We found seasonal patterns in selection by the white-tailed deer and were able to link use of conifer forests and agricultural fields to behavioural state of the coyote. Additionally, we were able to quantify the date in which a Rio Grande wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo intermedia) initiated laying as well as when during the day, she was most likely to visit the nest site to deposit eggs. The ability to quantify circadian patterns of habitat use may have important implications for research and management of wildlife. Additionally, the ability to link such patterns to behaviour may aid in the development of mechanistic models of habitat selection. PMID:24460723

  9. Spatio-temporal patterns of soil water storage under dryland agriculture at the watershed scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Hesham M.; Huggins, David R.

    2011-07-01

    SummarySpatio-temporal patterns of soil water are major determinants of crop yield potential in dryland agriculture and can serve as the basis for delineating precision management zones. Soil water patterns can vary significantly due to differences in seasonal precipitation, soil properties and topographic features. In this study we used empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to characterize the spatial variability of soil water at the Washington State University Cook Agronomy Farm (CAF) near Pullman, WA. During the period 1999-2006, the CAF was divided into three roughly equal blocks (A, B, and C), and soil water at 0.3 m intervals to a depth of 1.5 m measured gravimetrically at approximately one third of the 369 geo-referenced points on the 37-ha watershed. These data were combined with terrain attributes, soil bulk density and apparent soil conductivity (EC a). The first EOF generated from the three blocks explained 73-76% of the soil water variability. Field patterns of soil water based on EOF interpolation varied between wet and dry conditions during spring and fall seasons. Under wet conditions, elevation and wetness index were the dominant factors regulating the spatial patterns of soil water. As soil dries out during summer and fall, soil properties (EC a and bulk density) become more important in explaining the spatial patterns of soil water. The EOFs generated from block B, which represents average topographic and soil properties, provided better estimates of soil water over the entire watershed with larger Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient of Efficiency (NSCE) values, especially when the first two EOFs were retained. Including more than the first two EOFs did not significantly increase the NSCE of soil water estimate. The EOF interpolation method to estimate soil water variability worked slightly better during spring than during fall, with average NSCE values of 0.23 and 0.20, respectively. The predictable patterns of stored soil water in the spring could serve as the basis for delineating precision management zones as yield potential is largely driven by water availability. The EOF-based method has the advantage of estimating the soil water variability based on soil water data from several measurement times, whereas in regression methods only soil water measurement at a single time are used. The EOF-based method can also be used to estimate soil water at any time other than measurement times, assuming the average soil water of the watershed is known at that time.

  10. Spatial and temporal patterns of micropollutants upstream and downstream of 24 WWTPs across Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spycher, Barbara; Deuber, Fabian; Kistler, David; Burdon, Frank; Reyes, Marta; Alder, Alfredo C.; Joss, Adriano; Eggen, Rik; Singer, Heinz; Stamm, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Treated wastewater is an important source of micropollutants in many streams. These chemicals consist of very diverse set of compounds that may vary in space and time. In order to improve our understanding of such spatio-temporal patterns of micropollutants in surface waters, we compared upstream and downstream locations at 24 sites across the Swiss Plateau and Jura (12 sites in the 2013 campaign, 12 sites during the 2014 campaign). Each site represents the most upstream treatment plant in the corresponding catchment. This survey is part of the interdisciplinary, Eawag-wide research project EcoImpact that aims at elucidating the ecological effects of micropollutants on stream ecosystems. In 2013, a broad analytical screening was applied to samples collected during winter (January) and summer conditions (June). Based in these results, the bi-monthly samples obtained in 2014 were analysed for a set of about 60 selected organic micropollutants and 10 heavy metals. The screening results demonstrate that generally pharmaceuticals, artificial sweeteners and corrosion inhibitors make up the largest part of the organic micropollutants. Pesticides including biocides and plant protection products are also regularly found but at lower concentrations. This presentation will analyse the variability of the micropollutant patterns across the different sites and how upstream conditions and the wastewater composition changes with season.

  11. Does sex matter? Temporal and spatial patterns of cougar-human conflict in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Teichman, Kristine J; Cristescu, Bogdan; Nielsen, Scott E

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife-human conflicts occur wherever large carnivores overlap human inhabited areas. Conflict mitigation can be facilitated by understanding long-term dynamics and examining sex-structured conflict patterns. Predicting areas with high probability of conflict helps focus management strategies in order to proactively decrease carnivore mortality. We investigated the importance of cougar (Puma concolor) habitat, human landscape characteristics and the combination of habitat and human features on the temporal and spatial patterns of cougar-human conflicts in British Columbia. Conflicts (n = 1,727; 1978-2007) involved similar numbers of male and female cougars with conflict rate decreasing over the past decade. Conflicts were concentrated within the southern part of the province with the most conflicts per unit area occurring on Vancouver Island. For both sexes, the most supported spatial models for the most recent (1998-2007) conflicts contained both human and habitat variables. Conflicts were more likely to occur close to roads, at intermediate elevations and far from the northern edge of the cougar distribution range in British Columbia. Male cougar conflicts were more likely to occur in areas of intermediate human density. Unlike cougar conflicts in other regions, cattle density was not a significant predictor of conflict location. With human populations expanding, conflicts are expected to increase. Conservation tools, such as the maps predicting conflict hotspots from this study, can help focus management efforts to decrease carnivore-human conflict. PMID:24040312

  12. Large-Scale Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Mediterranean Cephalopod Diversity.

    PubMed

    Keller, Stefanie; Bartolino, Valerio; Hidalgo, Manuel; Bitetto, Isabella; Casciaro, Loredana; Cuccu, Danila; Esteban, Antonio; Garcia, Cristina; Garofalo, Germana; Josephides, Marios; Jadaud, Angelique; Lefkaditou, Evgenia; Maiorano, Porzia; Manfredi, Chiara; Marceta, Bojan; Massutí, Enric; Micallef, Reno; Peristeraki, Panagiota; Relini, Giulio; Sartor, Paolo; Spedicato, Maria Teresa; Tserpes, George; Quetglas, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Species diversity is widely recognized as an important trait of ecosystems' functioning and resilience. Understanding the causes of diversity patterns and their interaction with the environmental conditions is essential in order to effectively assess and preserve existing diversity. While diversity patterns of most recurrent groups such as fish are commonly studied, other important taxa such as cephalopods have received less attention. In this work we present spatio-temporal trends of cephalopod diversity across the entire Mediterranean Sea during the last 19 years, analysing data from the annual bottom trawl survey MEDITS conducted by 5 different Mediterranean countries using standardized gears and sampling protocols. The influence of local and regional environmental variability in different Mediterranean regions is analysed applying generalized additive models, using species richness and the Shannon Wiener index as diversity descriptors. While the western basin showed a high diversity, our analyses do not support a steady eastward decrease of diversity as proposed in some previous studies. Instead, high Shannon diversity was also found in the Adriatic and Aegean Seas, and high species richness in the eastern Ionian Sea. Overall diversity did not show any consistent trend over the last two decades. Except in the Adriatic Sea, diversity showed a hump-shaped trend with depth in all regions, being highest between 200-400 m depth. Our results indicate that high Chlorophyll a concentrations and warmer temperatures seem to enhance species diversity, and the influence of these parameters is stronger for richness than for Shannon diversity. PMID:26760965

  13. Direct Visualization of Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Antimicrobial Action within Model Oral Biofilms?

    PubMed Central

    Takenaka, Shoji; Trivedi, Harsh M.; Corbin, Audrey; Pitts, Betsey; Stewart, Philip S.

    2008-01-01

    A microscopic method for noninvasively visualizing the action of an antimicrobial agent inside a biofilm was developed and applied to describe spatial and temporal patterns of mouthrinse activity on model oral biofilms. Three species biofilms of Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus gordonii, and Actinomyces naeslundii were grown in glass capillary flow cells. Bacterial cells were stained with the fluorogenic esterase substrate Calcien AM (CAM). Loss of green fluorescence upon exposure to an antimicrobial formulation was subsequently imaged by time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy. When an antimicrobial mouthrinse containing chlorhexidine digluconate was administered, a gradual loss of green fluorescence was observed that began at the periphery of cell clusters where they adjoined the flowing bulk fluid and progressed inward over a time period of several minutes. Image analysis was performed to quantify a penetration velocity of 4 ?m/min. An enzyme-based antimicrobial formulation led to a gradual, continually slowing loss of fluorescence in a pattern that was qualitatively different from the behavior observed with chlorhexidine. Ethanol at 11.6% had little effect on the biofilm. None of these treatments resulted in the removal of biomass from the biofilm. Most methods to measure or visualize antimicrobial action in biofilms are destructive. Spatial information is important because biofilms are known for their structural and physiological heterogeneity. The CAM staining technique has the potential to provide information about the rate of antimicrobial penetration, the presence of tolerant subpopulations, and the extent of biomass removal effected by a treatment. PMID:18223108

  14. Spatial and temporal patterns of nonindigenous fish introductions in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nico, L.G.; Fuller, P.L.

    1999-01-01

    In 1978 biologists in Gainesville, Florida, began compiling records on the distribution and status of nonindigenous fishes known in U.S. inland waters. The database, now in electronic format, currently contains approximately 17,000 records representing more than 500 nonindigenous fish taxa (i.e., species, hybrids, and unidentified forms). Of these taxa, 317 (61%) are native to the United States but have been introduced by humans into U.S. drainages outside their natural geographic ranges; 185 (35%) are fishes introduced from foreign countries; and 22 (4%) are hybrids. Of the introduced foreign fish taxa, 71 (38%) are species that have established (i.e., reproducing) or possibly established populations in open U.S. waters. The database is a useful tool for natural resource managers and other decision makers. Although we periodically revise records and constantly enter new ones, our database is fairly updated; thus, we are able to more thoroughly analyze patterns of introduction and the spread of nonindigenous fishes within the United States. Moreover, information gaps exposed by the data set should serve to stimulate and guide future research on nonindigenous fishes. This paper introduces our database and provides an overview of temporal and spatial patterns of nonindigenous fish distributions in U.S. inland waters.

  15. Does Sex Matter? Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Cougar-Human Conflict in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Teichman, Kristine J.; Cristescu, Bogdan; Nielsen, Scott E.

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife-human conflicts occur wherever large carnivores overlap human inhabited areas. Conflict mitigation can be facilitated by understanding long-term dynamics and examining sex-structured conflict patterns. Predicting areas with high probability of conflict helps focus management strategies in order to proactively decrease carnivore mortality. We investigated the importance of cougar (Puma concolor) habitat, human landscape characteristics and the combination of habitat and human features on the temporal and spatial patterns of cougar-human conflicts in British Columbia. Conflicts (n = 1,727; 1978–2007) involved similar numbers of male and female cougars with conflict rate decreasing over the past decade. Conflicts were concentrated within the southern part of the province with the most conflicts per unit area occurring on Vancouver Island. For both sexes, the most supported spatial models for the most recent (1998–2007) conflicts contained both human and habitat variables. Conflicts were more likely to occur close to roads, at intermediate elevations and far from the northern edge of the cougar distribution range in British Columbia. Male cougar conflicts were more likely to occur in areas of intermediate human density. Unlike cougar conflicts in other regions, cattle density was not a significant predictor of conflict location. With human populations expanding, conflicts are expected to increase. Conservation tools, such as the maps predicting conflict hotspots from this study, can help focus management efforts to decrease carnivore-human conflict. PMID:24040312

  16. Large-Scale Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Mediterranean Cephalopod Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Stefanie; Bartolino, Valerio; Hidalgo, Manuel; Bitetto, Isabella; Casciaro, Loredana; Cuccu, Danila; Esteban, Antonio; Garcia, Cristina; Garofalo, Germana; Josephides, Marios; Jadaud, Angelique; Lefkaditou, Evgenia; Maiorano, Porzia; Manfredi, Chiara; Marceta, Bojan; Massutí, Enric; Micallef, Reno; Peristeraki, Panagiota; Relini, Giulio; Sartor, Paolo; Spedicato, Maria Teresa; Tserpes, George; Quetglas, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Species diversity is widely recognized as an important trait of ecosystems’ functioning and resilience. Understanding the causes of diversity patterns and their interaction with the environmental conditions is essential in order to effectively assess and preserve existing diversity. While diversity patterns of most recurrent groups such as fish are commonly studied, other important taxa such as cephalopods have received less attention. In this work we present spatio-temporal trends of cephalopod diversity across the entire Mediterranean Sea during the last 19 years, analysing data from the annual bottom trawl survey MEDITS conducted by 5 different Mediterranean countries using standardized gears and sampling protocols. The influence of local and regional environmental variability in different Mediterranean regions is analysed applying generalized additive models, using species richness and the Shannon Wiener index as diversity descriptors. While the western basin showed a high diversity, our analyses do not support a steady eastward decrease of diversity as proposed in some previous studies. Instead, high Shannon diversity was also found in the Adriatic and Aegean Seas, and high species richness in the eastern Ionian Sea. Overall diversity did not show any consistent trend over the last two decades. Except in the Adriatic Sea, diversity showed a hump-shaped trend with depth in all regions, being highest between 200–400 m depth. Our results indicate that high Chlorophyll a concentrations and warmer temperatures seem to enhance species diversity, and the influence of these parameters is stronger for richness than for Shannon diversity. PMID:26760965

  17. Detection of Cardiac Function Abnormality from MRI Images Using Normalized Wall Thickness Temporal Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Wael, Mai; Fahmy, Ahmed S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To develop a method for identifying abnormal myocardial function based on studying the normalized wall motion pattern during the cardiac cycle. Methods. The temporal pattern of the normalized myocardial wall thickness is used as a feature vector to assess the cardiac wall motion abnormality. Principal component analysis is used to reduce the feature dimensionality and the maximum likelihood method is used to differentiate between normal and abnormal features. The proposed method was applied on a dataset of 27 cases from normal subjects and patients. Results. The developed method achieved 81.5%, 85%, and 88.5% accuracy for identifying abnormal contractility in the basal, midventricular, and apical slices, respectively. Conclusions. A novel feature vector, namely, the normalized wall thickness, has been introduced for detecting myocardial regional wall motion abnormality. The proposed method provides assessment of the regional myocardial contractility for each cardiac segment and slice; therefore, it could be a valuable tool for automatic and fast determination of regional wall motion abnormality from conventional cine MRI images.

  18. Acoustic telemetry reveals large-scale migration patterns of walleye in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayden, Todd A.; Holbrook, Christopher; Fielder, David G.; Vandergoot, Christopher S.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Dettmers, John M.; Krueger, Charles C.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Fish migration in large freshwater lacustrine systems such as the Laurentian Great Lakes is not well understood. The walleye (Sander vitreus) is an economically and ecologically important native fish species throughout the Great Lakes. In Lake Huron walleye has recently undergone a population expansion as a result of recovery of the primary stock, stemming from changing food web dynamics. During 2011 and 2012, we used acoustic telemetry to document the timing and spatial scale of walleye migration in Lake Huron and Saginaw Bay. Spawning walleye (n = 199) collected from a tributary of Saginaw Bay were implanted with acoustic tags and their migrations were documented using acoustic receivers (n = 140) deployed throughout U.S. nearshore waters of Lake Huron. Three migration pathways were described using multistate mark-recapture models. Models were evaluated using the Akaike Information Criterion. Fish sex did not influence migratory behavior but did affect migration rate and walleye were detected on all acoustic receiver lines. Most (95%) tagged fish migrated downstream from the riverine tagging and release location to Saginaw Bay, and 37% of these fish emigrated from Saginaw Bay into Lake Huron. Remarkably, 8% of walleye that emigrated from Saginaw Bay were detected at the acoustic receiver line located farthest from the release location more than 350 km away. Most (64%) walleye returned to the Saginaw River in 2012, presumably for spawning. Our findings reveal that fish from this stock use virtually the entirety of U.S. nearshore waters of Lake Huron.

  19. The pattern of acoustic emission under fluid initiation of failure: Laboratory modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potanina, M. G.; Smirnov, V. B.; Ponomarev, A. V.; Bernard, P.; Lyubushin, A. A.; Shoziyoev, Sh. P.

    2015-03-01

    The results of the laboratory experiment on the initiation of acoustic emission in a loaded specimen by wetting a part of its surface without a material increase in the pore pressure are analyzed. The experiment was conducted on the lever press at the Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences (Sobolev and Ponomarev, 2011). Infusion of water into the surface of the specimen initiated the swarm acoustic emission, which, after having migrated to the area with higher stresses, culminated in the formation of a macrofracture. The analysis revealed the regularities in the excitation and relaxation of the acoustic activity in response to different types of initiation: the forced excitation by stepwise increasing the load at the initial stage of the experiment; excitation resulting from fluid diffusion, which can be associated with the reduction in the material strength due to wetting; excitation that reflects the preparation for the emergence of a macrofracture in the area with the highest Coulomb stresses; and spontaneous excitation of swarm activity at the stage of relaxation of the acoustic emission after the formation of a macrofracture. The features revealed in the acoustic time series at the stages of excitation and decay of the emission are qualitatively similar to the trends identified in the variations of seismic parameters during the natural swarms, preparation of the sources of the strong earthquakes, and relaxation of the aftershocks. In particular, the obtained results support the hypothesis of fluid initiation of nonvolcanic seismic swarms.

  20. Acoustic Telemetry Reveals Large-Scale Migration Patterns of Walleye in Lake Huron

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Todd A.; Holbrook, Christopher M.; Fielder, David G.; Vandergoot, Christopher S.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Dettmers, John M.; Krueger, Charles C.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Fish migration in large freshwater lacustrine systems such as the Laurentian Great Lakes is not well understood. The walleye (Sander vitreus) is an economically and ecologically important native fish species throughout the Great Lakes. In Lake Huron walleye has recently undergone a population expansion as a result of recovery of the primary stock, stemming from changing food web dynamics. During 2011 and 2012, we used acoustic telemetry to document the timing and spatial scale of walleye migration in Lake Huron and Saginaw Bay. Spawning walleye (n = 199) collected from a tributary of Saginaw Bay were implanted with acoustic tags and their migrations were documented using acoustic receivers (n = 140) deployed throughout U.S. nearshore waters of Lake Huron. Three migration pathways were described using multistate mark-recapture models. Models were evaluated using the Akaike Information Criterion. Fish sex did not influence migratory behavior but did affect migration rate and walleye were detected on all acoustic receiver lines. Most (95%) tagged fish migrated downstream from the riverine tagging and release location to Saginaw Bay, and 37% of these fish emigrated from Saginaw Bay into Lake Huron. Remarkably, 8% of walleye that emigrated from Saginaw Bay were detected at the acoustic receiver line located farthest from the release location more than 350 km away. Most (64%) walleye returned to the Saginaw River in 2012, presumably for spawning. Our findings reveal that fish from this stock use virtually the entirety of U.S. nearshore waters of Lake Huron. PMID:25506913

  1. Temporal patterns in daily measurements of inorganic and organic speciated PM2.5 in Denver

    PubMed Central

    Dutton, Steven J.; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Vedal, Sverre; Hannigan, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) has been linked to a wide range of adverse health effects and as a result is currently regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. PM2.5 originates from a multitude of sources and has heterogeneous physical and chemical characteristics. These features complicate the link between PM2.5 emission sources, ambient concentrations and health effects. The goal of the Denver Aerosol Sources and Health (DASH) study is to investigate associations between sources and health using daily measurements of speciated PM2.5 in Denver. The datxa set being collected for the DASH study will be the longest daily speciated PM2.5 data set of its kind covering 5.5 years of daily inorganic and organic speciated measurements. As of 2008, 4.5 years of bulk measurements (mass, inorganic ions and total carbon) and 1.5 years of organic molecular marker measurements have been completed. Several techniques were used to reveal long-term and short-term temporal patterns in the bulk species and the organic molecular marker species. All species showed a strong annual periodicity, but their monthly and seasonal behavior varied substantially. Weekly periodicities appear in many compound classes with the most significant weekday/weekend effect observed for elemental carbon, cholestanes, hopanes, select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy n-alkanoic acids and methoxyphenols. Many of the observed patterns can be explained by meteorology or anthropogenic activity patterns while others do not appear to have such obvious explanations. Similarities and differences in these findings compared to those reported from other cities are highlighted. PMID:23486844

  2. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Dissolved Organic Matter Characteristics in the Upper Willamette River Basin, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B. S.; Lajtha, K.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) leaching through soil affects soil carbon sequestration and the carbon metabolism of receiving water bodies. Improving our understanding of the sources and fate of DOM at varying spatial and temporal patterns is crucial for land management decisions. However, little is known about how DOM sources change with land use types and seasonal flow patterns. In the Willamette River Basin (WRB), which is home to Oregon's major cities including Portland and Salem, forested headwaters transition to agricultural and urban land. The climate of WRB has a distinctive seasonal pattern with dry warm summers and wet winters driven by winter precipitation and snowmelt runoff between November and March. This study examined DOM fluorescence characteristic in stream water from 21 locations collected monthly and 16 locations collected seasonally to identify the sources and fate of DOM in the upper WRB in contrasting land uses. DOC and dissolved organic nitrogen concentrations increased as the flow rate increased during winter precipitation at all sites. This indicates that increased flow rate increased the connectivity between land and nearby water bodies. DOM fluorescent properties varied among land use types. During the first precipitation event after a long dry summer, a microbial DOM signature in agricultural areas increased along with nitrate concentrations. This may be because accumulated nutrients on land during the dry season flowed to nearby streams during the first rain event and promoted microbial growth in the streams. During the month of the highest flow rate in 2014, sampling sites near forest showed evidence of a greater terrestrial DOM signature compared to its signature during the dry season. This indicates fluorescent DOM characteristics in streams vary as the flow connectivity changes even within the same land type.

  3. Understanding flood-induced water chemistry variability extracting temporal patterns with the LDA method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, A. H.; Tavenard, R.; Emonet, R.; De Lavenne, A.; Malinowski, S.; Guyet, T.; Quiniou, R.; Odobez, J.; Merot, P.; Gascuel-odoux, C.

    2013-12-01

    Studying floods has been a major issue in hydrological research for years, both in quantitative and qualitative hydrology. Stream chemistry is a mix of solutes, often used as tracers, as they originate from various sources in the catchment and reach the stream by various flow pathways. Previous studies (for instance (1)) hypothesized that stream chemistry reaction to a rainfall event is not unique but varies seasonally, and according to the yearly meteorological conditions. Identifying a typology of flood temporal chemical patterns is a way to better understand catchment processes at the flood and seasonal time scale. We applied a probabilistic model (Latent Dirichlet Allocation or LDA (2)) mining recurrent sequential patterns from a dataset of floods. A set of 472 floods was automatically extracted from a daily 12-year long record of nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, sulfate and chloride concentrations. Rainfall, discharge, water table depth and temperature are also considered. Data comes from a long-term hydrological observatory (AgrHys, western France) located at Kervidy-Naizin. From each flood, a document has been generated that is made of a set of "hydrological words". Each hydrological word corresponds to a measurement: it is a triplet made of the considered variable, the time at which the measurement is made (relative to the beginning of the flood), and its magnitude (that can be low, medium or high). The documents and the number of pattern to be mined are used as input data to the LDA algorithm. LDA relies on spotting co-occurrences (as an alternative to the more traditional study of correlation) between words that appear within the flood documents. It has two nice properties that are its ability to easily deal with missing data and its additive property that allows a document to be seen as a mixture of several flood patterns. The output of LDA is a set of patterns easily represented in graphics. These patterns correspond to typical reactions to rainfall events. The patterns themselves are carefully studied, as well as their repartition along the year and along the 12 years of the dataset. We would recommend the use of such model to any study based on patterns or signature extraction. It could be well suited to compare different geographical locations and analyzing the resulting different pattern distributions. (1) Aubert, A.H., Gascuel-Odoux, C., Gruau, G., Akkal, N., Faucheux, M., Fauvel, Y., Grimaldi, C., Hamon, Y., Jaffrezic, A., Lecoz Boutnik, M., Molenat, J., Petitjean, P., Ruiz, L., Merot, Ph. (2013), Solute transport dynamics in small, shallow groundwater-dominated agricultural catchments: insights from a high-frequency, multisolute 10 yr-long monitoring study. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17(4): 1379-1391. (2) Aubert, A.H., Tavenard, R, Emonet, R., de Lavenne, A., Malinowski, S., Guyet, T., Quiniou, R., Odobez, J.-M., Merot, Ph., Gascuel-Odoux, C., submitted to WRR. Clustering with a probabilistic method newly applied in hydrology: application on flood events from water quality time-series.

  4. Spatial and temporal statistical analysis of bycatch data: Patterns of sea turtle bycatch in the North Atlantic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, B.; Sullivan, P.J.; Morreale, S.J.; Epperly, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    Loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) sea turtle distributions and movements in offshore waters of the western North Atlantic are not well understood despite continued efforts to monitor, survey, and observe them. Loggerhead and leatherback sea turtles are listed as endangered by the World Conservation Union, and thus anthropogenic mortality of these species, including fishing, is of elevated interest. This study quantifies spatial and temporal patterns of sea turtle bycatch distributions to identify potential processes influencing their locations. A Ripley's K function analysis was employed on the NOAA Fisheries Atlantic Pelagic Longline Observer Program data to determine spatial, temporal, and spatio-temporal patterns of sea turtle bycatch distributions within the pattern of the pelagic fishery distribution. Results indicate that loggerhead and leatherback sea turtle catch distributions change seasonally, with patterns of spatial clustering appearing from July through October. The results from the space-time analysis indicate that sea turtle catch distributions are related on a relatively fine scale (30-200 km and 1-5 days). The use of spatial and temporal point pattern analysis, particularly K function analysis, is a novel way to examine bycatch data and can be used to inform fishing practices such that fishing could still occur while minimizing sea turtle bycatch. ?? 2008 NRC.

  5. Effects of subsampling of passive acoustic recordings on acoustic metrics.

    PubMed

    Thomisch, Karolin; Boebel, Olaf; Zitterbart, Daniel P; Samaran, Flore; Van Parijs, Sofie; Van Opzeeland, Ilse

    2015-07-01

    Passive acoustic monitoring is an important tool in marine mammal studies. However, logistics and finances frequently constrain the number and servicing schedules of acoustic recorders, requiring a trade-off between deployment periods and sampling continuity, i.e., the implementation of a subsampling scheme. Optimizing such schemes to each project's specific research questions is desirable. This study investigates the impact of subsampling on the accuracy of two common metrics, acoustic presence and call rate, for different vocalization patterns (regimes) of baleen whales: (1) variable vocal activity, (2) vocalizations organized in song bouts, and (3) vocal activity with diel patterns. To this end, above metrics are compared for continuous and subsampled data subject to different sampling strategies, covering duty cycles between 50% and 2%. The results show that a reduction of the duty cycle impacts negatively on the accuracy of both acoustic presence and call rate estimates. For a given duty cycle, frequent short listening periods improve accuracy of daily acoustic presence estimates over few long listening periods. Overall, subsampling effects are most pronounced for low and/or temporally clustered vocal activity. These findings illustrate the importance of informed decisions when applying subsampling strategies to passive acoustic recordings or analyses for a given target species. PMID:26233026

  6. Temporal and spatial patterns of West Nile virus transmission in Saginaw County, Michigan, 2003-2006.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ting-Wu; Knepper, Randall G; Stanuszek, William W; Walker, Edward D; Wilson, Mark L

    2011-09-01

    The dynamics of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) infection in mosquitoes, sentinel pheasants, and wild dead birds were evaluated during 2003-2006 in Saginaw Co., MI. Mosquitoes were collected by New Jersey Light Traps at 22 sites during May-September, pooled by species and sample location, and tested for presence of WNV RNA by using a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. Oral swabs from wild dead birds submitted by the public were tested by Vec-Test assay. Sentinel pheasants were bled weekly, and serum was tested for antibodies with an inhibition enzyme immunoassay. In total, 37,225 mosquitoes [Aedes vexans (Meigen), Culex pipiens L., and Culex restuans Theobald] were tested in 5,429 pools, of which 59 (1.1%) were positive. Ae. vexans was most abundant but had a comparatively low infection rate (0.06-2.11) compared with Cx. pipiens (1.75-4.59) and Cx. restuans (1.22-15.67). Mosquito abundances were temporally related to variations in 2-wk average weather variables. Infected dead crows appeared earlier each transmission season than blue jays, but infection prevalence for both peaked approximately mid-August. Space-time clusters were found in different locations each year. Sentinel pheasant seroprevalence was 19.3% (16/83), 12.7% (10/79), and 7.7% (5/65) during 2003-2005, respectively. We demonstrated temporal patterns of WNV activity in corvid birds and Culex spp. mosquitoes during the study period, suggesting virus transmission within an enzootic cycle. Despite the absence of human case reports nearby, this surveillance system demonstrated WNV transmission and possible human risk. Maintained surveillance using more appropriate gravid traps and CDC CO2 light traps could improve sensitivity of vector collection and virus detection. PMID:21936324

  7. Spatial and temporal patterns of coexistence between competing Aedes mosquitoes in urban Florida

    PubMed Central

    Juliano, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding mechanisms fostering coexistence between invasive and resident species is important in predicting ecological, economic, or health impacts of invasive species. The mosquito Aedes aegypti coexists at some urban sites in southeastern United States with invasive Aedes albopictus, which is often superior in interspecific competition. We tested predictions for three hypotheses of species coexistence: seasonal condition-specific competition, aggregation among individual water-filled containers, and colonization–competition tradeoff across spatially partitioned habitat patches (cemeteries) that have high densities of containers. We measured spatial and temporal patterns of abundance for both species among water-filled resident cemetery vases and experimentally positioned standard cemetery vases and ovitraps in metropolitan Tampa, Florida. Consistent with the seasonal condition-specific competition hypothesis, abundances of both species in resident and standard cemetery vases were higher early in the wet season (June) versus late in the wet season (September), but the proportional increase of A. albopictus was greater than that of A. aegypti, presumably due to higher dry-season egg mortality and strong wet-season competitive superiority of larval A. albopictus. Spatial partitioning was not evident among cemeteries, a result inconsistent with the colonization-competition tradeoff hypothesis, but both species were highly independently aggregated among standard cemetery vases and ovitraps, which is consistent with the aggregation hypothesis. Densities of A. aegypti but not A. albopictus differed among land use categories, with A. aegypti more abundant in ovitraps in residential areas compared to industrial and commercial areas. Spatial partitioning among land use types probably results from effects of land use on conditions in both terrestrial and aquatic-container environments. These results suggest that both temporal and spatial variation may contribute to local coexistence between these Aedes in urban areas. PMID:19263086

  8. Interpreting the spatio-temporal patterns of sea turtle strandings: Going with the flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, K.M.; Mooreside, P.; Crowder, L.B.

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of specific mortality sources is crucial for management of species that are vulnerable to human interactions. Beachcast carcasses represent an unknown fraction of at-sea mortalities. While a variety of physical (e.g., water temperature) and biological (e.g., decomposition) factors as well as the distribution of animals and their mortality sources likely affect the probability of carcass stranding, physical oceanography plays a major role in where and when carcasses strand. Here, we evaluate the influence of nearshore physical oceanographic and wind regimes on sea turtle strandings to decipher seasonal trends and make qualitative predictions about stranding patterns along oceanfront beaches. We use results from oceanic drift-bottle experiments to check our predictions and provide an upper limit on stranding proportions. We compare predicted current regimes from a 3D physical oceanographic model to spatial and temporal locations of both sea turtle carcass strandings and drift bottle landfalls. Drift bottle return rates suggest an upper limit for the proportion of sea turtle carcasses that strand (about 20%). In the South Atlantic Bight, seasonal development of along-shelf flow coincides with increased numbers of strandings of both turtles and drift bottles in late spring and early summer. The model also predicts net offshore flow of surface waters during winter - the season with the fewest relative strandings. The drift bottle data provide a reasonable upper bound on how likely carcasses are to reach land from points offshore and bound the general timeframe for stranding post-mortem (< two weeks). Our findings suggest that marine turtle strandings follow a seasonal regime predictable from physical oceanography and mimicked by drift bottle experiments. Managers can use these findings to reevaluate incidental strandings limits and fishery takes for both nearshore and offshore mortality sources. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Larval brine shrimp malate dehydrogenase: biosynthesis and temporal pattern related to environmental salinity.

    PubMed

    Hand, S C; Conte, F P

    1982-01-10

    Brine shrimp nauplii challenged with artificial sea water containing 2.5 M NaCl maintain significantly higher levels of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase (s-MDH) than larvae incubated in sea water having 0.5 M NaCl. Eight to ten hours after emergence, free-swimming nauplii living in 0.5 M NaCl exhibit a steady decline of s-MDH for 20-40 hours; the decreased is less and stabilizes earlier-in nauplii incubated in 2.5 M NaCl. The 14C-labeled amino acids produced by H 14CO3 fixation were rapidly incorporated into newly formed s-MDH protein as assayed using quantitative rocket immunoelectrophoresis (IEP) with monospecific antiserum prepared against purified brine shrimp s-MDH. Higher rates of enzyme biosynthesis ( greater than 45%) occurred in 2.5 M NaCl together with rapid s-MDH turnover (half-life = 17 hours), accounting for the difference observed in enzyme level between different salt regimes. In contrast, incorporation of 14C-labeled amino acids into total cytoplasmic protein decreased slightly in high salt, suggesting that a preferential synthesis of s-MDH is taking place. Temporal patterns of s-MDH during embryonic development were monitored using both catalytic activity and quantitative IEP assays. Levels of s-MDH seen in encysted gastrulae (0.22 units or 0.57 microgram s-MDH protein/100 embryos) remain relatively constant through the E1 and E2 emergent stages until the exhibited decline observed in the naupliar stage. The results are discussed in relation to the bioenergetics and temporal development of water and electrolyte regulation in nauplii. PMID:7077258

  10. Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Ambient Endotoxin Concentrations in Fresno, California

    PubMed Central

    Tager, Ira B.; Lurmann, Frederick W.; Haight, Thaddeus; Alcorn, Siana; Penfold, Bryan; Hammond, S. Katharine

    2010-01-01

    Background Endotoxins are found in indoor dust generated by human activity and pets, in soil, and adsorbed onto the surfaces of ambient combustion particles. Endotoxin concentrations have been associated with respiratory symptoms and the risk of atopy and asthma in children. Objective We characterized the temporal and spatial variability of ambient endotoxin in Fresno/Clovis, California, located in California’s Central Valley, to identify correlates and potential predictors of ambient endotoxin concentrations in a cohort of children with asthma [Fresno Asthmatic Children’s Environment Study (FACES)]. Methods Between May 2001 and October 2004, daily ambient endotoxin and air pollutants were collected at the central ambient monitoring site of the California Air Resources Board in Fresno and, for shorter time periods, at 10 schools and indoors and outdoors at 84 residences in the community. Analyses were restricted to May–October, the dry months during which endotoxin concentrations are highest. Results Daily endotoxin concentration patterns were determined mainly by meteorologic factors, particularly the degree of air stagnation. Overall concentrations were lowest in areas distant from agricultural activities. Highest concentrations were found in areas immediately downwind from agricultural/pasture land. Among three other measured air pollutants [fine particulate matter, elemental carbon (a marker of traffic in Fresno), and coarse particulate matter (PMc)], PMc was the only pollutant correlated with endotoxin. Endotoxin, however, was the most spatially variable. Conclusions Our data support the need to evaluate the spatial/temporal variability of endotoxin concentrations, rather than relying on a few measurements made at one location, in studies of exposure and and respiratory health effects, particularly in children with asthma and other chronic respiratory diseases. PMID:20494854

  11. Spatial and temporal patterns of sea ice variations in Vilkitsky strait, Russian High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ci, T.; Cheng, X.; Hui, F.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic Ocean has been greatly affected by climate change. Future predications show an even more drastic reduction of the ice cap which will open new areas for the exploration of natural resources and maritime transportation.Shipping through the Arctic Ocean via the Northern Sea Route (NSR) could save about 40% of the sailing distance from Asia (Yokohama) to Europe (Rotterdam) compared to the traditional route via the Suez Canal. Vilkitsky strait is the narrowest and northest portion of the Northern Sea Route with heaviest traffic between the Taimyr Peninsular and the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago. The preliminary results of sea ice variations are presented by using moderate-resolution imaging spectro radiometer(MODIS) data with 250-m resolution in the Vilkitsky strait during 2009-2012. Temporally, the first rupture on sea ice in Vilkitsky strait usually comes up in April and sea ice completely break into pieces in early June. The strait would be ice-free between August and late September. The frequency of ice floes grows while temperature falls down in October. There are always one or two months suitable for transport. Spatially, Sea ice on Laptev sea side breaks earlier than that of Kara sea side while sea ice in central of strait breaks earlier than in shoreside. The phenomena are directly related with the direction of sea wind and ocean current. In summmary, study on Spatial and temporal patterns in this area is significant for the NSR. An additional research issue to be tackled is to seeking the trends of ice-free duration in the context of global warming. Envisat ASAR data will also be used in this study.

  12. Mining Spatial-Temporal Patterns and Structural Sparsity for Human Motion Data Denoising.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yinfu; Ji, Mingming; Xiao, Jun; Yang, Xiaosong; Zhang, Jian J; Zhuang, Yueting; Li, Xuelong

    2015-12-01

    Motion capture is an important technique with a wide range of applications in areas such as computer vision, computer animation, film production, and medical rehabilitation. Even with the professional motion capture systems, the acquired raw data mostly contain inevitable noises and outliers. To denoise the data, numerous methods have been developed, while this problem still remains a challenge due to the high complexity of human motion and the diversity of real-life situations. In this paper, we propose a data-driven-based robust human motion denoising approach by mining the spatial-temporal patterns and the structural sparsity embedded in motion data. We first replace the regularly used entire pose model with a much fine-grained partlet model as feature representation to exploit the abundant local body part posture and movement similarities. Then, a robust dictionary learning algorithm is proposed to learn multiple compact and representative motion dictionaries from the training data in parallel. Finally, we reformulate the human motion denoising problem as a robust structured sparse coding problem in which both the noise distribution information and the temporal smoothness property of human motion have been jointly taken into account. Compared with several state-of-the-art motion denoising methods on both the synthetic and real noisy motion data, our method consistently yields better performance than its counterparts. The outputs of our approach are much more stable than that of the others. In addition, it is much easier to setup the training dataset of our method than that of the other data-driven-based methods. PMID:25561602

  13. Spatio-Temporal Migration Patterns of Pacific Salmon Smolts in Rivers and Coastal Marine Waters

    PubMed Central

    Melnychuk, Michael C.; Welch, David W.; Walters, Carl J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Migrations allow animals to find food resources, rearing habitats, or mates, but often impose considerable predation risk. Several behavioural strategies may reduce this risk, including faster travel speed and taking routes with shorter total distance. Descriptions of the natural range of variation in migration strategies among individuals and populations is necessary before the ecological consequences of such variation can be established. Methodology/Principal Findings Movements of tagged juvenile coho, steelhead, sockeye, and Chinook salmon were quantified using a large-scale acoustic tracking array in southern British Columbia, Canada. Smolts from 13 watersheds (49 watershed/species/year combinations) were tagged between 20042008 and combined into a mixed-effects model analysis of travel speed. During the downstream migration, steelhead were slower on average than other species, possibly related to freshwater residualization. During the migration through the Strait of Georgia, coho were slower than steelhead and sockeye, likely related to some degree of inshore summer residency. Hatchery-reared smolts were slower than wild smolts during the downstream migration, but after ocean entry, average speeds were similar. In small rivers, downstream travel speed increased with body length, but in the larger Fraser River and during the coastal migration, average speed was independent of body length. Smolts leaving rivers located towards the northern end of the Strait of Georgia ecosystem migrated strictly northwards after ocean entry, but those from rivers towards the southern end displayed split-route migration patterns within populations, with some moving southward. Conclusions/Significance Our results reveal a tremendous diversity of behavioural migration strategies used by juvenile salmon, across species, rearing histories, and habitats, as well as within individual populations. During the downstream migration, factors that had strong effects on travel speeds included species, wild or hatchery-rearing history, watershed size and, in smaller rivers, body length. During the coastal migration, travel speeds were only strongly affected by species differences. PMID:20886121

  14. Patterns of Occurrence and Marine Mammal Acoustic Behavior in Relation to Navy Sonar Activity Off Jacksonville, Florida.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Julie N; Norris, Thomas F; Yack, Tina M; Ferguson, Elizabeth L; Kumar, Anurag; Nissen, Jene; Bell, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Passive acoustic data collected from marine autonomous recording units deployed off Jacksonville, FL (from 13 September to 8 October 2009 and 3 December 2009 to 8 January 2010), were analyzed for detection of cetaceans and Navy sonar. Cetaceans detected included Balaenoptera acutorostrata, Eubalaena glacialis, B. borealis, Physeter macrocephalus, blackfish, and delphinids. E. glacialis were detected at shallow and, somewhat unexpectedly, deep sites. P. macrocephalus were characterized by a strong diel pattern. B. acutorostrata showed the strongest relationship between sonar activity and vocal behavior. These results provide a preliminary assessment of cetacean occurrence off Jacksonville and new insights on vocal responses to sonar. PMID:26611034

  15. Spatial and temporal seismicity patterns from dynamic trigger by great earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. W.; Burgmann, R.

    2013-12-01

    Questions remain regarding the dynamic triggering of large earthquakes at global distances and the role of earthquake nucleation times following dynamic stress perturbations on active faults. At distances beyond 2-3 fault lengths, transient stress changes as a result of seismic waves have been shown to trigger microseismicity in regions of geothermal activity, non-volcanic tremor, and small tectonic earthquakes, i.e. M<3, during the passage of seismic waves and subsequent days. Less frequently, immediate triggering of earthquakes ranging from 3 > M < 5 is detected during the passage of the surface wave train, whereas events M>5 are shown to experience no rate increase outside the aftershock zone of large-magnitude events. An exception to this magnitude threshold for dynamically triggered activity is the MW 8.6 2012 east Indian Ocean earthquake that resulted in above-average global seismicity for events >M5.5 in the 6 days following the mainshock (Pollitz et al., 2012 Nature) followed by a 95 day period of global quiescence for M>=6.5 events (Pollitz et al., 2013 submitted to BSSA). The activity observed following the 2012 event is an example of delayed dynamic triggering which suggests that the stress perturbations experienced during the teleseismic surface waves were large enough to advance the earthquake cycle of multiple >M5 events. Conversely, the same stress changes could suppress activity while earthquake rates return to equilibrium. Here we investigate the idea of global 'dynamic shadowing' in order to determine if a spatial and temporal relationship to large-magnitude events exists for periods of reduced global seismicity. We build on the previous work by Parsons and Velasco (2011 Nature Geoscience) who concluded that increases in M>5 seismicity are confined to within 2-3 fault lengths of the rupture and activity returned to background rates within 36 hours following a M>7 event. Using a similar methodology, we explore the suppression of global activity with respect to background earthquake activity following large magnitude events using 30 years of earthquake catalog data obtained from the Advanced National Seismic System. Our goal is to determine if a dynamic shadow effect results in a reduction of seismicity at a distinguishable level below the background seismicity over various temporal and spatial ranges following the largest cataloged earthquakes. We utilize spatial ranges consistent with maximum transient stress changes for different fault mechanisms in order to document the temporal characteristics of seismicity patterns.

  16. Multivariate data-driven modelling and pattern recognition for damage detection and identification for acoustic emission and acousto-ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Arredondo, M.-A.; Tibaduiza, D.-A.; McGugan, M.; Toftegaard, H.; Borum, K.-K.; Mujica, L. E.; Rodellar, J.; Fritzen, C.-P.

    2013-10-01

    Different methods are commonly used for non-destructive testing in structures; among others, acoustic emission and ultrasonic inspections are widely used to assess structures. The research presented in this paper is motivated by the need to improve the inspection capabilities and reliability of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems based on ultrasonic guided waves with focus on the acoustic emission and acousto-ultrasonics techniques. The use of a guided wave based approach is driven by the fact that these waves are able to propagate over relatively long distances, and interact sensitively and uniquely with different types of defect. Special attention is paid here to the development of efficient SHM methodologies. This requires robust signal processing techniques for the correct interpretation of the complex ultrasonic waves. Therefore, a variety of existing algorithms for signal processing and pattern recognition are evaluated and integrated into the different proposed methodologies. As a contribution to solve the problem, this paper presents results in damage detection and classification using a methodology based on hierarchical nonlinear principal component analysis, square prediction measurements and self-organizing maps, which are applied to data from acoustic emission tests and acousto-ultrasonic inspections. At the end, the efficiency of these methodologies is experimentally evaluated in diverse anisotropic composite structures.

  17. Automated pattern analysis: A newsilent partner in insect acoustic detection studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This seminar reviews methods that have been developed for automated analysis of field-collected sounds used to estimate pest populations and guide insect pest management decisions. Several examples are presented of successful usage of acoustic technology to map insect distributions in field environ...

  18. Acoustic Modal Patterns and Striations (AMPS) experiment G-325, Norfolk Public Schools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Joy W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will describe how high school students with the guidance of volunteer mentors were able to successfully complete an acoustics space experiment. Some of the NORSTAR program strategies used to effectively accomplish this goal will be discussed. The experiment and present status of results will be explained.

  19. Muscle wasting and the temporal gene expression pattern in a novel rat intensive care unit model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Acute quadriplegic myopathy (AQM) or critical illness myopathy (CIM) is frequently observed in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. To elucidate duration-dependent effects of the ICU intervention on molecular and functional networks that control the muscle wasting and weakness associated with AQM, a gene expression profile was analyzed at time points varying from 6 hours to 14 days in a unique experimental rat model mimicking ICU conditions, i.e., post-synaptically paralyzed, mechanically ventilated and extensively monitored animals. Results During the observation period, 1583 genes were significantly up- or down-regulated by factors of two or greater. A significant temporal gene expression pattern was constructed at short (6 h-4 days), intermediate (5-8 days) and long (9-14 days) durations. A striking early and maintained up-regulation (6 h-14d) of muscle atrogenes (muscle ring-finger 1/tripartite motif-containing 63 and F-box protein 32/atrogin-1) was observed, followed by an up-regulation of the proteolytic systems at intermediate and long durations (5-14d). Oxidative stress response genes and genes that take part in amino acid catabolism, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, muscle development, and protein synthesis together with myogenic factors were significantly up-regulated from 5 to 14 days. At 9-14 d, genes involved in immune response and the caspase cascade were up-regulated. At 5-14d, genes related to contractile (myosin heavy chain and myosin binding protein C), regulatory (troponin, tropomyosin), developmental, caveolin-3, extracellular matrix, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, cytoskeleton/sarcomere regulation and mitochondrial proteins were down-regulated. An activation of genes related to muscle growth and new muscle fiber formation (increase of myogenic factors and JunB and down-regulation of myostatin) and up-regulation of genes that code protein synthesis and translation factors were found from 5 to 14 days. Conclusions Novel temporal patterns of gene expression have been uncovered, suggesting a unique, coordinated and highly complex mechanism underlying the muscle wasting associated with AQM in ICU patients and providing new target genes and avenues for intervention studies. PMID:22165895

  20. Decoding Temporal Structure in Music and Speech Relies on Shared Brain Resources but Elicits Different Fine-Scale Spatial Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Bhatara, Anjali; Ryali, Srikanth; Balaban, Evan; Levitin, Daniel J.; Menon, Vinod

    2011-01-01

    Music and speech are complex sound streams with hierarchical rules of temporal organization that become elaborated over time. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure brain activity patterns in 20 right-handed nonmusicians as they listened to natural and temporally reordered musical and speech stimuli matched for familiarity, emotion, and valence. Heart rate variability and mean respiration rates were simultaneously measured and were found not to differ between musical and speech stimuli. Although the same manipulation of temporal structure elicited brain activation level differences of similar magnitude for both music and speech stimuli, multivariate classification analysis revealed distinct spatial patterns of brain responses in the 2 domains. Distributed neuronal populations that included the inferior frontal cortex, the posterior and anterior superior and middle temporal gyri, and the auditory brainstem classified temporal structure manipulations in music and speech with significant levels of accuracy. While agreeing with previous findings that music and speech processing share neural substrates, this work shows that temporal structure in the 2 domains is encoded differently, highlighting a fundamental dissimilarity in how the same neural resources are deployed. PMID:21071617

  1. DATA-DRIVEN DISCOVERY OF TEMPORAL AND GEOSPATIAL PATTERNS OF DISEASE TRANSMISSION: WEST NILE VIRUS IN MARYLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The necessity of rapid response to a developing disease outbreak often precludes systematic investigation of the mechanisms and patterns (temporal and geospatial) of spread. In order to deploy the most rapid response possible, we must exploit existing data to its maximum extent....

  2. Different Phases of Long-Term Memory Require Distinct Temporal Patterns of PKA Activity after Single-Trial Classical Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Maximilian; Kemenes, Ildiko; Muller, Uli; Kemenes, Gyorgy

    2008-01-01

    The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is known to play a critical role in both transcription-independent short-term or intermediate-term memory and transcription-dependent long-term memory (LTM). Although distinct phases of LTM already have been demonstrated in some systems, it is not known whether these phases require distinct temporal patterns

  3. Temporal pattern and effect of sex on lipopolysaccharide-induced stress hormone and cytokine response in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The temporal pattern and gender effect of immune and stress hormone responses to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge were assessed using a pig model. Secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6 increased in a time-dependent manner f...

  4. Temporal pattern and effect of sex on lipopolysaccharide-induced stress hormone and cytokine response in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The temporal pattern and gender effect on immune and stress hormone responses to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge was assessed using a pig model. Secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin-1 (IL-1) beta and IL-6 increased (P < 0.05) in a time-depend...

  5. Water quality in the Fort Cobb Watershed, USA: Spatial and temporal patterns of dissolved P stream concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dissolved phosphorus (P) has often been identified as the nutrient of concern in lakes, reservoirs and streams especially where there is evidence of eutrophication. The objective of this work is to identify spatial and temporal patterns in dissolved P [soluble reactive P (SRP) and bioavailable P (B...

  6. Convergence and Divergence in the Evolution of Cat Skulls: Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Morphological Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Manabu; Ruta, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of biological shape evolution are greatly enhanced when framed in a phylogenetic perspective. Inclusion of fossils amplifies the scope of macroevolutionary research, offers a deep-time perspective on tempo and mode of radiations, and elucidates life-trait changes. We explore the evolution of skull shape in felids (cats) through morphometric analyses of linear variables, phylogenetic comparative methods, and a new cladistic study of saber-toothed cats. Methodology/Principal Findings A new phylogenetic analysis supports the monophyly of saber-toothed cats (Machairodontinae) exclusive of Felinae and some basal felids, but does not support the monophyly of various saber-toothed tribes and genera. We quantified skull shape variation in 34 extant and 18 extinct species using size-adjusted linear variables. These distinguish taxonomic group membership with high accuracy. Patterns of morphospace occupation are consistent with previous analyses, for example, in showing a size gradient along the primary axis of shape variation and a separation between large and small-medium cats. By combining the new phylogeny with a molecular tree of extant Felinae, we built a chronophylomorphospace (a phylogeny superimposed onto a two-dimensional morphospace through time). The evolutionary history of cats was characterized by two major episodes of morphological divergence, one marking the separation between saber-toothed and modern cats, the other marking the split between large and small-medium cats. Conclusions/Significance Ancestors of large cats in the ‘Panthera’ lineage tend to occupy, at a much later stage, morphospace regions previously occupied by saber-toothed cats. The latter radiated out into new morphospace regions peripheral to those of extant large cats. The separation between large and small-medium cats was marked by considerable morphologically divergent trajectories early in feline evolution. A chronophylomorphospace has wider applications in reconstructing temporal transitions across two-dimensional trait spaces, can be used in ecophenotypical and functional diversity studies, and may reveal novel patterns of morphospace occupation. PMID:22792186

  7. Prevalence and temporal pattern of hospital readmissions for patients with type I and type II diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqian; Liu, Yuanyuan; Lv, Yuanjun; Li, Changping; Cui, Zhuang; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Repeated hospitalisation for patients is common and costly, yet partly preventable. However, we know little about readmissions for patients with diabetes in China. The current study aims to assess the frequency and temporal pattern of and risk factors for all-cause readmission among hospitalised patients with diabetes in Tianjin, China. Method This retrospective, cohort analysis used the Tianjin Basic Medical Insurance Register System data of 2011. The patterns of and the reasons for all-cause readmissions for patients with diabetes were described. The differences of readmission-free survival (RFS) between newly and previously diagnosed patients were compared. Time-dependent Cox models were established to identify the risk factors for readmission at different time intervals after discharge. Results Readmission rates were approximately 30%, with the most common diagnoses of cerebral infarction (for type I) or diabetes (for type II) for patients with diabetes. The majority of patients were readmitted to the hospital after more than 90 days, followed by 8–30 days (all p=0.002). Approximately 37.2% and 42.8% of readmitted patients with type I and type II diabetes were diagnosed previously, and the RFS rates for previously diagnosed patients were significantly lower than for newly diagnosed patients at any time interval after discharge. Prior history of diabetes (all p<0.05), length of stay (all p<0.01) and reimbursement ratio (90% vs >92%, all p<0.0002) were consistently associated with the RFS for patients readmitted to the hospital at <7, 8–30, 31–60 and 61–90 days. Conclusions Hospital readmissions among patients with diabetes were affected by the diagnosis status. Patient characteristics and the quality of healthcare might regulate short-interval and long-interval hospital readmission, respectively, after discharge. PMID:26525716

  8. Spatio-Temporal Expression Patterns of Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula Defensin-Like Genes

    PubMed Central

    Nallu, Sumitha; Wang, Lin; Botanga, Christopher J.; Gomez, S. Karen; Costa, Liliana M.; Harrison, Maria J.; Samac, Deborah A.; Glazebrook, Jane; Katagiri, Fumiaki; Gutierrez-Marcos, Jose F.; VandenBosch, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant genomes contain several hundred defensin-like (DEFL) genes that encode short cysteine-rich proteins resembling defensins, which are well known antimicrobial polypeptides. Little is known about the expression patterns or functions of many DEFLs because most were discovered recently and hence are not well represented on standard microarrays. We designed a custom Affymetrix chip consisting of probe sets for 317 and 684 DEFLs from Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula, respectively for cataloging DEFL expression in a variety of plant organs at different developmental stages and during symbiotic and pathogenic associations. The microarray analysis provided evidence for the transcription of 71% and 90% of the DEFLs identified in Arabidopsis and Medicago, respectively, including many of the recently annotated DEFL genes that previously lacked expression information. Both model plants contain a subset of DEFLs specifically expressed in seeds or fruits. A few DEFLs, including some plant defensins, were significantly up-regulated in Arabidopsis leaves inoculated with Alternaria brassicicola or Pseudomonas syringae pathogens. Among these, some were dependent on jasmonic acid signaling or were associated with specific types of immune responses. There were notable differences in DEFL gene expression patterns between Arabidopsis and Medicago, as the majority of Arabidopsis DEFLs were expressed in inflorescences, while only a few exhibited root-enhanced expression. By contrast, Medicago DEFLs were most prominently expressed in nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Thus, our data document salient differences in DEFL temporal and spatial expression between Arabidopsis and Medicago, suggesting distinct signaling routes and distinct roles for these proteins in the two plant species. PMID:23527067

  9. Temporal-Spatial Pattern of Carbon Stocks in Forest Ecosystems in Shaanxi, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Gaoyang; Chen, Yunming; Cao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The precise and accurate quantitative evaluation of the temporal and spatial pattern of carbon (C) storage in forest ecosystems is critical for understanding the role of forests in the global terrestrial C cycle and is essential for formulating forest management policies to combat climate change. In this study, we examined the C dynamics of forest ecosystems in Shaanxi, northwest China, based on four forest inventories (1989-1993, 1994-1998, 1999-2003, and 2004-2008) and field-sampling measurements (2012). The results indicate that the total C storage of forest ecosystems in Shaanxi increased by approximately 29.3%, from 611.72 Tg in 1993 to 790.75 Tg in 2008, partially as a result of ecological restoration projects. The spatial pattern of C storage in forest ecosystems mainly exhibited a latitude-zonal distribution across the province, increasing from north (high latitude) to south (low latitude) generally, which signifies the effect of environmental conditions, chiefly water and heat related factors, on forest growth and C sequestration. In addition, different data sources and estimation methods had a significant effect on the results obtained, with the C stocks in 2008 being considerably overestimated (864.55 Tg) and slightly underestimated (778.07 Tg) when measured using the mean C density method and integrated method, respectively. Overall, our results demonstrated that the forest ecosystem in Shaanxi acted as a C sink over the last few decades. However, further studies should be carried out with a focus on adaption of plants to environmental factors along with forest management for vegetation restoration to maximize the C sequestration potential and to better cope with climate change. PMID:26353011

  10. Capturing spatial and temporal patterns of widespread, extreme flooding across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busby, Kathryn; Raven, Emma; Liu, Ye

    2013-04-01

    Statistical characterisation of physical hazards is an integral part of probabilistic catastrophe models used by the reinsurance industry to estimate losses from large scale events. Extreme flood events are not restricted by country boundaries which poses an issue for reinsurance companies as their exposures often extend beyond them. We discuss challenges and solutions that allow us to appropriately capture the spatial and temporal dependence of extreme hydrological events on a continental-scale, which in turn enables us to generate an industry-standard stochastic event set for estimating financial losses for widespread flooding. By presenting our event set methodology, we focus on explaining how extreme value theory (EVT) and dependence modelling are used to account for short, inconsistent hydrological data from different countries, and how to make appropriate statistical decisions that best characterise the nature of flooding across Europe. The consistency of input data is of vital importance when identifying historical flood patterns. Collating data from numerous sources inherently causes inconsistencies and we demonstrate our robust approach to assessing the data and refining it to compile a single consistent dataset. This dataset is then extrapolated using a parameterised EVT distribution to estimate extremes. Our method then captures the dependence of flood events across countries using an advanced multivariate extreme value model. Throughout, important statistical decisions are explored including: (1) distribution choice; (2) the threshold to apply for extracting extreme data points; (3) a regional analysis; (4) the definition of a flood event, which is often linked with reinsurance industry's hour's clause; and (5) handling of missing values. Finally, having modelled the historical patterns of flooding across Europe, we sample from this model to generate our stochastic event set comprising of thousands of events over thousands of years. We then briefly illustrate how this is applied within a probabilistic model to estimate catastrophic loss curves used by the reinsurance industry.

  11. Temporal-Spatial Pattern of Carbon Stocks in Forest Ecosystems in Shaanxi, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Gaoyang; Chen, Yunming; Cao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The precise and accurate quantitative evaluation of the temporal and spatial pattern of carbon (C) storage in forest ecosystems is critical for understanding the role of forests in the global terrestrial C cycle and is essential for formulating forest management policies to combat climate change. In this study, we examined the C dynamics of forest ecosystems in Shaanxi, northwest China, based on four forest inventories (1989–1993, 1994–1998, 1999–2003, and 2004–2008) and field-sampling measurements (2012). The results indicate that the total C storage of forest ecosystems in Shaanxi increased by approximately 29.3%, from 611.72 Tg in 1993 to 790.75 Tg in 2008, partially as a result of ecological restoration projects. The spatial pattern of C storage in forest ecosystems mainly exhibited a latitude-zonal distribution across the province, increasing from north (high latitude) to south (low latitude) generally, which signifies the effect of environmental conditions, chiefly water and heat related factors, on forest growth and C sequestration. In addition, different data sources and estimation methods had a significant effect on the results obtained, with the C stocks in 2008 being considerably overestimated (864.55 Tg) and slightly underestimated (778.07 Tg) when measured using the mean C density method and integrated method, respectively. Overall, our results demonstrated that the forest ecosystem in Shaanxi acted as a C sink over the last few decades. However, further studies should be carried out with a focus on adaption of plants to environmental factors along with forest management for vegetation restoration to maximize the C sequestration potential and to better cope with climate change. PMID:26353011

  12. Medio-Frontal and Anterior Temporal abnormalities in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during an acoustic antisaccade task as revealed by electro-cortical source reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent disorders in children and adolescence. Impulsivity is one of three core symptoms and likely associated with inhibition difficulties. To date the neural correlate of the antisaccade task, a test of response inhibition, has not been studied in children with (or without) ADHD. Methods Antisaccade responses to visual and acoustic cues were examined in nine unmedicated boys with ADHD (mean age 122.44 ± 20.81 months) and 14 healthy control children (mean age 115.64 ± 22.87 months, three girls) while an electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Brain activity before saccade onset was reconstructed using a 23-source-montage. Results When cues were acoustic, children with ADHD had a higher source activity than control children in Medio-Frontal Cortex (MFC) between -230 and -120 ms and in the left-hemispheric Temporal Anterior Cortex (TAC) between -112 and 0 ms before saccade onset, despite both groups performing similarly behaviourally (antisaccades errors and saccade latency). When visual cues were used EEG-activity preceding antisaccades did not differ between groups. Conclusion Children with ADHD exhibit altered functioning of the TAC and MFC during an antisaccade task elicited by acoustic cues. Children with ADHD need more source activation to reach the same behavioural level as control children. PMID:21226906

  13. Temporal-spatial neural activation patterns linked to perceptual encoding of emotional salience.

    PubMed

    Todd, Rebecca M; Taylor, Margot J; Robertson, Amanda; Cassel, Daniel B; Doesburg, Sam M; Doesberg, Sam M; Lee, Daniel H; Shek, Pang N; Pang, Elizabeth W

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that we continuously filter incoming sensory information, selectively allocating attention to what is important while suppressing distracting or irrelevant information. Yet questions remain about spatiotemporal patterns of neural processes underlying attentional biases toward emotionally significant aspects of the world. One index of affectively biased attention is an emotional variant of an attentional blink (AB) paradigm, which reveals enhanced perceptual encoding for emotionally salient over neutral stimuli under conditions of limited executive attention. The present study took advantage of the high spatial and temporal resolution of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate neural activation related to emotional and neutral targets in an AB task. MEG data were collected while participants performed a rapid stimulus visual presentation task in which two target stimuli were embedded in a stream of distractor words. The first target (T1) was a number and the second (T2) either an emotionally salient or neutral word. Behavioural results replicated previous findings of greater accuracy for emotionally salient than neutral T2 words. MEG source analyses showed that activation in orbitofrontal cortex, characterized by greater power in the theta and alpha bands, and dorsolateral prefrontal activation were associated with successful perceptual encoding of emotionally salient relative to neutral words. These effects were observed between 250 and 550 ms, latencies associated with discrimination of perceived from unperceived stimuli. These data suggest that important nodes of both emotional salience and frontoparietal executive systems are associated with the emotional modulation of the attentional blink. PMID:24727751

  14. Conserved Temporal Patterns of MicroRNA Expression in Drosophila Support a Developmental Hourglass Model

    PubMed Central

    Ninova, Maria; Ronshaugen, Matthew; Griffiths-Jones, Sam

    2014-01-01

    The spatiotemporal control of gene expression is crucial for the successful completion of animal development. The evolutionary constraints on development are particularly strong for the mid-embryonic stage when body segments are specified, as evidenced by a high degree of morphological and protein-coding gene conservation during this perioda phenomenon known as the developmental hourglass. The discovery of microRNA-mediated gene control revealed an entirely new layer of complexity of the molecular networks that orchestrate development. However, the constraints on microRNA developmental expression and evolution, and the implications for animal evolution are less well understood. To systematically explore the conservation of microRNAs during development, we carried out a genome-wide comparative study of microRNA expression levels throughout the ontogenesis of two divergent fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster and D. virilis. We show that orthologous microRNAs display highly similar temporal profiles regardless of their mutation rates, suggesting that the timely expression of microRNA genes can be more constrained than their sequence. Furthermore, transitions between key developmental events in the different species are accompanied by conserved shifts in microRNA expression profiles, with the mid-embryonic period between gastrulation and segmentation characterized by the highest similarity of microRNA expression. The conservation of microRNA expression therefore displays an hourglass pattern similar to that observed for protein-coding genes. PMID:25169982

  15. Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis of Noun and Verb Differences in Ventral Temporal Cortex Marked Revision

    PubMed Central

    Boylan, Christine; Trueswell, John C.; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests a probabilistic relationship exists between the phonological/orthographic form of a word and its lexical-syntactic category (specifically nouns vs. verbs) such that syntactic prediction may elicit form-based estimates in sensory cortex. We tested this hypothesis by conducting multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI data from early visual cortex (EVC), left ventral temporal (VT) cortex, and a subregion of the latter - the left mid fusiform gyrus (mid FG), sometimes called the “visual word form area.” Crucially, we examined only those volumes sampled when subjects were predicting, but not viewing, nouns and verbs. This allowed us to investigate prediction effects in visual areas without any bottom-up orthographic input. We found that voxels in VT and mid FG, but not in EVC, were able to classify noun-predictive trials vs. verb-predictive trials in sentence contexts, suggesting that sentence-level predictions are sufficient to generate word form-based estimates in visual areas. PMID:25156159

  16. Temporal Patterns in Bivalve Excurrent Flow Under Varying Ambient Flow Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delavan, S. K.; Webster, D. R.

    2008-11-01

    The predator-prey relationship between blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and bivalve clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) is mediated by the transport of metabolites released by the prey (clams) and transported downstream as a passive scalar. This study focuses on how the prey behavior contributes to the information available within the odorant plume. Clams may modify factors such as excurrent flux, flow unsteadiness, and siphon height and diameter. A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system has been used to quantify the temporal patterns in the excurrent jet of the bivalve siphon under varying ambient flow conditions. According to a spectral analysis of siphon excurrent velocity time records, there is a low frequency periodic component that could contribute to the mixing of clam metabolites through the generation of persistent jet vorticies. Also, fractal analysis of the velocity time records shows that as the ambient velocity increases the excurrent velocity becomes more correlated and less random. These results suggest that for high ambient flow a low frequency periodicity may be sufficient to promote the mixing and dilution of metabolites. In contrast, for low ambient flow more random siphon excurrent velocity may be required to reduce the amount of information available to predators in the downstream odorant plume.

  17. Temporal patterns in the intertidal faunal community at the mouth of a tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, C H F; Barletta, M; Dantas, D V

    2014-11-01

    The use of intertidal sandy beaches by fish and macrocrustaceans was studied at different temporal scales at the mouth of a tropical estuary. Samples were taken along the lunar and diel cycles in the late dry and rainy seasons. Fish assemblage (number of species, density and biomass), crustaceans and wrack biomass, showed significant interactions among all studied factors, and the combination of moon phase and diel cycle, resulting in different patterns of environmental variables (depth, water temperature and dissolved oxygen), affected habitat use by the different species. Variances in faunal community were detected between seasons, stimulated by salinity fluctuations from freshwater input during the rainy season. These differences suggest an important cycling of habitats and an increase in connectivity between adjacent habitats (estuary and coastal waters). Moreover, the results showed that this intertidal sandy beach also provides an alternative nursery and protected shallow-water area for the initial development phase of many marine and estuarine species. In addition, this intertidal habitat plays an important role in the maintenance of the ecological functioning of the estuarine-coastal ecosystem continuum. PMID:25315884

  18. Temporal patterns of gene expression in developing maize endosperm identified through transcriptome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guosheng; Wang, Dongfang; Yang, Ruolin; Logan, Kyle; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Shanshan; Skaggs, Megan I.; Lloyd, Alan; Burnett, William J.; Laurie, John D.; Hunter, Brenda G.; Dannenhoffer, Joanne M.; Larkins, Brian A.; Drews, Gary N.; Wang, Xiangfeng; Yadegari, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Endosperm is a filial structure resulting from a second fertilization event in angiosperms. As an absorptive storage organ, endosperm plays an essential role in support of embryo development and seedling germination. The accumulation of carbohydrate and protein storage products in cereal endosperm provides humanity with a major portion of its food, feed, and renewable resources. Little is known regarding the regulatory gene networks controlling endosperm proliferation and differentiation. As a first step toward understanding these networks, we profiled all mRNAs in the maize kernel and endosperm at eight successive stages during the first 12 d after pollination. Analysis of these gene sets identified temporal programs of gene expression, including hundreds of transcription-factor genes. We found a close correlation of the sequentially expressed gene sets with distinct cellular and metabolic programs in distinct compartments of the developing endosperm. The results constitute a preliminary atlas of spatiotemporal patterns of endosperm gene expression in support of future efforts for understanding the underlying mechanisms that control seed yield and quality. PMID:24821765

  19. Temporal patterns of infiltration into a water repellent soil under field conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Phil; Roper, Margaret; Micin, Shayne; Jongepier, Ramona

    2014-05-01

    Water repellency causes substantial economic losses for farmers in southern Australia through impacts on crop growth and weed germination. However, recent research has demonstrated that laboratory measurements of water repellency may not be a reliable indicator of the severity of symptoms experienced in the field. In particular, crop residue retention and minimal soil disturbance led to increased water repellency, but was also associated with higher soil water contents measured at strategic times of the year. Little is known about the temporal patterns of soil water storage close to the soil surface in a water repellent sand. In this research we measured soil water content at a depth of 0.05 m at 15-minute intervals from June 2011 to October 2012, under various treatment combinations of residue retention and soil disturbance. Measurements were made in both 'crop row' and 'crop inter-row' positions. For a rainfall event (9.2 mm) in March 2012, prior to crop seeding, plots previously established with no-till absorbed significantly more water (increase in soil water content of 0.074 v/v) than plots conventionally cultivated (0.038 v/v). In June 2012 (12.6 mm), 4 weeks after crop seeding, tillage was again significant, and there was a significant interaction between tillage and 'row' or 'inter-row' position. These results demonstrate the importance of crop management in modifying the response of water repellent soils to rainfall in the field.

  20. We'll Meet Again: Revealing Distributional and Temporal Patterns of Social Contact

    PubMed Central

    Pachur, Thorsten; Schooler, Lael J.; Stevens, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    What are the dynamics and regularities underlying social contact, and how can contact with the people in one's social network be predicted? In order to characterize distributional and temporal patterns underlying contact probability, we asked 40 participants to keep a diary of their social contacts for 100 consecutive days. Using a memory framework previously used to study environmental regularities, we predicted that the probability of future contact would follow in systematic ways from the frequency, recency, and spacing of previous contact. The distribution of contact probability across the members of a person's social network was highly skewed, following an exponential function. As predicted, it emerged that future contact scaled linearly with frequency of past contact, proportionally to a power function with recency of past contact, and differentially according to the spacing of past contact. These relations emerged across different contact media and irrespective of whether the participant initiated or received contact. We discuss how the identification of these regularities might inspire more realistic analyses of behavior in social networks (e.g., attitude formation, cooperation). PMID:24475073

  1. Spatio-temporal pattern analysis of urban thermal environment of different types of cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Huanjun; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Zhang, Xinle; Zang, Hongting; Hu, Wen

    2014-03-01

    Cities with different functions show variable thermal patterns. This study directs at horizontal contrasting the heat island effect of cities and towns in the same latitude. The data source was Landsat TM, by which the thermal infrared bands is used with the algorithm of ARTIS inversion of Heilongjiang Province to acquire the surface temperature of Ha-Qi different types of cities in 1995(1989), 2006 and 2010. In this paper we analyzed the land surface temperature(LST) of temporal, spatial and regional. The results show that a high zone is mainly centralized in the old city and industrial zone. Impervious surface increase leads to temperature rise. Relatively high and low zone fluctuation is due to human activities influence. Climate is one of the key factors to affect the LST, such as precipitation and drought. Through the analysis of urban thermal environment, the process of urbanization can be monitored, to provide accurate information for the quality evaluation of urban thermal environment and heat source survey.

  2. Spatial and temporal patterns of debris-flow deposition in the Oregon Coast Range, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Christine L.; Gresswell, Robert E.

    2004-02-01

    Patterns of debris-flow occurrence were investigated in 125 headwater basins in the Oregon Coast Range. Time since the previous debris-flows was established using dendrochronology, and recurrence interval estimates ranged from 98 to 357 years. Tributary basins with larger drainage areas had a greater abundance of potential landslide source areas and a greater frequency of scouring events compared to smaller basins. The flux rate of material delivered to the confluence with a larger river influenced the development of small-scale debris-flow fans. Fans at the mouths of tributary basins with smaller drainage areas had a higher likelihood of being eroded by the mainstem river in the interval between debris-flows, compared to bigger basins that had larger, more persistent fans. Valley floor width of the receiving channel also influenced fan development because it limited the space available to accommodate fan formation. Of 63 recent debris-flows, 52% delivered sediment and wood directly to the mainstem river, 30% were deposited on an existing fan before reaching the mainstem, and 18% were deposited within the confines of the tributary valley before reaching the confluence. Spatial variation in the location of past and present depositional surfaces indicated that sequential debris-flow deposits did not consistently form in the same place. Instead of being spatially deterministic, results of this study suggest that temporally variable and stochastic factors may be important for predicting the runout length of debris-flows.

  3. Temporal Patterns of Larval Fish Occurrence in a Large Subtropical River

    PubMed Central

    Shuai, Fangmin; Li, Xinhui; Li, Yuefei; Li, Jie; Yang, Jiping; Lek, Sovan

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of temporal patterns of larval fish occurrence is limited in south China, despite its ecological importance. This research examines the annual and seasonal patterns of fish larval presence in the large subtropical Pearl River. Data is based on samples collected every two days, from 2006 to 2013. In total, 45 taxa representing 13 families and eight orders were sampled. The dominant larval family was Cyprinidae, accounting for 27 taxa. Squaliobarbus curriculus was the most abundant species, followed by Megalobrama terminalis, Xenocypris davidi, Cirrhinus molitorella, Hemiculter leuscisculus and Squalidus argentatus. Fish larvae abundances varied significantly throughout the seasons (multivariate analyses: Cluster, SIMPROF and ANOSIM). The greatest numbers occurred between May and September, peaking from June through August, which corresponds to the reproductive season. In this study, redundancy analysis was used to describe the relationship between fish larval abundance and associated environmental factors. Mean water temperature, river discharge, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature and precipitation play important roles in larval occurrence patterns. According to seasonal variations, fish larvae occurrence is mainly affected by water temperature. It was also noted that the occurrence of Salanx reevesii and Cyprinus carpio larvae is associated with higher dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, higher atmospheric pressure and lower water temperatures which occur in the spring. On the other hand, M. terminalis, X. davidi, and C. molitorella are associated with high precipitation, high river discharge, low atmospheric pressure and low DO concentrations which featured during the summer months. S. curriculus also peaks in the summer and is associated with peak water temperatures and minimum NH3–N concentrations. Rhinogobius giurinus occur when higher atmospheric pressure, lower precipitation and lower river discharges occur in the autumn. Dominant fish species stagger their spawning period to avoid intraspecific competition for food resources during early life stages; a coexistence strategy to some extent. This research outlines the environmental requirements for successful spawning for different fish species. Understanding processes such as those outlined in this research paper is the basis of conservation of fish community diversity which is a critical resource to a successful sustainable fishery in the Pearl River. PMID:26760762

  4. Temporal Patterns of Larval Fish Occurrence in a Large Subtropical River.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Fangmin; Li, Xinhui; Li, Yuefei; Li, Jie; Yang, Jiping; Lek, Sovan

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of temporal patterns of larval fish occurrence is limited in south China, despite its ecological importance. This research examines the annual and seasonal patterns of fish larval presence in the large subtropical Pearl River. Data is based on samples collected every two days, from 2006 to 2013. In total, 45 taxa representing 13 families and eight orders were sampled. The dominant larval family was Cyprinidae, accounting for 27 taxa. Squaliobarbus curriculus was the most abundant species, followed by Megalobrama terminalis, Xenocypris davidi, Cirrhinus molitorella, Hemiculter leuscisculus and Squalidus argentatus. Fish larvae abundances varied significantly throughout the seasons (multivariate analyses: Cluster, SIMPROF and ANOSIM). The greatest numbers occurred between May and September, peaking from June through August, which corresponds to the reproductive season. In this study, redundancy analysis was used to describe the relationship between fish larval abundance and associated environmental factors. Mean water temperature, river discharge, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature and precipitation play important roles in larval occurrence patterns. According to seasonal variations, fish larvae occurrence is mainly affected by water temperature. It was also noted that the occurrence of Salanx reevesii and Cyprinus carpio larvae is associated with higher dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, higher atmospheric pressure and lower water temperatures which occur in the spring. On the other hand, M. terminalis, X. davidi, and C. molitorella are associated with high precipitation, high river discharge, low atmospheric pressure and low DO concentrations which featured during the summer months. S. curriculus also peaks in the summer and is associated with peak water temperatures and minimum NH3-N concentrations. Rhinogobius giurinus occur when higher atmospheric pressure, lower precipitation and lower river discharges occur in the autumn. Dominant fish species stagger their spawning period to avoid intraspecific competition for food resources during early life stages; a coexistence strategy to some extent. This research outlines the environmental requirements for successful spawning for different fish species. Understanding processes such as those outlined in this research paper is the basis of conservation of fish community diversity which is a critical resource to a successful sustainable fishery in the Pearl River. PMID:26760762

  5. Visual recognition based on temporal cortex cells: viewer-centred processing of pattern configuration.

    PubMed

    Perrett, D I; Oram, M W

    1998-01-01

    A model of recognition is described based on cell properties in the ventral cortical stream of visual processing in the primate brain. At a critical intermediate stage in this system, 'Elaborate' feature sensitive cells respond selectively to visual features in a way that depends on size (+/- 1 octave), orientation (+/- 45 degrees) but does not depend on position within central vision (+/- 5 degrees). These features are simple conjunctions of 2-D elements (e.g. a horizontal dark area above a dark smoothly convex area). They can arise either as elements of an object's surface pattern or as a 3-D component bounded by an object's external contour. By requiring a combination of several such features without regard to their position within the central region of the visual image, 'Pattern' sensitive cells at higher levels can exhibit selectivity for complex configurations that typify objects seen under particular viewing conditions. Given that input features to such Pattern sensitive cells are specified in approximate size and orientation, initial cellular 'representations' of the visual appearance of object type (or object example) are also selective for orientation and size. At this level, sensitivity to object view (+/- 60 degrees) arises because visual features disappear as objects are rotated in perspective. Processing is thus viewer-centred and the neurones only respond to objects seen from particular viewing conditions or 'object instances'. Combined sensitivity to multiple features (conjunctions of elements) independent of their position, establishes selectivity for the configurations of object parts (from one view) because rearranged configurations of the same parts yield images lacking some of the 2-D visual features present in the normal configuration. Different neural populations appear to be selectively tuned to particular components of the same biological object (e.g. face, eyes, hands, legs), perhaps because the independent articulation of these components gives rise to correlated activity in different sets of input visual features. Generalisation over viewing conditions for a given object can be established by hierarchically pooling outputs of view-condition specific cells with pooling operations dependent on the continuity in experience across viewing conditions. Different object parts are seen together and different views are seen in succession when the observer walks around the object. The view specific coding that characterises the selectivity of cells in the temporal lobe can be seen as a natural consequence of selective experience of objects from particular vantage points. View specific coding for the face and body also has great utility in understanding complex social signals, a property that may not be feasible with object-centred processing. PMID:9755511

  6. Discovering temporal patterns in water quality time series, focusing on floods with the LDA method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hélène Aubert, Alice; Tavenard, Romain; Emonet, Rémi; Malinowski, Simon; Guyet, Thomas; Quiniou, René; Odobez, Jean-Marc; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal

    2013-04-01

    Studying floods has been a major issue in hydrological research for years. It is often done in terms of water quantity but it is also of interest in terms of water quality. Stream chemistry is a mix of solutes. They originate from various sources in the catchment, reach the stream by various flow pathways and are transformed by biogeochemical reactions at different locations. Therefore, we hypothesized that reaction of the stream chemistry to a rainfall event is not unique but varies according to the season (1), and the global meteorological conditions of the year (2). Identifying a typology of temporal chemical patterns of reaction to a rainfall event is a way to better understand catchment processes at the flood time scale. To answer this issue, we applied a probabilistic model (Latent Dirichlet Allocation or LDA (3)) mining recurrent sequential patterns to a dataset of floods. The dataset is 12 years long and daily recorded. It gathers a broad range of parameters from which we selected rainfall, discharge, water table depth, temperature as well as nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, sulphate and chloride concentrations. It comes from a long-term hydrological observatory (AgrHys, western France) located at Kervidy-Naizin. A set of 472 floods was automatically extracted (4). From each flood, a document has been generated that is made of a set of "hydrological words". Each hydrological word corresponds to a measurement: it is a triplet made of the considered variable, the time at which the measurement is made (relative to the beginning of the flood), and its magnitude (that can be low, medium or high). The documents are used as input data to the LDA algorithm. LDA relies on spotting co-occurrences (as an alternative to the more traditional study of correlation) between words that appear within the flood documents. It has two nice properties that are its ability to easily deal with missing data and its additive property that allows a document to be seen as a mixture of several flood patterns. The output of LDA is a set of patterns that can easily be represented in graphics. These patterns correspond to typical reactions to rainfall events. The patterns themselves are carefully studied, as well as their repartition along the year and along the 12 years of the dataset. The novelties are fourfold. First, as a methodological point of view, we learn that hydrological data can be analyzed with this LDA model giving a typology of a multivariate chemical signature of floods. Second, we outline that chemistry parameters are sufficient to obtain meaningful patterns. There is no need to include hydro-meteorological parameters to define the patterns. However, hydro-meteorological parameters are useful to understand the processes leading to these patterns. Third, our hypothesis of seasonal specific reaction to rainfall is verified, moreover detailed; so is our hypothesis of different reactions to rainfall for years with different hydro-meteorological conditions. Fourth, this method allows the consideration of overlapping floods that are usually not studied. We would recommend the use of such model to study chemical reactions of stream after rainfall events, or more broadly after any hydrological events. The typology that has been provided by this method is a kind of bar code of water chemistry during floods. It could be well suited to compare different geographical locations by using the same patterns and analysing the resulting different pattern distributions. (1) Aubert, A.H. et al., 2012. The chemical signature of a livestock farming catchment: synthesis from a high-frequency multi-element long term monitoring. HESSD, 9(8): 9715 - 9741. (2) Aubert, A.H., Gascuel-Odoux, C., Merot, P., 2013. Annual hysteresis of water quality: A method to analyse the effect of intra- and inter-annual climatic conditions. Journal of Hydrology, 478(0): 29-39. (3) Blei, D. M.; Ng, A. Y.; Jordan, M. I., 2003. Latent Dirichlet allocation. Journal of Machine Learning Research, 3(4-5): 993-1022. (4) de Lavenne, A., Cudennec, C., Streamflow velocity estimation in GIUH-type approach: what can neighbouring basins tell us? Poster Presentation - EGU General Assembly, 22-27 April 2012, Vienna, Austria.

  7. Geospatial and temporal patterns of annual cholera outbreaks in Matlab, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, M. S.; de Klerk, K.; Meyers, D.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera is a waterborne diarrheal disease endemic to Bangladesh, resulting in 1 million diagnoses annually. Such disease burden results in incalculable lost wages and treatment expenses, taken from the pockets of an already impoverished society. Two seasonally correlated outbreaks of cholera occur in Bangladesh every year. In the spring and early summer, the Bay of Bengal - which serves as a natural reservoir for the cholera bacteria - flows inland, causing the first outbreak amongst coastal communities. Waste containing the cholera bacteria enters the sewage system and remains untreated due to poor water and sanitation infrastructure. Therefore, during the following monsoon season, flooding of cholera-contaminated sewage into drinking water sources results in a second outbreak. Though considered common knowledge among local populations, this geographic and temporal progression has not been empirically verified in the current literature. The aim of our ongoing study is to systematically analyze the seasonal trajectory of endemic cholera in Bangladesh. This paper discusses the results obtained from a comprehensive survey of available cholera data from the International Centre of Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) in Matlab, Bangladesh. Matlab thana is a near-coastal community that consists of 142 villages. Monsoon season takes place from June through October. Due to its proximity to the Meghna River, which opens into the Bay of Bengal, the area experiences significant flooding during these months. Using 10 years of geographically referenced cholera data, cases were plotted in time and space. Preliminary patterns suggest that villages closer to the Meghna River experience the majority of the area's cholera outbreaks and that case count is highest in late spring and late fall. April/May and November/December represent 25% and 23% of total annual case counts respectively. Moreover, villages further from the coastline demonstrate 57% higher relative prevalence in fall than in the spring. Such initial results demonstrate great promise in advancing our present knowledge of endemic cholera in Bangladesh. By improving our understanding of cholera proliferating in time and space, disease mitigation resources can be distributed to the most susceptible areas when they need them most. The next step forward for our ongoing study involves the use of mobile health (mHealth) case surveillance and cloud computing for real-time geographic and temporal cholera data acquisition.

  8. [Spatial and temporal variation patterns in aquatic macroinvertebrates of Tecocomulco Lake, Hidalgo (Mxico)].

    PubMed

    Rico-Snchez, Axel Eduardo; Rodrguez-Romero, Alexis Joseph; Lpez-Lpez, Eugenia; Sedeo-Daz, Jacinto Elas

    2014-04-01

    Lake Tecocomulco, Hidalgo, is a relic of the ancient lakes ofAnahuac, important for the conservation of resident and migratory birds. However, the composition of aquatic macroinvertebrates is unknown; this is an important gap in conservation as they play an important role in the food web. This study analyzed the spatial and temporal variations in macroinvertebrate assemblages and their relationship with habitat characteristics. We carried out four monitoring campaigns covering the rainy and dry seasons. The monitoring was conducted at six study sites (four in the littoral zone and two in the middle part of the lake), environmental factors were recorded at each study site, water samples were collected for their physical and chemical analysis and aquatic macroinvertebrates were collected. A principal component analysis (PCA) was used to group study sites based on physical and chemical characteristics. Richness of taxa was analysed with rarefaction. We assessed the importance value index of each taxon (considering their frequency of occurrence and abundance). Similarity analyzes were performed between study sites and similarity of taxa with indices of Jaccard and Bray-Curtis, respectively. We performed a canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) between environmental factors and macroinvertebrate taxa. The PCA showed a marked seasonal variation represented by warm periods, with high values of conductivity, alkalinity, hardness, sulfates, and macronutrients (N and P) and the cold period with low values. We found a total of 26 taxa of aquatic macroinvertebrates and the highest richness was found in August. The Jaccard similarity analysis found differences between the littoral area and the limnetic zone, which differ also in the composition of macrophytes. The littoral zone had the highest taxa richness of macroinvertebrates and macrophytes, while the lowest diversity was found in the offshore zone. The CCA related physicochemical characteristics of the water body with macroinvertebrate taxa showing the influence of both physicochemical characteristics and the composition of macrophytes in the spatio-temporal patterns of aquatic macroinvertebrates in the lake. The dominance of Corixidae highlights a strong grazing activity in the lake and in turn suggests an important amount of food available for higher trophic levels. Our study shows that the macroinvertebrates of Tecocomulco Lake have spatial and seasonal variations that are related to both environmental and biotic factors with groups being dominant. PMID:25189071

  9. Spatial-temporal patterns in Mediterranean carnivore road casualties: Consequences for mitigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grilo, C.; Bissonette, J.A.; Santos-Reis, M.

    2009-01-01

    Many carnivores have been seriously impacted by the expansion of transportation systems and networks; however we know little about carnivore response to the extent and magnitude of road mortality, or which age classes may be disproportionately impacted. Recent research has demonstrated that wildlife-vehicle-collisions (WVC) involving carnivores are modulated by temporal and spatial factors. Thus, we investigated road mortality on a guild of small and medium-sized carnivores in southern Portugal using road-kill data obtained from a systematic 36 months monitoring period along highways (260 km) and national roads (314 km) by addressing the following questions: (a) which species and age class are most vulnerable to WVC? (b) are there temporal and/or spatial patterns in road-kill? and (c) which life-history and/or spatial factors influence the likelihood of collisions? We recorded a total of 806 carnivore casualties, which represented an average of 47 ind./100 km/year. Red fox and stone marten had the highest mortality rates. Our findings highlight three key messages: (1) the majority of road-killed individuals were adults of common species; (2) all carnivores, except genets, were more vulnerable during specific life-history phenological periods: higher casualties were observed when red fox and stone marten were provisioning young, Eurasian badger casualties occurred more frequently during dispersal, and higher Egyptian mongoose mortality occurred during the breeding period; and (3) modeling demonstrated that favorable habitat, curves in the road, and low human disturbance were major contributors to the deadliest road segments. Red fox carcasses were more likely to be found on road sections with passages distant from urban areas. Conversely, stone marten mortalities were found more often on national roads with high of cork oak woodland cover; Egyptian mongoose and genet road-kills were found more often on road segments close to curves. Based on our results, two key mitigation measures should help to reduce WVC in Portugal. The first involves the improvement of existing crossings with buried and small mesh size fence to guide the individuals towards to the passages, in road segments with high traffic volume (>1200 vehicles/night) and located in preferred carnivore habitats. The second mitigation involves cutting or removal of dense vegetation in verges of road segments with curves to aid motorists in seeing animals about to cross. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Spatial and Temporal Pattern of Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks in Tanzania; 1930 to 2007

    PubMed Central

    Sindato, Calvin; Karimuribo, Esron D.; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Kivaria, Fredrick; Dautu, George; Bernard, Bett; Paweska, Janusz T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rift Valley fever (RVF)-like disease was first reported in Tanzania more than eight decades ago and the last large outbreak of the disease occurred in 200607. This study investigates the spatial and temporal pattern of RVF outbreaks in Tanzania over the past 80 years in order to guide prevention and control strategies. Materials and Methods A retrospective study was carried out based on disease reporting data from Tanzania at district or village level. The data were sourced from the Ministries responsible for livestock and human health, Tanzania Meteorological Agency and research institutions involved in RVF surveillance and diagnosis. The spatial distribution of outbreaks was mapped using ArcGIS 10. The space-time permutation model was applied to identify clusters of cases, and a multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of outbreaks in the district. Principal Findings RVF outbreaks were reported between December and June in 1930, 1947, 1957, 1960, 1963, 1968, 197779, 1989, 199798 and 200607 in 39.2% of the districts in Tanzania. There was statistically significant spatio-temporal clustering of outbreaks. RVF occurrence was associated with the eastern Rift Valley ecosystem (OR?=?6.14, CI: 1.96, 19.28), total amount of rainfall of >405.4 mm (OR?=?12.36, CI: 3.06, 49.88), soil texture (clay [OR?=?8.76, CI: 2.52, 30.50], and loam [OR?=?8.79, CI: 2.04, 37.82]). Conclusion/Significance RVF outbreaks were found to be distributed heterogeneously and transmission dynamics appeared to vary between areas. The sequence of outbreak waves, continuously cover more parts of the country. Whenever infection has been introduced into an area, it is likely to be involved in future outbreaks. The cases were more likely to be reported from the eastern Rift Valley than from the western Rift Valley ecosystem and from areas with clay and loam rather than sandy soil texture. PMID:24586433

  11. Hierarchical Bayesian modeling of spatio-temporal patterns of lung cancer incidence risk in Georgia, USA: 2000-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Ping; Mu, Lan; Madden, Marguerite; Vena, John E.

    2014-10-01

    Lung cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in both men and women in Georgia, USA. However, the spatio-temporal patterns of lung cancer risk in Georgia have not been fully studied. Hierarchical Bayesian models are used here to explore the spatio-temporal patterns of lung cancer incidence risk by race and gender in Georgia for the period of 2000-2007. With the census tract level as the spatial scale and the 2-year period aggregation as the temporal scale, we compare a total of seven Bayesian spatio-temporal models including two under a separate modeling framework and five under a joint modeling framework. One joint model outperforms others based on the deviance information criterion. Results show that the northwest region of Georgia has consistently high lung cancer incidence risk for all population groups during the study period. In addition, there are inverse relationships between the socioeconomic status and the lung cancer incidence risk among all Georgian population groups, and the relationships in males are stronger than those in females. By mapping more reliable variations in lung cancer incidence risk at a relatively fine spatio-temporal scale for different Georgian population groups, our study aims to better support healthcare performance assessment, etiological hypothesis generation, and health policy making.

  12. Soft computing analysis of the possible correlation between temporal and energy release patterns in seismic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantaras, Anthony; Katsifarakis, Emmanouil; Artzouxaltzis, Xristos; Makris, John; Vallianatos, Filippos; Varley, Martin

    2010-05-01

    This paper is a preliminary investigation of the possible correlation of temporal and energy release patterns of seismic activity involving the preparation processes of consecutive sizeable seismic events [1,2]. The background idea is that during periods of low-level seismic activity, stress processes in the crust accumulate energy at the seismogenic area whilst larger seismic events act as a decongesting mechanism releasing considerable energy [3,4]. A dynamic algorithm is being developed aiming to identify and cluster pre- and post- seismic events to the main earthquake following on research carried out by Zubkov [5] and Dobrovolsky [6,7]. This clustering technique along with energy release equations dependent on Richter's scale [8,9] allow for an estimate to be drawn regarding the amount of the energy being released by the seismic sequence. The above approach is being implemented as a monitoring tool to investigate the behaviour of the underlying energy management system by introducing this information to various neural [10,11] and soft computing models [1,12,13,14]. The incorporation of intelligent systems aims towards the detection and simulation of the possible relationship between energy release patterns and time-intervals among consecutive sizeable earthquakes [1,15]. Anticipated successful training of the imported intelligent systems may result in a real-time, on-line processing methodology [1,16] capable to dynamically approximate the time-interval between the latest and the next forthcoming sizeable seismic event by monitoring the energy release process in a specific seismogenic area. Indexing terms: pattern recognition, long-term earthquake precursors, neural networks, soft computing, earthquake occurrence intervals References [1] Konstantaras A., Vallianatos F., Varley M.R. and Makris J. P.: ‘Soft computing modelling of seismicity in the southern Hellenic arc', IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 5 (3), pp. 323-327, 2008 [2] Eneva M. and Ben-Zion Y.: ‘Techniques and parameters to analyze seismicity patterns associated with large earthquakes', Geophysics Res., vol. 102, pp. 17785-17795, 1997a [3] Habermann R. E.: ‘Precursory seismic quiescence: past, present and future', Pure Applied Geophysics, vol. 126, pp. 279-318, 1988 [4] Matthews M. V. and Reasenberg P. A.: ‘Statistical methods for investigating quiescence and other temporal seismicity patterns', Pure Applied Geophysics, vol. 126, pp. 357-372, 1988 [5] Zubkov S. I.: ‘The appearance times of earthquake precursors', Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Fiz. Zemli (Solid Earth), No. 5, pp. 87-91, 1987 [6] Dobrovolsky I. P., Zubkov S. I. and Miachkin V. I.: ‘Estimation of the size of earthquake preparation zones', Pageoph, vol. 117, pp. 1025-1044, 1979 [7] Dobrovolsky I. P., Gershenzon N. I. And Gokhberg M. B.: ‘Theory of electrokinetic effects occurring at the final stage in the preparation of a tectonic earthquake', Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, vol. 57, pp. 144-156, 1989 [8] Richter C. F.: ‘Elementary Seismology', W.H.Freeman and Co., San Francisco, 1958 [9] Choy G. L. and Boatwright J. L.: ‘Global patterns of radiated seismic energy and apparent stress', Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 84 (B5), pp. 2348-2350, 1995 [10] Haykin S.: ‘Neural Networks', 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, 1999 [11] Jang J., Sun T. and Mizutany E.: ‘Neuro-fuzzy and soft computing', Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1997 [12] Konstantaras A., Varley M.R., Vallianatos F., Collins G. and Holifield P.: ‘Detection of weak seismo-electric signals upon the recordings of the electrotelluric field by means of neuron-fuzzy technology', IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 4 (1), 2007 [13] Konstantaras A., Varley M.R., Vallianatos F., Collins G. and Holifield P.: ‘Neuro-fuzzy prediction-based adaptive filtering applied to severely distorted magnetic field recordings', IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 3 (4), 2006 [14] Maravelakis E., Bilalis N., Keith J. and Antoniadis A.: ‘Measuring and Benchmarking the Innovativeness of SME's: a three dimensional Fuzzy Logic Approach', Production Planning and Control Journal, vol. 17 (3), pp. 283-292, 2006 [15] Bodri B.: ‘A neural-network model for earthquake occurrence', Geodynamics, vol. 32, pp. 289-310, 2001 [16] Skounakis E., Karagiannis V. and Vlissidis A.: ‘A Versatile System for Real-time Analyzing and Testing Objects Quality', Proceedings-CD of the 4th International Conference on "New Horizons in Industry, Business and Education" (NHIBE 2005), Corfu, Greece, pp. 701-708, 2005

  13. Spatio-Temporal Pattern and Socio-Economic Factors of Bacillary Dysentery at County Level in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yue; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Lei; Lv, Qiang; Yin, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Bacillary dysentery (BD) remains a big public health problem in China. Effective spatio-temporal monitoring of BD incidence is important for successful implementation of control and prevention measures. This study aimed to examine the spatio-temporal pattern of BD and analyze socio-economic factors that may affect BD incidence in Sichuan province, China. Firstly, we used space-time scan statistic to detect the high risk spatio-temporal clusters in each year. Then, bivariate spatial correlation and Bayesian spatio-temporal model were utilized to examine the associations between the socio-economic factors and BD incidence. Spatio-temporal clusters of BD were mainly located in the northern-southern belt of the midwest area of Sichuan province. The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of rural population and the rates of BD incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. The proportion of secondary industry, proportion of tertiary Industry, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons, per capital GDP and the rate of BD incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The best fitting spatio-temporal model showed that medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and per capital GDP were significantly negative related to the risk of BD. PMID:26469274

  14. Spatio-Temporal Pattern and Socio-Economic Factors of Bacillary Dysentery at County Level in Sichuan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yue; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Lei; Lv, Qiang; Yin, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Bacillary dysentery (BD) remains a big public health problem in China. Effective spatio-temporal monitoring of BD incidence is important for successful implementation of control and prevention measures. This study aimed to examine the spatio-temporal pattern of BD and analyze socio-economic factors that may affect BD incidence in Sichuan province, China. Firstly, we used space-time scan statistic to detect the high risk spatio-temporal clusters in each year. Then, bivariate spatial correlation and Bayesian spatio-temporal model were utilized to examine the associations between the socio-economic factors and BD incidence. Spatio-temporal clusters of BD were mainly located in the northern-southern belt of the midwest area of Sichuan province. The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of rural population and the rates of BD incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. The proportion of secondary industry, proportion of tertiary Industry, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons, per capital GDP and the rate of BD incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The best fitting spatio-temporal model showed that medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and per capital GDP were significantly negative related to the risk of BD. PMID:26469274

  15. The use of satellite data for monitoring temporal and spatial patterns of fire: a comprehensive review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasaponara, R.

    2009-04-01

    Remotely sensed (RS) data can fruitfully support both research activities and operative monitoring of fire at different temporal and spatial scales with a synoptic view and cost effective technologies. "The contribution of remote sensing (RS) to forest fires may be grouped in three categories, according to the three phases of fire management: (i) risk estimation (before fire), (ii) detection (during fire) and (iii) assessment (after fire)" Chuvieco (2006). Relating each phase, wide research activities have been conducted over the years. (i) Risk estimation (before fire) has been mainly based on the use of RS data for (i) monitoring vegetation stress and assessing variations in vegetation moisture content, (ii) fuel type mapping, at different temporal and spatial scales from global, regional down to a local scale (using AVHRR, MODIS, TM, ASTER, Quickbird images and airborne hyperspectral and LIDAR data). Danger estimation has been mainly based on the use of AVHRR (onborad NOAA), MODIS (onboard TERRA and AQUA), VEGETATION (onboard SPOT) due to the technical characteristics (i.e. spectral, spatial and temporal resolution). Nevertheless microwave data have been also used for vegetation monitoring. (ii) Detection: identification of active fires, estimation of fire radiative energy and fire emission. AVHRR was one of the first satellite sensors used for setting up fire detection algorithms. The availbility of MODIS allowed us to obtain global fire products free downloaded from NASA web site. Sensors onboard geostationary satellite platforms, such as GOES, SEVIRI, have been used for fire detection, to obtain a high temporal resolution (at around 15 minutes) monitoring of active fires. (iii) Post fire damage assessment includes: burnt area mapping, fire emission, fire severity, vegetation recovery, fire resilience estimation, and, more recently, fire regime characterization. Chuvieco E. L. Giglio, C. Justice, 2008 Global charactrerization of fire activity: toward defining fire regimes from Earth observation data Global Change Biology vo. 14. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01585.x 1-15, Chuvieco E., P. Englefield, Alexander P. Trishchenko, Yi Luo Generation of long time series of burn area maps of the boreal forest from NOAA-AVHRR composite data. Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 112, Issue 5, 15 May 2008, Pages 2381-2396 Chuvieco Emilio 2006, Remote Sensing of Forest Fires: Current limitations and future prospects in Observing Land from Space: Science, Customers and Technology, Advances in Global Change Research Vol. 4 pp 47-51 De Santis A., E. Chuvieco Burn severity estimation from remotely sensed data: Performance of simulation versus empirical models, Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 108, Issue 4, 29 June 2007, Pages 422-435. De Santis A., E. Chuvieco, Patrick J. Vaughan, Short-term assessment of burn severity using the inversion of PROSPECT and GeoSail models, Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 113, Issue 1, 15 January 2009, Pages 126-136 García M., E. Chuvieco, H. Nieto, I. Aguado Combining AVHRR and meteorological data for estimating live fuel moisture content Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 112, Issue 9, 15 September 2008, Pages 3618-3627 Ichoku C., L. Giglio, M. J. Wooster, L. A. Remer Global characterization of biomass-burning patterns using satellite measurements of fire radiative energy. Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 112, Issue 6, 16 June 2008, Pages 2950-2962. Lasaponara R. and Lanorte, On the capability of satellite VHR QuickBird data for fuel type characterization in fragmented landscape Ecological Modelling Volume 204, Issues 1-2, 24 May 2007, Pages 79-84 Lasaponara R., A. Lanorte, S. Pignatti,2006 Multiscale fuel type mapping in fragmented ecosystems: preliminary results from Hyperspectral MIVIS and Multispectral Landsat TM data, Int. J. Remote Sens., vol. 27 (3) pp. 587-593. Lasaponara R., V. Cuomo, M. F. Macchiato, and T. Simoniello, 2003 .A self-adaptive algorithm based on AVHRR multitemporal data analysis for small active fire detection.n International Journal of Remote Sensing, vol. 24, No 8, 1723-1749. Minchella A., F. Del Frate, F. Capogna, S. Anselmi, F. Manes Use of multitemporal SAR data for monitoring vegetation recovery of Mediterranean burned areas Remote Sensing of Environment, In Press Næsset E., T. Gobakken Estimation of above- and below-ground biomass across regions of the boreal forest zone using airborne laser Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 112, Issue 6, 16 June 2008, Pages 3079-3090 Peterson S. H, Dar A. Roberts, Philip E. Dennison Mapping live fuel moisture with MODIS data: A multiple regression approach, Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 112, Issue 12, 15 December 2008, Pages 4272-4284. Schroeder Wilfrid, Elaine Prins, Louis Giglio, Ivan Csiszar, Christopher Schmidt, Jeffrey Morisette, Douglas Morton Validation of GOES and MODIS active fire detection products using ASTER and ETM+ data Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 112, Issue 5, 15 May 2008, Pages 2711-2726 Shi J., T. Jackson, J. Tao, J. Du, R. Bindlish, L. Lu, K.S. Chen Microwave vegetation indices for short vegetation covers from satellite passive microwave sensor AMSR-E Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 112, Issue 12, 15 December 2008, Pages 4285-4300 Tansey, K., Grégoire, J-M., Defourny, P., Leigh, R., Pekel, J-F., van Bogaert, E. and Bartholomé, E., 2008 A New, Global, Multi-Annual (2000-2007) Burnt Area Product at 1 km Resolution and Daily Intervals Geophysical Research Letters, VOL. 35, L01401, doi:10.1029/2007GL031567, 2008. Telesca L. and Lasaponara R., 2006; "Pre-and Post- fire Behaviural trends revealed in satellite NDVI time series" Geophysical Research Letters,., 33, L14401, doi:10.1029/2006GL026630 Telesca L. and Lasaponara R 2005 Discriminating Dynamical Patterns in Burned and Unburned Vegetational Covers by Using SPOT-VGT NDVI Data. Geophysical Research Letters,, 32, L21401, doi:10.1029/2005GL024391. Telesca L. and Lasaponara R. Investigating fire-induced behavioural trends in vegetation covers , Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, 13, 2018-2023, 2008 Telesca L., A. Lanorte and R. Lasaponara, 2007. Investigating dynamical trends in burned and unburned vegetation covers by using SPOT-VGT NDVI data. Journal of Geophysics and Engineering, Vol. 4, pp. 128-138, 2007 Telesca L., R. Lasaponara, and A. Lanorte, Intra-annual dynamical persistent mechanisms in Mediterranean ecosystems revealed SPOT-VEGETATION Time Series, Ecological Complexity, 5, 151-156, 2008 Verbesselt, J., Somers, B., Lhermitte, S., Jonckheere, I., van Aardt, J., and Coppin, P. (2007) Monitoring herbaceous fuel moisture content with SPOT VEGETATION time-series for fire risk prediction in savanna ecosystems. Remote Sensing of Environment 108: 357-368. Zhang X., S. Kondragunta Temporal and spatial variability in biomass burned areas across the USA derived from the GOES fire product Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 112, Issue 6, 16 June 2008, Pages 2886-2897 Zhang X., Shobha Kondragunta Temporal and spatial variability in biomass burned areas across the USA derived from the GOES fire product Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 112, Issue 6, 16 June 2008, Pages 2886-2897

  16. Using Conditional Analysis to Investigate Spatial and Temporal patterns in Upland Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto Ferranti, Emma Jayne; Whyatt, James Duncan; Timmis, Roger James

    2010-05-01

    The seasonality and characteristics of rainfall in the UK are altering under a changing climate. Summer rainfall is generally decreasing whereas winter rainfall is increasing, particularly in northern and western areas (Maraun et al., 2008) and recent research suggests these rainfall increases are amplified in upland areas (Burt and Ferranti, 2010). Conditional analysis has been used to investigate these rainfall patterns in Cumbria, an upland area in northwest England. Cumbria was selected as an example of a topographically diverse mid-latitude region that has a predominately maritime and westerly-defined climate. Moreover it has a dense network of more than 400 rain gauges that have operated for periods between 1900 and present day. Cumbria has experienced unprecedented flooding in the past decade and understanding the spatial and temporal changes in this and other upland regions is important for water resource and ecosystem management. The conditional analysis method examines the spatial and temporal variations in rainfall under different synoptic conditions and in different geographic sub-regions (Ferranti et al., 2009). A daily synoptic typing scheme, the Lamb Weather Catalogue, was applied to classify rainfall into different weather types, for example: south-westerly, westerly, easterly or cyclonic. Topographic descriptors developed using GIS were used to classify rain gauges into 6 directionally-dependant geographic sub-regions: coastal, windward-lowland, windward-upland, leeward-upland, leeward-lowland, secondary upland. Combining these classification methods enabled seasonal rainfall climatologies to be produced for specific weather types and sub-regions. Winter rainfall climatologies were constructed for all 6 sub-regions for 3 weather types - south-westerly (SW), westerly (W), and cyclonic (C); these weather types contribute more than 50% of total winter rainfall. The frequency of wet-days (>0.3mm), the total winter rainfall and the average wet day rainfall amount were analysed for each rainfall sub-region and weather type from 1961-2007 (Ferranti et al., 2010). The conditional analysis showed total rainfall under SW and W weather types to be increasing, with the greatest increases observed in the upland sub-regions. The increase in total SW rainfall is driven by a greater occurrence of SW rain days, and there has been little change to the average wet-day rainfall amount. The increase in total W rainfall is driven in part by an increase in the frequency of wet-days, but more significantly by an increase in the average wet-day rainfall amount. In contrast, total rainfall under C weather types has decreased. Further analysis will investigate how spring, summer and autumn rainfall climatologies have changed for the different weather types and sub-regions. Conditional analysis that combines GIS and synoptic climatology provides greater insights into the processes underlying readily available meteorological data. Dissecting Cumbrian rainfall data under different synoptic and geographic conditions showed the observed changes in winter rainfall are not uniform for the different weather types, nor for the different geographic sub-regions. These intricate details are often lost during coarser resolution analysis, and conditional analysis will provide a detailed synopsis of Cumbrian rainfall processes against which Regional Climate Model (RCM) performance can be tested. Conventionally RCMs try to simulate composite rainfall over many different weather types and sub-regions and by undertaking conditional validation the model performance for individual processes can be tested. This will help to target improvements in model performance, and ultimately lead to better simulation of rainfall in areas of complex topography. BURT, T. P. & FERRANTI, E. J. S. (2010) Changing patterns of heavy rainfall in upland areas: a case study from northern England. Atmospheric Environment, [in review]. FERRANTI, E. J. S., WHYATT, J. D. & TIMMIS, R. J. (2009) Development and application of topographic descriptors for conditional a

  17. Analysis and Monitoring of the Spatio-temporal Aerosol Patterns over Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamun, M.; Islam, M.

    2012-12-01

    Nowadays climate change is the burning issue and atmospheric aerosols are vital parameter of the global climate system. So, atmospheric aerosols are one of the hot topics for present scientific research. Most remote sensing methods retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) to assess the aerosols and their various effects on environmental and climate system. However, there is lack of studies dealing with monitoring of aerosol patterns over Bangladesh. In this research, we have analyzed the spatial and temporal variations in aerosol load over Bangladesh, using MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Level 3 remote sensing data. A Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to generate a backward trajectory in order to identify the origins of air masses, with the aim of understanding these spatial and temporal variabilities in aerosol concentrations. During the last decade, AODs have increased across Bangladesh and revealed a higher AOD concentration in western part but a much cleaner environment in eastern part. An assessment of monthly mean variations in AOD has exhibited maximum AODs in June and minimum AODs in October. Looking over seasonal variations during the last decade over Bangladesh showed maximum AOD values during the summer, while minimum AOD values showed during the post monsoon also an evidence of a decreasing AOD trend showed during the monsoon can be owing to an increase in monsoonal rainfall in Bangladesh, while all other seasons showed increasing trends. Northwestern part of Bangladesh has showed at the top of AOD concentration in winter season during the year 2010. Dense fog activities in northern part of Bangladesh may be the causes of this high AOD distribution. We also documented, the regional AOD variations over seven different divisions of Bangladesh, for which Dhaka and Sylhet divisions showed decreasing trends where all others showed increasing trends. Annual mean AODs have highest levels in Rajshahi and Khulna and lowest level in Sylhet. Back trajectory analysis indicates that Bangladesh is mainly affected by the pollutions and desert dust of India combining with sea salt particles blown from the Arabian Sea. The sources of air masses were arriving at lower altitudes (500m, 1500m) mainly in western India and Indian subcontinent but higher altitude (2500m) air masses were loading especially in winter season from far western regions, such as Europe and various sub-Sahara region of Africa. However, an exceptional result was observed in post monsoon of 2010 that different flow patterns of air masses were observed that the air masses were arriving in Sylhet from southeast in the direction, the sources of air masses were in coastal region of Thailand and the boarder region of Myanmar and China. The air masses were arriving at several divisions in different seasons from different distances and directions owing to the variations of wind velocities and wind directions. These studies become important and useful to proceed about climate change in Bangladesh. However, more and more studies are required to understand about atmospheric aerosol properties and their climate impacts.

  18. Systematic temporal patterns in the relationship between housing development and forest bird biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Pidgeon, Anna M; Flather, Curtis H; Radeloff, Volker C; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Keuler, Nicholas S; Wood, Eric M; Stewart, Susan I; Hammer, Roger B

    2014-10-01

    As people encroach increasingly on natural areas, one question is how this affects avian biodiversity. The answer to this is partly scale-dependent. At broad scales, human populations and biodiversity concentrate in the same areas and are positively associated, but at local scales people and biodiversity are negatively associated with biodiversity. We investigated whether there is also a systematic temporal trend in the relationship between bird biodiversity and housing development. We used linear regression to examine associations between forest bird species richness and housing growth in the conterminous United States over 30 years. Our data sources were the North American Breeding Bird Survey and the 2000 decennial U.S. Census. In the 9 largest forested ecoregions, housing density increased continually over time. Across the conterminous United States, the association between bird species richness and housing density was positive for virtually all guilds except ground nesting birds. We found a systematic trajectory of declining bird species richness as housing increased through time. In more recently developed ecoregions, where housing density was still low, the association with bird species richness was neutral or positive. In ecoregions that were developed earlier and where housing density was highest, the association of housing density with bird species richness for most guilds was negative and grew stronger with advancing decades. We propose that in general the relationship between human settlement and biodiversity over time unfolds as a 2-phase process. The first phase is apparently innocuous; associations are positive due to coincidence of low-density housing with high biodiversity. The second phase is highly detrimental to biodiversity, and increases in housing density are associated with biodiversity losses. The long-term effect on biodiversity depends on the final housing density. This general pattern can help unify our understanding of the relationship of human encroachment and biodiversity response. PMID:24811862

  19. Temporal Patterns of Medications Dispensed to Children and Adolescents in a National Insured Population

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Karen L.; Mandl, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to comprehensively describe prevalence and temporal dispensing patterns for medications prescribed to children and adolescents in the United States. Participants were 1.6 million children (49% female) under 18 years old enrolled in a nation-wide, employer-provided insurance plan. All medication claims from 19992006 were reviewed retrospectively. Drugs were assigned to 16 broad therapeutic categories. Effects of trend over time, seasonality, age and gender on overall and within category prevalence were examined. Results: Mean monthly prevalence for dispensed medications was 23.5% (range 19.427.5), with highest rates in winter and lowest in July. The age group with the highest prevalence was one-year-old children. On average each month, 17.1% of all children were dispensed a single drug and 6.4% were dispensed two or more. Over time, prevalence for two or more drugs did not change, but the proportion of children dispensed a single drug decreased (slope -.02%, p?=?.001). Overall, boys had higher monthly rates than girls (average difference 0.9%, p?=?.002). However, differences by gender were greatest during middle childhood, especially for respiratory and central nervous system agents. Contraceptives accounted for a large proportion of dispensed medication to older teenage girls. Rates for the drugs with the highest prevalence in this study were moderately correlated (average Pearson r.66) with those from a previously published national survey. Conclusion: On average, nearly one quarter of a population of insured children in the United States was dispensed medication each month. This rate decreased somewhat over time, primarily because proportionally fewer children were dispensed a single medication. The rate for two or more drugs dispensed simultaneously remained steady. PMID:22829905

  20. Temporal patterns of nitrogen leakage from mid-Appalachian forested watersheds: Role of insect defoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshleman, Keith N.; Morgan, Raymond P.; Webb, James R.; Deviney, Frank A.; Galloway, James N.

    1998-08-01

    Fluxes of dissolved nitrogen (N) as nitrate from forested watersheds in the mid-Appalachian region have important water quality ramifications for small acid-sensitive streams and for downstream receiving waters such as the Chesapeake Bay. Previous studies of N leakage have suggested that annual dissolved N fluxes from small watersheds can vary by several orders of magnitude and may be increasing as second-growth forests gradually become N saturated from the accrual of atmospheric N loadings. In this study, we examined the temporal (intra-annual and interannual) variability in dissolved nitrate fluxes from five small (area < 15 km2) forested watersheds in the mid-Appalachian region from 1988 to 1995. At all sites, nitrate concentrations were observed to increase dramatically during storm flow events, with nitric acid contributing significantly to depressions in pH and acid-neutralizing capacity; annual nitrate fluxes were dominated by high-discharge periods. Interannually, the fluxes at each site varied by 1-2 orders of magnitude, but the patterns of N leakage displayed considerable synchrony with outbreaks of gypsy moth caterpillar defoliation that began in the late 1980s and early 1990s in this region. N leakage from forested watersheds apparently lagged the initial defoliation by several months to perhaps a year or more. Defoliation outbreaks by the gypsy moth caterpillar (or other herbivorous pests) thus provide an alternative explanation of N leakage from forest ecosystems. Poorly documented insect defoliations, rather than premature N saturation of intact forest ecosystems, need to be considered as a possible explanation of N leakage from forested watersheds in the mid-Appalachian region and elsewhere.

  1. Temporal patterns of veterans' psychiatric service utilization, disability payments, and cocaine use.

    PubMed

    Grossman, L S; Willer, J K; Miller, N S; Stovall, J G; McRae, S G; Maxwell, S

    1997-01-01

    This study examined temporal patterns of service utilization, disability benefits, and substance use. Specifically, it investigated whether the first day of the first week of each month (when disability payments are disbursed) was associated with increased emergency room (ER) use and more frequent cocaine use among psychiatric patients. All 1993 psychiatric ER presentations (n=1,448) at a Veterans Administration hospital were reviewed in order by the week of each month in which they occurred. A random subsample of only those admitted to an inpatient psychiatric service (n=143) was further assessed for amount of disability payments received and recent cocaine use. This study found that for the total population of patients utilizing the ER, most ER visits occurred during the first week, followed by weeks two, three, and four respectively. The highest percentage (49%) of patients who used cocaine were those admitted during the first week of the month, followed by week two (39%), week four (28%) and week three (25%). For the subsample of patients admitted to inpatient services, patients hospitalized during the fourth week of the month were those receiving the highest disability payments. This study found that cocaine users have the most ER visits during the first week of the month following receipt of benefits. Current data, if confirmed, would suggest public policy changes, such as payment of entitlement money to cocaine users through a third-party payee and stipulated treatment for psychiatric patients with substance use disorders as a condition of payment. Ethical and political issues, including confidentiality and patient autonomy, would need to be considered in any such policy changes. PMID:9339861

  2. Exploring spatio-temporal patterns of mortality using mixed effects models.

    PubMed

    Pickle, L W

    A linear mixed effects (LME) model previously used for a spatial analysis of mortality data for a single time period is extended to include time trends and spatio-temporal interactions. This model includes functions of age and time period that can account for increasing and decreasing death rates over time and age, and a change-point of rates at a predetermined age. A geographic hierarchy is included that provides both regional and small area age-specific rate estimates, stabilizing rates based on small numbers of deaths by sharing information within a region. The proposed log-linear analysis of rates allows the use of commercially available software for parameter estimation, and provides an estimator of overdispersion directly as the residual variance. Because of concerns about the accuracy of small area rate estimates when there are many instances of no observed deaths, we consider potential sources of error, focusing particularly on the similarity of likelihood inferences using the LME model for rates as compared to an exact Poisson-normal mixed effects model for counts. The proposed LME model is applied to breast cancer deaths which occurred among white women during 1979-1996. For this example, application of diagnostics for multiparameter likelihood comparisons suggests a restriction of age to a minimum of either 25 or 35, depending on whether small area rate estimates are required. Investigation into a convergence problem led to the discovery that the changes in breast cancer geographic patterns over time are related more to urbanization than to region, as previously thought. Published in 2000 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:10960851

  3. Dynamic Triggering of Microseismicity inferred from Spatio/Temporal Patterns in a Mine Setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, F.; Van der Baan, M.

    2014-12-01

    We examine spatial and temporal patterns of microseismic events in an underground mine. Our objective is to address three key questions: Where does the seismicity occur? Why does it occur in these locations but not elsewhere? And what triggers it? We take advantage of waveform similarity by performing multiplet analysis based on the double-difference technique to obtain highly accurate relative locations. Seven vertical receiver boreholes that surround the area under investigation have recorded microseismic data during a month, thus providing a good azimuthal coverage. A minimum crosscorrelation level of 85% is used to detect 21 multiplet groups, which represents 60% of the total seismicity. The largest groups are located close to the main shaft and tunnels at orebody levels, thus we postulate seismicity is facilitated by the potential of subsidence if we assume a compacting earth and hoop stresses acting on the vertical shafts. Surprisingly, most events only occur during certain hours of the day but do not relate to blasting. They correlate with scheduled operations of rock removal. Therefore, it is likely they have been triggered by the transportation of the debris along the main shaft instead of blasting, as we initially expected. Given that seismicity is present around the main shaft but absent close to the second air shaft, we conclude that for seismicity to occur both a favourable stress state must exist, as well as additional external forces, causing dynamic triggering. This analysis provides more insight into anthropogenic processes and their roles as major initiators of seismicity during dynamic stress transfer thereby facilitating identification of hazardous areas in mine settings.

  4. Spatial and temporal patterns of dissolved organic matter optical properties across large rivers in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Thibault; Darchambeau, Franois; Vieira Borges, Alberto; Alhou, Bassirou; Mbega, Jean-Daniel; Teodoru, Cristian; Marwick, Trent Richard; Bouillon, Steven

    2014-05-01

    Tropical rivers have disproportionally high carbon transport and outgassing compared to temperate and Arctic rivers. Yet the cycling of dissolved organic matter (DOM) within these systems is still poorly studied with the exception of the Amazon basin. The chromophoric or colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is the fraction of DOM that absorbs ultraviolet and visible light. As the biochemical nature of DOM (and CDOM) defines its optical properties, optical measurements are particularly useful to assess the composition of DOM in freshwater and hence can be applied as proxies for assessments of DOM sources and its biogeochemical role. However, less is known on how specific optical characteristics can be applied as proxies and how these proxies vary from one system to another. In this study we compared concentrations and stable isotopic signature of dissolved organic carbon with optical properties of DOM from diverse tropical river systems across the African continent including the Congo basin, the Zambezi basin, the Ogoou basin and the Niger basin. These major rivers of the African continent were monitored for long period (from 1-3 years) at biweekly frequency. This large dataset allowed us to compare the spatial and temporal patterns of DOM quality along various environmental gradients, including hydrology, river size, terrestrial vegetation and connectivity to terrestrial inputs. The optical proxies presented and discussed in this study include absorption coefficients a(?) at different wavelength (254, 300, 350 and 440 nm), spectral slopes (S275-295and S350-400), the spectral slope ratio (SR=S275-295:S350-400) and the a(250):a(365) ratio.

  5. Learning of Temporal Motor Patterns: An Analysis of Continuous Versus Reset Timing

    PubMed Central

    Laje, Rodrigo; Cheng, Karen; Buonomano, Dean V.

    2011-01-01

    Our ability to generate well-timed sequences of movements is critical to an array of behaviors, including the ability to play a musical instrument or a video game. Here we address two questions relating to timing with the goal of better understanding the neural mechanisms underlying temporal processing. First, how does accuracy and variance change over the course of learning of complex spatiotemporal patterns? Second, is the timing of sequential responses most consistent with starting and stopping an internal timer at each interval or with continuous timing? To address these questions we used a psychophysical task in which subjects learned to reproduce a sequence of finger taps in the correct order and at the correct times much like playing a melody at the piano. This task allowed us to calculate the variance of the responses at different time points using data from the same trials. Our results show that while standard Webers law is clearly violated, variance does increase as a function of time squared, as expected according to the generalized form of Webers law which separates the source of variance into time-dependent and time-independent components. Over the course of learning, both the time-independent variance and the coefficient of the time-dependent term decrease. Our analyses also suggest that timing of sequential events does not rely on the resetting of an internal timer at each event. We describe and interpret our results in the context of computer simulations that capture some of our psychophysical findings. Specifically, we show that continuous timing, as opposed to reset timing, is consistent with population clock models in which timing emerges from the internal dynamics of recurrent neural networks. PMID:22016724

  6. Temporal and spatial paleoproductivity patterns associated with Eastern Mediterranean sapropels: paleoceanographic significance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Torres, D.; Martinez-Ruiz, F.; Meyers, P. A.; Paytan, A.; Jimenez-Espejo, F. J.; Ortega-Huertas, M.

    2007-12-01

    Deposition of Eastern Mediterranean sapropels has been discussed in terms of enhanced primary productivity and/or preferential preservation due to anoxic conditions in the deep basin. However, formation of these organic enriched layers is not homogeneous across the basin and through time, and temporal and spatial patterns can be observed in organic carbon concentrations and depositional conditions. We used a transect of ODP sites in the Eastern Mediterranean for the study of such variations, covering the area of major influence of the European continent and incoming waters from the Western Mediterranean basin (Ionian basin, Site 964), a region of influence of the Nile River (Levantine basin, Site 967), the central region of the basin with minor continental influence (Mediterranean Ridge, Site 969), and shallower bathymetries (Eratosthenes Seamount, Site 966). A set of paleoproductivity related proxies has been applied in order to reconstruct the paleoceanographic conditions that led to the formation of sapropels. As a whole, sapropel formation corresponds to wetter periods occurring during precessional minima and appears associated to increased productivity, evidenced by Ba/Al, and TOC-Ba mass accumulation rates maxima. ?13C data indicate intensified carbon fixation during organic carbon entrapment in sediment, where as low ?15N values provide evidence of nitrogen fixation through cyanobacteria activity as a source of increased primary and export productivity. This overwhelming export productivity led to the depletion of deep water dissolved oxygen, thus improving organic matter preservation. The above mentioned proxies show that sapropels represent periods of high productivity in an otherwise oligotrophic basin. This productivity was initiated and sustained by a change in bacterial community to nitrogen-fixing organism favored by intensified continental drainage and nutrient input. In agreement to this observation, sapropel onset generally occurred earlier in the Levantine basin, directly influenced by variations in the Nile River discharge, and progressively spread toward the western part of the basin. Thus, this change in paleoceanographic conditions is ultimately climatically driven and the evolution of the regional climate affects the intensity of the sapropel formation for the last 3 My. Intensified productivity and enhanced preservation is observed during sapropel deposition from the middle Pliocene until the lower Pleistocene. Productivity maxima occur during the late Pleistocene, coinciding with highest recorded sedimentary rate, and a relatively weak increase is observed during the deposition of the Holocene sapropel. This pattern implies that the rates of deep-water ventilation and of continental erosion generally increased in the eastern Mediterranean region as climate cooled since the mid-Pliocene.

  7. Non-linear power law approach for spatial and temporal pattern analysis of salt marsh evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taramelli, A.; Cornacchia, L.; Valentini, E.; Bozzeda, F.

    2013-11-01

    Many complex systems on the Earth surface show non-equilibrium fluctuations, often determining the spontaneous evolution towards a critical state. In this context salt marshes are characterized by complex patterns both in geomorphological and ecological features, which often appear to be strongly correlated. A striking feature in salt marshes is vegetation distribution, which can self-organize in patterns over time and space. Self-organized patchiness of vegetation can often give rise to power law relationships in the frequency distribution of patch sizes. In cases where the whole distribution does not follow a power law, the variance of scale in its tail may often be disregarded. To this end, the research aims at how changes in the main climatic and hydrodynamic variables may influence such non-linearity, and how numerical thresholds can describe this. Since it would be difficult to simultaneously monitor the presence and typology of vegetation and channel sinuosity through in situ data, and even harder to analyze them over medium to large time-space scales, remote sensing offers the ability to analyze the scale invariance of patchiness distributions. Here, we focus on a densely vegetated and channelized salt marsh (Scheldt estuary Belgium-the Netherlands) by means of the sub-pixel analysis on satellite images to calculate the non-linearity in the values of the power law exponents due to the variance of scale. The deviation from power laws represents stochastic conditions under climate drivers that can be hybridized on the basis of a fuzzy Bayesian generative algorithm. The results show that the hybrid approach is able to simulate the non-linearity inherent to the system and clearly show the existence of a link between the autocorrelation level of the target variable (i.e. size of vegetation patches), due to its self-organization properties, and the influence exerted on it by the external drivers (i.e. climate and hydrology). Considering the results of the stochastic model, high uncertainties can be associated to the short term climate influence on the saltmarshes, and the medium-long term spatial and temporal trends seem to be dominated by vegetation with its evolution in time and space. The evolution of vegetation patches (under power law) and channel sinuosity can then be used to forecast potential deviation from steady states in intertidal systems, taking into account the climatic and hydrological regimes.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of On-Road Diesel Truck Emissions in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, B.; Harley, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Heavy-duty diesel-powered trucks comprise a relatively small fraction of total traffic, typically less than 10% nationally. However, as light-duty gasoline vehicle emissions have been controlled over time, diesel trucks have become a major source of emissions of pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and fine particulate matter (PM). In the past, spatially resolved emission inventories for trucks have often been mapped either by (1) assuming a constant truck fraction and applying that value to gridded estimates of total vehicle miles traveled throughout the area of interest, or (2) using surrogates (e.g., miles of highway available in each grid square) to apportion top-down estimates of diesel emissions. Unfortunately, such simplified descriptions of truck traffic are inaccurate. Goods movement-related traffic differs markedly from passenger vehicle travel in many ways, and truck traffic does not make equal use of all available highways. Here we develop new inventories that reflect observed spatial patterns and day of week, seasonal, and decadal changes in diesel truck emissions. High-resolution (4 km) gridded emission inventories have been developed in this study for diesel trucks in California. Fuel consumption and associated CO2 emissions were calculated for each segment of highway from census counts of truck traffic that span the entire highway network. This captures the majority of truck travel and on-road diesel fuel consumption in California. Remaining truck traffic on other roadways (e.g., urban arterials) is estimated by difference using statewide taxable diesel fuel sales and fuel economy survey data. Fuel-based emission factors measured in roadside remote sensing and tunnel studies were applied to CO2 emissions to estimate NOx. Air basin-specific temporal patterns in diesel truck activity and emissions are derived from 75 Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) traffic count sites located on major highways throughout the state. WIM sensors count and classify vehicles by number of axles and weight per axle, so separate counts for truck traffic are available with hourly or better time resolution. We find strong weekly cycles in diesel truck emissions, with lower values on weekends, especially in urban air basins surrounding Los Angeles and San Francisco. We also find seasonal cycles, up to +/-20% about annual average values, in the San Francisco Bay area and the San Joaquin and Sacramento Valleys. Peak emissions in these areas occur in June-July and appear to be associated with the harvest season in Central California.

  9. Temporal stability of estimated soil water flux patterns across agricultural fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When a field or a small watershed is repeatedly surveyed for soil water content, sites often can be spotted where soil is consistently wetter or consistently dryer than average across the study area. This phenomenon has been called time stability, temporal stability, temporal persistence, or rank st...

  10. Temporal Variability and Stability in Infant-Directed Sung Speech: Evidence for Language-Specific Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Simone

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, sung speech is used as a methodological tool to explore temporal variability in the timing of word-internal consonants and vowels. It is hypothesized that temporal variability/stability becomes clearer under the varying rhythmical conditions induced by song. This is explored cross-linguistically in German--a language that exhibits a

  11. Sequence-based mapping approach to spatio-temporal snow patterns from MODIS time-series applied to Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggio, Laura; Gimona, Alessandro

    2015-02-01

    Snow cover and its monitoring are important because of the impact on important environmental variables, hydrological circulation and ecosystem services. For regional snow cover mapping and monitoring, the MODIS satellite sensors are particularly appealing. However cloud presence is an important limiting factor. This study addressed the problem of cloud cover for time-series in a boreal-Atlantic region where melting and re-covering of snow often do not follow the usual alpine-like patterns. A key requirement in this context was to apply improved methods to deal with the high cloud cover and the irregular spatio-temporal snow occurrence, through exploitation of space-time correlation of pixel values. The information contained in snow presence sequences was then used to derive summary indices to describe the time series patterns. Finally it was tested whether the derived indices can be considered an accurate summary of the snow presence data by establishing and evaluating their statistical relations with morphology and the landscape. The proposed cloud filling method had a good agreement (between 80 and 99%) with validation data even with a large number of pixels missing. The sequence analysis algorithm proposed takes into account the position of the states to fully consider the temporal dimension, i.e. the order in which a certain state appears in an image sequence compared to its neighbourhoods. The indices that were derived from the sequence of snow presence proved useful for describing the general spatio-temporal patterns of snow in Scotland as they were well related (more than 60% of explained deviance) with environmental information such as morphology supporting their use as a summary of snow patterns over time. The use of the derived indices is an advantage because of data reduction, easier interpretability and capture of sequence position-wise information (e.g. importance of short term fall/melt cycles). The derived seven clusters took into account the temporal patterns of the snow presence and they were well separated both spatially and according to the snow patterns and the environmental information. In conclusion, the use of sequences proved useful for analysing different spatio-temporal patterns of snow that could be related to other environmental information to characterize snow regimes regions in Scotland and to be integrated with ground measures for further hydrological and climatological analysis as baseline data for climate change models.

  12. Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Schistosomiasis Japonica in Lake and Marshland Areas in China: The Effect of Snail Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yi; Gao, Jie; Chi, Meina; Luo, Can; Lynn, Henry; Sun, Liqian; Tao, Bo; Wang, Decheng; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-01-01

    The progress of the integrated control policy for schistosomiasis implemented since 2005 in China, which is aiming at reducing the roles of bovines and humans as infection sources, may be challenged by persistent presence of infected snails in lake and marshland areas. Based on annual parasitologic data for schistosomiasis during 20042011 in Xingzi County, a spatio-temporal kriging model was used to investigate the spatio-temporal pattern of schistosomiasis risk. Results showed that environmental factors related to snail habitats can explain the spatio-temporal variation of schistosomiasis. Predictive maps of schistosomiasis risk illustrated that clusters of the disease fluctuated during 20042008; there was an extensive outbreak in 2008 and attenuated disease occurrences afterwards. An area with an annually constant cluster of schistosomiasis was identified. Our study suggests that targeting snail habitats located within high-risk areas for schistosomiasis would be an economic and sustainable way of schistosomiasis control in the future. PMID:24980498

  13. Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Leaf Area Index in Different Forest Types of India Using High Temporal Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhabra, A.; Panigrahy, S.

    2011-08-01

    Knowledge of temporal variations of Leaf Area Index (LAI) aids in understanding the climate-vegetation interaction of different vegetative systems. This information is amenable from high temporal remote sensing data. India has around 78.37 million hectare, accounting for 23.84% of the geographic area of the country under forest/tree cover. India has a diverse set of vegetation types ranging from tropical evergreen to dry deciduous. We present a detailed spatio-temporal and inter-seasonal analysis of LAI patterns in different forest types of India using MODIS 8-day composites global LAI/fPAR product for the year 2005 at 1-km spatial resolution. A forest cover mask was generated using SPOT 1-km landuse/landcover classification over the Indian region. The range of estimated LAI varied from 0.1-6.9 among the different forest types. Maximum LAI was observed in tropical evergreen forests in North-Eastern region and Western Ghats. Low LAI was observed in Central Indian region due to predominance of dry deciduous forests. The spatial patterns of seasonal variations detected that for most of the forest types, the peak LAI values were observed during September and October months of the autumn season in contrast to minimum LAI during summer season. The mean LAI and standard deviation for each 8-day LAI composite were also computed and mean monthly LAI profiles were derived for each forest type classified on the basis of their geographical locations. These results are useful indicators for detailed understanding of phenological sequence and may also serve as important inputs for deriving bioclimatic indices for different forest types of India.

  14. Application of pattern recognition techniques to the identification of aerospace acoustic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Chris R.; Obrien, Walter F.; Cabell, Randolph H.

    1988-01-01

    A pattern recognition system was developed that successfully recognizes simulated spectra of five different types of transportation noise sources. The system generates hyperplanes during a training stage to separate the classes and correctly classify unknown patterns in classification mode. A feature selector in the system reduces a large number of features to a smaller optimal set, maximizing performance and minimizing computation.

  15. A MyoD-generated feed-forward circuit temporally patterns gene expression during skeletal muscle differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Bennett H.; Bergstrom, Donald A.; Dilworth, F. Jeffrey; Bengal, Eyal; Tapscott, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    The development and differentiation of distinct cell types is achieved through the sequential expression of subsets of genes; yet, the molecular mechanisms that temporally pattern gene expression remain largely unknown. In skeletal myogenesis, gene expression is initiated by MyoD and includes the expression of specific Mef2 isoforms and activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Here, we show that p38 activity facilitates MyoD and Mef2 binding at a subset of late-activated promoters, and the binding of Mef2D recruits Pol II. Most importantly, expression of late-activated genes can be shifted to the early stages of differentiation by precocious activation of p38 and expression of Mef2D, demonstrating that a MyoD-mediated feed-forward circuit temporally patterns gene expression. PMID:15466486

  16. Stereotyped and non-stereotyped features of the temporal patterning of singing sessions in the ovenbird Seiurus auricapillus.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Austin L

    2011-06-01

    Temporal patterning of recorded singing sessions of 26 different male ovenbirds Seiurus auricapillus (Fringillidae: Parulini) was analyzed computationally, in order to test whether differences among songs are potentially informative or merely reflect performance errors. Repeated songs within a singing session by a given male showed relatively little inter-individual variation in the duration of the song or in the number of units composing it, although these features varied substantially among individuals. On the other hand, within a session of singing by an individual male, the most variable and potentially informative aspect of temporal patterning was the relative placement of the peak amplitude within the song. These results support the hypothesis that diversity in the vocalization sessions of oscine passerines can be produced by other means than the use of a varied song repertoire, even in a species like the ovenbird that uses just one song type. Because variation among song was focused on a single feature, performance errors are an unlikely explanation, suggesting that the temporal patterning of singing sessions may play an informative role, such as the minimization of habituation on the part of receivers. PMID:21356282

  17. Understanding spatio-temporal mobility patterns for seniors, child/student and adult using smart card data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; Tan, J.

    2014-11-01

    Commutes in urban areas create interesting travel patterns that are often stored in regional transportation databases. These patterns can vary based on the day of the week, the time of the day, and commuter type. This study proposes methods to detect underlying spatio-temporal variability among three groups of commuters (senior citizens, child/students, and adults) using data mining and spatial analytics. Data from over 36 million individual trip records collected over one week (March 2012) on the Singapore bus and Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) system by the fare collection system were used. Analyses of such data are important for transportation and landuse designers and contribute to a better understanding of urban dynamics. Specifically, descriptive statistics, network analysis, and spatial analysis methods are presented. Descriptive variables were proposed such as density and duration to detect temporal features of people. A directed weighted graph G ≡ (N , L, W) was defined to analyze the global network properties of every pair of the transportation link in the city during an average workday for all three categories. Besides, spatial interpolation and spatial statistic tools were used to transform the discrete network nodes into structured human movement landscape to understand the role of transportation systems in urban areas. The travel behaviour of the three categories follows a certain degree of temporal and spatial universality but also displays unique patterns within their own specialties. Each category is characterized by their different peak hours, commute distances, and specific locations for travel on weekdays.

  18. Acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straus, A.; Lopezpumarega, M. I.; Digaetano, J. O.; Datellis, C. E.; Ruzzante, J. E.

    This paper is related to our activities on acoustic emission (AE). At present, acoustic emission transducers are being developed for low and high temperature. A test to detect electrical discharges in electrical transformers was performed. Our experience in industrial tests in detecting cracks or failures in tanks or tubes is also described. The use of AE for leak detection is considered. Works on pattern recognition of AE signals are also being performed.

  19. Spatial-temporal excess mortality patterns of the 19181919 influenza pandemic in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of socio-demographic factors and baseline health on the mortality burden of seasonal and pandemic influenza remains debated. Here we analyzed the spatial-temporal mortality patterns of the 1918 influenza pandemic in Spain, one of the countries of Europe that experienced the highest mortality burden. Methods We analyzed monthly death rates from respiratory diseases and all-causes across 49 provinces of Spain, including the Canary and Balearic Islands, during the period January-1915 to June-1919. We estimated the influenza-related excess death rates and risk of death relative to baseline mortality by pandemic wave and province. We then explored the association between pandemic excess mortality rates and health and socio-demographic factors, which included population size and age structure, population density, infant mortality rates, baseline death rates, and urbanization. Results Our analysis revealed high geographic heterogeneity in pandemic mortality impact. We identified 3 pandemic waves of varying timing and intensity covering the period from Jan-1918 to Jun-1919, with the highest pandemic-related excess mortality rates occurring during the months of October-November 1918 across all Spanish provinces. Cumulative excess mortality rates followed a southnorth gradient after controlling for demographic factors, with the North experiencing highest excess mortality rates. A model that included latitude, population density, and the proportion of children living in provinces explained about 40% of the geographic variability in cumulative excess death rates during 191819, but different factors explained mortality variation in each wave. Conclusions A substantial fraction of the variability in excess mortality rates across Spanish provinces remained unexplained, which suggests that other unidentified factors such as comorbidities, climate and background immunity may have affected the 191819 pandemic mortality rates. Further archeo-epidemiological research should concentrate on identifying settings with combined availability of local historical mortality records and information on the prevalence of underlying risk factors, or patient-level clinical data, to further clarify the drivers of 1918 pandemic influenza mortality. PMID:24996457

  20. Spatio-temporal distribution patterns of the epibenthic community in the coastal waters of Suriname

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willems, Tomas; De Backer, Annelies; Wan Tong You, Kenneth; Vincx, Magda; Hostens, Kris

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to characterize the spatio-temporal patterns of the epibenthic community in the coastal waters of Suriname. Data were collected on a (bi)monthly basis in 2012-2013 at 15 locations in the shallow (<40 m) coastal area, revealing three spatially distinct species assemblages, related to clear gradients in some environmental parameters. A species-poor coastal assemblage was discerned within the muddy, turbid-water zone (6-20 m depth), dominated by Atlantic seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Crustacea: Penaeoidea). Near the 30 m isobath, sediments were much coarser (median grain size on average 345±103 μm vs. 128±53 μm in the coastal assemblage) and water transparency was much higher (on average 7.6±3.5 m vs. 2.4±2.1 m in the coastal assemblage). In this zone, a diverse offshore assemblage was found, characterized by brittle stars (mainly Ophioderma brevispina and Ophiolepis elegans) and a variety of crabs, sea stars and hermit crabs. In between both zones, a transition assemblage was noted, with epibenthic species typically found in either the coastal or offshore assemblages, but mainly characterized by the absence of X. kroyeri. Although the epibenthic community was primarily structured in an on-offshore gradient related to depth, sediment grain size and sediment total organic carbon content, a longitudinal (west-east) gradient was apparent as well. The zones in the eastern part of the Suriname coastal shelf seemed to be more widely stretched along the on-offshore gradient. Although clear seasonal differences were noted in the environmental characteristics (e.g. dry vs. rainy season), this was not reflected in the epibenthic community structure. X. kroyeri reached very high densities (up to 1383 ind 1000 m-²) in the shallow coastal waters of Suriname. As X. kroyeri is increasingly exploited throughout its range, the current study provides the ecological context for its presence and abundance, which is crucial for an ecosystem approach and the sustainable management of this commercially important species and its habitat.

  1. Spatio-temporal Patterns and Landscape-Associated Risk of Buruli Ulcer in Akonolinga, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Landier, Jordi; Gaudart, Jean; Carolan, Kevin; Lo Seen, Danny; Gugan, Jean-Franois; Eyangoh, Sara; Fontanet, Arnaud; Texier, Gatan

    2014-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer (BU) is an extensively damaging skin infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, whose transmission mode is still unknown. The focal distribution of BU and the absence of interpersonal transmission suggest a major role of environmental factors, which remain unidentified. This study provides the first description of the spatio-temporal variations of BU in an endemic African region, in Akonolinga, Cameroon. We quantify landscape-associated risk of BU, and reveal local patterns of endemicity. Methodology/Principal Findings From January 2002 to May 2012, 787 new BU cases were recorded in 154 villages of the district of Akonolinga. Incidence per village ranged from 0 (n?=?59 villages) to 10.4 cases/1000 person.years (py); median incidence was 0.4 cases/1,000py. Villages neighbouring the Nyong River flood plain near Akonolinga town were identified as the highest risk zone using the SPODT algorithm. We found a decreasing risk with increasing distance to the Nyong and identified 4 time phases with changes in spatial distribution. We classified the villages into 8 groups according to landscape characteristics using principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering. We estimated the incidence ratio (IR) associated with each landscape using a generalised linear model. BU risk was highest in landscapes with abundant wetlands, especially cultivated ones (IR?=?15.7, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]?=?15.7[4.259.2]), and lowest in reference landscape where primary and secondary forest cover was abundant. In intermediate-risk landscapes, risk decreased with agriculture pressure (from IR[95%CI]?=?7.9[2.228.8] to 2.0[0.66.6]). We identified landscapes where endemicity was stable and landscapes where incidence increased with time. Conclusion/Significance Our study on the largest series of BU cases recorded in a single endemic region illustrates the local evolution of BU and identifies the Nyong River as the major driver of BU incidence. Local differences along the river are explained by wetland abundance and human modification of the environment. PMID:25188464

  2. Spatio-temporal recharge patterns in a semi-arid alluvial basin with irrigated crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruud, N. C.; Harter, T.; Naugle, A. W.

    2001-12-01

    Recharge in semi-arid regions with irrigated crops is predominantly driven by irrigation technology and cropping patterns, but also by the seasonal distribution of rainfall and the availability of irrigation water. A significant amount of basin recharge occurs from ephemeral streams and unlined irrigation canals. A spatially distributed, GIS-based hydrologic model of water application and water use at the land-atmosphere interface was developed to estimate transient recharge to the deep vadose zone and into the unconfined alluvial aquifer. The spatial basis for the hydrologic model are individual landuse units (diffuse recharge) and a network of streams and canals with water seepage (lineal recharge). The land-atmosphere interface and unsaturated zone model component (LAIUZ) is coupled to a surface water supply model component (SWSM) that provides surface water deliveries by district or sub-district, depending on available information. Using LAIUZ and SWSM, we investigate the regional behavior and spatio-temporal variability of deep vadose zone recharge in the 3,800 square kilometer Tule groundwater basin of the San Joaquin Valley, California. Surface water management in the topographically flat basin is divided between two dozen irrigation and water districts. All surface water is imported or is natural discharge into the basin. Groundwater extractions are managed by landowners on a field-by-field basis. Monthly varying recharge and groundwater pumping rates are computed for the hydrologic years 1970 through 2000. The average size of the GIS landuse units is 0.4 sq. kilometers. The GIS coverage distinguishes over 60 landuse types. Applied and consumptive water use are computed based on actual evapotranspiration and known irrigation or water use efficiencies for each landuse unit. Seepage from streams is computed by mass balance. The resulting model estimates of groundwater recharge and pumping are in good agreement with measured groundwater level changes for the thirty-year period (model validation). Throughout the region, the deep vadose zone (up to 30 m deep) is found to account for a significant amount of intermediate-term basin storage, particularly during wet year cycles. The hydrologic model demonstrates that practically all of the annual precipitation (230 mm) is available for intermediate storage in the root zone, crop water uptake, or deep percolation. No direct losses to evaporation occur, presumably because most precipitation occurs during the winter months. Diffuse recharge is 110 mm/year (range: 38 - 200 mm/year). Lineal recharge accounts for one-third of the total recharge (170 mm/year) in the basin. In wet years, lineal recharge along streams and in intentional recharge basins may account for over 50% of the total recharge, whereas in dry years it may be as little as 8%.

  3. Incorporation of treatment plan spatial and temporal dose patterns into a prostate intrafractional motion management strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Pengpeng; Hunt, Margie; Happersett, Laura; Cox, Brett; Mageras, Gig

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: Periodic MV/KV radiographs taken during volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for hypofractionated treatment provide guidance in intrafractional motion management. The choice of imaging frequency and timing are key components in delivering the desired dose while reducing associated overhead such as imaging dose, preparation, and processing time. In this project the authors propose a paradigm with imaging timing and frequency based on the spatial and temporal dose patterns of the treatment plan. Methods: A number of control points are used in treatment planning to model VMAT delivery. For each control point, the sensitivity of individual target or organ-at-risk dose to motion can be calculated as the summation of dose degradations given the organ displacements along a number of possible motion directions. Instead of acquiring radiographs at uniform time intervals, MV/KV image pairs are acquired indexed to motion sensitivity. Five prostate patients treated via hypofractionated VMAT are included in this study. Intrafractional prostate motion traces from the database of an electromagnetic tracking system are used to retrospectively simulate the VMAT delivery and motion management. During VMAT delivery simulation patient position is corrected based on the radiographic findings via couch movement if target deviation violates a patient-specific 3D threshold. The violation rate calculated as the percentage of traces failing the clinical dose objectives after motion correction is used to evaluate the efficacy of this approach. Results: Imaging indexed to a 10 s equitime interval and correcting patient position accordingly reduces the violation rate to 19.5% with intervention from 44.5% without intervention. Imaging indexed to the motion sensitivity further reduces the violation rate to 12.1% with the same number of images. To achieve the same 5% violation rate, the imaging incidence can be reduced by 40% by imaging indexed to motion sensitivity instead of time. Conclusions: The simulation results suggest that image scheduling according to the characteristics of the treatment plan can improve the efficiency of intrafractional motion management. Using such a technique, the accuracy of delivered dose during image-guided hypofractionated VMAT treatment can be improved.

  4. Representation of interval timing by temporally scalable firing patterns in rat prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Min; Zhang, Si-yu; Dan, Yang; Poo, Mu-ming

    2014-01-01

    Perception of time interval on the order of seconds is an essential component of cognition, but the underlying neural mechanism remains largely unknown. In rats trained to estimate time intervals, we found that many neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) exhibited sustained spiking activity with diverse temporal profiles of firing-rate modulation during the time-estimation period. Interestingly, in tasks involving different intervals, each neuron exhibited firing-rate modulation with the same profile that was temporally scaled by a factor linearly proportional to the instructed intervals. The behavioral variability across trials within each task also correlated with the intertrial variability of the temporal scaling factor. Local cooling of the medial PFC, which affects neural circuit dynamics, significantly delayed behavioral responses. Thus, PFC neuronal activity contributes to time perception, and temporally scalable firing-rate modulation may reflect a general mechanism for neural representation of interval timing. PMID:24367075

  5. Representation of interval timing by temporally scalable firing patterns in rat prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Zhang, Si-yu; Dan, Yang; Poo, Mu-ming

    2014-01-01

    Perception of time interval on the order of seconds is an essential component of cognition, but the underlying neural mechanism remains largely unknown. In rats trained to estimate time intervals, we found that many neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) exhibited sustained spiking activity with diverse temporal profiles of firing-rate modulation during the time-estimation period. Interestingly, in tasks involving different intervals, each neuron exhibited firing-rate modulation with the same profile that was temporally scaled by a factor linearly proportional to the instructed intervals. The behavioral variability across trials within each task also correlated with the intertrial variability of the temporal scaling factor. Local cooling of the medial PFC, which affects neural circuit dynamics, significantly delayed behavioral responses. Thus, PFC neuronal activity contributes to time perception, and temporally scalable firing-rate modulation may reflect a general mechanism for neural representation of interval timing. PMID:24367075

  6. Acoustic Cluster Therapy: In Vitro and Ex Vivo Measurement of Activated Bubble Size Distribution and Temporal Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Healey, Andrew John; Sontum, Per Christian; Kvåle, Svein; Eriksen, Morten; Bendiksen, Ragnar; Tornes, Audun; Østensen, Jonny

    2016-05-01

    Acoustic cluster technology (ACT) is a two-component, microparticle formulation platform being developed for ultrasound-mediated drug delivery. Sonazoid microbubbles, which have a negative surface charge, are mixed with micron-sized perfluoromethylcyclopentane droplets stabilized with a positively charged surface membrane to form microbubble/microdroplet clusters. On exposure to ultrasound, the oil undergoes a phase change to the gaseous state, generating 20- to 40-μm ACT bubbles. An acoustic transmission technique is used to measure absorption and velocity dispersion of the ACT bubbles. An inversion technique computes bubble size population with temporal resolution of seconds. Bubble populations are measured both in vitro and in vivo after activation within the cardiac chambers of a dog model, with catheter-based flow through an extracorporeal measurement flow chamber. Volume-weighted mean diameter in arterial blood after activation in the left ventricle was 22 μm, with no bubbles >44 μm in diameter. After intravenous administration, 24.4% of the oil is activated in the cardiac chambers. PMID:26831341

  7. Numerical Study of the Complex Temporal Pattern of Spontaneous Oscillation in Bullfrog Saccular Hair Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roongthumskul, Yuttana; Fredrickson-Hemsing, Lea; Kao, Albert; Bozovic, Dolores

    2011-11-01

    Hair bundles of the bullfrog sacculus display spontaneous oscillations that show complex temporal profiles. Quiescent intervals are typically interspersed with oscillations, analogous to bursting behavior observed in neural systems. By introducing slow calcium dynamics into the theoretical model of bundle mechanics, we reproduce numerically the multi-mode oscillations and explore the effects of internal parameters on the temporal profiles and the frequency tuning of their linear response functions. We also study the effects of mechanical overstimulation on the oscillatory behavior.

  8. Spatial and temporal patterns of larval dispersal in a coral-reef fish metapopulation: evidence of variable reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Pusack, Timothy J; Christie, Mark R; Johnson, Darren W; Stallings, Christopher D; Hixon, Mark A

    2014-07-01

    Many marine organisms can be transported hundreds of kilometres during their pelagic larval stage, yet little is known about spatial and temporal patterns of larval dispersal. Although traditional population-genetic tools can be applied to infer movement of larvae on an evolutionary timescale, large effective population sizes and high rates of gene flow present serious challenges to documenting dispersal patterns over shorter, ecologically relevant, timescales. Here, we address these challenges by combining direct parentage analysis and indirect genetic analyses over a 4-year period to document spatial and temporal patterns of larval dispersal in a common coral-reef fish: the bicolour damselfish (Stegastes partitus). At four island locations surrounding Exuma Sound, Bahamas, including a long-established marine reserve, we collected 3278 individuals and genotyped them at 10 microsatellite loci. Using Bayesian parentage analysis, we identified eight parent-offspring pairs, thereby directly documenting dispersal distances ranging from 0 km (i.e., self-recruitment) to 129 km (i.e., larval connectivity). Despite documenting substantial dispersal and gene flow between islands, we observed more self-recruitment events than expected if the larvae were drawn from a common, well-mixed pool (i.e., a completely open population). Additionally, we detected both spatial and temporal variation in signatures of sweepstakes and Wahlund effects. The high variance in reproductive success (i.e., 'sweepstakes') we observed may be influenced by seasonal mesoscale gyres present in the Exuma Sound, which play a prominent role in shaping local oceanographic patterns. This study documents the complex nature of larval dispersal in a coral-reef fish, and highlights the importance of sampling multiple cohorts and coupling both direct and indirect genetic methods in order disentangle patterns of dispersal, gene flow and variable reproductive success. PMID:24917250

  9. Variability in Regularity: Mining Temporal Mobility Patterns in London, Singapore and Beijing Using Smart-Card Data.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chen; Batty, Michael; Manley, Ed; Wang, Jiaqiu; Wang, Zijia; Chen, Feng; Schmitt, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    To discover regularities in human mobility is of fundamental importance to our understanding of urban dynamics, and essential to city and transport planning, urban management and policymaking. Previous research has revealed universal regularities at mainly aggregated spatio-temporal scales but when we zoom into finer scales, considerable heterogeneity and diversity is observed instead. The fundamental question we address in this paper is at what scales are the regularities we detect stable, explicable, and sustainable. This paper thus proposes a basic measure of variability to assess the stability of such regularities focusing mainly on changes over a range of temporal scales. We demonstrate this by comparing regularities in the urban mobility patterns in three world cities, namely London, Singapore and Beijing using one-week of smart-card data. The results show that variations in regularity scale as non-linear functions of the temporal resolution, which we measure over a scale from 1 minute to 24 hours thus reflecting the diurnal cycle of human mobility. A particularly dramatic increase in variability occurs up to the temporal scale of about 15 minutes in all three cities and this implies that limits exist when we look forward or backward with respect to making short-term predictions. The degree of regularity varies in fact from city to city with Beijing and Singapore showing higher regularity in comparison to London across all temporal scales. A detailed discussion is provided, which relates the analysis to various characteristics of the three cities. In summary, this work contributes to a deeper understanding of regularities in patterns of transit use from variations in volumes of travellers entering subway stations, it establishes a generic analytical framework for comparative studies using urban mobility data, and it provides key points for the management of variability by policy-makers intent on for making the travel experience more amenable. PMID:26872333

  10. Variability in Regularity: Mining Temporal Mobility Patterns in London, Singapore and Beijing Using Smart-Card Data

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Chen; Batty, Michael; Manley, Ed; Wang, Jiaqiu; Wang, Zijia; Chen, Feng; Schmitt, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    To discover regularities in human mobility is of fundamental importance to our understanding of urban dynamics, and essential to city and transport planning, urban management and policymaking. Previous research has revealed universal regularities at mainly aggregated spatio-temporal scales but when we zoom into finer scales, considerable heterogeneity and diversity is observed instead. The fundamental question we address in this paper is at what scales are the regularities we detect stable, explicable, and sustainable. This paper thus proposes a basic measure of variability to assess the stability of such regularities focusing mainly on changes over a range of temporal scales. We demonstrate this by comparing regularities in the urban mobility patterns in three world cities, namely London, Singapore and Beijing using one-week of smart-card data. The results show that variations in regularity scale as non-linear functions of the temporal resolution, which we measure over a scale from 1 minute to 24 hours thus reflecting the diurnal cycle of human mobility. A particularly dramatic increase in variability occurs up to the temporal scale of about 15 minutes in all three cities and this implies that limits exist when we look forward or backward with respect to making short-term predictions. The degree of regularity varies in fact from city to city with Beijing and Singapore showing higher regularity in comparison to London across all temporal scales. A detailed discussion is provided, which relates the analysis to various characteristics of the three cities. In summary, this work contributes to a deeper understanding of regularities in patterns of transit use from variations in volumes of travellers entering subway stations, it establishes a generic analytical framework for comparative studies using urban mobility data, and it provides key points for the management of variability by policy-makers intent on for making the travel experience more amenable. PMID:26872333

  11. High-order space-time finite element schemes for acoustic and viscodynamic wave equations with temporal decoupling

    PubMed Central

    Banks, H T; Birch, Malcolm J; Brewin, Mark P; Greenwald, Stephen E; Hu, Shuhua; Kenz, Zackary R; Kruse, Carola; Maischak, Matthias; Shaw, Simon; Whiteman, John R

    2014-01-01

    We revisit a method originally introduced by Werder et al. (in Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg., 190:66856708, 2001) for temporally discontinuous Galerkin FEMs applied to a parabolic partial differential equation. In that approach, block systems arise because of the coupling of the spatial systems through inner products of the temporal basis functions. If the spatial finite element space is of dimension D and polynomials of degree r are used in time, the block system has dimension (r + 1)D and is usually regarded as being too large when r > 1. Werder et al. found that the space-time coupling matrices are diagonalizable over for r ?100, and this means that the time-coupled computations within a time step can actually be decoupled. By using either continuous Galerkin or spectral element methods in space, we apply this DG-in-time methodology, for the first time, to second-order wave equations including elastodynamics with and without KelvinVoigt and MaxwellZener viscoelasticity. An example set of numerical results is given to demonstrate the favourable effect on error and computational work of the moderately high-order (up to degree 7) temporal and spatio-temporal approximations, and we also touch on an application of this method to an ambitious problem related to the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Copyright 2014 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25834284

  12. Complex temporal and spatial patterns in nonequilibrium processes. Final report, December 1, 1987--November 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Dynamical systems methods have been used to study bifurcations and pattern formation in nonequilibrium systems. Accomplishments during this period include: information-theoretic methods for analyzing chaos, chemical reactors for studying sustained reaction-diffusion patterns, a reactor exploiting pattern formation to extract short- lived intermediate species, observation of bifurcation from periodic to quasiperiodic rotating chemical spiral patterns, observation of a Turing bifurcation (transition from uniform state to a stationary chemical pattern), method for extracting noise strength in ramped convection, self-similar fractal structure of Zn clusters in electrodeposition, and dynamical instability in crack propagation.

  13. Temporal motifs reveal collaboration patterns in online task-oriented networks.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Qi; Fang, Huiting; Fu, Chenbo; Filkov, Vladimir

    2015-05-01

    Real networks feature layers of interactions and complexity. In them, different types of nodes can interact with each other via a variety of events. Examples of this complexity are task-oriented social networks (TOSNs), where teams of people share tasks towards creating a quality artifact, such as academic research papers or software development in commercial or open source environments. Accomplishing those tasks involves both work, e.g., writing the papers or code, and communication, to discuss and coordinate. Taking into account the different types of activities and how they alternate over time can result in much more precise understanding of the TOSNs behaviors and outcomes. That calls for modeling techniques that can accommodate both node and link heterogeneity as well as temporal change. In this paper, we report on methodology for finding temporal motifs in TOSNs, limited to a system of two people and an artifact. We apply the methods to publicly available data of TOSNs from 31 Open Source Software projects. We find that these temporal motifs are enriched in the observed data. When applied to software development outcome, temporal motifs reveal a distinct dependency between collaboration and communication in the code writing process. Moreover, we show that models based on temporal motifs can be used to more precisely relate both individual developer centrality and team cohesion to programmer productivity than models based on aggregated TOSNs. PMID:26066218

  14. Temporal motifs reveal collaboration patterns in online task-oriented networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Qi; Fang, Huiting; Fu, Chenbo; Filkov, Vladimir

    2015-05-01

    Real networks feature layers of interactions and complexity. In them, different types of nodes can interact with each other via a variety of events. Examples of this complexity are task-oriented social networks (TOSNs), where teams of people share tasks towards creating a quality artifact, such as academic research papers or software development in commercial or open source environments. Accomplishing those tasks involves both work, e.g., writing the papers or code, and communication, to discuss and coordinate. Taking into account the different types of activities and how they alternate over time can result in much more precise understanding of the TOSNs behaviors and outcomes. That calls for modeling techniques that can accommodate both node and link heterogeneity as well as temporal change. In this paper, we report on methodology for finding temporal motifs in TOSNs, limited to a system of two people and an artifact. We apply the methods to publicly available data of TOSNs from 31 Open Source Software projects. We find that these temporal motifs are enriched in the observed data. When applied to software development outcome, temporal motifs reveal a distinct dependency between collaboration and communication in the code writing process. Moreover, we show that models based on temporal motifs can be used to more precisely relate both individual developer centrality and team cohesion to programmer productivity than models based on aggregated TOSNs.

  15. Bioacoustic systems: insights for acoustical imaging and pattern recognition (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altes, Richard A.

    1987-09-01

    Standard performance measures and statistical tests must be altered for research on animal sonar. The narrowband range-Doppler ambiguity function must be redefined to analyze wideband signals. A new range, cross-range ambiguity function is needed to represent angle estimation and spatial resolution properties of animal sonar systems. Echoes are transformed into time-frequency (spectrogram-like) representations by the peripheral auditory system. Detection, estimation, and pattern recognition capabilities of animals should thus be analyzed in terms of operations on spectrograms. The methods developed for bioacoustic research yield new insights into the design of man-made imaging and pattern recognition systems. The range, cross-range ambiguity function can be used to improve imaging performance. Important features for echo pattern recognition are illustrated by time-frequency plots showing (i) principal components for spectrograms and (ii) templates for optimum discrimination between data classes.

  16. Seasonal suspended particles distribution patterns in Western South Yellow Sea based on Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianchao; Li, Guangxue; Xu, Jishang; Qiao, Lulu; Dong, Ping; Ding, Dong; Liu, Shidong; Sun, Pingkuo

    2015-06-01

    An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) observation site was set up in the Western South Yellow Sea from 2012 to 2013 to study the local suspended particle matters (SPM) distribution pattern. The SPM concentration could be semi-quantitatively represented by backscatter intensity (Sv), converted by the echo intensity (EI) of ADCP. Results show two types of SPM in the water column: the quasi-biological SPM and quasi-mineral SPM. The quasi-biological SPM mainly exists in summer half year and is concentrated above the thermocline. It has periodically diurnal variations with high concentration at night and low concentration in the daytime. The quasi-mineral SPM is located in lower part of the water column, with similar relation to monthly tidal current variation all year round. However, the daily quasi-mineral SPM distribution patterns vary between summer and winter half year. The sunlight is thought to be the origin factor leading to the diurnally vertical motion of the biological features, which might cause the diurnal Sv variation. Unlike in winter half year when tidal current is relatively single driving force of the monthly SPM pattern, the high speed current near the thermocline is also responsible for the concentration of quasi-mineral SPM in summer half year. The sediment input difference between summer and winter half year contribute to the varied daily variation of quasi-mineral SPM with re-suspended SPM in winter and sediments from Yellow Sea Mud Area (YSMA) in summer. The seasonal variations in hydrodynamics, water structure and heavy-wind incidents are the primary factors influencing the differential seasonal SPM distribution patterns.

  17. Classification of Hazelnut Kernels by Using Impact Acoustic Time-Frequency Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkan, Habil; Ince, Nuri Firat; Tewfik, Ahmed H.; Yardimci, Yasemin; Pearson, Tom

    2007-12-01

    Hazelnuts with damaged or cracked shells are more prone to infection with aflatoxin producing molds ( Aspergillus flavus). These molds can cause cancer. In this study, we introduce a new approach that separates damaged/cracked hazelnut kernels from good ones by using time-frequency features obtained from impact acoustic signals. The proposed technique requires no prior knowledge of the relevant time and frequency locations. In an offline step, the algorithm adaptively segments impact signals from a training data set in time using local cosine packet analysis and a Kullback-Leibler criterion to assess the discrimination power of different segmentations. In each resulting time segment, the signal is further decomposed into subbands using an undecimated wavelet transform. The most discriminative subbands are selected according to the Euclidean distance between the cumulative probability distributions of the corresponding subband coefficients. The most discriminative subbands are fed into a linear discriminant analysis classifier. In the online classification step, the algorithm simply computes the learned features from the observed signal and feeds them to the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. The algorithm achieved a throughput rate of 45 nuts/s and a classification accuracy of 96% with the 30 most discriminative features, a higher rate than those provided with prior methods.

  18. Spatial and temporal patterns in bacterial abundance, production and viral infection in a temporarily open/closed southern African estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, E. L.; Froneman, P. W.

    2008-05-01

    The spatial and temporal patterns in bacterial abundance, biomass, production, nanoflagellate abundance and the loss of bacterial production due to viral lysis were investigated in a temporarily open/closed estuary along the eastern seaboard of southern Africa over the period May 2006 to April 2007. Bacterial abundance, biomass and production ranged between 1.00 10 9 and 4.93 10 9 cells l -1, 32.43 and 108.59 ?g C l -1 and 0.01 and 1.99 ?g C l -1 h -1, respectively. With a few exceptions there were no significant spatial patterns in the values ( P > 0.05). Bacterial abundance, biomass and production, however, demonstrated a distinct temporal pattern with the lowest values consistently recorded during the winter months. Bacterial dynamics showed no effect of mouth opening events. Nanoflagellate and bacterial abundances were significantly correlated to one another ( P < 0.05) suggesting a strong predator-prey relationship. The frequency of visibly infected bacterial cells and the number of virus particles within each bacterial cell during the study demonstrated no significant temporal or spatial pattern ( P > 0.05) and ranged from 0.5 to 6.1% and 12.0 to 37.5 virus particles per bacterium, respectively. Viral infection and lysis was thus a constant source of bacterial mortality throughout the year. The estimated percentage of bacterial production removed by viral lysis ranged between 7.8 and 88.9% (mean = 30.3%) of the total which suggests that viral lysis represents a very important source of bacterial mortality during the study.

  19. Separation of spatial-temporal patterns ('climatic modes') by combined analysis of really measured and generated numerically vector time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigin, A. M.; Mukhin, D.; Volodin, E. M.; Gavrilov, A.; Loskutov, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    The new method of decomposition of the Earth's climate system into well separated spatial-temporal patterns ('climatic modes') is discussed. The method is based on: (i) generalization of the MSSA (Multichannel Singular Spectral Analysis) [1] for expanding vector (space-distributed) time series in basis of spatial-temporal empirical orthogonal functions (STEOF), which makes allowance delayed correlations of the processes recorded in spatially separated points; (ii) expanding both real SST data, and longer by several times SST data generated numerically, in STEOF basis; (iii) use of the numerically produced STEOF basis for exclusion of 'too slow' (and thus not represented correctly) processes from real data. The application of the method allows by means of vector time series generated numerically by the INM RAS Coupled Climate Model [2] to separate from real SST anomalies data [3] two climatic modes possessing by noticeably different time scales: 3-5 and 9-11 years. Relations of separated modes to ENSO and PDO are investigated. Possible applications of spatial-temporal climatic patterns concept to prognosis of climate system evolution is discussed. 1. Ghil, M., R. M. Allen, M. D. Dettinger, K. Ide, D. Kondrashov, et al. (2002) "Advanced spectral methods for climatic time series", Rev. Geophys. 40(1), 3.1-3.41. 2. http://83.149.207.89/GCM_DATA_PLOTTING/GCM_INM_DATA_XY_en.htm 3. http://iridl.ldeo.columbia.edu/SOURCES/.KAPLAN/.EXTENDED/.v2/.ssta/

  20. Restoration of Central Programmed Movement Pattern by Temporal Electrical Stimulation-Assisted Training in Patients with Spinal Cerebellar Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying-Zu; Chang, Yao-Shun; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Wong, Alice M. K.; Chang, Ya-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Disrupted triphasic electromyography (EMG) patterns of agonist and antagonist muscle pairs during fast goal-directed movements have been found in patients with hypermetria. Since peripheral electrical stimulation (ES) and motor training may modulate motor cortical excitability through plasticity mechanisms, we aimed to investigate whether temporal ES-assisted movement training could influence premovement cortical excitability and alleviate hypermetria in patients with spinal cerebellar ataxia (SCA). The EMG of the agonist extensor carpi radialis muscle and antagonist flexor carpi radialis muscle, premovement motor evoked potentials (MEPs) of the flexor carpi radialis muscle, and the constant and variable errors of movements were assessed before and after 4 weeks of ES-assisted fast goal-directed wrist extension training in the training group and of general health education in the control group. After training, the premovement MEPs of the antagonist muscle were facilitated at 50?ms before the onset of movement. In addition, the EMG onset latency of the antagonist muscle shifted earlier and the constant error decreased significantly. In summary, temporal ES-assisted training alleviated hypermetria by restoring antagonist premovement and temporal triphasic EMG patterns in SCA patients. This technique may be applied to treat hypermetria in cerebellar disorders. (This trial is registered with NCT01983670.) PMID:26417459

  1. Acoustic Analyses and Intelligibility Assessments of Timing Patterns among Chinese English Learners with Different Dialect Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsueh Chu

    2015-01-01

    This paper includes two interrelated studies. The first production study investigates the timing patterns of English as spoken by Chinese learners with different dialect backgrounds. The second comprehension study explores native and non-native speakers' assessments of the intelligibility of Chinese-accented English, and examines the effects of

  2. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Nitrogen Transport in a Subtropical Urban Coastal Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toor, G.; Banger, K.; Inglett, P.; Stanley, C.

    2010-12-01

    Non-point source pollution is the dominant pathway of nitrogen (N) transport in agriculture as well as urban watersheds. Very little is known about N transport in urban watersheds located in the subtropics. Our objective was to evaluate the spatial and temporal evolution patterns of N forms in streams draining sub-basins, ranging in size from 19 to 350 km2, of an urban watershed located in the Tampa Bay region. We used long-term monthly (1991-2009) and weekly (2009) stream water N concentration data collected from these sub-basins to evaluate the impact of urban development on N transport. Sub-basins were separated in two groups based on urban land uses: developed (18-24% residential, 1-14% built up) and undeveloped (3-11% residential, 1-3% built up). Mean monthly total N concentrations during 1991-2009 were 0.8-2.4 mg L-1 at all sites and were greatest in streams draining developed (1.7-2.4 mg L-1) than undeveloped (0.8-1.2 mg L-1) sub-basins. All the developed and undeveloped sub-basins had a narrow range of organic N concentration (0.60-0.77 mg L-1) in streams; however, percent organic N was about twice as much in streams draining undeveloped (66-71% of total N) than developed (30-44% of total N) sub-basins. On the other hand, both NO3-N concentration and percentage of total N were much greater in developed (0.89-1.66 mg L-1; 53-68% of total N) than undeveloped (0.21-0.37 mg L-1; 25-30% of total N) sub-basins. Among all N forms, mean monthly concentrations of NH4-N were lowest (<0.1 mg L-1; 2-5% of total N). Compared with long-term monthly total N concentrations, weekly total N concentrations were much higher (1.90-2.90 mg L-1) during 2009 high-flow period (June to September), with greater concentrations in developed (2.40-2.95 mg L-1) as compared to undeveloped (1.90-2.06 mg L-1) sub-basins. Concentrations of organic N mirrored a similar trend as total N at all sites. The weekly inorganic N (NO3-N, NH4-N) trends were similar to long-term data, with greater proportions in developed (26-39% of total N) than undeveloped (13-23% of total N) sub-basins. Percent weekly organic N was much greater (65-85% of total N) across all sites as compared to 1991-2009 monthly data (30-71% of total N). Organic N approached 77-85% of total N in undeveloped and 71-75% of total N in developed sub-basins. Organic N forms consists of dissolved organic N (DON; humic substances, amino acids, amino sugars, and tannins) and particulate organic N (PON; partially decomposed organic matter); these forms were measured in weekly samples. The undeveloped sub-basins had much greater concentrations of DON (0.97-1.05 mg L-1, 50-53% of total N) as compared to PON (0.56-0.64 mg L-1, 27-34% of total N). The transport of a specific organic N form whether DON or PON will be determined by the duration and intensity of rainfall-runoff events. For example, high-rainfall events may transport leaf litter and organic matter (that are components of PON) to streams, whereas low-rainfall events may not have enough hydrologic power to transport particulates from land to streams but can mobilize and carry DON to streams.

  3. Persistent patterns of brain activity: an EEG coherence study of the positive effect of music on spatial-temporal reasoning.

    PubMed

    Sarnthein, J; vonStein, A; Rappelsberger, P; Petsche, H; Rauscher, F H; Shaw, G L

    1997-04-01

    Motivated by predictions from the structured trion model of the cortex, behavioral experiments have demonstrated a causal short-term enhancement of spatial-temporal reasoning in college students following exposure to a Mozart sonata, but not in control conditions. The coherence analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings is well suited to the neurophysiological investigation of this behavioral enhancement. Here we report the presence of right frontal and left temporo-parietal coherent activity induced by listening to Mozart which carried over into the spatial-temporal tasks in three of our seven subjects. This carry-over effect was compared to EEG coherence analysis of spatial-temporal-tasks after listening to text. We suggest that these EEG coherence results provide the beginnings of understanding of the neurophysiological basis of the causal enhancement of spatial-temporal reasoning by listening to specific music. The observed long-lasting coherent EEG pattern might be evidence for structured sequences in cortical dynamics which extend over minutes. PMID:9175137

  4. Temporal patterns and source apportionment of nitrate-nitrogen leaching in a paddy field at Kelantan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Hazilia; Yusoff, Mohd Kamil; Ramli, Mohd Firuz; Abd Latif, Puziah; Juahir, Hafizan; Zawawi, Mohamed Azwan Mohammed

    2013-11-15

    Nitrate-nitrogen leaching from agricultural areas is a major cause for groundwater pollution. Polluted groundwater with high levels of nitrate is hazardous and cause adverse health effects. Human consumption of water with elevated levels of NO3-N has been linked to the infant disorder methemoglobinemia and also to non-Hodgkin's disease lymphoma in adults. This research aims to study the temporal patterns and source apportionment of nitrate-nitrogen leaching in a paddy soil at Ladang Merdeka Ismail Mulong in Kelantan, Malaysia. The complex data matrix (128 x 16) of nitrate-nitrogen parameters was subjected to multivariate analysis mainly Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Analysis (DA). PCA extracted four principal components from this data set which explained 86.4% of the total variance. The most important contributors were soil physical properties confirmed using Alyuda Forecaster software (R2 = 0.98). Discriminant analysis was used to evaluate the temporal variation in soil nitrate-nitrogen on leaching process. Discriminant analysis gave four parameters (hydraulic head, evapotranspiration, rainfall and temperature) contributing more than 98% correct assignments in temporal analysis. DA allowed reduction in dimensionality of the large data set which defines the four operating parameters most efficient and economical to be monitored for temporal variations. This knowledge is important so as to protect the precious groundwater from contamination with nitrate. PMID:24511695

  5. Temporal control of self-organized pattern formation without morphogen gradients in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Stephen; Li, Bochong; Cao, Yangxiaolu; Schaeffer, David; Ryser, Marc D; You, Lingchong

    2013-01-01

    Diverse mechanisms have been proposed to explain biological pattern formation. Regardless of their specific molecular interactions, the majority of these mechanisms require morphogen gradients as the spatial cue, which are either predefined or generated as a part of the patterning process. However, using Escherichia coli programmed by a synthetic gene circuit, we demonstrate here the generation of robust, self-organized ring patterns of gene expression in the absence of an apparent morphogen gradient. Instead of being a spatial cue, the morphogen serves as a timing cue to trigger the formation and maintenance of the ring patterns. The timing mechanism enables the system to sense the domain size of the environment and generate patterns that scale accordingly. Our work defines a novel mechanism of pattern formation that has implications for understanding natural developmental processes. PMID:24104480

  6. Temporal stability of soil water contents as affected by weather patterns: a simulation study.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temporal stability of soil water content (TS SWC) is a natural phenomenon that recently attracts attention and finds multiple applications. Large variations in the interannual and interseasonal TS SWC have been encountered among locations studied by various authors. The objective of this work was ...

  7. Remote estimation of blood pulse pressure via temporal tracking of reflected secondary speckles pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiderman, Yevgeny; Horovitz, Israel; Burshtein, Natanel; Teicher, Mina; Garcia, Javier; Mico, Vicente; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2010-11-01

    We present a novel technique for remote noncontact blood pulse pressure measurement. It is based on tracking both temporal and amplitude changes of reflected secondary speckle produced in human skin when illuminated by a laser beam. The implemented technique extracts the difference between the systolic and the diastolic blood pressure. Experimental results are presented showing good agreement when compared with conventional measurement methods.

  8. TEMPORAL GENE INDUCTION PATTERNS IN SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS EXPOSED TO 17-ESTRADIOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene arrays provide a powerful method to examine changes in gene expression in fish due to chemical exposures in the environment. In this study, we expanded an existing gene array for sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) (SHM) and used it to examine temporal changes in gene...

  9. Clusters of Temporal Discordances Reveal Distinct Embryonic Patterning Mechanisms in Drosophila and Anopheles

    PubMed Central

    Papatsenko, Dmitri; Levine, Michael; Goltsev, Yury

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary innovations can be driven by spatial and temporal changes in gene expression. Several such differences have been documented in the embryos of lower and higher Diptera. One example is the reduction of the ancient extraembryonic envelope composed of amnion and serosa as seen in mosquitoes to the single amnioserosa of fruit flies. We used transcriptional datasets collected during the embryonic development of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, and the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, to search for whole-genome changes in gene expression underlying differences in their respective embryonic morphologies. We found that many orthologous gene pairs could be clustered based on the presence of coincident discordances in their temporal expression profiles. One such cluster contained genes expressed specifically in the mosquito serosa. As shown previously, this cluster is redeployed later in development at the time of cuticle synthesis. In addition, there is a striking difference in the temporal expression of a subset of maternal genes. Specifically, maternal transcripts that exhibit a sharp reduction at the time of the maternal-zygotic transition in Drosophila display sustained expression in the Anopheles embryo. We propose that gene clustering by local temporal discordance can be used for the de novo identification of the gene batteries underlying morphological diversity. PMID:21283609

  10. Temporal stability of soil water content and soil water flux patterns across agricultural fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When an agricultural field is repeatedly surveyed for soil water content, sites often can be spotted where soil is consistently wetter or consistently dryer than average across the study area. Temporal stability presents significant interest for upscaling observed soil water content, improving soil ...

  11. Biodiversity, productivity and the temporal stability of productivity: patterns and processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theory predicts that the temporal stability of productivity, measured as the ratio of the mean to the standard deviation of community biomass, increases with species richness and evenness. We used experimental species mixtures of grassland plants to test this hypothesis and identify the mechanisms i...

  12. Acoustic Differences In The Imitation Of Prosodic Patterns In Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Joshua John; Paul, Rhea

    2011-01-01

    In research, it has been difficult to characterize the prosodic production differences that have been observed clinically in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Moreover, the nature of these differences has been particularly hard to identify. This study examined one possible contributor to these perceived differences: motor planning. We examined the ability of children and adolescents with ASD to imitate prosodic patterns in comparison to a group with learning disabilities (LD) and a typically-developing (TD) comparison group. Overall, we found that both the ASD and LD groups were significantly worse at perceiving and imitating prosodic patterns than the TD comparison group. Similar to previous studies using non-imitative speech, participants with ASD showed a significantly longer duration of utterances than the two comparison groups when attempting to imitate an intonation pattern. The implications of differences in duration of utterances are discussed. This study also highlights the importance of using clinical comparison groups in studies of language performance in individuals with ASD. PMID:22125576

  13. Review and comparison of temporal- and spatial-phase shift speckle pattern interferometry for 3D deformation measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xin; Yang, Lianxiang; Chen, Xu; Xu, Nan; Wang, Yonghong

    2013-10-01

    High accuracy full field three dimensional (3D) deformation measurements have always been an essential problem for the manufacturing, instrument, and aerospace industry. 3D deformations, which can be translated further into 3D strain and stress, are the key parameter for design, manufacturing and quality control. Due to the fast development of the manufacturing industry, especially in the automobile and airspace industry, rapid design and optimization concepts have already widely accepted. These concepts all require the support of rapid, high sensitive and accuracy 3D deformation measurement. Advanced optical methods are gaining widely acceptance for deformation and stain measurement by industry due to the advantages of non-contact, full-field and high measurement sensitivity. Of these methods, Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) is the most sensitive and accurate method for 3D deformation measurement in micro and sub micro-level. ESPI measures deformation by evaluating the phase difference of two recorded speckle interferograms under different loading conditions. Combined with a phase shift technique, ESPI systems can measure the 3D deformation with dozens of nanometer level sensitivity. Cataloged by phase calculation methods, ESPI systems can be divided into temporal phase shift ESPI systems and spatial phase shift ESPI system. This article provides a review and a comparison of temporal and spatial phase shift speckle pattern interferometry for 3D deformation measurement. After an overview of the fundamentals of ESPI theory, temporal phase-shift and spatial phase-shift techniques, 3D deformation measurements by the temporal phase-shift ESPI which is suited well for static measurement and by the spatial phase-shift ESPI which is particularly useful for dynamic measurement will be discussed in detail. Basic theory, brief derivation and different optical layouts for the two systems will be presented. The potentials and limitations of the both ESPI systems will be demonstrated by examples of precise and simultaneous measurement of 3D deformations under either static or dynamic loadings.

  14. Spatial and temporal patterns of chronic wasting disease: Fine-scale mapping of a wildlife epidemic in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osnas, E.E.; Heisey, D.M.; Rolley, R.E.; Samuel, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases threaten wildlife populations and human health. Understanding the spatial distributions of these new diseases is important for disease management and policy makers; however, the data are complicated by heterogeneities across host classes, sampling variance, sampling biases, and the space-time epidemic process. Ignoring these issues can lead to false conclusions or obscure important patterns in the data, such as spatial variation in disease prevalence. Here, we applied hierarchical Bayesian disease mapping methods to account for risk factors and to estimate spatial and temporal patterns of infection by chronic wasting disease (CWD) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) of Wisconsin, USA. We found significant heterogeneities for infection due to age, sex, and spatial location. Infection probability increased with age for all young deer, increased with age faster for young males, and then declined for some older animals, as expected from disease-associated mortality and age-related changes in infection risk. We found that disease prevalence was clustered in a central location, as expected under a simple spatial epidemic process where disease prevalence should increase with time and expand spatially. However, we could not detect any consistent temporal or spatiotemporal trends in CWD prevalence. Estimates of the temporal trend indicated that prevalence may have decreased or increased with nearly equal posterior probability, and the model without temporal or spatiotemporal effects was nearly equivalent to models with these effects based on deviance information criteria. For maximum interpretability of the role of location as a disease risk factor, we used the technique of direct standardization for prevalence mapping, which we develop and describe. These mapping results allow disease management actions to be employed with reference to the estimated spatial distribution of the disease and to those host classes most at risk. Future wildlife epidemiology studies should employ hierarchical Bayesian methods to smooth estimated quantities across space and time, account for heterogeneities, and then report disease rates based on an appropriate standardization. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Spatial and temporal patterns of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) genotypes in Ontario, Canada, 20042007

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The spread of PRRSV among pig herds has been investigated experimentally, but few observational studies have investigated this subject. Because PRRSV is endemic and live modified vaccines are used in Ontario, the spatial and temporal distributions of 6 PRRSV genotypes were investigated in the province during the period from 20042007. The purpose was to find evidence of spread of PRRSV genotypes and determine if spread could be attributed to supplier or ownership connections between herds. Sequence information from PRRSV ORF5 and related source-herd demographic information were obtained from diagnostic submissions to the Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph. Results A spatial cluster that could not be attributed to supplier or ownership connections among herds in the cluster was detected for RFLP type 1-3-4. Because of genetic dissimilarity among members of the cluster, it was considered to be a result of past spread of the RFLP type. A spatio-temporal cluster detected for RFLP type 1-18-4 was attributed to a shared gilt supplier among the herds in the cluster. Significant spatio-temporal patterns detected for RFLP type 2-5-2, which is considered to be a vaccine-type virus were most likely due to grouping of herds in an ownership that used the corresponding vaccine. Clustering within herd-ownership was a risk factor for presence of five of the six genotypes investigated in the present study. Conclusions Although the literature indicates that PRRSV can spread via aerosol between pig herds, the present study found no strong evidence of this occurring in Ontario. The evidence pointed toward transmission of PRRSV occurring in this population by common sources of animals or similarity of herd ownership, which is a proxy measure for other connections between herds. It is also apparent that the recognition and testing of these connections between herds is a necessary part of interpreting spatio-temporal patterns of PRRSV genotypes. PMID:24708804

  16. Complex temporal and spatial patterns in nonequilibrium processes. Progress report, December 1, 1987--November 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Swinney, H.L.

    1992-10-01

    We have used dynamical systems methods to study and characterize bifurcations and pattern formation in a variety of nonequilibrium systems. In this paper we describe our work on dynamical systems, chemical oscillations and chaos, chemical spatial patterns, instabilities in fluid dynamics, electrodeposition clusters, the ballast resistor, and crack propagation.

  17. Spatio-temporal interfacial potential patterns during the electrocatalyzed oxidation of formic acid on Bi-modified Pt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaeyoung; Christoph, Johannes; Strasser, Peter; Eiswirth, Markus; Ertl, Gerhard

    2001-07-01

    We report experimental observations of the spatio-temporal dynamics in the electro-oxidation of formic acid on a Pt ring electrode modified by bismuth adatoms. Bismuth modification significantly enhanced the current density and it was found to considerably increase the existence range of oscillations and spatio-temporal self-organization. Hidden negative differential resistance and the existence of a Hopf bifurcation were deduced from the electrochemical impedance spectra and the occurrence of galvanostatic oscillations. The pattern formation resulted from hybrid effects of the nonlinear chemistry during formic acid oxidation and the long-range coupling of the interfacial potential induced by the chosen geometry (ring type) of the working electrode. Reversible transitions between traveling pulses and oscillating standing waves were observed when the outer potential or the formic acid concentration near the electrode were used as control parameters. Experimental results were compared with computer simulations of a reaction-migration system. The role of electrode inhomogeneities in pattern formation and the transform between patterns were discussed.

  18. Spatial and temporal patterns of endocrine active chemicals in small streams indicate differential exposure to aquatic organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, K.E.; Barber, L.B.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2014-01-01

    Alkylphenolic chemicals (APCs) and hormones were measured six times from February through October 2007 in three Minnesota streams receiving wastewater to identify spatial and temporal patterns in concentrations and in estrogen equivalency. Fish were collected once during the study to evaluate endpoints indicative of endocrine disruption. The most commonly detected APCs were 4-tert-octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol and the most commonly detected hormones were estrone and androstenedione. Chemical concentrations were greatest for nonylphenol ethoxycarboxylates (NPECs) (5,000-140,000 ng/l), followed by 4-nonlylphenol and 4-nonylphenolethoxylates (50-880 ng/l), 4-tert-octylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenolethoxylates with concentrations as great as 130 ng/l, and hormones (0.1-54 ng/l). Patterns in chemicals and estrogen equivalency indicated that wastewater effluent is a pathway of APCs and hormones to downstream locations in this study. However, upstream contributions can be equally or more important indicating alternative sources. This study indicates that aquatic organisms experience both spatially and temporally variable exposures in the number of compounds, total concentrations, and estrogenicity. This variability was evident in fish collected from the three rivers as no clear upstream to downstream pattern of endocrine disruption endpoints emerged.

  19. Characterizing spatial and temporal patterns of cloud cover and fog inundation for the Northern Channel islands of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, Bharat

    The presence of low-lying stratocumulus clouds and fog has been known to modify biophysical and ecological properties in a variety of ecosystems in different climates. This is especially true for California's Channel Islands, where forests are frequently shaded by low-lying clouds or immersed in fog during warm and dry summer months. Previous studies suggest that clouds strongly modulate forest distributions as well as carbon and water budgets in these semi-arid environments by reducing solar insolation and raising relative humidity and thus reducing evapotranspiration, while also potentially supplying water directly to the landscape from fog-drip. While summertime fog and stratus cover in California's Channel Islands can ameliorate summer drought stress and enhance soil water budgets, they often have different spatial and temporal patterns. These differing patterns and the resulting shifts in relative ecological importance of fog and stratus are understudied. The overall objective of this study is to map spatial and temporal distributions of daytime cloud cover frequency for the California Channel Islands, and to predict probabilities of surface cloud (fog) contact and immersion for these islands. The results of this research are significant for water balance modeling, help explain vegetation patterns on the islands, and better identify locations where native vegetation restoration efforts are likely to be most successful.

  20. Temporal Patterns of Subjective Experiences and Self-Regulation during Ramadan Fasting among Elite Archers: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Jolly; Hamidan, Shazarina; Singh, Rabindarjeet

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Some major competitions (e.g. London Olympics, 2012) are scheduled during the Ramadan fasting month. Little attention has been given to explore the archers performance related subjective experiences with a qualitative method. Therefore, this study addressed individual archers subjective experiences within the framework of self-regulation during Ramadan. Methods Eleven elite Malaysian Muslim fasting archers volunteered to participate in the study. Grounded theory was the qualitative approach used to examine the subjective experiences of athletes during Ramadan. Interviews were conducted and inductive content analysis was adopted to identify the temporal patterns of self-regulation of subjective experiences across the fasting period. Results Inductive content analysis identified (a) physical, (b) mental,(c) emotional, (d) behavioral, and (e) spiritual experiences. Overall patterns revealed that experiences associated with physical, emotional, behavioral, and spiritual dimensions dominated in the first phase of fasting, while the mental dimension surfaced increasingly in the latter phase of fasting. Conclusions The trend showed changes in the patterns of experiences among the major domains across the temporal dimension. Athletes reported increased subjective experiences in mental factors toward the latter half of the fasting period. Practitioners should emphasize on mental aspects of training, as these appear to be salient in archery performance. PMID:22375239

  1. Temporal Patterns of Ant Diversity across a Mountain with Climatically Contrasting Aspects in the Tropics of Africa

    PubMed Central

    Munyai, Thinandavha Caswell; Foord, Stefan Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Factors that drive species richness over space and time are still poorly understood and are often context specific. Identifying these drivers for ant diversity has become particularly relevant within the context of contemporary global change events. We report on a long-term bi-annual (wet and dry seasons), standardized sampling of epigeal ants over a five year period on the mesic and arid aspects of an inselberg (Soutpansberg Mountain Range) in the tropics of Africa. We detail seasonal, annual and long-term trends of species density, test the relative contribution of geometric constraints, energy, available area, climate, local environmental variables, time, and space in explaining ant species density patterns through Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) where replicates were included as random factors to account for temporal pseudo-replication. Seasonal patterns were very variable and we found evidence of decreased seasonal variation in species density with increased elevation. The extent and significance of a decrease in species density with increased elevation varied with season. Annual patterns point to an increase in ant diversity over time. Ant density patterns were positively correlated with mean monthly temperature but geometric constraints dominated model performance while soil characteristics were minor correlates. These drivers and correlates accounted for all the spatio-temporal variability in the database. Ant diversity was therefore mainly determined by geometric constraints and temperature while soil characteristics (clay and carbon content) accounted for smaller but significant amounts of variation. This study documents the role of season, elevation and their interaction in affecting ant species densities while highlighting the importance of neutral processes and temperature in driving these patterns. PMID:25774670

  2. Temporal patterns of ant diversity across a mountain with climatically contrasting aspects in the tropics of Africa.

    PubMed

    Munyai, Thinandavha Caswell; Foord, Stefan Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Factors that drive species richness over space and time are still poorly understood and are often context specific. Identifying these drivers for ant diversity has become particularly relevant within the context of contemporary global change events. We report on a long-term bi-annual (wet and dry seasons), standardized sampling of epigeal ants over a five year period on the mesic and arid aspects of an inselberg (Soutpansberg Mountain Range) in the tropics of Africa. We detail seasonal, annual and long-term trends of species density, test the relative contribution of geometric constraints, energy, available area, climate, local environmental variables, time, and space in explaining ant species density patterns through Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) where replicates were included as random factors to account for temporal pseudo-replication. Seasonal patterns were very variable and we found evidence of decreased seasonal variation in species density with increased elevation. The extent and significance of a decrease in species density with increased elevation varied with season. Annual patterns point to an increase in ant diversity over time. Ant density patterns were positively correlated with mean monthly temperature but geometric constraints dominated model performance while soil characteristics were minor correlates. These drivers and correlates accounted for all the spatio-temporal variability in the database. Ant diversity was therefore mainly determined by geometric constraints and temperature while soil characteristics (clay and carbon content) accounted for smaller but significant amounts of variation. This study documents the role of season, elevation and their interaction in affecting ant species densities while highlighting the importance of neutral processes and temperature in driving these patterns. PMID:25774670

  3. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Locally-Acquired Dengue Transmission in Northern Queensland, Australia, 1993–2012

    PubMed Central

    Naish, Suchithra; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S.; McBride, John; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia since it re-emerged in Queensland in 1992–1993. We explored spatio-temporal characteristics of locally-acquired dengue cases in northern tropical Queensland, Australia during the period 1993–2012. Methods Locally-acquired notified cases of dengue were collected for northern tropical Queensland from 1993 to 2012. Descriptive spatial and temporal analyses were conducted using geographic information system tools and geostatistical techniques. Results 2,398 locally-acquired dengue cases were recorded in northern tropical Queensland during the study period. The areas affected by the dengue cases exhibited spatial and temporal variation over the study period. Notified cases of dengue occurred more frequently in autumn. Mapping of dengue by statistical local areas (census units) reveals the presence of substantial spatio-temporal variation over time and place. Statistically significant differences in dengue incidence rates among males and females (with more cases in females) (χ2 = 15.17, d.f. = 1, p<0.01). Differences were observed among age groups, but these were not statistically significant. There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of dengue incidence for the four sub-periods, with the Moran's I statistic ranging from 0.011 to 0.463 (p<0.01). Semi-variogram analysis and smoothed maps created from interpolation techniques indicate that the pattern of spatial autocorrelation was not homogeneous across the northern Queensland. Conclusions Tropical areas are potential high-risk areas for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue. This study demonstrated that the locally-acquired dengue cases have exhibited a spatial and temporal variation over the past twenty years in northern tropical Queensland, Australia. Therefore, this study provides an impetus for further investigation of clusters and risk factors in these high-risk areas. PMID:24691549

  4. Obesity and chronic stress are able to desynchronize the temporal pattern of serum levels of leptin and triglycerides.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Carla; Scarabelot, Vanessa Leal; de Souza, Andressa; de Oliveira, Cleverson Moraes; Medeiros, Liciane Fernandes; de Macedo, Isabel Cristina; Marques Filho, Paulo Ricardo; Cioato, Stefania Giotti; Caumo, Wolnei; Torres, Iraci L S

    2014-01-01

    Disruption of the circadian system can lead to metabolic dysfunction as a response to environmental alterations. This study assessed the effects of the association between obesity and chronic stress on the temporal pattern of serum levels of adipogenic markers and corticosterone in rats. We evaluated weekly weight, delta weight, Lee index, and weight fractions of adipose tissue (mesenteric, MAT; subcutaneous, SAT; and pericardial, PAT) to control for hypercaloric diet-induced obesity model efficacy. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: standard chow (C), hypercaloric diet (HD), stress plus standard chow (S), and stress plus hypercaloric diet (SHD), and analyzed at three time points: ZT0, ZT12, and ZT18. Stressed animals were subjected to chronic stress for 1h per day, 5 days per week, during 80 days. The chronic exposure to a hypercaloric diet was an effective model for the induction of obesity and metabolic syndrome, increasing delta weight, Lee index, weight fractions of adipose tissue, and triglycerides and leptin levels. We confirmed the presence of a temporal pattern in the release of triglycerides, corticosterone, leptin, and adiponectin in nave animals. Chronic stress reduced delta weight, MAT weight, and levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and leptin. There were interactions between chronic stress and obesity and serum total cholesterol levels, between time points and obesity and adiponectin and corticosterone levels, and between time points and chronic stress and serum leptin levels. In conclusion, both parameters were able to desynchronize the temporal pattern of leptin and triglyceride release, which could contribute to the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:24184591

  5. Spatio-temporal pattern of viral meningitis in Michigan, 1993-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Sharon K.; Schmidt, Mark A.; Stobierski, Mary Grace; Wilson, Mark L.

    2005-05-01

    To characterize Michigan's high viral meningitis incidence rates, 8,803 cases from 1993-2001 were analyzed for standard epidemiological indices, geographic distribution, and spatio-temporal clusters. Blacks and infants were found to be high-risk groups. Annual seasonality and interannual variability in epidemic magnitude were apparent. Cases were concentrated in southern Michigan, and cumulative incidence was correlated with population density at the county level (r=0.45, p<0.001). Kulldorff's Scan test identified the occurrence of spatio-temporal clusters in Lower Michigan during July-October 1998 and 2001 (p=0.01). More extensive data on cases, laboratory isolates, sociodemographics, and environmental exposures should improve detection and enhance the effectiveness of a Space-Time Information System aimed at prevention.

  6. Spatial and temporal patterns in Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) reporting in Philadelphia, PA.

    PubMed

    Mabud, Tarub S; Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbu, Corentin M; Levy, Katelyn H; Edinger, Jason; Levy, Michael Z

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed a comprehensive telephone log of pest infestation reports to assess the spatial and temporal trends in Cimex lectularius L. (bed bug) reporting throughout Philadelphia, PA. Citywide spatial analyses of reports from September 2011 to June 2012 revealed several statistically significant bed bug hotspots. However, these were small and diffuse. Temporal analyses of reports from December 2008 to May 2011 detected prominent seasonality in bed bug reporting, peaking in August and reaching a nadir in February each year. Controlling for seasonal cycling, the number of bed bug reports in Philadelphia increased steadily at a rate of approximately 4.5% per month (or 69.45% per year) from December 2008 to May 2011. While it may be difficult to spatially target citywide bed bug control measures because of the insects' widespread migration, interventions informed by seasonal trends may enhance efforts to curb the recent increases in urban bed bug populations. PMID:24605452

  7. Remote estimation of blood pulse pressure via temporal tracking of reflected secondary speckles pattern.

    PubMed

    Beiderman, Yevgeny; Horovitz, Israel; Burshtein, Natanel; Teicher, Mina; Garcia, Javier; Mico, Vicente; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel technique for remote noncontact blood pulse pressure measurement. It is based on tracking both temporal and amplitude changes of reflected secondary speckle produced in human skin when illuminated by a laser beam. The implemented technique extracts the difference between the systolic and the diastolic blood pressure. Experimental results are presented showing good agreement when compared with conventional measurement methods. PMID:21198155

  8. Temporal Patterns and Environmental Correlates of Macroinvertebrate Communities in Temporary Streams

    PubMed Central

    Botwe, Paul K.; Barmuta, Leon A.; Magierowski, Regina; McEvoy, Paul; Goonan, Peter; Carver, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Temporary streams are characterised by short periods of seasonal or annual stream flow after which streams contract into waterholes or pools of varying hydrological connectivity and permanence. Although these streams are widespread globally, temporal variability of their ecology is understudied, and understanding the processes that structure community composition in these systems is vital for predicting and managing the consequences of anthropogenic impacts. We used multivariate and univariate approaches to investigate temporal variability in macroinvertebrate compositional data from 13 years of sampling across multiple sites from autumn and spring, in South Australia, the driest state in the driest inhabited continent in the world. We examined the potential of land-use, geographic and environmental variables to predict the temporal variability in macroinvertebrate assemblages, and also identified indicator taxa, that is, those highly correlated with the most significantly associated physical variables. Temporal trajectories of macroinvertebrate communities varied within site in both seasons and across years. A combination of land-use, geographic and environmental variables accounted for 24% of the variation in community structure in autumn and 27% in spring. In autumn, community composition among sites were more closely clustered together relative to spring suggesting that communities were more similar in autumn than in spring. In both seasons, community structure was most strongly correlated with conductivity and latitude, and community structure was more associated with cover by agriculture than urban land-use. Maintaining temporary streams will require improved catchment management aimed at sustaining seasonal flows and critical refuge habitats, while also limiting the damaging effects from increased agriculture and urban developments. PMID:26556711

  9. Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Preferential Flow Occurrence in the Shale Hills Catchment: From the Hillslope to the Catchment Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Lin, H.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding temporal and spatial patterns of preferential flow (PF) occurrence is important in revealing hillslope and catchment hydrologic and biogeochemical processes. Quantitative assessment of the frequency and control of PF occurrence in the field, however, has been limited, especially at the landscape scale of hillslope and catchment. By using 5.5-years' (2007-2012) real-time soil moisture at 10 sites response to 323 precipitation events, we tested the temporal consistency of PF occurrence at the hillslope scale in the forested Shale Hills Catchment; and by using 25 additional sites with at least 1-year data (2011-2012), we evaluated the spatial patterns of PF occurrence across the catchment. To explore the potential effects of PF occurrence on catchment hydrology, wavelet analysis was performed on the recorded time series of hydrological signals (i.e., precipitation, soil moisture, catchment discharge). Considerable temporal consistence was observed in both the frequency and the main controls of PF occurrence at the hillslope scale, which was attributed largely to the statistical stability of precipitation pattern over the monitoring period and the relatively stable subsurface preferential pathways. Preferential flow tended to occur more often in response to intense rainfall events, and favored the conditions at dry hilltop or wet valley floor sites. When upscaling to the entire catchment, topographic control on the PF occurrence was amplified remarkably, leading to the identification of a subsurface PF network in the catchment. Higher frequency of PF occurrence was observed at the valley floor (average 48%), hilltop (average 46%), and swales/hillslopes near the stream (average 40%), while the hillslopes in the eastern part of the catchment were least likely to experience PF (0-20%). No clear relationship, however, was observed between terrain attributes and PF occurrence, because the initiation and persistency of PF in this catchment was controlled jointly by complex interactions among landform units, soil types, initial soil moisture, precipitation features, and season. Through the wavelet method (coherence spectrum and phase differences), dual-pore filtering effects of soil system were proven, rendering it possible to further infer characteristic properties of the underlying hydrological processes in the subsurface. We found that preferential flow dominates the catchment discharge response at short-time periods (< 3 days), while the matrix flow may dominate the discharge response at the time scales of around 10-12 days. The temporal and spatial patterns of PF occurrence revealed in this study can help advance the modeling and prediction of complex PF dynamics in this and other similar landscapes.

  10. Temporal variability of remotely sensed suspended sediment and sea surface temperature patterns in Mobile Bay, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rucker, J.B.; Stumpf, R.P.; Schroeder, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    Distribution patterns of suspended sediments and sea surface temperatures in, Mobile Bay were derived from algorithms using digital data from the visible, near infrared, and infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-TIROS-N satellite. Closely spaced AVHRR scenes for January 20, 24, and 29, 1982, were compared with available environmental information taken during the same period. A complex interaction between river discharge, winds, and astronomical tides controlled the distribution patterns of suspended sediments. These same variables, coupled with air temperatures, also governed the distribution patterns of sea surface temperatures. ?? 1990 Estuarine Research Federation.

  11. Enhancing the Temporal Complexity of Distributed Brain Networks with Patterned Cerebellar Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Farzan, Faranak; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Schmahmann, Jeremy D; Halko, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that sensory, motor, cognitive and affective processes map onto specific, distributed neural networks. Cerebellar subregions are part of these networks, but how the cerebellum is involved in this wide range of brain functions remains poorly understood. It is postulated that the cerebellum contributes a basic role in brain functions, helping to shape the complexity of brain temporal dynamics. We therefore hypothesized that stimulating cerebellar nodes integrated in different networks should have the same impact on the temporal complexity of cortical signals. In healthy humans, we applied intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) to the vermis lobule VII or right lateral cerebellar Crus I/